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Sample records for cranaodes meyrick lepidoptera

  1. The genus Erechthias Meyrick of Ascension Island, including discovery of a new brachypterous species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, Donald R; Mendel, Howard

    2013-01-01

    One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham) is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of Erechthias minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae,new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable in having wing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of Erechthias grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated.

  2. The genus Erechthias Meyrick of Ascension Island, including discovery of a new brachypterous species (Lepidoptera, Tineidae)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Donald R.; Mendel, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract One previously named and two new species of the tineid genus Erechthias Meyrick are described and illustrated from the small, remote, mid-Atlantic Ascension Island. With these additions the Lepidoptera fauna of Ascension now totals 38 known species. Little is known regarding the biology of the two new species of Erechthias, and none of the species has been reared from larvae from Ascension. Erechthias minuscula (Walsingham) is a widespread, largely pantropical species first described from the West Indies. Larvae of Erechthias minuscula are known to be scavengers on a wide variety of dead plant material. Erechthias ascensionae,new species, is one of two species of Erechthias now known to be endemic to the island. The other endemic species, Erechthias grayi, new species, is further remarkable in having wing reduction occurring in both sexes. It is one of the few species of Lepidoptera known where this extreme of brachyptery involving both sexes has evolved. The larvae of Erechthias grayi are believed to be lichenivorous, and larval cases suspected to represent this species are illustrated. PMID:24146595

  3. Parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) collected on tomato plants in lavras, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, C H; Silva, C G; Lobo, A P

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to report on the occurrence of parasitoids of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on tomato plants, under greenhouse conditions, in Lavras County (21 degrees 14'43"S; 44 degrees 59'59"W), State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from August 2001 to February 2002. Three groups of parasitoids were collected: 21 specimens of Bracon sp. (Braconidae), one specimen of Earinus sp. (Braconidae), and 13 specimens of Conura sp. (Chalcididae). The rate of parasitism for the three species was 4.2%, 0.2%, and 2.6%, respectively. This is the first reported occurrence of Earinus sp. parasitizing Tuta absoluta in Brazil.

  4. Rhigognostis erysiphaea (Meyrick, 1938) comb. nov. (Lepidoptera, Plutellidae), with description of male and female genitalia.

    PubMed

    Baraniak, Edward; Stüning, Dieter; Walczak, Urszula

    2015-08-04

    A new combination, Rhigognostis erysiphaea (Meyrick, 1938) is proposed. The species is re-described with a photo of the type specimen. The male and female genitalia are described and illustrated for the first time.

  5. Three new species of Epicephala Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) associated with Phyllanthus microcarpus (Benth.) (Phyllanthaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Houhun; Yang, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Epicephala Meyrick, 1880 are described based on specimens reared from fruits of Phyllanthus microcarpus (Benth.): Epicephala microcarpa sp. n. and Epicephala laeviclada sp. n. from Guangxi and Hainan, and Epicephala tertiaria sp. n. from Guangdong and Guangxi. Photographs of adults and illustrations of genital structures are provided. PMID:25829842

  6. Development, Reproduction, Survival, and Demographic Patterns of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Different Commercial Tomato Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Krechemer, F S; Foerster, L A

    2017-03-25

    The increase in the production of tomato, Solanum lycopersicon Mill. (Solanaceae), has favored the proliferation of pests, especially Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). In this study, the development, reproduction, survival, and demographic parameters of T. absoluta reared on six commercial tomato cultivars (Cherry, Cordilheira, Giuliana, Nemoneta, Paron, and Santa Clara) were evaluated. Tuta absoluta completed its development in all tomato cultivars. Development from newly hatched caterpillar to newly emerged adult varied between 24.8 and 28.2 days. Female fecundity ranged from 126.3 to 166.9 eggs, with fertility from 54.2 to 84.1%. Mortality during egg-adult development varied between 21.4 and 46.4% for insects reared on cultivars Cherry and Giuliana, respectively. The cultivars Cordilheira, Giuliana, and Santa Clara are promising options to tomato producers in order to decrease the attack and proliferation of T. absoluta. However, the development and population growth of T. absoluta is faster on the tomato cultivar Cherry.

  7. Taxonomic study of the genus Promalactis Meyrick, 1908 from Southeast Asia (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxia; Du, Zhaohui; Li, Houhun

    2013-01-01

    The genus Proinalactis Meyrick, 1908 is reviewed in Southeast Asia. Twenty-seven new species are described based on the specimens collected in Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei, Burma, Philippines. The new species include P. alveiformis sp. nov., P. angusta sp. nov., P. bruneiensis sp. nov., P. conicispinalis sp. nov., P. ellipsoidea sp. nov., P. exiliprocessa sp. nov., P. extumida sp. nov., P. fascisetacea sp. nov., P. flagellaris sp. nov., P. foraininulata sp. nov., P. fortijuxtalis sp. nov., P. lancea sp. nov., P. latuncata sp. nov., P. longisaccata sp. nov., P. lophacantha sp. nov., P. medispinata sp. nov., P. palmifolia sp. nov., P. pectinifera sp. nov., P.sectoralis sp. nov., P. semiovata sp. nov., P. sinualis sp. nov., P. spinosicostalis sp. nov., P. strena sp. nov., P. superimposita sp. nov., P. truncatapicalis sp. nov., P. undulata sp. nov. and P. vulvida sp. nov. Promalactis parasuzukiella Wang, 2006 and P. simniliflora Wang, 2006 are recorded from Southeast Asia for the first time. Three species described by Lvovsky are fully redescribed. Images of adults and genitalia are provided, along with a check list of 71 species from Southeast Asia.

  8. Population Development of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under Simulated UK Glasshouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G.S.; Mathers, James J.; Blackburn, Lisa F.; Korycinska, Anastasia; Luo, Weiqi; Jacobson, Robert J.; Northing, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of tomato plants in South America. It was first recorded in the UK in 2009 where it has been subjected to eradication policies. The current work outlines T. absoluta development under various UK glasshouse temperatures. The optimum temperature for Tuta development ranged from 19–23 °C. At 19 °C, there was 52% survival of T. absoluta from egg to adult. As temperature increased (23 °C and above) development time of the moth would appear to decrease. Population development ceases between 7 and 10 °C. Only 17% of eggs hatched at 10 °C but no larvae developed through to adult moths. No eggs hatched when maintained at 7 °C. Under laboratory conditions the total lifespan of the moth was longest (72 days) at 13 °C and shortest (35 days) at both 23 and 25 °C. Development from egg to adult took 58 days at 13 °C; 37 days at 19 °C and 23 days at 25 °C. High mortality of larvae occurred under all temperatures tested. First instar larvae were exposed on the leaf surface for approximately 82 minutes before fully tunnelling into the leaf. Adult longevity was longest at 10 °C with moths living for 40 days and shortest at 19 °C where they survived for 16 days. Generally more males than females were produced. The potential of Tuta absoluta to establish populations within UK protected horticulture is discussed. PMID:26464384

  9. Temporal and spatial variation of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) caterpillar abundance in the cerrado of Brasilia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morais, Helena C; Cabral, Bérites C; Mangabeira, Jacimary A; Diniz, Ivone R

    2007-01-01

    The caterpillars of Stenoma cathosiota Meyrick feed on Roupala montana Aubl. (Proteaceae) in the cerrado of the Distrito Federal, Brazil. They construct shelters by joining leaves of the plant where they feed and pupate. The caterpillars are parasitized by a wasp (Hymenoptera: Brachonidae), which emerges from the pupae. Caterpillar abundance and parasitism frequency were associated in an area of frequently burned cerrado (biennial fire) and in another area that burns sporadically (1987 and 1994). For S. cathosiota, the variation among years in a single area, with sporadic fires, was greater than the variation among areas with different fire regimes. Caterpillar abundance among years was significantly different in the area that burns sporadically (chi2 = 24.06; df. = 1; P = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences on caterpillar abundance between areas for the same period (chi2 = 3.45; df. = 1; P = 0.063). Parasitism frequency was high, reaching 29% of the collected caterpillars, and did not differ among areas. The great temporal variation in abundance of lepidopteran caterpillars in the cerrado makes it difficult to determine the effects that fire exerts over this fauna.

  10. Encapsulation and Self-Superparasitism of Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Luna, María G.; Desneux, Nicolas; Schneider, Marcela I.

    2016-01-01

    Endoparasitoids can be killed by host encapsulation, a cellular-mediated host immunological response against parasitism that involves hemocytes aggregation. As a counteracting strategy, many parasitoids can evade this host response through self-superparasitism. The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the parasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) early immature stages (egg and larva) encapsulation by the host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and 2) to determine the occurrence of self-superparasitism and the rate of escaping to encapsulation of this parasitoid. Knowledge of host-parasitoid immunological interaction is crucial when evaluating the potential of an endoparasitoid as a biological control candidate. Parasitoid-exposed T. absoluta larvae were dissected in vivo under light stereoscope microscope at 24-h intervals, for five days after exposition to detect encapsulation. The preimaginal stages of P. dignus and numbers of healthy and encapsulated immature parasitoids per host were recorded. Samples of parasitoid eggs and larvae were processed for SEM visualization of encapsulation. Necropsies evidenced that only the early first larval instar of P. dignus (up to 96 h-old) was partially or completely encapsulated. A non-melanized capsule, formed by layers of granulocyte-type hemocytes enveloping around the parasitoid body, was recorded. Approximately 50% of the parasitized T. absoluta larvae had significantly only one P. dignus egg, meanwhile supernumerary parasitization yielded up to seven immature parasitoids per host. The proportion of single-early first larval instar of P. dignus reached ≈ 0.5 and decreased significantly as the number of parasitoid individuals per host increased. P. dignus encapsulation and its ability to overcome with the host immune defense through self-superparasitism indicate that T. absoluta is a semi-permissive host for this parasitoid. PMID:27732609

  11. [Selection of isolates of entomopathogenic fungi for controlling Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and their compatibility with insecticides used in tomato crop].

    PubMed

    Pires, Lauricí M; Marques, Edmilson J; Oliveira, José V de; Alves, Sérgio B

    2010-01-01

    The activity of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana towards eggs and larvae of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) was evaluated. Our data showed that the isolates were pathogenic to both developmental stages tested and the eggs were more susceptible than the 1st instars. The isolates URPE-6 and URPE-19 of M. anisopliae were more pathogenic to eggs and larvae, respectively. The compatibility of these two isolates with the insecticides chlorfenapyr, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin, and neem were evaluated. Spinosad and indoxacarb were compatible with the two M. anisopliae isolates in all tested concentrations. At the average recommended concentration, chlorfenapyr was compatible to URPE-6 and abamectin to UFPE-19. The use of entomopathogenic fungi associated with compatible insecticides may be a useful alternative to control T. absoluta.

  12. [Effects of tomato genotypes and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)].

    PubMed

    Brunherotto, Rogério; Vendramim, José D; de G Oriani, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    Insecticide plants are an important tool among the new alternatives for pest control in IPM systems because they reduce the use of synthetic insecticides, preserving human health and the environment. We investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach leaves and Azadirachta indica seeds and three tomato genotypes, 'Santa Clara', 'IPA-5'--Solanum lycopersicum (=Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), and LA444-1--S. peruvianum (=L. peruvianum), on the development, reproduction and longevity of the tomato pinworm Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), under laboratory conditions. The trials were set up in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments [three genotypes x two extracts (M. azedarach and A. indica) and control]. The replication consisted on five tubes, each with three newly hatched larvae, totalizing 90 individuals per treatment. The larvae were fed with tomato leaves treated with aqueous extracts at 0.1% concentration or distilled water (control) and daily observed until adults' emergence. Larval and pupal development and mortality, pupal weight, longevity and fecundity were evaluated. The accession LA444-1 negatively affected the development and reproduction of T. absoluta; the tomato pinworm had similar development and reproduction on 'IPA-5' and 'Santa Clara' (the susceptible control). The association of resistant tomato genotypes and extracts of M. azedarach leaves and neem seeds did not result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on T. absoluta.

  13. Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera) from Southeast Asia associated with downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...

  14. Influence of holding temperature and irradiation on field performance of mass-reared Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) as an integral component to the area-wide integrated management of the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), was successfully implemented in the Western Cape region of South Africa and subsequently expanded to citrus are...

  15. Within-tree distribution of Ecdytolopha torticornis (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) oviposition on macadamia nuts.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Metzler, H; Watt, A D; Cosens, D

    2001-06-01

    Vertical distribution of eggs of the macadamia nutborer Ecdytolopha torticornis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and its preference of oviposition sites within and between macadamia cultivars were studied in Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, in 1992 (N = 6,939). E. torticornis eggs were found throughout the foliar parts of the tree, but fewer eggs were laid in the crown top than in the mid or lower crown. Differences in the horizontal distribution of the eggs were not significant, albeit more eggs were found in the outer positions. The numbers of eggs found within the crowns of different clones were similar, implying that the nutborer has no preference for a particular cultivar.

  16. Two new species of Lecithoceridae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea), with a revised check list of the family in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu-Tek; Heppner, John B; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2013-01-01

    Two species of Lecithoceridae (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea), Caveana senuri sp. n. and Lecithocera dondavisi sp. n., are described from Taiwan. The monotypic Caveana Park was described from Thailand, based on Caveana diemseoki Park, 2011. Lecithocera Herrich-Schäffer, 1853 is the most diverse genus of the family, comprising more than 300 species worldwide. Lecithocera dondavisi sp. n. is the largest species of the genus so far, and closely resembles the Indian species, Lecithocera praeses Meyrick, 1919. A revised check list of the family in Taiwan is provided.

  17. Host records for fruit-feeding Afrotropical Tortricidae (Lepidoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We present host records for the following Afrotropical Tortricidae reared from fruit in Kenya: Idiothauma nr africanum Walsingham, Paraccra mimesa Razowski, Apotoforma nr uncifera Razowski, Eugnosta percnoptila (Meyrick), Phtheochroa aarviki Razowski & Brown, Actihema hemiacta (Meyrick, 1920), “Tort...

  18. New Pyrethroids for Use Against Tuta Absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): Their Toxicity and Control Speed

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Shaiene C; Silvério, Flaviano O; Picanço, Marcelo C; Alvarenga, Elson S; Pereira, Renata R; Silva, Gerson A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Insect pests are responsible for major losses in crop productivity, and insecticides are the main tools used to control these organisms. There is increasing demand for new products for pest management. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the toxicity of pyrethroids with acid moiety modifications to measure the insecticidal activity of these compounds on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). First, we synthesized E/Z mixtures of five pyrethroids: [9], [10], [11], [12], and [13]. Then, we separated the cis and trans pyrethroid isomers of [9], [10], [11], and [12]. We assessed the toxicity of these compounds against T. absoluta. The E/Z mixtures of the five pyrethroids (30 µg of substance per mg−1 of insect) caused high (100%) and rapid (<12 h) tomato borer mortality. The cis isomer of pyrethroid [10] was the most toxic to T. absoluta, causing mortality similar to permethrin. The other isomers were less powerful than permethrin.

  19. False Codling Moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), Cold Disinfestation Treatment Using Grapes as the Test Medium.

    PubMed

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N

    2016-10-01

    Some countries consider false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a phytosanitary pest and may require the application of a mitigation treatment before accepting T. leucotreta-susceptible produce. This research reports on cold treatments that provide the phytosanitary security that this pest would not be accidentally imported alive. More than 35,000 individuals were treated for 20 d at 0.8 °C and >30,000 individuals subjected to - 0.6 °C for 18 d, with no survivors. The adoption of these treatments in international fruit trade protocols is recommended. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Lepidoptera and associated parasitoids attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-08-01

    A 5-mo survey for fruit feeding Lepidoptera attacking Hass and non-Hass avocados (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) was conducted in Guatemala from 1 November 2006 to 1 April 2007. In total, 6,740 fruit were collected from 22 different areas in Guatemala. Eight species of Lepidoptera, of which at least two are species new to science, were reared from avocado fruit. Reared Lepidoptera were Amorbia santamaria Phillips and Powell, Cryptaspasma sp. nr. lugubris, Euxoa sorella Schaus, Histura n. sp., Holcocera n. sp., Micrathetis triplex Walker, Netechma pyrrhodelta (Meyrick), and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham. Hymenopteran parasitoids were reared from larvae of C. sp. nr. lugubris and S. catenifer. One species of parasitoid, Pseudophanerotoma sp., was reared from field collected C. sp. nr. lugubris larvae. The dominant parasitoid reared from S. catenifer was a gregarious Apanteles sp. Other parasitoid species reared from S. catenifer larvae were Brachycyrtus sp., Macrocentrus sp., and Pristomerus sp. The oviposition preference of C. sp. nr. lugubris for avocado fruit hanging in trees, dropped fruit on the ground, or exposed avocado seeds was investigated by studying the oviposition preferences of adult female moths and determining egg hatch times in the laboratory, and by investigating the longevity of avocado fruit on the ground under prevailing field conditions. Together, data from these studies suggested that C. sp. nr. lugubris may be an unrecognized pest of avocados that causes hanging fruit to drop to the ground prematurely. The influence of season and altitude on the phenology and distribution of avocado feeding Lepidoptera in Guatemala is discussed.

  1. Adaptation of indigenous larval parasitoids to Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Ingegno, Barbara Letizia; Navone, Paolo; Ferrari, Ester; Mosti, Marco; Tavella, Luciana; Alma, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a serious threat to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) crops in South America. In Europe, after its first detection in Spain in 2006, it rapidly spread through the Mediterranean basin, reaching Italy 2 yr later. The aim of our work was to find indigenous effective biological control agents and to evaluate their potential role in the control of larval populations of T. absoluta in controlled conditions. Nine species of larval parasitoids emerged from field-collected tomato leaves infested by T. absoluta. The most abundant, Necremnus near artynes (Walker) and Necremnus near tidius (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), were tested in laboratory parasitism trials. Furthermore, because the species N. artynes and N. tidius are each reported in literature as an ectoparasitoid of Cosmopterix pulchrimella Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) on upright pellitory plants, olfactometer bioassays were performed to assess the response of our parasitoids to the odors of tomato and pellitory leaves infested by T absoluta and C. pulchrimella, respectively, compared with healthy ones. Both Necremnus species showed good adaptation to the invasive pest, and we observed a high larval mortality of T. absoluta because of host feeding and parasitism. Even olfactory responses highlighted a preference of both wasps for tomato plants infested by the exotic pest. These preliminary results demonstrated a high suitability of these indigenous natural enemies for controlling T. absoluta. Further investigations are needed to confirm their role as potential biological agents in commercial tomato plantations.

  2. NATIVE LARVAL PARASITOIDS ASSOCIATED WITH TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK) IN GREENHOUSE TOMATO CROPS OF SOUTHERN SARDINIA.

    PubMed

    Nannini, M; Atzori, F; Pisci, R; Sanna, F

    2014-01-01

    Since its first detection in Sardinia (Italy), Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been reported as a major pest of greenhouse tomatoes. In recent years, however, a tendency toward a progressive reduction of tomato borer infestation levels has been observed. The reasons behind this decline are probably diverse, including both the increase in growers' ability to manage the pest and the adaptation of native predators and parasitoids to the new prey/host. In order to assess the species composition of the parasitoid complex associated with T. absoluta larvae in Sardinian greenhouse tomatoes, a two-year (2010/11) survey was conducted in one of the island's major horticultural areas (Pula, Cagliari). An estimate of the levels of parasitism caused by native wasps was also carried out. The occurrence of larval parasitoids of T. absoluta was detected in approximately half of the crops monitored. The average parasitism rate recorded in tomato plants infested by tomato borer larvae was 1.3%. Moreover, while no parasitism was observed in 76.4% of the samples collected, only 3.0% of the samples showed a parasitism rate exceeding 10%. The highest rates were recorded in spring and summer, with a peak in July (4.8%). Of 159 adult parasitoids recovered from infested leaves, 62.9% were found to belong to a Necremnus sp. near artynes (Walker), 34.6% to a Necremnus sp. near tidius (Walker), and 2.5% to Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). These results show that some native parasitoids have adapted to T. absoluta in the study area. Although parasitoid abundance in tomato crops appeared to be low, their contribution for the control of tomato borer infestation could possibly be enhanced through the application of conservation biological control measures.

  3. Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Based on two recent molecular analyses, augmented by the discovery of several published or unpublished novel morphological synapomorphies, a new classification is proposed for the order Lepidoptera. The new classification is more consistent with our growing knowledge of the phylogeny of the group an...

  4. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, Jaryd A; Timm, Alicia E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB) was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle) of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick), Cydia pomonella (L.) and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick). Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  5. Synthesis and field evaluation of the sex pheromone of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae).

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Millar, Jocelyn G; Hoddle, Christina D; Zou, Yunfan; McElfresh, J Steven

    2009-08-01

    Field trials of the sex pheromone of an important and potentially invasive pest of avocados, Persea americana Miller (Lauraceae), Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), were carried out in commercial avocado orchards in Guatemala. The results indicated that the pheromone consists of a single component, (9Z)-9,13-tetradecadien-1-ynal; blends of this compound with a range of ratios of the corresponding alcohol and acetate, or with (6Z,9Z)-tricosadiene, which was present in pheromone gland extracts, were equally or less attractive to male moths than the single component. A range of doses from 10 microg to 1 mg were equally attractive, and lures remained attractive for periods of several weeks. Male moth flight activity peaked between 0230 and 0430 hours. Overall, trap catches were relatively low, similar to what was reported for the congeneric Stenoma cecropia Meyrick, suggesting that this species may use other signals in addition to pheromones during mate location. Nevertheless, the pheromone will be useful for detection of S. catenifer, particularly in areas where there is a risk of the moth invading and establishing due to increased commerce in fresh avocados, and for certifying export orchards as being free of S. catenifer.

  6. Response of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different pheromone emission levels in greenhouse tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Sandra; López, Jesús; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2013-10-01

    The response of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to different emission rates of its pheromone, (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate, was measured in two greenhouse trials with traps baited with mesoporous dispensers. For this purpose, weekly moth trap catches were correlated with increasing pheromone emission levels by multiple regression analysis. Pheromone release profiles of the dispensers were obtained by residual pheromone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the first trial carried out in summer 2010, effect of pheromone emission was significant as catches increased linearly with pheromone release rates up to the highest studied level of 46.8 μg/d. A new trial was carried out in spring 2011 to measure the effect of the emission factor when pheromone release rates were higher. Results demonstrated that trap catches and pheromone emission fitted to a quadratic model, with maximum catches obtained with a release level of 150.3 μg/d of (3E, 8Z, 11Z)-tetradecatrienyl acetate. This emission value should provide enhanced attraction of T. absoluta and improve mass trapping, attract-and-kill, or monitoring techniques under greenhouse conditions in the Mediterranean area.

  7. The Synthesis of Lepidoptera Pheromones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, Elena D.; Kurts, A. L.; Bundel', Yurii G.

    1986-07-01

    The review surveys the data in numerous publications of the synthesis of the pheromones of scale-winged insects (Lepidoptera). Attention is concentrated on problems of the sterospecific synthesis of pheromones. The bibliography includes 217 references.

  8. Chambered cuticle, pellicles, strange sensilla, and extraordinary muscle arrangements: a study of the micropterigid larval trunk (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    PubMed

    Dupont, Steen T K

    2014-07-01

    The larvsal trunk wall of Sabatinca chalcophanes (Meyrick, 1885), representing the "sabatincoid morphotype," is described (brightfield and polarization microscopies, scanning and transmission electron microscopies). Eight sensillum types are identified, including four previously undescribed subventral and ventral kinds. The cuticle is nonsolid, the exocuticle being chambered in a honeycomb-like fashion with chamber walls apparently secreted along epidermal cells boundaries. The chamber contents open to the exterior via minute pores in the chamber roofs. A space between endo and exocuticle communicates with the chamber interiors via pores in the chamber floors; the dense endocuticular surface in places form thickened domes. On the lower trunk region, lateral chamber walls are highly porous (lattice like), hence their contents are continuous; individual chamber roofs here are markedly convex, and the external trunk surface, therefore, papillate. The trunk surface is more or less completely covered by a pellicle, likely formed by exudates from the exocuticular chambers. Unusually for Lepidoptera all trunk muscles are slender strands covering a modest proportion of the inner trunk surface. Conspicuous insertion "nodes" are located at lateral and ventral segmental boundaries, ventromedially near segmental midlengths, and paramedially on the dorsum behind segmental midlengths. Overall similar cuticular specializations are also present in the distantly related Micropterix, strongly supporting micropterigid monophyly.

  9. Assessing the spatial distribution of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) eggs in open-field tomato cultivation through geostatistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Júlio C; Picanço, Marcelo C; Silva, Ricardo S; Gonring, Alfredo Hr; Galdino, Tarcísio Vs; Guedes, Raul Nc

    2017-07-17

    The spatial distribution of insects is due to the interaction between individuals and the environment. Knowledge about the within-field pattern of spatial distribution of a pest is critical to planning control tactics, developing efficient sampling plans, and predicting pest damage. The leaf miner Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is the main pest of tomato crops in several regions of the world. Despite the importance of this pest, the pattern of spatial distribution of T. absoluta on open-field tomato cultivation remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the spatial distribution of T. absoluta in 22 commercial open-field tomato cultivations with plants at the three phenological development stages by using geostatistical analysis. Geostatistical analysis revealed that there was strong evidence for spatially dependent (aggregated) T. absoluta eggs in 19 of the 22 sample tomato cultivations. The maps that were obtained demonstrated the aggregated structure of egg densities at the edges of the crops. Further, T. absoluta was found to accomplish egg dispersal along the rows more frequently than it does between rows. Our results indicate that the greatest egg densities of T. absoluta occur at the edges of tomato crops. These results are discussed in relation to the behavior of T. absoluta distribution within fields and in terms of their implications for improved sampling guidelines and precision targeting control methods that are essential for effective pest monitoring and management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Oviposition deterrent activity of basil plants and their essentials oils against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Yarou, Boni Barthélémy; Bawin, Thomas; Boullis, Antoine; Heukin, Stéphanie; Lognay, Georges; Verheggen, François Jean; Francis, Frédéric

    2017-08-07

    The leafminer Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most important pests of tomato, reducing crop yields by up to 100% in greenhouses and fields, in several countries globally. Because synthetic insecticides lead to resistance and have adverse effects on natural enemies and the health of producers, alternative control methods are needed. In this study, we assessed the oviposition-deterring effect of basil plants, Ocimum gratissimum L. and O. basilicum L. (Lamiaceae), using dual-choice behavioural assays performed in flight tunnels. We found that both plants significantly reduced T. absoluta oviposition behaviour on a tomato plant located nearby. To evaluate the potential effect of basil volatile organic compounds, we formulated essential oils of both plant species in paraffin oil, and observed a similar oviposition-deterring effect. Gas chromatography analyses detected 18 constituents in these essential oils which the major constituents included thymol (33.3%), p-cymene (20.4%), γ-terpinene (16.9%), myrcene (3.9%) in O. gratissimum and estragol (73.8%), linalool (8.6%), β-elemene (2.9%) and E-β-ocimene (2.6%) in O. basilicum. Twenty and 33 compounds were identified of the volatiles collected on O. gratissimum and O. basilicum plants, respectively. The main components include the following: p-cymene (33.5%), γ-terpinene (23.6%), α-terpinene (7.2%), α-thujene (6.7%) and E-α-bergamotene (38.9%) in O. gratissimum, and methyl eugenol (26.1%), E-β-ocimene (17.7%), and linalool (9.4%) in O. basilicum. Four compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, Myrcene, Limonene) were common in essential oils and plants. Our results suggest the valuable potential of basil and associated essential oils as a component of integrated management strategies against the tomato leafminer.

  11. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  12. Laboratory Population Parameters and Field Impact of the Larval Endoparasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on its Host Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Tomato Crops in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Eliana L; Pereyra, Patricia C; Luna, María G; Medone, Paula; Sánchez, Norma E

    2015-08-01

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a key pest of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum L., crops in Central and South America. At present it is dispersing rapidly in Africa and Eurasian continents as an invasive pest, threatening worldwide tomato production. Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an American endoparasitoid reported as the main natural enemy of T. absoluta in commercial tomato. To gain knowledge of the potential role of P. dignus in the biological control of this pest, we determined its population parameters in laboratory and the parasitoid's impact on T. absoluta in the field. In laboratory, lifetime fecundity was 193 eggs per female, and longevity was 24 and 26 d for female and male, respectively. The finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.15 per female per day and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) was 0.14. The net reproductive rate (R(0)) was found to be 51.2, and generation time (T) 28.8 d. The time for doubling the population (DT) was 5 d. Furthermore, field parasitism of T. absoluta varied between 33 and 64% in the different years studied. Population parameters estimated in this study can be considered baseline information for a mass-rearing protocol of this parasitoid. Moreover, growth rates of P. dignus, particularly r(m), and its impact on field populations of T. absoluta indicated that this parasitoid is a valuable candidate for biological control of this pest.

  13. Phylogeny and Evolution of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald R; Cummings, Michael P

    2017-01-31

    Until recently, deep-level phylogeny in Lepidoptera, the largest single radiation of plant-feeding insects, was very poorly understood. Over the past two decades, building on a preceding era of morphological cladistic studies, molecular data have yielded robust initial estimates of relationships both within and among the ∼43 superfamilies, with unsolved problems now yielding to much larger data sets from high-throughput sequencing. Here we summarize progress on lepidopteran phylogeny since 1975, emphasizing the superfamily level, and discuss some resulting advances in our understanding of lepidopteran evolution.

  14. Biology and developmental strategies of the Palaearctic parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on the neotropical moth Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Siscaro, Gaetano; Zappalà, Lucia

    2013-08-01

    During the years after the invasion of Western Palaearctic tomato crops by the South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), several indigenous generalist parasitoids have been recorded on this new host. Among these, Bracon nigricans Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is widely distributed in the Palaearctic region, and has been frequently recovered from South American tomato leafminer. However, most of the available data on this species deal with taxonomic aspects and its recovery in faunistic surveys. The current study documents the biology of B. nigricans on South American tomato leafminer, and provides a scientific basis for its inclusion in South American tomato leafminer management programs in Afro-Eurasia. We studied several B. nigricans life-history traits relevant to juvenile development and reproduction by females. B. nigricans proved to be an idiobiont and a synovigenic ectoparasitoid of mature South American tomato leafminer larvae. Several B. nigricans reproductive traits were influenced by the age of the mothers; on average, the progeny had a slightly male-biased sex ratio (60% males) and a low rate of successful development (37%). Adult females lived 42.8 d and produced an average of 29.8 offspring. These biological parameters yielded an intrinsic rate of increase of 0.052. Females showed behavioral plasticity in host use, as initial host paralysis was followed by host-feeding, oviposition, or host rejection, with a consequent high mortality rate among hosts exposed to parasitism. Although further field studies are needed, these data, obtained in laboratory conditions, suggest that B. nigricans should be considered as a potential biological control agent of in newly invaded areas of the Palaearctic region.

  15. Overcrowding of false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) leads to the isolation of five new Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV-SA) isolates.

    PubMed

    Opoku-Debrah, John K; Hill, Martin P; Knox, Caroline; Moore, Sean D

    2013-03-01

    False codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) is a serious pest of economic importance to the South African fruit industry. As part of sustainable efforts to control this pest, biological control options that involve the application of baculovirus-based biopesticides such as Cryptogran and Cryptex (both formulated with a South African isolate of Cryptophlebia leucotreta granulovirus, CrleGV-SA) are popularly used by farmers. In order to safeguard the integrity of these biopesticides as well as protect against any future development of resistance in the host, we conducted a study to bioprospect for additional CrleGV isolates as alternatives to existing ones. Using overcrowding as an induction method for latent infection, we recovered five new CrleGV isolates (CrleGV-SA Ado, CrleGV-SA Mbl, CrleGV-SA Cit, CrleGV-SA MixC and CrleGV-SA Nels). Single restriction endonuclease (REN) analysis of viral genomic DNA extracted from purified occlusion bodies showed that isolates differed in their DNA profiles. Partial sequencing of granulin and egt genes from the different isolates and multiple alignments of nucleotide sequences revealed the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), some of which resulted in amino acid substitutions in the protein sequence. Based on these findings as well as comparisons with other documented CrleGV isolates, we propose two phylogenetic groups for CrleGV-SA isolates recovered in this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The genus Anarsia in Cambodia and the Northern Vietnam (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), with descriptions of ten new species and a catalogue of the genus in the Central-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yang-Seop; Shin, Young-Min; Na, Sol-Moon; Park, Kyu-Tek

    2016-01-07

    The genus Anarsia Zeller in Vietnam and Cambodia is reviewed, with 19 species including 10 new species: A. deuterodes Park, sp. nov., Anarsia diversiola Park, sp. nov., A. porthmista Park, sp. nov., A. melanodes Park, sp. nov., A. gryphodes Park, sp. nov., A. campestra Park, sp. nov., A. similicampa Park, sp. nov., A. kepensis Park, sp. nov., A. pusillidia Park, sp. nov., and A. houhunlii Park, sp. nov. Nine previously described species, namely A. tricornis Meyrick, A. choana Park, A. isogona Meyrick, A. paraisogona Meyrick, A. incerta Ueda, A. acerata Meyrick, A. didymopa Meyrick, A. phortica Meyrick, and A. patulella (Walker), are reported for the first time from Vietnam or Cambodia. Anarsia magnibimaculata Li & Zheng, 1998 is newly synonymized with A. bimaculata Ponomarenko, 1989. A tentative check list of the genus in the Central and East Asia (including Indochina, China, Russian Far East, Korea, and Japan) is given.

  17. New host records for four species of tortricid moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on cultivated blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericaceae), in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four species of tortricids were reared from cultivated blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae), from four field sites in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina: Clarkeulia bourquini (Clarke, 1949), Clarkeulia deceptiva (Clarke, 1949), Argyrotaenia spheralopa (Meyrick, 1909), and Platynota ...

  18. Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)-tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control.

    PubMed

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Biondi, Antonio; Han, Peng; Tabone, Elisabeth; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    The South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest that has recently invaded Afro-Eurasia. Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be promising as a management tool for this pest. However, further development of Trichogramma-based biocontrol strategies would benefit from assessing the impact of released parasitoid offspring on the pest. Under laboratory conditions, we 1) compared the parasitism of five Trichogramma species-strains on the pest-plant system T. absoluta-tomato, and 2) assessed various biological traits of parasitoids, mass-reared on a factitious host (Ephestia kuehniella Zeller), when developing on T. absoluta. In addition, we evaluated the overall efficiency of two specific Trichogramma species when released under greenhouse conditions in combination with a common natural enemy in tomato crop, the predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Parasitoids emerging from T. absoluta on tomato showed lower parasitism rates and poor biological traits, for example, wing deformations, reduced longevity, when compared with the control reared on the factitious host. Under greenhouse conditions, the parasitoids that developed on T. absoluta after initial releases contributed little to biological control of T. absoluta, and parasitism tended to be lower when the predator was present. However, a slightly higher T. absoluta control level was achieved by combining the predator and release of the parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti. This study shows that Trichogramma parasitoids may not build up populations on the T. absoluta-tomato system, but that Trichogramma parasitoids can be used in combination with M. pygmaeus to enhance biological control of the pest in tomato crops.

  19. Verification of Inspection Standards and Efficacy of a Systems Approach for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) for Export Citrus From South Africa.

    PubMed

    Moore, S D; Kirkman, W; Hattingh, V

    2016-08-01

    A systems approach has been developed for mitigation of risk associated with Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in citrus fruit exported from South Africa, as an alternative to a stand-alone cold treatment. This study was undertaken to assess compliance with inspection standards applicable to various steps within the systems approach and to determine its overall efficacy. Larval infestation of fruit was monitored weekly in fruit from 33 orchards, until the time of harvest, postpicking, and postpacking into export cartons. Significant positive regressions were recorded between infestation of fruit during the full monitoring period in the orchard and the last 4 wk before harvest, between the last 4 wk before harvest and on delivery to the packinghouse, and on delivery to the packinghouse and in the packed carton. There was an improvement in the level of compliance with each of these successive steps in the system, thus verifying that the grading and inspection thresholds were appropriately sensitive and confirmed the effectiveness of the system. The overall risk mitigation efficacy of the systems approach was calculated. The calculation included several known compounding under estimations of efficacy. Nonetheless, the proportion of fruit that could be infested with T. leucotreta after application of the systems approach was between P ≤ 5.328 × 10(-6) and P ≤ 8.380 × 10(-7), 6-38 times less than the proportion associated with the probit 9 (P ≤ 3.2 × 10(-5)) standard for a stand-alone cold treatment, being three survivors in 100,000 at the 95% confidence level. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Comparing the Use of Laboratory-Reared and Field-Collected Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae for Demonstrating Efficacy of Postharvest Cold Treatments in Citrus Fruit.

    PubMed

    Moore, S D; Kirkman, W; Albertyn, S; Hattingh, V

    2016-08-01

    Some of South Africa's export markets require postharvest cold treatment of citrus fruit for phytosanitary risk mitigation for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). An alternative to a standalone cold treatment may be a reduced intensity cold treatment as a step in a systems approach. For cold treatment trials, large numbers of larvae are required. Due to recent dramatic improvement of T. leucotreta control in the field, sufficient naturally infested citrus fruit are no longer available. Artificial infestation of fruit is not viable due to rapid decay of the fruit. Consequently, it is necessary to use laboratory-reared T. leucotreta larvae in artificial diet. In trials, field-collected larvae from the Eastern Cape were at least as cold-tolerant as those from other regions. Larvae in Navel oranges showed the median level of susceptibility in a range of citrus types evaluated at 6°C, and their use in trials was considered acceptable due to their greater natural susceptibility to T. leucotreta infestation. We demonstrated that larvae at high density in artificial diet were at least as cold-tolerant as larvae at lower densities. When exposed to 2°C for 18 d or longer, larvae in artificial diet as used in the trials were at least as cold-tolerant as larvae in fruit. Very few surviving larvae from fruit completed development, with no subsequent generation. Consequently, it is considered justifiable to conduct cold-treatment trials with laboratory-reared T. leucotreta larvae in artificial diet without risk of underestimating the effect of cold on feral larvae in citrus fruit. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Descriptions of four new species of Struthoscelis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae: Oecophorinae), one from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Northwestern Costa Rica, providing the first known biology for the genus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We add three species to the known fauna: Struthoscelis christianafigueresae new species, Struthoscelis konia new species, and Struthoscelis solamarita new species. We report the first known biology for a species of Struthoscelis and rediagnose the genus based on newly discovered morphology including...

  2. Evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Allen, Cerisse E; Zwaan, Bas J; Brakefield, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    Among the animals, the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are second only to beetles in number of described species and are known for their striking intra- and interspecific diversity. Within species, sexual dimorphism is a source of variation in life history (e.g., sexual size dimorphism and protandry), morphology (e.g., wing shape and color pattern), and behavior (e.g., chemical and visual signaling). Sexual selection and mating systems have been considered the primary forces driving the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the Lepidoptera, and alternative hypotheses have been neglected. Here, we examine opportunities for sexual selection, natural selection, and the interplay between the two forces in the evolution of sexual differences in the moths and butterflies. Our primary goal is to identify mechanisms that either facilitate or constrain the evolution of sexual dimorphism, rather than to resolve any perceived controversy between hypotheses that may not be mutually exclusive.

  3. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution. PMID:25610542

  4. Chromosome number evolution in skippers (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), as many other groups of animals and plants, simultaneously represent preservation of ancestral karyotype in the majority of families with a high degree of chromosome number instability in numerous independently evolved phylogenetic lineages. However, the pattern and trends of karyotype evolution in some Lepidoptera families are poorly studied. Here I provide a survey of chromosome numbers in skippers (family Hesperiidae) based on intensive search and analysis of published data. I demonstrate that the majority of skippers preserve the haploid chromosome number n=31 that seems to be an ancestral number for the Hesperiidae and the order Lepidoptera at whole. However, in the tribe Baorini the derived number n=16 is the most typical state which can be used as a (syn)apomorphic character in further phylogenetic investigations. Several groups of skippers display extreme chromosome number variations on within-species (e.g. the representatives of the genus Carcharodus Hübner, [1819]) and between-species (e.g. the genus Agathymus Freeman, 1959) levels. Thus, these groups can be used as model systems for future analysis of the phenomenon of chromosome instability. Interspecific chromosomal differences are also shown to be useful for discovering and describing new cryptic species of Hesperiidae representing in such a way a powerful tool in biodiversity research. Generally, the skipper butterflies promise to be an exciting group that will significantly contribute to the growing knowledge of patterns and processes of chromosome evolution.

  5. A new species of Histura Razowski (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Polyorthini) from Guatemala attacking avocados (Persea americana) Lauraceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Histura perseavora Brown, new species, is described and illustrated from Guatemala. It is compared with Histura curvata (Meyrick) (from Brazil) and Histurodes costaricana Razowski (from Costa Rica). All specimens of H. perseavora were reared from either fruit, fruit pedicels, or young green branches...

  6. New species, new combinations, and new synonymies in Neotropical Episimus Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera; Tortricidae: Olethreutinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We propose and revise the informal “caveatus species group” of Episimus Walsingham, 1892. As presently defined it includes four species: E. caveatus (Meyrick) (type locality: Venezuela); E. lavirgenanus Razowski & Brown, new species (type locality: Costa Rica); E. aurobasis Razowski & Brown, new spe...

  7. Review of Nexosa Diakonoff in Vietnam, with a new species and a new subspecies, and transfer to the tribe Archipini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Tortricinae: Archipini).

    PubMed

    Heppner, John B; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2015-08-07

    The species of Nexosa Diakonoff, 1977 in Vietnam are reviewed: Nexosa hexaphala (Meyrick); Nexosa hexaphala tamdaoana Heppner & Bae, n. subsp.; and Nexosa tonkinensis Heppner & Bae, n. sp. The genus is transferred to the tribe Archipini (Tortricidae: Tortricinae).

  8. Agrotis Ochsenheimer (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae): a systematic analysis of South American species.

    PubMed

    San Blas, Germán

    2014-03-03

    The genus Agrotis Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) contains about 300 described species distributed worldwide, excepting the Poles. For South America 93 species have been described. Different diagnostic characters have been proposed for species from the northern Hemisphere, mostly from male genitalia. Recently, numerous South American species of the genus have been transferred to other genera. In this work, a systematic revision was undertaken of the South American species of Agrotis, restricting to 20 the number of species of this genus for the region and transferring the other species to different genera and/or synonymizing with other species.Based on a detailed study of the external morphology and genitalia of both sexes, several nomen clatural changes are proposed. New generic synonymy: Mesembreuxoa Hampson = Feltia Walker. New Agrotis synonymies include: Scotia forsteri Köhler = A. propriens (Dyar); Agrotis peruviana hampsoni Draudt, Rhizagrotis triclava Draudt, and Euxoa andina Köhler = A. peruviana (Hampson); Lycophotia achromatica Hampson, Feltia malefida patagiata Aurivillius, Prout and Meyrick, Agrotis psammophila Köhler, and Scotia (Feltia) canietensis Köhler = A. malefida Guenée; Chorizagrotis benefida Draudt = A. experta (Walker); Agrotis livens Köhler and Agrotis capayana Köhler = A. araucaria (Hampson). Species transferred to Feltia Walker tent. include: Scotia aspersula Köhler, n. comb.; Porosagrotis brachystria Hampson, n. comb.; Agrotis carrascoi Köhler, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa chilensis Hampson, n. comb.; Euxoa clavisigna Dognin, n. comb.; Euxoa conifrons Draudt, n. comb.; Agrotis consternans Hayes, n. comb.; Euxoa coquimbensis Hampson, n. comb.; Mesembreuxoa fasicola Dyar, n. comb.; Chorizagrotis forasmicans Köhler, n. comb.; Agrotis giselae León, n. comb.; Agrotis gypaetina Guenée, n. comb.; Agrotis hispidula Guenée, n. comb.; Euxoa incarum Cockerell, n. comb.; Agrotis india Köhler, n. comb.; Scotia mansa Köhler, n

  9. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Treesearch

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  10. Cryptophlebia Walsingham, 1900, Thaumatotibia Zacher, 1915, and Archiphlebia Komai & Horak, 2006, in Australia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutinae: Grapholitini).

    PubMed

    Horak, Marianne; Komai, Furumi

    2016-10-31

    The Australian species of the grapholitine genera Cryptophlebia Walsingham, 1900, Thaumatotibia Zacher, 1915 and Archiphlebia Komai & Horak, 2006, are revised, described and illustrated. A key to species is provided. Five named species of Cryptophlebia, C. ombrodelta (Lower), C. iridosoma (Meyrick), C. rhynchias (Meyrick) and C. pallifimbriana Bradley, are redescribed and three new species, C. wraggae, sp. nov., C. stigmata, sp. nov., and C. caulicola, sp. nov., are described. Cryptophlebia amblyopa Clarke, described from Micronesia, is synonymised with C. iridosoma. Cryptophlebia caulicola, sp. nov., is a borer in twigs of Acacia mangium Willd. in northern Queensland. Thaumatotibia aclyta (Turner) and T. zophophanes (Turner) are redescribed and the new species T. maculata, sp. nov., is described. Fruit of Acronychia spp. (Rutaceae) have been identified as native hosts of T. zophophanes, a pest species which damages macadamia (Proteaceae) and avocado (Lauraceae) on the Atherton Tableland. Archiphlebia endophaga (Meyrick) and A. rutilescens (Turner) are redescribed, and the new species A. gilva, sp. nov., is described.

  11. Cyanogenesis - a general phenomenon in the lepidoptera

    SciTech Connect

    Witthohn, K.; Naumann, C.M.

    1987-08-01

    There are two different pathways known to be used for the detoxification of hydrocyanic acid in insects, viz., rhodanese and ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine synthase. The authors consider the latter to be indicative for cyanogenesis, while rhodanese might, in general, play a more important role in sulfur transfer for protein synthesis. This paper reports on the distribution of ..beta..-cyano-L-alanine (BCA) in the Lepidoptera. First reports of cyanogenesis are presented for the following families: Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae, Hesperiidae, Lymantriidae, Arctiidae, Notodontidae, Megalopygidae, Limacodidae, Cymatophoridae, Noctuidae, Geometridae, and Yponomeutidae. New and old records for three other families, the Nymphalidae, Zygaenidae, and Heterogynidae, are included to complete the present state of knowledge. Special emphasis has been laid on the Nymphalidae, where BCA has been detected in eight subfamilies. Taxonomic, geographic, and seasonal variation has been found in a number of cases. In all cases observed so far, the source of cyanogenesis in the Lepidoptera is most probably the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin, although cyanogenesis based on mustard oil glucosides and cyclopentenoid glucosides might occur as well. BCA has been found in both cryptic and aposematic species, including taxa such as the Pieridae, Danainae, Ithomiinae, and Arctiidae, where the defensive biology is believed to be linked with other compounds, like mustard oil glucosides, cardenolides, or pyrrolizidinie alkaloids. The ecological interaction and significance of such secondary compounds is not yet understood.

  12. Physiological correlates of chill susceptibility in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Mads Kuhlmann; Jensen, Signe Overgaard; Overgaard, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The majority of insects enter a state of reversible coma if temperature is lowered sufficiently. If the cold treatment is not too severe these insects recover gradually when returned to benign temperatures in a time-dependent manner that often depends on the duration and intensity of the cold exposure. Previous studies have associated these phenotypes to changes in membrane potential (Vm) and ion balance, and especially hemolymph [K(+)] is known to be of importance for the recovery time. In the present study we examined this link in three species of Lepidoptera as insects from this order are known to possess resting hemolymph [K(+)] that would severely compromise Vm in other insects. Specifically, we exposed larval and adult Manduca sexta, larval Bombyx mori, and adult Heliconius cydno to stressful cold (0°C) for extended periods of time. Subsequently we measured chill coma recovery time (CCRT), ion- and water balance, and muscle Vm. As expected we find that resting hemolymph [K(+)] is high and that resting hemolymph [Na(+)] is low compared to most other insect species. Muscle Vm depolarised considerably during acute cold exposure, but did so in a manner that was not associated with changes in ion balance. However, prolonged cold exposure coincided with an increase of hemolymph [K(+)] and further depolarisation of Vm which correlated well with prolongation of CCRT. Combined this demonstrates how insects with different ionic compositions generally suffer from similar consequences of cold stress as other species, such that cold tolerance of chill-susceptible insects within Lepidoptera is also intimately linked to maintenance of ion balance and membrane polarisation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A new leafminer on grapevine and Rhoicissus (Vitaceae) in South Africa within an expanded generic concept of Holocacista (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae)

    PubMed Central

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Geertsema, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A grapevine leafminer found recently in table grape orchards and vineyards in the Paarl region (Western Cape, South Africa) is described as Holocacista capensis sp. n. It has also been found on native Rhoicissus digitata and bred on that species in the laboratory. It is closely related to Holocacista salutans (Meyrick, 1921), comb. n. (from Antispila), described from Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, but widespread in southern Africa and a native leafminer of various Vitaceae: Rhoicissus tomentosa, Rhoicissus digitata, Rhoicissus tridentata and Cissus cornifolia. Holocacista capensis has been found on Vitis vinifera both in Gauteng and Western Cape, the earliest record being from 1950 in Pretoria. The initial host shift from native Vitaceae to Vitis must have occurred much earlier. The species is sometimes present in high densities, but hitherto no sizeable damage to the crops has been noted. The genus Holocacista Walsingham & Durrant, 1909, previously known from the single European grapevine leafminer Holocacista rivillei (Stainton, 1855), is expanded and redescribed and for the first time reported from Africa, East and South-East Asia and Australia. It comprises seven named species and at least 15 unnamed species. The following species are also recombined with Holocacista: transferred from Antispilina: South-African Holocacista varii (Mey, 2011), comb. n., feeding on Pelargonium, transferred from Antispila: the Indian species Holocacista micrarcha (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. and Holocacista pariodelta (Meyrick, 1929), comb. n., both feeding on Lannea coromandelica, and Holocacista selastis (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. on Psychotria dalzelii. We also remove the following from Antispila: Heliozela anna (Fletcher, 1920), comb. n. and Heliozela argyrozona (Meyrick, 1918), comb. n., whereas the following Indian Vitaceae feeding species are confirmed to belong in Antispila s. str.: Antispila argostoma Meyrick, 1916 and Antispila aristarcha Meyrick, 1916. Holocacista

  14. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects.

  15. Biology and occurrence of Inga Busk species (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) on Cerrado host plants.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Ivone R; Bernardes, Carolina; Rodovalho, Sheila; Morais, Helena C

    2007-01-01

    We sampled Inga Busk species caterpillars weekly in the cerrado on 15 plants of Diospyros burchellii Hern. (Ebenaceae) from January 2002 to December 2003, on 30 plants of Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae) from July 2003 to June 2004, and since 1991 on several other plant species. In total we found 15 species of Inga on cerrado host plants. Nine species were very rare, with only one to five adults reared. The other six species occurred throughout the year, with higher abundance during the dry season, from May to July, coinciding with overall peaks of caterpillar abundance in the cerrado. Caterpillars of the genus Inga build shelters by tying and lining two mature or old leaves with silk and frass, where they rest and develop (a common habit found in Oecophorinae). The final instar builds a special envelope inside the leaf shelter, where it will complete the larval stage and pupate. The species are very difficult to distinguish in the immature stages. External features were useful in identifying only four species: I. haemataula (Meyrick), I. phaecrossa (Meyrick), I. ancorata (Walsingham), and I. corystes (Meyrick). These four species are polyphagous and have wide geographical distributions. In this paper we provide information on the natural history and host plants of six Inga species common on cerrado host plants, for which there are no reports in the literature.

  16. LepNet: The Lepidoptera of North America Network.

    PubMed

    Seltmann, Katja C; Cobb, Neil S; Gall, Lawrence F; Bartlett, Charles R; Basham, M Anne; Betancourt, Isabelle; Bills, Christy; Brandt, Benjamin; Brown, Richard L; Bundy, Charles; Caterino, Michael S; Chapman, Caitlin; Cognato, Anthony; Colby, Julia; Cook, Stephen P; Daly, Kathryn M; Dyer, Lee A; Franz, Nico M; Gelhaus, Jon K; Grinter, Christopher C; Harp, Charles E; Hawkins, Rachel L; Heydon, Steve L; Hill, Geena M; Huber, Stacey; Johnson, Norman; Kawahara, Akito Y; Kimsey, Lynn S; Kondratieff, Boris C; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Leblanc, Luc; Lee, Sangmi; Marshall, Christopher J; McCabe, Lindsie M; McHugh, Joseph V; Menard, Katrina L; Opler, Paul A; Palffy-Muhoray, Nicole; Pardikes, Nick; Peterson, Merrill A; Pierce, Naomi E; Poremski, Andre; Sikes, Derek S; Weintraub, Jason D; Wikle, David; Zaspel, Jennifer M; Zolnerowich, Gregory

    2017-03-23

    The Lepidoptera of North America Network, or LepNet, is a digitization effort recently launched to mobilize biodiversity data from 3 million specimens of butterflies and moths in United States natural history collections (http://www.lep-net.org/). LepNet was initially conceived as a North American effort but the project seeks collaborations with museums and other organizations worldwide. The overall goal is to transform Lepidoptera specimen data into readily available digital formats to foster global research in taxonomy, ecology and evolutionary biology.

  17. Blood, sweat, and tears: a review of the hematophagous, sudophagous, and lachryphagous Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, David; Goddard, Jerome

    2013-12-01

    Although adult Lepidoptera are not often considered medically relevant, some butterflies and moths are notorious for their consumption of mammalian body fluids. These Lepidoptera can be blood-feeding (hematophagous), tear-feeding (lachryphagous), or sweat-feeding (we use the term "sudophagous"). Blood-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed piercing the skin of their hosts during feeding, while tear-feeding Lepidoptera have been observed frequenting the eyes of hosts in order to directly obtain lachrymal fluid. These behaviors have negative human health implications and some potential for disease transmission. In this study, articles concerning feeding behavior of blood, sweat, and tear-feeding Lepidoptera were reviewed, with emphasis on correlations between morphological characters and feeding behaviors. Harmful effects and vector potential of these Lepidoptera are presented and discussed.

  18. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola, Milla; Wheat, Christopher W; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera, including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera. We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in molecular systematic studies of Lepidoptera, particularly at the intrafamilial level, and our new set of primers now provides a route to generating phylogenomic datasets using traditional methods.

  19. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  20. COMPARISON OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES USED IN STUDYING LEPIDOPTERA POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four methods (light traps, foliage samples, canvas bands, and gypsy moth egg mass surveys) that are used to study the population dynamics of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera were compared for 10 species, including gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. Samples were collected weekly at 12 sit...

  1. Phenology of blue cactus moth Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Native cactus plants (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were sampled weekly at St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, Florida (30.16 - 30° 1' N, -84.21 - 84° 1' W) from September 2006 to September 2007 for the native blue cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Meli...

  2. A new species of Isopsestis (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae) from Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hailing; Owada, Mamoru; Wang, Min

    2015-08-19

    A new species of genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae), Isopsestis poculiformis sp. nov., is described from the locality 2660m elevation in Northeast Yunnan, China, and compared with its closest ally. Male adult and genitalia of the new species are illustrated and a distribution map of the genus Isopsestis Werny, 1968 is provided.

  3. Molecular analysis of the muscle protein projectin in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Ayme-Southgate, A J; Turner, L; Southgate, R J

    2013-01-01

    Striated muscles of both vertebrates and insects contain a third filament composed of the giant proteins, namely kettin and projectin (insects) and titin (vertebrates). All three proteins have been shown to contain several domains implicated in conferring elasticity, in particular a PEVK segment. In this study, the characterization of the projectin protein in the silkmoth, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), as well as a partial characterization in the Carolina sphinx, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), are presented. This study showed that, similar to other insects, projectin's overall modular organization was conserved, but in contrast, the PEVK region had a highly divergent sequence. The analysis of alternative splicing in the PEVK region revealed a small number of possible isoforms and the lack of a flight-muscle specific variant, both characteristics being in sharp contrast with findings from other insects. The possible correlation with difference in flight muscle stiffness and physiology between Lepidoptera and other insect orders is discussed.

  4. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  5. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  6. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  7. Flight performance of Macdunnoughia crassisigna (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, X-W; Chang, H; He, L-M; Zhao, S-Y; Wu, K-M

    2017-03-09

    Macdunnoughia crassisigna Warren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive herbivore that poses a serious risk to cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. Examining the effects of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of M. crassisigna is crucial for a better understanding of its trans-regional migration. In this study, the flight activity of M. crassisignai moths of different ages, under different temperatures and relative humidity (RH) levels, was evaluated by tethering individuals to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period. The results showed that M. crassisignai had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was strongest in 3-day-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly in older moths. For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was relatively higher at 24-28°C than other temperatures. There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was relatively higher at RH of 60-75% than other RH levels. For 3-day-old moths under the optimum conditions (24°C and 75% RH) throughout the 24 h scotophase, their mean flight distance reached 66 km, and the mean flight duration reached 13.5 h, suggesting M. crassisigna possess strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species.

  8. Towards a mitogenomic phylogeny of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Lees, David C; Simonsen, Thomas J

    2014-10-01

    The backbone phylogeny of Lepidoptera remains unresolved, despite strenuous recent morphological and molecular efforts. Molecular studies have focused on nuclear protein coding genes, sometimes adding a single mitochondrial gene. Recent advances in sequencing technology have, however, made acquisition of entire mitochondrial genomes both practical and economically viable. Prior phylogenetic studies utilised just eight of 43 currently recognised lepidopteran superfamilies. Here, we add 23 full and six partial mitochondrial genomes (comprising 22 superfamilies of which 16 are newly represented) to those publically available for a total of 24 superfamilies and ask whether such a sample can resolve deeper lepidopteran phylogeny. Using recoded datasets we obtain topologies that are highly congruent with prior nuclear and/or morphological studies. Our study shows support for an expanded Obtectomera including Gelechioidea, Thyridoidea, plume moths (Alucitoidea and Pterophoroidea; possibly along with Epermenioidea), Papilionoidea, Pyraloidea, Mimallonoidea and Macroheterocera. Regarding other controversially positioned higher taxa, Doidae is supported within the new concept of Drepanoidea and Mimallonidae sister to (or part of) Macroheterocera, while among Nymphalidae butterflies, Danainae and not Libytheinae are sister to the remainder of the family. At the deepest level, we suggest that a tRNA rearrangement occurred at a node between Adeloidea and Ditrysia+Palaephatidae+Tischeriidae.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and phylogenetic analysis of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2016-10-10

    To better understand the diversity and phylogeny of Lepidoptera, the complete mitochondrial genome of Choristoneura longicellana (=Hoshinoa longicellana) was determined. It is a typical circular duplex molecule with 15,759bp in length, containing the standard metazoan set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and an A+T-rich region. All of the inferred tRNA secondary structures show the common cloverleaf pattern, with the exception of trnS1(AGN), which lacks the DHU arm. The rrnL of C. Longicellana is the longest in sequenced lepidopterans. C. Longicellana has the same gene order as all lepidopteran species currently available in GenBank. There are 5 overlapping regions ranging from 1bp to 8bp and 14 intergenic spacers ranging from 1bp to 48bp. In addition, there are four similar tandem macro-satellite regions with the lengths of 101bp, 98bp, 92bp, and 92bp respectively in the A+T-rich regions of C. longicellana. We sampled 89 species representing 13 superfamilies, and reconstructed their relationship among Lepidoptera by Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analysis. The topology of the two phylogenetic analysis trees is identical roughly, except for Cossoidea in different locations, the positions of Cossoidea, Copromorphoidea, Gelechioidea, Zygaenoidea were not determined based the limited sampling. (Geometroidea+(Noctuoidea+Bombycoidea)) form the Macrolepidoptera "core". Pyraloidea group with the "core" Macrolepidoptera. Papilionoidea are not Macrolepidoptera. The Hesperiidae (represent Hesperioidea) is nested in the Papilionoidea, and closely related to Pieridae and Papilionidae. The well-known relationship of (Nymphalidae+(Riodinidae+Lycaenidae)) is recovered in this paper.

  10. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general.

  11. Flight Performance of Ctenoplusia agnata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Shengyuan; Li, Chao; Wu, Xiao; Guo, Jianglong; Wu, Kongming

    2017-06-01

    Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a highly destructive polyphagous pest of cotton, maize, soybean, and cruciferous vegetables in East Asia. The effect of various biotic and abiotic factors on the flight performance of C. agnata is crucial for a better understanding of its transregional migration. In this study, the flight performance of C. agnata moths at different ages, temperatures, and relative humidity (RH) levels, was examined by tethering individual moths to computerized flight mills for a 24-h scotophase. The results showed that 1) C. agnata had the capacity for sustained flight and the flight ability was most pronounced in 3-d-old individuals, and then their flight performance decreased significantly as the moth got older. 2) For both sexes, temperature had a significant effect on their flight performance, and the flight activity was most pronounced at 24-28 °C. 3) There was a significant effect of RH on all flight parameters of the tested moths, and the flight activity was most pronounced at RH of 60-75%. 4) For 3-d-old moths under the optimum conditions (24 °C and 75% RH) throughout the 24-h scotophase, the total flight distance reached 69.01 ± 2.13 km (females) and 62.15 ± 2.31 km (males), and the total flight duration reached 14.11 ± 0.79 h (females) and 13.08 ± 0.70 h (males), which suggests that C. agnata has a strong potential to undertake long-distance migration. These findings will be helpful for developing sound forecasting systems of this pest species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  13. The complete mitogenome of Achalarus lyciades (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Jinhui; Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V

    2016-01-01

    We obtained a complete mitochondrial genome of a skipper butterfly Achalarus lyciades (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) from next generation sequencing reads. The 15,612 bp mitogenome covers 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and an A+T rich region. Its gene order is typical for mitogenomes of Lepidoptera. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. lyciades as a sister to Lobocla bifasciatus, the only other Eudaminae with available mitogenome.

  14. The complete mitogenome of Achalarus lyciades (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jinhui; Cong, Qian; Grishin, Nick V.

    2016-01-01

    We obtained a complete mitochondrial genome of a skipper butterfly Achalarus lyciades (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) from next generation sequencing reads. The 15,612 bp mitogenome covers 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and an A+T rich region. Its gene order is typical for mitogenomes of Lepidoptera. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. lyciades as a sister to Lobocla bifasciatus, the only other Eudaminae with available mitogenome. PMID:28367503

  15. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera.

  16. Timing Spring Insecticide Applications to Target both Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Almond Orchards.

    PubMed

    Hamby, Kelly A; Nicola, Nicole L; Niederholzer, Franz J A; Zalom, Frank G

    2015-04-01

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) are key Lepidoptera pests of almonds in California. Spring insecticide applications (early to mid-May) targeting either insect were not usually recommended because of the potential to disrupt natural enemies when broad-spectrum organophosphates and pyrethroids were applied. The registration of reduced risk compounds such as chlorantraniliprole, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram, which have a higher margin of safety for natural enemies, makes spring (early to mid-May) application an acceptable control approach. We examined the efficacy of methoxyfenozide, spinetoram, and chlorantraniliprole at three spring application timings including the optimum spring timing for both A. lineatella and A. transitella in California almonds. Our study also examined the possibility of reducing larval populations of A. lineatella and A. transitella simultaneously with a single spring insecticide application. There were no significant differences in the field efficacy of insecticides targeting either A. lineatella or A. transitella, depending on application timing for the three spring timings examined in this study. In most years (2009-2011), all three timings for each compound resulted in significantly less A. transitella and A. lineatella damage when compared with an untreated control, though there was some variation in efficacy between the two species. Early to mid-May applications of the reduced-risk insecticides chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram can be used to simultaneously target A. transitella and A. lineatella with similar results across the potential timings.

  17. Review of the Neotropical genus Cacocharis Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Olethreutini), with a new synonymy and comments on its host plants and geographic distribution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cacocharis is a small Neotropical genus comprised of two species: C. albimacula Walsingham and C. cymotoma (Meyrick). The synonymy of Olethreutes canofascia Forbes with C. cymotoma is proposed. The two recognized species are sympatric in the Caribbean - on Jamaica, Dominica, and St. Vincent - indica...

  18. Complete mitochondrial genomes of five skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further

  19. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) as a new parasitoid of Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zache, B; Zaché, R R C; Tavares, M T; Wilcken, C F

    2012-08-01

    This is the first report of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford) (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae)-parasitizing pupae of the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina leucocerae (Rindge) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Brazil.

  20. First microsatellites from Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their potential use for population genetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first report of sequence-specific microsatellite markers (SSRs) of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an economically important pest of the American continent. We developed 178 microsatellite markers using pyrosequencing, and screened 15 individuals from 8 isofamili...

  1. Susceptibility of the Strawberry Crown Moth Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the strawberry crown moth, Synanthedon bibionipennis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) larvae to two species of entomopathogenic nematodes(Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) Agriotos and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Steiner) Oswego). Nematodes...

  2. PCR primers for 30 novel gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Peña, Carlos; Ahola, Milla; Wheat, Christopher W.; Rota, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We report primer pairs for 30 new gene regions in the nuclear genomes of Lepidoptera that can be amplified using a standard PCR protocol. The new primers were tested across diverse Lepidoptera, including nonditrysians and a wide selection of ditrysians. These new gene regions give a total of 11,043 bp of DNA sequence data and they show similar variability to traditionally used nuclear gene regions in studies of Lepidoptera. We feel that a PCR-based approach still has its place in molecular systematic studies of Lepidoptera, particularly at the intrafamilial level, and our new set of primers now provides a route to generating phylogenomic datasets using traditional methods. PMID:27408580

  3. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  4. Note on gynandromorphism in the eucalyptus defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Bernardino, Aline S; Zanuncio, Teresinha V; Zanuncio, José C; Lima, Eraldo R; Serrão, José E

    2007-06-01

    The brown moth Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1872) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an important pest in Brazilian eucalyptus plantations. A gynandromorph individual of T. arnobia was found in a population of this pest in a laboratory rearing and it is described.

  5. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  6. A new species of the genus Arcoptilia Arenberger (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) from Angola.

    PubMed

    Ustjuzhanin, P; Kovtunovich, V

    2015-08-21

    The new species Arcoptilia naumanni sp. nov. (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae) is described and illustrated from males found in Angola. Platyptilia rufamaculata Gielis, 2011, syn. nov. is established as a junior synonym of Arcoptilia pongola Ustjuzhanin & Kovtunovich, 2010.

  7. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  8. Deleterious activity of natural products on postures of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, Wagner S; Cruz, Ivan; Fonseca, Felipe G; Gouveia, Natalia L; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C

    2010-01-01

    The control of Lepidoptera pests should be carried out before hatching of their caterpillars to avoid damage to the crops. The aim of this work was to assess the activity of neem (trade name: Natuneem, producer: Base Fértil, Chapadão do Sul, Brazil) and pyroligneous extracts (trade name: Biopirol 7M, producer: Biocarbo, Itabirito, Brazil) at 10 mL/L (1%) and 20 mL/L (2%) contents on egg masses of different ages of Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at Embrapa Corn and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The tests took place in an unbiased casualized design with 12 treatments and four replications. The insecticides were diluted in water, and 0.04 mL of the solution was applied to recently laid and one- and two-day-old eggs of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. Caterpillars hatching from recently laid egg masses of S. frugiperda was lower with 2% pyroligneous extract [(0.02 +/- 0.00)%]. Recently laid eggs and one- or two-day-old eggs of D. saccharalis presented lower caterpillar hatching with 1% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%, (0.00 +/- 0.00)%, and (1.00 +/- 0.01)%] and 2% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%], compared to 1% pyroligneous extract [(27.30 +/- 3.22)%, (28.40 +/- 3.32)%, and (37.80 +/- 4.14)%] and 2% pyroligneous extract [(42.20 +/- 4.49)%, (48.70 +/- 4.97)%, and (56.60 +/- 5.52)%], respectively. Neem and pyroligneous extracts had impact on hatching of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis caterpillars.

  9. The Lepidoptera associated with forestry crop species in Brazil: a historical approach.

    PubMed

    Kowalczuck, Manoela; Carneiro, E; Casagrande, M M; Mielke, O H H

    2012-10-01

    Despite the long history of forestry activity in Brazil and its importance to the national economy, there is still much disorder in the information regarding pests of forestry species. Considering the importance of the entomological knowledge for the viability of silvicultural management, this work aimed to gather information on the species of Lepidoptera associated with forestry crops within Brazil using a historical approach. Through a literature review, all registered species of Lepidoptera related to forestry crops in Brazil from 1896 to 2010 were identified. The historical evaluation was based on the comparison of the number of published articles, species richness, and community similarities of the Lepidoptera and their associated forest crops, grouped in 10-year samples. A total of 417 occurrences of Lepidoptera associated with forestry species were recorded, from which 84 species are related with 40 different forestry crops. The nocturnal Lepidoptera were dominant on the records, with Eacles imperialis magnifica Walker as the most frequent pest species cited. Myrtaceae was the most frequent plant family, with Cedrela fissilis as the most cited forestry crop species. A successional change in both Lepidoptera species and their host plants was observed over the decades. The richness of lepidopteran pest species increased over the years, unlike the richness of forestry crop species. This increase could be related to the inefficient enforcement of sanitary barriers, to the increase of monoculture areas, and to the adaptability of native pests to exotic forestry species used in monoculture stands.

  10. Extinction cascades partially estimate herbivore losses in a complete Lepidoptera--plant food web.

    PubMed

    Pearse, Ian S; Altermatt, Florian

    2013-08-01

    The loss of species from an ecological community can have cascading effects leading to the extinction of other species. Specialist herbivores are highly diverse and may be particularly susceptible to extinction due to host plant loss. We used a bipartite food web of 900 Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) herbivores and 2403 plant species from Central Europe to simulate the cascading effect of plant extinctions on Lepidoptera extinctions. Realistic extinction sequences of plants, incorporating red-list status, range size, and native status, altered subsequent Lepidoptera extinctions. We compared simulated Lepidoptera extinctions to the number of actual regional Lepidoptera extinctions and found that all predicted scenarios underestimated total observed extinctions but accurately predicted observed extinctions attributed to host loss (n = 8, 14%). Likely, many regional Lepidoptera extinctions occurred for reasons other than loss of host plant alone, such as climate change and habitat loss. Ecological networks can be useful in assessing a component of extinction risk to herbivores based on host loss, but further factors may be equally important.

  11. Development of a combined sex pheromone-based monitoring system for Malacosoma disstria (Lepidoptera: Lasoicampidae) and Choristoneura conflictana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Brad C; Roland, Jens; Evenden, Maya L

    2009-04-01

    Sympatric insect species that do not share sex pheromone components but have a common host and overlapping adult flight periods are potential targets for the development of a combined sex pheromone-based monitoring tool. A system using a single synthetic pheromone blend in a single lure to bait a single trap to monitor two pests simultaneously represents a novel approach. In this study, a combined pheromone-based monitoring system was developed for two lepidopterous defoliators of trembling aspen Populus tremuloides Michenaux in western Canada, Malacosoma disstria Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasoicampidae) and Choristoneura conflictana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Efficacy and longevity of a lure containing both species' pheromones were tested. Immature stages of each species were sampled to evaluate the ability of pheromone traps baited with the combined lure to predict population density. The combined lure was as attractive to M. disstria and C. conflictana males as were traps baited with each species' pheromone alone. Lure age had no effect on attraction of male C. conflictana to the combined lure but had a negative effect on attraction of M. disstria. The number of male moths captured in traps baited with the combined lure was related to immature counts for both species. Pupal counts of M. disstria and larval counts of C. conflictana provided the best relationships with male captures. The combined lure does not attract M. disstria males in direct proportion to population density, because trap catch was comparatively low at high-density M. disstria sites.

  12. Microencapsulated pear ester enhances insecticide efficacy in walnuts for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Knight, Alan L

    2011-08-01

    The efficacy of combining insecticides with a microencapsulated formulation of ethyl (2E,4Z) -2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE-MEC) was evaluated in walnuts, Juglans regia L., for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella Walker (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Two types of studies were conducted to compare the use of insecticides with and without PE-MEC. In the first study, PE-MEC in combination with reduced rates of insecticides, including chlorpyrifos, phosmet, methoxyfenozide, and codling moth granulovirus were evaluated in single tree replicates. PE-MEC was tested at one to three rates (0.6, 1.8, and 4.4 g active ingredient ha(-1)) with each insecticide. In the second study, seasonal programs including sprays of esfenvalerate, chlorpyrifos, and ethyl parathion at full rates were evaluated in replicated two ha blocks. Significant reductions in nut injury occurred in the single-tree trial with treatments of PE-MEC plus insecticide compared with the insecticides used alone against both pest species; except with methoxyfenozide for navel orangeworm. Similarly, nut injury in the large plots was significantly reduced with the addition of PE-MEC, except for navel orangeworm in one of the two studies. These results suggest that adding pear ester as a microencapsulated spray can improve the efficacy of a range of insecticides for two key pests and foster the development of integrated pest management tactics with reduced insecticide use in walnut.

  13. Transgenic bt rice does not challenge host preference of the target pest of rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transgenic Bt rice line T2A-1 expressed a synthetic cry2A gene and exhibited high resistance to Lepidoptera pests, including Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Plant volatile cues usually are essential for phytophagous insects to locate the food source and oviposition site. ...

  14. Lepidoptera outbreaks in response to successional changes after the passage of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico Rico

    Treesearch

    J.A. Torres

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of Lepidoptera occurred in large numbers in spring and early summer after the passage of Hurricane Hugo over the north-east of Puerto Rico. Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae) was the most common of the larvae and fed on 56 plant species belonging to 31 families. All the Lepidoptera fed on early successional vegetation. Some of the plants represent new host...

  15. A taxonomic revision of the genus Edosa Walker, 1886 from China (Lepidoptera, Tineidae, Perissomasticinae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Linlin; Wang, Shuxia; Li, Houhun

    2014-03-12

    The genus Edosa Walker, 1886 is revised in China. Of the 31 recognized species, 23 are described as new: Edosa aurea sp. nov., E. baculiformis sp. nov., E. bicolor sp. nov., E. bifurcata sp. nov., E. carinata sp. nov., E. conchata sp. nov., E. cornuta sp. nov., E. curvidorsalis sp. nov., E. dentata sp. nov., E. digitata sp. nov., E. duoprojecta sp. nov., E. elongata sp. nov., E. eminens sp. nov., E. hamata sp. nov., E. longicornis sp. nov., E. minuta sp. nov., E. robinsoni sp. nov., E. robustispina sp. nov., E. semicircularis sp. nov., E. torta sp. nov., E. truncatula sp. nov., E. uncusella sp. nov., and E. varians sp. nov.; Edosa gaedikei nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Edosa spinosa Gaedike, 2012, a junior homonym of Edosa spinosa Gaedike, 1984; four species are newly recorded for China: E. hendrixella Robinson, 2008, E. crayella Robinson, 2008, E. orphnodes (Meyrick, 1911) and E. smithaella Robinson, 2008; the female of E. hendrixella is described for the first time. Phylogenetic relationships of the Chinese species, except E. malthacopis (Meyrick, 1936), are postulated based on 42 morphological characters. The phylogenetic analysis of the morphology matrix yielded one most parsimonious tree (length 121 steps, CI = 0.56, RI = 0.81), based on which seven species-groups are proposed: the hemichrysella-group, the subochraceella-group, the pyrochra-group, the duoprojecta-group, the eminens-group, the crayella-group and the uncusella-group. The whole body structures of the genus are presented and photographs of adults and genitalia are provided, along with a key to all the known Chinese species and maps to show the distribution of Edosa in China. A world checklist of Edosa is given as an appendix, in which 41 new combinations are included.

  16. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae)

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207801

  17. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, José Manuel; Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel Cardoso; Vukusic, Pete

    2011-05-01

    In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianing; Xu, Chang; Li, Jialian; Lei, Ying; Fan, Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Chongren; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Gonepteryx mahaguru (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is 15,221 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (LrRNA and SrRNA) and 1 non-coding A + T-rich region. The nucleotide composition is significantly biased toward A + T (80.9%). All PCGs are initiated by classical ATN codon, with the exception of COI, which begins with TTA codon. Nine PCGs harbor the complete stop codon TAA, whereas COI, COII, ND4 and ND5 stop with incomplete codons, single T or TA. All tRNAs can be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The A + T content of AT-rich region is 95.2%, same to the highest one in the known species in Pieridae.

  19. A historical review of the classification of Erebinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Homziak, Nicholas T; Breinholt, Jesse W; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2016-11-10

    Erebidae is one of the most diverse families within the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), with nearly 25,000 described species. The nominal subfamily Erebinae is among the most species rich and taxonomically complex. It reaches its highest diversity in the tropics, where much of the fauna remains undescribed. Species in this subfamily feed on a broad range of host plants, with associated radiations on grasses and legumes, and some species are pests of agriculture and forestry. The Erebinae, as defined today, comprises a large portion of the former noctuid subfamily Catocalinae. However, many lineages have tenuous or uncertain systematic placement. Here, we review the complex historical classification of Erebinae, and discuss the possible placement of some of these lineages in light of traditional morphological groupings and recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. We present an updated list of named erebine tribes and their relationships, and identify morphological traits from literature used to group genera within these tribes.

  20. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weibin; Zhu, Jianqing; Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chen, Minghan; He, Haiyan; Yu, Weidong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) was determined. The 15,392 bp mitogenome with GenBank accession number KM981865 contained 13 protein genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a non-coding control region (D-loop). All the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. The overall base composition was 39.7% A, 40.7% T, 7.7% G and 11.9% C, with a high A + T content (80.4%). This complete mitogenome of P. nascens provides a basic data for studies on species identification, molecular systematics and conservation genetics.

  1. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors. PMID:21711872

  2. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  3. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Leucoptera malifoliella Costa (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Li, Jie; Yu, Fang; Chesters, Douglas; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leucoptera malifoliella (=L. scitella) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) was sequenced. The size was 15,646 bp with gene content and order the same as those of other lepidopterans. The nucleotide composition of L. malifoliella mitogenome is highly A+T biased (82.57%), ranked just below Coreana raphaelis (82.66%) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with the typical ATN codon except for the cox1 gene, which uses CGA as the initiation codon. Nine PCGs have the common stop codon TAA, four PCGs have the common stop codon T as incomplete stop codons, and nad4l and nad6 have TAG as the stop codon. Cloverleaf secondary structures were inferred for 22 tRNA genes, but trnS1(AGN) was found to lack the DHU stem. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS is generally similar to other lepidopterans but with some minor differences. The A+T-rich region includes the motif ATAGA, but the poly (T) stretch is replaced by a stem-loop structure, which may have a similar function to the poly (T) stretch. Finally, there are three long repeat (154 bp) sequences followed by one short repeat (56 bp) with four (TA)n intervals, and a 10-bp poly-A is present upstream of trnM. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the position of Yponomeutoidea, as represented by L. malifoliella, is the same as traditional classifications. Yponomeutoidea is the sister to the other lepidopteran superfamilies covered in the present study. PMID:22856872

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of Leucoptera malifoliella Costa (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Li, Jie; Yu, Fang; Chesters, Douglas; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2012-10-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leucoptera malifoliella (=L. scitella) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) was sequenced. The size was 15,646 bp with gene content and order the same as those of other lepidopterans. The nucleotide composition of L. malifoliella mitogenome is highly A+T biased (82.57%), ranked just below Coreana raphaelis (82.66%) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with the typical ATN codon except for the cox1 gene, which uses CGA as the initiation codon. Nine PCGs have the common stop codon TAA, four PCGs have the common stop codon T as incomplete stop codons, and nad4l and nad6 have TAG as the stop codon. Cloverleaf secondary structures were inferred for 22 tRNA genes, but trnS1(AGN) was found to lack the DHU stem. The secondary structure of rrnL and rrnS is generally similar to other lepidopterans but with some minor differences. The A+T-rich region includes the motif ATAGA, but the poly (T) stretch is replaced by a stem-loop structure, which may have a similar function to the poly (T) stretch. Finally, there are three long repeat (154 bp) sequences followed by one short repeat (56 bp) with four (TA)(n) intervals, and a 10-bp poly-A is present upstream of trnM. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the position of Yponomeutoidea, as represented by L. malifoliella, is the same as traditional classifications. Yponomeutoidea is the sister to the other lepidopteran superfamilies covered in the present study.

  5. Mapping global biodiversity connections with DNA barcodes: Lepidoptera of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saleem; Rafi, Muhammad Athar; Mansoor, Shahid; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2017-01-01

    Sequences from the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene are an effective tool for specimen identification and for the discovery of new species. The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) (www.boldsystems.org) currently hosts 4.5 million records from animals which have been assigned to more than 490,000 different Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), which serve as a proxy for species. Because a fourth of these BINs derive from Lepidoptera, BOLD has a strong capability to both identify specimens in this order and to support studies of faunal overlap. DNA barcode sequences were obtained from 4503 moths from 329 sites across Pakistan, specimens that represented 981 BINs from 52 families. Among 379 species with a Linnaean name assignment, all were represented by a single BIN excepting five species that showed a BIN split. Less than half (44%) of the 981 BINs had counterparts in other countries; the remaining BINs were unique to Pakistan. Another 218 BINs of Lepidoptera from Pakistan were coupled with the 981 from this study before being compared with all 116,768 BINs for this order. As expected, faunal overlap was highest with India (21%), Sri Lanka (21%), United Arab Emirates (20%) and with other Asian nations (2.1%), but it was very low with other continents including Africa (0.6%), Europe (1.3%), Australia (0.6%), Oceania (1.0%), North America (0.1%), and South America (0.1%). This study indicates the way in which DNA barcoding facilitates measures of faunal overlap even when taxa have not been assigned to a Linnean species. PMID:28339501

  6. Caterpillars and moths: Part I. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars are the larval forms of moths and butterflies and belong to the order Lepidoptera. Caterpillars, and occasionally moths, have evolved defense mechanisms, including irritating hairs, spines, venoms, and toxins that may cause human disease. The pathologic mechanisms underlying reactions to Lepidoptera are poorly understood. Lepidoptera are uncommonly recognized causes of localized stings, eczematous or papular dermatitis, and urticaria. Part I of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews Lepidopteran life cycles, terminology, and the epidemiology of caterpillar and moth envenomation. It also reviews the known pathomechanisms of disease caused by Lepidopteran exposures and how they relate to diagnosis and management. Part II discusses the specific clinical patterns caused by Lepidopteran exposures, with particular emphasis on groups of caterpillars and moths that cause a similar pattern of disease. It also discusses current therapeutic options regarding each pattern of disease.

  7. Foliage chemistry and the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae on broad-leaved trees in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2008-08-01

    This study addresses the influence of foliage chemistry on the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae across species of trees. I used ordination and analysis of principal coordinates to describe the partitioning of the larvae of 24 species of Lepidoptera over 23 species of host trees taking into account 13 chemical properties of the foliage. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed two significant axes linking the two datasets. The first constrained axis (r(2)=0.83) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing amounts of hemicellulose, polyphenols, and potassium per cm(2) leaf area. The second constrained axis (r(2)=0.68) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing magnesium. Variation in nitrogen and phosphorus, which are major factors in larval nutrition, were not associated with turnover of Lepidoptera species between species of host tree. Of the total variance in the positions of tree species on the first four constrained CAP axes, 44% was correlated with positions determined by foliage chemistry, 32% on the first two constrained axes. Within the space described by the first two canonical axes, congeneric species of tree clustered together, with the exception that Acer negundo was removed from other species of Acer, which grouped in a tight cluster with species in the order Fagales, as well as with Tilia and Ulmus. Alnus and Prunus also grouped together. No species of tree with a negative score on constrained axis 2 exhibited high Lepidoptera species richness, but the average number of individuals per collection tended to be high. These tree species also contain triterpenes in their leaves and harbored disproportionately more tent- and web-making species of Lepidoptera. These analyses show that patterns of distribution across host tree species within an assemblage of Lepidoptera species can be understood, at least in part, in terms of the qualities of the resources upon which

  8. A molecular phylogeny for the pyraloid moths (Lepidoptera: Pyraloidea) and its implications for higher-level classification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pyraloidea, one of the largest superfamilies of Lepidoptera, comprise more than 15,000 described species worldwide, including important pests, biological control agents and experimental models. Understanding of pyraloid phylogeny, the basis for a predictive classification, is currently provisional. ...

  9. Patterns of flight behavior and capacity of unmated navel orangeworm adults (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) related to age, gender, and wing size

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut tree crops in California. Understanding dispersal of adults between orchards is important to improving management options. Laboratory flight behavior of unmated navel orangewor...

  10. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  11. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  12. Effect of piperonyl butoxide on the toxicity of four classes of insecticides to navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella)(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a highly polyphagous economic pest of almond, pistachio, and walnut crops in California orchards. Although management of this pest has typically been through a combination of cultural control and insecticide sprays, increas...

  13. Timing and patterns in the taxonomic diversification of Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Niklas; Wheat, Christopher W; Peña, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The macroevolutionary history of the megadiverse insect order Lepidoptera remains little-known, yet coevolutionary dynamics with their angiospermous host plants are thought to have influenced their diversification significantly. We estimate the divergence times of all higher-level lineages of Lepidoptera, including most extant families. We find that the diversification of major lineages in Lepidoptera are approximately equal in age to the crown group of angiosperms and that there appear to have been three significant increases in diversification rates among Lepidoptera over evolutionary time: 1) at the origin of the crown group of Ditrysia about 150 million years ago (mya), 2) at the origin of the stem group of Apoditrysia about 120 mya and finally 3) a spectacular increase at the origin of the stem group of the quadrifid noctuoids about 70 mya. In addition, there appears to be a significant increase in diversification rate in multiple lineages around 90 mya, which is concordant with the radiation of angiosperms. Almost all extant families appear to have begun diversifying soon after the Cretaceous/Paleogene event 65.51 mya.

  14. Host range of Caloptilia triadicae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae): an adventive herbivore of Chinese tallowtree (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In its native range the invasive weed, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa is host to a suite of herbivores. One, Strepsicrates sp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was collected in China in 2014, introduced under quarantine in Florida, USA and tested against related species to determine its host range and suitability ...

  15. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) thrived in gymnosperm forests following the end-Triassic extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Schootbrugge, Bas; van Eldijk, Timo; Wappler, Torsten; Strother, Paul; van der Weijst, Carolien; Rajaei, Hossein; Visscher, Henk

    2017-04-01

    The oldest evidence for Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) and the Coelolepida (hollow-scaled moths and butterflies) is presented based on an assemblage of fossilized scales encountered in uppermost Triassic and lowermost Jurassic sediments from a core drilled in northern Germany. The diverse assemblage of scales points to a Triassic origin of the Lepidoptera and a radiation of some lineages just before or right after the end-Triassic mass extinction (201 Ma). These findings confirm molecular clock estimates for splits within the Amphiesmenoptera that led to the evolution of true butterflies. Not only did Lepidoptera survive the end-Triassic extinction, they also appear to have radiated directly following this environmental crisis, which could be related to the dramatic changes in paleoclimate triggered by the eruption of the CAMP, especially an increase in humidity. Seen in combination with high-resolution palynological records that show an Early Jurassic dominance of conifer pollen, the presence of scales derived from angiospermivorous Coelolepida likely signifies a host-shift (for multiple lineages of crown group Lepidoptera) from gymnosperms to angiosperms during the Mesozoic.

  16. A new phycitine moth (Vorapourouma basseti, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) from Panama feeding on Pourouma Aubl. (Urticaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study of the insects associated with the tree Pourouma bicolor Martius (Cecropiaceae) in Panama, resulted in the discovery of a new phycitine moth genus and species, Vorapourouma basseti (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The immatures were collected by beating vegetation using the Fort Sherman Canopy Cran...

  17. Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis against Pryeria sinica(Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pryeria sinica Moore (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae), an invasive pest of Euonymus, is susceptible in the second instar to the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner product Thuricide®, and to several strains isolated from other B. thuringiensis products. Third instars are also susceptible, while susceptibility...

  18. Aggregation and foraging behavior of imported cabbageworm (Lepidoptera: pieridae) adults on blue vervain flowers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The imported cabbageworm [Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)], also known as the cabbage white butterfly, is an important specialized pest on cruciferous plants (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) worldwide. an unusual aggregation of the cabbage white butterflies was observed on a patch of flowering...

  19. Integrated pest management of the Pyralid stalkborers, Eoreuma loftini and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugarcane represents an important commodity crop in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The primary insect pest of sugarcane is the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini followed by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera) which cause substantial economic damage. We quantified the re...

  20. Effect of Hexaflumuron on feeding response and reproduction of bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hexaflumuron (Consult® 100 EC, Dow AgroSciences) is an insect growth regulator that inhibits chitin synthesis. The efficacy of hexaflumuron mixed with 2.5 M sucrose (ppm) was evaluated in the laboratory against bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) for toxicity, proboscis exten...

  1. Lacinipolia Patalis grote (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infesting Douglas-fir cones: A new host record

    Treesearch

    Nancy G. Rappaport

    1988-01-01

    Larvai of Lacinipolia patalis (Grote) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were discovered in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziessi [Mirb.} Franco) cones collected from the Louisiana-Pacific Corporation's Little River Seed Orchard near Trinidad Head in Humboldt County, CA (elevation 91 m) during the fall of 1985. Previous surveys have not...

  2. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Treesearch

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  3. Biology, Distribution And Control Of The Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralide)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) became a textbook example of successful classical biological control after it was imported from Argentina into Australia in 1926 to control invasive Opuntia cacti. To date, the moth continues to play an active role in controlling...

  4. A new species of the genus Acria Stephens, 1834 (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) from India.

    PubMed

    Shashank, P R; Saravanan, L; Kalidas, P; Phanikumar, T; Ramamurthy, V V; Chandra Bose, N S

    2015-05-14

    A new species, Acria meyricki sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Depressariidae: Acriinae) occurring on oil palm, is described from India. The status and nomenclature of the genus is reviewed and an annotated checklist of species is given. A key to the seven species known so far from the Indian subcontinent is provided.

  5. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Dias, Renata O; Via, Allegra; Brandão, Marcelo M; Tramontano, Anna; Silva-Filho, Marcio C

    2015-03-01

    Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic L-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  6. Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated With the Southern Pine Coneworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Attacking Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Nenad Mihelcic; James L. Hanula; Gary L. DeBarr

    2003-01-01

    Larvae of the Southern pine coneworm, Diorycha amateella (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were collected monthly during the growing seasons of 1996 and 1997 from loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., seed orchards in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Virginia, and examined for pathogenic microorganisms. One fungus,

  7. Electrophysiological responses of the rice leaffolder, cnaphalocrocis medinalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), to rice plant volatiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The electrophysiological activities of 38 synthetic volatiles that were known to be released from the rice plants (Poaceae: Oryza spp.) were studied using electroantennogram (EAG) recording technique on male and female antennae of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: ...

  8. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi SP NOV: (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil.

  9. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a Parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  10. Mitochondrial genome sequence and expression profiling for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report on the assembly of the 14,146 base pairs (bp) near complete mitochondrial sequencing of the legume pod borer (LPB), Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), which was used to estimate divergence and relationships within the lepidopteran lineage. Arrangement and orientation of 13 protein c...

  11. Tree height influences flight of lesser peachtree borer and peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) males

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Capture of males of the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson), and the peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in pheromone traps positioned at 0, 1.8, 3.6, and 5.5 m above ground was affected by tree height in different habitats. In a peach orchard wit...

  12. Laboratory virulence and orchard efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is indigenous to eastern North America where it is a pest of commercially grown Prunus spp., especially to southeastern peach orchards where earlier regulatory changes affected pesticide usage on peach and fa...

  13. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infestations of two stem borers, the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in non-crop grasses adjacent to rice, Oryza sativa L., fields. Three farms in the Texas Gulf Coast rice production area were sur...

  14. The mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complete 15,553 bp mitochondrial genome of the western bean cutworm, Stricosta albicosta, (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was assembled from next generation sequencing data. Annotation showed that 13 predicted protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs have an order and orientation typical of ...

  15. A new species of Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from southeastern Arizona, USA

    PubMed Central

    Crabo, Lars G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) is described from the Patagonia Mountains, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, USA. Ogdoconta margareta sp. n., is related closely to Ogdoconta tacna (Barnes) from Texas. Modifications are proposed to a recently published key to the Ogdoconta species north of Mexico to allow identification of the new species. PMID:26692787

  16. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive ex...

  17. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  18. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  19. Evaluation of traps and lures for codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in apple orchards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the use of several trap – lure combinations to improve monitoring of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple, Malus domestica Bordk. Treatments included the use of clear, orange and white traps baited with one or more of the followin...

  20. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  1. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  2. Survival and Development of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) on North American and Introduced Eurasian Tree Species

    Treesearch

    M.A. Keena

    2003-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), the nun moth, is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. To project the potential host range of this insect if introducedinto North America, survival and development of L. monacha on 26 North American and eight introduced Eurasian tree species were examined. Seven...

  3. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Treesearch

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  4. Disruption of Darna pallivitta (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) by conventional and mobile pheromone deployment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars defoliate ornamentals and pose a human health hazard due to urticating hairs that can cause p...

  5. A new species of Alveoplectrus Wijesekara & Schauff (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae) parasitic on Limacodidae (Lepidoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alveoplectrus lilli Gates, new species, is described and illustrated. This species was reared from five genera of field-collected slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) in eastern North America. It is compared to closely related New World species. We report on new host records and summarize th...

  6. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  7. Host plant associated genetic divergence of two Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) stemborers on novel crop plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diatraea lineolata and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are moths with stemboring larvae that feed and develop on economically important grasses. This study investigated whether these moths have diverged from a native host plant, corn, onto introduced crop plants including sorghum, suga...

  8. [Origin of Lepidoptera fauna of the Southern Transural region].

    PubMed

    Utkin, N A

    2000-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the Southern Transural region began mainly through the migration of insects from the Urals and Kazakhstan, since the end of the Cretaceous Period to the end of Paleogen, the Transural region was covered by an epiplatform sea. As this sea was retreating, the first regions of dry land appeared, which had boundaries with Kazakhstan and the Urals. They were the first to be populated by Lepidoptera. During the Pleocene and then after the Pleistocene cooling events, insects settled generally along the valley of the Tobol River and the Turgai depression, because these territories belong to intrazonal elements. At the present time, the greatest species diversity among insects in the southern Transural area is observed specifically in the Turgai depression and in areas directly adjacent to it. This territory is mainly occupied by populations unique to the Transural regions and belonging to the following species: Mantis religiosa (praying mantis), Saga pedo, Parnassius apollo (apollo), Neolycaena rhymnus, Hyponephele lupina (oriental meadow brown), Chazara persephone (dark rockbrown), Epicallia villica (cream-spot tiger), etc.

  9. Toxicities of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Argentine, Joseph A; Jansson, Richard K; Starner, Van R; Halliday, W Ross

    2002-12-01

    The toxicity of a number of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to five species of Lepidoptera was investigated using diet and foliar bioassays. The emamectin benzoate homologues B1a and B1b were equally toxic in the diet and foliar assays to Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Heliothis virescens (F.), Tricoplusia ni (Hübner), and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), within each of these species. Plutella xylostella (L.) was the most sensitive species to emamectin benzoate. The AB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound in the diet assay. However, in the foliage assay AB1a was 4.4-fold less toxic to S. exigua than the parent compound. The MFB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound to P. xylostella, and 3.1 to 6.2 times as toxic as the parent compound to the other species in the diet assay. The order of toxicity of the photodegradates were AB1a > MFB1a > FAB1a > 8,9-Z-MAB1a > PAB1a.

  10. Influence of killing method on Lepidoptera DNA barcode recovery.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Schoeman, M Corrie

    2015-05-01

    The global DNA barcoding initiative has revolutionized the field of biodiversity research. Such large-scale sequencing projects require the collection of large numbers of specimens, which need to be killed and preserved in a way that is both DNA-friendly and which will keep voucher specimens in good condition for later study. Factors such as time since collection, correct storage (exposure to free water and heat) and DNA extraction protocol are known to play a role in the success of downstream molecular applications. Limited data are available on the most efficient, DNA-friendly protocol for killing. In this study, we evaluate the quality of DNA barcode (cytochrome oxidase I) sequences amplified from DNA extracted from specimens collected using three different killing methods (ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing). Previous studies have suggested that chemicals, such as ethyl acetate and formaldehyde, degraded DNA and as such may not be appropriate for the collection of insects for DNA-based research. All Lepidoptera collected produced DNA barcodes of good quality, and our study found no clear difference in nucleotide signal strength, probability of incorrect base calling and phylogenetic utility among the three different treatment groups. Our findings suggest that ethyl acetate, cyanide and freezing can all be used to collect specimens for DNA analysis.

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of Triphysa phryne (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Gan, Shanshan; Zuo, Ni; Chen, Chunhui; Wang, Ying; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Triphysa phryne (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) was determined in this study. The mitogenome is 15,143 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 putative protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene content and order are identical to those of other lepidopteran mitogenomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI gene which uses CGA as its start codon. Nine PCGs terminate in the common stop TAA, whereas the COI, COII, ND5 and ND4 genes end with single T. All tRNA genes showed typical secondary cloverleaf structures except for the tRNA(Ser)(AGN), which has a simple loop with the absence of its DHU stem. The 316 bp AT-rich region contains several features common to the other lepidopterans, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 19-bp poly-T stretch and two microsatellite-like (TA)8(AT) and (TA)4 elements preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  12. Micropyle number is associated with elevated female promiscuity in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Iossa, Graziella; Gage, Matthew J G; Eady, Paul E

    2016-12-01

    In the majority of insects, sperm fertilize the egg via a narrow canal through the outer chorion called the micropyle. Despite having this one primary function, there is considerable unexplained variation in the location, arrangement and number of micropyles within and between species. Here, we examined the relationship between micropyle number and female mating pattern through a comparative analysis across Lepidoptera. Three functional hypotheses could explain profound micropylar variation: (i) increasing micropyle number reduces the risk of infertility through sperm limitation in species that mate infrequently; (ii) decreasing micropyle number reduces the risk of pathological polyspermy in species that mate more frequently; and (iii) increasing micropyle number allows females to exert greater control over fertilization within the context of post-copulatory sexual selection, which will be more intense in promiscuous species. Micropyle number was positively related to the degree of female promiscuity as measured by spermatophore count, regardless of phylogenetic signal, supporting the hypothesis that micropyle number is shaped by post-copulatory sexual selection. We discuss this finding in the context of cryptic female choice, sperm limitation and physiological polyspermy.

  13. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Bauder, J. A.-S.; Warren, A. D.; Krenn, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly’s flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths. PMID:25937673

  14. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    PubMed

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Weiqing; Yang, Jinhong

    2015-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana Moore (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) is a species with closest relationship with Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina, and the genetic information of R. menciana is important for understanding the diversity of the Bombycidae. In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of R. menciana was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The mitogenome of R. menciana was determined to be 15,301 bp, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and an AT-rich region. The A+T content (78.87%) was lower than that observed for other Bombycidae insects. All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons and terminated with the canonical stop codons, except for coxII, which was terminated by a single T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The length of AT-rich region (360 bp) of R. menciana mitogenome is shorter than that of other Bombycidae species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the R. menciana was clustered on one branch with B. mori and B. mandarina from Bombycidae. PMID:25888706

  17. Control of the eupyrene-apyrene sperm dimorphism in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Friedländer, M

    1997-11-01

    Lepidoptera males bear concomitantly nucleate (eupyrene) and anucleate (apyrene) spermatozoa. Both kinds of spermatozoa reach the spermatheca of inseminated females but only the eupyrene ones fertilize the eggs. The functions of the apyrene spermatozoa are still uncertain. Eupyrene spermatogenesis is regular and highly sensitive to genetic and experimental manipulations while apyrene spermatogenesis is irregular and withstands these manipulations. Both kinds of spermatozoa derive from the same kind of bipotential spermatocytes. The shift of spermatocyte commitment from eupyrene to apyrene spermatogenesis is induced by a haemolymph factor that becomes active just before or after pupation, depending on species. Accordingly, eupyrene spermatogenesis starts during larval instars and stops after pupation while apyrene spermatogenesis begins just before or after pupation, depending on the species, and persists in the imago. The shift is related to shortening of meiotic prophases and blocking synthesis of a meiotic lysine-rich protein fraction in apyrene cells. From spermatogonia proliferation to early spermatocytes, spermatogenesis is a quasi-independent process. Afterwards, it becomes discontinuous and is punctuated by predetermined stations. Progress to a subsequent station is an 'all or none' phenomenon, regulated by cues linked to fluctuations of the main morphogenetic hormones titers. In absence of a particular cue, the cells stop advancing towards the next station and eventually degenerate.

  18. Chemical ecology and management of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Ioriatti, C; Anfora, G; Tasin, M; De Cristofaro, A; Witzgall, P; Lucchi, A

    2011-08-01

    The moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) feeds on grapes (Vitis vinifera L.), reducing yield and increasing susceptibility to fungal infections. L. botrana is among the most economically important insects in Europe and has recently been found in vineyards in Chile, Argentina, and California. Here, we review L. botrana biology and behavior in relation to its larval host (the grapevine) and its natural enemies. We also discuss current and future control strategies in light of our knowledge of chemical ecology, with an emphasis on the use of the sex pheromone-based strategies as an environmentally safe management approach. Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is the most promising technique available on grapes and is currently implemented on approximately 140,000 ha in Europe. Experience from several growing areas confirms the importance of collaboration between research, extension, growers, and pheromone-supply companies for the successful implementation of the mating disruption technique. In the vineyards where mating disruption has been successfully applied as an areawide strategy, the reduction in insecticide use has improved the quality of life for growers, consumers, as well as the public living near wine-growing areas and has thereby reduced the conflict between agricultural and urban communities.

  19. DNA barcodes identify Central Asian Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae)

    PubMed Central

    Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI ‘barcode’ region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbour-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular ‘barcode’. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics. PMID:24453557

  20. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Bauder, J A-S; Warren, A D; Krenn, H W

    2014-12-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly's flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths.

  1. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  2. Mitochondrial genome of the sweet potato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), and comparison with other Lepidoptera species.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Shang; Li, Sheng; Yu, Hui-Min; Wei, Guo-Qing; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Yue; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Agrius convolvuli (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) and compared it with previously sequenced mitogenomes of lepidopteran species. The mitogenome was a circular molecule, 15 349 base pairs (bp) long, containing 37 genes. The order and orientation of genes in the A. convolvuli mitogenome were similar to those in sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopterans. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which seemed to be initiated by the codon CGA, as observed in other lepidopterans. Three of the 13 PCGs had the incomplete termination codon T, while the remainder terminated with TAA. Additionally, the codon distributions of the 13 PCGs revealed that Asn, Ile, Leu2, Lys, Phe, and Tyr were the most frequently used codon families. All transfer RNAs were folded into the expected cloverleaf structure except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), which lacked a stable dihydrouridine arm. The length of the adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region was 331 bp. This region included the motif ATAGA followed by a 19-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)8 element next to the motif ATTTA. Phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods) showed that A. convolvuli belongs to the family Sphingidae.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the mountainous duskywing, Erynnis montanus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae): a new gene arrangement in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ah Rha; Jeong, Heon Cheon; Han, Yeon Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-04-01

    The mountainous duskywing, Erynnis montanus, belongs to a lepidopteran family Hesperiidae. The 15,530-bp long complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the species has the typical gene content of animals (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and one major non-coding A+T-rich region). As typical in lepidopteran mitogenome E. montanus mitogenome also contained a high A/T content in the whole genome (81.7%) and the CGA (arginine) as the start codon for the COI gene. Unlike other lepidopteran species, including two sequenced skippers, the E. montanus mitogenome has a unique arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn), instead of the tRNA(Asn)-tRNA(Ser) found unanimously in other lepidopteran species, providing a new gene arrangement in Lepidoptera. Such rearrangement probably was likely caused by duplication of gene block tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn) and subsequent random loss of tRNA(Asn) in the first copy and tRNA(Ser) in the second copy, resulting in the arrangement tRNA(Ser)-tRNA(Asn).

  4. Fossil butterflies, calibration points and the molecular clock (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea).

    PubMed

    Jong, Rienk DE

    2017-05-25

    Fossil butterflies are extremely rare. Yet, they are the only direct evidence of the first appearance of particular characters and as such, they are crucial for calibrating a molecular clock, from which divergence ages are estimated. In turn, these estimates, in combination with paleogeographic information, are most important in paleobiogeographic considerations. The key issue here is the correct allocation of fossils on the phylogenetic tree from which the molecular clock is calibrated.The allocation of a fossil on a tree should be based on an apomorphic character found in a tree based on extant species, similar to the allocation of a new extant species. In practice, the latter is not done, at least not explicitly, on the basis of apomorphy, but rather on overall similarity or on a phylogenetic analysis, which is not possible for most butterfly fossils since they usually are very fragmentary. Characters most often preserved are in the venation of the wings. Therefore, special attention is given to possible apomorphies in venational characters in extant butterflies. For estimation of divergence times, not only the correct allocation of the fossil on the tree is important, but also the tree itself influences the outcome as well as the correct determination of the age of the fossil. These three aspects are discussed.        All known butterfly fossils, consisting of 49 taxa, are critically reviewed and their relationship to extant taxa is discussed as an aid for correctly calibrating a molecular clock for papilionoid Lepidoptera. In this context some aspects of age estimation and biogeographic conclusions are briefly mentioned in review. Specific information has been summarized in four appendices.

  5. Hymenopteran parasitoids of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae) in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rowell, Brent; Bunsong, Nittayaporn; Satthaporn, Kosin; Phithamma, Sompian; Doungsa-Ard, Charnnarong

    2005-04-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Ypeunomutidae), cause severe economic damage to cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata (Brassicaceae) and related vegetables in Thailand. Overuse of broad-spectrum insecticides for diamondback moth control is a serious problem and has obscured the contributions of indigenous parasitoids. Our objectives were to identify indigenous diamondback moth parasitoids in northern Thailand and to assess their potential for natural control. Six parasitoid species were reared from diamondback moth larvae and pupae collected in 1990 and in 2003-2004. These included the larval parasitoid Cotesia plutellae Kurdjumov (Braconidae), a larval-pupal parasitoid Macromalon orientale Kerrich (Ichneumonidae), and pupal parasitoids Diadromus collaris Gravenhorst (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria excarinata Gahan (Chalcididae). Single specimens of Isotima sp. Forster (Ichneumonidae) and Brachymeria lasus Walker (Chalcididae) also were reared from diamondback moth hosts. C. plutellae was the dominant larval parasitoid and was often reared from host larvae collected from fields sprayed regularly with insecticides; parasitism ranged from 14 to 78%. Average parasitism by M. orientale was only 0.5-6%. Parasitism of host pupae by D. collaris ranged from 9 to 31%, whereas B. excarinata pupal parasitism ranged from 9 to 25%. An integrated pest management (IPM) protocol using simple presence-absence sampling for lepidopterous larvae and the exclusive use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or neem resulted in the highest yields of undamaged cabbage compared with a control or weekly sprays of cypermethrin (local farmer practice). IPM programs focused on conservation of local diamondback moth parasitoids and on greater implementation of biological control will help alleviate growing public concerns regarding the effects of pesticides on vegetable growers and consumers.

  6. Evaluating trap crops for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2004-08-01

    Potential trap crops for the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), were evaluated through a series of ovipositional preference and larval survival experiments in outdoor screenhouses in 2002 and 2003. Hosts examined as trap crops were glossy and waxy collards, Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala; Indian mustard, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern; and yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata. More eggs were laid on the potential trap crops, with the exception of waxy collards, than on cabbage. When P. xylostella was offered multiple hosts at the same time, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 3, 18, and 12 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Similarly, when P. xylostella was offered a single trap crop host and cabbage, numbers of eggs laid on glossy collards, Indian mustard, and yellow rocket were 300, 19, and 110 times greater than on cabbage, respectively. Our studies suggest differences in oviposition between the potential trap crops and cabbage were likely due to host volatiles, leaf morphology and color, or a combination of these factors, rather than to total leaf areas, leaf shape, or plant architecture. Two-choice tests with a Y-tube olfactometer indicated that plant volatiles were major factors in P. xylostella host preference. The percentage larval survival from egg to pupation was 22.2% on cabbage, 18.9% on waxy collards, and 24.4% on Indian mustard, whereas survival was significantly lower on glossy collards (6.7%) and yellow rocket (0%). Based on our tests, it seems that yellow rocket may be the best candidate for use as a trap crop for P. xylostella because it is highly attractive for oviposition, but larvae do not survive on it.

  7. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions.

  8. Eye-spots in Lepidoptera attract attention in humans

    PubMed Central

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Platt, Michael L.; Adams, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Many prey species exhibit defensive traits to decrease their chances of predation. Conspicuous eye-spots, concentric rings of contrasting colours, are one type of defensive trait that some species exhibit to deter predators. We examined the function of eye-spots in Lepidoptera to determine whether they are effective at deterring predators because they resemble eyes (‘eye mimicry hypothesis’) or are highly salient (‘conspicuous signal hypothesis’). We recorded the gaze behaviour of men and women as they viewed natural images of butterflies and moths as well as images in which the eye-spots of these insects were modified. The eye-spots were modified by removing them, scrambling their colours, or replacing them with elliptical or triangular shapes that had either dark or light centres. Participants were generally more likely to look at, spend more time looking at and be faster to first fixate the eye-spots of butterflies and moths that were natural compared with ones that were modified, including the elliptical eye-spots with dark centres that most resembled eyes as well as the scrambled eye-spots that had the same contrast as the natural eye-spots. Participants were most likely to look at eye-spots that were numerous, had a large surface area and were located close to the insects' heads. Participants' pupils were larger when viewing eye-spots compared with the rest of the insects' body, suggesting a greater arousal when viewing eye-spots. Our results provide some support for the conspicuous signal hypothesis (and minimal support for the eye mimicry hypothesis) and suggest that eye-spots may be effective at deterring predators because they are highly conspicuous signals that draw attention. PMID:26543589

  9. Review of the Blastobasinae of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae).

    PubMed

    Adamski, David

    2013-02-25

    The Blastobasinae (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Blastobasidae) of Costa Rica are reviewed. Five new genera, Barbaloba, Hallicis, Koleps, Pheos, and Pseudokoleps, and 101 new species are described. They include: Barbaloba jubae, B. meleagrisellae, Hallicis bisetosellus, H. calvicula, Koleps angulatus, Pheos aculeatus, Pseudokoleps akainae, Blastobasis abollae, B. achaea, B. aedes, B. babae, B. balucis, B. beo, B. caetrae, B. chanes, B. custodis, B. dapis, B. deae, B. deliciolarum, B. dicionis, B. echus, B. erae, B. fax, B. furtivus, B. iuanae, B. lex, B. litis, B. lygdi, B. manto, B. neniae, B. nivis, B. orithyia, B. paludis, B. phaedra, B. rotae, B. rotullae, B. tapetae, B. thyone, B. usurae, B. vesta, B. xiphiae, Hypatopa actes, H. acus, H. agnae, H. arxcis, H. bilobata, H. caedis, H. caepae, H. cladis, H. cotis, H. cotytto, H. crux, H. cyane, H. dicax, H. dolo, H. dux, H. edax, H. eos, H. erato, H. fio, H. gena, H. hecate, H. hera, H. hora, H. io, H. ira, H. leda, H. limae, H. lucina, H. joniella, H. juno, H. manus, H. mora, H. musa, H. nex, H. nox, H. phoebe, H. pica, H. plebis, H. rabio, H. rea, H. rego, H. rudis, H. sais, H. scobis, H. semela, H. solea, H. styga, H. texla, H. texo, H. umbra, H. verax, H. vitis, H. vox, Pigritia dido, P. faux, P. gruis, P. haha, P. sedis, P. stips, and P. ululae. Diagnoses, descriptions, and type data are provided for each species. Photographs of imagos, illustrations of wing venation for selected species, male and female genitalia, and distribution maps are furnished. Keys to all genera in Blastobasinae and keys to all species within each genus are provided to assist with identifications. In addition, scanning electron micrographs of the inner surface of the dilated first antennal flagellomere and associated sex scales for all Blastobasis are provided. Blastobasis coffeaella (Busck, 1925), B. graminea Adamski, 1999, Hypatopa tapadulcea Adamski, 1999, and Pigritia marjoriella Adamski, 1998 are redescribed.

  10. A new pheromone race of Acrobasis nuxvorella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Harris, Marvin K; Fu, A A Agustin; Nunez, Humberto; Aranda-Herrera, Enrique; Moreira, Jardel A; McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2008-06-01

    The sex pheromone of the monophagous Acrobasis nuxvorella Neunzig (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was reported as (9E,11Z)-hexadecadienal (9E,11Z-16:Ald) (Biorg. Med. Chem. 4: 331-339, 1996), and it has since been an effective integrated pest management (IPM) tool for monitoring this pest in the United States, but not in Mexico. Field and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm that the species in Mexico was indeed A. nuxvorella and to investigate the pheromone chemistry of the Mexican populations of this species. Initial field trials testing compounds structurally related to the known pheromone component, and blends thereof, indicated that a 100 microg:100 microg blend of (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (9E,11Z-16:Ac):9E,11Z-16:Ald in rubber septa was effective in attracting male moths in Mexico. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram analyses confirmed the presence of these compounds in extracts of pheromone glands of females, and antennae of male moths also responded to the alcohol analog (9E,11Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (9E,11Z-16:OH). Subsequent field trials of various blends of these three compounds in Mexico showed that 1) both the acetate and aldehyde components were required for optimal attraction of male moths of the Mexican populations, and 2) addition of the alcohol suppressed attraction of males in a dose-dependent manner. Tests with the 1:1 9E,11Z-16:Ac:9E,11Z-16:Ald blend at various sites in the United States showed that this blend attracted some moths, but that moths attracted to 9E,11Z-16:Ald alone were predominant in the population. Furthermore, in preliminary studies the latter seemed not to respond to the blend. These findings indicate that there are two pheromone types of the pecan nut casebearer, and they have major implications for the direct use of these pheromones in pecan IPM.

  11. Shifts in developmental diet breadth of Lymantria xylina (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shaw-Yhi; Hwang, Fu-Chang; Shen, Tse-Chi

    2007-08-01

    The moth Lymantria xylina Swinhoe (1903) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a major defoliator of hardwood and fruit trees in Taiwan. Although the plants identified as host plants of L. xylina usually refer to plants used as food or as shelter, most of the host plant identifications have not considered the role of these hosts on larval development. This study investigated various instars feeding on different plants to assess the developmental diet breath of L. xylina. Forty-seven plant species, belonging to 25 families were used in feeding trials. Various bioassays, including first instar survival and long-term feeding trials, indicated the most suitable host plants for the different developmental stages. Results of the first instar survival trial indicated that first instars could survive only on 13 of the tested plant species. In addition, first instars could only successfully grow to pupa on seven of these 13 test plants species. To assess the developmental diet breath shifts of this moth, 38 plant species (excluding those nine plant species that the first instars did not feed upon) were fed to third and fifth instars in long-term feeding trials. Survival to pupa was noted on 12 and 13 test plant species for the third and fifth instars, respectively. In short, we found that the larvae performed differently when fed on various host plants and that the host plant range increased with the larval stage. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust the host plant range of this moth and to consider host plant breadth together with the developmental stages of caterpillars.

  12. Revision of the genus Philonome Chambers and its proposed reassignment to the family Tineidae (Lepidoptera, Tineoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The New World genus Philonome Chambers, 1874 is revised. This genus comprises twelve species, seven of which are described as new: two species, Philonome nigrescens sp. n. and Philonome wielgusi sp. n., from the United States; four species, Philonome albivittata sp. n., Philonome curvilineata sp. n., Philonome kawakitai sp. n., and Philonome lambdagrapha sp. n., from French Guiana; and one species, Philonome penerivifera sp. n., from Brazil. Lectotypes are designated for Philonome clemensella Chambers, 1874 and Philonome rivifera Meyrick, 1915. Partially on evidence of their head morphology and particularly from molecular evidence, the genus Philonome, previously associated with Bucculatricidae or Lyonetiidae, is reassigned to Tineidae. A possible systematic position of Philonome within Tineidae is discussed. Eurynome Chambers, 1875, is synonymized with Argyresthia Hübner, 1825 (Argyresthiidae). Photographs of adults and illustrations of genitalia, when available, are provided for all described species of Philonome and two species previously misplaced in Philonome, Argyresthia luteella (Chambers, 1875) and Elachista albella (Chambers, 1877). In addition, DNA barcodes were used for the delimitation of most species. PMID:25901115

  13. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini: A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John W.; Janzen, Daniel H.; Hallwachs, Winnie

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Área de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Clemens, 1860, Amorbimorpha Kruse, 2011, Coelostathma Clemens, 1860, Lambertiodes Diakonoff, 1959, Paramorbia Powell & Lambert, 1986, Rhynchophyllus Meyrick, 1932, Sparganopseustis Powell & Lambert, 1986, Sparganothina Powell, 1986, and Sparganothoides Lambert & Powell, 1986. Putative autapomorphies for Sparganocosma include the extremely short uncus; the smooth (unspined) transtilla; and the upturned, free, distal rod of the sacculus. Adults of Sparganocosma docsturnerorum have been reared numerous times (>50) from larvae collected feeding on rain forest Asplundia utilis (Oerst.) Harling and Asplundia microphylla (Oerst.) Harling (Cyclanthaceae) at intermediate elevations (375–500 m) in ACG. Whereas most Sparganothini are generalists, typically feeding on two or more plant families, Sparganocosma docsturnerorum appears to be a specialist on Asplundia, at least in ACG. The solitary parasitoid wasp Sphelodon wardae Godoy & Gauld (Ichneumonidae; Banchinae) has been reared only from the larvae of Sparganocosma docsturnerorum. PMID:23794903

  14. Interspecific interactions between two Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larval parasitoids with contrasting life histories.

    PubMed

    Savino, V; Luna, M G; Salas Gervassio, N G; Coviella, C E

    2017-02-01

    Interspecific interactions between two larval parasitoids of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) with partially overlapping host niches were studied: the idiobiont ectoparasitoid Dineulophus phthorimaeae De Santis, and the koinobiont endoparasitoid Pseudapanteles dignus (Muesebeck). T. absoluta is an important pest of tomato crops worldwide, and its management could be improved by understanding the competitive interactions and potential coexistence between these two parasitoids. Firstly, a 15-min fixed time laboratory test evaluated the host-searching ability of adult D. phthorimaeae and P. dignus wasps on T. absoluta larvae. Secondly, D. phthorimaeae host discrimination against endoparasitized and non-endoparasitized hosts by P. dignus, at different adult female ages, was experimentally examined. D. phthorimaeae wasps spent significantly more time in general searching in the presence of its competitor than in its absence, but, parasitism was only effective by P. dignus. Older D. phthorimaeae wasps discriminated significantly less than young wasps between T. absoluta larvae parasitized and unparasitized by P. dignus, and an interaction took place by non-concurrent host-feeding. Intra-guild predation of P. dignus larvae by D. phthorimaeae female feeding behaviour might have a minor effect in this system. Results are discussed in the context of literature supporting diverse evidence of coexistence in other parasitoid-host systems, with implications for T. absoluta biological control.

  15. Novel Chemo-Attractants for Trapping Tomato Leafminer Moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Hejazi, M; Movahedi, M F; Askari, O; Higbee, B S

    2016-10-01

    The tomato leafminer moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), is a devastating pest for tomatoes in Iran and throughout the world. This pest reduces tomato yields in farms and greenhouses. It appears some floral odors are significant attractants for tomato leafminer moth. In this study, the effects of three floral compounds, phenylacetaldehyde (PAA), acetic acid (AA), and 3-methyl-1-butanol (MB), were evaluated as trap attractants for tomato leafminer moth. The attractants were tested separately, combined, and blended in binary and tertiary. Lures were tested in delta and water pan traps under field conditions and compared with unbaited traps as controls. Results indicated that water pan traps caught more moths than delta traps. Also treatments with PAA + AA combined and the AA + MB blend were strongly attractive to tomato leafminer moth males compared with other treatments in this study. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  17. Antillopsyche sessilis, new genus and species, a new Psychidae
    (Lepidoptera: Tineoidea) from Cuba with an unusual larval feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez; Davis, Don R

    2016-01-12

    A new genus and species, Antillopsyche sessilis Núñez & Davis, of Psychidae are described from Cuba, West Indies. The new taxon shares certain features with some members of the subfamily Arrhenophaninae but more with the larvae and the fully winged adult females of other subfamilies of Psychidae. Antillopsyche has been assigned provisionally to the subfamily Typhoniinae based on these similarities. Several aspects of its larval biology are described, including the sessile larval cases and foraging behavior, both unique among the known Psychidae. An undescribed species of Dryadaula Meyrick, 1893 (Dryadaulidae) was found inhabiting the larval cases of A. sessilis, but their ecological relationships remain unclear. Other ecological data for Antillopsyche such as distribution, habitat, and parasitoids are also provided.

  18. Microstructure and diversity of the bursa copulatrix wall in Tortricidae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lincango, Piedad; Fernández, Guillermo; Baixeras, Joaquín

    2013-05-01

    The inner surface and muscle structure of the bursa copulatrix are examined for the first time with Electron Microscopy in some representatives of the family Tortricidae (Lepidoptera). The internal microprotuberances reveal taxon dependent characters unstudied in the Lepidoptera until now. Acanthae occur in almost all taxa studied, whereas ctenidia and papillae are found only in representatives of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae, respectively. Muscles are radially arranged from the signa. Areas of muscle insertion on the bursal wall are not covered by other muscle fibers. Muscle attachments to evaginated areas, e.g. capitulum and diverticulum, suggest an apodeme role for these structures, correlated with long protruding signa. The potential evolutionary and adaptive significance of these new findings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Ahola, Virpi; Lehtonen, Rainer; Somervuo, Panu; Salmela, Leena; Koskinen, Patrik; Rastas, Pasi; Välimäki, Niko; Paulin, Lars; Kvist, Jouni; Wahlberg, Niklas; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Hornett, Emily A.; Ferguson, Laura C.; Luo, Shiqi; Cao, Zijuan; de Jong, Maaike A.; Duplouy, Anne; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Vogel, Heiko; McCoy, Rajiv C.; Qian, Kui; Chong, Wong Swee; Zhang, Qin; Ahmad, Freed; Haukka, Jani K.; Joshi, Aruj; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wheat, Christopher W.; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hughes, Daniel; Katainen, Riku; Pitkänen, Esa; Ylinen, Johannes; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Turunen, Mikko; Vähärautio, Anna; Ojanen, Sami P.; Schulman, Alan H.; Taipale, Minna; Lawson, Daniel; Ukkonen, Esko; Mäkinen, Veli; Goldsmith, Marian R.; Holm, Liisa; Auvinen, Petri; Frilander, Mikko J.; Hanski, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths. PMID:25189940

  20. The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Virpi; Lehtonen, Rainer; Somervuo, Panu; Salmela, Leena; Koskinen, Patrik; Rastas, Pasi; Välimäki, Niko; Paulin, Lars; Kvist, Jouni; Wahlberg, Niklas; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Hornett, Emily A; Ferguson, Laura C; Luo, Shiqi; Cao, Zijuan; de Jong, Maaike A; Duplouy, Anne; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Vogel, Heiko; McCoy, Rajiv C; Qian, Kui; Chong, Wong Swee; Zhang, Qin; Ahmad, Freed; Haukka, Jani K; Joshi, Aruj; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wheat, Christopher W; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Hughes, Daniel; Katainen, Riku; Pitkänen, Esa; Ylinen, Johannes; Waterhouse, Robert M; Turunen, Mikko; Vähärautio, Anna; Ojanen, Sami P; Schulman, Alan H; Taipale, Minna; Lawson, Daniel; Ukkonen, Esko; Mäkinen, Veli; Goldsmith, Marian R; Holm, Liisa; Auvinen, Petri; Frilander, Mikko J; Hanski, Ilkka

    2014-09-05

    Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths.

  1. Parasitism and Food Web Structure in Defoliating Lepidoptera - Parasitoid Communities on Soybean.

    PubMed

    Avalos, D S; Mangeaud, A; Valladares, G R

    2016-12-01

    Food webs are usually regarded as snapshots of community feeding interactions. Here, we describe the yearly and cumulative structure of parasitoid-caterpillar food webs on soybean in central Argentina, analyzing parasitism rates and their variability in relation to parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability in the system. Lepidoptera larvae were collected along four seasons from soybean crops and reared in laboratory to obtain and identify adults and parasitoids. Eleven species of defoliating Lepidoptera and ten parasitoid species were recorded. Food web statistics showed rather low annual variability, with most variation coefficients in the order of 0.20 and generality showing the most stable values. Parasitism showed the highest variability, which was independent of parasitoid diversity and food web vulnerability, although parasitism rates were negatively related to parasitoid richness. Our study highlights the need to consider food web structure and variability in order to understand the functioning of ecological communities in general and in extensive agricultural ecosystems in particular.

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Bao-Cai; Liu, Wei; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was determined. The genome is 15,253 bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. All genes are arranged in their conserved positions compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects except for trnM, which was translocated to the upstream of the transfer RNA cluster trnI-trnQ as in all previously reported lepidopteran mitochondiral genomes. Seven portein-coding genes use ATG start codon and five use ATT. However, the cox1 gene uses the CGA start codon as it is found in all previous reported mitochondrial genomes of Lepidoptera. Nine protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA. Four protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codons TA or T. The A+T region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 331 bp.

  3. Feeding Mechanisms of Adult Lepidoptera: Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Mouthparts

    PubMed Central

    Krenn, Harald W.

    2014-01-01

    The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources. PMID:19961330

  4. Caterpillars and moths: Part II. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars and moths (order Lepidoptera) are uncommonly recognized causes of adverse cutaneous reactions, such as localized stings, papular dermatitis, and urticarial wheals. These reactions are typically mild and self-limited; however, in South America, the sting of Lonomia caterpillars can cause a potentially fatal hemorrhagic diathesis related to massive fibrinolysis. In addition, ocular inflammation and prominent arthralgias have been reported to be caused by caterpillar exposures. Therapies for mucocutaneous reactions to Lepidoptera are largely empiric, with the exception of antivenin against Lonomia obliqua envenomation. Part II of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews the varied symptoms caused by Lepidopteran exposures, reviews the differential diagnosis, and discusses appropriate treatment algorithms.

  5. Feeding mechanisms of adult Lepidoptera: structure, function, and evolution of the mouthparts.

    PubMed

    Krenn, Harald W

    2010-01-01

    The form and function of the mouthparts in adult Lepidoptera and their feeding behavior are reviewed from evolutionary and ecological points of view. The formation of the suctorial proboscis encompasses a fluid-tight food tube, special linking structures, modified sensory equipment, and novel intrinsic musculature. The evolution of these functionally important traits can be reconstructed within the Lepidoptera. The proboscis movements are explained by a hydraulic mechanism for uncoiling, whereas recoiling is governed by the intrinsic proboscis musculature and the cuticular elasticity. Fluid uptake is accomplished by the action of the cranial sucking pump, which enables uptake of a wide range of fluid quantities from different food sources. Nectar-feeding species exhibit stereotypical proboscis movements during flower handling. Behavioral modifications and derived proboscis morphology are often associated with specialized feeding preferences or an obligatory switch to alternative food sources.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two ghost moths, Thitarodes renzhiensis and Thitarodes yunnanensis: the ancestral gene arrangement in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species that have been classified into 45–48 superfamilies. The previously determined Lepidoptera mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are limited to six superfamilies of the lineage Ditrysia. Compared with the ancestral insect gene order, these mitogenomes all contain a tRNA rearrangement. To gain new insights into Lepidoptera mitogenome evolution, we sequenced the mitogenomes of two ghost moths that belong to the non-ditrysian lineage Hepialoidea and conducted a comparative mitogenomic analysis across Lepidoptera. Results The mitogenomes of Thitarodes renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis are 16,173 bp and 15,816 bp long with an A + T content of 81.28 % and 82.34 %, respectively. Both mitogenomes include 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and the A + T-rich region. Different tandem repeats in the A + T-rich region mainly account for the size difference between the two mitogenomes. All the protein-coding genes start with typical mitochondrial initiation codons, except for cox1 (CGA) and nad1 (TTG) in both mitogenomes. The anticodon of trnS(AGN) in T. renzhiensis and T. yunnanensis is UCU instead of the mostly used GCU in other sequenced Lepidoptera mitogenomes. The 1,584-bp sequence from rrnS to nad2 was also determined for an unspecified ghost moth (Thitarodes sp.), which has no repetitive sequence in the A + T-rich region. All three Thitarodes species possess the ancestral gene order with trnI-trnQ-trnM located between the A + T-rich region and nad2, which is different from the gene order trnM-trnI-trnQ in all previously sequenced Lepidoptera species. The formerly identified conserved elements of Lepidoptera mitogenomes (i.e. the motif ‘ATAGA’ and poly-T stretch in the A + T-rich region and the long intergenic spacer upstream of nad2) are absent in the Thitarodes mitogenomes. Conclusion The mitogenomes of T. renzhiensis and T

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Liao, Fang; Wang, Lin; Wu, Song; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Guo-Ming; Niu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Ming-Gang

    2010-03-29

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was determined. The genome is a circular molecule 15 481 bp long. It presents a typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes, but differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of tRNA(Met). The nucleotide composition of the genome is also highly A + T biased, accounting for 80.38%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.010), indicating the occurrence of more As than Ts, as found in the Noctuoidea species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI, which is tentatively designated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans. Four of 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, except for tRNA(Ser)(AGN), the DHU arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Ser)(AGN) and ND1 also contains the ATACTAA motif, which is conserved across the Lepidoptera order. The H. cunea A+T-rich region of 357 bp is comprised of non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 18 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)(8) element preceded by the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A present immediately upstream tRNA(Met). The phylogenetic analyses support the view that the H. cunea is closerly related to the Lymantria dispar than Ochrogaster lunifer, and support the hypothesis that Noctuoidea (H. cunea, L. dispar, and O. lunifer) and Geometroidea (Phthonandria atrilineata) are monophyletic. However, in the phylogenetic trees based on mitogenome sequences among the lepidopteran superfamilies, Papillonoidea (Artogeia melete, Acraea issoria, and Coreana raphaelis) joined basally within the monophyly of Lepidoptera, which is different to the traditional classification.

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fang; Wang, Lin; Wu, Song; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Guo-Ming; Niu, Chun-Jing; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Ming-Gang

    2010-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was determined. The genome is a circular molecule 15 481 bp long. It presents a typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes, but differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of tRNAMet. The nucleotide composition of the genome is also highly A + T biased, accounting for 80.38%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.010), indicating the occurrence of more As than Ts, as found in the Noctuoidea species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI, which is tentatively designated by the CGA codon as observed in other lepidopterans. Four of 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNAs, except for tRNASer(AGN), the DHU arm of which could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The intergenic spacer sequence between tRNASer(AGN) and ND1 also contains the ATACTAA motif, which is conserved across the Lepidoptera order. The H. cunea A+T-rich region of 357 bp is comprised of non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 18 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)8 element preceded by the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A present immediately upstream tRNAMet. The phylogenetic analyses support the view that the H. cunea is closerly related to the Lymantria dispar than Ochrogaster lunifer, and support the hypothesis that Noctuoidea (H. cunea, L. dispar, and O. lunifer) and Geometroidea (Phthonandria atrilineata) are monophyletic. However, in the phylogenetic trees based on mitogenome sequences among the lepidopteran superfamilies, Papillonoidea (Artogeia melete, Acraea issoria, and Coreana raphaelis) joined basally within the monophyly of Lepidoptera, which is different to the traditional classification. PMID:20376208

  9. Sexual differences in weight loss upon eclosion are related to life history strategy in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Freerk; Javoiš, Juhan; Esperk, Toomas; Teder, Tiit; Davis, Robert B; Tammaru, Toomas

    2011-06-01

    Given that immature and adult insects have different life styles, different target body compositions can be expected. For adults, such targets will also differ depending on life history strategy, and thus vary among the sexes, and in females depend on the degree of capital versus income breeding and ovigeny. Since these targets may in part be approximated by loss of substances upon eclosion, comparing sexual differences in such losses upon eclosion among species that differ in life history would provide insights into insect functional ecology. We studied weight loss in eclosing insects using original data on pupal and adult live weights of 38 species of Lepidoptera (mainly Geometridae) and further literature data on 15 species of Lepidoptera and six representatives of other insect orders, and applied the phylogenetic independent contrasts approach. In addition, data on live and dry weights of pupae of four species of Lepidoptera are presented. We documented that Lepidoptera typically lose a large proportion (20-80%) of their pupal weight upon adult eclosion. Sexual differences in weight loss varied between absent and strongly male biased. Most of the weight loss was water loss, and sexual differences in adult water content correlate strongly with differences in weight loss. Using feeding habits (feeds or does not feed as an adult) and female biased sexual size dimorphism as measures of degree of capital breeding, we found that the difference among the sexes in weight loss tends to be more pronounced in capital breeding species. Additionally, females of more pro-ovigenic species (large proportion of eggs mature upon emergence) tend to have higher water contents. Our results suggests that metamorphosis is generally facilitated by a high water content, while adults excrete water upon eclosion to benefit flight unless water has been allocated to eggs, or is treated as a capital resource for adult survival or future allocation to eggs.

  10. A new species of Herpetogramma (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) from eastern North America

    PubMed Central

    Handfield, Louis; Handfield, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Herpetogramma sphingealis sp. n., a new species of Crambidae (Lepidoptera), is described from Québec, Canada. The species is included in the genus Herpetogramma Led., 1863, a genus in the subfamily Spilomelinae. Adults and genitalia of this species are described and illustrated, as well as those of Herpetogramma aeglealis (Walker, 1859) and Herpetogramma thestealis (Walker, 1859), and adults of the semi-melanic form of Herpetogramma aeglealis are illustrated. PMID:22207790

  11. A new species of Herpetogramma (Lepidoptera, Crambidae, Spilomelinae) from eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Handfield, Louis; Handfield, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Herpetogramma sphingealissp. n., a new species of Crambidae (Lepidoptera), is described from Québec, Canada. The species is included in the genus Herpetogramma Led., 1863, a genus in the subfamily Spilomelinae. Adults and genitalia of this species are described and illustrated, as well as those of Herpetogramma aeglealis (Walker, 1859) and Herpetogramma thestealis (Walker, 1859), and adults of the semi-melanic form of Herpetogramma aeglealis are illustrated.

  12. Low host specificity and abundance of frugivorous lepidoptera in the lowland rain forests of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Ctvrtecka, Richard; Miller, Scott E.; Rosati, Margaret E.; Molem, Kenneth; Damas, Kipiro; Gewa, Bradley; Novotny, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    We studied a community of frugivorous Lepidoptera in the lowland rainforest of Papua New Guinea. Rearing revealed 122 species represented by 1,720 individuals from 326 woody plant species. Only fruits from 52% (171) of the plant species sampled were attacked. On average, Lepidoptera were reared from 1 in 89 fruits and a kilogram of fruit was attacked by 1.01 individuals. Host specificity of Lepidoptera was notably low: 69% (33) of species attacked plants from >1 family, 8% (4) fed on single family, 6% (3) on single genus and 17% (8) were monophagous. The average kilogram of fruits was infested by 0.81 individual from generalist species (defined here as feeding on >1 plant genus) and 0.07 individual from specialist species (feeding on a single host or congeneric hosts). Lepidoptera preferred smaller fruits with both smaller mesocarp and seeds. Large-seeded fruits with thin mesocarp tended to host specialist species whereas those with thick, fleshy mesocarp were often infested with both specialist and generalist species. The very low incidence of seed damage suggests that pre-dispersal seed predation by Lepidoptera does not play a major role in regulating plant populations via density-dependent mortality processes outlined by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. PMID:28231249

  13. Sequential sampling for panicle caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Elliott, N C; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L; Backoulou, G F; McCornack, B P; Pendleton, B B; Royer, T A

    2014-04-01

    Panicle caterpillars comprise an economically important insect pest complex of sorghum throughout the Great Plains of the United States, particularly in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. The sorghum panicle caterpillar complex consists of larvae of two polyphagous lepidopteran species: the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sampling for panicle caterpillars in sorghum fields is usually accomplished by the beat bucket sampling technique with a fixed sample size of 30 beat bucket samples of one sorghum panicle each per 16.2 ha of field. We used Wald's sequential probability ratio test for a negative binomial distribution to develop a sequential sampling plan for panicle caterpillars. In total, 115 sorghum fields were sampled in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas from June to August 2010. Panicle caterpillars had an aggregated distribution of counts confirmed by Pearson's chi-square statistic for lack of fit to the negative binomial distribution for each sampled field. A sequential sampling plan was developed using a high threshold (an economic threshold) of 0.5 caterpillars per sorghum panicle, a low threshold (a safe level) of 0.20 caterpillars per panicle, and fixed error rates (alpha = 0.10 and beta = 0.05). At caterpillar densities > 0.45 and < 0.12 per panicle, the average number of panicles inspected to make a decision was less than the current recommendation of 30. In a 2013 validation test of 25 fields, the expected number of samples taken from average sample number curve was in close agreement with the number of samples required using the sequential plan (r2 = 0.93), and all fields were correctly classified when compared with a fixed sample size result. The plan improved upon current sampling recommendations for panicle caterpillars in sorghum because at known acceptable fixed error rates fewer samples were required when caterpillars are scarce or abundant, whereas more samples were

  14. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens. PMID:26379286

  15. The case for a generic phytosanitary irradiation dose of 250 Gy for Lepidoptera eggs and larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Guy J.; Arthur, Valter; Blackburn, Carl M.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2013-08-01

    The literature on ionizing irradiation of Lepidoptera is critically examined for a dose that could serve as a generic phytosanitary treatment for all eggs and larvae of that order, which contains many quarantine pests that inhibit trade in fresh agricultural commodities. The measure of efficacy used in deriving this dose is the prevention of emergence of normal-looking adults that are assumed not able to fly. A dose of 250 Gy is supported by many studies comprising 34 species in 11 lepidopteran families, including those of significant quarantine importance. Two studies with two different species found that doses >250 Gy were necessary, but both of these are contradicted by other studies showing that <250 Gy is adequate. There is a lack of large-scale (>10,000 individuals) testing for families other than Tortricidae (the most important quarantine family in the Lepidoptera). Because several large-scale studies have been done with tortricids a dose of 250 Gy could be justifiable for Tortricidae if it is not acceptable for the entire Lepidoptera at this time.

  16. RNA interference in Lepidoptera: an overview of successful and unsuccessful studies and implications for experimental design.

    PubMed

    Terenius, Olle; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S; Eleftherianos, Ioannis; Huvenne, Hanneke; Kanginakudru, Sriramana; Albrechtsen, Merete; An, Chunju; Aymeric, Jean-Luc; Barthel, Andrea; Bebas, Piotr; Bitra, Kavita; Bravo, Alejandra; Chevalier, François; Collinge, Derek P; Crava, Cristina M; de Maagd, Ruud A; Duvic, Bernard; Erlandson, Martin; Faye, Ingrid; Felföldi, Gabriella; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Futahashi, Ryo; Gandhe, Archana S; Gatehouse, Heather S; Gatehouse, Laurence N; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M; Gómez, Isabel; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Groot, Astrid T; Hauser, Frank; Heckel, David G; Hegedus, Dwayne D; Hrycaj, Steven; Huang, Lihua; Hull, J Joe; Iatrou, Kostas; Iga, Masatoshi; Kanost, Michael R; Kotwica, Joanna; Li, Changyou; Li, Jianghong; Liu, Jisheng; Lundmark, Magnus; Matsumoto, Shogo; Meyering-Vos, Martina; Millichap, Peter J; Monteiro, Antónia; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Niimi, Teruyuki; Nowara, Daniela; Ohnishi, Atsushi; Oostra, Vicencio; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Papakonstantinou, Maria; Popadic, Aleksandar; Rajam, Manchikatla V; Saenko, Suzanne; Simpson, Robert M; Soberón, Mario; Strand, Michael R; Tomita, Shuichiro; Toprak, Umut; Wang, Ping; Wee, Choon Wei; Whyard, Steven; Zhang, Wenqing; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Herrero, Salvador; Gordon, Karl; Swevers, Luc; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-02-01

    Gene silencing through RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized the study of gene function, particularly in non-model insects. However, in Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) RNAi has many times proven to be difficult to achieve. Most of the negative results have been anecdotal and the positive experiments have not been collected in such a way that they are possible to analyze. In this review, we have collected detailed data from more than 150 experiments including all to date published and many unpublished experiments. Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our public database at http://insectacentral.org/RNAi will continue to gather information on RNAi experiments.

  17. Recurrent Domestication by Lepidoptera of Genes from Their Parasites Mediated by Bracoviruses.

    PubMed

    Gasmi, Laila; Boulain, Helene; Gauthier, Jeremy; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Musset, Karine; Jakubowska, Agata K; Aury, Jean-Marc; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Huguet, Elisabeth; Herrero, Salvador; Drezen, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Bracoviruses are symbiotic viruses associated with tens of thousands of species of parasitic wasps that develop within the body of lepidopteran hosts and that collectively parasitize caterpillars of virtually every lepidopteran species. Viral particles are produced in the wasp ovaries and injected into host larvae with the wasp eggs. Once in the host body, the viral DNA circles enclosed in the particles integrate into lepidopteran host cell DNA. Here we show that bracovirus DNA sequences have been inserted repeatedly into lepidopteran genomes, indicating this viral DNA can also enter germline cells. The original mode of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) unveiled here is based on the integrative properties of an endogenous virus that has evolved as a gene transfer agent within parasitic wasp genomes for ≈100 million years. Among the bracovirus genes thus transferred, a phylogenetic analysis indicated that those encoding C-type-lectins most likely originated from the wasp gene set, showing that a bracovirus-mediated gene flux exists between the 2 insect orders Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera. Furthermore, the acquisition of bracovirus sequences that can be expressed by Lepidoptera has resulted in the domestication of several genes that could result in adaptive advantages for the host. Indeed, functional analyses suggest that two of the acquired genes could have a protective role against a common pathogen in the field, baculovirus. From these results, we hypothesize that bracovirus-mediated HGT has played an important role in the evolutionary arms race between Lepidoptera and their pathogens.

  18. Assessing the Value of DNA Barcodes and Other Priority Gene Regions for Molecular Phylogenetics of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, John James

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite apparently abundant amounts of observable variation and species diversity, the order Lepidoptera exhibits a morphological homogeneity that has provided only a limited number of taxonomic characters and led to widespread use of nucleotides for inferring relationships. This study aims to characterize and develop methods to quantify the value of priority gene regions designated for Lepidoptera molecular systematics. In particular, I assess how the DNA barcode segment of the mitochondrial COI gene performs across a broad temporal range given its number one position of priority, most sequenced status, and the conflicting opinions on its phylogenetic performance. Methodology/Principal Findings Gene regions commonly sequenced for Lepidoptera phylogenetics were scored using multiple measures across three categories: practicality, which includes universality of primers and sequence quality; phylogenetic utility; and phylogenetic signal. I found that alternative measures within a category often appeared correlated, but high scores in one category did not necessarily translate into high scores in another. The DNA barcode was easier to sequence than other genes, and had high scores for utility but low signal above the genus level. Conclusions/Significance Given limited financial resources and time constraints, careful selection of gene regions for molecular phylogenetics is crucial to avoid wasted effort producing partially informative data. This study introduces an approach to assessing the value of gene regions prior to the initiation of new studies and presents empirical results to help guide future selections. PMID:20479871

  19. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Mormon metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Apodemia mormo in the lepidopteran family Riodinidae. The 15,262 bp long complete genome was comprised of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 major non-coding A + T-rich region, with the arrangement typically found in the majority of Lepidoptera. The genes of A. mormo were interleaved with a total of 168 bp, which were spread over 16 regions and overlapped 58 bp at eight locations. All tRNAs of the A. mormo mitogenome formed a typical cloverleaf structure, except tRNA(Ser(AGN)), which formed a truncated dihydrouridine arm. The COI gene started with CGA as seen in other Lepidoptera, instead of canonical ATN. The 349 bp long A + T-rich region harbored conserved sequence blocks, such as an ATAGA motif, a poly-T stretch, a conserved ATTTA sequence, and a microsatellite A/T repeat typically found in Lepidoptera, but absent from the tRNA-like pseudogene.

  20. Enigmatic Liaisons in Lepidoptera: A Review of Same-Sex Courtship and Copulation in Butterflies and Moths

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Mendieta, Nubia; Cordero, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Same-sex sexual interactions (SSSI) have been observed in many animal groups and have intrigued evolutionists. In this paper, reports on SSSI in Lepidoptera are reviewed and evolutionary hypotheses that could explain these behaviors are discussed. SSSI have been documented in males of 25 species and in females from role-reversed populations of one species. Four types of SSSI have been reported: pupal guarding, courtship, copulation attempt, and copulation. Although the hypotheses cannot be tested with the limited data, evidence suggests that in some Lepidoptera SSSI could result from selection for imposing costs on other males, or could be a by-product of sexual selection favoring individuals that exhibit high sexual willingness. In agreement with both hypotheses, in the 17 species whose mating systems are known, there is intense competition for mates in the sex exhibiting SSSI. We propose lines of research on SSSI in Lepidoptera. PMID:23452066

  1. Enigmatic liaisons in Lepidoptera: a review of same-sex courtship and copulation in butterflies and moths.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Mendieta, Nubia; Cordero, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Same-sex sexual interactions (SSSI) have been observed in many animal groups and have intrigued evolutionists. In this paper, reports on SSSI in Lepidoptera are reviewed and evolutionary hypotheses that could explain these behaviors are discussed. SSSI have been documented in males of 25 species and in females from role-reversed populations of one species. Four types of SSSI have been reported: pupal guarding, courtship, copulation attempt, and copulation. Although the hypotheses cannot be tested with the limited data, evidence suggests that in some Lepidoptera SSSI could result from selection for imposing costs on other males, or could be a by-product of sexual selection favoring individuals that exhibit high sexual willingness. In agreement with both hypotheses, in the 17 species whose mating systems are known, there is intense competition for mates in the sex exhibiting SSSI. We propose lines of research on SSSI in Lepidoptera.

  2. Linking Life Table and Predation Rate for Biological Control: A Comparative Study of Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Fed on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the predator-prey relationship and to compare predation rates, we studied the life table and predation rate of the predator Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) when reared on two major crucifer pests, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate, and net predation rates of E. furcellata reared on P. xylostella were 292.4 offspring, 0.1389 d(-1), 1.1490 d(-1), and 644.1 third instars of P. xylostella, respectively. These values are significantly higher than those reared on S. litura, i.e., 272.3 offspring, 0.1220 d(-1), 1.1298 d(-1), and 863.1 third instars of S. litura. To evaluate the predation potential of E. furcellata fed on P. xylostella and S. litura, we combined both the growth rate and predation rate to calculate the finite predation rate (ω); our results showed that E. furcellata is an effective predator of both S. litura (ω = 1.6029) and P. xylostella (ω = 1.4277).

  3. Genetic basis of resistance to fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) leaf-feeding damage in maize.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Thomas D; Bushman, B Shaun; Williams, W Paul; McMullen, Micheal D; Buckley, Paul M

    2007-08-01

    Leaf-feeding damage by first generation larvae of fall armyworm, Spodopter frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), cause major economic losses each year in maize, Zea mays L. A previous study identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to reduced leaf-feeding damage by these insects in the maize line Mp704. This study was initiated to identify QTL and their interactions associated with first generation leaf-feeding damage by fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer. QTL associated with fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer resistance in resistant line Mp708 were identified and compared with Mp704. Multiple trait analysis (MTA) of both data sets was then used to identify the most important genetic regions affecting resistance to fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer leaf-feeding damage. Genetic models containing four and seven QTL explained southwestern corn borer and fall armyworm resistance, respectively, in Mp708. Key genomic regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, and 9 were identified by MTA in Mp704 and Mp708 that confer resistance to both fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer. QTL regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 7, and 9 contained resistance to both insects and were present in both resistant lines. These regions correspond with previously identified QTL related to resistance to other lepidopteran insects, suggesting that broad-spectrum resistance to leaf feeding is primarily controlled by only a few genetic regions in this germplasm.

  4. Biological control strategies for the South American tomato moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in greenhouse tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Tomas; Gallego, Juan R; Fernandez, Francisco J; Gamez, Manuel; Vila, Enric; Del Pino, Modesto; Hernandez-Suarez, Estrella

    2012-12-01

    The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) has been introduced into new geographic areas, including the Mediterranean region, where it has become a serious threat to tomato production. Three greenhouse trials conducted in tomato crops during 2009 and 2010 explored control strategies using the egg-parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti compared with chemical control. The effectiveness of the predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) was also tested. In greenhouses with early pest infestations (discrete generations), periodic inundative releases (eight releases at a rate of 50 adults/m2, twice a week) were necessary to achieve an adequate parasitism level (85.63 +/- 5.70%) early in the growing season. However, only one inoculative release (100 adults/m2) was sufficient to achieve a comparatively high parasitism level (91.03 +/- 12.58%) under conditions of high pest incidence and overlapping generations. Some intraguild competition was observed between T. achaeae and the predator, N. tenuis. This mirid species is commonly used in Mediterranean greenhouse tomato crops for the control of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius). Tomato cultivars were also observed to influence the activity of natural enemies, mainly N. tenuis (whose average numbers ranged between 0.17 +/- 0.03 and 0.41 +/- 0.05 nymphs per leaf depending on the cultivar). This may be because of differences in plant nutrients in different cultivars, which may affect the feeding of omnivorous insects. In contrast, cultivar effects on T. achaeae were less apparent or possibly nonexistent. Nevertheless, there was an indirect effect in as much as T. achaeae was favored in cultivars not liked by N. tenuis.

  5. Susceptibility of Bonagota salubricola (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Insecticides in Brazilian Apple Orchards: Implications for Resistance Management.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; Andreazza, Felipe; Arnaldo Batista Neto E Silva, Oscar; João Arioli, Cristiano; Omoto, Celso

    2016-08-01

    The Bonagota salubricola (Meyrick) is a major pest in apple orchards in Brazil, and chemical control has been the primary tool for insect management. To support the development of an insect resistance management (IRM) program, baseline studies of the susceptibility of a reference (laboratory) B. salubricola population were conducted; seven wild B. salubricola populations were monitored for susceptibility to insecticide; and the toxicity of some new chemicals to third-instar larvae and adults was evaluated by a leaf dip and ingestion bioassay, respectively. Neonates from the susceptible (laboratory) population exposed to insecticide showed an LC50 ranging from 0.34 (spinetoram) to 30.19 (novaluron) µg of a.i. ml(-1) (88.8-fold variation), so the diagnostic concentrations for an IRM program in Brazil based on the LC99 were as follows: 19.0 µg of a.i./ml chlorantraniliprole, 510.0 novaluron, 72.0 phosmet, 4.1 spinetoram, 12.8 spinosad, and 110.0 tebufenozide. Based on the LC99, significant differences were not observed in the susceptibility of the field and laboratory populations to chlorantraniliprole, phosmet, spinetoram, spinosad, and tebufenozide insecticides, but there were significant differences in the survival rates of the two populations to novaluron insecticide (3.3%). All insecticides at the diagnostic concentrations showed high toxicity to third-instar larvae (mortality rates between 73 to 97%). Phosmet, spinetoram, and spinosad insecticides were toxic to B. salubricola adults (mortality >85%), while chlorantraniliprole, novaluron, and tebufenozide insecticides caused mortality below 5%. The evaluated insecticides showed high toxicity to different developmental stages of B. salubricola, so the diagnostic concentrations may be used in IRM programs in Brazil. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Population Growth Parameters of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Tomato Plant Using Organic Substrate and Biofertilizers

    PubMed Central

    Razmjou, J.; Naseri, B.; Hassanpour, M.

    2017-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a devastating pest associated with tomato. In this study, effects of tomato plants treated with vermicompost (20, 40, and 60%), humic fertilizer (2, 4 and 6 g/kg soil) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis) were investigated on the life table parameters of T. absoluta in a growth chamber at 25 ± 2 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 (L:D) h. Significant differences were found for the total developmental time, fecundity, and oviposition period of T. absoluta on the treatments tested. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), mean generation time (T), and doubling time (DT) of T. absoluta were significantly different among treatments tested. We found that in all vermicompost, humic fertilizer and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria treatments, values of R0, rm, and λ were lower than control treatment. However, the lowest values of these parameters were obtained on 2 g/kg humic fertilizer and 40% vermicompost. Furthermore, T. absoluta had longest T and DT values on 2 g/kg humic fertilizer treatment. Data obtained showed that the addition of 2 g/kg humic fertilizer and 40% vermicompost to the growing soil reduced T. absoluta populations in tomato cultures. In addition, these levels of fertilizers improved growth parameters of tomato seedlings (plant height, wet weight, and dry weight) compared with other treatments. These results could be useful in improving the sustainable management of the moth. PMID:28355477

  7. Population Growth Parameters of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) on Tomato Plant Using Organic Substrate and Biofertilizers.

    PubMed

    Mohamadi, P; Razmjou, J; Naseri, B; Hassanpour, M

    2017-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a devastating pest associated with tomato. In this study, effects of tomato plants treated with vermicompost (20, 40, and 60%), humic fertilizer (2, 4 and 6 g/kg soil) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis) were investigated on the life table parameters of T. absoluta in a growth chamber at 25 ± 2 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and 16:8 (L:D) h. Significant differences were found for the total developmental time, fecundity, and oviposition period of T. absoluta on the treatments tested. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), mean generation time (T), and doubling time (DT) of T. absoluta were significantly different among treatments tested. We found that in all vermicompost, humic fertilizer and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria treatments, values of R0, rm, and λ were lower than control treatment. However, the lowest values of these parameters were obtained on 2 g/kg humic fertilizer and 40% vermicompost. Furthermore, T. absoluta had longest T and DT values on 2 g/kg humic fertilizer treatment. Data obtained showed that the addition of 2 g/kg humic fertilizer and 40% vermicompost to the growing soil reduced T. absoluta populations in tomato cultures. In addition, these levels of fertilizers improved growth parameters of tomato seedlings (plant height, wet weight, and dry weight) compared with other treatments. These results could be useful in improving the sustainable management of the moth. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Revised classification and catalogue of global Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera, Nepticuloidea)

    PubMed Central

    van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Hoare, Robert J. B.; Davis, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A catalogue of all named Nepticulidae and Opostegidae is presented, including fossil species. The catalogue is simultaneously published online in the scratchpad http://nepticuloidea.info/ and in Catalogue of Life (http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/database/id/172). We provide a historical overview of taxonomic research on Nepticuloidea and a brief ‘state of the art’. A DNA barcode dataset with 3205 barcodes is made public at the same time, providing DNA barcodes of ca. 779 species, of which 2563 are identified as belonging to 444 validly published species. We recognise 862 extant and 18 fossil species of Nepticulidae in 22 extant genera and the fossil form genus Stigmellites. We count 192 valid Opostegidae species in 7 genera, without fossils. We also list seven dubious Nepticulidae names that cannot be placed due to absent type material and poor descriptions, 18 unavailable names in Nepticulidae that cannot be placed and we also list the 33 names (including four fossils) that once were placed as Nepticulidae or Opostegidae but are now excluded. All synonyms and previous combinations are listed. The generic classification follows the Molecular phylogeny that is published almost simultaneously. Subfamilies and tribes are not recognised, Trifurculinae Scoble, 1983 is synonymised with Nepticulidae Stainton, 1854 and Opostegoidinae Kozlov, 1987 is synonymised with Opostegidae Meyrick, 1893. The status of Casanovula Hoare, 2013, Etainia Beirne, 1945, Fomoria Beirne, 1945, Glaucolepis Braun, 1917, Menurella Hoare, 2013, Muhabbetana Koçak & Kemal, 2007 and Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 is changed from subgenus to full genus, whereas two genera are considered synonyms again: Manoneura Davis, 1979, a synonym of Enteucha Meyrick, 1915 and Levarchama Beirne, 1945, a synonym of Trifurcula Zeller, 1848. We propose 87 new combinations in Nepticulidae and 10 in Opostegidae, largely due to the new classification, and re-examination of some species. We propose

  9. Revised classification and catalogue of global Nepticulidae and Opostegidae (Lepidoptera, Nepticuloidea).

    PubMed

    van Nieukerken, Erik J; Doorenweerd, Camiel; Hoare, Robert J B; Davis, Donald R

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue of all named Nepticulidae and Opostegidae is presented, including fossil species. The catalogue is simultaneously published online in the scratchpad http://nepticuloidea.info/ and in Catalogue of Life (http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/database/id/172). We provide a historical overview of taxonomic research on Nepticuloidea and a brief 'state of the art'. A DNA barcode dataset with 3205 barcodes is made public at the same time, providing DNA barcodes of ca. 779 species, of which 2563 are identified as belonging to 444 validly published species. We recognise 862 extant and 18 fossil species of Nepticulidae in 22 extant genera and the fossil form genus Stigmellites. We count 192 valid Opostegidae species in 7 genera, without fossils. We also list seven dubious Nepticulidae names that cannot be placed due to absent type material and poor descriptions, 18 unavailable names in Nepticulidae that cannot be placed and we also list the 33 names (including four fossils) that once were placed as Nepticulidae or Opostegidae but are now excluded. All synonyms and previous combinations are listed. The generic classification follows the Molecular phylogeny that is published almost simultaneously. Subfamilies and tribes are not recognised, Trifurculinae Scoble, 1983 is synonymised with Nepticulidae Stainton, 1854 and Opostegoidinae Kozlov, 1987 is synonymised with Opostegidae Meyrick, 1893. The status of Casanovula Hoare, 2013, Etainia Beirne, 1945, Fomoria Beirne, 1945, Glaucolepis Braun, 1917, Menurella Hoare, 2013, Muhabbetana Koçak & Kemal, 2007 and Zimmermannia Hering, 1940 is changed from subgenus to full genus, whereas two genera are considered synonyms again: Manoneura Davis, 1979, a synonym of Enteucha Meyrick, 1915 and Levarchama Beirne, 1945, a synonym of Trifurcula Zeller, 1848. We propose 87 new combinations in Nepticulidae and 10 in Opostegidae, largely due to the new classification, and re-examination of some species. We propose the following

  10. Comparative embryogenesis of Mecoptera and Lepidoptera with special reference to the abdominal prolegs.

    PubMed

    Kou, Li-Xuan; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-05-01

    The eruciform larvae of holometabolous insects are primarily characterized by bearing a varying number of abdominal prolegs in addition to three pairs of thoracic legs. However, whether the prolegs are evolutionarily homologous among different insect orders is still a disputable issue. We examined the embryonic features and histological structure of the prolegs of the scorpionfly Panorpa byersi Hua and Huang (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) and the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to investigate whether the prolegs are homologous between these two holometabolous insect orders. In the scorpionfly, paired lateral process primordia arise on abdominal segments I-VIII (A1-A8) in line with the thoracic legs in early embryonic stages, but degenerate into triangular protuberances in later stages, and paired medial processes appear along the midventral line before dorsal closure and eventually develop into unjointed, cone-shaped prolegs. Histological observation showed that the lumina of the prolegs are not continuous with the hemocoel, differing distinctly from that of the basic appendicular plan of thoracic legs. These results suggest that the prolegs are likely secondary outgrowths in Mecoptera. In the armyworm, lateral process primordia appear on A1-A10 in alignment with the thoracic legs in the early embryonic stages, although only the rudiments on A3-A6 and A10 develop into segmented prolegs with the lumina continuous with the hemocoel and others degenerate eventually, suggesting that the prolegs are true segmental appendages serially homologous with the thoracic legs in Lepidoptera. Therefore, we conclude that the larval prolegs are likely not evolutionarily homologous between Mecoptera and Lepidoptera.

  11. Flavin-Dependent Monooxygenases as a Detoxification Mechanism in Insects: New Insights from the Arctiids (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G.; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  12. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Sehlmeyer, Sven; Wang, Linzhu; Langel, Dorothee; Heckel, David G; Mohagheghi, Hoda; Petschenka, Georg; Ober, Dietrich

    2010-05-03

    Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera) indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST) data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs) are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects and the

  13. First report of an egg parasitoid reared from Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Schizaeales: Lygodiaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neomusotima conspurcatalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) was first released in Florida as a biological control agent of Lygodium microphyllum (Polypodiales: Lygodiaceae), Old World climbing fern, in 2008. The first egg parasitoid, a Trichogramma sp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), was reared from N. co...

  14. Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and phylogenetic analysis of advanced moths and butterflies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Li, Qian; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2013-04-01

    Here we determined the mitochondrial genome sequence of a notorious pest, the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae). The mitochondrial genome contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and an A+T-rich region. The gene arrangement is identical to that of other ditrysian lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes, but different from the ancestral gene arrangement in the non-ditrysian Hepialidae of Lepidoptera. The start codon of the cox1 gene is CGA, which is dissimilar to its homologs in most other insects. In Lepidoptera, cox1 and cox2 have low nucleotide diversities, while the nad6, nad2, and nad3 genes are highly variable. Phylogenetic analyses uncovered the reciprocal monophyly of Ditrysia, Apoditrysia, Obtectomera, and Macrolepidoptera, and the placement of the Hesperiidae within Papilionoidea. Our analyses suggest that the complete mitochondrial genome sequences are a promising marker toward fully resolving the phylogenetic relationships within Lepidoptera.

  15. Putative nicotinic acetylchloline receptor subunits express differentially through life cycle of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the targets of neonicotinoids and spinosads, two insecticides used in orchards to effectively control codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.)(Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The nAChRs mediate the fast actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in synaptic tr...

  16. Phenology of Lymantria monacha (Lepidoptera:Lymantriidae) laboratory reared on spruce foliage or a newly developed artificial diet

    Treesearch

    Melody A. Keena; Alice Vandel; Oldrich. Pultar

    2010-01-01

    Lymantria monacha (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) is a Eurasian pest of conifers that has potential for accidental introduction into North America. The phenology over the entire life cycle for L. monacha individuals from the Czech Republic was compared on Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) and a newly...

  17. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  18. Mobilizing the genome of Lepidoptera through novel sequence gains and end creation by non-autonomous Lep1 Helitrons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The integration of transposable elements within gene coding regions can affect expression levels and transcript splicing patterns. The repetitive element, Lep1, is comprised of a conserved 134 base pairs (bp) consensus core region among species of Lepidoptera, and was defined as a short intersperse...

  19. Relative susceptibility of sunflower maintainer lines and resistance sources to natural infestations of the banded sunflower moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a significant seed-feeding pest of sunflowers in North America. Though some wild Helianthus spp., interspecific crosses, and H. annuus cultivars (that precede hybrid sunflower breeding) have low susceptibility to ba...

  20. Double strand RNA-mediated RNA interference through feeding in larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA interference (RNAi) has gained popularity in several fields of research, silencing targeted genes by degradation of RNA. The objective of this study was to develop RNAi for use as a molecular tool in the control of the invasive pest Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), gypsy moth, which ha...

  1. Egg hatch and survival and development of beet webworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae at different combinations of temperature and relative humidity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To understand the role that temperature and humidity play in the population dynamics of the beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), egg hatchability, survival of 1st - 5th instars, survival of the complete larval stage, survival curves, and larval development rates were inve...

  2. Ionizing radiation as a phytosanitary treatment against European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in ambient, low oxygen, and cold conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a quarantine pest for several fresh commodities, including corn-on-the-cob, bell peppers, and green beans. Methyl bromide fumigation is the usual phytosanitary treatment, but the chemical is under increasing regulat...

  3. Biology, herbivory, and host specificity of Antiblemma leucocyma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) in Brazil

    Treesearch

    F. R. Badenes-Perez; M. T. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Miconia calvescens DC. (Melastomataceae) is an invasive tree considered one of the greatest threats to natural ecosystems of Hawaii and other Pacific islands. The potential for using the defoliator Antiblemma leucocyma (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as a biological control agent of M. calvescens was evaluated in...

  4. Life table studies of rachiplusia nu (guenée) and chrysodeixis (= pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (lepidoptera: noctuidae) on artificial diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) and Chrysodeixis (= Pseudoplusia) includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are two economically important species in soybean in northern Argentina. Life cycle, reproductive and population parameters of R. nu and C. includens reared on artificial diet were determined under ...

  5. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  6. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote & Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) revealed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer...

  7. Interspecific synchrony among foliage-feeding forest Lepidoptera species and the potential role of generalist predators as synchronizing agents

    Treesearch

    Sandy Raimondo; Marek Turcáni; Jan Patoèka; Andrew M. Liebhold

    2004-01-01

    While synchrony among geographically disjunct populations of the same species has received considerable recent attention, much less is known about synchrony between sympatric populations of two or more species. We analyzed time series of the abundance of ten species of spring foliage feeding Lepidoptera sampled over a 25- year period at 20 sites in the Slovak Republic...

  8. Preliminary list of the leaf-roller moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of Virginia with comments on spatial and temporal distribution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Based on the examination of 3,457 pinned specimens, we document 263 species of leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Commonwealth of Virginia. The vast majority of specimens examined are from five unrelated efforts: a survey of George Washington Memorial Parkway National Park, Fairfa...

  9. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  10. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  11. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  12. Pheromone-based disruption of Eucosma sonomana and Rhyacionia zozana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) using aerially applied microencapsulated pheromone

    Treesearch

    Nancy E. Gillette; John D. Stein; Donald R. Owen; Jeffrey N. Webster; Sylvia R. Mori

    2006-01-01

    Two aerial applications of microencapsulated pheromone were conducted on five 20.2 ha plots to disrupt western pine shoot borer (Eucosma sonomana Kearfott) and ponderosa pine tip moth (Rhyacionia zowna (Kearfott): Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) orientation to pheromones and oviposition in ponderosa pine plantations in 2002 and 2004...

  13. Influence of trap design on capture of female grape berry moth (lepidoptera: tortricidae) with a kairomone Lure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil-coated clear panel traps baited with a host plant-based kairomone lure are effective in monitoring female grape berry moth (GBM), Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), but servicing these traps in a vineyard is cumbersome. In this study, we compared the performance of six diff...

  14. Behavior of Over-wintering Filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae and Their Control with Steinernema carpocapsae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Filbertworm, Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a key insect pest associated with hazelnuts in North America. The effect of nematode rate, water volume, and orchard floor cover on nematode efficacy was determined in field trials in fall and spring (October 2007 and May 200...

  15. Review of parasitic wasps and flies (Hymenoptera, Diptera) attacking Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) in North America, with a key to genera

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of slug caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae) from North America are reviewed and an illustrated key to 17 genera is presented. Limacodid surveys and rearing were conducted by the Lill lab (JTL, SMM, TMS) during the summer months of 2004–2009 as part of their...

  16. Stress Responses of Small Heat Shock Protein Genes in Lepidoptera Point to Limited Conservation of Function across Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jincheng; Peng, Yu; Liu, Xiaoxia; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Ma, Chun-Sen

    2015-01-01

    The small heat shock protein (sHsp) family is thought to play an important role in protein refolding and signal transduction, and thereby protect organisms from stress. However little is known about sHsp function and conservation across phylogenies. In the current study, we provide a comprehensive assessment of small Hsp genes and their stress responses in the oriental fruit moth (OFM), Grapholita molesta. Fourteen small heat shock proteins of OFM clustered with related Hsps in other Lepidoptera despite a high level of variability among them, and in contrast to the highly conserved Hsp11.1. The only known lepidopteran sHsp ortholog (Hsp21.3) was consistently unaffected under thermal stress in Lepidoptera where it has been characterized. However the phylogenetic position of the sHsps within the Lepidoptera was not associated with conservation of induction patterns under thermal extremes or diapause. These findings suggest that the sHsps have evolved rapidly to develop new functions within the Lepidoptera. PMID:26196395

  17. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  18. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  19. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Elorduy, Julieta; Moreno, José M P; Vázquez, Adolfo I; Landero, Ivonne; Oliva-Rivera, Héctor; Camacho, Víctor H M

    2011-01-06

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae.Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species.Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented.

  20. Instar-specific phenology of Pandemis pyrusana and Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Vincent P; Eastburn, Callie C; Wilburn, Tawnee D; Brunner, Jay F

    2005-06-01

    Head capsule width was used to determine the instar specific phenology of the leafroller Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), attacking apple in Washington state during 2001-2003. In total, 7012 P. pyrusana and 6122 obliquebanded leafroller larvae were measured from apple orchards from mid-March to mid-September. Degree-day accumulations from each site were paired with the head capsule data to determine the periods during which different instars were present in the field. The implications of this work for pest management and biological control of leafrollers is discussed.

  1. Feeding stimulants for larvae of Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Cinnamomum camphora.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhan, Zhi-Hui; Tebayashi, Shin-Ichi; Kim, Chul-Sa; Li, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The feeding response of larvae of the swallowtail butterfly, Graphium sarpedon nipponum (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), is elicited by a methanolic extract from camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora) leaves. Based on bioassay-guided fractionation, three compounds, isolated from the methanolic extract of fresh leaves of the camphor tree, were revealed to be involved in a multi-component system of feeding stimulants. Structures of these feeding stimulants were identified as sucrose, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside by NMR and LC-MS.

  2. Discovery of a third species of Lamproptera Gray, 1832 (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae).

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-Ji; Zhang, Xin; Cotton, Adam M; Ye, Hui

    2014-04-11

    A newly discovered, third species of the genus Lamproptera (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is described, 183 years after the second currently recognised species was first named. Lamproptera paracurius Hu, Zhang & Cotton sp. n., from N.E. Yunnan, China, is based on marked differences in external morphology and male genital structure. The species is confirmed as a member of the genus, and detailed comparisons are made with other taxa included in the genus. Keys to Lamproptera species based on external characters and male genitalia are included.

  3. Edible Lepidoptera in Mexico: Geographic distribution, ethnicity, economic and nutritional importance for rural people

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we reported the butterflies and moths that are consumed in Mexico. We identified 67 species of Lepidoptera that are eaten principally in their larval stage in 17 states of Mexico. These species belong to 16 families: Arctiidae, Bombycidae, Castniidae, Cossidae, Geometridae, Hepialidae, Hesperiidae, Lasiocampidae, Noctuidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae, Pyralidae, Saturniidae, Sesiidae, and Sphingidae. Saturniidae, Pieridae, Noctuidae and Nymphalidae were the more species consumed with 16, 11, 9, and 8 species, respectively. The genera with the largest numbers of species were: Phassus, Phoebis, Hylesia and Spodoptera, with three species. Their local distribution, corresponding to each state of Mexico, is also presented. PMID:21211040

  4. Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Fernando A.; Gonçalves, Gislene L.; Moreira, Gilson R. P.; Becker, Vitor O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new cecidogenous species of Palaeomystella Fletcher (Lepidoptera, Momphidae) from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest are described. Larvae of P. fernandesi Moreira & Becker, sp. n., P. rosaemariae Moreira & Becker, sp. n. and P. tavaresi Becker & Moreira, sp. n. induce galls, respectively, on Tibouchina sellowiana (Cham.) Cogn., T. asperior (Cham.) Cogn. and T. fissinervia (Schrank & Mart. ex DC.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae). Adults, immature stages and galls are illustrated, and data on life history and a preliminary analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences, including related species, are also provided. PMID:25152676

  5. A morphology based key to the genera of the tribe Nemoriini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Viidalepp, Jaan

    2017-02-23

    A diagrammatic key to the genera of the Nemoriini tribe (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) is presented and illustrated. The genera studied exhibit two main character sets, corresponding to the Nemoria lineage and the Phrudocentra lineage. The spatulate type of uncus is associated with multicolor wing markings on both hemispheres. A rod-shaped uncus, often slightly bulbed at its tip, is common in the Neotropics, the genera involved having their wing markings reduced to white lines or brown-grey vein marks on a plain green ground color.

  6. Larval food plants of Australian Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) - a review of available data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background In Australia, the subfamily Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) comprises over 45 genera with about 270 species described so far. However, life histories of the Australian larentiine moths have barely been studied. New information The current paper presents a list of larval food plants of 51 Australian larentiine species based on literature references, data from specimen labels and own observations. Some Australian habitats are shown. Possible relationships among the taxa based on food preference of the larvae are discussed. Additionally, a list of Australasian larentiine species from the genera occurring in Australia and their food plants is presented. PMID:27099558

  7. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  8. Lepidoptera Larvae as an Indicator of Multi-trophic Level Responses to Changing Seasonality in an Arctic Tundra Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, K. M.; Steltzer, H.; Boelman, N.; Weintraub, M. N.; Darrouzet-Nardi, A.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Sullivan, P.; Gough, L.; Rich, M.; Hendrix, C.; Kielland, K.; Philip, K.; Doak, P.; Ferris, C.; Sikes, D.

    2011-12-01

    Earlier snowmelt and warming temperatures in the Arctic will impact multiple trophic levels through the timing and availability of food resources. Lepidoptera are a vital link within the ecosystem; their roles include pollinator, parasitized host for other pollinating insects, and essential food source for migrating birds and their fledglings. Multiple environmental cues including temperature initiate plant growth, and in turn, trigger the emergence of Lepidoptera and the migrations of birds. If snowmelt is accelerated and temperature is increased, it is expected that the Lepidoptera larvae will respond to early plant growth by increasing their abundance within areas that have accelerated snowmelt and warmer conditions. In May of 2011 in a moist acidic tussock tundra system, we accelerated snowmelt by 15 days through the use of radiation-absorbing fabric and warmed air and soil temperatures using open-top chambers, individually and in combination. Every 1-2 days from May 27th to July 8th, 2 minute searches were performed for Lepidoptera larvae in all treatments; when an animal was found, their micro-habitat, surface temperature, behavior, food source, and time of day were noted. The length, body and head width were measured, and the animals were examined for braconid wasp and tachinid fly parasites. Lepidoptera larvae collected in pitfall traps from May 26th to July 7th were also examined and measured. Total density of parasitized larvae accounted for 54% of observed specimens and 50% of pitfall specimens, indicating that Lepidoptera larvae serve an integral role as a host for other pollinators. Total larvae density was highest within the accelerated snowmelt plots compared to the control plots; 66% of observed live specimens and 63% of pitfall specimens were found within the accelerated snowmelt plots. Ninety percent of the total observed animals were found within the open-top warming chambers. Peak density of animals occurred at Solar Noon between 14:00 -15

  9. Complete mitochondrial genomes of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), with a description of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Jeong, Su Yeon; Kim, Sung Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-11-01

    We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of two gelechioids, Mesophleps albilinella and Dichomeris ustalella, and compared their genome organization and sequence composition to those of available gelechioid mitogenomes for an enhanced understanding of Gelechioidea genomic characteristics. We compared all available lepidopteran mitogenome arrangements, including that of M. albilinella, which is unique in Gelechioidea, to comprehend the extensiveness and mechanisms of gene rearrangement in Lepidoptera. The genomes of M. albilinella and D. ustalella are 15,274 and 15,410 bp in size, respectively, with the typical sets of mitochondrial (mt) genes. The COI gene begins with CGA (arginine) in all sequenced gelechioids, including M. albilinella and D. ustalella, reinforcing the feature as a synapomorphic trait, at least in the Gelechioidea. Each 353- and 321-bp long A + T-rich region of M. albilinella and D. ustalella contains one (D. ustalella) or two (M. albilinella) tRNA-like structures. The M. albilinella mitogenome has a unique gene arrangement among the Gelechioidea: ARNESF (the underline signifies an inverted gene) at the ND3 and ND5 junction, as opposed to the ARNSEF that is found in ancestral insects. An extensive search of available lepidopteran mitogenomes, including that of M. albilinella, turned up six rearrangements that differ from those of ancestral insects. Most of the rearrangements can be explained by the tandem duplication-random loss model, but inversion, which requires recombination, is also found in two cases, including M. albilinella. Excluding the MIQ rearrangement at the A + T-rich region and ND2 junction, which is found in nearly all Ditrysia, most of the remaining rearrangements found in Lepidoptera appear to be independently derived in that they are automorphic at several taxonomic scales, although current mitogenomic data are limited, particularly for congeneric data.

  10. Analysis on the Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Andraca theae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xing-Shi; Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The bombycid moth, Andraca theae (Matsumura) (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) is an important pest of tea in southeastern China. In the present study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of A. theae was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. The complete mitogenome of A. theae, encoding 37 genes, was 15,737 bp in length (Genbank no. KX365419), and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an adenine (A) + thymine (T)-rich region (AT-rich region). The gene order of A. theae mitogenome was typical for Lepidoptera mitogenomes. Except for cox1, which started with CGA, all other 12 PCGs started with ATN. Eleven of the 13 PCGs ended with TAA, expect for cox1 and cox2, which ended with a single T. The maximum likelihood method and the Bayesian method were used to analyze the phylogenetic relationship among 22 representative bombycoid species with a matrix consisting of the 13 PCGs of the mitogenomes of the 22 species. The topological structures of the two phylogenetic trees we constructed were almost identical, with the results indicating that the bombycid species, including A. theae, clustered into a single clade with a bootstrap value of 58% and a posterior probability of 0.98. The phylogenetic relationship among the Bombycoidea species analyzed was Lasiocampidae + (Bombycidae + (Saturniidae + Sphingidae)) which was supported by a high bootstrap value of 100% and a posterior probability of 1.00. PMID:27694403

  11. Identification and localization of two sensory neuron membrane proteins from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Wang, Gui-Rong

    2015-03-01

    Sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), which are located on the dendritic membrane of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), are proposed to be associated with odor reception in insects. Recent studies have demonstrated that SNMP1 is essential for electrophysiological responses of OSNs to the sex pheromone, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) in Drosophila melanogaster. To investigate the function of Lepidoptera SNMPs, we cloned two SNMP genes, SlituSNMP1 and SltiuSNMP2, from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that both genes bear the general characteristics of SNMPs, including six conserved cysteine residues and two transmembrane domains. Further expression profile experiments showed that SlituSNMP1 is mainly expressed in the antenna, while SlituSNMP2 is broadly expressed in various tissues. By in situ hybridization experiments, it was found that SlituSNMP1 expressing cells are surrounded by the SlituSNMP2 expressing cells in the pheromone sensitive sensilla, suggesting different functions of the two SNMPs in insect olfaction. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed.

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of an aquatic moth, Elophila interruptalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-08-01

    The aquatic moth, Elophila interruptalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) belongs to the subfamily Nymphulinae, nearly all of which are aquatic in their entire larval and pupal stages. The 15,351-bp long complete mitogenome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and one major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in the majority of Lepidoptera. One of the unusual features of the E. interruptalis mitogenome is the presence of a tRNA(Phe)-like sequence beyond the A+T-rich region. The sequence is encoded in the minor strand of the genome overlapping with the reversely encoded regular tRNA(Glu) by 65 bp. The sequence divergence of the tRNA(Phe)-like sequence to that of regular E. interruptalis tRNA(Phe) and other within-familial species was as low as 59% ∼ 71%, but has a proper folding structure with well-matched stems and identical anticodon sequences to the regular copy.

  14. Evolutionary diversification of aminopeptidase N in Lepidoptera by conserved clade-specific amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L

    2014-07-01

    Members of the aminopepidase N (APN) gene family of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) bind the naturally insecticidal Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of seven lepidopteran APN classes provided strong support for the hypothesis that lepidopteran APN2 class arose by gene duplication prior to the most recent common ancestor of Lepidoptera and Diptera. The Cry toxin-binding region (BR) of lepidopteran and dipteran APNs was subject to stronger purifying selection within APN classes than was the remainder of the molecule, reflecting conservation of catalytic site and adjoining residues within the BR. Of lepidopteran APN classes, APN2, APN6, and APN8 showed the strongest evidence of functional specialization, both in expression patterns and in the occurrence of conserved derived amino acid residues. The latter three APN classes also shared a convergently evolved conserved residue close to the catalytic site. APN8 showed a particularly strong tendency towards class-specific conserved residues, including one of the catalytic site residues in the BR and ten others in close vicinity to the catalytic site residues. The occurrence of class-specific sequences along with the conservation of enzymatic function is consistent with the hypothesis that the presence of Cry toxins in the environment has been a factor shaping the evolution of this multi-gene family.

  15. Barcoding lepidoptera: current situation and perspectives on the usefulness of a contentious technique.

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Lyra, Mariana L; Freitas, André V L

    2009-01-01

    Faced by a growing need of identification and delimitation of new and established cryptic species that are being lost at an increasing rate, taxonomists can now more than ever take advantage of an enormous variety of new molecular and computational tools. At this moment they should be open to all new available technologies in the so called 'technology-driven revolution' in systematics. The use of the 'DNA barcode' has been discussed by those applying successfully this approach to identify and diagnose species and by those who believe that the flaws in the use of this molecular marker are as many as to negate the worth of its employment. For insects of the order Lepidoptera neither side seems totally correct or wrong, and although many groups of lepidopterans have been taxonomically resolved by using exclusively or additionally this marker for diagnoses, for others the 'barcode' helped little to resolve taxonomic issues. Here we briefly present some pros and cons of using DNA barcode as a tool in taxonomic studies, with special attention to studies with groups of Lepidoptera developed in the last few years.

  16. Evidence of Male Hair Pencil Pheromone in Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, Lucas E.; Silk, P.; Eveleigh, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Male Lepidoptera often possess specialized scales, called hair pencils that emit volatiles that are critical to mating success. Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), males will display hair pencils to females before attempting copulation. The importance of volatiles on these hair pencils is, however, not clear. We compared the proportion of successful copulations in unmanipulated mating pairs to pairs where males had their hair pencils either removed or chemically washed, and to pairs where females were antennectomized. Mean proportions of successful matings were significantly lower in pairs where hair pencils had been manipulated or where females had been antennectomized compared with unmanipulated mating pairs. There was no significant difference in mating success between treatments where hair pencils had been manipulated; however, mating success was significantly lower in hair pencil treatments than in antennectomized treatments. Mean copulation proportions in hair pencil/antennectomized treatments were also significantly less than in respective sham-operated treatments. Our results suggest that volatiles are associated with hair pencils, and they may be required for mating success in C. fumiferana. PMID:26945090

  17. Evidence of Male Hair Pencil Pheromone in Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Roscoe, Lucas E; Silk, P; Eveleigh, E S

    2016-01-01

    Male Lepidoptera often possess specialized scales, called hair pencils that emit volatiles that are critical to mating success. Spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), males will display hair pencils to females before attempting copulation. The importance of volatiles on these hair pencils is, however, not clear. We compared the proportion of successful copulations in unmanipulated mating pairs to pairs where males had their hair pencils either removed or chemically washed, and to pairs where females were antennectomized. Mean proportions of successful matings were significantly lower in pairs where hair pencils had been manipulated or where females had been antennectomized compared with unmanipulated mating pairs. There was no significant difference in mating success between treatments where hair pencils had been manipulated; however, mating success was significantly lower in hair pencil treatments than in antennectomized treatments. Mean copulation proportions in hair pencil/antennectomized treatments were also significantly less than in respective sham-operated treatments. Our results suggest that volatiles are associated with hair pencils, and they may be required for mating success in C. fumiferana.

  18. Variable wing venation in Agathiphaga (Lepidoptera: Agathiphagidae) is key to understanding the evolution of basal moths

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Details of the ancestral groundplan of wing venation in moths remain uncertain, despite approximately a century of study. Here, we describe a 3-branched subcostal vein, a 5-branched medial vein and a 2-branched cubitus posterior vein on the forewing of Agathiphaga vitiensis Dumbleton 1952 from Vanuatu. Such veins had not previously been described in any Lepidoptera. Because wing veins are typically lost during lepidopteran evolutionary history, rarely—if ever—to be regained, the venation of A. vitiensis probably represents the ancestral character state for moths. Wing venation is often used to identify fossil insects as moths, because wing scales are not always preserved; the presence of a supposedly trichopteran 3-branched subcostal vein in crown Lepidoptera may decrease the certainty with which certain amphiesmenopteran fossils from the Mesozoic can be classified. And because plesiomorphic veins can influence the development of lepidopteran wing patterns even if not expressed in the adult wing, the veins described here may determine the location of wing pattern elements in many lepidopteran taxa. PMID:27853559

  19. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. New information As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed. PMID:26929714

  20. Food searching behaviour of a Lepidoptera pest species is modulated by the foraging gene polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Chardonnet, Floriane; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Chouquet, Bastien; Joly, Nicolas; Harry, Myriam; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Kaiser, Laure

    2014-10-01

    The extent of damage to crop plants from pest insects depends on the foraging behaviour of the insect's feeding stage. Little is known, however, about the genetic and molecular bases of foraging behaviour in phytophagous pest insects. The foraging gene (for), a candidate gene encoding a PKG-I, has an evolutionarily conserved function in feeding strategies. Until now, for had never been studied in Lepidoptera, which includes major pest species. The cereal stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides is therefore a relevant species within this order with which to study conservation of and polymorphism in the for gene, and its role in foraging - a behavioural trait that is directly associated with plant injuries. Full sequencing of for cDNA in S. nonagrioides revealed a high degree of conservation with other insect taxa. Activation of PKG by a cGMP analogue increased larval foraging activity, measured by how frequently larvae moved between food patches in an actimeter. We found one non-synonymous allelic variation in a natural population that defined two allelic variants. These variants presented significantly different levels of foraging activity, and the behaviour was positively correlated to gene expression levels. Our results show that for gene function is conserved in this species of Lepidoptera, and describe an original case of a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with foraging behaviour variation in a pest insect. By illustrating how variation in this single gene can predict phenotype, this work opens new perspectives into the evolutionary context of insect adaptation to plants, as well as pest management.

  1. Redescription of Thalassodes antithetica Herbulot, 1962, an endemic moth from Inner Seychelles (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Bolotov, Ivan N; Matyot, Pat; Bippus, Maik; Spitsyn, Vitaly M; Kolosova, Yulia S; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-07-19

    The Seychelles archipelago is characterized by an exceptionally high level of endemism in certain taxa, including at least 275 endemic species of Lepidoptera (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015). Despite the fact that endemics are the main objects of conservation efforts, information regarding endemic Seychelles Lepidoptera is very poor, because the majority of them are known from a single or a few specimens (Legrand 1966; Gerlach and Matyot 2006; Bolotov et al. 2014, 2015). The emerald moth specimens are lacking in extensive samples obtained by earlier collectors (Fletcher 1910; Scott 1910; Fryer 1912). Further, two emerald moth species in the genus Thalassodes Guenée, 1858 have been reported from Seychelles, i.e., the widespread T. quadraria Guenée, 1858 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015) and the endemic T. antithetica Herbulot, 1962. The latter species is known from eight specimens, collected between 1959 and 1963 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006). Herbulot (1962) provided a very short description of this species without any illustration. The protologue consists of a description of some external characters, i.e., antennae, palpi and legs, as well as the pattern of markings, but the male and female genitalia are not described. As the main diagnostic features, Herbulot (1962) noted two specific characters in the male morphology, namely the hind tibia with a single pair of spurs and an exceptional development of the lateral processes (octavals) on the posterior margin of the eighth sternite.

  2. Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for winter moth and Bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Elkinton, Joseph S; Lance, David; Boettner, George; Khrimian, Ashot; Leva, Natalie

    2011-04-01

    We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal Moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths than any other trap type. We ran the experiment on Cape Cod, MA, where we caught only winter moth, and in western Massachusetts, where we caught only Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a congener of winter moth native to North America that uses the same pheromone compound [(Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] and is difficult to distinguish from adult male winter moths. With Bruce spanworm, the Pherocon 1C sticky traps caught by far the most moths. We tested an isomer of the pheromone [(E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] that previous work had suggested would inhibit captures of Bruce spanworm but not winter moths. We found that the different doses and placements of the isomer suppressed captures of both species to a similar degree. We are thus doubtful that we can use the isomer to trap winter moths without also catching Bruce spanworm. Pheromone-baited survey traps will catch both species.

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the bag-shelter moth Ochrogaster lunifer (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Salvato, Paola; Simonato, Mauro; Battisti, Andrea; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Background Knowledge of animal mitochondrial genomes is very important to understand their molecular evolution as well as for phylogenetic and population genetic studies. The Lepidoptera encompasses more than 160,000 described species and is one of the largest insect orders. To date only nine lepidopteran mitochondrial DNAs have been fully and two others partly sequenced. Furthermore the taxon sampling is very scant. Thus advance of lepidopteran mitogenomics deeply requires new genomes derived from a broad taxon sampling. In present work we describe the mitochondrial genome of the moth Ochrogaster lunifer. Results The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is a circular molecule 15593 bp long. It includes the entire set of 37 genes usually present in animal mitochondrial genomes. It contains also 7 intergenic spacers. The gene order of the newly sequenced genome is that typical for Lepidoptera and differs from the insect ancestral type for the placement of trnM. The 77.84% A+T content of its α strand is the lowest among known lepidopteran genomes. The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer exhibits one of the most marked C-skew among available insect Pterygota genomes. The protein-coding genes have typical mitochondrial start codons except for cox1 that present an unusual CGA. The O. lunifer genome exhibits the less biased synonymous codon usage among lepidopterans. Comparative genomics analysis study identified atp6, cox1, cox2 as cox3, cob, nad1, nad2, nad4, and nad5 as potential markers for population genetics/phylogenetics studies. A peculiar feature of O. lunifer mitochondrial genome it that the intergenic spacers are mostly made by repetitive sequences. Conclusion The mitochondrial genome of O. lunifer is the first representative of superfamily Noctuoidea that account for about 40% of all described Lepidoptera. New genome shares many features with other known lepidopteran genomes. It differs however for its low A+T content and marked C-skew. Compared to other

  4. A New Species of Solitary Meteorus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Reared from Caterpillars of Toxic Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Scott R.; Jones, Guinevere Z.

    2009-01-01

    A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. A new species of parasitoid wasp, Meteorus rugonasus Shaw and Jones (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), is described from the Yanayacu Biological Station, Napo Province, Ecuador. The new species is diagnosed and compared to other species in the genus. It was reared from larvae of Pteronymia zerlina (Hewitson, 1855) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Ithomiinae) found feeding on leaves of Solanum (Solanaceae). The parasitoid is solitary. This is the first record of a Meteorus species attacking ithomiine Nymphalidae. PMID:19613877

  5. The “Taygetis ypthima species group” (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae): taxonomy, variation and description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Zacca, Thamara; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Freitas, André Victor Lucci; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Taygetis Hübner, [1819] (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) from southeastern Brazil is described: Taygetis drogoni sp. n. In addition, T. servius Weymer, 1910 and T. fulginia d’Almeida, 1922 are resurrected from synonymy and a taxonomic discussion on the species T. ypthima Hübner, [1821] and T. rectifascia Weymer, 1907 is provided. A dichotomous key for the species is also provided. PMID:24363572

  6. Constancy, Distribution, and Frequency of Lepidoptera Defoliators of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae) in Four Brazilian Regions.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, G T; Zanuncio, J C; de S Tavares, W; de S Ramalho, F; Serrão, J E

    2016-12-01

    The growth of the Brazilian forest sector with monocultures favors the adaptation of Arthropoda pests. The Lepidoptera order includes major pests of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). The aim of this work is to study the population constancy, distribution, and frequency of Lepidoptera primary pests of Eucalyptus spp. Lepidoptera pests in Eucalyptus spp. plantations were collected in Três Marias and Guanhães (state of Minas Gerais), Niquelândia (state of Goiás), and Monte Dourado (state of Pará), Brazil, for a period of 5 years, with light traps and captures, every 15 days, for every region. The number of primary pest species (12) has been similar in the four regions, and even with 1.5 to 2.4% of the total species collected, this group has shown a high frequency, especially in Três Marias, Niquelândia, and Monte Dourado, with 66.3, 54.2, and 40.0% of the individuals collected, respectively, for 5 years. The primary pest species have been constant and frequent in all the regions, with population peaks from February to September in Três Marias, February and May in Niquelândia, and from July to September in Monte Dourado. The highest population peaks of these species have been recorded when the Eucalyptus spp. plants are 3 to 6 years old. The Guanhães region is more stable and, therefore, has a lower possibility of outbreaks of the Lepidoptera primary pest species.

  7. Ecological and morphological characteristics of parasitoids in Phauda flammans (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Li, Jun; Su, Li; Liu, Jun-Yan; Meng, Ling-Yu; Lin, Min-Yi; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Phauda flammans Walker (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae) is one of the notorious defoliators on Ficus spp. trees. In order to avoid environmental pollution, potential biological control agents for P. flammans need to be investigated instead of chemical control. Four species of insect parasitoids were identified from P. flammans, including three hymenopteran species (i.e., Gotra octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Eurytoma verticillata) and one dipteran species (i.e., Exorista yunnanica). Parasitoid ratios of G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp., Eu. verticillata and Ex. yunnanica were 7.2%, 4.2%, 1.6% and 0.9%. The four species were all larval endoparasitoids of P. flammans larvae. Time of cocoon (pupa) to adult, life span, major axis of cocoon and body length of females were all longer compared to males for G. octocinctus, Apanteles sp. and Ex. yunnanica. Based on the parasitoid ratios, the most abundant parasitoid species was G. octocinctus. PMID:26651181

  8. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Diaphania pyloalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Qiu-Ning; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Yu; Lin, Kun-Zhang; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2013-09-15

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Diaphania pyloalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae) was determined to be 15,298 bp and has the typical gene organization of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. It consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A+T-rich region. The A+T content of this mitogenome is 80.83% and the AT skew is slightly positive. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which is initiated by CGA. Only the cox2 gene has an incomplete stop codon consisting of just a T. All the tRNA genes display a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The A+T-rich region of the mitogenome is 332 bp in length, including several common features found in lepidopteran mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the D. pyloalis is close to Pyralididae.

  9. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn.

    PubMed

    Throne, James E; Arbogast, Richard T

    2010-08-01

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn by using previously published data describing immature developmental times and survivorship, and adult longevity and fecundity. The model accurately simulated population development of Indianmeal moths in corn stored during fall and into winter of three separate storage seasons in South Carolina. This is the period when the Indianmeal moth is a pest in stored corn in South Carolina. The model predicted that populations would increase after winter as grain temperatures rose, but observed populations in the grain bins never increased after winter. Despite this, the model should be useful from a management perspective because the corn is being sold off or used up after winter, and the observed Indianmeal moth populations never reached damaging levels after winter.

  10. Activities of Apiaceae essential oils against armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Rose Marie O F; Rosa, José S; Oliveira, Luisa; Cunha, Ana; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

    2013-08-14

    Essential oils (EOs) from four Apiaceae species and 11 pure compounds were evaluated for their antifeedant, growth inhibitory, and insecticidal activities against Pseudaletia unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fourth-instar larvae. EOs from Foeniculum vulgare subsp. vulgare var. vulgare, Anethum graveolens , Petroselinum crispum , and Cuminum cyminum were characterized by gas-chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. Anti-insect activity varied according to plant specie/composition, type, and exposure period. EOs from P. crispum and A. graveolens fruits, trans-anethole and cuminaldehyde, exerted acute effects on larvae feeding and growth (FDI and GI > 70%). A. graveolens , C. cyminum , and F. vulgare EOs and some of their constituents were effective by fumigation (≥ 80%). Satisfactory contact toxicities (>70%) were observed for five compounds and all EOs, except F. vulgare EOs, when tested by the filter paper impregnation method. For the most active EOs/compounds, dose-dependent toxicity was determined and inverse relationships of LC50 with time were established.

  11. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae).

    PubMed

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300-400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the "Pico Cristal" National Park in the West and the "Alexander von Humbolt" National Park in the East.

  12. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n. from Cuba, the third West Indian Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe–Sagua–Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300–400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the “Pico Cristal” National Park in the West and the “Alexander von Humbolt” National Park in the East. PMID:24146561

  13. The complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined to be 15,374 bp (GenBank accession No. KF543065), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. It has the typical gene organization and order of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. The AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly positive and the nucleotide composition was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (81.03%). All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which was initiated by CGA. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The A + T-rich region of the mitogenome was 326 bp in length.

  14. The genus Visiana Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) in Australia: resurrection of two species from synonymy.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2015-09-29

    Based on the study of morphological characters and DNA barcode (CO1) data, the present review revealed the existence of at least three species of Visiana Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) in Australia. Visiana brujata (Guenée) is redescribed, and two species V. incertata (Walker), stat. rev. and V. repentinata (Walker), stat. rev. are resurrected from synonymy with V. brujata. Visiana breviaria (Walker), syn. rev., previously cited as a synonym of V. brujata, is now considered a synonym of V. incertata. Visiana brujata and V. incertata show close affinities with the sordidata group of species, whereas V. repentinata belongs to the vinosa species group. Images of adults and genitalia of all types are illustrated and the presence of the gnathos in the genus Visiana is discussed.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Chinese skipper, Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qichang; Zhao, Huidong; Chang, Yuan; Liu, Lu; Zhu, Jianqing; Yu, Weidong; Jiang, Weibin

    2016-07-01

    The sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Polytremis jigongi (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) has been presented in this article. It is 15,353 bp in length, with an A + T content of 80.9% containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, and a noncoding control region (D-loop). All of the 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes were found. All protein-coding genes started with ATN as a start codon except for the gene COX1 that uses CGA as in other lepidopteran species. Five protein-coding genes use incomplete stop codon TA or T, while the others use TAA as stop codons. Most of the tRNA genes can be folded into a typical cloverleaf structure. Nucleotide composition is similar to other insects, showing a high bias toward A + T. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the genome sequence of P. jigongi is close to Hesperiidae.

  16. Population genetic structure of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from apple orchards in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Contreras, Eduardo; Espinoza, Juan L; Lavandero, Blas; Ramírez, Claudio C

    2008-02-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the main pest of pome fruits worldwide. Despite its economic importance, little is known about the genetic structure and patterns of dispersal at the local and regional scale, which are important aspects for establishing a control strategy for this pest. An analysis of genetic variability using microsatellites was performed for 11 codling moth populations in the two major apple (Malus domestica Borkh) cropping regions in central Chile. Despite the geographical distances between some populations (approximately 185 km), there was low genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) = 0.002176), with only slight isolation by distance. Only approximately 0.2% of the genetic variability was found among the populations. Geographically structured genetic variation was independent of apple orchard management (production or abandoned). These results suggest a high genetic exchange of codling moth between orchards, possibly mediated by human activities related to fruit production.

  17. Infestation Level Influences Oviposition Site Selection in the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bawin, Thomas; De Backer, Lara; Dujeu, David; Legrand, Pauline; Caparros Megido, Rudy; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J.

    2014-01-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a devastating pest that develops principally on solanaceous plants throughout South and Central America and Europe. In this study, we tested the influence of three levels of T. absoluta infestations on the attraction and oviposition preference of adult T. absoluta. Three infestation levels (i.e., non-infested plants, plants infested with 10 T. absoluta larvae, and plants infested with 20 T. absoluta larvae) were presented by pairs in a flying tunnel to groups of T. absoluta adults. We found no differences in terms of adult attraction for either level of infestations. However, female oviposition choice is influenced by larvae density on tomato plants. We discuss the underlying mechanisms and propose recommendations for further research. PMID:26462946

  18. Assessment of insecticide resistance of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Emilia-Romagna region.

    PubMed

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Fano, Elisa Anna; Cassanelli, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    The European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is the key pest of vineyard, Vitis vinifera L. In Italy, failures in field chemical pest control have been recently reported. The susceptibility to insecticides indoxacarb, methoxyfenozide, and emamectin benzoate was then evaluated in a L. botrana population collected from a vineyard in Emilia-Romagna (northeastern Italy) where pest management programs achieved unsatisfactory results. The field trial showed that the indoxacarb efficacy toward L. botrana was very low in the two timings of application (7.9 and -1.5%) in comparison with untreated control, while the efficacy of methoxyfenozide (76.1%) and emamectin benzoate (88.8%) was high. The decreased efficacy of indoxacarb was also supported by the results of the laboratory bioassay on neonate L. botrana larvae, in which the resistance ratio was 72-fold in comparison with that of the susceptible strain.

  19. Taxonomic changes of some neotropical species of Arctiini Leach (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae).

    PubMed

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2017-05-30

    Arctiini (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) is the most speciose tribe of tiger moths. In this study, the taxonomy of some Neotropical species of this tribe is reviewed based on habitus and, in some cases, genitalia of type specimens. Lectotypes are designated for two names. Four new combinations are proposed: Agaraea sericeum (Zerny, 1931) comb. n., Biturix nigrostriata (Rothschild, 1909) comb. n., Carales fasciatus (Rothschild, 1909) comb. n. and Opharus pallida (Dognin, 1910) comb. n. Six new synonymies are proposed: Agaraea nigrotuberculata Bryk, 1953 (=Agaraea klagesi (Rothschild, 1909)), Opharus ochracea Joicey & Talbot, 1918 and Pelochyta fergusoni Watson & Goodger, 1986 (=Opharus pallida (Dognin, 1910)), Melese flavescens Joicey & Talbot, 1918 (=Melese paranensis Dognin, 1911), Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882) (=Pareuchaetes aurata aurata (Butler, 1875)) and Tessellota pura Breyer, 1957 (=Tessellota cancellata (Burmeister, 1878)). Moreover, Opharus ochracea Joicey & Talbot, 1918 comb. rev. is returned to the original genus. For each rearrangement, both remarks and information about type specimens are provided.

  20. One century after: a reappraisal of the gnathos (sensu Pierce, 1914)
    in Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2015-06-23

    One century ago, F.N. Pierce in his well-known monograph on the genitalia of Geometridae (Lepidoptera), divided the family into two major subdivisions, the Gnathoi and the Agnathoi, depending on the presence or absence of the gnathos in males. In his study, Pierce assigned the Larentiinae to the Agnathoi based on the apparent absence of the gnathos in this subfamily. A re-examination of the male genitalic characters of numerous larentiine species representing 14 different tribes provided, contrary to Pierce's results, evidence for the presence of the gnathos in Larentiinae. Illustrations of the gnathos (or its remnants) in male genitalia of selected species are provided and the value of the uncus and gnathos for inferring phylogenetic relationships is discussed.

  1. Revision of the Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group in the western Palaearctic (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae).

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, Pasi; Skou, Peder; Flamigni, Claudio; Fiumi, Gabriele; Hausmann, Axel

    2014-02-27

    The Palaearctic Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) species group is revised (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae). Four taxa are considered valid at species level: H. fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758), H. pinicolaria (Bellier, 1861), H. compararia (Staudinger, 1894) and one new species, H. mediterranea, from Italy: Sicily, Calabria and Molise. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Ellopia cedricola Wehrli, 1919, from Turkey is downgraded to subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (revised status), Hylaea fasciaria cleui Leraut, 1993, from France is downgraded from subspecies to synonymy with H. fasciaria fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) (new synonymy) and Ellopia compararia Staudinger, 1894, from Algeria is raised from subspecies of Hylaea fasciaria (Linnaeus, 1758) to species status (revised status). Hemithea squalidaria O. G. Costa, 1848 from southern Italy was placed in the genus Hylaea, but it is reverted to its original combination as its taxonomic status is uncertain. Adults, male and female genitalia and distribution maps are illustrated for all species. DNA barcodes are presented for most taxa studied.

  2. Can the amount of corn acreage predict fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) infestation levels in nearby cotton?

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rodney N

    2009-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a major pest of corn, Zea mays L., and a significant, but more sporadic, pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Western Hemisphere. Previous studies showed that the cotton infestations primarily involve a fall armyworm subpopulation known as the "corn-strain" for which corn is the preferred host plant. It was suggested that the fall armyworm infesting cotton originated in corn and spread into secondary hosts as their numbers increased. In this study, high positive correlations were found between corn acreage and fall armyworm infestation levels in cotton. These occurred between areas that are either geographically close or along plausible migration pathways. Formulae were derived from scatter plot and linear regression analysis that can predict infestation levels in cotton based on corn acreage. The implications of these results for describing and predicting fall armyworm population movements are discussed.

  3. Leucine transport is affected by Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 toxins in brush border membrane vesicles from Ostrinia nubilalis Hb (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) midgut.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, M Giovanna; Caccia, Silvia; González-Cabrera, Joel; Ferré, Juan; Giordana, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The pore-forming activity of Cry1Ab, Cry1Fa and Cry1Ca toxins and their interaction with leucine transport mediated by the K(+)/leucine cotransporter were studied in brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) isolated from the midgut of Ostrinia nubilalis and Sesamia nonagrioides. In both species, as in other Lepidoptera, leucine uptake by BBMVs can take place in the absence of cations, but it can also be driven by a K(+) gradient. Experiments with the voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye 3,3'-diethylthiacarbocyanine iodide proved that Cry1Ab, a Bacillus thuringiensis toxin active in vivo, enhanced the membrane permeability to potassium in O. nubilalis BBMVs. This result is in agreement with similar effects observed in S. nonagrioides BBMV incubated with various Cry1 toxins active in vivo. The effect of the above toxins was tested on the initial rate of 0.1 mM: leucine influx. Instead of an increase in leucine influx, a reduction was observed with the Cry1 toxins active in vivo. Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa, but not the inactive toxin Cry1Da, inhibited in a dose-dependent manner leucine uptake both in the absence and in the presence of a K(+) gradient, a clear indication that their effect is independent of the channel formed by the toxins and that this effect is exerted directly on the amino acid transport system.

  4. Allopatric distribution and diversification without niche shift in a bryophyte-feeding basal moth lineage (Lepidoptera: Micropterigidae).

    PubMed

    Imada, Yume; Kawakita, Atsushi; Kato, Makoto

    2011-10-22

    The Lepidoptera represent one of the most successful radiations of plant-feeding insects, which predominantly took place within angiosperms beginning in the Cretaceous period. Angiosperm colonization is thought to underlie the evolutionary success of the Lepidoptera because angiosperms provide an enormous range of niches for ecological speciation to take place. By contrast, the basal lepidopteran lineage, Micropterigidae, remained unassociated with angiosperms since Jurassic times but nevertheless achieved a modest diversity in the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the causes and processes of diversification of the Japanese micropterigid moths by performing molecular phylogenetic analysis and extensive ecological surveying. Phylogenetic analysis recovered a monophyletic group of approximately 25 East Asian endemic species that feed exclusively on the liverwort Conocephalum conicum, suggesting that niche shifts hardly played a role in their diversification. Consistent with the low flying ability of micropterigid moths, the distributions of the Conocephalum specialists are each localized and allopatric, indicating that speciation by geographical isolation has been the major process shaping the diversity of Japanese Micropterigidae. To our knowledge, this is the largest radiation of herbivorous insects that does not accompany any apparent niche differentiation. We suggest that the significance of non-ecological speciation during the diversification of the Lepidoptera is commonly underestimated.

  5. The first complete mitochondrial genome for the subfamily Limacodidae and implications for the higher phylogeny of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Bian, Dan-Dan; Chai, Xin-Yue; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) provides important information for understanding molecular evolution and phylogeny. To determine the systematic status of the family Limacodidae within Lepidoptera, we infer a phylogenetic hypothesis based on the complete mitogenome of Monema flavescens (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). The mitogenome of M. flavescens is 15,396 base pairs (bp), and includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR). The AT skew of this mitogenome is slightly negative and the nucleotide composition is also biased towards A + T nucleotides (80.5%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene, which is initiated by CGA. All tRNAs display the typical clover-leaf structure characteristic of mitochondrial tRNAs, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The mitogenome CR is 401 bp and consists of several features common to Lepidoptera. Phylogenetic analysis using Bayesian Inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) based on nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 mitochondrial PCGs indicates that M. flavescens belongs to Zygaenoidea. We obtain a well-supported phylogenetic tree consisting of Yponomeutoidea + (Tortricoidea + Zygaenoidea + (Papilionoidea + (Pyraloidea + (Noctuoidea + (Geometroidea + Bombycoidea))))). PMID:27767191

  6. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea)

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J. Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). PMID:26206895

  8. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area—volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area—volume ratios. PMID:28384308

  9. The relationship between epicuticular long-chained hydrocarbons and surface area - volume ratios in insects (Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael; Blüthgen, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are common components of the epicuticle of terrestrial arthropods. CHC serve as a protective barrier against environmental influences but also act as semiochemicals in animal communication. Regarding the latter aspect, species- or intra-functional group specific CHCs composition and variation are relatively well studied. However, comparative knowledge about the relationship of CHC quantity and their relation to surface area-volume ratios in the context of water loss and protection is fragmentary. Hence, we aim to study the taxon-specific relationship of the CHC amount and surface-area to volume ratio related to their functional role (e.g. in water loss). We focused on flower visiting insects and analyzed the CHC amounts of three insect orders (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We included 113 species from two grassland plots, quantified their CHCs, and measured their body mass and surface area. We found differences in the surface area, CHCs per body mass and the CHC density (= amount of CHCs per surface area) across the three insect taxa. Especially the Hymenoptera had a higher CHC density compared to Diptera and Lepidoptera. CHC density could be explained by surface area-volume ratios in Hymenoptera but not in Diptera and Lepidoptera. Unexpectedly, CHC density decreased with increasing surface area-volume ratios.

  10. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ∼2 wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers.

  11. A revised checklist of Nepticulidae fossils (Lepidoptera) indicates an Early Cretaceous origin.

    PubMed

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; Nieukerken, Erik J Van; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2015-05-27

    With phylogenetic knowledge of Lepidoptera rapidly increasing, catalysed by increasingly powerful molecular techniques, the demand for fossil calibration points to estimate an evolutionary timeframe for the order is becoming an increasingly pressing issue. The family Nepticulidae is a species rich, basal branch within the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera, characterized by larval leaf-mining habits, and thereby represents a potentially important lineage whose evolutionary history can be established more thoroughly with the potential use of fossil calibration points. Using our experience with extant global Nepticulidae, we discuss a list of characters that may be used to assign fossil leaf mines to Nepticulidae, and suggest useful methods for classifying relevant fossil material. We present a checklist of 79 records of Nepticulidae representing adult and leaf-mine fossils mentioned in literature, often with multiple exemplars constituting a single record. We provide our interpretation of these fossils. Two species now are included in the collective generic name Stigmellites: Stigmellites resupinata (Krassilov, 2008) comb. nov. (from Ophiheliconoma) and Stigmellites almeidae (Martins-Neto, 1989) comb. nov. (from Nepticula). Eleven records are for the first time attributed to Nepticulidae. After discarding several dubious records, including one possibly placing the family at a latest Jurassic position, we conclude that the oldest fossils likely attributable to Nepticulidae are several exemplars representing a variety of species from the Dakota Formation (USA). The relevant strata containing these earliest fossils are now dated at 102 Ma (million years ago) in age, corresponding to the latest Albian Stage of the Early Cretaceous. Integration of all records in the checklist shows that a continuous presence of nepticulid-like leaf mines preserved as compression-impression fossils and by amber entombment of adults have a fossil record extending to the latest Early Cretaceous.

  12. Mitochondrial genome characterization of Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and its phylogenetic relationship with other lepidopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Ríos, Viviana; Franco-Sierra, Nicolás D; Alvarez, Javier Correa; Saldamando-Benjumea, Clara I; Villanueva-Mejía, Diego F

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitogenome of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) was sequenced, annotated, characterized and compared with 140 species of the order Lepidoptera. The circular genome is 15,251 bp, containing 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A+T-rich region). The gene arrangement was identical to other lepidopteran mitogenomes but different from the ancestral arrangement found in most insects for the tRNA-Met gene (A+T-region, tRNA-I, tRNA-Q, tRNA-M). The mitogenome of T. solanivora is highly A+T-biased (78.2%) and exhibits negative AT- and GC-skews. All PCGs are initiated by canonical ATN start codons, except for Cytochrome Oxidase subunit 1 (COI), which is initiated by CGA. Most PCGs have a complete typical stop codon (TAA). Only NAD1 has a TAG stop codon and the COII and NAD5 genes have an incomplete stop codon consisting of just a T. The A+T-rich region is 332 bp long and contains common features found in lepidopteran mitogenomes, including the 'ATAGA' motif, a 17 bp poly (T) stretch and a (AT)8 element preceded by the 'ATTTA' motif. Other tandem repeats like (TAA)4 and (TAT)7 were found, as well as (T)6 and (A)10 mononucleotide repeat elements. Finally, this mitogenome has 20 intergenic spacer regions. The phylogenetic relationship of T. solanivora with 28 other lepidopteran families (12 superfamilies) showed that taxonomic classification by morphological features coincides with the inferred phylogeny. Thus, the Gelechiidae family represents a monophyletic group, suggesting that T. solanivora and Pectinophora gossypiella have a recent common ancestor.

  13. Exploring phenotypic plasticity and biogeography in emerald moths: A phylogeny of the genus Nemoria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Canfield, Michael R; Greene, Erick; Moreau, Corrie S; Chen, Nancy; Pierce, Naomi E

    2008-11-01

    The moth genus Nemoria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) includes 134 described species whose larvae and adults display a considerable range of phenotypic plasticity in coloration and morphology. We reconstructed the phylogeny of 54 species of Nemoria and seven outgroups using characters from the mitochondrial genes, Cytochrome Oxidase I and II (COI and COII), and the nuclear gene, Elongation Factor-alpha (EF-1alpha). Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used to infer the phylogeny. The 54 ingroup species represented 13 of the 15 recognized species groups of Nemoria [Ferguson, D.C., 1985. Fasc. 18.1, Geometroidea: Geometridae (in part). In: Dominick, R.B. (Ed.), The Moths of America North of Mexico, Fasc. 18.1. Wedge Entomological Research Foundation, Washington; Pitkin, L.M., 1993. Neotropical emerald moths of the genera Nemoria, Lissochlora and Chavarriella, with particular reference to the species of Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Geometrinae). Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. 62, 39-159], and the seven outgroups came from four tribes of Geometrinae. These data support Nemoria as a monophyletic group and largely recover the species groupings proposed in previous taxonomic analyses using morphological characters. Phenotypic plasticity of larvae is not correlated with plasticity of adults among those species of Nemoria where life histories are known, and appears to be evolutionarily labile for both life history stages: Species exhibiting larval phenotypic plasticity, such as N. arizonaria and N. outina, are placed in several distinct clades, suggesting that this trait has evolved multiple times, and species displaying adult phenotypic plasticity are likewise distributed throughout the phylogeny. A comparative analysis of the biogeographic history of Nemoria supports a South American origin for the genus with multiple introductions into North America, and an application of published substitution rates to the phylogram provides an age estimate

  14. Linkage map of the peppered moth, Biston betularia (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a model of industrial melanism.

    PubMed

    Van't Hof, A E; Nguyen, P; Dalíková, M; Edmonds, N; Marec, F; Saccheri, I J

    2013-03-01

    We have constructed a linkage map for the peppered moth (Biston betularia), the classical ecological genetics model of industrial melanism, aimed both at localizing the network of loci controlling melanism and making inferences about chromosome dynamics. The linkage map, which is based primarily on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and genes, consists of 31 linkage groups (LGs; consistent with the karyotype). Comparison with the evolutionarily distant Bombyx mori suggests that the gene content of chromosomes is highly conserved. Gene order is conserved on the autosomes, but noticeably less so on the Z chromosome, as confirmed by physical mapping using bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC-FISH). Synteny mapping identified three pairs of B. betularia LGs (11/29, 23/30 and 24/31) as being orthologous to three B. mori chromosomes (11, 23 and 24, respectively). A similar finding in an outgroup moth (Plutella xylostella) indicates that the B. mori karyotype (n=28) is a phylogenetically derived state resulting from three chromosome fusions. As with other Lepidoptera, the B. betularia W chromosome consists largely of repetitive sequence, but exceptionally we found a W homolog of a Z-linked gene (laminin A), possibly resulting from ectopic recombination between the sex chromosomes. The B. betularia linkage map, featuring the network of known melanization genes, serves as a resource for melanism research in Lepidoptera. Moreover, its close resemblance to the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype (n=31) makes it a useful reference point for reconstructing chromosome dynamic events and ancestral genome architectures. Our study highlights the unusual evolutionary stability of lepidopteran autosomes; in contrast, higher rates of intrachromosomal rearrangements support a special role of the Z chromosome in adaptive evolution and speciation.

  15. Production, identification, and field evaluation of sex pheromone from calling females in Diaphania angustalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Tao; Liu, Zhitao; Wang, Cai; Zhang, Shengnan; Shi, Xianhui; Sun, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaoyang; Jia, Caijuan; Wang, Changlu; He, Yurong; Wen, Xiujun

    2017-09-12

    Insect sex pheromones play a crucial role in the mate finding and calling behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Currently, little is known about the chemical ecology of Diaphania angustalis Snellen (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a severe and important defoliator attacking the medicinal plant, Alstonia scholaris. In the present study, the pheromone components of D. angustalis females were investigated using electrophysiological and behavioral methods. Distilled hexane extracts of female pheromone glands were analyzed through electroantennogram (EAG) and gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC-EAD), and the active compounds were identified through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Production peak of female sex pheromone occurred on the third day of age at 5 h into the scotophase with the EAG test, and the hexane extracts were attractive to males in the wind tunnel test. GC-EAD analysis of virgin males to gland extracts that were subsequently evaluated showed two active compounds, (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadienal (E10E12-16:Ald) and (E,E)-10,12-hexadecadien-1-ol (E10E12-16:OH), based on comparison of retention time and mass spectrum, with suitable synthetic compounds. Under laboratory conditions, the blend of E10E12-16:Ald and E10E12-16:OH in a ratio of 9:1 elicited a stronger EAG response than other treatments or a single component. In the field, more male moths were captured by traps baited with the mixture of E10E2-16:Ald and E10E2-16:OH in a ratio of 9:1, whereas a mixture of 8:1 and 10:1 also caught males. Accordingly, E10E2-16:Ald and E10E2-16:OH were regarded as the major sex pheromone components in D. angustalis females.

  16. Molecular diversity of Wolbachia in Lepidoptera: Prevalent allelic content and high recombination of MLST genes.

    PubMed

    Ilinsky, Yury; Kosterin, Oleg E

    2017-04-01

    Wolbachia are common endosymbiotic bacteria of Arthropoda and Nematoda that are ordinarily transmitted vertically in host lineages through the egg cytoplasm. Despite the great interest in the Wolbachia symbiont, many issues of its biology remain unclear, including its evolutionary history, routes of transfer among species, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the symbiont's effect on its host. In this report, we present data relating to Wolbachia infection in 120 species of 13 Lepidoptera families, mostly butterflies, from West Siberian localities based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the wsp locus and perform a comprehensive survey of the distribution of Wolbachia and its genetic diversity in Lepidoptera worldwide. We observed a high infection incidence in the studied region; this finding is probably also true for other temperate latitude regions because many studied species have broad Palearctic and even Holarctic distribution. Although 40 new MLST alleles and 31 new STs were described, there was no noticeable difference in the MLST allele content in butterflies and probably also in moths worldwide. A genetic analysis of Wolbachia strains revealed the MLST allele core in lepidopteran hosts worldwide, viz. the ST-41 allele content. The key finding of our study was the detection of rampant recombination among MLST haplotypes. High rates of homologous recombination between Wolbachia strains indicate a substantial contribution of genetic exchanges to the generation of new STs. This finding should be considered when discussing issues related to the reconstruction of Wolbachia evolution, divergence time, and the routes of Wolbachia transmission across arthropod hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A synopsis of the genus Ethmia Hübner in Costa Rica: biology, distribution, and description of 22 new species (Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea, Depressariidae, Ethmiinae), with emphasis on the 42 species known from Área de Conservación Guanacaste.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Rodríguez, Eugenie; Powell, Jerry A; Hallwachs, Winnie; Janzen, Daniel H

    2014-01-01

    We discuss 45 Costa Rican species of Ethmia Hübner, 1819, including 23 previously described: Ethmiadelliella (Fernald), Ethmiabittenella (Busck), Ethmiafestiva Busck, Ethmiascythropa Walsingham, Ethmiaperpulchra Walsingham, Ethmiaterpnota Walsingham, Ethmiaelutella Busck, Ethmiajanzeni Powell, Ethmiaungulatella Busck, Ethmiaexornata (Zeller), Ethmiaphylacis Walsingham, Ethmiamnesicosma Meyrick, Ethmiachemsaki Powell, Ethmiabaliostola Walsingham, Ethmiaduckworthi Powell, Ethmiasandra Powell, Ethmianigritaenia Powell, Ethmiacatapeltica Meyrick, Ethmialichyi Powell, Ethmiatransversella Busck, Ethmiasimilatella Busck, Ethmiahammella Busck, Ethmialinda Busck, and 22 new species: Ethmiablaineorum, Ethmiamillerorum, Ethmiadianemillerae, Ethmiaadrianforsythi, Ethmiastephenrumseyi, Ethmiaberndkerni, Ethmiadimauraorum, Ethmiabillalleni, Ethmiaehakernae, Ethmiahelenmillerae, Ethmiajohnpringlei, Ethmialaphamorum, Ethmiapetersterlingi, Ethmialesliesaulae, Ethmiaturnerorum, Ethmianormgershenzi, Ethmianicholsonorum, Ethmiahendersonorum, Ethmiarandyjonesi, Ethmiarandycurtisi, Ethmiamiriamschulmanae and Ethmiatilneyorum. We illustrate all species and their male and female genitalia, along with distribution maps of Costa Rican localities. Immature stages are illustrated for 11 species, and food plants are listed when known. Gesneriaceae is added as a new food plant family record for Ethmia. CO1 nucleotide sequences ("DNA barcodes") were obtained for 41 of the species.

  18. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Beccacece, Hernán M; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R

    2014-01-01

    Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev.

  19. The type-material of Arctiinae (Lepidoptera, Erebidae) described by Burmeister and Berg in the collection of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán M.; Vincent, Benoit; Navarro, Fernando R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlos G. Burmeister and Carlos Berg were among the most important and influential naturalists and zoologists in Argentina and South America and described 241 species and 34 genera of Lepidoptera. The Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (MACN) housed some of the Lepidoptera type specimens of these authors. In this study we present a catalogue with complete information and photographs of 11 Burmeister type specimens and 10 Berg type specimens of Phaegopterina, Arctiina and Pericopina (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae, Arctiini) housed in the MACN. Lectotypes or holotypes were designated where primary type specimens could be recognized; in some cases we were not able to recognize types. The catalogue also proposes nomenclatural changes and new synonymies: Opharus picturata (Burmeister, 1878), comb. n.; Opharus brunnea Gaede, 1923: 7, syn. n.; Hypocrisias jonesi (Schaus, 1894), syn. n.; Leucanopsis infucata (Berg, 1882), stat. rev.; Paracles argentina (Berg, 1877), sp. rev.; Paracles uruguayensis (Berg, 1886), sp. rev. PMID:25061380

  20. Selection and Suitability of an Artificial Diet for Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Based on Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Bajonero, J. G.; Parra, J. R. P.

    2017-01-01

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) is a key tomato pest in South America and, recently, in Europe and Africa. To develop efficient control methods for this pest, adequate rearing protocols are desirable. As an alternative to tomato leaves (natural diet), we evaluated four artificial diets. Biological traits including larval and pupal viability and development time, pupal weight and deformations were assessed. Additionally, the optimum container size and larval density were evaluated. The diet based on casein, wheat germ and cellulose allowed the best development of T. absoluta, showing higher viability and no negative effects on larval instars and pupal weight. The best container was a glass tube measuring Ø 1 × h 6 cm, topped with waterproof cotton, with a density of three larvae. To evaluate the suitability of this diet, T. absoluta was reared during eight generations and life-table parameters were estimated for the F1, F3, F6, and F8 generations. The total viability (egg–adult) increased over the generations, reaching 75% in the eighth generation. Based on life-table estimations no differences among generations were found. The net reproductive rate (Ro) was higher than 40, the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) ranged between 0.08 and 0.11, the finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.1, the mean generation time (T) have a maximum of 44 d and doubling time ranged from 5.89–8.32 generations. These results indicated that a diet based on casein, wheat germ and cellulose was suitable for T. absoluta rearing in laboratory conditions. PMID:28042106

  1. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C)) to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ) exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0) into (Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z)-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z)-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone biosynthesis of a non

  2. Expression and evolution of hexamerins from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and other Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Burmester, Thorsten

    2015-07-01

    Hexamerins are large hemolymph-proteins that accumulate during the late larval stages of insects. Hexamerins have emerged from hemocyanin, but have lost the ability to bind oxygen. Hexamerins are mainly considered as storage proteins for non-feeding stages, but may also have other functions, e.g. in cuticle formation, transport and immune response. The genome of the hornworm Manduca sexta harbors six hexamerin genes. Two of them code for arylphorins (Msex2.01690, Msex2.15504) and two genes correspond to a methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.10735) and a moderately methionine-rich hexamerin (Msex2.01694), respectively. Two other genes do not correspond to any known hexamerin and distantly resemble the arylphorins (Msex2.01691, Msex2.01693). Five of the six hexamerin genes are clustered within ∼45 kb on scaffold 00023, which shows conserved synteny in various lepidopteran genomes. The methionine-rich hexamerin gene is located at a distinct site. M. sexta and other Lepidoptera have lost the riboflavin-binding hexamerin. With the exception of Msex2.01691, which displays low mRNA levels throughout the life cycle, all hexamerins are most highly expressed during pre-wandering phase of the 5th larval instar of M. sexta, supporting their role as storage proteins. Notably, Msex2.01691 is most highly expressed in the brain, suggesting a divergent function. Phylogenetic analyses showed that hexamerin evolution basically follows insect systematics. Lepidoptera display an unparalleled diversity of hexamerins, which exceeds that of other hexapod orders. In contrast to previous analyses, the lepidopteran hexamerins were found monophyletic. Five distinct types of hexamerins have been identified in this order, which differ in terms of amino acid composition and evolutionary history: i. the arylphorins, which are rich in aromatic amino acids (∼20% phenylalanine and tyrosine), ii. the distantly related arylphorin-like hexamerins, iii. the methionine-rich hexamerins, iv. the

  3. Ryanodine receptor point mutations confer diamide insecticide resistance in tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Roditakis, Emmanouil; Steinbach, Denise; Moritz, Gerald; Vasakis, Emmanouil; Stavrakaki, Marianna; Ilias, Aris; García-Vidal, Lidia; Martínez-Aguirre, María Del Rosario; Bielza, Pablo; Morou, Evangelia; Silva, Jefferson E; Silva, Wellington M; Siqueira, Ηerbert A A; Iqbal, Sofia; Troczka, Bartlomiej J; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Vontas, John; Nauen, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Insect ryanodine receptors (RyR) are the molecular target-site for the recently introduced diamide insecticides. Diamides are particularly active on Lepidoptera pests, including tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). High levels of diamide resistance were recently described in some European populations of T. absoluta, however, the mechanisms of resistance remained unknown. In this study the molecular basis of diamide resistance was investigated in a diamide resistant strain from Italy (IT-GELA-SD4), and additional resistant field populations collected in Greece, Spain and Brazil. The genetics of resistance was investigated by reciprocally crossing strain IT-GELA-SD4 with a susceptible strain and revealed an autosomal incompletely recessive mode of inheritance. To investigate the possible role of target-site mutations as known from diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), we sequenced respective domains of the RyR gene of T. absoluta. Genotyping of individuals of IT-GELA-SD4 and field-collected strains showing different levels of diamide resistance revealed the presence of G4903E and I4746M RyR target-site mutations. These amino acid substitutions correspond to those recently described for diamide resistant diamondback moth, i.e. G4946E and I4790M. We also detected two novel mutations, G4903V and I4746T, in some of the resistant T. absoluta strains. Radioligand binding studies with thoracic membrane preparations of the IT-GELA-SD4 strain provided functional evidence that these mutations alter the affinity of the RyR to diamides. In combination with previous work on P. xylostella our study highlights the importance of position G4903 (G4946 in P. xylostella) of the insect RyR in defining sensitivity to diamides. The discovery of diamide resistance mutations in T. absoluta populations of diverse geographic origin has serious implications for the efficacy of diamides under applied conditions. The implementation of appropriate resistance

  4. A review of five species, and descriptions of three new species, in the genus Ogdoconta Butler (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexcio

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The species of the genus Ogdoconta Butler, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Condicinae, Condicini) from North America north of Mexico are reviewed, and a description of the genus is given. Ogdoconta satana Metzler, Knudson, & Poole, new species, is described from New Mexico and Texas, Ogdoconta rufipen...

  5. Evaluation of the effects of light entensity and time interval after the start of scotophase on the female flight propensity of Asian gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae)

    Treesearch

    Fang Chen; Juan Shi; Melody Keena

    2016-01-01

    Asian gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), females are capable of flight, but little is known about what causes the variation in flight propensity that has been observed. The female flight propensity and capability of Asian gypsy moth from seven geographic populations (three from China, two from Russia, one from Japan, and one...

  6. Geographical range and laboratory studies on Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a candidate for biological control of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pest that threatens native Opuntia spp. in North America. Control tactics developed and implemented against this invasive pest successfully eradicated the moth in Mexico and on barrier islands in the United States. However,...

  7. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Treesearch

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  8. Biology, behavior, and larval morphology of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Alexander Castillo; M. Tracy Johnson; Francisco R. Badenes-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    The leaf roller Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae), was studied in Costa Rica. Larvae were collected from a field site near San Jose and the insect was reared in the laboratory to study its biology and behavior. Chaetotaxy and...

  9. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  10. Phenology and egg production of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum(Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): comparison of field census data and life stage development in the field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural phenology and development of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was studied under field conditions in St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge, St. Marks, FL. from July 2006 to September 2007. Cactus pads (Opuntia stricta Haw. [Cactaceae]) were visually surveyed...

  11. Field host range of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a potential biocontrol agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was successfully used for biological control of Opuntia spp. (Cactaceae) in Australia and South Africa, where no native cacti occur. Since 1989, this South American moth has been invading the southeastern United States, threatening the unique ca...

  12. The leafmining Leurocephala schinusae (Lepidoptera Gracillariidae): Not suitable for the biological control of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales Anacardiaceae)in continental USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leurocephala schinusae Davis & Mc Kay (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was studied to assess its suitability as a biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), a serious environmental weed in the USA and elsewhere in the world. The host range was determined by ...

  13. Biological and ecological consequences of Diolcogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) parasitizing Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and the effects on two Costus (Costaceae) plant species in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Costus spicatus and Costus spiralis var. spiralis (Costaceae) are economically important plants due to their pharmacological and medicinal properties and ornamental value. These plants are natives from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest and are fed upon by Agaraea minuta (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Thi...

  14. CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) CpomOR1 gene affects egg production and viability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of pome fruit worldwide. The inclusion of semiochemicals, including the main sex pheromone (codlemone), in codling moth IPM programs has drastically reduced the amount of chemical insecticides needed to control this ...

  15. (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-Pentacosapentaene and (Z) -11-Hexadecenyl Acetate: sex attractant blend for Dioryctria amatella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Treesearch

    Daniel Miller; Jocelyn Millar; Alex Mangini; Christopher Crowe; Gary Grant

    2010-01-01

    In 2006-2008, we tested (3Z,6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)-pentacosapentaene (pentaene) with the pheromone components (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), as sex attractants for four sympatric species of coneworms, Dioryctria Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in slash (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) and...

  16. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam....

  17. Field evaluation of effect of temperature on release of Disparlure from a pheromone-baited trapping system used to monitor gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)

    Treesearch

    Patrick C. Tobin; Aijun Zhang; Ksenia Onufrieva; Donna Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Traps baited with disparlure, the synthetic form of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), sex pheromone are used to detect newly founded populations and estimate population density across the United States. The lures used in trapping devices are exposed to field conditions with varying climates, which can affect the rate...

  18. Two psammophilic noctuids (Lepidoptera) newly associated with beach plum Prunus maritima: The Dune Noctuid (Sympistis riparia) and Coastal Heathland Cutworm (Abagrotis nefascia) in Northeastern North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beach Plum Prunus maritima Marshall 1785 not Wangenh. 1787 (Rosaceae) represents both a new crop under development and an under-acknowledged host plant for several Lepidoptera rthat have undergone declines in the Northeastern USA. The Coastal Heathland Cutworm Abagrotis nefascia (Smith) and the Dune...

  19. First record of soybean as a host plant of a subspecies of the eastern tailed-blue, Cupido comyntas comyntas (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A multitude of invertebrate herbivores feeds upon soybean in North America, with many species considered to be pests of soybean in northern U.S. production areas. Cupido comyntas, the eastern tailed-blue (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), is a legume-feeding caterpillar native to North America. One of its...

  20. Toward reconstructing the hyper-diverse radiation of ditrysian Lepidoptera (Insecta): initial evidence from 123 exemplars and 5 protein-coding nuclear genes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 species total), 98% of the species fall in the clade Ditrysia, relationships within which are little understood. As the first step in a long-term study of ditrysian phylogeny, we tested the ability of maximum likelihood ana...

  1. Mating disruption of the navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) using widely spaced, aerosol dispensers: is the pheromone blend the most efficacious disruptant?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a key pest of almonds and pistachios and is sometimes controlled using mating disruption as part of a program of integrated management. The formulation used has a single, non-attractive compound [(Z,Z)-11-13-hexadecadie...

  2. Three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 (Lepidoptera: Gelechioidea: Depressariidae) from Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We describe three new species of Rectiostoma Becker, 1982 from Costa Rica: R. annemayae Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov., R. eowilsoni Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. and R. philipmayi Heikkilä and Metz spec. nov. We used a data set of DNA COI-barcodes accumulated for Lepidoptera collected at Area de Conse...

  3. Diet flight pattern and flight performance of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) measured on a flight mill: The influence of age, gender, mating status and body size

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is an invasive herbivore that poses a serious risk to the rich diversity of Opuntia cacti in North America. Knowledge of the flight behavior of the cactus moth is crucial for a better understanding of natural dispersal, and for both monitoring an...

  4. Influence of trap design on upwind flight behavior and capture of female grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidea) with a kairomone lure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Oil-coated clear panel traps baited with a host plant-based kairomone lure are effective in monitoring female grape berry moth (GBM), Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera:Tortricidae), but servicing these traps in a vineyard is cumbersome. In this study, we compared the performance of differen...

  5. Physiological basis of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance in the seedlings of maize inbred lines with varying levels of silk maysin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To assess both foliage- and ear-feeding insect resistance in the same maize inbred lines, fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) resistance at the seedling stage was examined in six corn inbred lines. The six inbred lines included the four CIMMYT maize inbred...

  6. An Empirical Test of the F2 Screen for Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis-Resistance Alleles in Tobacco Budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insects exposed to genetically-modified crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are under intense selection pressure that could result in widespread Bt resistance. Screening for early indications of Bt resistance developing in targeted Lepidoptera is conducted in many of the regions wher...

  7. Effect of gossypol and gossypol related compounds on mulberry pyralid (diaphania pyloalis walker, lepidoptera: pyralidae), a pest of the Mulberry Tree

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gossypol, gossypurpurin and diaminogossypol were tested for inhibitory effects against feeding mulberry pyralid larvae (Diaphania pyloalis Walker, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The inclusion of very low concentrations of these compounds (10, 50 or 100 µmoles/g) in artificial diets increased the number of...

  8. Acrapex azumai Sugi (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) as a possible biological control agent of the invasive weed Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae) in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lepidopteran larvae were discovered boring in the basal stems of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae) in Itoshima city, Fukuoka Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan. Adults reared from these larvae were identified as Acrapex azumai Sugi (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Sequencing of the CO1 (cytochrome oxidase 1...

  9. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  10. Disruption of the leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus: effect of blend and placement height, longevity of disruption and emission profile of a new dispenser

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent efforts to disrupt mating of the leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a global pest of citrus, have focused on the use of SPLAT™ (ISCA Technologies), a flowable wax emulsion intended to serve as a slow-release matrix for pheromones. Early success with this...

  11. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-01-01

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed. PMID:26462824

  12. [Identification of host plants of the avocado borer, Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) in Rio Grande do Sul].

    PubMed

    Link, Dionísio; Link, Fabio M

    2008-01-01

    Fruits of Nectandra megapotamica Mez and Cinnamomum camphora (L.) (Lauraceae) were collected in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2004. Species of five families of insects were found inside the fruits: two fly species (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Drosophila spp.), six beetle species, Heilipus sp., Conotrachelus sp. (Curculionidae), Hypothenemus sp. (Scolytidae) and three species of Carpophilus (Nitidulidae), and moths (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae). The moth especimes were identified as Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, the avocado borer. The occurrence of the moth was predominant from early April until middle May. The natural larval infestation level was low. Two new host plant of the pest were identified.

  13. An overlooked sibling of the fruit-piercing moth Eudocima phalonia (Linnaeus, 1763) from Africa (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Calpinae).

    PubMed

    Brou, V A; Zilli, A

    2016-05-09

    In recent years, we have been investigating the tropical calpine genus Eudocima Billberg, 1920 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Calpinae) with the intent of producing a generic revision. There are a number of undescribed species and here we describe as new a closely related species to the widespread and economically important fruit-piercer Eudocima phalonia (Linnaeus, 1763) (= fullonia Clerck, 1764), with which it has long been confused. Study material came from the private collection of Vernon Antoine Brou collection (VAB) and the Natural History Museum, London (NHM).

  14. Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Paul-André; Le Ru, Bruno P; van den Berg, Johnnie; Schulthess, Fritz

    2014-07-08

    Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important pest of maize and sorghum in sub-Saharan Africa. One century after its first description by Fuller in 1901, inaccurate information based on earlier reports are still propagated on its distribution (e.g., absent from the lower altitudes in East Africa) and host plant range (e.g., feeding on a large range of wild grass species). This review provides updated information on the biology, distribution and genetics of B. fusca with emphasis on insect-plant interactions. Related to this, new avenues of stem borer management are proposed.

  15. First Occurrence of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Parasitizing Eggs of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dudczak, A C; Querino, R B; Foerster, M R; Foerster, L A

    2017-08-01

    The occurrence of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is described for the first time parasitizing eggs of the velvetbean caterpillar Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) in Lapa, Paraná, Brazil. This parasitoid was successfully kept in the laboratory on eggs of the velvetbean caterpillar; previously, this species was mainly associated with forest and fruit trees environments, although snap beans and other annual crops were also recorded as hosting lepidopteran eggs parasitized by T. bruni. This is the sixth Trichogramma species recorded parasitizing eggs of A. gemmatalis on soybeans in Brazil.

  16. Comparison of the structure and musculature of male terminalia in the tribes Operophterini, Phileremini and Triphosini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2017-02-27

    The skeleton and musculature of the male terminalia are described and illustrated for the tribes Operophterini Packard, Phileremini Pierce and Triphosini Tutt (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Larentiinae), with Solitaneini Leraut included in the discussion. Nine genital muscles, typical of the subfamily, were identified. The previously uncertain separation of Triphosini from Rheumapterini Herbulot is confirmed, based on the morphology of male terminalia, including the position of extensors and flexors of the valvae. Based on the morphology, a close relationship of the Phileremini, Solitaneini, Triphosini and also Operophterini is suggested. Additionally, some notes on the most recent molecular phylogeny of the Larentiinae are included.

  17. Geographic Origin and Host Cultivar Influence on Digestive Physiology of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Golikhajeh, Neshat; Naseri, Bahram; Razmjou, Jabraeil

    2017-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity in three geographic strains (Miandiab, Kalposh and Moghan regions) of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on different sugar beet cultivars (Dorothea, Rozier, Persia and Perimer) was studied under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% RH, and a photo period of 16:8 (L:D) h photoperiod). The results of this study demonstrated that digestive protease and amylase activity of S. exigua larvae was affected by both geographic origin of the pest and host plant cultivar. Three strains reared on the same sugar beet cultivars demonstrated different levels of proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth and fifth instars. The highest proteolytic and amylolytic activity, in most cases, was observed in larvae collected from Kalposh region. Among different sugar beet cultivars, the highest protease activity in three strains was observed on cultivars Rozier and Perimer. Nevertheless, the highest amylase activity was seen on cultivar Dorothea, and the lowest activity was seen on cultivar Rozier. This study suggested that variations in digestive enzymatic activity of three geographic strains of S. exigua might be attributed to local adaptation with their local host plant and environmental conditions inherent by larvae. PMID:28069730

  18. Wedding biodiversity inventory of a large and complex Lepidoptera fauna with DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, Daniel H; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; Burns, John M; Hallwachs, Winnie; Remigio, Ed; Hebert, Paul D.N

    2005-01-01

    By facilitating bioliteracy, DNA barcoding has the potential to improve the way the world relates to wild biodiversity. Here we describe the early stages of the use of cox1 barcoding to supplement and strengthen the taxonomic platform underpinning the inventory of thousands of sympatric species of caterpillars in tropical dry forest, cloud forest and rain forest in northwestern Costa Rica. The results show that barcoding a biologically complex biota unambiguously distinguishes among 97% of more than 1000 species of reared Lepidoptera. Those few species whose barcodes overlap are closely related and not confused with other species. Barcoding also has revealed a substantial number of cryptic species among morphologically defined species, associated sexes, and reinforced identification of species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically. For barcoding to achieve its full potential, (i) ability to rapidly and cheaply barcode older museum specimens is urgent, (ii) museums need to address the opportunity and responsibility for housing large numbers of barcode voucher specimens, (iii) substantial resources need be mustered to support the taxonomic side of the partnership with barcoding, and (iv) hand-held field-friendly barcorder must emerge as a mutualism with the taxasphere and the barcoding initiative, in a manner such that its use generates a resource base for the taxonomic process as well as a tool for the user. PMID:16214742

  19. Digestive Physiology and Nutritional Responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Sugar Beet Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Bahram; Golikhajeh, Neshat; Rahimi Namin, Foroogh

    2016-01-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and nutritional responses of Autographa gamma (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an important insect pest of sugar beet, on nine sugar beet cultivars (Peritra, Karolina, Paolita, Lenzier, Tiller, Ardabili, Persia, Rozier, and Dorothea) were studied. The highest proteolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar of A. gamma was in larvae fed on cultivar Persia. The highest amylolytic activity of fourth and fifth instar was observed in larvae fed on cultivars Rozier and Dorothea, respectively. The lowest proteolytic and amylolytic activities in fourth instar were observed on cultivar Tiller; whereas the lowest activities in fifth instar were detected on cultivars Karolina and Tiller, respectively. Larval weight in both larval instars (fourth and fifth) was the heaviest on cultivar Persia and the lightest on cultivar Karolina. Furthermore, weight gain of larvae was the highest on cultivar Persia and the lowest on cultivar Karolina. The results of this study suggest that cultivar Tiller was the most unsuitable host plant for feeding of A. gamma. PMID:27324581

  20. Bioecology of Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and associated larval parasitoids reared from Hass avocados in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Hoddle, Mark S; Hoddle, Christina D

    2008-06-01

    A 10-wk study of the avocado seed-feeding moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae), was conducted in a commercial 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller [Lauraceae]) orchard in Guatemala. Up to 45% of fruit in the orchard were damaged by larval S. catenifer. Larval-to-adult survivorship for 1,881 S. catenifer larvae in Hass fruit was 37%, and adult sex ratio was 51% female. Four species of larval parasitoid were reared from field-collected S. catenifer larvae. The most common parasitoid reared was a gregarious Apanteles sp., which parasitized 53% of larvae and produced on average eight to nine cocoons per host. Apanteles sp. sex ratio was 47% female and 87% of parasitoids emerged successfully from cocoons. Apanteles sp. longevity was approximately equal to 1.5 d in the absence of food, and when provisioned with honey, parasitoids survived for 5-7 d. The mean number of cocoons produced by Apanteles sp. per host, and larval parasitism rates were not significantly affected by the number of S. catenifer larvae inhabiting seeds. Oviposition studies conducted with S. catenifer in the laboratory indicated that this moth lays significantly more eggs on the branch to which the fruit pedicel is attached than on avocado fruit. When given a choice between Hass and non-Hass avocados, S. catenifer lays up to 2.69 times more eggs on Hass.

  1. When caterpillars attack: biogeography and life history evolution of the Miletinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Kaliszewska, Zofia A; Lohman, David J; Sommer, Kathrin; Adelson, Glenn; Rand, Douglas B; Mathew, John; Talavera, Gerard; Pierce, Naomi E

    2015-03-01

    Of the four most diverse insect orders, Lepidoptera contains remarkably few predatory and parasitic species. Although species with these habits have evolved multiple times in moths and butterflies, they have rarely been associated with diversification. The wholly aphytophagous subfamily Miletinae (Lycaenidae) is an exception, consisting of nearly 190 species distributed primarily throughout the Old World tropics and subtropics. Most miletines eat Hemiptera, although some consume ant brood or are fed by ant trophallaxis. A well-resolved phylogeny inferred using 4915 bp from seven markers sampled from representatives of all genera and nearly one-third the described species was used to examine the biogeography and evolution of biotic associations in this group. Biogeographic analyses indicate that Miletinae likely diverged from an African ancestor near the start of the Eocene, and four lineages dispersed between Africa and Asia. Phylogenetic constraint in prey selection is apparent at two levels: related miletine species are more likely to feed on related Hemiptera, and related miletines are more likely to associate with related ants, either directly by eating the ants, or indirectly by eating hemipteran prey that are attended by those ants. These results suggest that adaptations for host ant location by ovipositing female miletines may have been retained from phytophagous ancestors that associated with ants mutualistically. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142

  3. Supercooling Capacity and Cold Tolerance of the Wild Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Zheng, Xi-Xi; Ma, Hong-Fang; Xia, Run-Xi; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Rui

    2016-08-01

    While wild silkworms have served humans for several thousand years, little attention on cold hardiness has been paid to these economically important species. In the present study, supercooling capacity and low temperature tolerance of Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), an economic insect reared both for silk production as well as human food, were examined under laboratory conditions. The supercooling points (SCPs) of pupae dropped significantly from a mean of -15.6°C in prediapause to -20.1°C in diapause, and then increased to -17.5°C during postdiapause development. Sex and voltinism influenced body mass but had no significant effect on the SCP. Our data demonstrated that cold tolerance of A. pernyi is tightly linked to life stage. Exposure of eggs to -5°C for up to 8 h had no effect on the hatching rate, whereas silkworm larvae failed to break through the chorion and hatch following a 4-8-h exposure to -10°C. Mean SCPs of intact eggs and naked larvae one day before hatching were similar, -23.3°C and -22.3°C, respectively, indicating that chorion does not significantly affect SCP. Comparison of lower lethal temperature (LLT50) and SCP means suggested that both pupae and eggs of A. pernyi are chill intolerant. These data will improve our understanding of low temperature tolerance in this commercially important species.

  4. Taxonomy of Mechanitis (f.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from the west Colombian Andes: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, C E; Uribe, S I

    2012-12-01

    Species identification in the butterfly genus Mechanitis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) becomes difficult when it is based only on wing color patterns, a common practice in butterfly taxonomy. Difficulties in Mechanitis taxonomy are related to the widespread mimicry and polymorphism among species belonging to this genus. Species recognition and inventories of Mechanitis genus in geographic areas as the Andean region of Colombia are of particular interest and the use of more than one character for taxonomic identification is desirable. In this study, we included morphological, ecological, and mitochondrial DNA data to identify the occurring species in this region. Species of Mechanitis were studied from ecological, morphological, and molecular perspectives considering host plant identification, oviposition behavior, and life cycles under laboratory conditions. Immature morphology, patterns of wing color, and genital structures of adults were also studied. The genetic barcoding region of the cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial gene was sequenced and used to verify the limits between species previously defined by the other characters and to validate its usefulness for species delimitation in this particular genus. The integrative approach combining independent datasets successfully allowed species identification as compared to the approach based on a single dataset. Three well-differentiated species were found in the studied region, Mechanitis menapis (Hewitson), Mechanitis polymnia (Linnaeus), and Mechanitis lysimnia (Fabricius). New valuable characters that could improve taxonomic identification in this genus are considered.

  5. Strength of silk attachment to Ilex chinensis leaves in the tea bagworm Eumeta minuscula (Lepidoptera, Psychidae).

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jonas O; Lovtsova, Julia; Gorb, Elena; Dai, Zhendong; Ji, Aihong; Zhao, Zhihui; Jiang, Nan; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2017-03-01

    Silks play an important role in the life of various arthropods. A highly neglected prerequisite to make versatile use of silks is sufficient attachment to substrates. Although there have been some studies on the structure and mechanics of silk anchorages of spiders, for insects only anecdotal reports on attachment-associated spinning behaviour exist. Here, we experimentally studied the silk attachment of the pupae and last instar caterpillars of the tea bagworm Eumeta minuscula (Butler 1881) (Lepidoptera, Psychidae) to the leaves of its host plant Ilex chinensis We found that the bagworms spin attachment discs, which share some structural features with those of spiders, like a plaque consisting of numerous overlaid, looped glue-coated silk fibres and the medially attaching suspension thread. Although the glue, which coats the fibres, cannot spread and adhere very well to the leaf surface, high pull-off forces were measured, yielding a mean safety factor (force divided by the animal weight) of 385.6. Presumably, the bagworms achieve this by removal of the leaf epidermis prior to silk attachment, which exposes the underlying tissue that represents a much better bonding site. This ensures a reliable attachment during the immobile, vulnerable pupal stage. This is the first study on the biomechanics and structure of silk attachments to substrates in insects.

  6. The first record of nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Mustafa; Bekircan, Cağrı; Radek, Renate; Linde, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae) is a common pest of forests and fruit trees throughout the world. This insect is also a major serious pest in Turkey. Nowadays L. dispar can be managed by biological control methods especially, using entomopathogenic viruses. The aim of this study is to characterize entomopathogenic viruses and is the first record of nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated from the gypsy moth in Turkey. PIBs obtained from infected larvae were measured and photographed using an Olympus BX51 microscope with a DP-25 digital camera and a DP2-BSW Soft Imaging System and examined with a Philips 208 electron microscope (TEM). The virus had the typical characteristics of nucleopolyhedroviruses. The dimension of the polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIBs) was 2.03±0.25 µm. PIBs varied in size from 1.65 to 2.21 µm and were usually polygonal in shape. Virions in PIBs contained 1 to 8 nucleocapsids per virion. The size of the viral particles was 366.67±54.72 (312-500) x 42.95±6.12 (30-47) nm. The isolation and characterization of a pure isolate of Lymantria dispar multinucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV-TR) from Turkey is presented for the first time.

  7. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses.

  8. Annual Migration of Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), over the Sea in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Fu, Xiaowei; Guo, Jianglong; Zhao, Xincheng; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    The cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a serious pest of vegetable crops throughout the world. In order to determine whether or not M. brassicae is a migrant, and if yes, what is the pattern of M. brassicae seasonal migration, a long-term study on M. brassicae from April to October in 2003–2014 was carried out by means of a searchlight trap on a small island located in the center of the Bohai Strait. The results show that a large number of M. brassicae were trapped every year on the island, which indicates that M. brassicae is a migrant and migrated at least 40–60 km across the Bohai Strait. The mean migration period of M. brassicae over the sea within one year is 151 ± 8 d in 2003–2014, with the shortest time span 78 d in 2003 and the longest 189 d in 2014, respectively. The number of M. brassicae captured, however, varies considerably between months or years. The majority of captures were female, with different levels of ovarian development and mating status. Most of the females trapped in May-July during 2010–2014 had a high mating rate and advanced level of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species does not conform to the hypothesis of ‘oogenesis-flight syndrome’. The findings of the present study are beneficial to the development of forecasting systems and management strategies of M. brassicae. PMID:26176951

  9. Impact of Cultivation and Subsequent Burial on Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248

  10. Bird predation on cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in wheat fields and chlorpyrifos effects on brain cholinesterase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEwen, L.C.; DeWeese, L.R.; Schladweiler, P.

    1986-01-01

    Horned larks, Eremophila alpestris (L.), and McCown's longspurs, Calcarius mccownii (Lawrence), were collected at intervals from two winter wheat fields in Montana [USA] after aerial application of chlorpyrifos to control cutworms. Both bird species had a high (95-100%) incidence of Lepidoptera, mostly pale western cutworms, Agrotis orthogonia Morrison, in their stomachs at 3 days postspray. Incidence of cutworms and other insects in stomachs of birds from sprayed fields was lower at 9 and 16 days postspray than in control birds, presumably due to insecticide-caused reduction of insects. Effects of birds on population dynamics of insect pests in wheat are unknown, but birds do contribute to cutworm mortality. Predation is one of the limiting factors to cutworm increase and can supplement insecticidal control. Brain cholinesterase activity in horned larks collected from the sprayed fields at 3 and 9 days postspray was significantly lower than in unexposed larks, but at 16 days the difference was not significant. Although nontarget birds clearly were exposed to chlorpyrifos and manifested a sublethal physiological response, toxic effects were less severe than those resulting from endrin application for cutworm control in wheat. More study is needed of larger chlorpyrifos-treated fields under a variety of conditions to fully assess effects on nontarget life.

  11. Photoperiod and temperature effects on the adult eclosion and mating rhythms in Pseudopidorus fasciata (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaohui; Refinetti, Roberto; Kok, Loke T; Youngman, Roger R; Reddy, Gadi V P; Xue, Fang-Sen

    2014-12-01

    Daily distributions of eclosion and mating activities of Pseudopidorus fasciata Walker (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) were recorded under natural and various laboratory conditions. Eclosion of this insect exhibited circadian gating in constant darkness (DD) but not in constant light (LL) at 28°C. Under natural conditions, the majority of adults emerged in midmorning with an eclosion peak around 1000 hours. The eclosion distribution was significantly affected by ambient temperature but not by photoperiod under laboratory conditions. Eclosion was more spread out at 22°C than at higher temperatures, and peak eclosion times were advanced at higher temperatures up to 30°C. Under natural and laboratory diurnal cycles, adults of P. fasciata preferred to mate at dusk, within a few hours before the start of the scotophase. Photoperiod and ambient temperature interacted in regulating the mating distribution in P. fasciata. Mating rhythmicity disappeared under DD and LL, under which the insect either mated arrhythmically (DD) or barely mated (LL). Overall, eclosion rhythm in this insect was predominantly regulated by temperature rather than photoperiod, whereas photoperiod appeared to be more influential than temperature in rhythmic gate of mating patterns.

  12. Toxicity and residual efficacy of chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F

    2010-08-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the residual toxicity of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Larvae were exposed to apple (Malus spp.) foliage collected at different intervals after an airblast sprayer application at the manufacturer-recommended field rate and half the field rate. A mortality of 100% was recorded at field rate applications of spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate through 59, 38, and 10 d after treatment (DAT), respectively. Significantly less foliage was consumed by C. rosaceana larvae surviving in the emamectin, chlorantraniliprole, and spinetoram treatments compared with those exposed to untreated foliage. Third-instar C. rosaceana exposed to fresh residues on terminal foliage showed 100% mortality after 5-d exposure to spinetoram residues and after 10-d exposure to chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate. The effects of larval movement from foliage with fresh residues was examined by transferring neonate larvae from foliage treated with spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, or emamectin benzoate to untreated foliage after various exposure intervals. An exposure of 1, 3, and 6 d was required for spinetoram, chlorantraniliprole, and emamectin benzoate to cause 100% mortality at the field rate, respectively. The higher the concentration of chlorantraniliprole and emamectin benzoate, the less exposure time was necessary to cause high levels of mortality in C. rosaceana neonates. Our results indicate that these novel insecticides are highly toxic to C. rosaceana larvae. Implications of these results for C. rosaceana management programs are discussed.

  13. The wing pattern of Moerarchis Durrant, 1914 (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) clarifies transitions between predictive models

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of wing pattern in Lepidoptera is a popular area of inquiry but few studies have examined microlepidoptera, with fewer still focusing on intraspecific variation. The tineid genus Moerarchis Durrant, 1914 includes two species with high intraspecific variation of wing pattern. A subset of the specimens examined here provide, to my knowledge, the first examples of wing patterns that follow both the ‘alternating wing-margin’ and ‘uniform wing-margin’ models in different regions along the costa. These models can also be evaluated along the dorsum of Moerarchis, where a similar transition between the two models can be seen. Fusion of veins is shown not to effect wing pattern, in agreement with previous inferences that the plesiomorphic location of wing veins constrains the development of colour pattern. The significant correlation between wing length and number of wing pattern elements in Moerarchis australasiella shows that wing size can act as a major determinant of wing pattern complexity. Lastly, some M. australasiella specimens have wing patterns that conform entirely to the ‘uniform wing-margin’ model and contain more than six bands, providing new empirical insight into the century-old question of how wing venation constrains wing patterns with seven or more bands. PMID:28405390

  14. Host Selection, Growth, and Survival of Melonworm (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Four Cucurbit Crops Under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Panthi, B. R.; Seal, D. R.; Capinera, J. L.; Nuessly, G. S.; Martin, C. G.

    2016-01-01

    The melonworm, Diaphania hyalinata L. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is one of the most serious insect problems affecting cucurbit production. We evaluated the relative preference and suitability of yellow squash, zucchini, cucumber, and watermelon to melonworm by measuring its oviposition, larval feeding preference, survivorship, and developmental responses in the laboratory. Whole plants were used for oviposition study, whereas host leaf discs were used for all the other studies. Watermelon feeding resulted in the longest larval development period (14.3 d), greatest prepupal weights and survivals rates (92%; first instar to adult) among the four crops. However, for watermelon, adult oviposition preference (199.5 eggs/♀), egg survival (70%), and larval feeding (4.1% defoliation) were numerically or statistically lowest, and larval head capsule widths and whole-body lengths were smallest. When differences occurred among these variables, yellow squash, zucchini, and cucumber were each typically higher (or quicker to develop) than watermelon. So why do melonworm adults not prefer watermelon, or at least select it as frequently as squash and cucumber when ovipositing? The answer likely is that there might be some variation in the important chemical components among these cucurbits. We suggest that comparison of kairomones and allomones from watermelon and related cucurbits would be very useful for determining the combination resulting in the lowest risk of damage to the more susceptible cucurbits (assuming the levels can be modified without seriously affecting the crops). PMID:27400704

  15. Susceptibility of Choristoneura rosaceana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to two new reduced-risk insecticides.

    PubMed

    Sial, Ashfaq A; Brunner, Jay F; Doerr, Michael D

    2010-02-01

    The response of field-collected populations of the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, and azinphosmethyl was assessed using a diet incorporation bioassay. Populations of obliquebanded leafroller were collected from nine orchards in Chelan, Douglas, Grant, and Okanogan counties of Washington. The neonates of the F1 or F2 generation were used in all assays. The parameters of probit regression lines were estimated and lethal concentration ratios were calculated for all populations compared with a susceptible laboratory population. Significant variation was detected in response to all four insecticides including chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram, which had never been used in the field, lethal concentration ratios were 3.9-39.7 for azinphosmethyl, 0.5-3.6 for spinosad, 1.2-5.3 for chlorantraniliprole, and 0.5-4.1 for spinetoram. Correlation analysis indicated possibility of cross-resistance between spinosad and spinetoram, which are both members of spinosyn class. The occurrence of low but significant levels of resistance against chlorantraniliprole and spinetoram in field-collected populations of C. rosaceana before their first field application indicates that the risk of resistance evolution against these two new reduced-risk insecticides exists. However, it is likely that these low levels of resistance can be managed if the insecticides are used judiciously in conjunction with sound resistance management programs. Implications of these results for developing and implementing resistance management strategies are discussed.

  16. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on Development and Reproduction of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengyu; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-06-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables throughout the world. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from beetles in the families Meloidae and Oedemeridae, has been reported to be toxic to some pests, including the diamondback moth. However, the effects of cantharidin, especially its sublethal effects on development and reproduction of diamondback moth, are less known. In this study, we investigated the sublethal effects of cantharidin at LC2 (0.41 mg liter(-1)), LC10 (1.33 mg liter(-1)), LC25 (3.38 mg liter(-1)), and LC50 (9.53 mg liter(-1)) on development and reproduction parameters of two consecutive diamondback moth generations. The results indicated that cantharidin reduced population growth by decreasing its pupation rate, pupal weight, and adult emergence, and by delaying its development. Furthermore, the duration of the female preoviposition period increased, while the oviposition and postoviposition periods, fecundity, and survival rates of the offspring decreased. The peaks of age-specific fecundity in LC10, LC25, and LC50 treatment groups lagged behind the control group. The mean values of the net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) were significantly lower than those of the control, and the mean generation time (T) was prolonged. The present study demonstrates that cantharidin exhibits significant adverse effects on the population dynamics of diamondback moth, leading to fitness disadvantages.

  17. Biological aspects of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): a polyphagous armyworm.

    PubMed

    Specht, A; Iltchenco, J; Fronza, E; Roque-Specht, V F; Luz, P C; Montezzano, D G

    2014-02-01

    We studied the biology of Tiracola grandirena (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Hadeninae) at 25 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 10% RH and 14 hours of photo phase. Three experiments, using 150 larvae each, were conducted for the larval stage. In the first, used to assess the duration and survival of all stages, insects were reared individually and fed an artificial diet (Grenee). In the second, individuals were also reared separately, but were fed leaves of 10 plants from different families. In the third, the larvae were not individualised, the food plants were rotated such as to provide three plant species every 48 hours. In the first experiment, the viability of the eggs, larvae, pupae and prepupae was 91.9, 94.7, 32.49 and 43.5%, respectively. The average duration of the egg, larvae, prepupae, pupae and adult were 6.0, 25.3, 25.7, 21.4 and 12.7 days, respectively. The prolonged prepupal period indicates that T. grandirena can develop larval (prepupal) diapause. The results of the experiments with different host plants showed that T. grandirena is polyphagous at species, population and individual level.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of the mulberry white caterpillar Rondotia menciana (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jee; Jun, Jumin; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    The mulberry white caterpillar, Rondotia menciana, belongs to the lepidopteran family Bombycidae, in which the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori is included. In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome of R. menciana in terms of general genomic features and characteristic features found in the A+T-rich region. The 15,364 bp long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A+T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. Twelve of the 13 PCGs started with typical ATN codons, except for the COI, which began with CGA and twelve of 13 PCGs had complete stop codons, except for the COII, which ended with a single T. The 360 bp long A+T-rich region harbored the conserved sequence blocks typically found in lepidopteran insects. Additionally, the A+T-rich region of R. menciana contained one tRNA(Met)-like structure, which had a proper anticodon and secondary structure.

  19. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiu-Ling; Cui, Wen-Xia; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2015-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the black cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined (GenBank accession No. KF163965). The length of this mitochondrial genome is 15,377 bp with an A + T content of 82.5%. There are 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes, that is, 13 protein-coding, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA gene and an A + T-rich region. The tRNA gene trnM was rearranged to the upstream of the trnI-trnQ-trnM cluster compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with ATN start codon except for the gene cox1, which uses CGA as in other lepidopteran species. Ten protein-coding genes stop with termination codon TAA, whereas three protein-coding gene use incomplete stop codon T. The A + T-region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 332 bp and A + T content of 94.88%.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sasakia funebris (Leech) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and comparison with other Apaturinae insects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju Ping; Cao, Tian Wen; Xuan, Shan Bin; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Min; Ma, En bo

    2013-09-10

    Sasakia funebris, a member of the lepidopteran family, Nymphalidae (superfamily Papilionoidea) is a rare species and is found only in some areas of South China. In this study, the 15,233 bp long complete mitochondrial genome of S. funebris was determined, and harbors the gene arrangement identical to all other sequenced lepidopteran insects. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A+T biased, accounting for 81.2%. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with typical ATN codons, except for COI which begins with the CGA codon. All tRNAs have a typical clover-leaf secondary structure, except for tRNASer(AGN), the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of which forms a simple loop. The S. funebris A+T-rich region of 370 bp contains several features common to the Lepidoptera insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by a 19 bp poly-T stretch, and two tandem repeats consisting of 18 bp repeat units and 14 bp repeat units. The phylogenetic analyses of Apaturinae based on mitogenome sequences showed: (S. funebris+Sasakia charonda)+(Apatura metis+Apatura ilia). This result is consistent with the morphological classification.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of the moon moth, Actias aliena (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of the Actias aliena belonging to the lepidopteran family Saturniidae in terms of general genomic features and composition. The 15,243 bp long genome consisted of a typical set of genes (13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A+T-rich region. The A. aliena mitogenome harbored the gene order tRNA(Met), tRNA(Ile) and tRNA(Gln) between the A+T-rich region and ND2, as shown in most lepidopteran species. The COI gene possessed the CGA initiator, which is found in nearly all lepidopterans lacking a canonical ATN initiator. Twenty-one tRNAs formed the cloverleaf secondary structures but tRNA(Ser)(AGN) formed a simple loop in the DHU arm. The 328 bp long A+T-rich region, which was located between the S rRNA and tRNA(Met) genes, contained several Lepidoptera-specific sequences, such as the ATAGA motif, a poly-T stretch, an AT repeat, and a poly-A stretch, along with an unusual tRNA(Phe)-like structure.

  2. Various chemical strategies to deceive ants in three Arhopala species (lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) exploiting Macaranga myrmecophytes.

    PubMed

    Inui, Yoko; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yamsaki, Eri; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants). However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies.

  3. Response of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs to gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, W. D.; Arthur, V.; Mastrangelo, T.

    2010-10-01

    As insects increase in radiotolerance as they develop and usually several developmental stages of the pest may be present in the fresh shipped commodity, it is important to know the radiation susceptibility of the stages of the target insect before the establishment of ionizing radiation quarantine treatments. This study was performed to determine the radiotolerance of eggs of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), to gamma radiation. This species is considered as one of the most serious worldwide pests for temperate fruits, especially peaches. Eggs (12 h old) were exposed to 0 (control), 25, 35, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 Gy of gamma radiation. Surviving larvae were allowed to feed on an artificial diet. Three days after irradiation, it was verified that larvae's cephalic capsules were significantly affected by gamma radiation, and the estimated mean LD 90 and LD 99 were 66.3 Gy and 125.8 Gy, respectively. Oriental fruit moth eggs revealed to be quite radiosensitive and very low doses as 50 Gy were sufficient to disrupt G. molesta embryogenesis. At 25 Gy, only male adults originated from the surviving larvae and, after mating with untreated fertile females, shown to be sterile.

  4. Systematics, phylogeny and biology of a new genus of Lithocolletinae (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) associated with Cistaceae.

    PubMed

    De Prins, Jurate; Davis, Donald R; De Coninck, Eliane; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Triberti, Paolo

    2013-10-27

    The gracillariid genus Triberta gen. nov. (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae: Lithocolletinae Stainton, 1854) is described to accommodate two species formerly assigned to the genus Phyllonorycter Hübner, 1822: Triberta helianthemella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1861) comb. nov. and T. cistifoliella (Groschke, 1944) comb. nov. Triberta cistifoliella bona sp. is restored from synonymy based on morphological characters. The new genus is biologically associated with the plant family Cistaceae of the order Malvales and is endemic to the Palaearctics. Our molecular analysis of eleven nuclear genes failed to unambiguously place Triberta in the lithocolletine phylogeny, but revealed that this genus is distinct from either clade Phyllonorycter + Cremastobombycia and Cameraria. The distinctiveness of Triberta is also supported by inferred traits in wing venation, micro morphology of the last instar larva, pupa, genital morphology of the adult and life history. A key to the species of Triberta is provided. The interspecific homogeneity in external morphology, coupled with minor differences in genital traits, an apparent narrow specialization on Cistaceae host plants, restricted geographical range and molecular evidence based on multi-nuclear genes jointly suggest that the generic diversification of Triberta is a relatively old phenomenon and driven strongly by host selection.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Shao, Lili; Cheng, Chunhui; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Pazala timur (Lepidoptera: Papilionodae) is a circular molecule of 15,226 bp in length, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs initiate with typical ATN codons, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon. Ten PCGs use complete termination codon (TAA), whereas the COI, COII and ND5 genes end with single T. Twelve intergenic spacers (82 bp in total), and 11 overlapping regions (30 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 403 bp long and contains some conserved structures characteristic of the butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 13-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)12 element preceded by the ATTTA motif.

  6. A new gene superfamily of pathogen-response (repat) genes in Lepidoptera: classification and expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Cerrillo, G; Hernández-Martínez, P; Vogel, H; Ferré, J; Herrero, S

    2013-01-01

    Repat (REsponse to PAThogens) genes were first identified in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in response to Bacillus thuringiensis and baculovirus exposure. Since then, additional repat gene homologs have been identified in different studies. In this study the comprehensive larval transcriptome from S. exigua was analyzed for the presence of novel repat-homolog sequences. These analyses revealed the presence of at least 46 repat genes in S. exigua, establishing a new gene superfamily in this species. Phylogenetic analysis and studies of conserved motifs in these hypothetical proteins have allowed their classification in two main classes, αREPAT and βREPAT. Studies on the transcriptional response of repat genes have shown that αREPAT and βREPAT differ in their sequence but also in the pattern of regulation. The αREPAT were mainly regulated in response to the Cry1Ca toxin from B. thuringiensis but not to the increase in the midgut microbiota load. In contrast, βREPAT were neither responding to Cry1Ca toxin nor to midgut microbiota. Differential expression between midgut stem cells and the whole midgut tissue was studied for the different repat genes revealing changes in the gene expression distribution between midgut stem cells and midgut tissue in response to midgut microbiota. This high diversity found in their sequence and in their expression profile suggests that REPAT proteins may be involved in multiple processes that could be of relevance for the understanding of the insect gut physiology.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanhong; Gan, Shanshan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Yunliang; Zuo, Ni; Hao, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Byasa alcinous (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Papilioninae) is a circular molecule of 15,266 bp in length, containing 37 typical insect mitochondrial genes: 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to all other available butterfly mitogenomes. All PCGs start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except for COI, which is initiated by the CGA codon as observed in other butterfly species. Ten PCGs terminate in the complete stop codon TAA or TAG, whereas the COI, COII and ND4 genes end with single T. Ten intergenic spacers (73 bp in total), and 12 overlapping regions (28 bp in total) are dispersed throughout the whole genome. The non-coding AT-rich region is 405 bp long and contains some conserved structures similar to those found in other butterfly mitogenomes, such as the motif ATAGA followed by a 12-bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (AT)14 element preceded by the ATTTA motif. Additionally, a 11-bp poly-T sequences and a microsatellite-like (AT)7 repeated elements are detected in this region.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Teinopalpus aureus guangxiensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and related phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Qin, Feng; Jiang, Guo-Fang; Zhou, Shan-Yi

    2012-04-01

    In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Teinopalpus aureus guangxiensis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae), which is considered as an endemic species in China. It is listed as a vulnerable species by International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List and also a first class endangered species in China. The complete mtDNA from T. aureus guangxiensis was 15,235 base pairs in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The T. aureus guangxiensis genes were in the same order and orientation as the completely sequenced mitogenomes of other lepidopteran species. All PCGs of T. aureus guangxiensis mitogenome start with a typical ATN codon and terminate in the common stop codon TAA, except that ND1 gene uses TTA, ND3 gene uses ATT, and ND4 and ND4L gene use TAA. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed with the concatenated sequences of the 13 PCGs of the mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic results confirmed that Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae are monophyletic clades.

  9. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to diagnose Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Barr, N B; Ledezma, L A; Farris, R E; Epstein, M E; Gilligan, T M

    2011-10-01

    A molecular assay for diagnosis of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in North America is reported. The assay multiplexes two TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) probe systems that are designed to target DNA segments of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2) and 18S rRNA gene. The RT-PCR probe designed for the 18S target recognizes a DNA sequence conserved in all of the moths included in the study and functions as a control in the assay. The second probe recognizes a segment of the ITS2 specifically found in E. postvittana and not found in the other moths included in the study, i.e., this segment is not conserved. Inclusion of the two markers in a single multiplex reaction did not affect assay performance. The assay was tested against 637 moths representing > 90 taxa in 15 tribes in all three subfamilies in the Tortricidae. The assay generated no false negatives based on analysis of 355 E. postvittana collected from California, Hawaii, England, New Zealand, and Australia. Analysis of a data set including 282 moths representing 41 genera generated no false positives. Only three inconclusive results were generated from the 637 samples. Spike experiments demonstrated that DNA contamination in the assay can affect samples differently. Contaminated samples analyzed with the ITS2 RT-PCR assay and DNA barcode methodology by using the cytochrome oxidase I gene can generate contradictory diagnoses.

  10. Demonstration and Characterization of a Persistent Pheromone Lure for the Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Higbee, Bradley S.; Burks, Charles S.; Larsen, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of an effective pheromone lure has made it difficult to monitor and manage the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in the economically important crops in which it is the primary insect pest. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate and characterize a practical synthetic pheromone lure for capturing navel orangeworm males. Traps baited with lures prepared with 1 or 2 mg of a three- or four-component formulation captured similar numbers of males. The fluctuation over time in the number of males captured in traps baited with the pheromone lure correlated significantly with males captured in female-baited traps. Traps baited with the pheromone lure usually did not capture as many males as traps baited with unmated females, and the ratio of males trapped with pheromone to males trapped with females varied between crops and with abundance. The pheromone lure described improves the ability of pest managers to detect and monitor navel orangeworm efficiently and may improve management and decrease insecticide treatments applied as a precaution against damage. Awareness of differences between male interaction with the pheromone lure and calling females, as shown in these data, will be important as further studies and experience determine how best to use this lure for pest management. PMID:26462827

  11. Identification of Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on cytochrome oxidase II.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Gloria Patricia; Villamizar, Laura Fernanda; Espinel, Carlos; Quintero, Edgar Mauricio; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Toloza, Deisy Liseth; Ghiringhelli, Pablo Daniel; Vargas, Germán

    2017-01-01

    Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are a group of insects that are agriculture pests in many economically relevant crops such as sugarcane, sorghum, corn and rice. Recognized species for this genus respond differentially to natural enemies used in their biological control, emphasizing the importance of species in a regional approach. Currently, identification is based on the male genitalia. However, the availability of specimens collected from field and subjectivity based on the character recognition can seriously hamper species identification, and therefore result in inadequate pest management. To overcome this, individuals of Diatraea spp. preliminarily classified male genitalia and obtained from reared conditions and the field (both derived from natural populations occurring in Colombia) were analyzed using genitalic morphometry and molecular biology specifically using a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II (CO II) mitochondrial gene. Although morphometric analysis did not show any overriding results regarding genitalia morphology, the bioinformatics analyses of CO II sequences resulted in an adequate classification of the individuals within the recognized species. It also, revealed that the occurrence of clades associated with geographical distribution may be associated with cryptic species. The latter was also confirmed by a Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) methodology evaluating the same fragment of CO II. This experimental approach allows properly recognizing each species and in consequence is proposed as an effective tool in Diatraea species identification.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and comparison with other Pyraloidea insects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Chai, Xin-Yue; Bian, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial (mt) genome can provide important information for the understanding of phylogenetic relationships. The complete mt genome of Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been sequenced. The circular genome is 15 287 bp in size, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The AT skew of this mt genome is slightly negative, and the nucleotide composition is biased toward A+T nucleotides (80.15%). All PCGs start with the typical ATN (ATA, ATC, ATG, and ATT) codons, except for the cox1 gene which may start with the CGA codon. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon T or TA. All the tRNA genes are folded into the typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, except for trnS1 (AGN) in which the DHU arm fails to form a stable stem-loop structure. The overlapping sequences are 35 bp in total and are found in seven different locations. A total of 240 bp of intergenic spacers are scattered in 16 regions. The control region of the mt genome is 327 bp in length and consisted of several features common to the sequenced lepidopteran insects. Phylogenetic analysis based on 13 PCGs using the Maximum Likelihood method shows that the placement of P. interpunctella was within the Pyralidae.

  13. Modeling the habitat retreat of the rediscovered endemic Hawaiian moth Omiodes continuatalis Wallengren (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Vorsino, Adam E; King, Cynthia B; Haines, William P; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Survey data over the last 100 years indicate that populations of the endemic Hawaiian leafroller moth, Omiodes continuatalis (Wallengren) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), have declined, and the species is extirpated from large portions of its original range. Declines have been attributed largely to the invasion of non-native parasitoid species into Hawaiian ecosystems. To quantify changes in O. continuatalis distribution, we applied the maximum entropy modeling approach using Maxent. The model referenced historical (1892-1967) and current (2004-2008) survey data, to create predictive habitat suitability maps which illustrate the probability of occurrence of O. continuatalis based on historical data as contrasted with recent survey results. Probability of occurrence is predicted based on the association of biotic (vegetation) and abiotic (proxy of precipitation, proxy of temperature, elevation) environmental factors with 141 recent and historic survey locations, 38 of which O. continuatalis were collected from. Models built from the historical and recent surveys suggest habitat suitable for O. continuatalis has changed significantly over time, decreasing both in quantity and quality. We reference these data to examine the potential effects of non-native parasitoids as a factor in changing habitat suitability and range contraction for O. continuatalis. Synthesis and applications: Our results suggest that the range of O. continuatalis, an endemic Hawaiian species of conservation concern, has shrunk as its environment has degraded. Although few range shifts have been previously demonstrated in insects, such contractions caused by pressure from introduced species may be important factors in insect extinctions.

  14. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management. PMID:26035491

  15. Modeling the Habitat Retreat of the Rediscovered Endemic Hawaiian Moth Omiodes continuatalis Wallengren (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vorsino, Adam E.; King, Cynthia B.; Haines, William P.; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Survey data over the last 100 years indicate that populations of the endemic Hawaiian leafroller moth, Omiodes continuatalis (Wallengren) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), have declined, and the species is extirpated from large portions of its original range. Declines have been attributed largely to the invasion of non-native parasitoid species into Hawaiian ecosystems. To quantify changes in O. continuatalis distribution, we applied the maximum entropy modeling approach using Maxent. The model referenced historical (1892–1967) and current (2004–2008) survey data, to create predictive habitat suitability maps which illustrate the probability of occurrence of O. continuatalis based on historical data as contrasted with recent survey results. Probability of occurrence is predicted based on the association of biotic (vegetation) and abiotic (proxy of precipitation, proxy of temperature, elevation) environmental factors with 141 recent and historic survey locations, 38 of which O. continuatalis were collected from. Models built from the historical and recent surveys suggest habitat suitable for O. continuatalis has changed significantly over time, decreasing both in quantity and quality. We reference these data to examine the potential effects of non-native parasitoids as a factor in changing habitat suitability and range contraction for O. continuatalis. Synthesis and applications: Our results suggest that the range of O. continuatalis, an endemic Hawaiian species of conservation concern, has shrunk as its environment has degraded. Although few range shifts have been previously demonstrated in insects, such contractions caused by pressure from introduced species may be important factors in insect extinctions. PMID:23300954

  16. Battle in the New World: Helicoverpa armigera versus Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons. Interaction between the species was evaluated in interspecific and intraspecific scenarios under laboratory and field conditions. Helicoverpa zea was predominant in Rio Grande do Sul and the Planaltina, DF (central Brazil). In western Bahia, H. zea was predominant in the first collection, but approximately equal in number to H armigera in the second crop season. Both species exhibit high cannibalism/predation rates, and larval size was the primary factor for larval survival in the interaction studies. Larva of H. zea had higher survival when interacting with H. armigera, indicating that H. zea has an advantage in intraguild interactions with H. armigera in maize. Overall, the results from this study indicate that maize might play a role as a source of infestation or a sink of insecticide or Bt protein unselected H. armigera populations, depending on the H. zea:H. armigera intraguild competition and adult movement in the landscape. PMID:27907051

  17. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    PubMed

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  18. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Shang; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Qian, Cen; Zhang, Cong-Fen; Li, Jun; Wang, Lei; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) was determined (GenBank accession No. KM023645). The length of this mitogenome is 16,014 bp with 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. It presents the typical gene organization and order for completely sequenced lepidopteran mitogenomes. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A + T biased, accounting for 81.48%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.005). All PCGs are initiated by typical ATN codons, except for the gene cox1, which uses CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs harbor TA (nad5) or incomplete termination codon T (cox1, cox2, nad2 and nad4), while others use TAA as their termination codons. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnM with a length of 888 bp.

  20. Chronic Sublethal Effects of Cantharidin on the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengyu; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-05-29

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is a major pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. Cantharidin, a natural toxin isolated from blister beetles, has been reported to be toxic to P. xylostella. However, little is known on the chronic sublethal effects of cantharidin on this species. In this study, we assessed the changes of susceptibility, development, reproduction and other demographic parameters in both the selected P. xylostella strain (Sub, selected by LC25 cantharidin for consecutive 12 generations) and the revertant strain (SubR, derived from the Sub strain without being exposed to cantharidin for 12 generations). Results revealed that the two strains maintained a relatively high-level susceptibility to cantharidin. Severe adverse effects on the population dynamics and fitness in Sub strain were observed. In addition, repeated exposure of P. xylostella to sublethal concentration of cantharidin resulted in negative effects on adult performance and deformities in adults. Although morphologically normal for individuals, the SubR strain exhibited a disadvantage in population growth rate. Our results showed that sublethal concentration of cantharidin exhibited severe negative effects on population growth for longtime. These findings would be useful for assessing the potential effects and risk of cantharidin on P. xylostella and for developing effective integrated pest management.

  1. Leaf alkaloids, phenolics, and coffee resistance to the leaf miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, S T V; Fernandes, F L; Demuner, A J; Picanço, M C; Guedes, R N C

    2010-08-01

    Coffee (Coffea spp.) alkaloids (caffeine and related methylxanthines) and phenolics (caffeic and chlorogenic acids) have recognized pestistatic/pesticidal activity and mediate insect-plant interactions. The present investigation assessed the resistance of 12 coffee genotypes to the leaf miner Leucoptera (= Perileucoptera) coffeella (Guérin-Méneville & Perrottet) (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) and correlated such results with the leaf content of coffee alkaloids and phenolics that probably play a role in the interaction between coffee and this leaf miner. The levels of chlorogenic and caffeic acid, caffeine, and related methylxanthines were measured and quantified in leaf extracts of these genotypes before and 7 d after their infestation by the leaf miner. Some coffee genotypes (Coffea canephora L. and Coffea racemosa Lour. and its hybrids with Coffea arabica L.) exhibited high pesticidal activity (100% mortality) toward the L. coffeella, indicating their antibiosis resistance. However, there was no correlation between this activity and the leaf levels of coffee alkaloids and phenolics. Curiously, infestation by L. coffeella leads to a nearly four-fold decline in the leaf levels of chlorogenic acid, which does not affect this pest species but may affect other generalist species. Indeed, chlorogenic acid sprayed on coffee leaves stimulated locomotory activity of the green scale Coccus viridis (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccidae), thus minimizing their feeding in contrast with the absence of this polyphenol. Therefore, reduction of chlorogenic acid levels in coffee leaves due to leaf miner infestation seems to also favor infestation by generalist insects, such as the green scale.

  2. Battle in the New World: Helicoverpa armigera versus Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Bentivenha, José P F; Paula-Moraes, Silvana V; Baldin, Edson L L; Specht, Alexandre; da Silva, Ivana F; Hunt, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons. Interaction between the species was evaluated in interspecific and intraspecific scenarios under laboratory and field conditions. Helicoverpa zea was predominant in Rio Grande do Sul and the Planaltina, DF (central Brazil). In western Bahia, H. zea was predominant in the first collection, but approximately equal in number to H armigera in the second crop season. Both species exhibit high cannibalism/predation rates, and larval size was the primary factor for larval survival in the interaction studies. Larva of H. zea had higher survival when interacting with H. armigera, indicating that H. zea has an advantage in intraguild interactions with H. armigera in maize. Overall, the results from this study indicate that maize might play a role as a source of infestation or a sink of insecticide or Bt protein unselected H. armigera populations, depending on the H. zea:H. armigera intraguild competition and adult movement in the landscape.

  3. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton. PMID:26637533

  4. Thermal Death Kinetics of Fifth-Instar Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liling; Zhongxin, Li; Ma, Wenqiang; Yan, Shengkun; Cui, Kuanbo

    2015-01-01

    The infestation of rice moth, Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae), causes severe losses in postharvest walnuts. Heat has been studied as a phytosanitary treatment to replace chemical fumigation for controlling this pest. Information on kinetics for thermal mortality of C. cephalonica is needed for developing effective postharvest phytosanitary thermal treatments of walnuts. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar C. cephalonica were investigated at temperatures between 44°C and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C min−1 using a heating block system. The results showed that thermal-death curves for C. cephalonica larvae followed a 0 order of kinetic reaction. The time to reach 100% mortality decreased with increasing temperature from 150 min at 44°C to 2.5 min at 50°C. The activation energy for controlling C. cephalonica was 466–592 kJ/mol, and the z value obtained from the thermal death time curve was 3.3°C. This kinetic model prediction could be useful in designing the thermal treatment protocol for controlling C. cephalonica in walnuts. PMID:25843578

  5. Evaluation of artificial diets for Attacus atlas (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) in Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R; Sukirno, Sukirno; Situmorang, J; Sumarmi, S; Soesilohadi, R C Hidayat; Pratiwi, R

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate artificial diets that can be used to successfully culture the atlas silk moth, Attacus atlas L. (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) indoors. Four plant species were evaluated as the basic component of each diet, barringtonia (Barringtonia asiatica), cheesewood (Nauclea orientalis), soursop (Annona muricata), and mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni). Evaluation of the nutritional value of each diet was determined by an analysis of the hemolymph proteins of sixth instars using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Survivorship, cocoon quality, and hemolymph protein content of larvae fed the barringtonia diet were higher than those of larvae fed mahogany-, cheesewood-, and soursop-based artificial diets. The average adult emergence of those fed the barringtonia-based diet was 74.5%. The weights of the cocoon in this treatment with the pupa and the empty cocoons were 7.0 and 1.1 g, respectively. Hemolymph of the larvae fed the barringtonia-based artificial diet had the highest concentration of protein with an average of 28.06 mg/ml. The atlas moth reared on the barringtonia-based artificial diet was comparable with those reared only on barringtonia leaves. However, the weight of empty cocoons, adult wingspan, and amount of hemolymph protein were lower than in those reared on barringtonia leaves only. This may suggest that the artificial barringtonia-based diet requires additional protein for maximum efficiency.

  6. Various Chemical Strategies to Deceive Ants in Three Arhopala Species (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) Exploiting Macaranga Myrmecophytes

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Yoko; Shimizu-kaya, Usun; Okubo, Tadahiro; Yamsaki, Eri; Itioka, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Macaranga myrmecophytes (ant-plants) are generally well protected from herbivore attacks by their symbiotic ants (plant-ants). However, larvae of Arhopala (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) species survive and develop on specific Macaranga ant-plant species without being attacked by the plant-ants of their host species. We hypothesized that Arhopala larvae chemically mimic or camouflage themselves with the ants on their host plant so that the larvae are accepted by the plant-ant species of their host. Chemical analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons showed that chemical congruency varied among Arhopala species; A. dajagaka matched well the host plant-ants, A. amphimuta did not match, and unexpectedly, A. zylda lacked hydrocarbons. Behaviorally, the larvae and dummies coated with cuticular chemicals of A. dajagaka were well attended by the plant-ants, especially by those of the host. A. amphimuta was often attacked by all plant-ants except for the host plant-ants toward the larvae, and those of A. zylda were ignored by all plant-ants. Our results suggested that conspicuous variations exist in the chemical strategies used by the myrmecophilous butterflies that allow them to avoid ant attack and be accepted by the plant-ant colonies. PMID:25853675

  7. Patterns of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in the invasive pest Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Tooman, Leah K; Rose, Caroline J; Carraher, Colm; Suckling, D Max; Paquette, Sébastien Rioux; Ledezma, Lisa A; Gilligan, Todd M; Epstein, Marc; Barr, Norman B; Newcomb, Richard D

    2011-06-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a horticultural pest of Australia and New Zealand that has more recently invaded Hawaii, Europe, and California. A 2,216-bp region of the mitochondrial genome containing the cytochrome oxidase I and II genes was sequenced from 752 individuals. Haplotype network analyses revealed a major split between a predominantly Western Australian clade and all other samples, suggestive of either a deep genetic divergence or a cryptic species. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity were highest in the country of origin, Australia, and in New Zealand populations, with evidence of haplotype sharing between New Zealand and Tasmania. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity were higher in California than within the British Isles or Hawaii. From the total of 96 haplotypes, seven were found in California, of which four were private. Within California, there have been at least two introductions; based on genetic diversity we were unable to assign a likely source for a single moth found and eradicated in Los Angeles in 2007; however, our data suggest it is unlikely that Hawaii and the British Isles are sources of the major E. postvittana population found throughout the rest of the state since 2006.

  8. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma).

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: Hyposmocoma ipohapuusp. n. from Big Island, Hyposmocoma makawaosp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Mauiand Hyposmocoma tantalasp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of Hyposmocoma inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, Hyposmocoma auropurpurea Walsingham and Hyposmocoma nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, primer sequences for a 705 bp fragment of CAD, designed for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts.

  9. Temperature effects on development and fecundity of Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Wang, Xing; Liu, Yan; Su, Ming-Zhu; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the impacts of temperature on the development and reproductivity of the sweet potato leaf folder, Brachmia macroscopa (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), in sweet potato leaves under laboratory conditions. We determined developmental time of B. macroscopa larval, pupal, and pre-adult stage at different temperatures. Male and female longevity, male and female lifespan, mortality of immature stages, oviposition period of B. macroscopa were also investigated under six constant temperatures (21°C, 24°C, 27°C, 30°C, 33°C, 36°C), based on age-stage, two-sex life tables. The results revealed that eggs in 36°C were unable to hatch. At temperatures between 21°C -33°C, the duration of the pre-adult period, as well as the adult lifespan both for males and females, were shortened by increasing temperatures. The lowest larval mortality rate (15.33%) occurred at 27°C. The age-stage-specific fecundity rates with the greatest number were, in order, 30°C, 27°C, 21°C, 24°C and 33°C. The results show that B. macroscopa population levels could reach highest at the temperature of 27℃. PMID:28253321

  10. Seasonal migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hongqiang; Wu, Xianfu; Wu, Bo; Wu, Kongming

    2009-02-01

    The seasonal migration of the Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea was observed with a searchlight trap and an entomological radar located on a small island in the center of the sea, and through a network of light-traps around the Bohai region. The H. armigera moths were observed to migrate over the sea at least as early as May and light trapping through a network suggested migration might start as early as April, as soon as the moths had emerged from overwintering pupae. H. armigera moths migrated toward the north in southerly winds during spring and summer, and returned south on nights with northerly winds, or at altitudes where the wind was northerly, during fall. The passage of a weather front (cold or warm) or trough at approximately 1700 hours provokes migration of H. armigera over the sea. The H. armigera generally flew at altitudes of below 1,500 m above sea level (asl) with layer concentrations at 200-500 m asl, where the wind direction, wind speed, and temperature were optimum. During fall migration, H. armigera tended to orient toward the southwest and was able to compensate for the wind drift by turning clockwise when the downwind direction was < 225 degrees but counterclockwise when it was > 225 degrees. The displacement speed measured with the radar was 24-41 km/h, the duration of flight was 8-11 h and the maximum migration rate was 1,894 moths per km per h.

  11. Characterization of novel microsatellite markers for Hyphantria cunea and implications for other Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Cao, L J; Wen, J B; Wei, S J; Liu, J; Yang, F; Chen, M

    2015-06-01

    This is the first report of microsatellite markers (simple sequence repeats, SSR) for fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), an important quarantine pest in some European and Asian countries. Here, we developed 48 microsatellite markers for H. cunea from SSR enrichment libraries. Sequences isolated from libraries were sorted into four categories and analyzed. Our results suggest that sequences classified as Grouped should not be used for microsatellite primer design. The genetic diversity of microsatellite loci was assessed in 72 individuals from three populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 5 with an average of 3. The observed and expected heterozygosities of loci ranged from 0 to 0.958 and 0 to 0.773, respectively. A total of 18 out of 153 locus/population combinations deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Moreover, significant linkage disequilibrium was detected in one pair of loci (1275 pairs in total). In the neutral test, two loci were grouped into the candidate category for positive selection and the remainder into the neutral category. In addition, a complex mutation pattern was observed for these loci, and F ST performed better than did R ST for the estimation of population differentiation in different mutation patterns. The results of the present study can be used for population genetic studies of H. cunea.

  12. Changes in insecticide resistance of the rice striped stem borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Jianya; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Wu, Min; Gao, Congfen

    2014-02-01

    Application of insecticides is the most important method to control Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), and continuous use of individual insecticides has driven the rapid development of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis during the past 30 yr. Monitoring insecticide resistance provides information essential for integrated pest management. Insecticide resistance of field populations to monosultap, triazophos, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin in China was examined in 2010 and 2011. The results indicated that the resistance levels of 14 field populations to four insecticides were significantly different. Four populations showed moderate resistance, and other populations possessed low-level resistance or were susceptible to monosultap. Nine populations displayed an extremely high or a high level of resistance to triazophos, whereas four populations were sensitive to this agent. Five populations exhibited a low level of resistance to abamectin, while the others remained sensitive. When compared with historical data, resistance to monosultap and triazophos decreased significantly, and the percentage of populations with high-level or extremely high-level resistance was obviously reduced. By contrast, the resistance to abamectin increased slightly. The increasing and decreasing resistance levels reported in this study highlight the different evolutionary patterns of insecticide resistance in C. suppressalis. An overreliance on one or two insecticides may promote rapid development of resistance. Slow development of resistance to abamectin, which was used mainly in mixtures with other insecticides, implies that the use of insecticide mixtures may be an effective method to delay the evolution of resistance to insecticides.

  13. Plant resistance and its effect on the peritrophic membrane of southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Daves, C A; Williams, W P; Davis, F M; Baker, G T; Ma, P W K; Monroe, W A; Mohan, S

    2007-06-01

    The southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pest of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Corn germplasm lines with conventional genetic leaf-feeding resistance to this pest, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), and other lepidopterans have been released to the public by USDA-ARS scientists located in Mississippi. Recent studies suggest the insect resistant lines disrupt the integrity of the peritrophic membrane of the fall armyworm. The objectives of this study were to investigate any morphological differences in the structure of the peritrophic membrane of southwestern corn borer larvae feeding on resistant and susceptible corn hybrids and to quantify the damage. Larvae were reared under field and laboratory conditions on three corn hybrids (two resistant and one susceptible). Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the peritrophic membrane for abnormalities such as holes or tears and to count the holes or tears in the membrane. Differences in the degree of damage to peritrophic membrane of larvae fed on resistant and susceptible plants were not detected. Up to five distinct layers of the membrane were observed in each larva. Variation in the amounts of damage to the peritrophic membrane observed from larvae feeding on all plant material was high. Plant resistance adversely affects growth and development of southwestern corn borer larvae, and further investigations are needed to explain the role of plant resistance and its relation to peritrophic membrane in southwestern corn borer larvae.

  14. Evolution of Resistance by Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Infesting Insecticidal Crops in the Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zaiqi; Onstad, David; Crain, Philip; Crespo, Andre; Hutchison, William; Buntin, David; Porter, Pat; Catchot, Angus; Cook, Don; Pilcher, Clint; Flexner, Lindsey; Higgins, Laura

    2016-04-01

    We created a deterministic, frequency-based model of the evolution of resistance by corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), to insecticidal traits expressed in crops planted in the heterogeneous landscapes of the southern United States. The model accounts for four generations of selection by insecticidal traits each year. We used the model results to investigate the influence of three factors on insect resistance management (IRM): 1) how does adding a third insecticidal trait to both corn and cotton affect durability of the products, 2) how does unstructured corn refuge influence IRM, and 3) how do block refuges (50% compliance) and blended refuges compare with regard to IRM? When Bt cotton expresses the same number of insecticidal traits, Bt corn with three insecticidal traits provides longer durability than Bt corn with two pyramided traits. Blended refuge provides similar durability for corn products compared with the same level of required block refuge when the rate of refuge compliance by farmers is 50%. Results for Mississippi and Texas are similar, but durabilities for corn traits are surprisingly lower in Georgia, where unstructured corn refuge is the highest of the three states, but refuge for Bt cotton is the lowest of the three states. Thus, unstructured corn refuge can be valuable for IRM but its influence is determined by selection for resistance by Bt cotton.

  15. Larval biology of anthophagous Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) in the cerrado of central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Neuza A P; Duarte, Marcelo; Araújo, Eliezer B; Morais, Helena C

    2014-01-01

    The biology and morphology of the early stages of 22 species of Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) are presented. Observations were collected through the inspection of inflorescences in the field and the rearing of 214 larvae in laboratory. Allosmaitia strophius (Godart) associated with Malpighiaceae species and the polyphagous Strymon mulucha (Hewitson) were the most frequently collected species. Detritivory was observed in two species, Electrostrymon endymion (F.) and Kisutam syllis (Godman & Salvin), and myrmecophily in four other species, A. strophius, Ministrymon azia (Hewitson), Parrhasius polibetes (Stoll), and S. mulucha. Cannibalism was observed in A. strophius; in addition, the pupa of this and of three other species produced audible sounds. Paiwarria aphaca (Hewitson) was highlighted because of the great difference observed between its first and last instars, as well as the marked difference between that species and the larvae of Paiwarria umbratus (Geyer) documented in Costa Rica. Larvae of Calycopis mimas (Godman & Salvin) displayed "bungee jumping" behavior when stimulated. Parasitoids (Diptera, Hymenoptera) attacked 21 larvae of eight species, A. strophius, K. syllis, M. azia, Pai. aphaca, P. polibetes, Rekoa marius (Lucas), S. mulucha, and Tmolus venustus (H.H. Druce). Illustrations of immatures and parasitoids are provided.

  16. Host Plant Associations and Parasitism of South Ecuadorian Eois Species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) Feeding on Peperomia (Piperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Carlo L.; Bodner, Florian; Brehm, Gunnar; Fiedler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The very species-rich tropical moth genus Eois Hübner (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a promising model group for studying host plant specialization and adaptive radiation. While most Eois species are assumed to be specialized herbivores on Piper L. species, records on other plant taxa such as Peperomia Ruiz & Pavón (Piperaceae) are still relatively scarce. Moreover, little is known about life history traits of most species, and only a few caterpillars have been described so far. We collected caterpillars associated with Peperomia (Piperaceae) host plants from June 2012 to January 2013 in three elevational bands of montane and elfin rainforests on the eastern slopes of the Andes in southern Ecuador. Caterpillars were systematically searched and reared to the adult stage. We were able to delimitate ten species of Eois on Peperomia by comparison of larval and adult morphology and by using 658 bp fragments of the mitochondrial COI gene (barcode sequences). Three of these species, Eois albosignata (Dognin), Eois bolana (Dognin), and Eois chasca (Dognin), are validly described whereas the other seven taxa represent interim morphospecies, recognized unequivocally by their DNA barcodes, and their larval and adult morphology. We provide information about their host plants, degree of parasitism, and describe the larval stages in their last instar. Additionally, caterpillars and moths are illustrated in color plates. This is the first comparative study dealing with Eois moths whose caterpillars feed on Peperomia hosts. PMID:26286230

  17. Response of antioxidant enzymes in Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) exposed to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Rashid, M A; Huang, Q Y; Wong, C; Lei, C-L

    2017-06-01

    The oriental army worm Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a migratory pest in Eastern Asia and China. Seasonal high temperatures in Southern China and low temperatures in Northern China are pressures favouring the annual migration of this species, while cold tolerance determines the northern limit of its overwintering range. A number of physiological stress responses occur in insects as a result of variations in temperature. One reaction to thermal stress is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can be harmful by causing oxidative damage. The time-related effects (durations of 1, 4 and 7 h) of thermal stress treatments of M. separata at comparatively low (5, 10, 15 and 20°C) and high (30, 35, 40 and 45°C) temperatures on the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were determined. Thermal stress resulted in significant elevation of the activities of SOD, CAT and GSTs, indicating that these enzymes contribute to defence mechanisms counteracting oxidative damage caused by an increase in ROS. However, at high-temperatures, POX and T-AOC were also found to contribute to scavenging ROS. Our results also indicate that extreme temperatures lead to elevated ROS production in M. separata. The present study confirms that thermal stress can be responsible for oxidative damage. To overcome such stress, antioxidant enzymes play key roles in diminishing oxidative damage in M. separata.

  18. Chemical composition and insecticidal activities of essential oils against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, S G Eswara; Kirti Dolma, Shudh; Koundal, Rajkesh; Singh, Bikram

    2016-08-01

    Five Himalayan plants namely, Acorus calamus, Cedrus deodara, Aegle marmelos, Tagetes minuta and Murraya koenigii were used for the extraction of essential oils through hydrodistillation and the major volatile constituents as identified by GC and GC-MS techniques were β-asarone (91.1%), β-himachalene (45.8%), limonene (59.5%), Z-ocimene (37.9%) and α-pinene (54.2%), respectively. Essential oils were tested for their insecticidal properties against larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae). Results showed that A. calamus was most toxic (LC50 = 0.29 mg mL(-1)) to P. xylostella followed by C. deodara (LC50 = 1.08 mg mL(-1)) and M. koenigii (LC50 = 1.93 mg mL(-1)) via residual toxicity bioassay. Per cent feeding deterrence index and growth inhibition was significantly higher in A. calamus (42.20 and 68.55, respectively) followed by C. deodara (35.41 and 52.47). In repellent activity studies, C. deodara showed high repellence (64.76%) followed by A. calamus (55.05%).

  19. Hindwings are unnecessary for flight but essential for execution of normal evasive flight in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Jantzen, Benjamin; Eisner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In Lepidoptera, forewings and hindwings are mechanically coupled and flap in synchrony. Flight is anteromotoric, being driven primarily by action of the forewings. Here we report that lepidopterans can still fly when their hindwings are cut off, a procedure reducing their total wing surface, on average, by nearly one half. However, as we demonstrate by analysis of three-dimensional flight trajectories of a moth and a butterfly (Lymantria dispar and Pieris rapae), hindwing removal causes lepidopterans to incur a loss in both linear and turning acceleration, so that they are unable to exercise their normal flight maneuverability. Without hindwings they still are able to zigzag aerially (the ablation has no effect on their turning radius in flight) but at lesser speed and therefore less evasively. Consequently, hindwings in the expanded state in which they occur in lepidopterans seem to contribute in an essential way to lepidopteran survival. Moths in today's world, we argue, may rely on their evasive flight primarily to avoid capture by bats, whereas butterflies, which we propose advertise their evasiveness collectively through shared aposematism, may depend upon it primarily for defense against birds. Aerial agility thus may be the chief adaptive asset derived by lepidopterans from possession of oversize hindwings. PMID:18936482

  20. Wolbachia density changes seasonally amongst populations of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    PubMed

    Sumi, Takuto; Miura, Kazuki; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the survival rate of Wolbachia decreases under high temperature in incubators. It is also known that a high density of Wolbachia in the host body reduces the host emergence rate, while low densities fail to change reproduction rates. However, few studies have examined the density of Wolbachia in hosts in the field. Here, we focus on Wolbachia infection of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), which is distributed throughout the Japanese islands. We examined the rate and density of Wolbachia infection in the bodies of butterflies at thirteen locations in Japan. At seven of these places, we collected butterflies in different seasons to determine seasonal differences in the infection rate and density and found that Wolbachia density has seasonal differences within the same population. Moreover, to determine whether Wolbachia density has a geographical cline, we compared the infection density of Wolbachia amongst all geographical populations. In addition, we determined the sequences of Wolbachia wsp and host mtDNA CO1 haplotypes of all populations. The results showed that Wolbachia density increased in early summer and decreased in autumn. Further, the density of Wolbachia infecting the same strain of Z. maha varied amongst populations, although no tendency in geographical cline was observed.

  1. Olfactory sensitivity of two sympatric species of rice leaf folders (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, R; Khan, Z R; Caballero, P; Juliano, B O

    1990-09-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from male and female moths of two sympatric leaf folder species,Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Gue-née) andMarasmia patnalis Bradley (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to 91 volatile chemicals of plant origin. Responses of both leaf folder species were similar to all compounds except to three monoterpenes-β-myrcene, menthone, and isomenthone- and two sesquiterpenes-cis-nerolidol and isophytol. Response ofM. patnalis, an oligophagous leaf folder, to these compounds was higher compared with that of polyphagousC. medinalis. EAG responses of males to saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes were significantly higher than those of conspecific females in both species. A higher response ofC. medinalis males also was observed for 1-nonanol, 3-nonen-2-one, andtrans, trans-2,6-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatriene. In contrast, females of both species responded more to monoterpenes, borneol, isoborneol, and fenchyl alchohol. Response ofC. medinalis female was higher for terpinen-4-ol, carveol, dihydrocarveol, (-)-myrtenal, and perillaldehyde. In both species and sexes, high EAG responses were recorded for compounds of the green leaf odor complex. EAG responses to nonanal and hexanal were maximum among the aliphatic aldehydes while 1-hexanol elicited the highest response among the alcohols tested. EAG responses to terpene compounds-citronellal,α-terpineol, and (-)-myrtenal-were equal to the response to 1-hexanol. While all compounds tested elicited a negative potential, thymol and carvacrol elicited a positive EAG potential. The EAG data are discussed with regard.

  2. Identification of Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) based on cytochrome oxidase II

    PubMed Central

    Villamizar, Laura Fernanda; Espinel, Carlos; Quintero, Edgar Mauricio; Belaich, Mariano Nicolás; Toloza, Deisy Liseth

    2017-01-01

    Diatraea spp. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) are a group of insects that are agriculture pests in many economically relevant crops such as sugarcane, sorghum, corn and rice. Recognized species for this genus respond differentially to natural enemies used in their biological control, emphasizing the importance of species in a regional approach. Currently, identification is based on the male genitalia. However, the availability of specimens collected from field and subjectivity based on the character recognition can seriously hamper species identification, and therefore result in inadequate pest management. To overcome this, individuals of Diatraea spp. preliminarily classified male genitalia and obtained from reared conditions and the field (both derived from natural populations occurring in Colombia) were analyzed using genitalic morphometry and molecular biology specifically using a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit II (CO II) mitochondrial gene. Although morphometric analysis did not show any overriding results regarding genitalia morphology, the bioinformatics analyses of CO II sequences resulted in an adequate classification of the individuals within the recognized species. It also, revealed that the occurrence of clades associated with geographical distribution may be associated with cryptic species. The latter was also confirmed by a Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) methodology evaluating the same fragment of CO II. This experimental approach allows properly recognizing each species and in consequence is proposed as an effective tool in Diatraea species identification. PMID:28873431

  3. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Ctenoptilum vasava (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae) and Its Phylogenetic Implication.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jiasheng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Huabin; Sun, Xiaoyan; Gai, Yonghua; Yang, Qun

    2012-01-01

    We here report the first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a skipper, Ctenoptilum vasava Moore, 1865 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). The mt genome of the skipper is a circular molecule of 15,468 bp, containing 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 24 putative transfer RNA (tRNA), genes including an extra copy of trnS (AGN) and a tRNA-like insertion trnL (UUR), 13 protein-coding genes and an AT-rich region. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons and terminated by the typical stop codon TAA or TAG, except for COII which ends with a single T. The intergenic spacer sequence between trnS (AGN) and ND1 genes also contains the ATACTAA motif. The AT-rich region of 429 bp is comprised of nonrepetitive sequences, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 19 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)(3) (TA)(9) element next to the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A adjacent to tRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses (ML and BI methods) showed that Papilionoidea is not a natural group, and Hesperioidea is placed within the Papilionoidea as a sister to ((Pieridae + Lycaenidae) + Nymphalidae) while Papilionoidae is paraphyletic to Hesperioidea. This result is remarkably different from the traditional view where Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea are considered as two distinct superfamilies.

  4. Characterization of complete mitochondrial genome of the skipper butterfly, Celaenorrhinus maculosus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Hao, Jiasheng; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-01-01

    The skipper butterfly, Celaenorrhinus maculosus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), is a small butterfly species that is widely distributed in Taiwan and mainland China. In this work, we sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of the butterfly. The circular genome of 15,282 bp in length contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Overall base composition of the complete mt genome was 33.97% A, 39.90% T, 12.38% C and 7.75% G, with an AT bias of 79.87%. All protein-coding genes start with an ATN codon, and terminate with the typical stop codon TAA or a single T. The non-coding AT-rich region is 331 bp in length, including a 18 bp poly-T stretch and a microsatellite-like (TA)7 element. The genome sequence is useful for future studies of phylogenetics, molecular evolution, conservation genetics and agricultural control.

  5. Yield-based economic thresholds for grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in juice grapes.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Mason, Keith S; Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus

    2013-04-01

    A 3-yr field study was conducted at commercial juice grape (Vitis labrusca L.) vineyards to develop an economic injury level (EIL) for grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and to determine patterns of cluster injury. Infestation of grape clusters by P. viteana was measured biweekly from bloom until harvest, and fruit was sampled immediately before harvest to determine the yield and level of fruit injury by this pest. Comparison of fruit infestation at each sampling date to that found just before harvest revealed stronger relationships over time, and by early August at least 50% of the variation in preharvest infestation was accounted for by previous infestation. Grape yield declined with increasing infestation by P. viteana, allowing calculation of the EIL at which the value of yield lost to infestation equaled the cost of insecticide applications to prevent the infestation. Using two scenarios of pest control programs based on pyrethroid or diamide insecticides, the EILs were calculated to be 9.9 and 17.7% of clusters damaged, respectively. For use in juice grape vineyard integrated pest management programs, we propose using 5 and 10% damaged clusters at harvest as action thresholds for further testing in field trials to evaluate sampling plans and the use of thresholds to guide vineyard pest management decision-making under different insecticide scenarios.

  6. Wolbachia density changes seasonally amongst populations of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sumi, Takuto; Miura, Kazuki; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the survival rate of Wolbachia decreases under high temperature in incubators. It is also known that a high density of Wolbachia in the host body reduces the host emergence rate, while low densities fail to change reproduction rates. However, few studies have examined the density of Wolbachia in hosts in the field. Here, we focus on Wolbachia infection of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), which is distributed throughout the Japanese islands. We examined the rate and density of Wolbachia infection in the bodies of butterflies at thirteen locations in Japan. At seven of these places, we collected butterflies in different seasons to determine seasonal differences in the infection rate and density and found that Wolbachia density has seasonal differences within the same population. Moreover, to determine whether Wolbachia density has a geographical cline, we compared the infection density of Wolbachia amongst all geographical populations. In addition, we determined the sequences of Wolbachia wsp and host mtDNA CO1 haplotypes of all populations. The results showed that Wolbachia density increased in early summer and decreased in autumn. Further, the density of Wolbachia infecting the same strain of Z. maha varied amongst populations, although no tendency in geographical cline was observed. PMID:28403227

  7. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    PubMed

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Differentiating Oriental Fruit Moth and Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Siegwart, Myriam; Bouvier, Floriane; Maugin, Sandrine; Lecomte, Alain; Lavigne, Claire

    2015-02-01

    Cydia pomonella (L.) and Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are two important lepidopteran pests that may co-occur in apple orchards and are difficult to differentiate in the larval stage. We investigate the possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) coupled with partial least squares analysis to distinguish the larvae of the two species. We further assess whether wild individuals can be differentiated using laboratory strains of the two species for model calibration. The NIRS spectra of C. molesta and C. pomonella differed most in the wavelengths between 1,142 and 1,338 nm. Using these wavelengths, partial least squares analysis allowed the differentiation of C. molesta and C. pomonella at the larval stage with very low error, but only as long as both the calibration and prediction sets for individuals had the same origin (either both from the laboratory or both from the field). Errors that appeared when using laboratory individuals for calibration were owing to the divergence of the C. pomonella laboratory strain, most likely following evolution during rearing. Thus, NIRS appears to be a promising tool for the easy and rapid identification of individuals in the field, provided that it is calibrated based on a subset of field individuals. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Temperature-dependent development and temperature thresholds of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghdam, Hossein Ranjbar; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Radjabi, Gholamreza; Rezapanah, Mohammadreza

    2009-06-01

    Developmental rate models and biological parameters estimated from them, especially lower and upper temperature thresholds and optimal temperature, can help to forecast phenological events of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in apple orchards. We studied the developmental time of immature stages of codling moth at eight constant temperatures ranging from 10 to 35 degrees C and modeled their developmental rate as a function of temperature using 13 published nonlinear and 2 linear models. Data were fitted to developmental rate models and temperature thresholds and the optimal temperatures were estimated. The models were evaluated based on adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)(adj)) and Akaike information criterion (AIC), in addition to coefficient of determination (R(2)) and residual sum of squares (RSS). The thermal constants were 79.80, 312.60, 232.03, and 615.32 DD for egg, larva, pupa, and overall immature stages of codling moth, respectively, using the Ikemoto and Takai linear model. The Ikemoto and Takai linear model estimated lower temperature thresholds as 9.97, 8.94, 10.04, and 9.63 degrees C for egg, larva, pupa, and overall immature stages, respectively. Among the nonlinear models, the third-order polynomial fit the data well. This model estimates optimal temperature accurately. Brière-1 and Brière-2 accurately estimated the lower and upper temperature thresholds considering model evaluation criteria and accuracy of estimations.

  10. Studies on the codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) response to different codlemone release rates.

    PubMed

    Vacas, S; Miñarro, M; Bosch, M D; Primo, J; Navarro-Llopis, V

    2013-12-01

    The response of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)) to different emission values of its main pheromone component, 8E,10E-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone), was investigated in three field trials conducted in plots without mating disruption treatments. Moth catches obtained in traps baited with pheromone dispensers were correlated with the corresponding codlemone release rates by multiple regression analysis. In a preliminary trial conducted in Lleida (NE Spain), a decreasing trend of captures was observed based on increasing pheromone levels. After this, the pheromone release profiles of the pheromone dispensers were studied, in parallel with the field trials, by residual codlemone extraction and gas chromatography quantification. In the trials carried out in Asturias (NW Spain), a correlation between trap catches and emission levels (within the range from 11 to 1,078 μg/d) was found and fitted a logarithmic model. Captures followed a decreasing linear trend in the range of emission rates from 11 to 134 μg/d. Given that release values comprised between 11 and 67 μg/d did not lead to significantly different catches in traps, this emission range could be considered to develop effective formulations for attraction purposes when mating disruption is not acting in the environment.

  11. Discovery and characterization of field resistance to Bt maize: Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Storer, Nicholas P; Babcock, Jonathan M; Schlenz, Michele; Meade, Thomas; Thompson, Gary D; Bing, James W; Huckaba, Randy M

    2010-08-01

    Transgenic maize, Zea mays L., event TC1507 produces the Cry1F protein to provide protection from feeding by several important lepidopteran pests, including Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Reports of reduced field performance against this species in Puerto Rico were investigated, and laboratory bioassays showed that S. frugiperda collected from the affected area exhibited lower sensitivity to the Cry1F protein compared with typical colonies from other regions. The resistance was shown to be autosomally inherited and highly recessive. The Puerto Rico colony was shown to be moderately less sensitive than susceptible laboratory strains to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, but the differences in sensitivity were dramatically smaller than for Cry1F. Potential contributory factors to the emergence of resistance to Cry1F in Puerto Rico populations of S. frugiperda include the tropical island geography, unusually large population sizes in 2006, and drought conditions reducing the availability of alternative hosts. In response to this resistance incident, the technology providers have stopped commercial sales of TC1507 maize in Puerto Rico pending potential reversion to susceptibility.

  12. Using yellow rocket as a trap crop for diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R; Shelton, Anthony M; Nault, Brian A

    2005-06-01

    Yellow rocket, Barbarea vulgaris (R. Br.) variety arcuata, was evaluated as a trap crop for diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), in cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. variety capitata, in 2003 and 2004. In 2003, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae found in field plots of cabbage alone were 5.2-11.3 times higher than those on cabbage plants in plots that included cabbage and several rows of yellow rocket. In an outdoor experiment in screenhouses, P. xylostella oviposition on cabbage was compared among six treatments that varied in the percentage of yellow rocket in relation to cabbage (0, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 32% of the plants were yellow rocket). Results indicated that the percentage of eggs laid on cabbage decreased as the percentage of yellow rocket in the treatment increased, but this decrease was not significant beyond 20% of the plants being yellow rocket. In 2004, the numbers of P. xylostella larvae in field plots of cabbage alone were 1.6-2.4 and 1.7-2.8 times higher than numbers in treatments with 10 and 20% trap crop, respectively. Sticky trap and sweep net captures of P. xylostella adults indicated that within-field dispersal was reduced by the presence of yellow rocket and aggregation occurred around yellow rocket plants. Our study suggests that using yellow rocket as a trap crop may reduce P. xylostella infestations in cabbage fields, and this possibility is discussed in the context of general crop and insect pest management practices in crucifers.

  13. Phagodeterrence by Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae) wood extract fractions on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Soto, Francisco; Hilje, Luko; Mora, Gerardo A; Carballo, Manuel

    2011-03-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, precious wood species like mahoganies (Swietenia spp.) and cedars (Cedrela spp.) are seriously injured by the mahogany shootborer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larva, which bores into the main shoot of trees. In previous experiments focused on searching for a preventive method for managing this pest, a wood extract of bitterwood, Quassia amara L. ex Blom (Simaroubaceae) had been shown to cause phagodeterrence to larvae. Therefore, three fractions (water, methanol and diethyl ether) of a wood extract were tested for their phagodeterrence to larvae, by means of laboratory and greenhouse trials. Phagodeterrence was assessed by determining their effect on foliage consumption, mortality and signs of damage (number of orifices, sawdust piles, fallen shoots, number of tunnels and tunnel length) caused by larvae on Spanish cedar (C. odorata). Both the methanol and diethyl ether fractions caused phagodeterrence, by strongly reducing foliage consumption and signs of damage, while not causing larval mortality. The lowest concentration at which phagodeterrence was detected for the methanol fraction corresponded to 0.0625%, which is equivalent to a 1.0% of the bitterwood crude extract. However, results with the diethyl ether fraction were unsatisfactory, as none of the treatments differed from the solvent, possibly because of an adverse effect of the solvent on foliar tissues. Phagodeterrent principles from Q. amara derivatives may play an important role in dealing with H. grandella if they are complemented with other integrated pest management preventative tactics.

  14. Interspecific competition between two generalist parasitoids that attack the leafroller Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Feng, Y; Wratten, S; Sandhu, H; Keller, M

    2015-08-01

    Two generalist parasitoids, Dolichogenidea tasmanica (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Therophilus unimaculatus (Turner) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attack early instars of tortricid moths, including the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). The two parasitoids co-exist in natural habitats, while D. tasmanica is dominant in vineyards, whereas T. unimaculatus occurs mainly in adjacent native vegetation. This difference suggests possible competition between the two species, mediated by habitat. Here, we report on the extent of interspecific differences in host discrimination and the outcome of interspecific competition between the two parasitoids. The parasitoids did not show different behavioural responses to un-parasitized hosts or those that were parasitized by the other species. Larvae of D. tasmanica out-competed those of T. unimaculatus, irrespective of the order or interval between attacks by the two species. The host larvae that were attacked by two parasitoids died more frequently before a parasitoid completed its larval development than those that were attacked by a single parasitoid. Dissection of host larvae parasitized by both species indicated that first instars of D. tasmanica attacked and killed larval T. unimaculatus.

  15. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested. PMID:25914438

  16. Ecological Factors Affecting the Flight Phenology of the Endangered Coenonympha nipisiquit (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Chiasson, Billie; Moreau, Gaétan

    2017-03-17

    Coenonympha nipisiquit McDunnough (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is an endemic butterfly species that has been recorded only in 10 salt marshes of eastern Canada. Despite obtaining the endangered status and benefiting from a conservation program, the populations of this species appear to be declining. However, a lack of information about the ecology of the species and current demographics undermines potential in-situ conservation efforts. To identify the environmental factors affecting the emergence phenology and flight period of this species, daily visual counts of adult C. nipisiquit were carried out on a daily basis from 2011 to 2015 during the flight period along transects in four marshes where the butterfly maintains a continuous presence. A series of environmental parameters was collected during the monitoring. Additive modeling indicated that the accumulation of degree-days above 7 °C from mid-May contributed to the synchronization of adult emergence and flight in C. nipisiquit and identified a number of abiotic factors having an impact on the activity and monitoring of this insect. Data also indicated that some demographic aspects of this butterfly differ between sites and confirmed that C. nipisiquit has been declining from 2011 to 2015. In conclusion, this study not only generated information critical to the adjustment of the conservation program for C. nipisiquit, but also indicated that the extirpation of this species from its natural range should remain a concern.

  17. Structure and distribution of the sensilla on the antennae of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Bawin, Thomas; Collard, France; De Backer, Lara; Yarou, Boni Barthélémy; Compère, Philippe; Francis, Frédéric; Verheggen, François J

    2017-02-01

    The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based management strategies still fail to significantly reduce damages and need to be improved. Here we describe under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the structure and distribution of the sensilla that are displayed on adult antennae. These were similar in size between males (3424.4±135.3μm) and females (3292.1±111.5μm), being segmented into a scape, a pedicel, and a distal filiform flagellum. Eight morphological sensilla types were observed on both sexes: Böhm's bristles, sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica (two subtypes), sensilla chaetica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla auricillica, and sensilla styloconica. The main sexual dimorphism was related to the higher abundance of sensilla trichodea in males, twice as abundant as in females. The putative functional significance of the different sensilla types regarding the insect ecology is discussed based on the available literature. This work provides descriptions of the antennae and related sensory structures. We expect these results to help develop further electrophysiological investigations aiming to a better understanding of T. absoluta olfaction.

  18. Control of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by biodegradable ecodian sex pheromone dispensers.

    PubMed

    Anfora, G; Baldessari, M; De Cristofaro, A; Germinara, G S; Ioriatti, C; Reggiori, F; Vitagliano, S; Angeli, G

    2008-04-01

    Mating disruption with a high density of sex pheromone dispensers is a new strategy recently developed for the control of the moth Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Ecodian LB dispensers, made of low-cost biodegradable material, were formulated with 10 mg of (E,Z) -7,9-dodecadienyl acetate and placed at a rate of 1,600 dispensers per ha. Seasonal dispenser performances were studied using different methods. The female attractiveness disruption and the efficacy of the method were evaluated in the field. The release rates of field-aged Ecodian LB dispensers, measured directly by solid phase microextraction, was comparable with that of the standard monitoring lure after 50-60 d of field exposure and significantly lower beyond 60 d; however, at the end of the season, it was approximately 46 times higher than that of a calling L. botrana female. Electroantennographic recordings showed that dispensers of different field age strongly stimulated male antennae. In a wind tunnel test, dispensers elicited close-range approaches and direct source contacts irrespective of their age. In fields treated with Ecodian dispensers the attractiveness of traps lured with calling females and monitoring baits was significantly reduced. Our data suggest that Ecodian dispensers are active sources of pheromone throughout the season. The efficacy of Ecodian strategy for L. botrana control was comparable with standard mating disruption and curative insecticides.

  19. Effects of lufenuron on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg, larval, and adult stages.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-de-Cabezón, F J; Pérez-Moreno, I; Zalom, Frank G; Marco, V

    2006-04-01

    The effect of the chitin synthesis inhibitor lufenuron was evaluated against different developmental stages of Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Lufenuron fed to adults at 10 ppm reduced their fecundity and fertility, but it did not affect adult longevity. High activity was observed against L. botrana eggs with greater effect on 1-d-old eggs than on the other age classes and on eggs treated by direct contact rather than those laid on a previously treated surface. Eggs laid by treated adults showed the same effects during development as eggs treated by contact or those laid on a treated surface. Larvae that emerged from treated eggs could not perforate grape berries. Administered into the diet, lufenuron had a larvicidal effect, resulting in similar LC50 values for different instars: 0.07 ppm for first instars, 0.08 ppm for third instars, and 0.11 ppm for fifth instars. None of the larvae treated with sublethal concentrations throughout their life emerged as adults at the highest concentration (0.08 ppm), and only 70% emerged at the lowest concentration (0.0025 ppm).

  20. Evaluation of tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins among laboratory-reared western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jeanette M; Sappington, Thomas W; Coates, Brad S

    2013-12-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a destructive insect pest of dry beans and corn within its native range of western Nebraska and eastern Colorado. However, since the initiation of an eastward range expansion of S. albicosta in the late 1990s, economic damage has been observed in the Midwest, and the species has now reached the Atlantic Coast and Quebec. Economic damage to corn occurs by larval feeding on ears, which is not controlled by commercial transgenic hybrids that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ab, but partial control is observed by corn varieties that express Cry1 F toxins. Inadequate protocols for laboratory rearing of S. albicosta have hindered controlled efficacy experimentation in the laboratory and field. We report an S. albicosta rearing methodology used to maintain alaboratory colony for 12 continuous generations. Rearing procedures were adapted for Bt toxin diet-overlay assays, revealing that S. albicosta larvae exposed to Bt toxin for 14 d were insensitive to Cry1Ab concentrations up to 25,000 ng/cm2. In contrast, neonates exposed to Cry1 F toxin at > or = 250 ng/cm2, showed reduced developmental rates, with estimated effective concentrations of EC50 = 1,187.5 ng/cm2 and EC95 = 10,000.5 ng/cm2. The ability to mass produce this pest insect will enhance fundamental research, including evaluation of control tactics and toxin susceptibility.

  1. Effects of orchard host plants on the oviposition preference of the oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Myers, Clayton T; Hull, Larry A; Krawczyk, Grzegorz

    2006-08-01

    Recently, the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), has emerged as a major problem on apples (Malus spp.) grown in the mid-Atlantic and midwestern United States, despite its historically important and frequent occurrence as a peach (Prunus spp.) pest. It is possible that host-driven biological phenomena may be contributing to changes in G. molesta population dynamics resulting in outbreaks in apple. Studies were designed to examine the effects of host plants on oviposition behavior, in an effort to clarify the host association status of eastern U.S. populations and also to gain insight into how pest modeling and management efforts may be altered to take into account various host-associated effects. G. molesta adults exhibited ovipositional preference for nonbearing peach trees over nonbearing apple trees in close-range choice tests conducted in the field, regardless of the larval host origin. A significant preference for peach shoots over apple shoots was observed on six of 12 sampling dates with a wild G. molesta population at the interface of adjacent peach and apple blocks. Numbers of eggs found on apple fruit were higher after peach fruit were harvested and apple fruit began to approach maturity (during the flight period for third and fourth brood adults). Possible implications for population modeling and integrated management of G. molesta are discussed.

  2. Controlled atmosphere and temperature treatment system to disinfest fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) on apples.

    PubMed

    Son, Yerim; Chon, Ikjo; Neven, Lisa; Kim, Yonggyun

    2012-10-01

    Carposina sasakii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) is a serious pest of apples and peaches in Korea and Japan. Because of its limited distribution, C. sasakii has been identified as a quarantine pest in several countries. The Controlled Atmosphere/Temperature Treatment System (CATTS) was tested as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation to control C. sasakii in apples. The fifth instar was the most tolerant immature stage to a heat treatment of 44 degrees C for 20 min. When the apples infested with different stages of C. sasakii were treated under CATTS conditions (heating rate of 16 degrees C/h, chamber temperature of 46 degrees C, final core temperature of 44 degrees C under 1% O2/15% CO2 atmosphere), young larvae (first-fourth instars) did not survive after 40 min exposure, but the fifth instars required an exposure of at least 60 min to attain 100% mortality. A partial heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) was cloned and showed inducible expression in response to heat shock at 44 degrees C. CATTS suppressed transcription of the hsp90 gene. Apples did not show any appreciable loss of quality in relation to fruit firmness, sweetness, and decay after a 60 min CATTS treatment. These results suggest that CATTS can be applicable to control C. sasakii in apples.

  3. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Ctenoptilum vasava (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae) and Its Phylogenetic Implication

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Jiasheng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Huabin; Sun, Xiaoyan; Gai, Yonghua; Yang, Qun

    2012-01-01

    We here report the first complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a skipper, Ctenoptilum vasava Moore, 1865 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrginae). The mt genome of the skipper is a circular molecule of 15,468 bp, containing 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 24 putative transfer RNA (tRNA), genes including an extra copy of trnS (AGN) and a tRNA-like insertion trnL (UUR), 13 protein-coding genes and an AT-rich region. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons and terminated by the typical stop codon TAA or TAG, except for COII which ends with a single T. The intergenic spacer sequence between trnS (AGN) and ND1 genes also contains the ATACTAA motif. The AT-rich region of 429 bp is comprised of nonrepetitive sequences, including the motif ATAGA followed by an 19 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (AT)3 (TA)9 element next to the ATTTA motif, an 11 bp poly-A adjacent to tRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses (ML and BI methods) showed that Papilionoidea is not a natural group, and Hesperioidea is placed within the Papilionoidea as a sister to ((Pieridae + Lycaenidae) + Nymphalidae) while Papilionoidae is paraphyletic to Hesperioidea. This result is remarkably different from the traditional view where Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea are considered as two distinct superfamilies. PMID:22577351

  4. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant silkworm moth, Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shao-Tong; Hong, Gui-Yun; Yu, Miao; Li, Na; Yang, Ying; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2009-05-22

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined as being composed of 15,327 base pairs (bp), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs is the same as that found in the other sequenced lepidopteran. The AT skewness for the E. pyretorum mitogenome is slightly negative (-0.031), indicating the occurrence of more Ts than As. The nucleotide composition of the E. pyretorum mitogenome is also biased toward A + T nucleotides (80.82%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 2 (cox1 and cox2). Two of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN) and trnS2(UCN). Phylogenetic analysis among the available lepidopteran species supports the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Geometroidea, Notodontidea, Papilionoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic. As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina), Sphingoidae (Manduca sexta) and Saturniidae (Antheraea pernyi, Antheraea yamamai, E. pyretorum and Caligula boisduvalii) formed a group.

  5. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the giant silkworm moth, Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shao-Tong; Hong, Gui-Yun; Yu, Miao; Li, Na; Yang, Ying; Liu, Yan-Qun; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Eriogyna pyretorum (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined as being composed of 15,327 base pairs (bp), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The arrangement of the PCGs is the same as that found in the other sequenced lepidopteran. The AT skewness for the E. pyretorum mitogenome is slightly negative (-0.031), indicating the occurrence of more Ts than As. The nucleotide composition of the E. pyretorum mitogenome is also biased toward A + T nucleotides (80.82%). All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 2 (cox1 and cox2). Two of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All tRNA genes have a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1(AGN) and trnS2(UCN). Phylogenetic analysis among the available lepidopteran species supports the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea, Geometroidea, Notodontidea, Papilionoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic. As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and Bombyx mandarina), Sphingoidae (Manduca sexta) and Saturniidae (Antheraea pernyi, Antheraea yamamai, E. pyretorum and Caligula boisduvalii) formed a group. PMID:19471586

  6. The complete mitogenome sequence of the Japanese oak silkmoth, Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Ryeol; Kim, Man Il; Hong, Mee Yeon; Kim, Kee Young; Kang, Pil Don; Hwang, Jae Sam; Han, Yeon Soo; Jin, Byung Rae; Kim, Iksoo

    2009-09-01

    The 15,338-bp long complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Japanese oak silkmoth, Antheraea yamamai (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined. This genome has a gene arrangement identical to those of all other sequenced lepidopteran insects, but differs from the most common type, as the result of the movement of tRNA(Met) to a position 5'-upstream of tRNA(Ile). No typical start codon of the A. yamamai COI gene is available. Instead, a tetranucleotide, TTAG, which is found at the beginning context of all sequenced lepidopteran insects was tentatively designated as the start codon for A. yamamai COI gene. Three of the 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) harbor the incomplete termination codon, T or TA. All tRNAs formed stable stem-and-loop structures, with the exception of tRNA(Ser)(AGN), the DHU arm of which formed a simple loop as has been observed in many other metazoan mt tRNA(Ser)(AGN). The 334-bp long A + T-rich region is noteworthy in that it harbors tRNA-like structures, as has also been seen in the A + T-rich regions of other insect mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analyses of the available species of Bombycoidea, Pyraloidea, and Tortricidea bolstered the current morphology-based hypothesis that Bombycoidea and Pyraloidea are monophyletic (Obtectomera). As has been previously suggested, Bombycidae (Bombyx mori and B. mandarina) and Saturniidae (A. yamamai and Caligula boisduvalii) formed a reciprocal monophyletic group.

  7. Sexual communication in day-flying Lepidoptera with special reference to castniids or 'butterfly-moths'.

    PubMed

    Sarto I Monteys, V; Quero, C; Santa-Cruz, M C; Rosell, G; Guerrero, A

    2016-04-05

    Butterflies and moths are subject to different evolutionary pressures that affect several aspects of their behaviour and physiology, particularly sexual communication. Butterflies are day-flying insects (excluding hedylids) whose partner-finding strategy is mainly based on visual cues and female butterflies having apparently lost the typical sex pheromone glands. Moths, in contrast, are mostly night-flyers and use female-released long-range pheromones for partner-finding. However, some moth families are exclusively day-flyers, and therefore subject to evolutionary pressures similar to those endured by butterflies. Among them, the Castniidae, also called 'butterfly-moths' or 'sun-moths', behave like butterflies and, thus, castniid females appear to have also lost their pheromone glands, an unparallel attribute in the world of moths. In this paper, we review the sexual communication strategy in day-flying Lepidoptera, mainly butterflies (superfamily Papilionoidea), Zygaenidae and Castniidae moths, and compare their mating behaviour with that of moth families of nocturnal habits, paying particular attention to the recently discovered butterfly-like partner-finding strategy of castniids and the fascinating facts and debates that led to its discovery.

  8. Sequential sampling plan for Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) on horse chestnut tree.

    PubMed

    Ferracini, Chiara; Alma, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    A fixed precision sequential sampling plan for estimating the density of the horse chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum L., leafminer Cameraria ohridella Deschka & Dimic (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) was developed. Data were collected from 2002 to 2004 in Turin, northwestern Italy, with the aim of developing a sampling strategy for estimating populations of C. ohridella mines. Taylor's power law was used as a regression model. Sampling parameters were estimated from 216 data sets, and an additional 110 independent data sets were used to validate the fixed precision sequential sampling plan with resampling software. Covariance analysis indicated that there were not significant differences in the coefficient of Taylor's power law between heights of the foliage, months, and years. Dispersion patterns of C. ohridella were determined to be aggregated. The parameters of the Taylor's power law were used to calculate minimum sample sizes and sampling stop lines for different precision levels. Considering a mean density value of five mines per leaf, an average sample number of only 49 leaves was necessary to achieve a desired precision level of 0.25. As the precision level was increased to 0.10, the average sample size increased to 303 leaves. The sequential sampling plan should provide an effective management of C. ohridella in the urban areas, minimizing sampling time and cost, and at the same should be an effective tool to reduce insecticide applications and prevent the esthetic damage.

  9. Intentional coverage gaps reduce cost of mating disruption for Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) in citrus.

    PubMed

    Lapointe, S L; Stelinski, L L; Keathley, C P; Mafra-Neto, A

    2014-04-01

    The leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is a global pest of citrus and contributes to the incidence and severity of citrus bacterial canker. SPLAT CLM (ISCA Technologies, Riverside, CA) is an emulsified wax that provides sustained release of (Z,Z,E)-7,11,13-hexadecatrienal, the major component of P. citrella sex pheromone. Trials in commercial orchards demonstrated that SPLAT CLM applied to plots of varying width resulted in disruption of trap catch of male P. citrella within treated rows and across untreated rows adjacent to treated rows. SPLAT CLM applied to plots of constant width (10 rows) disrupted trap catch across an untreated gap as the square of the width of the gap. Similarly, the ability of the pheromone source in treated rows to disrupt trap catch across untreated gaps of constant size declined as the square of the width of adjacent treated areas. A coverage pattern of 4 rows skipped for every 10 treated rows resulted in a 4% reduction of trap shutdown, and reduced the product and application costs by 29%. Mining incidence by P. citrella in treated rows was reduced by 53% compared with untreated areas. Intentional coverage gaps can significantly reduce the cost of mating disruption. Commercial lures for P. citrella used in this study were highly potent with respect to attracting males. Each lure was approximately 10(3) times as attractive as an individual P. citrella female. Disruption of trap catch using commercial lures may underestimate actual mating disruption achieved in the field.

  10. Larval Biology of Anthophagous Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) in the Cerrado of Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Neuza A. P.; Duarte, Marcelo; Araújo, Eliezer B.; Morais, Helena C.

    2014-01-01

    The biology and morphology of the early stages of 22 species of Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, Theclinae) are presented. Observations were collected through the inspection of inflorescences in the field and the rearing of 214 larvae in laboratory. Allosmaitia strophius (Godart) associated with Malpighiaceae species and the polyphagous Strymon mulucha (Hewitson) were the most frequently collected species. Detritivory was observed in two species, Electrostrymon endymion (F.) and Kisutam syllis (Godman & Salvin), and myrmecophily in four other species, A. strophius, Ministrymon azia (Hewitson), Parrhasius polibetes (Stoll), and S. mulucha. Cannibalism was observed in A. strophius; in addition, the pupa of this and of three other species produced audible sounds. Paiwarria aphaca (Hewitson) was highlighted because of the great difference observed between its first and last instars, as well as the marked difference between that species and the larvae of Paiwarria umbratus (Geyer) documented in Costa Rica. Larvae of Calycopis mimas (Godman & Salvin) displayed “bungee jumping” behavior when stimulated. Parasitoids (Diptera, Hymenoptera) attacked 21 larvae of eight species, A. strophius, K. syllis, M. azia, Pai. aphaca, P. polibetes, Rekoa marius (Lucas), S. mulucha, and Tmolus venustus (H.H. Druce). Illustrations of immatures and parasitoids are provided. PMID:25368090

  11. Review of the species of Visiana Swinhoe from the Papua New Guinea region (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The genus isiana Swinhoe which belongs to the subfamily Larentiinae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is widely distributed within the Indo-Australian region. The present study is the first extensive review of historic Visiana specimens from the Papua New Guinea region deposited in the Natural History Museum (London, UK) and Australian National Insect Collection (Canberra, Australia). The species examined are as follows: V. hyperctenista (Prout) from the Bismarck Archipelago, V. vinosa (Warren) from the eastern part of Papua New Guinea, V. ranensis (Prout), stat. nov. from the Moluccas (Indonesia), and four newly described species V. horista, sp. nov. from Bougainville Island, V. grandivinosa sp. nov. from New Britain, V. variovinosa, sp. nov. from the eastern part of Papua New Guinea, and V. morobensis, sp. nov. from the Morobe province. The lectotype is designated for V. hyperctienista. Redescriptions of V. hyperctenista, V. vinosa and V. ranensis are provided, the four new species are described, figures of all seven species are shown. The species V. hyperctenista and V. horista are treated as a sister-group, the diagnostic characters are defined. A checklist of the known Papuan species of the genus Visiana is provided.

  12. Host Plant Associations and Parasitism of South Ecuadorian Eois Species (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) Feeding on Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    Seifert, Carlo L; Bodner, Florian; Brehm, Gunnar; Fiedler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The very species-rich tropical moth genus Eois Hübner (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is a promising model group for studying host plant specialization and adaptive radiation. While most Eois species are assumed to be specialized herbivores on Piper L. species, records on other plant taxa such as Peperomia Ruiz & Pavón (Piperaceae) are still relatively scarce. Moreover, little is known about life history traits of most species, and only a few caterpillars have been described so far. We collected caterpillars associated with Peperomia (Piperaceae) host plants from June 2012 to January 2013 in three elevational bands of montane and elfin rainforests on the eastern slopes of the Andes in southern Ecuador. Caterpillars were systematically searched and reared to the adult stage. We were able to delimitate ten species of Eois on Peperomia by comparison of larval and adult morphology and by using 658 bp fragments of the mitochondrial COI gene (barcode sequences). Three of these species, Eois albosignata (Dognin), Eois bolana (Dognin), and Eois chasca (Dognin), are validly described whereas the other seven taxa represent interim morphospecies, recognized unequivocally by their DNA barcodes, and their larval and adult morphology. We provide information about their host plants, degree of parasitism, and describe the larval stages in their last instar. Additionally, caterpillars and moths are illustrated in color plates. This is the first comparative study dealing with Eois moths whose caterpillars feed on Peperomia hosts.

  13. Reidentification of Sex Pheromones of Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunqiu; Zhang, Longwa; Guo, Feng; Long, Yanhua; Wang, Yun; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-02-01

    Tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua Prout (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is an important defoliator of the tree crop Camellia sinensis L. in China. The sex pheromones of E. obliqua have not been identified, but have potential importance relative to the biological control of this predator. In this study, the female sex pheromones of E. obliqua were identified and evaluated for use in the monitoring and mass trapping of this pest. The sex pheromone extracts were subjected to gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified chemicals were synthesized and applied to wind-tunnel tests and field experiments. (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and 6,7-epoxy-(Z,Z)-3,9-octadecadiene were determined to be the primary sex pheromones produced by the female E. obliqua; the latter elicits the strongest electroantennogram responses from male E. obliqua antennae. However, males did not respond to single components in the wind-tunnel tests. The results of a field-trapping experiment indicated that a 4:6 v/v blend of (Z,Z,Z)-3,6,9-octadecatriene and 6,7-epoxy-(Z,Z)-3,9-octadecadiene was highly effective in attracting male moths.

  14. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)

    PubMed Central

    Aarnes, Siv Grethe; Fløystad, Ida; Schregel, Julia; Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Eiken, Hans Geir; Ims, Rolf A.; Hagen, Snorre B.

    2015-01-01

    The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata. PMID:26393576

  15. Three new species of Fancy Case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma)

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The endemic Hawaiian moth genus Hyposmocoma includes 348 described species and perhaps twice as many that remain undescribed. The genus is unusual within Lepidoptera in that its larvae create distinctive silk cases in which they perambulate while protected and camouflaged. An extraordinary diversity of case types exists, and to date more than ten different types have been identified, each corresponding roughly to a separate evolutionary lineage. In this study, we describe three new species of Hyposmocoma: Hyposmocoma ipohapuu sp. n. from Big Island, Hyposmocoma makawao sp. n. from Makawao Forest Reserve in Mauiand Hyposmocoma tantala sp. n. from Mt. Tantalus, Oahu, all of which produce tubular purse cases during their larval stage. We also describe the female of Hyposmocoma inversella Walsingham, which was previously undescribed, and re-describe two closely related species, Hyposmocoma auropurpurea Walsingham and Hyposmocoma nebulifera Walsingham, neither which have been formally described in recent years. We present for the first time, primer sequences for a 705 bp fragment of CAD, designed for Hyposmocoma and relatives. The molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci demonstrates that all are distinct species. The discovery of a new, endemic species from Mt. Tantalus, an area with many invasive species, suggests that even relatively degraded areas in Hawaii would be worthy of active conservation efforts. PMID:22408378

  16. Toxicity of phosphine to Carposina niponensis (Lepidoptera: Carposinadae) at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Bo, Liu; Fanhua, Zhang; Yuejin, Wang

    2010-12-01

    Carposina niponensis Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Carposinadae), is widely distributed in pome fruit production areas in China and presents a problem in some export markets because it is considered a quarantine pest by some countries. Methyl bromide is the only fumigant used for fumigation of apples (Malus spp.) for export. However, phosphine is a candidate replacement that can be applied directly at low temperature. Here, laboratory tests showed that tolerance of different stages of C. niponensis to phosphine fumigation at 0 degrees C differed greatly; first-second-instar larvae were the least tolerant stage and the mature fifth instars were the most tolerant stage. In the mature larvae, fumigation tests, with a range of phosphine concentrations from 0.42 to 1.95 mg/liters and exposure periods of 24 h to 14 d at 0 degrees C indicated narcosis when phosphine concentration was > or = 1.67 mg/liter and that a 15.52-8.14-d fumigation period was required to achieve 99% mortality with different phosphine concentrations. The expression of C(0.7)T = k was obtained, which indicated that exposure time was much more important than concentration of phosphine in mortality of mature larvae of C. niponensis. All results suggested that phosphine fumigation at low temperature offers promising control of C. niponensis infestation in pome fruit.

  17. The Relationship Between Ants and Lycaeides melissa samuelis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) at Concord Pine Barrens, NH, USA.

    PubMed

    Pascale, Elizabeth G; Thiet, Rachel K

    2016-04-22

    The Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis Nabokov) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) is a federally listed, endangered species that has experienced dramatic decline over its historic range. In surviving populations, Karner blue butterflies have a facultative mutualism with ants that could be critically important to their survival where their populations are threatened by habitat loss or disturbance. In this study, we investigated the effects of ants, wild blue lupine population status (native or restored), and fire on adult Karner blue butterfly abundance at the Concord Pine Barrens, NH, USA. Ant frequency (the number of times we collected each ant species in our pitfall traps) was higher in restored than native lupine treatments regardless of burn status during both Karner blue butterfly broods, and the trend was statistically significant during the second brood. We observed a positive relationship between adult Karner blue butterfly abundance and ant frequency during the first brood, particularly on native lupine, regardless of burn treatment. During the second brood, adult Karner blue butterfly abundance and ant frequency were not significantly correlated in any treatments or their combinations. Our findings suggest that a combination of native and restored lupine is important for supporting both Karner blue butterflies and ants at the Concord Pine Barrens, and that burning does not affect the mutualism. Thus, scientists and managers at the site may wish to target their habitat management activities to best support both Karner blue butterflies and the particular ant species that provide the greatest benefit to their survival.

  18. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Liling; Zhongxin, Li; Ma, Wenqiang; Yan, Shengkun; Cui, Kuanbo

    2015-01-01

    The infestation of rice moth, Corcyras cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Galleriidae), causes severe losses in postharvest walnuts. Heat has been studied as a phytosanitary treatment to replace chemical fumigation for controlling this pest. Information on kinetics for thermal mortality of C. cephalonica is needed for developing effective postharvest phytosanitary thermal treatments of walnuts. Thermal death kinetics of fifth-instar C. cephalonica were investigated at temperatures between 44°C and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C min(-1) using a heating block system. The results showed that thermal-death curves for C. cephalonica larvae followed a 0 order of kinetic reaction. The time to reach 100% mortality decreased with increasing temperature from 150 min at 44°C to 2.5 min at 50°C. The activation energy for controlling C. cephalonica was 466-592 kJ/mol, and the z value obtained from the thermal death time curve was 3.3°C. This kinetic model prediction could be useful in designing the thermal treatment protocol for controlling C. cephalonica in walnuts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  19. Effect of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) response to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Carrière, Yves; Nyboer, Megan E; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Sollome, James; Colletto, Nick; Antilla, Larry; Dennehy, Timothy J; Staten, Robert T; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2006-06-01

    Fitness costs associated with resistance to transgenic crops producing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could reduce male response to pheromone traps. Such costs would cause underestimation of resistance frequency if monitoring was based on analysis of males caught in pheromone traps. To develop a DNA-based resistance monitoring program for pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), we compared the response to pheromone traps of males with and without cadherin alleles associated with resistance to Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). When irradiated males from two hybrid laboratory strains with an intermediate frequency of resistance alleles were released in large field cages, the probability of capture in pheromone traps was not lower for males with resistance alleles than for males without resistance alleles. These results suggest that analysis of trapped males would not underestimate the frequency of resistance. As the time males spent in traps in the field increased from 3 to 15 d, the success of DNA amplification declined from 100 to 30%. Thus, the efficiency of a DNA-based resistance monitoring program would be improved by analyzing males remaining in traps for 3 d or less.

  20. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications.

    PubMed

    Showler, Allan T; Castro, Boris A

    2010-08-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and rice, Oryza sativa L., in Texas, has not been controlled with chemical insecticides or biological agents, but some sugarcane varieties have shown degrees of resistance. Assessment of selected sugarcane leaf characteristics indicate that preference for oviposition sites is mostly determined by the presence of a leaf fold and secondarily by the availability of dry leaf tissue, both of which are antixenotic nonchemical stimuli. We suggest that breeding sugarcane lines bearing leaves that do not fold on drying could provide substantial antixenotic resistance against the Mexican rice borer. Previously identified antixenotic chemical stimuli, i.e., low quantities or absence of important nutrients in green leaf tissue, only become apparent when resistant and susceptible sugarcane varieties are compared. Varietal differences in oviposition preference, however, were not observed on excised dry leaf tissue, indicating that expression of resistance in terms of chemical stimuli requires detection of biochemicals in nearby living leaf tissue. Excised dry sugarcane leaves retain the two dominant nonchemical oviposition preference stimuli for Mexican rice borers, and the leaves effectively trapped eggs away from intact plants when dry leaves were used as "mulch" at the bottom of greenhouse cages. Under commercial sugarcane field conditions, bundled dry leaves also collected Mexican rice borer eggs. Possible applications of dry sugarcane leaf substrate for egg scouting and for trapping eggs are discussed.

  1. Toxicity and kinetics of methoxyfenozide in greenhouse-selected Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Smagghe, Guy; Pineda, Samuel; Carton, Bert; Del Estal, Pedro; Budia, Flor; Viñuela, Elisa

    2003-11-01

    Methoxyfenozide (RH-2485) was found to be 7.5-fold less toxic in terms of LD50 values against last-instar larvae of a greenhouse-selected strain of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) that was collected in July 2001 in an experimental greenhouse for resistance at Murcia in southern Spain, in comparison with a laboratory susceptible strain. To date, the compound is the newest member of this new group of moulting hormone accelerating IGRs to reach the marketplace against Lepidoptera. To understand this different potency in the greenhouse-selected S exigua, oxidative metabolism and acetylcholinesterase activities were measured in last-instar larvae and adults. In addition, we determined, by the use of 14C-labelled methoxyfenozide, the pattern of absorption in body tissues and excretion via faeces in last-instar larvae of the greenhouse-selected strain and compared the results with those from the laboratory susceptible strain. It was striking that the rate of excretion was about twice as high in the greenhouse-selected strain, resulting in a more rapid clearance of insecticide amounts from the insect body. Data are discussed in relation to mechanisms of lower toxicities for this new group of IGRs.

  2. [Diversity of the order Lepidoptera (Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) from Corrientes city, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Gabriela Lazzeri, María; Esther Bar, María; Pieri Damborsky, Miryam

    2011-03-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important threats for biodiversity. Among many different organisms, butterflies are useful indicators of environment diversity and quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the Lepidoptera from Corrientes city. Random samplings were performed at two sites: a native forest situated in Santa Catalina district and an urban area, Parque Mitre. The captures were carried out using entomological nets, at four seasons between January to October 2007. A total of 1 114 butterflies, represented by six families: Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae, Nymphalidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae and Riodinidae and 18 subfamilies were recorded. Fifty-nine genera and 75 species were identified; Anartia jatrophae jatrophae was the most abundant species at both localities. This species and Urbanus procne, Phoebis sennae marcellina, Pyrgus orcus and Dryas iulia alcionea were, among other seven, captured at all months. Highest values of abundance were registered during the warmest seasons. Santa Catalina presented the largest abundance (n = 701), richness (S = 74) and diversity (H' = 3.87). A total of 413 individuals and 52 species were identified at Parque Mitre, and Shannon diversity index was 3.58. The obtained data reveals a high species richness and similarity at both sites.

  3. Molecular Phylogeny of Grassland Caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae: Gynaephora) Endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Wang, Zhao-Feng; Guo, Zhong-Long; Bao, Gen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Gynaephora (Lepidoptera Erebidae: Lymantriinae) is a small genus, consisting of 15 nominated species, of which eight species are endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, we employed both mitochondrial and nuclear loci to infer a molecular phylogeny for the eight QTP Gynaephora spp. We used the phylogeny to estimate divergence dates in a molecular dating analysis and to delimit species. This information allowed us to investigate associations between the diversification history of the eight QTP species and geological and climatic events. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the eight QTP species formed a monophyletic group with strong supports in both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The low K2P genetic distances between the eight QTP species suggested that diversification occurred relatively quickly and recently. Out of the eight species, five species were highly supported as monophyletic, which were also recovered by species delimitation analyses. Samples of the remaining three species (G. aureata, G. rouergensis, and G. minora) mixed together, suggesting that further studies using extensive population sampling and comprehensive morphological approaches are necessary to clarify their species status. Divergence time estimation results demonstrated that the diversification and speciation of Gynaephora on the QTP began during the late Miocene/early Pliocene and was potentially affected by the QTP uplift and associated climate changes during this time.

  4. Molecular Phylogeny of Grassland Caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Lymantriinae: Gynaephora) Endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao-Feng; Guo, Zhong-Long; Bao, Gen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Gynaephora (Lepidoptera Erebidae: Lymantriinae) is a small genus, consisting of 15 nominated species, of which eight species are endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). In this study, we employed both mitochondrial and nuclear loci to infer a molecular phylogeny for the eight QTP Gynaephora spp. We used the phylogeny to estimate divergence dates in a molecular dating analysis and to delimit species. This information allowed us to investigate associations between the diversification history of the eight QTP species and geological and climatic events. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the eight QTP species formed a monophyletic group with strong supports in both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses. The low K2P genetic distances between the eight QTP species suggested that diversification occurred relatively quickly and recently. Out of the eight species, five species were highly supported as monophyletic, which were also recovered by species delimitation analyses. Samples of the remaining three species (G. aureata, G. rouergensis, and G. minora) mixed together, suggesting that further studies using extensive population sampling and comprehensive morphological approaches are necessary to clarify their species status. Divergence time estimation results demonstrated that the diversification and speciation of Gynaephora on the QTP began during the late Miocene/early Pliocene and was potentially affected by the QTP uplift and associated climate changes during this time. PMID:26053874

  5. Using stable isotope analysis to examine fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) host strains in a cotton habitat.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rod N; Adamczyk, John J; Meagher, Robert L; Gore, Jeffrey; Jackson, Ryan

    2007-10-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), or fall armyworm, is an important agricultural pest of several crops in the Western Hemisphere, including cotton (Gossypium L.). Two morphologically identical host strains of fall armyworm exist that differ in plant host use and habitat distribution. The corn-strain is a primary pest of corn, Zea mays L., whereas the rice-strain is the majority population infesting rice (Oryza spp.) and turfgrass (Cynodon spp.). With the increased use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-expressing cotton varieties and the necessity of ensuring adequate refuge areas to prevent the spread of Bt toxin resistance, it is crucial to identify the alternative plant hosts available for the fall armyworm population infesting cotton. Stable isotope analysis combined with the molecular analysis of strain-specific markers was used to investigate whether one or both strains routinely develop on cotton grown in the Mississippi delta. We found that the majority of fall armyworm adults present during the early cotton growing season arose from C4 plants (e.g., corn and sorghum, Sorghum vulgare Pers.) and that the only strain likely to be developing on cotton (a C3 plant) in substantial numbers was the corn-strain. The population distribution patterns observed were consistent with corn providing an important refuge for the fall armyworm strain infesting cotton and suggested that late season populations in the Mississippi delta may be migrants from more northern corn areas.

  6. Suitability of Creeping Bentgrass and Bermudagrass Cultivars for Black Cutworms and Fall Armyworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Cheon; Obear, Glen R; Liesch, Patrick J; Held, David W; Williamson, R Chris

    2015-08-01

    The black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel, and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are common turfgrass pests of golf courses in the southeastern United States. Heat-tolerant bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) cultivars are expanding the range of bentgrass further south, but these cultivars have not been studied for their potential host plant resistance to black cutworm or fall armyworm. The goals of the study were to investigate feeding response of black cutworm and fall armyworm to these newer heat-tolerant creeping bentgrass cultivars, as well as commonly used cultivars of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (Loppers.)]. Choice and no-choice feeding assays and fecundity tests were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse to evaluate performance and preference of the two insects. When given a choice, neither black cutworm nor fall armyworm showed a preference for the majority of new cultivars tested. There were no differences in leaf area consumption or insect development for either pest in no-choice feeding assays. Black cutworm females preferred laying eggs in bentgrass compared with bermudagrass, but will oviposit onto bermudagrass, suggesting that both turf species are suitable hosts of this pest. The broad host ranges of generalist caterpillar pests of turfgrass hinder the application of host plant resistance in integrated pest management on golf courses. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Identification and Evaluation of 21 Novel Microsatellite Markers from the Autumnal Moth (Epirrita autumnata) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Aarnes, Siv Grethe; Fløystad, Ida; Schregel, Julia; Vindstad, Ole Petter Laksforsmo; Jepsen, Jane Uhd; Eiken, Hans Geir; Ims, Rolf A; Hagen, Snorre B

    2015-09-17

    The autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) is a cyclically outbreaking forest Lepidoptera with circumpolar distribution and substantial impact on Northern ecosystems. We have isolated 21 microsatellites from the species to facilitate population genetic studies of population cycles, outbreaks, and crashes. First, PCR primers and PCR conditions were developed to amplify 19 trinucleotide loci and two tetranucleotide loci in six multiplex PCR approaches and then analyzed for species specificity, sensitivity and precision. Twelve of the loci showed simple tandem repeat array structures while nine loci showed imperfect repeat structures, and repeat numbers varied in our material between six and 15. The application in population genetics for all the 21 microsatellites were further validated in 48 autumnal moths sampled from Northern Norway, and allelic variation was detected in 19 loci. The detected numbers of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and the observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.04 to 0.69 and 0.04 to 0.79, respectively. Evidence for linkage disequilibrium was found for six loci as well as indication of one null allele. We find that these novel microsatellites and their multiplex-PCR assays are suitable for further research on fine- and large-scale population-genetic studies of Epirrita autumnata.

  8. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region.

  9. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.

  10. Seasonal infestations of two stem borers (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in noncrop grasses of Gulf Coast rice agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Beuzelin, J M; Mészáros, A; Reagan, T E; Wilson, L T; Way, M O; Blouin, D C; Showler, A T

    2011-10-01

    Infestations of two stem borers, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), were compared in noncrop grasses adjacent to rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields. Three farms in the Texas rice Gulf Coast production area were surveyed every 6-8 wk between 2007 and 2009 using quadrat sampling along transects. Although D. saccharalis densities were relatively low, E. loftini average densities ranged from 0.3 to 5.7 immatures per m(2) throughout the 2-yr period. Early annual grasses including ryegrass, Lolium spp., and brome, Bromus spp., were infested during the spring, whereas the perennial johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Vasey's grass, Paspalum urvillei Steud., were infested throughout the year. Johnsongrass was the most prevalent host (41-78% relative abundance), but Vasey's grass (13-40% relative abundance) harbored as much as 62% of the recovered E. loftini immatures (during the winter). Young rice in newly planted fields did not host stem borers before June. April sampling in fallow rice fields showed that any available live grass material, volunteer rice or weed, can serve as a host during the spring. Our study suggests that noncrop grasses are year-round sources of E. loftini in Texas rice agroecosystems and may increase pest populations.

  11. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-06-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested.

  12. Emamectin benzoate (Affirm). a modern insecticide for the control of lepidoptera larvae on fruits, grapes and vegetables crops.

    PubMed

    Liguori, R; Correia, R; Thomas, C; Decaudin, B; Cisneros, J; Lopez, A

    2010-01-01

    Emamectin benzoate (Affirm) is a novel insecticide with potent efficacy against many specie of lepidoptera which are damaging fruits and leaves of agricultural crops. The active ingredient belongs to the naturally derived chemical group of avermectine, causing paralysis of lepidoptera larvae due to the activation of chloride channel at nerves level. Affirm is acting mainly through ingestion, due to its mode of action and fast activity, it is effective at very low rates and on all instars stages. It has been developed for the use on pomefruits, stonefruits, grapes and a broda range of vegetables crops at a rate range of 1.5 to 3 g ai/100L. The product shows translaminar activity and rapid degradation on leaf surface; therefore the active ingredient breaks down in a very short time to sublethal doses for most beneficials organisms living on the vegetation. The short rentry time, generally 24 hours for beneficials and impollinators, makes Affirm compatible for IPM programme in orchards and greenhouses. Also the residue profile is very favourable, leading to a very low maximum residue level and short preharvest interval in all edible crops.

  13. Testing DNA barcode performance in 1000 species of European lepidoptera: large geographic distances have small genetic impacts.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko; Sefc, Kristina M; Hebert, Paul D N

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the performance of DNA barcodes (mt cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene) in the identification of 1004 species of Lepidoptera shared by two localities (Finland, Austria) that are 1600 km apart. Maximum intraspecific distances for the pooled data were less than 2% for 880 species (87.6%), while deeper divergence was detected in 124 species. Despite such variation, the overall DNA barcode library possessed diagnostic COI sequences for 98.8% of the taxa. Because a reference library based on Finnish specimens was highly effective in identifying specimens from Austria, we conclude that barcode libraries based on regional sampling can often be effective for a much larger area. Moreover, dispersal ability (poor, good) and distribution patterns (disjunct, fragmented, continuous, migratory) had little impact on levels of intraspecific geographic divergence. Furthermore, the present study revealed that, despite the intensity of past taxonomic work on European Lepidoptera, nearly 20% of the species shared by Austria and Finland require further work to clarify their status. Particularly discordant BIN (Barcode Index Number) cases should be checked to ascertain possible explanatory factors such as incorrect taxonomy, hybridization, introgression, and Wolbachia infections.

  14. Ancient expansion of the hox cluster in lepidoptera generated four homeobox genes implicated in extra-embryonic tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Laura; Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Carter, Jean-Michel; Taylor, William R; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J; Holland, Peter W H

    2014-10-01

    Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes) has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina) plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus) to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths). Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria), with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks.

  15. The complete genome of a baculovirus isolated from an insect of medical interest: Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aragão-Silva, C. W.; Andrade, M. S.; Ardisson-Araújo, D. M. P.; Fernandes, J. E. A.; Morgado, F. S.; Báo, S. N.; Moraes, R. H. P.; Wolff, J. L. C.; Melo, F. L.; Ribeiro, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of medical importance due to the severity of reactions caused by accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles. Several natural pathogens have been identified in L. obliqua, and among them the baculovirus Lonomia obliqua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (LoobMNPV). The complete genome of LoobMNPV was sequenced and shown to have 120,022 bp long with 134 putative open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the LoobMNPV genome showed that it belongs to Alphabaculovirus group I (lepidopteran-infective NPV). A total of 12 unique ORFs were identified with no homologs in other sequenced baculovirus genomes. One of these, the predicted protein encoded by loob035, showed significant identity to an eukaryotic transcription terminator factor (TTF2) from the Lepidoptera Danaus plexippus, suggesting an independent acquisition through horizontal gene transfer. Homologs of cathepsin and chitinase genes, which are involved in host integument liquefaction and viral spread, were not found in this genome. As L. obliqua presents a gregarious behavior during the larvae stage the impact of this deletion might be neglectable. PMID:27282807

  16. Response of ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) field populations to four years of Lepidoptera-specific Bt corn production.

    PubMed

    Floate, K D; Cárcamo, H A; Blackshaw, R E; Postman, B; Bourassa, S

    2007-10-01

    Pitfall traps were used to monitor populations of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in plots of corn grown in continuous cultivation during a 4-yr period (2000-2003). Treatments included transgenic corn expressing a Bt Cry protein with efficacy specific against Lepidoptera (Bt), conventional corn grown with insecticide application (I), and the same conventional cultivar grown without insecticide application (NI). Mixed-model analyses of variance were performed on pitfall captures of beetles combined across weeks to give seasonal sums. Effects of corn treatment were not detected (P > 0.05) on total beetle abundance or species richness in any year. Effects of corn treatment on individual taxa were detected (P < 0.05) for 3 of the 39 species-by-year combinations examined. Effects of near significance (P < 0.08) were detected for an additional two species. In 2001, captures of Amara farcta Leconte and Harpalus amputatus Say were lower in Bt plots than in I or NI plots. In 2003, captures of Amara apricaria (Paykull) and Amara carinata (Leconte) were higher in Bt plots than in I or NI plots. Also in 2003, captures of Poecilus scitulus Leconte were higher in I plots than in Bt or NI plots. These patterns were not repeated among years. Results of this study indicate that cultivation of Lepidoptera-specific Bt corn in southern Alberta does not appreciably affect ground beetle populations.

  17. Testing DNA Barcode Performance in 1000 Species of European Lepidoptera: Large Geographic Distances Have Small Genetic Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Peter; Mutanen, Marko; Sefc, Kristina M.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the performance of DNA barcodes (mt cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene) in the identification of 1004 species of Lepidoptera shared by two localities (Finland, Austria) that are 1600 km apart. Maximum intraspecific distances for the pooled data were less than 2% for 880 species (87.6%), while deeper divergence was detected in 124 species. Despite such variation, the overall DNA barcode library possessed diagnostic COI sequences for 98.8% of the taxa. Because a reference library based on Finnish specimens was highly effective in identifying specimens from Austria, we conclude that barcode libraries based on regional sampling can often be effective for a much larger area. Moreover, dispersal ability (poor, good) and distribution patterns (disjunct, fragmented, continuous, migratory) had little impact on levels of intraspecific geographic divergence. Furthermore, the present study revealed that, despite the intensity of past taxonomic work on European Lepidoptera, nearly 20% of the species shared by Austria and Finland require further work to clarify their status. Particularly discordant BIN (Barcode Index Number) cases should be checked to ascertain possible explanatory factors such as incorrect taxonomy, hybridization, introgression, and Wolbachia infections. PMID:25541991

  18. Ancient Expansion of the Hox Cluster in Lepidoptera Generated Four Homeobox Genes Implicated in Extra-Embryonic Tissue Formation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, William R.; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J.; Holland, Peter W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes) has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina) plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus) to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths). Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria), with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks. PMID:25340822

  19. Is It an Ant or a Butterfly? Convergent Evolution in the Mitochondrial Gene Order of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Babbucci, Massimiliano; Basso, Andrea; Scupola, Antonio; Patarnello, Tomaso; Negrisolo, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) are usually double helical and circular molecules containing 37 genes that are encoded on both strands. The arrangement of the genes is not constant for all species, and produces distinct gene orders (GOs) that have proven to be diagnostic in defining clades at different taxonomic levels. In general, it is believed that distinct taxa have a very low chance of sharing identically arranged GOs. However, examples of identical, homoplastic local rearrangements occurring in distinct taxa do exist. In this study, we sequenced the complete mtDNAs of the ants Formica fusca and Myrmica scabrinodis (Formicidae, Hymenoptera) and compared their GOs with those of other Insecta. The GO of F. fusca was found to be identical to the GO of Dytrisia (the largest clade of Lepidoptera). This finding is the first documented case of an identical GO shared by distinct groups of Insecta, and it is the oldest known event of GO convergent evolution in animals. Both Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera acquired this GO early in their evolution. Using a phylogenetic approach combined with new bioinformatic tools, the chronological order of the evolutionary events that produced the diversity of the hymenopteran GOs was determined. Additionally, new local homoplastic rearrangements shared by distinct groups of insects were identified. Our study showed that local and global homoplasies affecting the insect GOs are more widespread than previously thought. Homoplastic GOs can still be useful for characterizing the various clades, provided that they are appropriately considered in a phylogenetic and taxonomic context. PMID:25480682

  20. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Cocoons of Antherina suraka (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera), an Endemic Species Used for Silk Production in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Randrianandrasana, Maminirina; Wu, Wen-Yen; Carney, David A.; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J.; Berenbaum, May R.

    2017-01-01

    Antherina suraka Boisduval (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera) produces a silken cocoon that has been the focus of efforts to create a commercial wild silk industry in Madagascar. In this study, structural and mechanical properties of the cocoon of A. suraka from two sites were measured and compared to the cocoon of Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae, Lepidoptera) the world's most common source for silk. Results of environmental scanning electron microscopy and mechanical testing showed that the silk sheet of A. suraka cocoon is less compact, with greater thickness and lower tensile strength and stiffness than that of B. mori. Confirming these results, stiffness and cell and thread density were found to be negatively correlated with thickness, and the cell and thread volumes were positively correlated with thickness. Antherina suraka showed no major differences between silk sheets from Kirindy and Isalo sites in either structural or mechanical properties, except for mean cell volume, which was greater in cocoons from Kirindy. Comparison between the two layers forming the cocoon showed that the inner layer has greater elastic modulus, denser silk distribution and lower porosity. Cocoons from both Kirindy and Isalo are suitable for sericulture. Although the inner layer of cocoon silk is of higher quality than the outer layer, the fact that both layers are of great but lower tensile strength than B. mori silk suggests that the current practice of sewing the two layers together for making one single layer fabric should be continued in efforts to produce a commercially viable product. PMID:28130459

  1. Plant odour processing in the antennal lobe of male and female grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Masante-Roca, I; Gadenne, C; Anton, S

    2002-12-01

    Moths of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are confronted with different volatiles emitted from the host plant during the different seasons. To test the hypothesis of plasticity of central plant odour processing in moths of different generations in the future, we first investigated the responses of antennal lobe (AL) interneurons of laboratory-reared virgin and mated males and females. We used intracellular recording and staining techniques while stimulating the antenna with a range of host and non-host plant odours. The AL structure of L. botrana is similar to that found in other Lepidoptera species studied. The most frequent physiological responses for all types of moths were obtained with (E)-2-hexenal, and with thujyl alcohol and beta-thujone, components of tansy, a behaviourally attractive non-host plant. Some broadly responding neurons were capable of distinguishing between different compounds through different response patterns (excitation/inhibition) and/or different dose-response characteristics. Response characteristics (response spectra, threshold and specificity) of neurons were similar, independent of sex or mating status of the moths. Significant differences between the groups were, however, found in the proportion of responding neurons for a few tested components.

  2. Effects of ultraviolet-B exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana on herbivory by two crucifer-feeding insects (Lepidoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Grant-Petersson, J.; Renwick, J.A.A.

    1996-02-01

    Larvae of Pieris rapae (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) and Trichoplusia ni (Huebner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were fed foliage from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants that had received a high dose of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) or from control plants. Treatments were compared using the Student independent t-test. P. rapae larvae consumed less of the foliage exposed to UV-B than control foliage. This difference as significant in older but not younger larvae, and the older P. rapae larvae fed foliage exposed to UV-B weighed significantly less. For T. ni, however, consumption and larval weights were approximately equal for UV-exposed and control foliage. No significant differences in growth rates per unit consumption on UV-exposed versus control foliage were found for either species. Chemical analysis showed that flavonoid levels increased in response to UV-B. Results suggested that UV-inducible flavonoids may act as feeding deterrents to P. rapae but not to T. ni. 56 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Cocoons of Antherina suraka (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera), an Endemic Species Used for Silk Production in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Randrianandrasana, Maminirina; Wu, Wen-Yen; Carney, David A; Wagoner Johnson, Amy J; Berenbaum, May R

    2017-01-01

    Antherina suraka Boisduval (Saturniidae, Lepidoptera) produces a silken cocoon that has been the focus of efforts to create a commercial wild silk industry in Madagascar. In this study, structural and mechanical properties of the cocoon of A. suraka from two sites were measured and compared to the cocoon of Bombyx mori L. (Bombycidae, Lepidoptera) the world's most common source for silk. Results of environmental scanning electron microscopy and mechanical testing showed that the silk sheet of A. suraka cocoon is less compact, with greater thickness and lower tensile strength and stiffness than that of B. mori Confirming these results, stiffness and cell and thread density were found to be negatively correlated with thickness, and the cell and thread volumes were positively correlated with thickness. Antherina suraka showed no major differences between silk sheets from Kirindy and Isalo sites in either structural or mechanical properties, except for mean cell volume, which was greater in cocoons from Kirindy. Comparison between the two layers forming the cocoon showed that the inner layer has greater elastic modulus, denser silk distribution and lower porosity. Cocoons from both Kirindy and Isalo are suitable for sericulture. Although the inner layer of cocoon silk is of higher quality than the outer layer, the fact that both layers are of great but lower tensile strength than B. mori silk suggests that the current practice of sewing the two layers together for making one single layer fabric should be continued in efforts to produce a commercially viable product.

  4. Effects of Kaolin on Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Its Compatibility With the Natural Enemy, Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).

    PubMed

    Pease, Christina E; López-Olguín, Jesús F; Pérez-Moreno, Ignacio; Marco-Mancebón, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an important grapevine pest in Europe recently encountered in America. Trichogramma cacoeciae Marchal (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is amongst the most effective parasitoids for Lepidopteran species. Studies to evaluate the effect of kaolin, an inert, nontoxic mineral, on oviposition, egg hatch, and neonate mortality of these species were carried out. Efficacy on L. botrana neonate larvae, oviposition, and egg hatch was evaluated. Effects of kaolin on parasitism and emergence of T. cacoeciae from L. botrana and Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs were also evaluated. Lobesia botrana egg hatch and oviposition rates were reduced, and neonate larvae mortality was significantly greater in kaolin-treated arenas and when included in synthetic neonate larvae diet. Kaolin had no effect on T. cacoeciae parasitism in both hosts. There was only a slight but statistically insignificant effect on T. cacoeciae progeny emergence from L. botrana eggs and no effect from E. kuehniella. The results involving reductions in L. botrana oviposition and egg hatch and increase in larval mortality with kaolin suggest this compound may contribute to reduction in population densities and can be considered in rational integrated pest management strategies for L. botrana. Due to the laboratory results presented on parasitoid emergence, even though field bioassays would give a more exhaustive evaluation, it appears kaolin can be compatible with T. cacoeciae in L. botrana management.

  5. Lepidopterans as Potential Agents for the Biological Control of the Invasive Plant, Miconia calvescens

    PubMed Central

    Morais, Elisangela G.F.; Picanço, Marcelo C.; Semeão, Altair A.; Barreto, Robert W.; Rosado, Jander F.; Martins, Julio C.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigated eight species of Lepidoptera associated with Miconia calvescens DC. (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) in Brazil, including six defoliators, Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), Druentia inscita Schaus (Mimallonidae), Antiblemma leucocyma Hampson (Noctuidae), three Limacodidae species, a fruit borer Carposina cardinata Meyrick (Carposinidae), and a damager of flowers Pleuroprucha rudimentaria Guenée (Geometridae). Based on host specificity and the damage caused to plants, S. lotanalis and D. inscita are the most promising species for biological control of M. calvescens. Furthermore, if C. cardinata and P. rudimentaria have host specificity in future tests, these caterpillars could also be considered as appropriate biocontrol agents. PMID:22938203

  6. Chemical defense in Elodea nuttallii reduces feeding and growth of aquatic herbivorous Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Erhard, Daniela; Pohnert, Georg; Gross, Elisabeth M

    2007-08-01

    The submersed macrophyte Elodea nuttallii (Hydrocharitaceae) is invasive in Europe and frequently found in aquatic plant communities. Many invertebrate herbivores, such as larvae of the generalist aquatic moth, Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), avoid feeding on E. nuttallii and preferably consume native species. First instar larvae exhibited a high mortality on E. nuttallii compared to the native macrophyte Potamogeton perfoliatus. Mortality of older larvae was also high when fed E. nuttallii exposed to high light intensities. Growth of older larvae was strongly reduced on E. nuttallii compared to pondweeds (Potamogeton lucens). Neither differences in nitrogen nor phosphorus content explained the different performance on these submerged macrophytes, but plants differed in their flavonoid content. To investigate whether plant-derived allelochemicals from E. nuttallii affect larval performance in the same way as live plants, we developed a functional bioassay, in which Acentria larvae were reared on artificial diets. We offered larvae Potamogeton leaf disks coated with crude Elodea extracts and partially purified flavonoids. Elodea extracts deterred larvae from feeding on otherwise preferred Potamogeton leaves, and yet, unknown compounds in the extracts reduced growth and survival of Acentria. The flavonoid fraction containing luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide, apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide, and chrysoeriol-7-O-diglucuronide strongly reduced feeding of larvae, but did not increase mortality. The concentrations of these compounds in our assays were 0.01-0.09% of plant dry mass, which is in the lower range of concentrations found in the field (0.02-1.2%). Chemical defense in E. nuttallii thus plays an ecologically relevant role in this aquatic plant-herbivore system.

  7. Bollgard cotton and resistance of tobacco budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to conventional insecticides in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Terán-Vargas, A P; Rodríguez, J C; Blanco, C A; Martínez-Carrillo, J L; Cibrián-Tovar, J; Sánchez-Arroyo, H; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, L A; Stanley, D

    2005-12-01

    Insecticide susceptibility in tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined for 8 yr (1991-2001) with larvae sampled from cotton in southern Tamaulipas, Mexico. Before 1996, when Bollgard cotton expressing the Cry1A(c) delta-endotoxin was introduced into the region, two important patterns were documented. The first was economically significant increases in resistance to certain insecticide groups. The second was occurrence of virtually complete control failures in the field during 1994 and 1995. The largest resistance changes were recorded for the type II pyrethroids cypermethrin and deltamethrin. These products are the most widely used products in the region. Resistance ratios for these products increased up to > 100-fold from 1991 to 1995. After 1996, the resistance levels declined. These findings did not occur with other products of scant use (e.g., permethrin, profenofos, and endosulfan) or low tobacco budworm efficacy coupled to a high use pattern (e.g., methyl parathion). This clear trend toward reversal of resistance to type II pyrethroids can be understood, in part, with respect to two factors: 1) the high adoption rate of transgenic cotton in the region, from 31.2% in the beginning (1996) to approximately 90% in 1998; this has considerably curbed the use of synthetic insecticides, with the attending loss of selection pressure on this pest; and 2) the potential immigration to the region of susceptible tobacco budworms from cultivated and wild suitable hosts as well as from transgenic cotton might have influenced the pest population as a whole. The influence of transgenic cotton on southern Tamaulipas can be more clearly seen by the drastic reduction of insecticide use to control this important pest. Now tobacco budworms in this region are susceptible to type II pyrethroids. Two effective and fundamentally different pest management tools are now available to cotton growers in southern Tamaulipas: transgenic cotton

  8. Phylogeny and Biogeography of Hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae): Evidence from Five Nuclear Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Mignault, Andre A.; Regier, Jerome C.; Kitching, Ian J.; Mitter, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Background The 1400 species of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) comprise one of most conspicuous and well-studied groups of insects, and provide model systems for diverse biological disciplines. However, a robust phylogenetic framework for the family is currently lacking. Morphology is unable to confidently determine relationships among most groups. As a major step toward understanding relationships of this model group, we have undertaken the first large-scale molecular phylogenetic analysis of hawkmoths representing all subfamilies, tribes and subtribes. Methodology/Principal Findings The data set consisted of 131 sphingid species and 6793 bp of sequence from five protein-coding nuclear genes. Maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses provided strong support for more than two-thirds of all nodes, including strong signal for or against nearly all of the fifteen current subfamily, tribal and sub-tribal groupings. Monophyly was strongly supported for some of these, including Macroglossinae, Sphinginae, Acherontiini, Ambulycini, Philampelini, Choerocampina, and Hemarina. Other groupings proved para- or polyphyletic, and will need significant redefinition; these include Smerinthinae, Smerinthini, Sphingini, Sphingulini, Dilophonotini, Dilophonotina, Macroglossini, and Macroglossina. The basal divergence, strongly supported, is between Macroglossinae and Smerinthinae+Sphinginae. All genes contribute significantly to the signal from the combined data set, and there is little conflict between genes. Ancestral state reconstruction reveals multiple separate origins of New World and Old World radiations. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides the first comprehensive phylogeny of one of the most conspicuous and well-studied insects. The molecular phylogeny challenges current concepts of Sphingidae based on morphology, and provides a foundation for a new classification. While there are multiple independent origins of New World and Old World radiations, we conclude that

  9. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  10. Evaluation of Pheromone Trap Devices for the Capture of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) in Southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Pardo, David; Sancho, José; Colacci, Marco; Boukouvala, Maria C; Nikolaidou, Anastassia J; Kondodimas, Demetrius C; Benavent-Fernández, Enrique; Gálvez-Settier, Santiago; Trematerra, Pasquale

    2017-03-14

    The development of reliable monitoring techniques can offer valuable sources of knowledge on the control of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis and Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae). Nevertheless, there is a knowledge gap on the simultaneous large-scale monitoring of T. pityocampa male adult population by using novel trap devices. Thus, the influence of type of trap device on the capture of male adults of T. pityocampa was evaluated in four areas with pine trees in southern Europe; two in Greece (Thessaly and Attica), one in Italy (Molise), and one in Spain (Valencia). Six different novel trap devices, i.e., Prototype 1, Prototype 2, Prototype 3, Prototype 4, Prototype 5, and Prototype 6, were tested during 2015 between July and November. In general, the male adult catches lasted longer in the two sites of Greece compared with Molise and Valencia. Hence, in Thessaly, captures started in early August and remained at high levels until late September. In Attica, captures started in mid-August and lasted until early November. In contrast, for both Molise and Valencia, most of the male adults were captured in August, while male adult catches were recorded until September. From the trap devices tested, Prototype 1 was found superior than the other devices, regardless of the area, with the exception of Valencia, where there were no differences in the overall captures among Prototype 1, Prototype 5, and Prototype 6. In most of the combinations tested, there was a positive and significant correlation among captures of T. pityocampa in pairs of different trap devices, indicating that most of them gave similar population fluctuations. Our results suggest that Prototype 1 should be selected for the monitoring of T. pityocampa male adult population.

  11. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diets on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates.

    PubMed

    Foss, Anita R; Mattson, William J; Trier, Terry M

    2013-06-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marshall) in 2004-2005, and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux) in 2006-2007, and measured consequent effects on larval respiration. Leaves were collected for diet and leaf chemistry (nutritional and secondary compound proxies) from trees grown under ambient (average 380 ppm) and elevated CO2 (average 560 ppm) conditions. Elevated CO2 did not significantly alter birch or aspen leaf chemistry compared with ambient levels with the exception that birch percent carbon in 2004 and aspen moisture content in 2006 were significantly lowered. Respiration rates were significantly higher (15-59%) for larvae reared on birch grown under elevated CO2 compared with ambient conditions, but were not different on two aspen clones, until larvae reached the fifth instar, when those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 271 had lower (26%) respiration rates, and those consuming elevated CO2 leaves on clone 216 had higher (36%) respiration rates. However, elevated CO2 had no apparent effect on the respiration rates of pupae derived from larvae fed either birch or aspen leaves. Higher respiration rates for larvae fed diets grown under ambient or elevated CO2 demonstrates their lower efficiency of converting chemical energy of digested food stuffs extracted from such leaves into their biosynthetic processes.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Ailanthus silkmoth, Samia cynthia cynthia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Sima, Yang-Hu; Chen, Mo; Yao, Rui; Li, Yu-Ping; Liu, Teng; Jin, Xin; Wang, Li-peng; Su, Jun-Fang; Li, Xi-Sheng; Liu, Yan-Qun

    2013-09-10

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the Ailanthus silkmoth, Samia cynthia cynthia (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) was determined. The circular genome is 15,345 bp long, and presents a typical gene organization and order for sequenced mitogenomes of Bombycidea species. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A+T biased, accounting for 79.86%. The AT skew of the genome is slightly negative, indicating the occurrence of more Ts than As, as found in other Saturniidae species. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons, except for COI and COII, which are tentatively designated by CGA and GTG, respectively, as observed in other insects. Four of 13 PCGs, including COI, COII, ATP6, and ND3, harbor the incomplete termination codons, T or TA. With an exception for tRNASer(AGN), all other tRNAs can form a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA. The 359 bp A+T-rich region of S. c. cynthia contains non-repetitive sequences, but harbors several features common to the Bombycidea insects, including the motif ATAGA followed by a poly-T stretch of 19 bp, a microsatellite-like (AT)7 element preceded by the ATTTA motif, and a poly-A element upstream tRNAMet. The phylogenetic analyses support the morphology-based current hypothesis that Bombycidae and Saturniidae are monophyletic. Our result confirms that Saturniini and Attacini form a reciprocal monophyletic group within Saturniidae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature thresholds and degree-day model for Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    O'Neal, M J; Headrick, D H; Montez, Gregory H; Grafton-Cardwell, E E

    2011-08-01

    The developmental thresholds for Marmara gulosa Guillén & Davis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) were investigated in the laboratory by using 17, 21, 25, 29, and 33 degrees C. The lowest mortality occurred in cohorts exposed to 25 and 29 degrees C. Other temperatures caused >10% mortality primarily in egg and first and second instar sap-feeding larvae. Linear regression analysis approximated the lower developmental threshold at 12.2 degrees C. High mortality and slow developmental rate at 33 degrees C indicate the upper developmental threshold is near this temperature. The degree-day (DD) model indicated that a generation requires an accumulation of 322 DD for development from egg to adult emergence. Average daily temperatures in the San Joaquin Valley could produce up to seven generations of M. gulosa per year. Field studies documented two, five, and three overlapping generations of M. gulosa in walnuts (Juglans regia L.; Juglandaceae), pummelos (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.; Rutaceae), and oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck; Rutaceae), for a total of seven observed peelminer generations. Degree-day units between generations averaged 375 DD for larvae infesting walnut twigs; however, availability of green wood probably affected timing of infestations. Degree-day units between larval generations averaged 322 for pummelos and 309 for oranges, confirming the laboratory estimation. First infestation of citrus occurred in June in pummelo fruit and August in orange fruit when fruit neared 60 mm in diameter. Fruit size and degree-day units could be used as management tools to more precisely time insecticide treatments to target the egg stage and prevent rind damage to citrus. Degree-day units also could be used to more precisely time natural enemy releases to target larval instars that are preferred for oviposition.

  14. Thermal Death Kinetics of Conogethes Punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as Influenced by Heating Rate and Life Stage.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lixia; Du, Yanli; Johnson, Judy A; Wang, Shaojin

    2015-10-01

    Thermal death kinetics of Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at different life stages, heating rate, and temperature is essential for developing postharvest treatments to control pests in chestnuts. Using a heating block system (HBS), the most heat-tolerant life stage of C. punctiferalis and the effects of heating rate (0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10°C/min) on insect mortality were determined. The thermal death kinetic data of fifth-instar C. punctiferalis were obtained at temperatures between 44 and 50°C at a heating rate of 5°C/min. The results showed that the relative heat tolerance of C. punctiferalis was found to be fifth instars>pupae> third instars> eggs. To avoid the enhanced thermal tolerance of C. punctiferalis at low heating rates (0.1 or 0.5°C/min), a high heating rate of 5°C/min was selected to simulate the fast radio frequency heating in chestnuts and further determine the thermal death kinetic data. Thermal death curves of C. punctiferalis followed a 0th-order kinetic reaction model. The minimum exposure time to achieve 100% mortality was 55, 12, 6, and 3 min at 44, 46, 48, and 50°C, respectively. The activation energy for controlling C. punctiferalis was 482.15 kJ/mol with the z value of 4.09°C obtained from the thermal death-time curve. The information provided by thermal death kinetics for C. punctiferalis is useful in developing effective postharvest thermal treatment protocols for disinfesting chestnuts.

  15. Notable plesiomorphies and notable specializations: head structure of the primitive "tongue moth" Acanthopteroctetes unifascia (Lepidoptera: Acanthopteroctetidae).

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Niels P; Rota, Jadranka; Fischer, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    The Acanthopteroctetidae are one of the first-originated family-group lineages within "tongue moths" (Lepidoptera-Glossata). The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive account (based on whole mount preparations, serial sections, and Scanning electron microscopy) of the cephalic structure of an adult exemplar of the family, to supplement the sparse available information. Notable plesiomorphies include the retention of frontal retractors of the narrow labrum, a high supraocular index linked to strong development of cranio-mandibular ad- and abductors, and perhaps the unusually short but still coilable (just ca. 1.5 turns) galeal "tongue." Notable specializations (probably mostly family autapomorphies) include a complement of large sensilla placodea on the male antennae, an apical attachment of the long dorsal tentorial arm to the cranium, an extreme reduction of the single-segmented labial palps, a particularly strong subgenal bridge and a surface structure of near-parallel ridges on the ommatidial corneae. The presence of sizable saccular mandibular (type 1) glands opening into the adductor apodeme is unexpected, no counterparts being known from neighboring taxa. The same is true for ventral salivarium dilator muscles originating on the prelabium; and tentatively suggested to be homologues of the extrinsic palp flexors (the insertion shift being related to loss of original function due to palp reduction), rather than to the ventral salivarium muscles of more basal insects. A complete "deutocerebral loop"' may or may not be developed, as is true for a mutual appression of the optic lobe and circumoesophageal connective/suboesophageal ganglion, enclosing the anterior tentorial arm between them; a suboesophageal innervation of the retrocerebral complex was not observed. No characters bearing on the monophyly of the Coelolepida were identified. The scapo-pedicellar articulation with a scapal process and a smooth intercalary sclerite is reminiscent of

  16. Wolbachia infection status and genetic structure in natural populations of Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weibin; Zhu, Jianqing; Chen, Minghan; Yang, Qichang; Du, Xuan; Chen, Shiyan; Zhang, Lina; Yu, Yiming; Yu, Weidong

    2014-10-01

    The maternally inherited obligate bacteria Wolbachia is known for infecting the reproductive tissues of a wide range of arthropods. In this study, we surveyed Wolbachia infections in Polytremis nascens (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) from 14 locations in China by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene with a nested PCR method and revealed the effect of Wolbachia on host mitochondrial DNA. The results show that 31% (21/67) are Wolbachia positive among all specimens and mainly prevails in southern populations in China. No significant difference in the prevalence is found between the sexes. Notably, the nucleotide diversity of Wolbachia infected butterflies is smaller compared to that of uninfected butterflies. The mitochondrial DNA of infected group appear to be not evolving neutrally (Tajima's D value=-2.3303 and Fu's F values=-3.7068). The analysis of molecular variance shows significant differentiation of mitochondrial haplotypes between infected and uninfected specimens (FST=0.6064). The mismatch analysis speculated the different expansion pattern in Wolbachia infected specimens and all P. nascens specimens. These results suggest that the populations of P. nascens may have recently been subjected to a Wolbachia-induced sweep. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis differentiated the mitochondrial haplotypes of P. nascens into three major clades. The clades are in perfect agreement with the pattern of Wolbachia infection. One of the clades grouped with the butterflies infected with Wolbachia. The remaining two clades grouped with uninfected butterflies from the central-west of China populations and Eastern and Southern China populations respectively, which are isolated mainly by the Yangtze River. The analysis of haplotype networks, geographic distribution and population size change shows that Haplotype 1 in central-west of China is the ancestral haplotype and the populations of P. nascens are expanded.

  17. Effects of gibberellic acid on hemocytes of Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Altuntaş, H; Kılıç, A Y; Uçkan, F; Ergin, E

    2012-06-01

    The impacts of different doses of the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA(3)) in diet on the number of total and differential hemocytes, frequency of apoptotic, and necrotic hemocytes, mitotic indices, encapsulation, and melanization responses were investigated using the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. Total hemocyte counts increased in G. mellonella larvae at all treatment doses whereas GA(3) application had no effect on the number of different hemocyte types. The occurrence of apoptosis, necrosis and mitotic indices in GA(3) treated and untreated last instars were detected by acridine orange or ethidium bromide double staining by fluorescence microscopy. While the ratio of necrotic hemocytes increased at all GA(3) treatments, that of late apoptotic cells was only higher at doses >200 ppm when compared with untreated larvae. The percentage of mitotic index also increased at 5,000 ppm. Positively charged DEAE Sephadex A-25 beads were used for analysis of the levels of encapsulation and melanization in GA(3) treated G. mellonella larvae. At four and 24 h posttreatments with Sephadex A-25 bead injection, insects were dissected under a stereomicroscope. Encapsulation rates of larval hemocytes were dependent on the extent of encapsulation and time but not treatment groups. While the extent of melanization of hemocytes showed differences related to time, in general, a decrease was observed at all doses of GA(3) treated larvae at 24 h. We suggest that GA(3) treatment negatively affects hemocyte physiology and cell immune responses inducing cells to die by necrosis and apoptosis in G. mellonella larvae.

  18. [Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas].

    PubMed

    Monteagudo Sabaté, David; Luis Martínez, Moisés Armando

    2013-09-01

    Altitudinal richness patterns of Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) in Mexican mountain areas. Butterflies constitute an useful group to investigate biodiversity patterns in specific geographic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the altitudinal patterns distribution and to recognize the main grouping factors of these families. We conducted a comparative study between the butterfly fauna (Papilionidae, Pieridae and Nymphalidae) of five Mexican mountain ranges (Sierra de Manantlán, Sierra de Atoyac de Alvarez, Loxicha Region, Teocelo-Xalapa and Sierra de Juárez), that included 34 sites of altitudinal ranges from 100 to 2 820m. Data was obtained from the Zoology Museum of the National University of Mexico, and comprised more than 60 000 butterfly records of 398 taxa (subspecies level) proceeding during the last 35 years. Fauna similarity between localities were analyzed using a cluster analysis by Sorensen similarity coefficient. Species richness showed a general tendency to decrease with altitude; the main difference was found between the locality with higher altitude and the rest of the sites. The principal factors affecting the identified clusters followed this order: the location in Pacific or Atlantic slope, and location on a particular mountain range. Three altitudinal levels (low elevations, up to 1 200m; intermediate elevations, from 1200 to 1800 m; and high elevations, from 1800 to 2500 m) were described in accordance to their main characteristic taxa. While Neartic elements were common in the highest altitudinal floor, Neotropical taxa were common in the lowest one. It was more difficult to characterize the intermediate level in which a high number of localities were clustered; this intermediate level was characterized by the presence of some endemic species. The results suggest that historical factors are preeminent in butterfly fauna composition in these areas. Future studies may include other Mexican mountain areas to obtain

  19. Evaluation of five antibiotics on larval gut bacterial diversity of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiao-Li; Kang, Zhi-Wei; Pan, Qin-Jian; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), have rich microbial communities inhabiting the gut, and these bacteria contribute to the fitness of the pest. In this study we evaluated the effects of five antibiotics (rifampicin, ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin sulfate and chloramphenicol) on the gut bacterial diversity of P. xylostella larvae. We screened five different concentrations for each antibiotic in a leaf disc assay, and found that rifampicin and streptomycin sulfate at 3 mg/mL significantly reduced the diversity of the bacterial community, and some bacterial species could be rapidly eliminated. The number of gut bacteria in the rifampicin group and streptomycin sulfate group decreased more rapidly than the others. With the increase of antibiotic concentration, the removal efficiency was improved, whereas toxic effects became more apparent. All antibiotics reduced larval growth and development, and eventually caused high mortality, malformation of the prepupae, and hindered pupation and adult emergence. Among the five antibiotics, tetracycline was the most toxic and streptomycin sulfate was a relatively mild one. Some dominant bacteria were not affected by feeding antibiotics alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis graph showed that the most abundant and diverse bacteria in P. xylostella larval gut appeared in the cabbage feeding group, and diet change and antibiotics intake influenced gut flora abundance. Species diversity was significantly reduced in the artificial diet and antibiotics treatment groups. After feeding on the artificial diet with rifampicin, streptomycin sulfate and their mixture for 10 days, larval gut bacteria could not be completely removed as detected with the agarose gel electrophoresis method. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Seasonal migration of Ctenoplusia agnata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea in northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Fu, Xiaowei; Feng, Hongqiang; Ali, Abid; Li, Chuanren; Wu, Kongming

    2014-06-01

    Ctenoplusia agnata (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important polyphagous pest in East Asia. Previous studies showed that C. agnata moths possesses the potential to undertake long-distance migration; however, knowledge of whether or not the migration of C. agnata moths is a regular ecological behavior and what the pattern of seasonal migrations is in case of regular migration is currently lacking. In the current study, systemic monitoring of population dynamics of C. agnata was conducted by a searchlight trap on an island in the center of Bohai gulf in northern China, during 2003-2013. Our results provided strong evidence for the hypothesis that C. agnata is one of the pest species undertaking regular high altitude long-distance migration and we have depicted the seasonal migration pattern over the Bohai Sea. The first capture of C. agnata generally appeared in late April and early May, then the daily number of catches increased to high levels in late July and formed two waves of migration through August and early September, and finally, the moths disappeared in late October. The mean time from the earliest trapping to the latest trapping within a year was 141.0 +/- 3.0 days. The index of ovarian development of female C. agnata showed seasonal variability and suggested that its migratory flight may be independent of the degree of ovarian development and mating status. In addition, strong migration events took place in 2003, 2004, 2008, and 2010 (annual sum of catches > 10,000). The research result from this work is helpful for understanding the occurrence regularity of C. agnata and developing an integrated pest management strategy.

  1. [A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects].

    PubMed

    Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2013-06-01

    A new subspecies of Heraclides androgeus (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) and its biogeographical aspects. Heraclides androgeus epidaurus was described and illustrated by Godman & Salvin in 1890 based on specimens obtained in Veracruz, indicating that their distribution encompassed both the Pacific and Atlantic sides of Mexico. Later authors commented that there were morphological differences between the male wings from both populations. We analyzed, described and nominated Heraclides androgeus reyesorum ssp. nov. Vargas, Llorente & Luis distributed in the Mexican Pacific coast, based on 62 specimens, and compared it with H a. epidaurus from the Gulf of Mexico, based on more than 200 specimens housed at UNAM: Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias and the Colección Nacional de Insectos of the Instituto de Biologia, as well as some collections from the USA. The main characters were the width of the yellow and black bands on forewings in males, which had a significant difference between the populations of both sides of Mexico, although some characters were variable and showed partial overlap. In the hindwings, the differences were the extent of the subterminal lunules in dorsal and ventral view. We also analyzed the male genitalia, finding notorious differences in both sclerotic processes of the harpe. Subspecific differences between females refer to the brightness and extent of green spots on the hindwings and the extent of lunules in the ventral view. The greatest abundance of H. a. reyesorum ssp. nov. was in the tropical deciduous forest, with gallery forest and in the lower range of the cloud forest, present at altitudes of 500-800 m and 1000-1 750 m, respectively. We discussed the pattern of endemism due to historical vicariant processes and explain the presence of the new subspecies of H. androgeus and other taxa of specific level.

  2. Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E

    2012-08-01

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn.

  3. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement.

  4. Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia) in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu-Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Dieng, Hamady; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Abd Ghani, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB) is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×10²,1×10³,1×10⁴, and 1×10⁵) at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH) of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D) of 12∶12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92%) at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (≃50%) and 25°C (26%). Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM.

  5. Molecular Phylogeny of the Small Ermine Moth Genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Hubert; Lieshout, Niek; Van Ginkel, Wil E.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their host-plant associations. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny to provide a solid framework for these studies, and to obtain insight into the history of host-plant use and the biogeography of the genus. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA sequences from an internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) and from the 16S rDNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase (COII) mitochondrial genes were collected from 20–23 (depending on gene) species and two outgroup taxa to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Palaearctic members of this genus. Sequences were analysed using three different phylogenetic methods (parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference). Conclusions/Significance Roughly the same patterns are retrieved irrespective of the method used, and they are similar among the three genes. Monophyly is well supported for a clade consisting of the Japanese (but not the Dutch) population of Yponomeuta sedellus and Y. yanagawanus, a Y. kanaiellus–polystictus clade, and a Rosaceae-feeding, western Palaearctic clade (Y. cagnagellus–irrorellus clade). Within these clades, relationships are less well supported, and the patterns between the different gene trees are not so similar. The position of the remaining taxa is also variable among the gene trees and rather weakly supported. The phylogenetic information was used to elucidate patterns of biogeography and resource use. In the Palaearctic, the genus most likely originated in the Far East, feeding on Celastraceae, dispersing to the West concomitant with a shift to Rosaceae and further to Salicaceae. The association of Y. cagnagellus with Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae), however, is a reversal. The only oligophagous species, Y. padellus, belongs

  6. Worldwide host plants of the highly polyphagous, invasive Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Brockerhoff, E G; Suckling, D M; Ecroyd, C E; Wagstaff, S J; Raabe, M C; Dowell, R V; Wearings, C H

    2011-10-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a highly successful biological invader. It was accidentally introduced to several countries including New Zealand, Hawaii, England, and California. Light brown apple moth attacks a wide range of crop plants and other woody and herbaceous plants, but a more comprehensive analysis of its host range is needed for risk assessments, to evaluate the likely economic and environmental impacts, and to enable targeting of particular plant species for detection surveys and treatments. We reviewed and synthesized the host range and host selection behavior of light brown apple moth by using information from Australia and invaded countries. The host range of light brown apple moth is determined by the behavior of both adult females and larvae. Females use visual, chemical and physical cues to choose host plants. Larvae are capable of limited active dispersal by walking and longer range dispersal by ballooning on silken strands; therefore, larvae also may need to select host plants. We review larval performance indicators across a range of plants. Based on our review, there are at least 545 plant species in 363 genera from 121 families that have been reported as hosts of light brown apple moth. Some plants were reported only once and need verification. Nevertheless, many host plant species and their wide phylogenetic range (from ferns to higher dicotyledons) indicates that light brown apple moth is one of the most polyphagous insects known. This information and our categorization of frequency of host use are valuable for incursion response and pest management activities.

  7. Light, predation and the lekking behaviour of the ghost swift Hepialus humuli (L.) (Lepidoptera, Hepialidae)

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, S.; Rydell, J.; Svensson, M. G. E.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the timing of the crepuscular lekking flight of male ghost swift moths in southern Sweden with respect to variations in: (i) the quality of the visual mating signal; and (ii) the behaviour of potential vertebrate predators (mainly bats). The moths' display flights started ca. 57 min after sunset, and occurred during 20–30 min at incident light intensities between 10.0 and 2.0 lux. Owing to the falling and more shortwave ambient light after sunset, the brightness contrast between the moth wings and the background (grass) increased steeply at the time of display onset. The silvery white male wing colour thereby seems to maximize conspicuousness, and may be a secondary adaptation that facilitates visibility at low light intensities. The display timing itself is probably determined by other factors, possibly predation. By displaying only for a short period at dusk, the moths seem to avoid most birds, which normally do not forage at these light levels, and gleaning bats, which typically do not start to feed until the light intensity has fallen even further. Nevertheless, aerial-hawking bats were often (54% of the evenings, n = 22) seen at the leks, and one species (Eptesicus nilssonii) frequently fed on the displaying moths (22% of the moths observed, n = 83). H. humuli represents an ancient clade among the Lepidoptera. By restricting its sexual behaviour to a short time window at dusk, when predation risk may be minimized (but still high), it may to some extent compensate for the lack of sophisticated predator defence systems such as aposematic or mimetic coloration, manoeuvrable flight, and ultrasonic hearing, which predominate among the more recent Lepidopteran clades. However, the time window solution restricts the moths' activities considerably and the lack of defence still carries a considerable cost in terms of predation.

  8. Ecological Genetics and Host Range Expansion by Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Assefa, Y; Conlong, D E; Van Den Berg, J; Martin, L A

    2015-08-01

    The host plant range of pests can have important consequences for its evolution, and plays a critical role in the emergence and spread of a new pest outbreak. This study addresses the ecological genetics of the indigenous African maize stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in an attempt to investigate the evolutionary forces that may be involved in the recent host range expansion and establishment of this species in Ethiopian and southern African sugarcane. We used populations from Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa to examine whether the host range expansion patterns shared by the Ethiopian and the southern African populations of B. fusca have evolved independently. Base-pair differences in the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene were used to characterize haplotype diversity and phylogenetic relationships. There were seven haplotypes among the 30 sequenced individuals collected on four host plant species from 17 localities in the four countries. Of the seven COI haplotypes identified, the two major ones occurred in both sugarcane and maize. Genetic analyses revealed no detectable genetic differentiation between southern African B. fusca populations from maize and sugarcane (FST = 0.019; P = 0.24). However, there was strong evidence of variation in genetic composition between populations of the pest from different geographic regions (FST = 0.948; P < 0.001). The main implication of these findings is that the B. fusca populations in maize in southern Africa are more likely to shift to sugarcane, suggesting that ecological opportunity is an important factor in host plant range expansion by a pest.

  9. Effects of refuge contamination by transgenes on Bt resistance in pink bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Shannon; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Yafuso, Christine; Gassmann, Aaron J; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Dennehy, Timothy J; Carrière, Yves

    2008-04-01

    Refuges of non-Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., are used to delay Bt resistance in pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a pest that eats cotton seeds. Contamination of refuges by Bt transgenes could reduce the efficacy of this strategy. Previously, three types of contamination were identified in refuges: 1) homozygous Bt cotton plants, with 100% of their seeds producing the Bt toxin Cry1Ac; 2) hemizygous Bt plants with 70-80% of their seeds producing Cry1Ac; and 3) non-Bt plants that outcrossed with Bt plants, resulting in bolls with Cry1Ac in 12-17% of their seeds. Here, we used laboratory bioassays to examine the effects of Bt contamination on feeding behavior and survival of pink bollworm that were resistant (rr), susceptible (ss), or heterozygous for resistance (rs) to Cry1Ac. In choice tests, rr and rs larvae did not differ from ss in preference for non-Bt versus Bt seeds. Survival of rr and rs also did not differ from ss on artificial outcrossed bolls (a mixture of 20% Bt and 80% non-Bt cotton seeds). On artificial hemizygous Bt bolls (70% Bt seeds) and homozygous Bt bolls (100% Bt seeds), rr had higher survival than ss, although rs and ss did not differ. In a simulation model, levels of refuge contamination observed in the field had negligible effects on resistance evolution in pink bollworm. However, in hypothetical simulations where contamination conferred a selective advantage to rs over ss individuals in refuges, resistance evolution was accelerated.

  10. Microbial control of black cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in turfgrass using Agrotis ipsilon multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Prater, Callie A; Redmond, Carl T; Barney, Walter; Bonning, Bryony C; Potter, Daniel A

    2006-08-01

    Agrotis ipsilon multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (family Baculoviridae, genus Nucleopolyhedrovirus, AgipMNPV), a naturally occurring baculovirus, was found infecting black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on central Kentucky golf courses. Laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies investigated the potential of AgipMNPV for managing black cutworms in turfgrass. The virus was highly active against first instars (LC50 = 73 occlusion bodies [OBs] per microl with 2-microl dose; 95% confidence intervals, 55-98). First instars that ingested a high lethal dose stopped feeding and died in 3-6 d as early second instars, whereas lethally infected fourth instars continued to feed and grow for 4-9 d until death. Sublethal doses consumed by third or fifth instars had little or no effect on subsequent developmental rate or pupal weight. Horizontal transmission of AgipMNPV in turfgrass plots was shown. Sprayed suspensions of AgipMNPV (5 x 10(8) - 6 x 10(9) OBs/m2) resulted in 75 to > 93% lethal infection of third or fourth instars in field plots of fairway-height creeping bentgrass, Agrostis stolonifera (Huds.), and on a golf course putting green collar. Virus spray residues (7 x 10(9) OBs/m2) allowed to weather on mowed and irrigated creeping bentgrass field plots significantly increased lethal infection of implanted larvae for at least 4 wk. This study, the first to evaluate a virus against a pest in turfgrass, suggests that AgipMNPV has potential as a preventive bioinsecticide targeting early instar black cutworms. Establishing a virus reservoir in the thatch and soil could suppress successive generations of that key pest on golf courses and sport fields.

  11. That awkward age for butterflies: insights from the age of the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Niklas

    2006-10-01

    The study of the historical biogeography of butterflies has been hampered by a lack of well-resolved phylogenies and a good estimate of the temporal span over which butterflies have evolved. Recently there has been surge of phylogenetic hypotheses for various butterfly groups, but estimating ages of divergence is still in its infancy for this group of insects. The main problem has been the sparse fossil record for butterflies. In this study I have used a surprisingly good fossil record for the subfamily Nymphalinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) to estimate the ages of diversification of major lineages using Bayesian relaxed clock methods. I have investigated the effects of varying priors on posterior estimates in the analyses. For this data set, it is clear that the prior of the rate of molecular evolution at the ingroup node had the largest effect on the results. Taking this into account, I have been able to arrive at a plausible history of lineage splits, which appears to be correlated with known paleogeological events. The subfamily appears to have diversified soon after the K/T event about 65 million years ago. Several splits are coincident with major paleogeological events, such as the connection of the African and Asian continents about 21 million years ago and the presence of a peninsula of land connecting the current Greater Antilles to the South American continent 35 to 33 million years ago. My results suggest that the age of Nymphalidae is older than the 70 million years speculated to be the age of butterflies as a whole.

  12. Effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junheon; Chung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Jang, Miyeon; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-07-01

    Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important and polyphagous pest, which harms various kinds of food crops and important agricultural plants, such as cotton and paprika. Effects of electron beam irradiation at six dose levels between 50 and 350 Gy on the egg (24-48 h old), the larval (4-5th instar), and the pupal (7-d old for female, 5-d old for male) development, and on the adult (1-d old) reproduction were tested to identify a potential quarantine treatment dose. Increased doses of irradiation on eggs decreased egg hatchability, pupation and adult emergence and increased larval period. ED99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation and emergence were 460.6, 236.9 and 197.8 Gy, respectively. When larvae were irradiated with more than 280 Gy, no larvae could develop into pupae. ED99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence were 265.6 and 189.6 Gy, respectively. Even though the irradiation on pupa did not completely inhibit adult emergence, most of the pupae emerged to deformed adults. When adults were irradiated, fecundity was not affected. However, F1 egg hatching was completely inhibited at the dose of 350 Gy. ED99 value for inhibition of adult emergence was estimated at 366.5 Gy. Our results suggest that electron beam irradiation could be recommendable as an alternative to MB and as a phytosanitary treatment for quarantine. A treatment dose of less than or equal to 220 Gy is suggested as a potential quarantine treatment to H. armigera egg for prevention of pupation and to larva for prevention of adult emerge.

  13. Predicting economic losses from the continued spread of the Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Reay-Jones, F P F; Wilson, L T; Reagan, T E; Legendre, B L; Way, M O

    2008-04-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an invasive species that originated from Mexico, and it is threatening to cause major economic losses to sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and rice, Oryza sativa L., industries in Louisiana. The insect is expected to reach sugarcane and rice production areas in Louisiana by 2008, and infest all of Louisiana sugarcane and rice industries by 2035. When all sugarcane in Louisiana becomes infested, annual yield losses of $220 million would be expected for a cultivar of comparable susceptibility to LCP 85-384 (assuming this cultivar is planted on 100% of the production area). This also assumes the use of the current practice of rainfed production and one application of insecticide, which is presently used by farmers in Louisiana. Irrigation with 30 cm of water is predicted to reduce estimated losses by 29%, whereas four applications of a biorational insecticide such as tebufenozide are expected to reduce the loss in revenue by 53%. The use of the resistant 'HoCP 85-845' would reduce the projected loss in revenue by 24%. Combining all three management tactics on sugarcane, anticipated net loss in revenue would decrease by 66%. The rice industry in Louisiana is projected to suffer from a loss in revenue of $45 million when the entire state is infested. A 77% reduction in loss in revenue is expected with one application of lambda-cyhalothrin. A quarantine on east Texas sugarcane is estimated to save the Louisiana industry between $1.1 billion and $3.2 billion (depending on management) during the time needed for the insect to fully invade the state's sugarcane and rice producing area by natural migration rather than by accidental introduction. The rapid deployment of appropriate management tactics will have a key role in reducing the anticipated economic impact of E. loftini once it becomes a pest in Louisiana sugarcane and rice.

  14. INSECTICIDAL AND OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON THE MODEL ORGANISM Galleria mellonella L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE).

    PubMed

    Dere, Beyza; Altuntaş, Hülya; Nurullahoğlu, Z Ulya

    2015-07-01

    The insecticidal effects, specifically, changes in hemolymph total protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities of azadirachtin (AZA) given to the wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae via force feeding were investigated. Bioassays showed that the LD50 and LD99 (lethal dose) values of AZA were 2.1 and 4.6 μg/larva, respectively. Experimental analyses were performed with five doses of AZA (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva). Total protein level in larval hemolymph increased at all AZA doses at 24 h whereas a considerable decrease was observed at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses, and only an increase displayed at 1.5 μg/larva at 72 h. The level of MDA increased at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses at 24 h compared with controls. This trend was also observed at 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h and MDA levels were lower when compared with those of 24 h at all doses except for 1.5 μg/larva dose. Catalase activity decreased at 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/larva doses at 24 h whereas increased at all doses except for 0.5 μg/larva at 72 h compared with controls. AZA led to a decline in superoxide dismutase activity at all experimental doses at 24 and 72 h except for 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h. An increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was evident at all AZA doses at 24 h. AZA displayed 68% decline in GST activity at 72 h post treatments when compared to 24 h. Consequently, We infer that the toxicity of AZA extends beyond its known actions in molting processes to redox homeostasis.

  15. Reducing tuber damage by potato tuberworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with cultural practices and insecticides.

    PubMed

    Clough, G H; Rondon, S i; DeBano, S J; David, N; Hamm, P B

    2010-08-01

    Cultural practices and insecticide treatments and combinations were evaluated for effect on tuber damage by potato tuberworm, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in the Columbia basin of eastern Oregon and Washington. A range of intervals between initial application of several insecticides and vine-kill were tested to determine how early to implement a program to control potato tuberworm tuber damage. Esfenvalerate, methamidophos, and methomyl were applied at recommended intervals, with programs beginning from 28 to 5 d before vine-kill. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced tuber damage compared with the untreated control, but there was no apparent advantage to beginning control efforts earlier than later in the season. Esfenvalerate and indoxacarb at two rates and a combination of the two insecticides were applied weekly beginning 4 wk before and at vine-kill, and indoxacarb was applied at and 1 wk postvine-kill as chemigation treatments. Application of insecticides at and after vine-kill also reduced tuberworm infestation. 'Russet Norkotah' and 'Russet Burbank' plants were allowed to naturally senesce or were chemically defoliated. They received either no irrigation or were irrigated by center-pivot with 0.25 cm water daily from vine-kill until harvest 2 wk later. Daily irrigation after vine-kill reduced tuber damage, and chemical vine-kill tended to reduce tuber damage compared with natural senescence. Covering hills with soil provides good protection but must be done by vine-kill. Data from these trials indicate that the most critical time for initiation of control methods is immediately before and at vine-kill.

  16. Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Antwi, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust(®) WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol(®) ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52), Xpectro(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), and Xpulse(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+azadirachtin). Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold the lowest labelled rates of formulated products were tested for all products, while for Entrust WP additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 fold the label rates were also assessed. Survival rates were determined from larval mortality at 1-9 days post treatment application. We found that among the tested chemicals, Entrust(®) (spinosad) was the most effective, causing 83-100% mortality (0-17% survival rate) at day 3 across all concentrations. The others, in order of efficacy from most to least, were Xpectro(®) (B. bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), Xpulse(®)OD (B. bassiana GHA+azadirachtin), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (M. brunneum F52), and Mycotrol(®) ESO (B. bassiana GHA). These products and entomopathogenic fungi caused 70-100% mortality (0-30% survivability) from days 7 to 9. The tested products and entomopathogenic fungi can be used in management of D. diffusa.

  17. Insecticide Effect of Zeolites on the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    De Smedt, Caroline; Van Damme, Veerle; De Clercq, Patrick; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: The tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is a key tomato insect pest. At present, it is considered to be a serious threat in various countries in Europe, North Africa, and Middle East. The extensive use and the developed resistance of T. absoluta to spinosad causes some concern, which leads to the need for alternative products. (2) Materials and Methods: Several laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the ovicidal properties of a zeolite particle film on T. absoluta. The toxicity of three different zeolites and six zeolite formulations to T. absoluta eggs and larvae was determined using different exposure methods. (3) Results: In general, the formulated zeolites yielded higher egg and larvae mortality values, especially when the zeolite particle film was residually applied. Notable differences in mortality rates from exposure to zeolites compared to other products, such as kaolin, its formulated product Surround, and the insecticide spinosad, were observed. Kaolin and Surround exhibited little or no effect for both application methods, while the hatch rate was reduced by 95% when spinosad was applied topically. Spinosad yielded egg and larvae mortality rates of 100% for both application methods. Additionally, increased oviposition activity was observed in adults exposed to the wettable powder (WP) formulations. These WP formulations increased egg deposition, while Surround and spinosad elicited a negative oviposition response. (4) Conclusions: It can be derived that the tested products, zeolites BEA (Beta polymorph A), FAU (Faujasite), LTA (Linde type A), and their formulations, had no real insecticidal activity against the eggs of T. absoluta. Nevertheless, egg exposure to zeolites seemed to affect the development process by weakening the first instar larvae and increasing their mortality. Subsequently, based on the choice test, no significant difference was observed between the number of eggs laid on the treated

  18. Pathogenicity of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia) in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu-hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Dieng, Hamady; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Abd Ghani, Idris

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using pathogenic microsporidia could be an alternative to chemical control of the diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The microsporidium Nosema bombycis (NB) is one of the numerous pathogens that can be used in the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) of DBM. However, its pathogenicity or effectiveness can be influenced by various factors, particularly temperature. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on NB infection of DBM larvae. Second-instar larvae at different doses (spore concentration: 0, 1×102,1×103,1×104, and 1×105) at 15°, 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C and a relative humidity(RH) of 65% and light dark cycle (L:D) of 12∶12. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 h intervals until the larvae had either died or pupated. The results showed that the spore concentration had a significant negative effect on larval survival at all temperatures, although this effect was more pronounced (92%) at 35°C compared with that at 20 and 30°C (≃50%) and 25°C (26%). Histological observations showed that Nosema preferentially infected the adipose tissue and epithelial cells of the midgut, resulting in marked vacuolization of the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that Nosema damaged the midgut epithelial cells. Our results suggest that Nosema had a direct adverse effect on DBM, and could be utilized as an important biopesticide alternative to chemical insecticides in IPM. PMID:23675435

  19. Effects of bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn on corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) densities.

    PubMed

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Odvody, Gary N; Correa, J Carlos; Remmers, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We examined 17 pairs of near-isogenic hybrids of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (176, Mon810, and Bt11) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to examine the effects of Bt on larval densities of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2 yr. During ear formation, instar densities of H. zea and S. frugiperda were recorded for each hybrid. We found that H. zea first, second, and fifth instar densities were each affected by Mon810 and Bt11 Bt corn but not by 176 corn. Surprisingly, first and second instars were found in higher numbers on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 corn than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, whereas densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants. S. frugiperda larval densities were only affected during 1 yr when second, and fourth to sixth instars were lower on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 hybrids compared with their non-Bt counterparts. Two likely explanations for early instar H. zea densities being higher on Bt corn than non-Bt corn are that (1) Bt toxins delay development, creating a greater abundance of early instars that eventually die, and (2) reduced survival of H. zea to later instars on Bt corn decreased the normal asymmetric cannibalism or H. zea-S. frugiperda intraguild predation of late instars on early instars. Either explanation could explain why differences between Bt and non-Bt plants were greater for H. zea than S. frugiperda, because H. zea is more strongly affected by Bt toxins and more cannibalistic.

  20. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer and magnesium manipulation on the Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Ge, Lin-Quan; Wan, Don-Ju; Xu, Jie; Jiang, Li-Ben; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2013-02-01

    The rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a rice pest that is prone to outbreaks when high levels of nitrogen (N) fertilizer are applied to rice. The larvae feed by scraping the mesophyll cells of leaves, which are mainly composed of chloroplasts containing significant levels of elemental magnesium (Mg). To determine the cause of N fertilizer-induced rice leaffolder outbreaks and the effects of Mg and Mg uptake on the rice leaffolder, the changes in the life history traits and biochemistry of C. medinalis larvae feeding on rice leaves treated with different Mg and N concentrations were investigated in this study. The results showed that foliar treatment using different Mg concentrations under hydroponic culture conditions significantly decreased the developmental duration (days) (DD) of the larvae and pupae but did not influence the pupation rate or adult emergence rate. The number of eggs laid by adult females and the protein content and total sugar content in the larvae and pupae significantly increased with increasing Mg concentrations. Under soil culture conditions, the DD for the larvae and number of eggs laid by adult females significantly increased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer levels, but the applied fertilizer did not influence the DD in the pupae, pupation rate, or adult emergence rate. In contrast, the DD for adults decreased with increased fertilizer levels. In hydroponic culture, Mg in the culture solution and Mg foliar sprays significantly increased the Mg content in rice leaves. In soil cultures, the use of N fertilizer and Mg foliar spray did not significantly increase the leaf Mg content, except at a concentration of 12.5 g/L, indicating that the leaf Mg content may be related to the root uptake of Mg.