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Sample records for craniojugular saccular aneurysms

  1. Growth and subsequent disappearance of a ruptured small saccular intracranial aneurysm: A morphometric and flow-dynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Peruvumba, Jayakumar Narayan; Paul, Divyan; Verghese, Renjan

    2016-10-01

    The growth of a ruptured small saccular aneurysm has rarely been documented. Also rare are reports of spontaneous thrombosis of ruptured small intracranial saccular aneurysms. However, there are no reported instances of ruptured small saccular aneurysms that have demonstrated an increase in size after rupture, subsequently thrombosed and disappeared from circulation. We report one such aneurysm in a patient who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured small saccular aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. The possible reasons for the initial growth and subsequent thrombosis of the aneurysm from morphometric and flow dynamic points of view are discussed. PMID:27470928

  2. Hemodynamic Impact of a Spontaneous Cervical Dissection on an Ipsilateral Saccular Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    See, Alfred P.; Penn, David L.; Du, Rose; Frerichs, Kai U

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic, hemodynamic impact of a cervical dissection on an ipsilateral, intracranial saccular aneurysm has not been well illustrated. This 45-year-old female was found to have a small, supraclinoid aneurysm ipsilateral to a spontaneous cervical internal carotid artery dissection. With healing of the dissection, the aneurysm appeared to have significantly enlarged. Retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time of the initial dissection demonstrated thrombus, similar in overall morphology to the angiographic appearance of the "enlarged" aneurysm. As the dissection healed far proximal to the intradural portion of the internal carotid artery, this suggested that the aneurysm was likely a typical, saccular posterior communicating artery aneurysm that had thrombosed and then recanalized secondary to flow changes from the dissection. The aneurysm was coiled uneventfully, in distinction from more complex treatment approaches such as flow diversion or proximal occlusion to treat an enlarging, dissecting pseudoaneurysm. This case illustrates that flow changes from cervical dissections may result in thrombosis of downstream saccular aneurysms. With healing, these aneurysms may recanalize and be misidentified as enlarging dissecting pseudoaneurysms. Review of an MRI from the time of the dissection facilitated the conclusion that the aneurysm was a saccular posterior communicating artery aneurysm, influencing treatment approach.

  3. Saccular aneurysm formation of the descending aorta associated with aortic coarctation in an infant.

    PubMed

    Ozyuksel, Arda; Canturk, Emir; Dindar, Aygun; Akcevin, Atif

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysm of the descending aorta associated with CoA is an extremely rare congenital abnormality. In this report, we present a 16 months old female patient in whom cardiac catheterization had been performed which had revealed a segment of coarctation and saccular aneurysm in the descending aorta. The patient was operated and a 3x2 centimeters aneurysm which embraces the coarcted segment in descending aorta was resected. In summary, we present a case of saccular aortic aneurysm distal to aortic coarctation in an infant without any history of intervention or vascular inflammatory disease. Our case report seems to be the youngest patient in literature with this pathology.

  4. Endovascular management of a late saccular aortic aneurysm after end-to-end repair of coarctation.

    PubMed

    Kotoulas, Christophoros; Tzilalis, Vasileios; Spyridakis, Emmanouil; Mamareli, Ioannis

    2011-12-01

    Post-coarctation surgical repair aneurysm formation is observed rarely with end-to-end anastomosis technique. The redo surgery is associated with high mortality and morbidity rate. Although the minimal invasive method with stented grafts has been reported in only small number of patients, this could represent a valid alternative treatment. We present a case of successful endovascular treatment of a patient with a late post-coarctation repair saccular aneurysm.

  5. Surgical clipping of a recurrent small saccular aneurysm after repeated coil embolization.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kazumichi; Wataya, Takafumi; Hojo, Masato; Doi, Daisuke; Yamagata, Sen

    2005-07-01

    A 59-year-old healthy woman presented with sudden onset of severe headache. Computed tomography and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage (grade I according to the Hunt and Hess classification) due to a ruptured small right posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. The ruptured PCA aneurysm was completely embolized with three Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). However, follow-up DSA 3 months after the initial coiling confirmed refilling of the aneurysm. The aneurysm was successfully re-embolized with two GDCs. Follow-up DSA 10 months later revealed regrowth of the aneurysm. Surgical clipping was performed without compromising the parent vessels. Long-term angiographic follow up is necessary even in patients with small saccular aneurysms which are apparently completely embolized by endovascular coil treatment.

  6. Evolution of Giant P2-Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm over 16 Years: Saccular to Serpentine. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S

    2009-12-14

    Giant intracranial aneurysms account for only about 5% of all intracranial aneurysms. Giant intradural aneurysms are associated with severe natural history, yet remain potentially curable. These aneurysms cause symptoms due to their mass effect, and only 14-35% of cases present with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). The present case report is an imaging evolution of a giant posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm in a patient who was lost on follow-up from 1992 to 2008 giving insight into the natural history and morphologic evolution of giant serpentine aneurysms. Attempted surgery 16 years previously for a saccular PCA aneurysm produced encephalomalacia and created a more spacious perianeurysmal environment, preventing any mass effect on vital structures in its vicinity. This allowed the patient to have a long symptom-free period and also allowed the aneurysm to follow a morphologic evolution over a long period without causing symptoms which would have called for intervention. This unusual development gave a unique opportunity to study the evolution of a gaint serpentine aneurysm from a saccular aneurysm and also the clinical and morphologic changes in an aneurysm if it can be prevented from producing mass effect. The Coanda effect, or boundary wall effect, has been considered responsible for the development of the serpentine channel in the original globular aneurysm . However many Authors conclude that giant serpentine aneurysms are not derived from saccular aneurysms. PMID:24209407

  7. Basic flow structure in saccular aneurysms: a flow visualization study.

    PubMed

    Steiger, H J; Poll, A; Liepsch, D; Reulen, H J

    1987-01-01

    Basic flow patterns were investigated in a set of glass aneurysm models by means of flow visualization methods. Dye injection and streaming double refraction were used to visualize flow. The circulation inside lateral aneurysms arising at a 90 degree angle from a straight parent conduit could not be visualized by the dye-injection technique but could be demonstrated by streaming double refraction. The inflow was seen to arise from the downstream lip of the orifice and to project to the dome of the aneurysm. Backflow to the parent conduit took place along the walls of the aneurysm. In aneurysms located at bifurcations, flow characteristics depended on the geometry of the bifurcation and the flow ratio between the branches. Relatively little intra-aneurysmal flow was demonstrated in side branch-related aneurysms arising distal to an asymmetric 90 degrees bifurcation of the type encountered at the junction of the internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries. Stagnation of flow at the neck and little intra-aneurysmal circulation were found with terminal aneurysms of the basilar bifurcation type if the outflow through the branches was symmetric. With asymmetric outflow, however, or if the axis of the aneurysm did not coincide with that of the afferent vessel, an active rotation developed in these aneurysms. The size of the aneurysm had no influence on the basic pattern of intra-aneurysmal circulation. The use of pulsatile perfusion did not significantly alter the basic flow patterns observed with steady flow. Locally disturbed laminar flow was observed in certain models at physiological Reynold's numbers, but there were no signs of fully developed turbulence.

  8. Headache attributed to unruptured saccular aneurysm, mimicking hemicrania continua.

    PubMed

    Vikelis, Michail; Xifaras, Michail; Magoufis, Georgios; Gekas, Georgios; Mitsikostas, Dimos Dimitrios

    2005-06-01

    Unruptured cerebral arterial aneurysms most often remain asymptomatic, but they may cause headache or other symptoms or signs. We describe herewith a case of headache attributed to an unruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm, clearly mimicking the phenotype of hemicrania continua. Potential pathophysiological explanations and recommendations for recognition of similar cases are discussed.

  9. Complications of Elastase-Induced Arterial Saccular Aneurysm in Rabbits: Case Reports and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Villano, Jason S; Boehm, Christine A; Carney, Elizabeth L; Cooper, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Endoluminal infusion and incubation of elastase with or without collagenase into the rabbit common carotid artery is an established model of arterial saccular aneurysm. The model mimics naturally occurring human cerebral aneurysms in many ways, including histologic and morphologic characteristics, hemodynamic pressures, and shear stresses. However, complications have been associated with the model. Here, we report 2 complications: 1) the first known case of iatrogenic laryngeal hemiplegia in a rabbit; and 2) histopathologically confirmed iatrogenic hippocampal and cerebellar infarcts (stroke). Finally, we present and review data from current literature on the morbidity and mortality associated with this model. PMID:23561881

  10. [Saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein in a patient with azygos accessory fissure].

    PubMed

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Guedea Martin, A; Salvador Adell, I; Elias Artiga, J

    2015-01-01

    The saccular aneurysm of the azygos vein is an extremely rare condition, which when located in the path of an accesory pulmonary fissure, becomes a diagnostic challenge because it can be mistaken for tumors arising from the accesory pleura, like solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura or mesothelioma. The diagnosis should ideally be done by non-invasive methods such as CT or MR angiographic technique in multiple phases, thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. This case is exceptional because, to our knowledge, it is the first to report both concomitant clinical situations, an aneurysm of the azygos vein in the pathway of its accessory fissure.

  11. Intracranial saccular aneurysm in a child with only persistent headache.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Olcay; Özkaya, Ahmet Kağan; Dilber, Cengiz; Çinar, Celal

    2015-06-01

    Headache is one of the common symptoms of intracranial aneursym. A 5-year-old child lately presented to our pediatric emergency department with persistent headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 7×8 mm rounded lesion with slowly heterogeneous low signal in T2 sequence consistent with a partial occluded aneurysm, in the right medial frontal lobe that close to anterior cerebral artery. Intracranial aneurysms are rare in children and they are noncommon without complications as our case.

  12. Finite element analysis in three-dimensional flow through a lateral saccular aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, T

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional flow pattern in a lateral saccular aneurysm was investigated by a finite element method. The aneurysm model had a dome-shaped diverticulum arising from one side of the straight circular tube. The steady Navier-Stokes equations and the equation of continuity were applied. The finite element equations were derived from the Galerkin process with each hexahedral element, in which velocities were approximated by quadratic polynomials and pressures by linear polynomials. The non-linear finite element equations were solved by a Newton-Raphson method. Calculations were performed of the steady flow at various Reynolds numbers. The conclusions for flow patterns with a Reynolds number of 1000 is as follows: (i) a separation vortex occurred in the whole circumferential region of the aneurysm, (ii) the separation vortex was distorted by the geometrical shape of the aneurysm, and (iii) two other vortexes induced by the separation vortex existed at the proximal and the distal wall of the aneurysm. These disturbances of flow through an aneurysm are thought to play a significant role in the formation of thrombi and the rupture of an aneurysm. PMID:8241034

  13. The Age of Collagen in Intracranial Saccular Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Etminan, Nima; Dreier, Rita; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Beseoglu, Kerim; Bruckner, Peter; Matzenauer, Christian; Torner, James C.; Brown, Robert D.; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel; Macdonald, R. Loch

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The chronological development and natural history of cerebral aneurysms (CA) remains incompletely understood. We used 14C birth dating of a main constituent of CAs, i.e. collagen type I, as an indicator for biosynthesis and turnover of collagen in CAs in relation to human cerebral arteries to further investigate this. Methods Forty-six ruptured and unruptured CA samples from 43 patients as well 10 cadaveric human cerebral arteries were obtained. The age of collagen, extracted and purified from excised CAs, was estimated using 14C birth dating and correlated with CA and patient characteristics, including the history of risk factors associated with atherosclerosis and potentially aneurysm growth and rupture. Results Nearly all CA samples contained collagen type I which was less than 5 years old, irrespective of patient age, aneurysm size, morphology, or rupture status. However, CAs from patients with a history of risk factors (smoking or hypertension), contained significantly younger collagen than CAs from patients with no risk factors (mean 1.6±1.2 years versus 3.9±3.3 years, respectively, p= 0.012). CAs and cerebral arteries did not share one dominant structural protein, such as collagen type I, which would allow comparison of their collagen turnover. Conclusions The abundant amount of relatively young collagen type I in CAs suggests that there is on-going collagen remodeling in aneurysms, which is significantly more rapid in patients with risk factors. These findings challenge the concept that cerebral aneurysms are present for decades and that they undergo only sporadic episodes of structural change. PMID:24781080

  14. Giant saccular superior vena cava aneurysm-a rare and difficult clinical case.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Dariusz; Skiba, Jacek; Gemel, Marek; Mak, Marek; Ziomek, Agnieszka; Malinowski, Maciej; Dorobisz, Tadeusz; Lesniak, Michal; Janczak, Dawid; Chabowski, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    A superior vena cava (SVC) aneurysm is an extremely rare case of vascular malformation in the chest cavity. This is a report of a case of a 57-year-old woman with a saccular SVC aneurysm which was 8 cm wide. The chest computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed a giant 75 mm × 79 mm × 81 mm mass containing the contrast medium from SVC, constricting the right lung parenchyma, narrowing the right innominate vein, in contact with the anterolateral chest cavity wall, and adjoining the superior mediastinum. Under general anesthesia and employing the median sternotomy approach, using a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the venous aneurysm was successfully resected. The postoperative period was uneventful. Radical surgical resection using a sternotomy and a CPB is recommended. PMID:27076981

  15. A system for saccular intracranial aneurysm analysis and virtual stent planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloch, Sajjad; Sudarsky, Sandra; Zhu, Ying; Mohamed, Ashraf; Geiger, Berhard; Dutta, Komal; Namburu, Durga; Nias, Puthenveettil; Martucci, Gary; Redel, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have found correlation between the risk of rupture of saccular aneurysms and their morphological characteristics, such as volume, surface area, neck length, among others. For reliably exploiting these parameters in endovascular treatment planning, it is crucial that they are accurately quantified. In this paper, we present a novel framework to assist physicians in accurately assessing saccular aneurysms and efficiently planning for endovascular intervention. The approach consists of automatically segmenting the pathological vessel, followed by the construction of its surface representation. The aneurysm is then separated from the vessel surface through a graph-cut based algorithm that is driven by local geometry as well as strong prior information. The corresponding healthy vessel is subsequently reconstructed and measurements representing the patient-specific geometric parameters of pathological vessel are computed. To better support clinical decisions on stenting and device type selection, the placement of virtual stent is eventually carried out in conformity with the shape of the diseased vessel using the patient-specific measurements. We have implemented the proposed methodology as a fully functional system, and extensively tested it with phantom and real datasets.

  16. Experimental Model of Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Swines with Pericardium Sac

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Maurício de Amorim; de Barros, Svetlana Maria Wanderley; Castro, Aldemar Araújo; Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To consider modifications in an experimental model of saccular aortic aneurysm, aiming at better reproducibility, to be used in the development of vascular prostheses. Methods: Experimental study in two phases, developed in the Center of Experimental Surgery and Bioterium (CCEB) of the University of Health Sciences of Alagoas (UNCISAL), with 11 hybrid swine, female, mean weight of 20 ± 5 kg, according to modifications in the Perini technique was performed. In the first phase, the aneurysm was confectioned with bovine pericardial patch. In the second phase, fifteen days later, the patency of the aneurysms was confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography. The described variables were aortic and aneurysm sac patency, incidence of rupture, morbidity and mortality. The statistical analysis program used was STATA v.8. Results: All animals survived to the procedures. Surgical mean time was 73 minutes. Aneurysm rupture, proximal or distal aortic thrombosis, visceral or legs ischemia weren't observed. Parietal thrombus formation was observed in all of the aneurysms, two of which (18%; IC 95% = 3.98 - 48.84) were occluded and nine (82%; IC 95% = 51.15 - 96.01) were patent. Conclusion: In this series, the modifications carried out in the technique related to the surgical approach, race, anesthesia, and imaging exams reproduced the experimental model, reducing its costs, without hindering the analysis of the variables. The satisfactory patency ratio allows the method to be used in experimental models for the development of vascular prostheses. PMID:27074279

  17. In vitro measurement of tissue integrity during saccular aneurysm embolizations for simulator-based training.

    PubMed

    Tercero, C; Ikeda, S; Ooe, K; Fukuda, T; Arai, F; Negoro, M; Takahashi, I; Kwon, G

    2012-12-01

    In the domain of endovascular neurosurgery, the measurement of tissue integrity is needed for simulator-based training and for the development of new intravascular instruments and treatment techniques. In vitro evaluation of tissue manipulation can be achieved using photoelastic stress analysis and vasculature modeling with photoelastic materials. In this research we constructed two types of vasculature models of saccular aneurysms for differentiation of embolization techniques according to the respect for tissue integrity measurements based on the stress within the blood vessel model wall. In an aneurysm model with 5 mm dome diameter, embolization using MicroPlex 10 (Complex 1D, with 4 mm diameter loops), a maximum area of 3.97 mm² with stress above 1 kPa was measured. This area increased to 5.50 mm² when the dome was touched deliberately with the release mechanism of the coil, and to 4.87 mm² for an embolization using Micrusphere, (Spherical 18 Platinum Coil). In a similar way trans-cell stent-assisted coil embolization was also compared to human blood pressure simulation using a model of a wide-necked saccular aneurysm with 7 mm diameter. The area with stress above 1kPa was below 1 mm² for the pressure simulation and maximized at 3.79 mm² during the trans-cell insertion of the micro-catheter and at 8.92 mm² during the embolization. The presented results show that this measurement system is useful for identifying techniques compromising tissue integrity, comparing and studying coils and embolization techniques for a specific vasculature morphology and comparing their natural stress variations such as that produced by blood pressure. PMID:23217635

  18. 5-year Angiographic and Clinical Follow-up of Coil-embolised Intradural Saccular Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Batista, LL.; Mahadevan, J.; Sachet, M.; Alvarez, H.; Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2002-01-01

    Summary The purpose of the paper is the follow-up of embolised intradural saccular Arterial Aneurysms (AA), excluding giant, dissecting, inflammatory, fusiform or AA associated to BVAM. Since its introduction in 1991, the Guglielmi Detachable Coil has offered protection against aneurysmal rebleeding in the critical few days and months after SAH regardless of the grade. A number of questions remain: is complete angiographic obliteration necessary at first embolisation? What duration of clinical / angiographic follow-up (FU) is required to ensure the risk of haemorrhage has been eliminated? What is the long-term protection against rebleeding? One hundred and two patients with 160 intradural saccular AA embolised before april 1997 were selected for this study. They had at least 5-yrs clinical FU, of which 22 patients had a midterm (3 years) and 45 patients had a 5year or more angiographic FU (mean 67,7 months per patient). Twenty-eight embolised AAs with 100% occlusion at 1 year, remained unchanged on the 5year angiograms. A further 14 patients with complete occlusion at 1 year showed persisting complete occlusion on angiogram at 3-years FU, which in our series means that complete occlusion after the first year post-embolisation implies that the aneurysm will remain completely occluded. All secondary spontaneous thromboses (27.6% of cases), occurred during the first year pos-embolisation. In six patients with subtotal or partial occlusion no change was seen for three consecutive years of FU; none showed later change at 5-year angiography. Below 80% occlusion our series does not provide enough information but we consider the situation instable. No mortality related to the procedure was observed in the unruptured AA group. No bleeding or re-bleeding has occurred since the beginning of our experience (1993) in saccular AA treated by GDC-Coil. Coil-embolisation of properly selected patients is effective in protecting against bleeding or re-bleeding at short and long

  19. Reconstruction of Saccular and Dissected Intracranial Aneurysms Using Solitaire™ AB Stents

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Hong, Bo; Huang, Qing-Hai; Zhao, Wen-Yuan; Yang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to evaluate the feasibility, safety, efficacy, and predictors for outcome of reconstructive treatment with Solitaire™ AB stent(s) based on 54 cases of saccular aneurysms and 14 of acute symptomatic dissecting aneurysms. Methods Fifty-eight consecutive patients (M/F = 28/30; median age, 53 years) harbouring 68 aneurysms (ruptured/unruptured = 12/56) underwent treatment with Solitaire™ AB stent(s) implantation between April 2010 and August 2011 in our institution. The data were retrospectively reviewed and analysed. Results The technical success rate of Solitaire™ AB stenting was 100%. The rates of the overall and the treatment-related adverse events were 9% (6/68) and 6% (4/68), respectively, and the recurrent rate was 1% (1/68). All of the adverse events (n = 6) occurred in tiny (n = 1, ≤3 mm) or small (n = 5, >3 to ≤10 mm) aneurysms. The majority (75%, 3/4) of thromboembolic events (thrombus, n = 2; infarction, n = 2) occurred in ruptured lesions, and 2 intraprocedural aneurysm ruptures occurred in the course of coiling when the stent(s) was/were applied within 6 months. Subarachnoid haemorrhages (SAH, p<0.05) and immediate occlusion grades (p<0.05) were predictors for overall adverse events by univariate analysis. Compared with the immediate post-treatment angiographic results, the follow-up angiographic imaging (mean, 13 months; range, 6–25 months) revealed that stent(s) implantation enhanced the rate of class I occlusion from 34% (23/68) to 93% (63/68). SAH was the only predictor for unfavourable outcomes (the modified Rankin Scale score [mRS], 2–6) during the mean 19-month (range, 12–27 months) of clinical follow-ups (p<0.05). Conclusions Although the complete obliteration of tiny and small aneurysms without complications remains a challenge, stent(s) implantation could lead to further occlusion of incompletely coiled aneurysms. SAH and the occlusion grade were the primary predictors for adverse

  20. Saccular Aneurysms of the Transverse Aortic Arch Based on a Presentation at the 2013 VEITH Symposium, November 19–23, 2013 (New York, NY, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Preventza, Ourania; Coselli, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Saccular aneurysms of the aortic arch, whether single or multiple, are uncommon. The choice of repair technique is influenced by patients' comorbidities and age. Repairing saccular aneurysms with traditional open techniques can be technically demanding; therefore, endovascular technology and a variety of hybrid approaches have been developed to facilitate such repairs and, potentially, to improve clinical outcomes, especially in high-risk patients. There have been no large, randomized studies to compare the outcomes of these different treatment options in patients with single or multiple saccular aneurysms of the arch. In this review, we outline the etiology and common locations of these aneurysms, the different open, completely endovascular, and hybrid techniques used to treat them, and the treatment selection process. PMID:26798759

  1. Type 2 Diabetes and Risk of Rupture of Saccular Intracranial Aneurysm in Eastern Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Antti E.; Kurki, Mitja I.; Riihinen, Annamaija; Koivisto, Timo; Ronkainen, Antti; Rinne, Jaakko; Hernesniemi, Juha; Eriksson, Johan G.; Jääskeläinen, Juha E.; von und zu Fraunberg, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for other forms of stroke, but its association with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured saccular intracranial aneurysm (sIA) has remained unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Kuopio Intracranial Aneurysm Database (www.uef.fi/ns) includes all ruptured and unruptured sIA cases from a defined catchment population in eastern Finland since 1980. We compared the age-adjusted incidences of type 2 diabetes in 1,058 ruptured and 484 unruptured sIA patients during 1994–2008, using the national registry of prescribed medicine purchases. RESULTS Of the 1,058 ruptured sIA patients, 43% were males and 57% females, with a median age at rupture of 51 and 56 years, respectively. From 1994 to 2008 or until death, 9% had been prescribed antidiabetes medication (ADM) with a median starting age of 58 years for males and 66 years for females. Of the 484 unruptured sIA patients, 44% were males and 56% females, with a median age at the diagnosis of 53 and 55 years, respectively, and 9% had used ADM, with a median starting age of 61 years for males and 66 years for females. The incidence of type 2 diabetes was highest in the age-group 60–70 years, with no significant differences between the ruptured and unruptured sIA patients. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that type 2 diabetes does not increase the risk of rupture of sIA, which is by far the most frequent cause of nontraumatic SAH. PMID:23536581

  2. [Hybrid operation for a posttraumatic saccular aneurysm of the aortic arch].

    PubMed

    Ignat'ev, I M; Volodiukhin, M Iu; Zanochkin, A V; Terekhin, S V

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with a case report of successful hybrid surgical treatment of a patient presenting with a posttraumatic large false saccular aneurysm of the aortic arch with mediastinal displacement and compression of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve and trachea. The patient was subjected to a hybrid operation, i. e., bypass grafting of the brachiocephalic trunk and the left common carotid artery with a bifurcation prosthesis from the ascending aorta through sternotomy, carotid-vertebral and carotid-subclavian bypass grafting on the left in a combination with endoprosthetic repair of the aortic arch with the stent graft Valiant Thoracic 40 × 224 mm (VAMF 4040c200TE) manufactured by the Medtronic Company. The postoperative period was uneventful followed by rather rapid rehabilitation of the patient. One month after the operation, the clinical state improved considerably. His voice restored virtually completely, and breathlessness disappeared. According to the findings of MSCT angiography, the aneurysmatic cavity is thrombosed, with the stent graft showing no evidence of either dislocation or endoleak. The bifurcation bypass graft is functioning. According to the data of duplex scanning, the anastomoses established on the neck are patent. PMID:23531669

  3. Biology of Saccular Cerebral Aneurysms: A Review of Current Understanding and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Fennell, Vernard S.; Kalani, M. Yashar S.; Atwal, Gursant; Martirosyan, Nikolay L.; Spetzler, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the biology of intracranial aneurysms is a clinical quandary. How these aneurysms form, progress, and rupture is poorly understood. Evidence indicates that well-established risk factors play a critical role, along with immunologic factors, in their development and clinical outcomes. Much of the expanding knowledge of the inception, progression, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms implicates inflammation as a critical mediator of aneurysm pathogenesis. Thus, therapeutic targets exploiting this arm of aneurysm pathogenesis have been implemented, often with promising outcomes. PMID:27504449

  4. Saccular Aneurysms of the Transverse Aortic Arch: Treatment Options Available in the Endovascular EraBased on a Presentation at the 2013 VEITH Symposium, November 19-23, 2013 (New York, NY, USA).

    PubMed

    Preventza, Ourania; Coselli, Joseph S

    2015-04-01

    Saccular aneurysms of the aortic arch, whether single or multiple, are uncommon. The choice of repair technique is influenced by patients' comorbidities and age. Repairing saccular aneurysms with traditional open techniques can be technically demanding; therefore, endovascular technology and a variety of hybrid approaches have been developed to facilitate such repairs and, potentially, to improve clinical outcomes, especially in high-risk patients. There have been no large, randomized studies to compare the outcomes of these different treatment options in patients with single or multiple saccular aneurysms of the arch. In this review, we outline the etiology and common locations of these aneurysms, the different open, completely endovascular, and hybrid techniques used to treat them, and the treatment selection process.

  5. Mycotic Saccular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in an Infant after Cardiac Catheterization: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Benrashid, Ehsan; McCoy, Christopher C; Rice, Henry E; Shortell, Cynthia K; Cox, Mitchell W

    2015-10-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a rare entity in the pediatric population. Children with mycotic (infectious) AAA in particular are at risk of life-threatening rupture due to their rapid expansion coupled with aortic wall thinning and deterioration. Here, we present the case of a 10-month-old infant with prior 2-staged repair for hypoplastic left heart syndrome that was incidentally discovered to have a mycotic AAA on abdominal ultrasound (US) for evaluation of renovascular hypertension. Before the time of evaluation with US, the infant had developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia 3 days after cardiac catheterization with percutaneous thoracic aortic balloon angioplasty. She had normal aortic contours on contrasted computed tomography scan of the abdomen approximately 2 weeks before the aforementioned US evaluation. This infant subsequently underwent open aneurysmorrhaphy with cryopreserved vein patch angioplasty with resolution of her aneurysmal segment.

  6. A huge saccular aortic aneurysm compressing right coronary artery 7 years after aortic valve replacement due to bicuspid aortic valve insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Min; Jeong, Haemin; Hong, Kyung-Soon; Kim, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: In a patient underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) due to bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) insufficiency without marked dilation of ascending aorta, the development of delayed-typed aneurysmal complication of ascending aorta has been often reported because the dilated aorta tends to grow insidiously with age. Case summary: A 58-year-old man who underwent AVR with mechanical valve due to severe aortic regurgitation secondary to BAV 7 years previously presented with exertional chest discomfort for 1 year. An echocardiography showed a well-functioning mechanical aortic valve without any significant abnormal findings. Cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) revealed a huge saccular aortic root aneurysm (79.7 mm × 72.8 mm in size) compressing the proximal right coronary artery resulting in ∼90% eccentric diffuse luminal narrowing. The patient subsequently underwent open-heart surgery with resection of the ascending aortic aneurysmal sac and consecutive ascending aorta and hemi-arch replacement using a graft. Conclusion: After successful AVR in the patient with BAV insufficiency and mildly dilated ascending aorta, a regular aortic imaging such as cardiac MDCT with aortography would be helpful to monitor the morphology and size of ascending aorta and related complications to guide future management. PMID:27749539

  7. The effect of stent porosity and strut shape on saccular aneurysm and its numerical analysis with lattice Boltzmann method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hyun; Xu, Xiaofeng; Lee, Joon Sang

    2010-07-01

    The analysis of a flow pattern in cerebral aneurysms and the effect of stent strut shapes are presented in this article. The treatment of cerebral aneurisms with a porous stent has recently been proposed as a minimally invasive way to prevent rupture and favor coagulation mechanism inside the aneurism. The efficiency of stent is related to several parameters, including porosity and stent strut shapes. The goal of this article is to study the effect of the stent strut shape and porosity on the hemodynamic properties of the flow inside an aneurysm using a numerical analysis. In this study, we use the concept of flow reduction to characterize the stent efficiency. Also, we use the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) of a non-Newtonian blood flow. To resolve the characteristics of a highly complex flow, we use an extrapolation method for the wall and stent boundary. To ease the code development and facilitate the incorporation of new physics, a scientific programming strategy based on object-oriented concepts is developed. Reduced velocity, smaller average vorticity magnitude, smaller average shear rate, and increased viscosity are observed when the proposed stent shapes and porosities are used. The rectangular stent is observed to be optimal and to decrease the magnitude of the velocity by 89.25% in the 2D model and 53.92% in the 3D model in the aneurysm sac. Our results show the role of the porosity and stent strut shape and help us to understand the characteristics of stent strut design. PMID:20300847

  8. Rare multiple fistulas with large saccular aneurysms originating from left anterior descending artery and left main coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Emre, Ender; Aktas, Mujdat; Sahin, Tayfun; Ural, Ertan; Ural, Dilek

    2014-12-16

    A 49-year-old female patient consulted us for a cardiac evaluation before undergoing colon adenocarcinoma surgery. Three years prior, the patient underwent coronary angiography for dyspnea. The coronary angiography examination revealed a fistula originating from the left anterior descending artery and left main coronary artery, which had soft aneurysmal sacs and most likely drained into the pulmonary artery. Parasternal short axis echocardiography revealed a color flow that could be related to the fistula, but the other echocardiographic findings were normal. The patient did not accept the proposed examination and invasive treatment. PMID:25516873

  9. Rare multiple fistulas with large saccular aneurysms originating from left anterior descending artery and left main coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Emre, Ender; Aktas, Mujdat; Sahin, Tayfun; Ural, Ertan; Ural, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    A 49-year-old female patient consulted us for a cardiac evaluation before undergoing colon adenocarcinoma surgery. Three years prior, the patient underwent coronary angiography for dyspnea. The coronary angiography examination revealed a fistula originating from the left anterior descending artery and left main coronary artery, which had soft aneurysmal sacs and most likely drained into the pulmonary artery. Parasternal short axis echocardiography revealed a color flow that could be related to the fistula, but the other echocardiographic findings were normal. The patient did not accept the proposed examination and invasive treatment. PMID:25516873

  10. Interactive decomposition and mapping of saccular cerebral aneurysms using harmonic functions: its first application with "patient-specific" computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingfeng; Strother, Charles M

    2013-02-01

    Recent developments in medical imaging and advanced computer modeling simulations) now enable studies designed to correlate either simulated or measured "patient-specific" parameters with the natural history of intracranial aneurysm i.e., ruptured or unruptured. To achieve significance, however, these studies require rigorous comparison of large amounts of data from large numbers of aneurysms, many of which are quite dissimilar anatomically. In this study, we present a method that can likely facilitate such studies as its application could potentially simplify an objective comparison of surface-based parameters of interest such as wall shear stress and blood pressure using large multi-patient, multi-institutional data sets. Based on the concept of harmonic function/field, we present a unified and simple approach for mapping the surface of an aneurysm onto a unit disc. Requiring minimal human interactions the algorithm first decomposes the vessel geometry into 1) target aneurysm and 2) parent artery and any adjacent branches; it, then, maps the segmented aneurysm surface onto a unit disk. In particular, the decomposition of the vessel geometry quantitatively exploits the unique combination of three sets of information regarding the shape of the relevant vasculature: 1) a distance metric defining the spatially varying deviation from a tubular characteristic (i.e., cylindrical structure) of a normal parent artery, 2) local curvatures and 3) local concavities at the junction/interface between an aneurysm and its parent artery. These three sets of resultant shape/geometrical data are then combined to construct a linear system of the Laplacian equation with a novel shape-sensitive weighting scheme. The solution to such a linear system is a shape-sensitive harmonic function/field whose iso-lines will densely gather at the border between the normal parent artery and the aneurysm. Finally, a simple ranking system is utilized to select the best candidate among all possible

  11. Aneurysms

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Aneurysms Basic Facts & Information Fill a balloon too full ... of what can happen when you have an aneurysm. Medically, when an artery “balloons,” or widens, it ...

  12. Saccular cyst with atypical presentation

    PubMed Central

    Zamfir-Chiru-Anton, A; Gheorghe, DC

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory obstruction and stridor in infants and children are not uncommon. A rare cause of these sometimes life-threatening symptoms is the congenital saccular cyst. Objectives: We present the case of a 5-year-old girl with a cervical tumor, which appeared after a laryngeal endoscopic surgery of a saccular cyst with two relapses and a particular local evolution of its recurrence through the cricothyroid membrane. Material and method: The patient data has been reviewed over the entire follow-up period and a thorough an analysis of her investigations and surgery was performed. Results: The unusual evolution of this case was marked by an atypical exteriorization – not found in the published literature. The surgical approach was external, by paramedian thyrotomy, with no further long-term recurrence. Conclusions: An accurate diagnosis of saccular cysts can be made with the help of medical history, by an endoscopic visualization of the lesion and by the CT-scan imaging of the cervical region. Sometimes, saccular cysts can extend beyond laryngeal limits, determining fluid-filled tumors in the cervical region. PMID:27453755

  13. Cerebral aneurysms following radiotherapy for medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, P.J.; Sung, J.H.

    1989-04-01

    Three patients, two males and one female aged 21, 14, and 31 years, respectively, developed cerebral saccular aneurysms several years after undergoing radiotherapy for cerebellar medulloblastoma at 2, 5, and 14 years of age, respectively. Following surgery, all three received combined cobalt-60 irradiation and intrathecal colloidal radioactive gold (/sup 198/Au) therapy, and died from rupture of the aneurysm 19, 9, and 17 years after the radiotherapy, respectively. Autopsy examination revealed no recurrence of the medulloblastoma, but widespread radiation-induced vasculopathy was found at the base of the brain and in the spinal cord, and saccular aneurysms arose from the posterior cerebral arteries at the basal cistern or choroidal fissure. The aneurysms differed from the ordinary saccular aneurysms of congenital type in their location and histological features. Their locations corresponded to the areas where intrathecally administered colloidal /sup 198/Au is likely to pool, and they originated directly from a segment of the artery rather than from a branching site as in congenital saccular aneurysms. It is, therefore, concluded that the aneurysms in these three patients were most likely radiation-induced.

  14. Patterns of saccular afferent innervation in sciaenids.

    PubMed

    Selckmann, G M; Ramcharitar, J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, saccular afferent arborization patterns in Atlantic croaker Micropogonias undulatus, red drum Sciaenops ocellatus and spot Leiostomus xanthurus were characterized. Leiostomus xanthurus showed the simplest configuration while M. undulatus displayed the most complex. In addition, hair-cell densities at sites sampled along the rostro-caudal axis of the saccular epithelia correlated with the observed patterns of arborization. PMID:23991887

  15. The Helsinki Rat Microsurgical Sidewall Aneurysm Model

    PubMed Central

    Marbacher, Serge; Marjamaa, Johan; Abdelhameed, Essam; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Frösen, Juhana

    2014-01-01

    Experimental saccular aneurysm models are necessary for testing novel surgical and endovascular treatment options and devices before they are introduced into clinical practice. Furthermore, experimental models are needed to elucidate the complex aneurysm biology leading to rupture of saccular aneurysms. Several different kinds of experimental models for saccular aneurysms have been established in different species. Many of them, however, require special skills, expensive equipment, or special environments, which limits their widespread use. A simple, robust, and inexpensive experimental model is needed as a standardized tool that can be used in a standardized manner in various institutions. The microsurgical rat abdominal aortic sidewall aneurysm model combines the possibility to study both novel endovascular treatment strategies and the molecular basis of aneurysm biology in a standardized and inexpensive manner. Standardized grafts by means of shape, size, and geometry are harvested from a donor rat's descending thoracic aorta and then transplanted to a syngenic recipient rat. The aneurysms are sutured end-to-side with continuous or interrupted 9-0 nylon sutures to the infrarenal abdominal aorta. We present step-by-step procedural instructions, information on necessary equipment, and discuss important anatomical and surgical details for successful microsurgical creation of an abdominal aortic sidewall aneurysm in the rat. PMID:25350840

  16. Giant saccular superior vena cava aneurysm—a rare and difficult clinical case

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Dariusz; Skiba, Jacek; Gemel, Marek; Mak, Marek; Ziomek, Agnieszka; Malinowski, Maciej; Dorobisz, Tadeusz; Lesniak, Michal; Janczak, Dawid

    2016-01-01

    A superior vena cava (SVC) aneurysm is an extremely rare case of vascular malformation in the chest cavity. This is a report of a case of a 57-year-old woman with a saccular SVC aneurysm which was 8 cm wide. The chest computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed a giant 75 mm × 79 mm × 81 mm mass containing the contrast medium from SVC, constricting the right lung parenchyma, narrowing the right innominate vein, in contact with the anterolateral chest cavity wall, and adjoining the superior mediastinum. Under general anesthesia and employing the median sternotomy approach, using a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the venous aneurysm was successfully resected. The postoperative period was uneventful. Radical surgical resection using a sternotomy and a CPB is recommended. PMID:27076981

  17. Leaking mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sing, T M; Young, N; O'Rourke, I C; Tomlinson, P

    1994-11-01

    A case of leaking mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm is reported, with a brief review of the literature. A 58 year old female presented with shoulder and abdominal pain associated with diarrhoea, vomiting and fever with leucocytosis. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed pooling of contrast in the retroperitoneum anterior to a non-dilated abdominal aorta. There was considerable retroperitoneal blood accumulating in a mass-like lesion in the right lower abdomen and pelvis obstructing the right renal collecting system. Laparotomy revealed a 4 cm diameter saccular aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, with a 1 cm diameter neck. Culture of the thrombus grew Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:7993259

  18. Blood flow characteristics in a terminal basilar tip aneurysm prior to its fatal rupture

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, D.M.; Putman, C.M.; Scrivano, E.; Lylyk, P.; Cebral, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose The development and validation of methods to stratify the risk of rupture of cerebral aneurysms is highly desired since current treatment risks can exceed the natural risk of rupture. Because unruptured aneurysms are typically treated before they rupture, it is very difficult to connect the proposed risk indices to the rupture of an individual aneurysm. The purpose of this case study was to analyze the hemodynamic environment of a saccular aneurysm of the terminal morphology sub-type that was imaged just prior to its rupture and to test whether the hemodynamic characteristics would designate this particular aneurysm as at high risk. Methods A patient-specific computational fluid dynamics model was constructed from 3D rotational angiography images acquired just hours before the aneurysm ruptured. A pulsatile flow calculation was performed and hemodynamic characteristics previously connected to rupture were analyzed. Results It was found that the aneurysm had a concentrated inflow stream, small impingement region, complex intra-aneurysmal flow structure, asymmetric flow split from the parent vessel to the aneurysm and daughter branches, and high levels of aneurysmal wall shear stress near the impaction zone. Conclusions The hemodynamics characteristics observed in this aneurysm right before its rupture are consistent with previous studies correlating aneurysm rupture and hemodynamic patterns in saccular and terminal aneurysms. This study supports the notion that hemodynamic information may be used to help stratify the rupture risk of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:20150312

  19. Intracranial aneurysm and sildenafil.

    PubMed

    Adiga, Avinash; Edriss, Hawa; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Sildenafil is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. To date, we found five reported cases of intracerebral bleeding and two reported cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage related to sildenafil use. We report a 49-year-old hypertensive and diabetic patient who presented with acute pulmonary edema and loss of consciousness following ingestion of 100 mg of sildenafil prior to sexual intercourse. He was not previously aware of the presence of an aneurysm and had no family history of it. Computed tomography of his head revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a saccular aneurysm with subsequent repeat hemorrhage within a few hours of presentation. A sudden increase in blood pressure led to pulmonary edema. Studies have shown that sildenafil acts on phosphodiesterase-1, -2 and -5 receptors and leads to a secondary increase in intracerebral circulation and vasodilatory effects, leading to sympathetic overactivity which increases the risk for intracranial bleeding. PMID:27034561

  20. Intracranial aneurysm and sildenafil

    PubMed Central

    Edriss, Hawa; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Sildenafil is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. To date, we found five reported cases of intracerebral bleeding and two reported cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage related to sildenafil use. We report a 49-year-old hypertensive and diabetic patient who presented with acute pulmonary edema and loss of consciousness following ingestion of 100 mg of sildenafil prior to sexual intercourse. He was not previously aware of the presence of an aneurysm and had no family history of it. Computed tomography of his head revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a saccular aneurysm with subsequent repeat hemorrhage within a few hours of presentation. A sudden increase in blood pressure led to pulmonary edema. Studies have shown that sildenafil acts on phosphodiesterase-1, -2 and -5 receptors and leads to a secondary increase in intracerebral circulation and vasodilatory effects, leading to sympathetic overactivity which increases the risk for intracranial bleeding. PMID:27034561

  1. Superior mesenteric vein aneurysm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Truong, Tuan; Vu, Jonathan-Hien; Matteo, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    A 46-year-old female was found to have a saccular superior mesenteric vein (SMV) aneurysm on computed tomography (CT) scan during workup for abdominal pain. It measured 3.5 cm in diameter. The SMV aneurysm was successfully resected, and the SMV was repaired with femoral vein patch angioplasty. She was placed on coumadin for 3 months. At follow-up, the vein patch repair was patent and the patient was doing well with complete resolution of her abdominal pain. PMID:22156158

  2. Left Main Coronary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Doustkami, Hossein; Maleki, Nasrollah; Tavosi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysms of the left main coronary artery are exceedingly rare clinical entities, encountered incidentally in approximately 0.1% of patients who undergo routine angiography. The most common cause of coronary artery aneurysms is atherosclerosis. Angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis and treatment. Depending on the severity of the coexisting coronary stenosis, patients with left main coronary artery aneurysms can be effectively managed either surgically or pharmacologically. We herein report a case of left main coronary artery aneurysm in a 72-year-old man with a prior history of hypertension presenting to our hospital because of unstable angina. The electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion in the precordial leads. All the data of blood chemistry were normal. Echocardiography showed akinetic anterior wall, septum, and apex, mild mitral regurgitation and ejection fraction of 45%. Coronary angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm of the left main coronary artery with significant stenosis in the left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary artery. The patient immediately underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and ligation of the aneurysm. At six months’ follow-up, he remained asymptomatic. PMID:27403190

  3. Pathomechanisms and treatment of pediatric aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Krings, Timo; Geibprasert, Sasikhan; terBrugge, Karel G

    2010-10-01

    Pediatric aneurysms are rare diseases distinct from classical adult aneurysms and therefore require different treatment strategies. Apart from saccular aneurysms that are more commonly found in older children, three major pathomechanisms may be encountered: trauma, infection, and dissection. The posterior circulation and more distal locations are more commonly encountered in children compared to adults, and there is an overall male predominance. Clinical findings are not only confined to subarachnoid hemorrhage but may also comprise mass effects, headaches or neurological deficits. In traumatic aneurysms, the skull base and distal anterior communicating artery are commonly affected, and the hemorrhage occurs often delayed (2-4 weeks following the initial trauma). Infectious aneurysms are mostly bacterial in origin, and hemorrhage occurs early after a septic embolic shower. Dissecting aneurysms are the most often encountered aneurysm type in children and can lead to mass effect, hemorrhage, or ischemia depending on the fate of the intramural hematoma. Treatment strategies in pediatric aneurysms include endosaccular coil treatment only for the "classical berry-type" aneurysms; in the other instances, parent vessel occlusion, flow reversal, surgical options, or a combined treatment with bypass and parent vessel occlusion have to be contemplated.

  4. A Case of Cerebral Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Fabry's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Youn Hyuk

    2013-01-01

    We report an unusual case of cerebral aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrage (SAH) with Fabry's disease. A 42-year-old woman presented with aneurysmal SAH originated from a saccular aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery. The patient was treated by an endovascular coil embolization of aneurysm. Postoperatively the patient recovered favorably without any neurological deficit. During her admission, the patient had a sign of proteinuria in urine analysis. The pathologic findings of kidney needle biopsy implied nephrosialidosis (mucolipidosis of lysosomal stroage disease), which is consistent with a Fabry's disease. It is uncommon that Fabry's disease is presented with aneurysmal SAH, especially in middle-aged patients, but could be a clinical concern. Further investigations are needed to reveal risk factors, vascular anatomy, and causative mechanisms of Fabry's disease with aneurysmal SAH. PMID:23634271

  5. Endovascular Treatment of a Renal Artery Branch Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Malacrida, G.; Dalainas, Ilias Medda, Massimo; Nano, Giovanni; Inglese, Luigi

    2007-02-15

    A 58-year-old woman was admitted to our institution because of a left renal artery branch saccular aneurysm with a 2 cm diameter. Due to a hostile abdomen and the infrarenal location, an endovascular approach was chosen. A Jostent Peripheral Stent-Graft was placed under angiographic control, excluding the aneurysm from the circulation. No peri- or postprocedural complications were observed. At 6 months follow-up, the endograft is patent, excluding the aneurysm. Endovascular treatment may represent an alternative to surgery, especially in the distal infraparenchymal location.

  6. 3D Hemodynamics in Intracranial Aneurysms: Influence of Size and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Susanne; Ansari, Sameer A.; Vakil, Parmede; Wasielewski, Marie; Carr, Maria L.; Hurley, Michael C.; Bendok, Bernard R.; Batjer, Hunt; Carroll, Timothy J.; Carr, James; Markl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To employ 4D-flow MRI for the comprehensive in-vivo analysis of hemodynamics and its relationship to size and morphology of different intracranial aneurysms (IA). We hypothesize that different IA groups, defined by size and morphology, exhibit different velocity fields, wall shear stress and vorticity. Materials and Methods 4D-flow MRI (spatial resolution=0.99–1.8×0.78–1.46×1.2–1.4mm3, temporal resolution=44–48ms) was performed in 19 IAs (18 patients, age=55.4 ± 13.8 years) with saccular (n=16) and fusiform (n=3) morphology and different sizes ranging from small (n=8, largest dimension=6.2 ± 0.4mm) to large and giant (n=11, 25 ± 7mm). Analysis included quantification of volumetric spatial-temporal velocity distribution, vorticity, and wall shear stress (WSS) along the aneurysms 3D surface. Results 4D-flow MRI revealed distinct hemodynamic patterns for large/giant saccular aneurysms (Group 1), small saccular aneurysms (Group 2) and large/giant fusiform aneurysms (Group 3). Saccular IA (Groups 1, 2) demonstrated significantly higher peak velocities (p<0.002) and WSS (p<0.001) compared to fusiform aneurysms. Although intra-aneurysmal 3D velocity distributions were similar for Group 1 and 2, vorticity and WSS was significantly (p<0.001) different (increased in Group 1 by 54%) indicating a relationship between IA size and hemodynamics. Group 3 showed reduced velocities (p<0.001) and WSS (p<0.001). Conclusion 4D flow MRI demonstrated the influence of lesion size and morphology on aneurysm hemodynamics suggesting the potential of 4D-flow MRI to assist in the classification of individual aneurysms. PMID:24151067

  7. Successful coil embolization of a ruptured basilar artery aneurysm in a child with leukemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shihori; Maehara, Taketoshi; Mukawa, Maki; Aoyagi, Masaru; Yoshino, Yoshikazu; Nemoto, Shigeru; Ono, Toshiaki; Ohno, Kikuo

    2014-01-01

    Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are rare in the pediatric population compared to adults. This has incited considerable discussion on how to treat children with this condition. Here, we report a child with a ruptured saccular basilar artery aneurysm that was successfully treated with coil embolization. A 12-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and accompanying abdominal candidiasis after chemotherapy suddenly complained of a severe headache and suffered consciousness disturbance moments later. Computed tomography scans and cerebral angiography demonstrated acute hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by saccular basilar artery aneurysm rupture. External ventricular drainage was performed immediately. Because the patient was in severe condition and did not show remarkable signs of central nervous system infection in cerebrospinal fluid studies, we applied endovascular treatment for the ruptured saccular basilar artery aneurysm, which was successfully occluded with coils. The patient recovered without new neurological deficits after ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Recent reports indicate that both endovascular and microsurgical techniques can be used to effectively treat ruptured cerebral aneurysms in pediatric patients. A minimally invasive endovascular treatment was effective in the present case, but long-term follow-up will be necessary to confirm the efficiency of endovascular treatment for children with ruptured saccular basilar artery aneurysms.

  8. Cerebral Aneurysms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Cerebral Aneurysms Information Page Synonym(s): Aneurysm, Brain Aneurysm Condensed from ... Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Cerebral Aneurysms? A cerebral aneurysm is a weak or thin ...

  9. Estimation of aneurysm wall stresses created by treatment with a shape memory polymer foam device

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wonjun; Volk, Brent L.; Akberali, Farida; Singhal, Pooja; Criscione, John C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, compliant latex thin-walled aneurysm models are fabricated to investigate the effects of expansion of shape memory polymer foam. A simplified cylindrical model is selected for the in-vitro aneurysm, which is a simplification of a real, saccular aneurysm. The studies are performed by crimping shape memory polymer foams, originally 6 and 8 mm in diameter, and monitoring the resulting deformation when deployed into 4-mm-diameter thin-walled latex tubes. The deformations of the latex tubes are used as inputs to physical, analytical, and computational models to estimate the circumferential stresses. Using the results of the stress analysis in the latex aneurysm model, a computational model of the human aneurysm is developed by changing the geometry and material properties. The model is then used to predict the stresses that would develop in a human aneurysm. The experimental, simulation, and analytical results suggest that shape memory polymer foams have potential of being a safe treatment for intracranial saccular aneurysms. In particular, this work suggests oversized shape memory foams may be used to better fill the entire aneurysm cavity while generating stresses below the aneurysm wall breaking stresses. PMID:21901546

  10. Aneurysm Repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... to other parts of the body (the aorta). Aortic aneurysms can occur in the area below the stomach ( ... or in the chest (thoracic aneurysms). An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is usually located below the kidneys. In ...

  11. Serial neuroimaging of a growing thrombosed giant aneurysm of the distal anterior cerebral artery--case report.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T; Nomura, M; Yamashima, T; Suzuki, M; Yamashita, J

    2001-01-01

    An 81-year-old female presented with a giant aneurysm of the distal anterior cerebral artery (A3) which grew from a small saccular aneurysm to a huge aneurysm within 36 months before manifesting as a mass lesion. The thrombosed portion of the aneurysm showed growth, whereas the aneurysmal cavity did not change in size. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed new bleeding in the thrombosed portion. Hemorrhage into the thrombus and/or aneurysmal wall might have caused the aneurysmal growth. She refused surgery and was discharged with no deficits. Distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm which shows neuroimaging signs of growth requires regular follow up as such lesions may become giant before manifesting clinical symptoms.

  12. The Past, Present and Future of Endovascular Aneurysm Treatment.

    PubMed

    Henkes, H; Weber, W

    2015-10-01

    The technology available for the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms is rapidly evolving. Both current and future devices are described. This includes, among others, UNO for parent vessel occlusion, the Medina device for saccular filling, the Comaneci device for remodeling, pCONus for assisted coil occlusion, and WEB and pCANvas for intrasaccular flow disruption. Perspectives of further development such as surface coating for increased radioopacity and decreased thrombogenicity are explained.

  13. Giant pediatric aneurysm treated with ligation of the middle cerebral artery with the Drake tourniquet and extracranial-intracranial bypass.

    PubMed

    Lansen, T A; Kasoff, S S; Arguelles, J H

    1989-07-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysms occur infrequently in children, and the incidence of pediatric giant aneurysms is statistically in the same proportion as in adults. The management of these giant aneurysms can be treacherous. This paper presents a case of a 9-year-old boy with a giant aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery that was successfully managed by ligation of the middle cerebral artery using a Drake tourniquet with the patient awake and by augmentation of the middle cerebral artery circulation with superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis without excision of the lesion.

  14. Fatal rupture of an unsuspected post-traumatic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta during pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Townend, J N; Davies, M K; Jones, E L

    1991-01-01

    A 27 year old woman presented during the third trimester of her second pregnancy complaining of chest pain. A chest radiograph showed a large aneurysm arising from the distal part of the aortic arch. She was transferred to the regional cardiothoracic centre but died suddenly on arrival. Necropsy confirmed a ruptured saccular aortic aneurysm arising just distal to the left subclavian artery. A history of a road traffic accident at the age of 12 was obtained from relatives after the patient's death. Vascular and haemodynamic changes in pregnancy may have caused the rupture of this previously silent post-traumatic aortic aneurysm. Images PMID:1931355

  15. Surgical Procedures for Renal Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yoshinori; Kudo, Toshifumi; Toyofuku, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the strategy and surgical procedures for treating a renal artery aneurysm (RAA). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the surgical strategy for 21 cases with RAA between 2001 and 2010 at this institution. Treatment was indicated for patients with an RAA larger than 2 cm and/or symptoms. Surgical treatment was the initial strategy, and coil embolization was indicated in the case of narrow-necked, saccular, extraparenchymal aneurysms. Results: Fifteen patients in 21 cases received an aneurysmectomy and renal artery reconstruction with an in-situ repair. One patient underwent an unplanned nephrectomy, and coil embolization was performed in 5 patients. Conclusion: In-situ repair was safe and minimally invasive. RAA, even in the second bifurcation, could be exposed by a subcostal incision, and the transperitoneal approach permitted the safe treatment of an RAA with acceptable results, in our simple preservation of renal function. PMID:23555504

  16. Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... these occur in the part of the aorta running through the chest Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) - these occur in the part of the aorta running through the abdomen Most aneurysms are found during ...

  17. Statistical wall shear stress maps of ruptured and unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Goubergrits, L.; Schaller, J.; Kertzscher, U.; van den Bruck, N.; Poethkow, K.; Petz, Ch.; Hege, H.-Ch.; Spuler, A.

    2012-01-01

    Haemodynamics and morphology play an important role in the genesis, growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. The goal of this study was to generate and analyse statistical wall shear stress (WSS) distributions and shapes in middle cerebral artery (MCA) saccular aneurysms. Unsteady flow was simulated in seven ruptured and 15 unruptured MCA aneurysms. In order to compare these results, all geometries must be brought in a uniform coordinate system. For this, aneurysms with corresponding WSS data were transformed into a uniform spherical shape; then, all geometries were uniformly aligned in three-dimensional space. Subsequently, we compared statistical WSS maps and surfaces of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. No significant (p > 0.05) differences exist between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms regarding radius and mean WSS. In unruptured aneurysms, statistical WSS map relates regions with high (greater than 3 Pa) WSS to the neck region. In ruptured aneurysms, additional areas with high WSS contiguous to regions of low (less than 1 Pa) WSS are found in the dome region. In ruptured aneurysms, we found significantly lower WSS. The averaged aneurysm surface of unruptured aneurysms is round shaped, whereas the averaged surface of ruptured cases is multi-lobular. Our results confirm the hypothesis of low WSS and irregular shape as the essential rupture risk parameters. PMID:21957117

  18. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  19. Basilar vascular system supplied by only right proatlantal intersegmentary artery type 1 with aneurysm and left internal carotid occlusion: a case report and review from the literature.

    PubMed

    Ferrone, Alessandro; Brogna, Barbara; Giliberti, Raffaele; Vassallo, Pasquale; De Magistris, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Persistence of proatlantal artery (PA) is a rare condition. More than 40 cases were described in the literature. Aneurysm may involve the PA itself in approximately 2% of cases, most arising from the internal carotid artery (ICA) side of PA. This case was particular because the PA showed a saccular aneurysm on the posterior wall, probably due to atherosclerosis disease and other alterations: plaque ulcerative of ICA, occlusion of left ICA, and aberrant right VA. PMID:27594943

  20. Intraaneurysmal embolization of an unruptured basilar tip aneurysm associated with moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, K; Ezura, M; Shirane, R; Takahashi, A; Yoshimoto, T

    2001-09-01

    We describe a patient with moyamoya disease associated with an unruptured basilar tip aneurysm which was treated by endovascular embolization using Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). A 53-year-old man presented with left hemiparesis persisting for 3 mon ths before admission. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the bilateral middle cerebral arteries and the left anterior cerebral artery, stenosis of the right anterior cerebral artery, and basal moyamoya vessels. In addition, a saccular small aneurysm was seen at the top of the basilar artery. The aneurysm was completely embolized by intraaneurysmal GDCs. Direct surgical clipping is often selected for the treatment of posterior fossa aneurysms in moyamoya disease. However, complete clipping is usually difficult due to the difficulties in operative technique associated with moyamoya disease. We suggest that the endovascular treatment using GDCs is comparatively safe and effective for the treatment of surgically difficult aneurysms in patients with moyamoya disease.

  1. A Rare Complication of Spinal Cord Ischemia Following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair of an Infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Arteriosclerosis Obliterans: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Matsubara, Yutaka; Inoue, Kentaro; Aoyagi, Yukihiko; Matsuda, Daisuke; Tanaka, Shinichi; Okadome, Jun; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of a rare complication of spinal cord ischemia (SCI) following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Computed tomography showed stenosis and calcification of bilateral iliac arteries and a saccular aneurysm of the terminal aorta. Paraplegia occurred soon after balloon angioplasty of iliac arteries and EVAR. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage was not performed because the patient was on dual antiplatelet drugs. The patient was treated with intravenous methylpredonisolone and naloxone; however, this did not improve his paraplegia. SCI after EVAR is extremely rare and unpredictable complication, however, physicians should be aware of SCI after EVAR in patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:27738476

  2. The effect of inlet waveforms on computational hemodynamics of patient-specific intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Xiang, J; Siddiqui, A H; Meng, H

    2014-12-18

    Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic quantities that have been shown to predict aneurysm rupture, as well as maximal WSS (MWSS), energy loss (EL) and pressure loss coefficient (PLc). Sixteen pulsatile CFD simulations were carried out on four typical saccular aneurysms using 4 different waveforms and an identical inflow rate as inlet boundary conditions. Our results demonstrated that under the same mean inflow rate, different waveforms produced almost identical WSS distributions and WSS magnitudes, similar OSI distributions but drastically different OSI magnitudes. The OSI magnitude is correlated with the pulsatility index of the waveform. Furthermore, there is a linear relationship between aneurysm-averaged OSI values calculated from one waveform and those calculated from another waveform. In addition, different waveforms produced similar MWSS, EL and PLc in each aneurysm. In conclusion, inlet waveform has minimal effects on WSS, OSI distribution, MWSS, EL and PLc and a strong effect on OSI magnitude, but aneurysm-averaged OSI from different waveforms has a strong linear correlation with each other across different aneurysms, indicating that for the same aneurysm cohort, different waveforms can consistently stratify (rank) OSI of aneurysms. PMID:25446264

  3. The Effect of Inlet Waveforms on Computational Hemodynamics of Patient-Specific Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, J.; Siddiqui, A.H.; Meng, H.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of patient-specific inlet flow waveform measurements, most computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of intracranial aneurysms usually employ waveforms that are not patient-specific as inlet boundary conditions for the computational model. The current study examined how this assumption affects the predicted hemodynamics in patient-specific aneurysm geometries. We examined wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI), the two most widely studied hemodynamic quantities that have been shown to predict aneurysm rupture, as well as maximal WSS (MWSS), energy loss (EL) and pressure loss coefficient (PLc). Sixteen pulsatile CFD simulations were carried out on four typical saccular aneurysms using 4 different waveforms and an identical inflow rate as inlet boundary conditions. Our results demonstrated that under the same mean inflow rate, different waveforms produced almost identical WSS distributions and WSS magnitudes, similar OSI distributions but drastically different OSI magnitudes. The OSI magnitude is correlated with the pulsatility index of the waveform. Furthermore, there is a linear relationship between aneurysm-averaged OSI values calculated from one waveform and those calculated from another waveform. In addition, different waveforms produced similar MWSS, EL and PLc in each aneurysm. In conclusion, inlet waveform has minimal effects on WSS, OSI distribution, MWSS, EL and PLc and a strong effect on OSI magnitude, but aneurysm-averaged OSI from different waveforms has a strong linear correlation with each other across different aneurysms, indicating that for the same aneurysm cohort, different waveforms can consistently stratify (rank) OSI of aneurysms. PMID:25446264

  4. Effects of Variations of Flow and Heart Rate on Intra-Aneurysmal Hemodynamics in a Ruptured Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm During Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sarrami-Foroushani, Ali; Nasr Esfahany, Mohsen; Saligheh Rad, Hamidreza; Firouznia, Kavous; Shakiba, Madjid; Ghanaati, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hemodynamics is thought to play an important role in the mechanisms responsible for initiation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis is used to assess intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of variations in heart rate and internal carotid artery (ICA) flow rate on intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics, in an ICA aneurysm, by using computational fluid dynamics. Patients and Methods: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) was performed in a 55 years old female case, with a saccular ICA aneurysm, to create a patient-specific geometrical anatomic model of the aneurysm. The intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic environments for three states with different flow and heart rates were analyzed using patient-specific image-based CFD modeling. Results: Results showed significant changes for the three simulated states. For a proportion of the states examined, results were counterintuitive. Systolic and time-averaged wall shear stress and pressure on the aneurysm wall showed a proportional evolution with the mainstream flow rate. Conclusion: Results reinforced the pivotal role of vascular geometry, with respect to hemodynamics, together with the importance of performing patient-specific CFD analyses, through which the effect of different blood flow conditions on the aneurysm hemodynamics could be evaluated. PMID:27110332

  5. Intraoperative microvascular Doppler ultrasonography in cerebral aneurysm surgery

    PubMed Central

    Stendel, R.; Pietila, T.; Al, H; Schilling, A.; Brock, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Outcome of surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms may be severely compromised by local cerebral ischaemia or infarction resulting from the inadvertent occlusion of an adjacent vessel by the aneurysm clip, or by incomplete aneurysm closure. It is therefore mandatory to optimise clip placement in situ to reduce the complication rate. The present study was performed to investigate the reliability of intraoperative microvascular Doppler ultrasonography (MDU) in cerebral aneurysm surgery, and to assess the impact of this method on the surgical procedure itself.
METHODS—Seventy five patients (19 men, 56 women, mean age 54.8 years, range 22-84 years) with 90 saccular cerebral aneurysms were evaluated. Blood flow velocities in the aneurysmal sac and in the adjacent vessels were determined by MDU before and after aneurysm clipping. The findings of MDU were analysed and compared with those of visual inspection of the surgical site and of postoperative angiography. Analysis was also made of the cases in which the clip was repositioned due to MDU findings.
RESULTS—A relevant stenosis of an adjacent vessel induced by clip positioning that had escaped detection by visual inspection was identified by Doppler ultrasonography in 17 out of 90 (18.9%) aneurysms. In addition, Doppler ultrasound demonstrated a primarily unoccluded aneurysm in 11 out of 90 (12.2%) patients. The aneurysm clip was repositioned on the basis of the MDU findings in 26 out of 90 (28.8%) cases. In middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms, the MDU results were relevant to the surgical procedure in 17out of 44 (38.6%) cases. Whereas with aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery significant findings occurred in only five of 32cases (15.6%; p<0.05). The clip was repositioned on the basis of the MDU results in 18 out of 50 (36%) aneurysms in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) grade I-V compared with only eight out of 40 (20%) aneurysms in patients without SAH (p<0.05).

  6. Hybrid Endovascular Repair for an Arch Aneurysm Combined with Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery

    PubMed Central

    Higashiue, Shinichi; Kuroyanagi, Satoshi; Furuya, Onichi; Naito, Shiho; Kojima, Saburo

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a hybrid endovascular approach to a 9.3-cm saccular aneurysm of the left sided aortic arch combined with an aberrant right subclavian artery. The two-step procedure consisted of a bilateral carotid-subclavian bypass, followed by an ascending aorta-bicarotid bypass and completed by an endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm by covering the whole aortic arch and its branches. The patient had no postoperative complications and was discharged 10 postoperative day. Hybrid procedures may be useful in complex aortic arch pathologies and may reduce postoperative complications in comparison with conventional open surgery. PMID:25848437

  7. Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Associated with Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Meguro, T.; Tanabe, T.; Muraoka, K.; Terada, K.; Hirotsune, N.; Nishino, S.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Cases of aneurysm associated with the occlusion of both common carotid arteries are very rare. We present a case of ruptured aneurysms of the basilar bifurcation and posterior cerebral artery coexisting with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, successfully treated by endovascular coil embolization with a double-balloon remodeling technique. Finally, we review the literature. A 62-year-old woman presented with severe headache; a computed tomography scan demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed that the bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded. The muscle branches of the vertebral arteries had anastomosed to the bilateral external carotid arteries. Bilateral posterior communicating arteries had developed and supplied the bilateral internal carotid arteries. Two aneurysms (a saccular aneurysm of the P1 portion of the left posterior cerebral artery and a wide-necked aneurysm of the basilar bifurcation) were also observed. Endovascular embolization of the aneurysms was successfully performed using a double-balloon remodeling technique. The patient made a full recovery after treatment, and the aneurysms remained obliterated 12 months after embolization. We believe that this is the first report of ruptured aneurysms associated with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion successfully treated by endovascular coiling. The double-balloon remodeling technique was useful for treatment of wide-necked basilar bifurcation aneurysm. PMID:20557745

  8. Stent-assisted coil embolization of a symptomatic middle cerebral artery aneurysm in an infant.

    PubMed

    Savastano, Luis E; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O; Pandey, Aditya S

    2014-11-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are rare and challenging to treat. Achieving efficacy and durability of aneurysmal occlusion while maintaining parent vessel patency requires innovative treatment strategies, especially in cases in which aneurysmal location or morphology pose substantial morbidity associated with microsurgical treatment. In the last 3 decades, endovascular treatments have had a remarkable evolution and are currently considered safe and effective therapeutic options for cerebral aneurysms. While endovascular techniques are well described in the English literature, the endovascular management of pediatric aneurysms continues to pose a challenge. In this report, the authors describe the case of a 9-month-old infant who presented with a 1-day history of acute-onset left-sided hemiparesis and left facial droop. Imaging revealed a large symptomatic saccular middle cerebral artery aneurysm. Treatment included successful stent-assisted aneurysm coiling. At follow-up, the patient continued to fare well and MR angiography confirmed complete occlusion of the aneurysm dome. This case features the youngest patient in the English literature to harbor an intracranial aneurysm successfully treated with stent-assisted coiling. Based on this experience, endovascular intervention with vascular reconstruction can be safe and effective for the treatment of infants and could further improve prognosis; however, further studies are necessary to confirm these findings.

  9. Selective treatment of an anterior spinal artery aneurysm with endosaccular coil therapy. Case report.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Pascale; Raymond, Jean; Roy, Daniel; Guilbert, François; Weill, Alain

    2007-05-01

    The authors report the case of a 12-year-old boy with spinal cord arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and an associated anterior spinal artery (ASA) aneurysm treated with selective coil placement in the context of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The patient presented with headache. Head computed tomography scanning revealed no abnormal findings. The cerebrospinal fluid was sampled and analyzed and a diagnosis of SAH was established. Investigation, including magnetic resonance imaging of the cord as well as cerebral and spinal angiography, revealed a conus medullaris AVM and a saccular aneurysm located on the ASA at the T-11 level. The aneurysm was thought to be responsible for the bleeding. Superselective ASA angiography showed that the aneurysm was at the bifurcation between a large coronal artery supplying the AVM and the ASA. The relation of the aneurysm's neck to the main spinal axis and the aneurysm's morphological features indicated that the lesion was suited for endosaccular coil therapy. The aneurysm was selectively occluded, using electrodetachable bare platinum coils. Follow-up angiography immediately after surgery and at 6 months thereafter demonstrated complete occlusion of the aneurysm and a perfectly patent anterior spinal axis. On clinical follow-up examination, the patient remained neurologically intact. When the morphological features of a spinal aneurysm and its relation with the anterior spinal axis are favorable, selective endosaccular coil placement can successfully be achieved. PMID:17542515

  10. Coil Embolization for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of coil embolization compared with surgical clipping to treat intracranial aneurysms. The Technology Endovascular coil embolization is a percutaneous approach to treat an intracranial aneurysm from within the blood vessel without the need of a craniotomy. In this procedure, a microcatheter is inserted into the femoral artery near the groin and navigated to the site of the aneurysm. Small helical platinum coils are deployed through the microcatheter to fill the aneurysm, and prevent it from further expansion and rupture. Health Canada has approved numerous types of coils and coil delivery systems to treat intracranial aneurysms. The most favoured are controlled detachable coils. Coil embolization may be used with other adjunct endovascular devices such as stents and balloons. Background Intracranial Aneurysms Intracranial aneurysms are the dilation or ballooning of part of a blood vessel in the brain. Intracranial aneurysms range in size from small (<12 mm in diameter) to large (12–25 mm), and to giant (>25 mm). There are 3 main types of aneurysms. Fusiform aneurysms involve the entire circumference of the artery; saccular aneurysms have outpouchings; and dissecting aneurysms have tears in the arterial wall. Berry aneurysms are saccular aneurysms with well-defined necks. Intracranial aneurysms may occur in any blood vessel of the brain; however, they are most commonly found at the branch points of large arteries that form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain. In 85% to 95% of patients, they are found in the anterior circulation. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are less frequent, and are more difficult to treat surgically due to inaccessibility. Most intracranial aneurysms are small and asymptomatic. Large aneurysms may have a mass effect, causing compression on the brain and cranial nerves and neurological deficits. When an intracranial aneurysm ruptures and bleeds

  11. Atrial Septal Aneurysm Presenting as Clubbing without Clinically Apparent Cyanosis.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Laxmi Kant; Banerjee, S; Yadav, R N; Singh, Gajraj; Ganguli, Sujata; Isran, Rohit

    2015-09-01

    Atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) is a localised "saccular" deformity which protrudes to the right or the left atrium or on both sides. It is a rare, but well recognised cardiac abnormality. It is usually an incidental finding or may presents as atrial arrhythmias or arterial embolism. Though it is an acyanotic congenital heart disease but it may result in significant right to left shunt and cyanosis. We describe a patient of ASA with atrial septal defect who presented with clubbing and right to left shunt without clinically apparent cyanosis. PMID:27608873

  12. Surgical and Antimicrobial Management of a Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Due to Q Fever: A Case Report and Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Robinson, William P; Schuksz, Manuela

    2016-05-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever, has been associated with vascular infection and aneurysm formation. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman from Iraq who presented with long-standing malaise as well as vague chest and shoulder discomfort and was found to have a saccular aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. Serology assays were positive for chronic C burnetii infection. She was treated with successful aneurysm resection and aortic replacement with a rifampin-impregnated Maquet Hemashield (TM) Dacron interposition graft interposition graft in addition to 18 months of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. The patient is without evidence of recurrent infection on follow-up at 3 years. To our knowledge, this is the first case of aortic aneurysm secondary to Q fever reported in the United States. We review the diagnosis, surgical management, antibiotic therapy, and surveillance of a thoracic aortic aneurysm secondary to Q fever. PMID:27075992

  13. Ductus arteriosus aneurysm presenting as hoarseness: successful repair with an endovascular approach

    PubMed Central

    De Freitas, Simon; Connolly, Caoilfhionn; Neary, Colm; Sultan, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    An aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus is a rare finding, particularly in the adult population. These saccular aneurysms arise at the site of an incompletely obliterated ductus arteriosus along the lesser curvature of the aortic arch. Left untreated, it is associated with a high risk of potentially life-threatening complications including rupture, infection and thromboembolism. As a result, surgical correction is recommended. Previously, options were limited to open repair but as endovascular experience grows, novel techniques afford safer and less invasive alternatives. In contrast, neonatal ductus arteriosus aneurysms may regress spontaneously and expectant treatment can be justified. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with hoarseness secondary to a ductus arteriosus aneurysm; a diagnosis consistent with Ortner’s syndrome. The patient underwent an uncomplicated endovascular repair using the chimney-graft technique. PMID:27141045

  14. Brain aneurysm repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  15. Aortic Aneurysm Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Aortic Aneurysm Fact Sheet Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... cause of most deaths from aortic aneurysms. Aortic Aneurysm in the United States Aortic aneurysms were the ...

  16. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  17. What Is an Aneurysm?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Aneurysm? An aneurysm (AN-u-rism) is a balloon-like bulge ... the weakened or injured walls can cause an aneurysm. An aneurysm can grow large and rupture (burst) ...

  18. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  19. [Syphilitic aortic aneurysm. A case report].

    PubMed

    Ben Halima, A; Ibn Elhadj, Z; Essmat, W; Léfi, A; Kammoun, I; Zouaoui, W; Marrakchi, S; Chine, S; Gargouri, S; Keskes, H; Kachboura, S

    2006-05-01

    The incidence of tertiary syphilis has declined in recent years owing to the early recognition of the disease and use of antibiotics. As a result, syphilitic aortic aneurysms are rarely encountered nowadays. We report the case of a 65 years old man, who was admitted to our hospital in June 2004 for dyspnea, cough and chest discomfort. On physical examination, blood pressure was 130/80 mmHg with no significant laterality, pulse rate was 70 per minute and there was a decrease of breath sounds over the right lung. Laboratory findings revealed a slight elevation of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Serological studies for syphilis showed a positive venereal disease laboratory test (VDRL) at 1/32 and a positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (TPHA) at 1/2560. The chest radiography showed a right para cardiac opacity measuring 16 x 12 cm. Fiber optic bronchoscopy showed an extrinsic compression of the right upper lobar bronchus. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography and 16 multidetector-row spiral computed aortography showed a huge partially thrombosed saccular aneurysm of the ascending aorta measuring 132 mm in diameter. The circulating lumen measured 53 mm in its largest diameter. This aneurysm involved the innominate artery. There was no other arterial involvement. The patient was given a three week course of intravenous penicillin followed by a successful surgical procedure in September 2004 with ascending aortic replacement and innominate artery reimplantation. This case illustrates well a formerly common, but now extremely rare disease.

  20. Aneurysms: thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kevin C; Lee, Eugene S

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) have many possible etiologies, including congenital heart defects (eg, bicuspid aortic valves, coarctation of the aorta), inherited connective tissue disorders (eg, Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, Loeys-Dietz syndromes), and degenerative conditions (eg, medial necrosis, atherosclerosis of the aortic wall). Symptoms of rupture include a severe tearing pain in the chest, back, or neck, sometimes associated with cardiovascular collapse. Before rupture, TAAs may exert pressure on other thoracic structures, leading to a variety of symptoms. However, most TAAs are asymptomatic and are found incidentally during imaging for other conditions. Diagnosis is confirmed with computed tomography scan or echocardiography. Asymptomatic TAAs should be monitored with imaging at specified intervals and patients referred for repair if the TAAs are enlarging rapidly (greater than 0.5 cm in diameter over 6 months for heritable etiologies; greater than 0.5 cm over 1 year for degenerative etiologies) or reach a critical aortic diameter threshold for elective surgery (5.5 cm for TAAs due to degenerative etiologies, 5.0 cm when associated with inherited syndromes). Open surgery is used most often to treat asymptomatic TAAs in the ascending aorta and aortic arch. Asymptomatic TAAs in the descending aorta often are treated medically with aggressive blood pressure control, though recent data suggest that endovascular procedures may result in better long-term survival rates. PMID:25860136

  1. Morphology Parameters for Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Sujan; Tremmel, Markus; Mocco, J; Kim, Minsuok; Yamamoto, Junichi; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Meng, Hui

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to identify image-based morphological parameters that correlate with human intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture. METHODS For 45 patients with terminal or sidewall saccular IAs (25 unruptured, 20 ruptured), three-dimensional geometries were evaluated for a range of morphological parameters. In addition to five previously studied parameters (aspect ratio, aneurysm size, ellipticity index, nonsphericity index, and undulation index), we defined three novel parameters incorporating the parent vessel geometry (vessel angle, aneurysm [inclination] angle, and [aneurysm-to-vessel] size ratio) and explored their correlation with aneurysm rupture. Parameters were analyzed with a two-tailed independent Student's t test for significance; significant parameters (P < 0.05) were further examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Additionally, receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed on each parameter. RESULTS Statistically significant differences were found between mean values in ruptured and unruptured groups for size ratio, undulation index, nonsphericity index, ellipticity index, aneurysm angle, and aspect ratio. Logistic regression analysis further revealed that size ratio (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.03−1.92) and undulation index (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.08−2.11) had the strongest independent correlation with ruptured IA. From the receiver operating characteristic analysis, size ratio and aneurysm angle had the highest area under the curve values of 0.83 and 0.85, respectively. CONCLUSION Size ratio and aneurysm angle are promising new morphological metrics for IA rupture risk assessment. Because these parameters account for vessel geometry, they may bridge the gap between morphological studies and more qualitative location-based studies. PMID:18797347

  2. MR Imaging of Myeloperoxidase Activity in a Model of the Inflamed Aneurysm Wall

    PubMed Central

    Gounis, M.J.; van der Bom, I.M.J.; Wakhloo, A.K.; Zheng, S.; Chueh, J.-Y.; Kühn, A.L.; Bogdanov, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in vivo can be visualized using non-invasive imaging, successful clinical translation requires further optimization of the imaging approach. We report a motion-sensitized-driven-equilibrium (MSDE) for the detection of an MPO activity-specific gadolinium (Gd)-containing imaging agent (IA) in experimental aneurysm models that compensates for irregular blood flow enabling vascular wall imaging in the aneurysm. Materials and Methods We deployed a phantom model to optimize a MSDE MR sequence that suppresses complex flow patterns within the aneurysm for detection of an MPO-specific Gd-chelate. The phantom was built from rotational angiography of a rabbit elastase aneurysm model and connected to a cardiac pulse duplicator mimicking rabbit-specific flow conditions. Thereafter, we further refined the MSDE sequence and applied it in vivo to rabbit aneurysm models with and without inflammation in the aneurysmal wall. Under each condition, the aneurysms were imaged before and after intravenous administration of the IA. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each MR slice through the aneurysm was calculated. Results The MSDE sequence was optimized to reduce flow signal enabling detection of the MPO-IA in the phantom. The optimized imaging protocol in the rabbit model of saccular aneurysms revealed a significant increase in the change of SNR pre- to postcontrast MR signal intensities in the inflamed aneurysms as compared to naïve aneurysms and the adjacent carotid artery (p<0.0001). Conclusion A diagnostic MR protocol was optimized for molecular imaging of an MPO-specific molecular imaging agent in an animal model of brain aneurysms. PMID:25273534

  3. Treatment of ruptured intracranial dissecting aneurysms in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wong, George Kwok Chu; Tang, Hoi Bun; Poon, Wai Sang; Yu, Simon Chun Ho

    2010-01-01

    Background: Data suggests that hemorrhagic presentations occur in 20% of internal carotid artery dissections and 50% of vertebral artery dissections. A Finnish study has reported favorable outcomes in only 32% of patients. We aimed to review the epidemiology and management outcomes in a Chinese population. Methods: We reviewed the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage registry of patients who presented with intracranial dissecting aneurysms at a neurosurgical center in Hong Kong over a five-year period. Results: A total of 23 patients with intracranial dissecting aneurysms were identified, accounting for 8% of all spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Forty-eight percent of the patients identified were treated by main trunk occlusion and 39% were treated by embolization or stent-assisted embolization or stent alone. Thirteen percent were managed by craniotomy and trapping or wrapping. Favorable outcomes at six months were achieved in 67%. Conclusions: Patients with intracranial dissecting aneurysms account for a significant proportion of the cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage in our population. Carefully selected endovascular and microsurgical treatments can lead to management outcomes similar to patients with saccular aneurysms. PMID:21206536

  4. Management of Complicated Aortic Aneurysms Using Multiple Overlapping Uncovered Stents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongxue; Teng, Zhongzhao; Lu, Qingsheng; Zhao, Zhiqing; Bao, Junmin; Feng, Xiang; Feng, Rui; Chen, Zengsheng; Huang, Yuan; Sadat, Umar; Gillard, Jonathan H; Jing, Zaiping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study sought to report the mid-term outcome of a modified flow-diverting strategy in the treatment of complicated aortic aneurysms of different morphology. Historical data suggested aortic aneurysm expansion and rupture after endovascular treatment with current commercial flow-diverters, indicating the essentiality of further investigation of this technique prior to its large-scale clinical application. An alternative flow-diverting strategy using layer-by-layer assembled multiple overlapping uncovered stents was employed in this study. The treatment outcome in aneurysms of different morphology (saccular, fusiform, and dissecting) was assessed during a mid-term follow-up period. Of 42 patients enrolled in this study (30 male, mean age: 63.3 years), technical success was achieved in 40 cases. During an average follow-up period of 20.9 months, mean aneurysm diameter shrunk from 53.4 ± 13.6 mm to 48.8 ± 13.9 mm (P < 0.001), while stent-induced sac thrombosis ratio increased significantly (18.1 ± 14.9% to 93.6 ± 9.5%, P < 0.001). The majority of side branches (74/76 major visceral branches, 237/244 minor segmental arteries), covered by 3.3 stents on average, maintained their patency after stenting. Saccular aneurysms manifested the highest thrombus deposition speed (18/20 were totally thrombosed within 12 months) and most significant shrinkage (51.4 ± 13.3 mm pre-operatively vs 43.5 ± 10.2 mm during follow-up, P < 0.001) compared with fusiform and dissecting aneurysms. This modified flow-diverting strategy could be a feasible alternative in the management of complicated aortic aneurysms where vital branches need to be preserved. The treatment outcome may depend on the aneurysm type. Further studies with larger patient cohort and longer follow-up are required to substantiate these results. PMID:25501077

  5. Focal, transient mechanical narrowing of a pipeline embolization device following treatment of an internal carotid artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Timothy Ryan; Jindal, Gaurav; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2014-01-01

    Flow diversion is a promising technique for cerebral aneurysm treatment but presents new and sometimes unique challenges. Transient reversible narrowing due to device reconfiguration of the pipeline embolization device (PED) has not been previously described. Here we describe a patient with dolichoectasia of the distal right internal carotid artery with an associated saccular sidewall aneurysm who developed asymptomatic circumferential narrowing of the proximal aspect of the PED in the first month following deployment. The patient was followed conservatively and demonstrated partial resolution of device narrowing on 6 month follow-up imaging. PMID:25267804

  6. [Ruptured aneurysm at the anterior wall of the internal carotid artery in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chonan, Masashi; Fujimura, Miki; Inoue, Takashi; Tominaga, Teiji

    2011-07-01

    A 60 year-old woman, who had a 45-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and secondary antiphospholipid syndrome, presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm at the anterior wall of the non-branching site of the right internal carotid artery. She underwent radical surgery on the day of onset. In light of the possibility of arterial dissection, we performed extracranial-intracranial bypass prior to careful exploration of the aneurysm. Based on the finding of saccular aneurysm, she ultimately underwent neck clipping of the aneurysm without complication. Postoperative course was uneventful, and she did not suffer from cerebral vasospasm. We recommend early surgical intervention in patients with aneurysmal SAH associated with SLE, while intrinsic pathologies of SLE such as fragile vascular structure and the risk for ischemic complication should be considered.

  7. Usefulness of Motor-Evoked Potentials Monitoring for Neurosurgical Treatment of an Unusual Distal Anterior Choroidal Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Jecko, Vincent; Eimer, Sandrine; Penchet, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    A 35 years old woman presented with an acute meningeal syndrome following an intra ventricular haemorrhage without subarachnoid haemorrhage. The angiography demonstrated a 6 mm partially thrombosed saccular aneurysm at the plexal point of the right anterior choroidal artery (AChoA). It was surgically approached inside the ventricle through a trans-temporal corticotomy. The aneurysm was excised after distal exclusion of the feeding artery under motor-evoked potentials monitoring. Of the 19 cases of distal AChoA aneurysm neurosurgical treatment, this is the only one performed under electrophysiology monitoring, a simple and safe method to detect and prevent motor tract ischemia. We discuss this rare case, along with a comprehensible review of the literature of the previous surgical cases of distal AChoA aneurysms. PMID:27446526

  8. Unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm presenting as depression: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Cikotas, Paulius; Steibliene, Vesta; Deltuva, Vytenis P.; Tamsauskas, Arimantas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intracranial aneurysms most commonly present following rupture causing subarachnoid hemorrhage. Mental disorders are common among patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms and in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage survivors. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no published report of unruptured intracranial aneurysm presenting as a mental disorder. Case Description: A 69-year-old male without a past history of mental disorders and neurological symptoms presented with a 2-month history of anxiety, sadness, lack of pleasure in usual activities, fatigue, difficulties falling asleep and waking up early in the morning, reduced appetite, and weight loss. The patient was diagnosed with major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment was initiated. Subsequent non-contrast computed tomography (CT) of the head demonstrated hypointense oval-shaped lesion within the projection of the anterior communicating artery. CT angiography confirmed the diagnosis of a 0.8 × 0.6 cm saccular aneurysm originating from the anterior communicating artery and anterior cerebral artery. The patient underwent microsurgical clipping of the aneurysm. On psychiatric assessment 1 month after the surgery, there were no signs of depressive disorder and antidepressive treatment was discontinued. On follow-up visit 1 year after the surgery, the patient did not have any mood symptoms. Conclusions: The case indicates that organic brain lesions, including intracranial aneurysms, should be suspected in elderly patients presenting with their first episode of mental disorder. PMID:27583172

  9. Combined Visualization of Wall Thickness and Wall Shear Stress for the Evaluation of Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Glaßer, Sylvia; Lawonn, Kai; Hoffmann, Thomas; Skalej, Martin; Preim, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    For an individual rupture risk assessment of aneurysms, the aneurysm's wall morphology and hemodynamics provide valuable information. Hemodynamic information is usually extracted via computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation on a previously extracted 3D aneurysm surface mesh or directly measured with 4D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast, a noninvasive imaging technique that depicts the aneurysm wall in vivo is still not available. Our approach comprises an experiment, where intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is employed to probe a dissected saccular aneurysm phantom, which we modeled from a porcine kidney artery. Then, we extracted a 3D surface mesh to gain the vessel wall thickness and hemodynamic information from a CFD simulation. Building on this, we developed a framework that depicts the inner and outer aneurysm wall with dedicated information about local thickness via distance ribbons. For both walls, a shading is adapted such that the inner wall as well as its distance to the outer wall is always perceivable. The exploration of the wall is further improved by combining it with hemodynamic information from the CFD simulation. Hence, the visual analysis comprises a brushing and linking concept for individual highlighting of pathologic areas. Also, a surface clustering is integrated to provide an automatic division of different aneurysm parts combined with a risk score depending on wall thickness and hemodynamic information. In general, our approach can be employed for vessel visualization purposes where an inner and outer wall has to be adequately represented. PMID:26356964

  10. Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Cerebral Aneurysms Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... I get more information? What is a cerebral aneurysm? A cerebral aneurysm (also known as an intracranial ...

  11. Saccular lung cannulation in a ball python (Python regius) to treat a tracheal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Myers, Debbie A; Wellehan, James F X; Isaza, Ramiro

    2009-03-01

    An adult male ball python (Python regius) presented in a state of severe dyspnea characterized by open-mouth breathing and vertical positioning of the head and neck. The animal had copious discharge in the tracheal lumen acting as an obstruction. A tube was placed through the body wall into the caudal saccular aspect of the lung to allow the animal to breathe while treatment was initiated. The ball python's dyspnea immediately improved. Diagnostics confirmed a bacterial respiratory infection with predominantly Providencia rettgeri. The saccular lung (air sac) tube was removed after 13 days. Pulmonary endoscopy before closure showed minimal damage with a small amount of hemorrhage in the surrounding muscle tissue. Respiratory disease is a common occurrence in captive snakes and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Saccular lung cannulation is a relatively simple procedure that can alleviate tracheal narrowing or obstruction, similar to air sac cannulation in birds.

  12. Semicircular canal, saccular and utricular function in patients with bilateral vestibulopathy: analysis based on etiology

    PubMed Central

    Bremova, Tatiana; Kremmyda, Olympia; Strupp, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of bilateral vestibulopathy (BV) is typically established based on bilateral semicircular canal dysfunction. The degree to which both otolith organs—the saccule and utricle—are also impaired in BV is not wellestablished, particularly with respect to the etiology and severity of BV. The aim of this study was to evaluate semicircular canal, saccular and utricular function in patients with BV due to aminoglycoside ototoxicity and bilateral Menière’s disease, and with different severities of BV. Caloric and head impulse testing were used as measures of canal function. Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP) and ocular VEMPs (oVEMP) were used as measures of saccular and utricular function, respectively. We enrolled 34 patients with BV and 55 controls in a prospective case–control study. Patients with BV were less likely to have saccular (61 %) or utricular (64 %) dysfunction relative to canal dysfunction (100 %). Utricular function differed significantly between patients by etiologic group: the poorest function was found in patients with BV due to aminoglycoside toxicity, and the best function in Menière’s disease patients. Canal and saccular function did not vary according to etiology. Further, utricular but not saccular function was significantly correlated with canal function. Saccular and utricular function had the strongest association with Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores relative to canal function. These data suggest that when a patient with BV is identified in a clinical context, oVEMP testing is the most sensitive test in distinguishing between aminoglycoside toxicity and bilateral Menière’s disease. Both cVEMP and oVEMP testing may be considered to evaluate the functional impact on the patient. PMID:23104126

  13. Surgical Repair of Abdominal Aortic and Renal Artery Aneurysms in Takayasu's Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Wetstein, Paul J; Clark, Margaret E; Cafasso, Danielle E; Golarz, Scott R; Ayubi, Farhan S; Kellicut, Dwight C

    2016-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis is a large vessel vasculitis that can be a challenging diagnosis to make and has a varied clinical presentation. Management largely depends on affected vessel disease severity and individual patient considerations. The diagnosis must be considered in a young patient with large vessel aneurysms. We present a case of a 30 year-old woman of Pacific Islander descent who presented to the Tripler Army medical Center Vascular Surgery Department in Honolulu, Hawai'i seeking repair of her abdominal aortic and renal artery aneurysms prior to conception. A 30 year-old Pacific Islander woman with a history of a saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm and renal artery aneurysms presented to our clinic seeking vascular surgery consultation prior to a planned pregnancy. She had a renal artery stent placed at an outside institution for hypertension. She met the diagnosis of Takayasu's arteritis by Sharma's criteria. Physical exam was significant for a palpable, pulsatile, abdominal mass and CT angiography revealed a saccular irregular-appearing infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysm, extending to the aortic bifurcation, with a maximum diameter of 3.3 cm. A right renal artery aneurysm was also identified proximally, contiguous with the aorta, with a maximal transverse diameter of 1.7 cm. The patient underwent a supraceliac bypass to the right renal artery with a 7 mm Dacron graft, as well as excision of the right renal artery aneurysm. The abdominal aortic aneurysm was replaced using a Hemashield Dacron bifurcated 14 mm x 7 mm bypass graft. Intraoperative measurements of the renal artery aneurysm were 1.5 x 1.5 cm and the saccular appearing distal abdominal aortic aneurysm measured 3.6 x 3.3 cm. The patient was discharged from the hospital 7 days post-operatively. At 1-year follow up, CT scan of the abdominal aorta revealed the repair was without any evidence of aneurysm formation, anastomotic pseudoaneurysm formation, or areas of stenosis. She has remained

  14. Is aspect ratio sufficient to classify intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics- a parametric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durka, Michael; Robertson, Anne

    2013-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are a vascular pathology in which a localized bulge is formed in the arterial wall, most often in a saccular shape. It is believed that the blood flow field within the aneurysm plays a critical role in the degradation of the wall. Aneurysm rupture has a high mortality risk. Since only a small fracture of aneurysms rupture, and common treatments have their own risks, it is desirable to identify a useful means of assessing rupture risk. Therefore, numerous groups have endeavored to identify a correlation between rupture risk and sac geometry or flow dynamics. However, no clinically useful parameters have been identified to date. Prior work has suggested that the aspect ratio (sac height/neck) could be useful for risk stratification due to its influence on the sac hemodynamics. In this work, we make of a previously developed parametric model of the aneurysm geometry to evaluate the influence of aspect ratio (sac height/sac neck) on flow dynamics, using computational fluid dynamics. In particular, we assess the influence of aspect ratio on the number of vortices in the aneurysm sac over a wide range of sac geometries. The conclusions obtained for the parametric model are then assessed in 20 clinical cases.

  15. Sensitivity of CFD Based Hemodynamic Results in Rabbit Aneurysm Models to Idealizations in Surrounding Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zijing; Kallmes, David F.; Durka, Michael J.; Ding, Yonghong; Lewis, Debra; Kadirvel, Ramanathan

    2010-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies provide a valuable tool for evaluating the role of hemodynamics in vascular diseases such as cerebral aneurysms and atherosclerosis. However, such models necessarily only include isolated segments of the vasculature. In this work, we evaluate the influence of geometric approximations in vascular anatomy on hemodynamics in elastase induced saccular aneurysms in rabbits. One representative high aspect ratio (AR—height/neck width) aneurysm and one low AR aneurysm were created at the origin of the right common carotid artery in two New Zealand white rabbits. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the aneurysm and surrounding arteries were created using 3D rotational angiographic data. Five models with varying extents of neighboring vasculature were created for both the high and low AR cases. A reference model included the aneurysm sac, left common carotid artery (LCCA), aortic arch, and downstream trifurcation/quadrification. Three-dimensional, pulsatile CFD studies were performed and streamlines, wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index, and cross sectional velocity were compared between the models. The influence of the vascular domain on intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics varied between the low and high AR cases. For the high AR case, even a simple model including only the aneurysm, a small section of neighboring vasculature, and simple extensions captured the main features of the steamline and WSS distribution predicted by the reference model. However, the WSS distribution in the low AR case was more strongly influenced by the extent of vasculature. In particular, it was necessary to include the downstream quadrification and upstream LCCA to obtain good predictions of WSS. The findings in this work demonstrate the accuracy of CFD results can be compromised if insufficient neighboring vessels are included in studies of hemodynamics in elastase induced rabbit aneurysms. Consideration of aspect ratio, hemodynamic

  16. Sensitivity of CFD based hemodynamic results in rabbit aneurysm models to idealizations in surrounding vasculature.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zijing; Kallmes, David F; Durka, Michael J; Ding, Yonghong; Lewis, Debra; Kadirvel, Ramanathan; Robertson, Anne M

    2010-09-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies provide a valuable tool for evaluating the role of hemodynamics in vascular diseases such as cerebral aneurysms and atherosclerosis. However, such models necessarily only include isolated segments of the vasculature. In this work, we evaluate the influence of geometric approximations in vascular anatomy on hemodynamics in elastase induced saccular aneurysms in rabbits. One representative high aspect ratio (AR-height/neck width) aneurysm and one low AR aneurysm were created at the origin of the right common carotid artery in two New Zealand white rabbits. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the aneurysm and surrounding arteries were created using 3D rotational angiographic data. Five models with varying extents of neighboring vasculature were created for both the high and low AR cases. A reference model included the aneurysm sac, left common carotid artery (LCCA), aortic arch, and downstream trifurcation/quadrification. Three-dimensional, pulsatile CFD studies were performed and streamlines, wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index, and cross sectional velocity were compared between the models. The influence of the vascular domain on intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics varied between the low and high AR cases. For the high AR case, even a simple model including only the aneurysm, a small section of neighboring vasculature, and simple extensions captured the main features of the steamline and WSS distribution predicted by the reference model. However, the WSS distribution in the low AR case was more strongly influenced by the extent of vasculature. In particular, it was necessary to include the downstream quadrification and upstream LCCA to obtain good predictions of WSS. The findings in this work demonstrate the accuracy of CFD results can be compromised if insufficient neighboring vessels are included in studies of hemodynamics in elastase induced rabbit aneurysms. Consideration of aspect ratio, hemodynamic

  17. A subpopulation of large granular von Willebrand Ag negative and CD105 positive endothelial cells, isolated from abdominal aortic aneurysms, overexpress ICAM-1 and Fas antigen.

    PubMed

    Páez, Araceli; Archundia, Abel; Méndez Cruz, René; Rodríguez, Emma; López Marure, Rebeca; Masso, Felipe; Aceves, José Luis; Flores, Leopoldo; Montaño, Luis F

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine whether there is a pre-established basal condition of the endothelial cells isolated from aortic abdominal aneurysm that might augment immune effector mechanisms and thus provide us an insight into the possible causes of aneurysm rupture. Endothelial cells isolated from saccular aortic aneurysm fragments were analyzed by cytofluorometry for the expression of different immune response-related molecules. Our results showed that there is a subpopulation of granule-rich, CD105 positive and von Willebrand antigen negative endothelial cells that have an enhanced basal expression of ICAM-1, and Fas antigen, but, interestingly, no apoptotic bodies were detected. Control endothelial cells derived from healthy areas of the same abdominal aortas did not show such enhanced expression. We conclude that in the endothelium that lines abdominal aorta aneurysms there is, at least, one endothelial cell subpopulation with an apparent inhibition of programmed cell death and in a proinflammatory activation status.

  18. How Is an Aneurysm Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. How Is an Aneurysm Treated? Aortic aneurysms are treated with medicines and surgery. Small aneurysms ... doing your normal daily activities Treatment for an aortic aneurysm is based on its size. Your doctor may ...

  19. The Numerical Study of the Hemodynamic Characteristics in the Patient-Specific Intracranial Aneurysms before and after Surgery.

    PubMed

    Byun, Jun Soo; Choi, Sun-Young; Seo, Taewon

    2016-01-01

    The patient-specific pre- and postsurgery cerebral arterial geometries in the study were reconstructed from computed tomography angiography (CTA). Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models were used to investigate the hemodynamic phenomena in the cerebral arteries before and after surgery of the aneurysm under realistic conditions. CFD simulations for laminar flow of incompressible Newtonian fluid were conducted by using commercial software, ANSYS v15, with the rigid vascular wall assumption. The study found that the flow patterns with the complex vortical structures inside the aneurysm were similar. We also found that the inflow jet streams were coming strongly in aneurysm sac in the presurgery models, while the flow patterns in postsurgery models were quite different from those in presurgery models. The average wall shear stress after surgery for model 1 was approximately three times greater than that before surgery, while it was about twenty times greater for model 2. The area of low WSS in the daughter saccular aneurysm region in model 2 is associated with aneurysm rupture. Thus the distribution of WSS in aneurysm region provides useful prediction for the risk of aneurysm rupture. PMID:27274764

  20. The Numerical Study of the Hemodynamic Characteristics in the Patient-Specific Intracranial Aneurysms before and after Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Jun Soo; Choi, Sun-Young

    2016-01-01

    The patient-specific pre- and postsurgery cerebral arterial geometries in the study were reconstructed from computed tomography angiography (CTA). Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models were used to investigate the hemodynamic phenomena in the cerebral arteries before and after surgery of the aneurysm under realistic conditions. CFD simulations for laminar flow of incompressible Newtonian fluid were conducted by using commercial software, ANSYS v15, with the rigid vascular wall assumption. The study found that the flow patterns with the complex vortical structures inside the aneurysm were similar. We also found that the inflow jet streams were coming strongly in aneurysm sac in the presurgery models, while the flow patterns in postsurgery models were quite different from those in presurgery models. The average wall shear stress after surgery for model 1 was approximately three times greater than that before surgery, while it was about twenty times greater for model 2. The area of low WSS in the daughter saccular aneurysm region in model 2 is associated with aneurysm rupture. Thus the distribution of WSS in aneurysm region provides useful prediction for the risk of aneurysm rupture. PMID:27274764

  1. [Aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Villar, Fernando; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Vila, Ramón; Lahoz, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Aortic aneurysm is one important cause of death in our country. The prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA) is around 5% for men older than 50 years of age. Some factors are associated with increased risk for AAA: age, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular disease and, in particular, smoking. The medical management of patients with an AAA includes cardiovascular risk treatment, particularly smoking cessation. Most of major societies guidelines recommend ultrasonography screening for AAA in men aged 65 to 75 years who have ever smoked because it leads to decreased AAA-specific mortality. PMID:24238836

  2. The outcome of abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in northern Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lakhwani, M N; Yeoh, K C; Gooi, B H; Lim, S K

    2003-08-01

    A prospective study of all infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repairs both as electives and emergencies in Penang between January 1997 to December 2000 is presented. The objectives of the study were to determine the age, gender, racial distribution of the patients, the incidence, and risk factors and to summarize treatments undertaken and discuss the outcome. Among the races, the Malays were the most common presenting with infrarenal AAA. The mean age of patients operated was 68.5 years. Males were more commonly affected compared to females (12:1). Most infrarenal AAA repairs were performed as emergency operations, 33 cases (61.1%) compared to electives, 21 cases (38.9%). Total survival was 70.3% (elective 85.7%; emergency 57.6%). Mortality rate was 31.5% and the primary reason is the lack of operating time available for urgent operation and for treatment of concurrent disease states. Mycotic aneurysm with its triad of abdominal pain, fever and abdominal mass resulted in a significantly higher mortality (46.6%). Ninety six percent of the infrarenal AAA had transverse diameter greater than 6 cm. Morphologically 90.7% were fusiform AAA rather than saccular aneurysm (9.3%). Pulmonary complications (35.2%) were more common than cardiac complications (11.1%) possibly related to the urgent nature of the operation, smoking or history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Bleeding (14.8%) was the most common cause of mortality in ruptured mycotic infrarenal AAA.

  3. Inflammatory changes in the aneurysm wall: a review.

    PubMed

    Tulamo, Riikka; Frösen, Juhana; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika

    2010-06-01

    Rupture of a saccular intracranial artery aneurysm (IA) causes subarachnoid hemorrhage, a significant cause of stroke and death. The current treatment options, endovascular coiling and clipping, are invasive and somewhat risky. Since only some IAs rupture, those IAs at risk for rupture should be identified. However, to improve the imaging of rupture-prone IAs and improve IA treatment, IA wall pathobiology requires more thorough knowledge. Chronic inflammation has become understood as an important phenomenon in IA wall pathobiology, featuring inflammatory cell infiltration as well as proliferative and fibrotic remodulatory responses. We review the literature on what is known about inflammation in the IA wall and also review the probable mechanisms of how inflammation would result in the degenerative changes that ultimately lead to IA wall rupture. We also discuss current options in imaging inflammation and how knowledge of inflammation in IA walls may improve IA treatment. PMID:21990591

  4. QUANTIFICATION OF HEMODYNAMIC CHANGES INDUCED BY VIRTUAL PLACEMENT OF MULTIPLE STENTS ACROSS A WIDE-NECKED BASILAR TRUNK ANEURYSM

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minsuok; Levy, Elad I.; Meng, Hui; Hopkins, L. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The porous intravascular stents that are currently available may not cause complete aneurysm thrombosis and may therefore fail to provide durable protection against aneurysm rupture when used as a sole treatment modality. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of porous stents on aneurysm hemodynamics using computational fluid dynamics. METHODS The geometry of a wide-necked saccular basilar trunk aneurysm was reconstructed from a patient′s computed tomographic angiography images. Three commercial stents (Neuroform2; Boston Scientific/Target, San Leandro, CA; Wingspan; Boston Scientific, Fremont, CA; and Vision; Guidant Corp., Santa Clara, CA) were modeled. Various combinations of one to three stents were virtually conformed to fit into the vessel lumen and placed across the aneurysm orifice. An unstented aneurysm served as a control. Computational fluid dynamics analysis was performed to calculate the hemodynamic parameters considered important in aneurysm pathogenesis and thrombosis for each of the models. RESULTS The complex flow pattern observed in the unstented aneurysm was suppressed by stenting. Stent placement lowered the wall shear stress in the aneurysm, and this effect was increased by additional stent deployment. Turnover time was moderately increased after single- and double-stent placement and markedly increased after three stents were placed. The influence of stent design on hemodynamic parameters was more significant in double-stented models than in other models. CONCLUSION Aneurysm hemodynamic parameters were significantly modified by placement of multiple stents. Because the associated modifications may be helpful as well as harmful in terms of rupture risk, use of this technique requires careful consideration. PMID:18162911

  5. Evolution of a chronic dissecting aneurysm on magnetic resonance imaging in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Yau, Ivanna; deVeber, Gabrielle; Dirks, Peter; Armstrong, Derek; Krings, Timo

    2015-02-01

    Clinical and imaging manifestations of the so-called partially thrombosed aneurysm (PTA) are different from those of the classic intracranial saccular aneurysm. Given some of their peculiar imaging features, it had been hypothesized that some PTAs occur due to repeated intramural hemorrhages. The authors present a case of PTA that evolved from an acute dissecting aneurysm as shown by serial imaging. A previously healthy 5-year-old boy had a sudden onset of left hemiparesis. Initial MRI sequences showed a perforating vessel infarction in the right basal ganglia area secondary to an acute distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) dissection as demonstrated on conventional angiography. Conservative management with close observation of this dissection was chosen, and serial MRI studies revealed layering of blood of various ages within the wall of an aneurysmal outpouching of the MCA, thereby leading to the imaging appearance of a PTA. The findings in this case indicate that some PTAs may be caused by repeated or chronic dissections, with blood entering the wall through an endothelial defect. Understanding the pathological mechanism underlying the formation of these aneurysms will help inform appropriate treatment strategies.

  6. Cerebral aneurysm (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss of nerve function may indicate that an aneurysm may be causing pressure on adjacent brain tissue. ... changes or other neurological changes can indicate the aneurysm has ruptured and is bleeding into the brain. ...

  7. Cerebral aneurysm (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... area within the vessel wall. If a cerebral (brain) aneurysm ruptures, the escaping blood within the brain may cause severe neurologic complications or death. A person who has a ruptured cerebral aneurysm may complain of the sudden onset of "the ...

  8. Chorioamnionitis stimulates angiogenesis in saccular stage fetal lungs via CC chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J. Davin; Benjamin, John T.; Kelly, David R.; Frank, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The fetal lung vasculature forms in tandem with developing airways. Whereas saccular airway morphogenesis is arrested in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the potential vascular phenotype in BPD at this stage of development is less well-understood. As inflammation increases the risk of BPD and induces arrest of saccular airway morphogenesis, we tested the effects of Escherichia coli LPS on fetal mouse lung vascular development. Injecting LPS into the amniotic fluid of Tie2-lacZ endothelial reporter mice at embryonic day 15 stimulated angiogenesis in the saccular stage fetal lung mesenchyme. LPS also increased the number of endothelial cells in saccular stage fetal mouse lung explants. Inflammation appeared to directly promote vascular development, as LPS stimulated pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell angiogenesis, cell migration, and proliferation in vitro. Whereas LPS did not increase expression of VEGF, angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), Tie2, fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk-1), fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (Flt-1), PDGFA, PDGFB, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), LPS did stimulate the production of the angiogenic CC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). Both MIP-1α and MCP-1 increased angiogenesis in fetal mouse lung explants. In addition, inhibitory antibodies against MIP-1α and MCP-1 blocked the effects of LPS on fetal lung vascular development, suggesting these chemokines are downstream mediators of LPS-induced angiogenesis. We speculate that an inflammation-mediated surge in angiogenesis could lead to formation of aberrant alveolar capillaries in the lungs of patients developing BPD. PMID:20172951

  9. Pediatric isolated bilateral iliac aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chithra, R; Sundar, R Ajai; Velladuraichi, B; Sritharan, N; Amalorpavanathan, J; Vidyasagaran, T

    2013-07-01

    Aneurysms are rare in children. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are very rare, especially bilateral aneurysms. Pediatric aneurysms are usually secondary to connective tissue disorders, arteritis, or mycotic causes. We present a case of a 3-year-old child with bilateral idiopathic common iliac aneurysms that were successfully repaired with autogenous vein grafts.

  10. Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations/Fistulas Embolization of brain aneurysms ... Aneurysms and Fistulas? What is Embolization of Brain Aneurysms and Fistulas? Embolization of brain aneurysms and arteriovenous ...

  11. Visualization and finite element analysis of pulsatile flow in models of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, T; Matsuzawa, T; Homma, T

    1989-01-01

    Pulsatile flows in glass models simulating fusiform and lateral saccular aneurysms were investigated by a flow visualization method. When resting fluid starts to flow, the initial fluid motion is practically irrotational. After a short period of time, the flow began to separate from the proximal wall of the aneurysm. Then the separation bubble or vortex grew rapidly in size and filled the whole area of the aneurysm circumferentially. During this period of time, the center of the vortex moved from the proximal end to the distal point of the aneurysm. The transient reversal flow, for instance, which may occur at the end of the ejection period, passed between the wall of the aneurysm and the centrally located vortex. When the rate and pulsatile frequency of flow were high, the vortex broke down into highly disturbed flow (or turbulence) at the distal portion of the aneurysm. The same effect was observed when the length of the aneurysm was increased. A reduction in pulsatile amplitude made the flow pattern close to that in steady flow. A finite element analysis was made to obtain velocity and pressure fields in pulsatile flow through a tube with an axisymmetric expansion. Calculations were performed with the pulsatile flows used in the visualization experiment in order to study the effects of change in the pulsatile wave form by keeping the time-mean Reynolds number and Womersley's parameter unchanged. Calculated instantaneous patterns of velocity field and stream lines agreed well with the experimental results. The appearance and disappearance of the vortex in the dilated portion and its development resulted in complex distributions of pressure and shear fields. Locally minimum and maximum values of wall shear stress occurred at points just upstream and downstream of the distal end of the expansion when the flow rate reached its peak. PMID:2605323

  12. [Long-term results of surgical treatment of the extracranial arteries aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Grinev, K M; Cherniakov, I S; Vakhitov, K M; Vinokurov, A Iu; Vladimirov, P A

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysms of extracranial arteries are sufficiently rare pathology in the extracranial arteries surgery. The authors aimed to research the frequency of occurrence of the extracranial arteries aneurysm, reasons of the onset, the localization, clinical manifestations and surgical treatment strategy. A retrospective study presents 10 cases of the extracranial arteries aneurysm for the last 5 years. A presence of aneurysmatic dilatation of extra-cranial arteries was detected according to the data of ultrasonic duplex scanning (UDS) and patients were directed to the hospital. The UDS was carried out as a routine procedure because of the presence of earlier acute stroke or the transitory ischemic attack. All the patients were carefully examined. A computed tomography and the recurring UDS were performed and the neurologic status of patients was estimated. An indication to surgical treatment was an increase of the internal carotid artery diameter and the common carotid artery more than 50% or equal to it. The presence of the local saccular aneurysm was one of the reasons. Surgical treatment strategy was determined by the anatomic position and possibilities for the reconstruction. The results of given operations showed, that the surgical treatment strategy should be recommended and could be fully justified in this pathology.

  13. PET/CT imaging of abdominal aorta with intramural hematomas, penetrating ulcer, and saccular pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vien X; Nguyen, Ba D

    2014-05-01

    Acute aortic syndromes, encompassing intramural hematoma, penetrating ulcer, and pseudoaneurysm, are best demonstrated by angiographic CT and magnetic resonance imaging. These imaging modalities provide an accurate evaluation and allow timely therapies of these frequently symptomatic lesions, thus reducing their morbidity and mortality. The inflammatory pathogenesis of these acute aortic syndromes may exhibit positive PET findings predictive of prognosis and outcomes of these vascular events. The authors present a case of PET/CT imaging showing asymptomatic intramural hematomas with penetrating ulcer and saccular pseudoaneurysm of the proximal abdominal aorta.

  14. Induction of aneurysms in the rat by a stenosing cotton ligature around the inter-renal aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne-Pellegrin, M. J.; Coutard, M.; Poitevin, P.; Michel, J. B.; Levy, B. I.

    1994-01-01

    Aortic aneurysms have been induced in the rat by combining the chemotactic property of cotton for inflammatory cells and the resulting granuloma formation with the mechanical and haemodynamic stress of aortic coarctation. A stenosing cotton ligature was placed around the aorta, between the renal arteries, in male Wistar rats under standardized conditions. Three months later, 7 out of 12 rats (58%) had developed saccular aneurysms of the inter-renal aorta. The aneurysmal wall consisted of a collagenous shell with a few newly formed elastic fibrils on its luminal side. Detailed histological studies of the inter-renal aorta at different times after placing stenosing or non-stenosing cotton or nylon ligatures between the renal arteries, together with studies using anti-hypertensive therapy (cilazapril) and immunohistochemical studies using an anti-macrophage antibody (ED1) were performed to try to establish cellular events involved in this aneurysmal remodelling. We conclude that in this model aneurysm formation requires (i) deep mechanical injury to the aortic wall, (ii) the presence of hypertension upstream to the stenosis and (iii) an inflammatory response to the cotton ligature. The early inflammatory reaction was less in the case of nylon and although macrophages were present in both cases the most striking difference was the greater incidence of PMNs in the case of cotton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8086315

  15. The False Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Baird, R. J.; Doran, M. L.

    1964-01-01

    The clinical course of 18 patients with 25 false aneurysms is reviewed. In recent years false aneurysm has been most commonly seen as a complication of arterioplastic procedures in which prosthetic arterial grafts were used. The use of indwelling needles or cannulae, particularly in patients with a wide arterial pulse pressure, can also lead to the formation of false aneurysms. In the groin, a false aneurysm is frequently mistaken for an abscess. Early diagnosis and operative repair are essential to reduce the incidence of further complications. PMID:14180533

  16. Cephalic vein aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Walid; Selmo, Francesca; Hindi, Mia; Haddad, Fadi; Khalil, Ismail

    2007-11-01

    Cephalic vein aneurysms are rare malformations that may develop in any part of the vascular system, and their history, presentation, and management vary depending on their site. The etiology of venous aneurysms remains unclear, although several theories have been elaborated. Venous aneurysms are unusual vascular malformations that occur equally between the sexes and are seen at any age; they can present as either a painful or a painless subcutaneous mass. No serious complications have been reported from upper extremity venous aneurysms. Surgical excision is the definitive management for most of these. The case reported here presented with a painless and mobile, soft, subcutaneous mass that caused only cosmetic concern.

  17. Bronchial Aneurysms Mimicking Aortic Aneurysms: Endovascular Treatment in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vernhet, Helene; Bousquet, Claudine; Jean, Betty; Lesnik, Alvian; Durand, Gerard; Giron, Jacques; Senac, Jean Paul

    1999-05-15

    Bronchial artery dilatation and aneurysm formation is a potential complication of local inflammation, especially in bronchiectasis. When the bronchial artery has an ectopic origin from the inferior segment of the aortic arch, aneurysms may mimick aortic aneurysms. Despite this particular location, endovascular treatment is possible. We report two such aneurysms that were successfully embolized with steel coils.

  18. Epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm embedded within pituitary adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Zesheng; Tian, Daofeng; Wang, Hongliu; Kong, Derek Kai; Zhang, Shenqi; Liu, Baohui; Deng, Gang; Xu, Zhou; Wu, Liquan; Ji, Baowei; Wang, Long; Cai, Qiang; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Junmin; Zhang, Aimin; Chen, Qianxue

    2015-01-01

    Epistaxis due to ruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm embedded within a pituitary adenoma (PA) has seldom been reported in the literature. Here we want to elaborate the incidence, mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategy for this condition. The first survived case of a patient with epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured aneurysm embedded within PA was reported and the literature was reviewed. A 53-year-old male patient presented to our institution with sudden onset epistaxis and progressive vision loss. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis and dilated unresponsive pupils. A CT scan showed a large mass in the pituitary fossa with bony erosion. MRI revealed a large pituitary tumor and abnormal signal intensity in the tumor. No aneurysm was noted during the pre-operative MR angiography. Abundant arterial bleeding suddenly occurred during urgent transsphenoidal surgery. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed the presence of a 14 mm unexpected saccular aneurysm of right ICA in the cavernous sinus with the dome protruding into the sella turcica. Balloon test occlusion of the right ICA was undertaken and permanent occlusion was performed. The patient recovered well and received bromocriptine and thyroid hormone replacement therapy during the follow-up period. At 14-month followup, the patient had no neurological deficits, no features of ischaemia relating to the right ICA therapeutic occlusion. Our case indicated that epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy could be due to the rupture of an ICA aneurysm embedded in a PA. Clinical suspicion should remain high when evaluating any case of epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy. Optimal treatment should take into consideration individual features of the tumor, aneurysm, and patient. Making the correct diagnosis as well as identifying an appropriate management strategy is critical in the care of such patients. PMID:26823732

  19. An Unusual Aneurysm of the Main Pulmonary Artery Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kholeif, Mona A.; El Tahir, Mohamed Kholeif, Yasser A.; El Watidy, Ahmed

    2006-10-15

    A 70-year old man presented with retrosternal chest pain. His electrocardiogram showed nonspecific T wave changes. Cardiac-specific troponin I (cTnI) was elevated. His condition was managed as acute coronary syndrome, following which he had two minor episodes of hemoptysis. A CT pulmonary angiogram showed no evidence of pulmonary embolism, but a large mass lesion was seen in the mediastinum. Echocardiography and cardiac MRI demonstrated a large solid mass, arising from the right ventricular outflow tract and causing compression of the main pulmonary artery (MPA). The differential diagnosis included pericardial and myocardial tumors and clotted aneurysm of the MPA. At surgery, a clotted aneurysmal sac was identified originating from the MPA and the defect was healed. Aneurysms of the MPA are rare. They most commonly present with dyspnea and chest pain. Compression of surrounding structures produces protean manifestations. A high index of suspicion coupled with imaging modalities establishes the diagnosis. Blunt trauma to the chest, at the time of an accident 4 years previously, may explain this aneurysm. The patient's presentation with chest pain was probably due to compression and/or stretching of surrounding structures. Coronary artery compression simulating acute coronary syndrome has been documented in the literature. The rise in cTnI may have been due to right ventricular strain, as a result of right ventricular outflow obstruction by the aneurysm. This has not been reported previously in the literature. The saccular morphology and narrow neck of the aneurysm predisposed to stagnation leading to clotting of the lumen and healing of the tear, which caused the diagnostic difficulty.

  20. Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Keisler, Brian; Carter, Chuck

    2015-04-15

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm refers to abdominal aortic dilation of 3.0 cm or greater. The main risk factors are age older than 65 years, male sex, and smoking history. Other risk factors include a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery disease, hypertension, peripheral artery disease, and previous myocardial infarction. Diagnosis may be made by physical examination, an incidental finding on imaging, or ultrasonography. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released updated recommendations for abdominal aortic aneurysm screening in 2014. Men 65 to 75 years of age with a history of smoking should undergo one-time screening with ultrasonography based on evidence that screening will improve abdominal aortic aneurysm-related mortality in this population. Men in this age group without a history of smoking may benefit if they have other risk factors (e.g., family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm, other vascular aneurysms, coronary artery disease). There is inconclusive evidence to recommend screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women 65 to 75 years of age with a smoking history. Women without a smoking history should not undergo screening because the harms likely outweigh the benefits. Persons who have a stable abdominal aortic aneurysm should undergo regular surveillance or operative intervention depending on aneurysm size. Surgical intervention by open or endovascular repair is the primary option and is typically reserved for aneurysms 5.5 cm in diameter or greater. There are limited options for medical treatment beyond risk factor modification. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm is a medical emergency presenting with hypotension, shooting abdominal or back pain, and a pulsatile abdominal mass. It is associated with high prehospitalization mortality. Emergent surgical intervention is indicated for a rupture but has a high operative mortality rate. PMID:25884861

  1. Saccular function in otosclerosis patients: bone conducted-vestibular evoked myogenic potential analysis.

    PubMed

    Amali, Amin; Mahdi, Parvane; Karimi Yazdi, Alireza; Khorsandi Ashtiyani, Mohammad Taghi; Yazdani, Nasrin; Vakili, Varasteh; Pourbakht, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Vestibular involvements have long been observed in otosclerotic patients. Among vestibular structures saccule has the closest anatomical proximity to the sclerotic foci, so it is the most prone vestibular structure to be affected during the otosclerosis process. The aim of this study was to investigate the saccular function in patients suffering from otosclerosis, by means of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP). The material consisted of 30 otosclerosis patients and 20 control subjects. All participants underwent audiometric and VEMP testing. Analysis of tests results revealed that the mean values of Air-Conducted Pure Tone Average (AC-PTA) and Bone-Conducted Pure Tone Average (BC-PTA) in patients were 45.28 ± 15.57 and 19.68 ± 10.91, respectively and calculated 4 frequencies Air Bone Gap (ABG) was 25.64 ± 9.95. The VEMP response was absent in 14 (28.57%) otosclerotic ears. A statistically significant increase in latency of the p13 was found in the affected ears (P=0.004), differences in n23 latency did not reach a statistically significant level (P=0.112). Disparities in amplitude of p13-n23 in between two study groups was statistically meaningful (P=0.009), indicating that the patients with otosclerosis had lower amplitudes. This study tends to suggest that due to the direct biotoxic effect of the materials released from the otosclerosis foci on saccular receptors, there might be a possibility of vestibular dysfunction in otosclerotic patients. PMID:24659067

  2. Flow Dynamics of Aneurysm Growth and Rupture: Challenges for the Development of Computational Flow Dynamics as a Diagnostic Tool to Detect Rupture-Prone Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Frösen, Juhana

    2016-01-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysm (sIA) is a relatively common disease that can potentially cause a devastating, life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Many sIAs never rupture and thus do not necessitate interventions, making the detection of rupture-prone sIAs a very relevant clinical problem. Moreover, because currently available methods to prevent sIA rupture have significant risks of morbidity and mortality, diagnostic tools that can predict imminent rupture and help plan proper timing of prophylactic interventions, can improve patient care. Hemorrhage from an sIA occurs when hemodynamic stress exceeds sIA wall strength. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a tool with which the hemodynamic stress to which the sIA wall is exposed can be determined non-invasively. Studies using CFD in sIAs have demonstrated associations of wall shear stress (WSS) with aneurysm growth, fragile sIA wall, and sIA rupture; these studies show the potential of CFD as a diagnostic tool. This review discusses the limitations of CFD and of the studies performed, and what needs to be done in order to develop CFD into a useful diagnostic tool to determine aneurysm-specific rupture risk. PMID:27637634

  3. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → ... You had a brain aneurysm. An aneurysm is a weak area in the wall of a blood vessel that bulges or balloons out. Once it reaches a certain size, it ...

  4. Aneurysm in the brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... aneurysm may be found when an MRI or CT scan of the brain is done for another reason. A brain aneurysm ... and determine the cause of bleeding in the brain: Cerebral angiography or spiral CT scan angiography of the head to show the location ...

  5. What You Should Know about Cerebral Aneurysms

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Stroke What You Should Know About Cerebral Aneurysms Updated:Jun 13,2014 About Cerebral Aneurysms Diagnosis ... to view an animation What is a cerebral aneurysm? An aneurysm is a weak area in a ...

  6. Aneurysm of the aberrant right subclavian artery – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Godlewski, Janusz; Widawski, Tomasz; Michalak, Maciej; Kmieć, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: The right subclavian artery, originating not from the brachiocephalic trunk but directly from the aortic arch, is a rare anatomical abnormality. ‘Arteria lusoria’ is the accepted name of the retroesophageal right subclavian artery. Such a vessel location, between the vertebral column and the esophagus, determines its course to the right. This defect may be asymptomatic, found during autopsy or coincidentally during diagnostic procedures. However, it may also be symptomatic. The course of this major blood vessel in the limited anatomical space may cause symptoms of mediastinal organ compression. The aim of this paper was to present two cases of abnormal anatomical course of the right subclavian artery and its aneurismal dilation. In this study, CT scans of the saccular aneurysm of the retroesophageal right subclavian artery were used: of a male patient diagnosed at Euromedic Diagnostics in Olsztyn and of a female patient, from the resources of the Radiological Dept. at MSWiA Hospital in Olsztyn Case Reports: An 85-year-old female was admitted to Hospital ER for congestive heart failure decompensation. Her chest X-ray revealed a round mass in the upper right mediastinum. Chest CT confirmed the presence of a saccular aneurysm of the lusory artery, 6.5 cm in diameter, partially filled with thrombotic material. The patient died in hospital from myocardial infarction that was not related to the aneurysm. A 61-year-old male patient had a chest X-ray which showed a round opacity on the apex of the right lung. The diagnostic process comprised also chest computed tomography. The examination showed an anomalous origin of the right subclavian artery, with aneurysmal dilation and compression of the oesophagus and of the trachea. An intraluminal thrombus was found. The patient remained under observation till the next CT examination, 6 months later. Conclusions: The presented rare cases of arteria lusoria aneurysm are not only casuistic reports. They also

  7. [Splenic artery aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Colović, R; Davidović, L; Bilanović, D; Krivokapić, Z; Grubor, N; Cvetković, S; Radak, V; Marković, M

    2006-01-01

    Although the third most frequent aneurysm in the abdomen, after aneurysms of the aorta and iliac arteries, and most frequent aneurisms of visceral arteries, splenic artery aneurysms are rare, but not very rare. Thanks to the new imaging techniques, first of all ultrasonography, they have been discovered with increasing frequency. We present a series of 9 splenic artery aneurysms. Seven patients were female and two male of average age 49 years (ranging from 28 to 75 years). The majority of afected women were multiparae, with average 3 children (ranging from 1 to 6). One patient had a subacute rupture, and 2 had ruptures into the splenic vein causing portal hypertension. The spleen was enlarged in 7 out of 9 patients. The average size of aneurysms was 3,2 cm (ranging from 2 to 8 cm). The preoperative diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm was established in 6 patients while in 3 patients aneurism was accidentally found during other operations, during splenectomy in 2, and during the excision of a retroperitoneal tumour in 1 patient. Aneurysmectomy was carried out in 7 patients, while a ligation of the incoming and outcoming wessels was performed in 2 patients with arteriovenous fistula. Splenectomy was performed in 6 patients, while pancreatic tail resection, cholecystectomy and excision of the retroperitoneal tumor were performed in 3 patients. Additional resection of the abdominal aortic aneurysm with reconstruction of aortoiliac segment was performed in 2 patients. There were no mortality and the postoperative recovery was uneventful in all patients. PMID:16989145

  8. Pediatric cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Gemmete, Joseph J; Toma, Ahmed K; Davagnanam, Indran; Robertson, Fergus; Brew, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Childhood intracranial aneurysms differ from those in the adult population in incidence and gender prevalence, cause, location, and clinical presentation. Endovascular treatment of pediatric aneurysms is the suggested approach because it offers both reconstructive and deconstructive techniques and a better clinical outcome compared with surgery; however, the long-term durability of endovascular treatment is still questionable, therefore long-term clinical and imaging follow-up is necessary. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of intracranial aneurysms in children are discussed, and data from endovascular treatments are presented.

  9. Hemodynamics of Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, Daniel M.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan Raul

    2009-01-01

    The initiation and progression of cerebral aneurysms are degenerative processes of the arterial wall driven by a complex interaction of biological and hemodynamic factors. Endothelial cells on the artery wall respond physiologically to blood-flow patterns. In normal conditions, these responses are associated with nonpathological tissue remodeling and adaptation. The combination of abnormal blood patterns and genetics predisposition could lead to the pathological formation of aneurysms. Here, we review recent progress on the basic mechanisms of aneurysm formation and evolution, with a focus on the role of hemodynamic patterns. PMID:19784385

  10. [Congenital saccular cyst of the larynx: a rare cause of stridor in neonates and infants].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Hugo; Zanetta, Adrián; Cuestas, Giselle

    2013-01-01

    Stridor is a noise caused by the passage of turbulent air through a diminished airway caliber. Laryngomalacia is the most common congenital anomaly of the larynx and the principal cause of stridor in children under 6 months. A less common etiology of stridor and respiratory distress in newborns and infants is congenital laryngeal saccular cyst. This entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of stridor. Early recognition and proper treatment are essential because it can cause life-threatening airway obstruction. We describe our experience with 4 patients with this disease, 3 of them successfully treated with microsurgical resection of the cyst, and we emphasize the importance of considering the endoscopic evaluation of the airway in every child exhibiting stridor with an unexpected evolution to determine the causal lesion.

  11. High-Pass Filtering at Vestibular Frequencies by Transducer Adaptation in Mammalian Saccular Hair Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Songer, Jocelyn E.; Eatock, Ruth Anne

    2011-11-01

    The mammalian saccule detects head tilt and low-frequency head accelerations as well as higher-frequency bone vibrations and sounds. It has two different hair cell types, I and II, dispersed throughout two morphologically distinct regions, the striola and extrastriola. Afferents from the two zones have distinct response dynamics which may arise partly from zonal differences in hair cell properties. We find that type II hair cells in the rat saccular epithelium adapt with a time course appropriate for influencing afferent responses to head motions. Moreover, striolar type II hair cells adapted by a greater extent than extrastriolar type II hair cells and had greater phase leads in the mid-frequency range (5-50 Hz). These differences suggest that hair cell transduction may contribute to zonal differences in the adaptation of vestibular afferents to head motions.

  12. [Congenital saccular cyst of the larynx: a rare cause of stridor in neonates and infants].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Hugo; Zanetta, Adrián; Cuestas, Giselle

    2013-01-01

    Stridor is a noise caused by the passage of turbulent air through a diminished airway caliber. Laryngomalacia is the most common congenital anomaly of the larynx and the principal cause of stridor in children under 6 months. A less common etiology of stridor and respiratory distress in newborns and infants is congenital laryngeal saccular cyst. This entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of stridor. Early recognition and proper treatment are essential because it can cause life-threatening airway obstruction. We describe our experience with 4 patients with this disease, 3 of them successfully treated with microsurgical resection of the cyst, and we emphasize the importance of considering the endoscopic evaluation of the airway in every child exhibiting stridor with an unexpected evolution to determine the causal lesion. PMID:23294971

  13. Extremely elongated mitochondria in ionocytes of the saccular epithelium of a teleost, Oreochromis mossambicus (Cichlidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muders, K.; Anken, R.; Ibsch, M.; Rahmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Unusually large mitochondria are a rather scarce feature in normal biological tissue and string-like giant mitochondria have hitherto not been reported in animals. Investigating the role of inner ear ionocytes for otolith growth, large ionocytes of the saccular epithelium of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus were analyzed by imaging of thick sections with energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy. We report here that ionocytes do not contain numerous small-sized mitochondria as has been suggested earlier but rather few, extremely elongated megamitochondria. Since the particular mitochondrial structure is important for normal cell function, such megamitochondria possibly reflect a functional advantage in the context of the presumed role of teleostean ionocytes in regulating the composition of the endolymphatic fluid.

  14. A new mouse model with cochleo-saccular type inner ear defects.

    PubMed

    Oda, S; Hanai, A; Masaki, S; Yonezawa, S

    2001-10-01

    We found a new inner ear mutant exhibiting abnormal behavior, such as circling and head shaking, in a breeding stock of SJL/J mice. The traits are inherited in a simple autosomal-recessive fashion. Animals homozygous for the responsible gene, designated cosa, show no startle response to sounds and an inability to swim. In the inner ears of cosa/cosa homozygous, but not +/cosa heterozygous adults, histopathological features of severe damage that are typical for 'cochleo-saccular' or 'spotting' mutants have been demonstrated. We suggest here that the abnormal mice carry a mutation of a gene that is developmentally switched on in the early stages of development and is involved in endolymph homeostasis.

  15. Magnetic Particle Imaging for High Temporal Resolution Assessment of Aneurysm Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Frölich, Andreas; Spallek, Johanna; Forkert, Nils D.; Faizy, Tobias D.; Werner, Franziska; Knopp, Tobias; Krause, Dieter; Fiehler, Jens; Buhk, Jan-Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the capability of magnetic particle imaging (MPI) to assess the hemodynamics in a realistic 3D aneurysm model obtained by additive manufacturing. MPI was compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dynamic digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Materials and Methods The aneurysm model was of saccular morphology (7 mm dome height, 5 mm cross-section, 3–4 mm neck, 3.5 mm parent artery diameter) and connected to a peristaltic pump delivering a physiological flow (250 mL/min) and pulsation rate (70/min). High-resolution (4 h long) 4D phase contrast flow quantification (4D pc-fq) MRI was used to directly assess the hemodynamics of the model. Dynamic MPI, MRI, and DSA were performed with contrast agent injections (3 mL volume in 3 s) through a proximally placed catheter. Results and Discussion 4D pc-fq measurements showed distinct pulsatile flow velocities (20–80 cm/s) as well as lower flow velocities and a vortex inside the aneurysm. All three dynamic methods (MPI, MRI, and DSA) also showed a clear pulsation pattern as well as delayed contrast agent dynamics within the aneurysm, which is most likely caused by the vortex within the aneurysm. Due to the high temporal resolution of MPI and DSA, it was possible to track the contrast agent bolus through the model and to estimate the average flow velocity (about 60 cm/s), which is in accordance with the 4D pc-fq measurements. Conclusions The ionizing radiation free, 4D high resolution MPI method is a very promising tool for imaging and characterization of hemodynamics in human. It carries the possibility of overcoming certain disadvantages of other modalities like considerably lower temporal resolution of dynamic MRI and limited 2D characteristics of DSA. Furthermore, additive manufacturing is the key for translating powerful pre-clinical techniques into the clinic. PMID:27494610

  16. Intrasplenic Arterial Aneurysms during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abu-khalaf, Mahmoud M. S.; Al-Ameer, Sokiyna M.; Smadi, Moath M.; Qatawneh, Ayman; Smara, Osama A.; Hadidy, Azmy T.

    2015-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms account for about 60% of all visceral aneurysms. Pregnancy is a risk factor for splenic artery aneurysms rupture with high maternal mortality and fetal loss. Intrasplenic arterial aneurysms are extremely rare and have not been reported to be associated with pregnancy. This report presents a 34-year-old woman during the second trimester, admitted with severe left upper quadrant and left shoulder pain. She had two uncomplicated intrasplenic aneurysms. Splenectomy was done. She delivered a full term healthy girl. This is the first report of acute abdomen during pregnancy caused by intrasplenic artery aneurysms with maternal and fetal survival. PMID:25810934

  17. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066

  18. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Stanlies

    2015-07-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome.

  19. Evaluation of flow with dynamic x-ray imaging for aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohatcu, Andreea Cristina

    The main goal of this thesis is to evaluate blood flow inside cerebrovascular aneurysms using dynamic x-ray imaging. X-ray contrast substance (dye) was auto injected in elastomer aneurysm models placed in a flow loop (for in-vitro studies) to trace flow passing through aneurysms. More specifically, an improved Time-Density Curves (TDC) Roentgen-videodensitometric tracking technique, that included looking to designated regions (R) within an aneurysm rather than focusing on the entire aneurysm, was employed to get information about blood flow using cine-angiographic sequences. It is the first time R-TDC technique has been used. In complex real-time interventions on patients, 2D/3D angiographic analysis of contrast media flow is the only reliable and rapid source of information that we have in order to assess the seriousness of the disease, suggest the treatment, and verify the result of the treatment. The present study focused on finding a "correlation metric" to quantitatively describe the flow behavior within the aneurysms and examine the hemodynamic implications of several treatments using flow modulating devices applied to saccular and bifurcation geometries aneurysms. The main idea in treatment of an aneurysm is rapid reduction of the risk of rupture. This is usually done endovascularly now by totally occluding the aneurysm by packing it with mechanical or chemical agents. Our research, however, involves a new method of blocking the neck using various types of asymmetric vascular stents (AVS). We proposed and analyzed, using R-TDCs, the feasibility of a new modified endovascular method of treatment based on alteration of blood flow through the aneurysm by partial occlusion only. In-vitro studies using aneurysm phantoms with patient-specific aneurysm models were performed. Also, for the first time the new methods were used in in-vivo studies as well, on rabbit-model experimental data, in an attempt to correlate thrombogenic response of a living organism to flow

  20. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final recommendation statement applies to adults ages ...

  1. Rasmussen's aneurysm: A forgotten scourge☆

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Kshitij; Colaco, Brendon; Colaco, Clinton; Hellman, Michael; Meena, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    Rasmussen's aneurysm is an inflammatory pseudo-aneurysmal dilatation of a branch of pulmonary artery adjacent to a tuberculous cavity. Life threatening massive hemoptysis from the rupture of a Rasmussen's aneurysm is an uncommon yet life threatening complication of cavitary tuberculosis (TB). We present a case of a young woman who presented with low-grade fever and hemoptysis. Computed tomographic (CT) angiography showed biapical cavitary lesions and actively bleeding aneurysms involving pulmonary artery, which successfully underwent glue embolization. PMID:26744661

  2. How Is an Aneurysm Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is an Aneurysm Diagnosed? If you have an aortic aneurysm but no symptoms, your doctor may find it ... a routine physical exam. More often, doctors find aneurysms during tests done for other reasons, such as ...

  3. Intracranial haemodynamics during attenuated responses to electroconvulsive therapy in the presence of an intracerebral aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Viguera, A; Rordorf, G; Schouten, R; Welch, C; Drop, L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—This report describes successful anaesthesia and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in a patient with an unruptured basilar artery aneurysm. ECT is associated with a hyperdynamic state characterised by arterial hypertension, tachycardia, and considerably increased cerebral blood flow rate and velocity. These responses pose an increased risk for subarachnoid haemorrhage when an intracranial aneurysm coexists.
METHODS—A 54 year old woman presented for ECT. She had a 20 year history of major depression which was unresponsive to three different antidepressant drugs. There was also an unruptured 5 mm saccular aneurysm at the basilar tip, which had been documented by cerebral angiography, but its size had remained unchanged for the previous four years. After she declined surgical intervention, she gave informed consent for ECT. During a series of seven ECT sessions middle cerebral artery flow velocity was recorded by a pulsed transcranial Doppler ultrasonography system. She was pretreated with 50 mg oral atenolol daily, continuing up to the day of the last ECT and immediately before each treatment, sodium nitroprusside was infused at a rate of 30 µg/min, to reduce systolic arterial pressure to 90-95 mm Hg.
RESULTS—Systolic flow velocity during the awake state ranged from 62-75 cm/s, remaining initially unchanged with sodium nitroprusside infusion. After induction of anaesthesia (0.5 mg/kg methohexitone and 0.9 mg/kg succinylcholine), flow velocities decreased to 39-54 cm/s, reaching maximal values of 90 cm/s (only 20% above baseline) after ECT. These flow velocities recorded post-ECT were considerably below the more than twofold increase recorded when no attenuating drugs were used. Systolic arterial blood pressure reached maximal values of 110-140 mm Hg and heart rate did not exceed 66 bpm. Rapid awakening followed each treatment, no focal or global neurological signs were apparent, and the patient was discharged in remission.
CONCLUSION—In a

  4. Perinatal increases in TGF-{alpha} disrupt the saccular phase of lung morphogenesis and cause remodeling: microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Elizabeth L; Deutsch, Gail H; Sartor, Maureen A; Hardie, William D; Ikegami, Machiko; Korfhagen, Thomas R; Le Cras, Timothy D

    2007-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) and its receptor, the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR), have been associated with lung remodeling in premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The goal of this study was to target TGF-alpha overexpression to the saccular phase of lung morphogenesis and determine early alterations in gene expression. Conditional lung-specific TGF-alpha bitransgenic mice and single-transgene control mice were generated. TGF-alpha overexpression was induced by doxycycline (Dox) treatment from embryonic day 16.5 (E16.5) to E18.5. After birth, all bitransgenic pups died by postnatal day 7 (P7). Lung histology at E18.5 and P1 showed abnormal lung morphogenesis in bitransgenic mice, characterized by mesenchymal thickening, vascular remodeling, and poor apposition of capillaries to distal air spaces. Surfactant levels (saturated phosphatidylcholine) were not reduced in bitransgenic mice. Microarray analysis was performed after 1 or 2 days of Dox treatment during the saccular (E17.5, E18.5) and alveolar phases (P4, P5) to identify genes induced by EGFR signaling that were shared or unique to each phase. We found 196 genes to be altered (>1.5-fold change; P < 0.01 for at least 2 time points), with only 32% similarly altered in both saccular and alveolar phases. Western blot analysis and immunostaining showed that five genes selected from the microarrays (egr-1, SP-B, SP-D, S100A4, and pleiotrophin) were also increased at the protein level. Pathological changes in TGF-alpha-overexpressing mice bore similarities to premature infants born in the saccular phase who develop BPD, including remodeling of the distal lung septae and arteries.

  5. The developmental segregation of posterior crista and saccular vestibular fibers in mice: a carbocyanine tracer study using confocal microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maklad, Adel; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    The developmental segregation of gravistatic input mediated by saccular fibers and of angular acceleration input mediated by posterior crista (PC) fibers was analyzed for the first time in a developing mammal using carbocyanine dye tracing in fixed tissue. The data reveal a more extensive projection of either endorgan in 7-day-old mice (P7) than has previously been reported in adult mammals. While we confirm and extend many previous findings, we also describe a novel segregation of saccular and posterior crista fibers in the anterior half of the medial vestibular nucleus (Mv) not reported before. Our developmental analysis shows a progressive segregation of posterior crista and saccular fibers to their respective discrete projection areas between embryonic day 15 (E15) and birth (P0). Retention of overlap in young adult animals appears to reflect the early embryonic overlap found in most areas. The vestibular projection does not show a topological projection as has been described in many other sensory systems. We propose that the unique projection features of the vestibular endorgans may relate to the transformation of vestibular signals into a motor output in the three neuron reflex arc of the VOR, of which the primary vestibular projection constitutes the first leg.

  6. Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms:

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, J.; Nguyen, T.; Chagnon, M.; Gevry, G.

    2007-01-01

    'if a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts; 'but if he will be content to begin with doubts he shall end in certainties'. Sir Francis Bacon, The Advancement of Learning Summary In the absence of level one evidence, the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms is grounded on opinions. Results of the largest registry available, ISUIA (the International Study on Unruptured Intraacranial Aneurysms) suggest that surgical or endovascular treatments are rarely justified. Yet the unruptured aneurysm is the most frequent indication for treatment in many endovascular centres. In preparation for the initiation of a randomized trial, we aimed at a better knowledge of endovascular expert opinions on unruptured aneurysms. We administered a standard questionnaire to 175 endovascular experts gathered at the WFITN meeting in Val d'lsère in 2007. Four paradigm unruptured aneurysms were used to poll opinions on risks of treatment or observation, as well as on their willingness to treat, observe or propose to the patient participation in a randomized trial, using six questions for each aneurysm. Opinions varied widely among lesions and among participants. Most participants (92.5%) were consistent, as they would offer treatment only if their estimate of the ten-year risk of spontaneous hemorrhage would exceed risks of treatment. Estimates of the natural history were consistently higher than that reported by ISUIA. Conversely, treatment risks were underestimated compared to those reported in ISUIA, but within the range reported in a recent French registry (ATENA). Participants were more confident in their evaluation of treatment risks and in their skills at treating aneurysms than in their estimates of risks of rupture entailed by the presence of the lesion, the latter being anchored at or close to 1% /year. The gulf between expert opinions, clinical practices and available data from registries persist. Expert opinions are compatible with the primary hypothesis

  7. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  8. Voltage-Mediated Control of Spontaneous Bundle Oscillations in Saccular Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Meenderink, Sebastiaan W F; Quiñones, Patricia M; Bozovic, Dolores

    2015-10-28

    Hair cells of the vertebrate vestibular and auditory systems convert mechanical inputs into electrical signals that are relayed to the brain. This transduction involves mechanically gated ion channels that open following the deflection of mechanoreceptive hair bundles that reside on top of these cells. The mechano-electrical transduction includes one or more active feedback mechanisms to keep the mechanically gated ion channels in their most sensitive operating range. Coupling between the gating of the mechanosensitive ion channels and this adaptation mechanism leads to the occurrence of spontaneous limit-cycle oscillations, which indeed have been observed in vitro in hair cells from the frog sacculus and the turtle basilar papilla. We obtained simultaneous optical and electrophysiological recordings from bullfrog saccular hair cells with such spontaneously oscillating hair bundles. The spontaneous bundle oscillations allowed us to characterize several properties of mechano-electrical transduction without artificial loading the hair bundle with a mechanical stimulus probe. We show that the membrane potential of the hair cell can modulate or fully suppress innate oscillations, thus controlling the dynamic state of the bundle. We further demonstrate that this control is exerted by affecting the internal calcium concentration, which sets the resting open probability of the mechanosensitive channels. The auditory and vestibular systems could use the membrane potential of hair cells, possibly controlled via efferent innervation, to tune the dynamic states of the cells.

  9. Voltage-Mediated Control of Spontaneous Bundle Oscillations in Saccular Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Meenderink, Sebastiaan W F; Quiñones, Patricia M; Bozovic, Dolores

    2015-10-28

    Hair cells of the vertebrate vestibular and auditory systems convert mechanical inputs into electrical signals that are relayed to the brain. This transduction involves mechanically gated ion channels that open following the deflection of mechanoreceptive hair bundles that reside on top of these cells. The mechano-electrical transduction includes one or more active feedback mechanisms to keep the mechanically gated ion channels in their most sensitive operating range. Coupling between the gating of the mechanosensitive ion channels and this adaptation mechanism leads to the occurrence of spontaneous limit-cycle oscillations, which indeed have been observed in vitro in hair cells from the frog sacculus and the turtle basilar papilla. We obtained simultaneous optical and electrophysiological recordings from bullfrog saccular hair cells with such spontaneously oscillating hair bundles. The spontaneous bundle oscillations allowed us to characterize several properties of mechano-electrical transduction without artificial loading the hair bundle with a mechanical stimulus probe. We show that the membrane potential of the hair cell can modulate or fully suppress innate oscillations, thus controlling the dynamic state of the bundle. We further demonstrate that this control is exerted by affecting the internal calcium concentration, which sets the resting open probability of the mechanosensitive channels. The auditory and vestibular systems could use the membrane potential of hair cells, possibly controlled via efferent innervation, to tune the dynamic states of the cells. PMID:26511238

  10. Siamang gibbons exceed the saccular threshold: Intensity of the song of Hylobates syndactylus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAngus Todd, Neil P.; Merker, Bjorn

    2004-06-01

    Measurements are reported of the intensity of the siamang gibbon loud call obtained from the vocal bouts of three family groups at Twycross Zoo, UK. Across 25 samples the maximum intensity ranged from 95 to 113 dB SPL (linear frequency-weighting and fast time-weighting) and exhibited three frequency modes of 250-315 Hz, 630-800 Hz and 1.2-1.6 kHz. The lowest frequency mode, which may correspond to the ``boom'' sound produced by resonance of the siamang inflated vocal sac, had a mean maximum intensity of 99 dB SPL. These values, which are in excess of the saccular acoustic threshold of about 90 dB at 300 Hz for air conducted sound, suggest that primate loud calls recruit a primitive mode of acoustic sensitivity furnished by the sacculus. Thus reproductive vocal behavior of primates may be influenced by a primitive acoustical reward pathway inherited from a common ancestor with anamniotes. In humans such a pathway could explain the compulsion for exposure to loud music.

  11. Extremely elongated Mitochondria in Ioncytes of the saccular Epithelium of a Teleost, Oreochromis mossambiscus (Cichlidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muders, K.; Anken, R.; Ibsch, M.; Rahmann, H.

    Earlier investigations have clearly shown that altered gravity affects the calcium incorporation of fish inner ear otoliths. The incorporation of such inorganic components requires a particular composition of the endolymph, which is maintained by specialized cells in the inner ear epithelium, which are responsible for ion exchange. These so-called ionocytes therefore may play an important role in altered gravity affected ion deposition on otoliths. In order to clarify the ultrastructure of ionocytes, respective cells within the saccular epithelium of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossamb cus were analyzed byi imaging of thick sections with energy -filtering transmission electron microscopy. It was found that ionocytes do not contain numerous mitochondria of litte size as has been suggested earlier but rather few, extremely elongated megamitochondria. Such worm-like mitochondria seemed hitherto to be restricted to some higher plants and fungi. Since the particular mitochondrial structure is important for normal cell function, such megamitochondria possibly reflect a functional advantage in the context of the presumed role of teleostean ionocytes in regulating the electrolyte composition of the endolymph. Acknowledgement: This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  12. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, L N; Singh, S N

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage from intracranial aneurysms in the paediatric age group is extremely rare. Interestingly, occurrence of vasospasm has been reported to be less in comparison to the adults. Both coiling and clipping have been advocated in selected cases. Because of the thinness of the wall of the arteries, utmost care should be taken while handling these arteries during surgery. The overall results of surgery in children have been reported to be better than their adult counterparts. We present four such cases from our own experience. All these children were operated upon, where the solitary aneurysm in each case was clipped and all of them made a good recovery.

  13. Endovascular aortic aneurysm operations.

    PubMed

    Najibi, Sasan; Terramani, Thomas T; Weiss, Victor J; Smith, Robert B; Salam, Atef A; Dodson, Thomas F; Chaikof, Elliot L; Lumsden, Alan B

    2002-02-01

    Options for the treatment of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms are in a state of evolutionary change. The development and continued refinement of the endoluminal approaches has decreased the need for open aortic aneurysm surgery. Endovascular stent graft technology is an area of active research in which both the delivery systems and the endografts are undergoing continued improvement so that patients with what was previously thought to be unfavorable anatomy may be treated by these means. The design and deployment techniques of the currently available endografts, as well as those in clinical trials, are presented. PMID:11822962

  14. Early Experience in the Treatment of Intra-Cranial Aneurysms by Endovascular Flow Diversion: A Multicentre Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, James V.; Beltechi, Radu; Yarnold, Julia A.; Birks, Jacqueline; Kamran, Mudassar

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Flow diversion is a new approach to the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms which uses a high density mesh stent to induce sac thrombosis. These devices have been designed for the treatment of complex shaped and large size aneurysms. So far published safety and efficacy data on this approach is sparse. Material and Methods Over 8 months, standardized clinical and angiographic data were collected on 70 patients treated with a flow diverter device (SILK flow diverter (SFD)) in 18 centres worldwide. Treatment and early follow up details were audited centrally. SFDs were deployed alone in 57 (81%) or with endosaccular coils in 10 (14%) aneurysms, which included: 44 (63%) saccular, 26 (37%) fusiform shapes and 18 (26%) small, 37 (53%) large, 15 (21%) giant sizes. Treatment outcome data up to 30 days were reported for all patients, with clinical (50 patients) and imaging (49 patients) follow up (median 119 days) data available. Results Difficulties in SFD deployment were reported in 15 (21%) and parent artery thrombosis in 8 (11%) procedures. Procedural complications caused stroke in 1 and serious extracranial bleeding in 3 patients; 2 of whom developed fatal pneumonias. Delayed worsening of symptoms occurred in 5 patients (3 transient, 1 permanent neurological deficit, and 1 death) and fatal aneurysm bleeding in 1 patient. Overall permanent morbidity rates were 2 (4%) and mortality 4 (8%). Statistical analysis revealed no significant association between complications and variables related to treated aneurysm morphology or rupture status. Conclusion This series is the largest reporting outcome of the new treatment approach and provides data for future study design. Procedural difficulties in SFD deployment were frequent and anti-thrombosis prophylaxis appears to reduce the resulting clinical sequelae, but at the cost of morbidity due to extracranial bleeding. Delayed morbidity appears to be a consequence of the new approach and warrants care in

  15. Unilateral cerebellar and brain stem hypoplasia in a child with a postnatal diagnosis of dissecting aneurysm in basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Akkas-Yazici, Sinem; Benbir, Gulcin; Kocer, Naci; Yalcinkaya, Cengiz

    2014-12-01

    Cerebellum is highly vulnerable in the prenatal period. Increasing experience with fetal imaging studies has demonstrated that unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia (UCH) is mainly prenatally acquired, representing disruption rather than a true malformation. Here, we report the case of a 17-month-old boy presented with a sudden onset of abnormal eye movements, who was diagnosed during routine fetal screening with UCH and brain stem hypoplasia and suffered from cerebral palsy; however, no posterior arterial system pathology was detected on cranial magnetic resonance images at that time. Following this acute event, diagnostic neuroradiological interventions revealed a dissecting aneurysm with a saccular component in midbasilar arterial segment and hypoplastic left posterior cerebral artery, which may support the ischemic disruptive mechanism in the development of prenatally detected UCH in this child. The pathogenetic mechanisms for cerebellar disruption are certainly multifactorial in origin, although ischemic arterial etiologies were often undervalued.

  16. Monoparesis after graft replacement of non-ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Hitoshi; Ogino, Hitoshi; Saito, Shunsuke; Sasaki, Hiroaki; Minatoya, Kenji; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Yagihara, Toshikatsu; Kitamura, Soichiro

    2006-10-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted with a saccular aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. Preoperative CT revealed cylindrical calcification of the abdominal aorta and the patent internal iliac arteries (IIAs). At the elective surgery, a cylinder-shaped and severely calcified intimal layer was found, and the lumbar arteries were totally occluded. Hypotension caused by the loose iliac clamp due to severe calcification continued for 15 minutes and long-time cross clamp was necessary. Monoparesis of the left lower extremity and dysuria occurred postoperatively. Spinal MRI revealed small infarction at the Th10 level. Symptoms improved and he could walk with a cane and within a few months no uninary catheter support was needed. Thoracic spinal cord infarction after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and a severely calcified abdominal aorta indicated the importance of the blood flow in the IIA as the significant source of spinal blood supply. To prevent spinal cord injury (SCI) which is rare but significant complication of AAA surgery, understanding of the spinal blood supply, quick surgery, and complete revascularization of pelvic arteries are important. PMID:17095985

  17. Vocal differentiation parallels development of auditory saccular sensitivity in a highly soniferous fish.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Raquel O; Alderks, Peter W; Ramos, Andreia; Fonseca, Paulo J; Amorim, M Clara P; Sisneros, Joseph A

    2015-09-01

    Vocal differentiation is widely documented in birds and mammals but has been poorly investigated in other vertebrates, including fish, which represent the oldest extant vertebrate group. Neural circuitry controlling vocal behaviour is thought to have evolved from conserved brain areas that originated in fish, making this taxon key to understanding the evolution and development of the vertebrate vocal-auditory systems. This study examines ontogenetic changes in the vocal repertoire and whether vocal differentiation parallels auditory development in the Lusitanian toadfish Halobatrachus didactylus (Batrachoididae). This species exhibits a complex acoustic repertoire and is vocally active during early development. Vocalisations were recorded during social interactions for four size groups (fry: <2 cm; small juveniles: 2-4 cm; large juveniles: 5-7 cm; adults >25 cm, standard length). Auditory sensitivity of juveniles and adults was determined based on evoked potentials recorded from the inner ear saccule in response to pure tones of 75-945 Hz. We show an ontogenetic increment in the vocal repertoire from simple broadband-pulsed 'grunts' that later differentiate into four distinct vocalisations, including low-frequency amplitude-modulated 'boatwhistles'. Whereas fry emitted mostly single grunts, large juveniles exhibited vocalisations similar to the adult vocal repertoire. Saccular sensitivity revealed a three-fold enhancement at most frequencies tested from small to large juveniles; however, large juveniles were similar in sensitivity to adults. We provide the first clear evidence of ontogenetic vocal differentiation in fish, as previously described for higher vertebrates. Our results suggest a parallel development between the vocal motor pathway and the peripheral auditory system for acoustic social communication in fish. PMID:26400979

  18. Spontaneous low-frequency voltage oscillations in frog saccular hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Catacuzzeno, Luigi; Fioretti, Bernard; Perin, Paola; Franciolini, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneous membrane voltage oscillations were found in 27 of 130 isolated frog saccular hair cells. Voltage oscillations had a mean peak-to-peak amplitude of 23 mV and a mean oscillatory frequency of 4.6 Hz. When compared with non-oscillatory cells, oscillatory cells had significantly greater hyperpolarization-activated and lower depolarization-activated current densities. Two components, the hyperpolarization-activated cation current, Ih, and the K+-selective inward-rectifier current, IK1, contributed to the hyperpolarization-activated current, as assessed by the use of the IK1-selective inhibitor Ba2+ and the Ih-selective inhibitor ZD-7288. Five depolarization-activated currents were present in these cells (transient IBK, sustained IBK, IDRK, IA, and ICa), and all were found to have significantly lower densities in oscillatory cells than in non-oscillatory cells (revealed by using TEA to block IBK, 4-AP to block IDRK, and prepulses at different voltages to isolate IA). Bath application of either Ba2+ or ZD-7288 suppressed spontaneous voltage oscillations, indicating that Ih and IK1 are required for generating this activity. On the contrary, TEA or Cd2+ did not inhibit this activity, suggesting that IBK and ICa do not contribute. A mathematical model has been developed to test the interpretation derived from the pharmacological and biophysical data. This model indicates that spontaneous voltage oscillations can be generated when the electrophysiological features of oscillatory cells are used. The oscillatory behaviour is principally driven by the activity of IK1 and Ih, with IA playing a modulatory role. In addition, the model indicates that the high densities of depolarization-activated currents expressed by non-oscillatory cells help to stabilize the resting membrane potential, thus preventing the spontaneous oscillations. PMID:15489251

  19. Irregular primary otolith afferents from the guinea pig utricular and saccular maculae respond to both bone conducted vibration and to air conducted sound.

    PubMed

    Curthoys, Ian S; Vulovic, Vedran; Sokolic, Ljiljana; Pogson, Jacob; Burgess, Ann M

    2012-10-01

    This study sought to identify in guinea pig the peripheral sense organ of origin of otolith irregular primary vestibular afferent neurons having a very sensitive response to both air-conducted sound (ACS) and bone-conducted vibration (BCV). Neurons responding to both types of stimuli were labelled by juxtacellular labelling by neurobiotin. Whole mounts of the maculae showed that some vestibular afferents activated by both ACS and BCV originate from the utricular macula and some from the saccular macula - there is no "afferent specificity" by one sense organ for ACS and the other for BCV - instead some afferents from both sense organs have sensitive responses to both stimuli. The clinical implication of this result is that differential evaluation of the functional status of the utricular and saccular maculae cannot rely on stimulus type (ACS vs BCV), however the differential motor projections of the utricular and saccular maculae allow for differential evaluation of each sense organ.

  20. Irregular primary otolith afferents from the guinea pig utricular and saccular maculae respond to both bone conducted vibration and to air conducted sound.

    PubMed

    Curthoys, Ian S; Vulovic, Vedran; Sokolic, Ljiljana; Pogson, Jacob; Burgess, Ann M

    2012-10-01

    This study sought to identify in guinea pig the peripheral sense organ of origin of otolith irregular primary vestibular afferent neurons having a very sensitive response to both air-conducted sound (ACS) and bone-conducted vibration (BCV). Neurons responding to both types of stimuli were labelled by juxtacellular labelling by neurobiotin. Whole mounts of the maculae showed that some vestibular afferents activated by both ACS and BCV originate from the utricular macula and some from the saccular macula - there is no "afferent specificity" by one sense organ for ACS and the other for BCV - instead some afferents from both sense organs have sensitive responses to both stimuli. The clinical implication of this result is that differential evaluation of the functional status of the utricular and saccular maculae cannot rely on stimulus type (ACS vs BCV), however the differential motor projections of the utricular and saccular maculae allow for differential evaluation of each sense organ. PMID:22814095

  1. The morphology of saccular otoliths as a tool to identify different mugilid species from the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callicó Fortunato, Roberta; Benedito Durà, Vicent; Volpedo, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    In the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea there are 8 species of the Mugilidae family: Mugil cephalus, Liza aurata, Liza ramada, Oedalechilus labeo, Chelon labrosus, Liza saliens, Liza carinata and Liza haematocheila. The identification of mugilids is very important for local fisheries management and regulations, but it is difficult using gross morphological characters. This work aims to contribute to the identification of mullets present in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using saccular otolith features of each species. Specimens of C. labrosus, L. aurata, L. ramada, L. saliens and M. cephalus were obtained from Delta del Ebro (40°38'N-0°44'E) in artisanal catches. For L. carinata and O. labeo photographs extracted from AFORO online database were used. L. haematocheila was not studied for lack of otolith samples. A general pattern of the saccular otoliths for this family was identified: the shape of the otoliths are rectangular to oblong with irregular margins; they present a heterosulcoid, ostial sulcus acusticus, with an open funnel-like ostium to the anterior margin and a closed, tubular cauda, ending towards the posterior ventral corner, always larger than the ostium. In the present study, the mugilid species could be recognized using their saccular otolith morphology. Here we give the first key to identify Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean mullets. The distinctive features between the species were the position and centrality of the sulcus, the curvature of the cauda, the presence of areal depositions and plateaus, and the type of anterior and posterior regions. These features could be used not only to reinforce the identification keys through morphological and meristic characters of the species, but also to identify the species consumed by piscivores, being the otoliths the only identifiable remains of the individuals.

  2. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are heavily dependent on type I hair cell activity of the saccular macula in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Lue, June-Horng; Day, An-Shiou; Cheng, Po-Wen; Young, Yi-Ho

    2009-01-01

    This study applied the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test to guinea pigs coupled with electronic microscopic examination to determine whether VEMPs are dependent on type I or II hair cell activity of the saccular macula. An amount of 0.05 ml of gentamicin (40 mg/ml) was injected directly overlaying, but not through, the round window membrane of the left ear in guinea pigs.One week after surgery, auditory brainstem response test revealed normal responses in 12 animals (80%), and elevated thresholds in 3 animals (20%). The VEMP test using click stimulation showed absent responses in all 15 animals (100%). Another 6 gentamicin-treated animals underwent the VEMP test using galvanic stimulation and all 6 also displayed absent responses. Ultrathin sections of the saccular macula in the gentamicin-treated ears displayed morphologic alterations in type I or II hair cells, including shrinkage and/or vacuolization in the cytoplasm, increased electron density of the cytoplasm and nuclear chromatin, and cellular lucency. However, extrusion degeneration was rare and only present in type II hair cells. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the histological density of intact type I hair cells was 1.1 +/- 1.2/4000 microm(2) in the gentamicin-treated ears, showing significantly less than that in control ears (4.5 +/- 1.8/4000 microm(2)). However, no significant difference was observed in the densities of intact type II hair cells and supporting cells between treated and control ears. Furthermore, the calyx terminals surrounding the damaged type I hair cells were swollen and disrupted, while the button afferents contacting the damaged type II hair cells were not obviously deformed. Based on the above results, we therefore conclude that VEMPs are heavily dependent on type I hair cell activity of the saccular macula in guinea pigs.

  3. Successful treatment of a ruptured aneurysm at the vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery junction and simultaneous treatment of the stenotic vertebral artery with a single flow-diverting stent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This is the first report on the simultaneous successful treatment of a large ruptured saccular aneurysm and stenotic parent artery with a single flow-diverting stent. Case presentation We report the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian man with occlusion of the right vertebral artery and a ruptured aneurysm at the junction of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery-left vertebral artery that was successfully treated by the deployment of a single flow-diverting stent in the stenotic left vertebral artery. Stent deployment was complicated by thrombotic occlusion of the basilar artery, which was successfully reopened. The patient recovered completely, and follow-up angiography at 4 months and 1 year showed patent vertebral artery with gradual shrinkage of the aneurysm. Conclusions This report contributes to the literature on treatment of large ruptured aneurysms localized in stenotic arteries and in areas of the endocranium where a mass of embolic material in the aneurysm (coils) might compromise the circulation in the parent blood vessel or compress vital brain structures. PMID:24886040

  4. Idiopathic internal mammary artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Heyn, Jens; Zimmermann, Hanna; Klose, Alexander; Luchting, Benjamin; Hinske, Christian; Sadeghi-Azandaryani, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysms of the internal mammary artery are extremely rare, and their presentation and treatment are variable. Since these aneurysms often tend to rupture and cause haemothorax and life-threatening conditions, the knowledge of secure treatment options is indispensable. We here report the case of an idiopathic internal mammary aneurysm in a 46-year-old man. Open surgical resection of the aneurysm was performed in this case without any complications. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was in a good physical condition without any vascular or neurological abnormalities during follow-up. PMID:25452261

  5. 21 CFR 882.5200 - Aneurysm clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...

  6. 21 CFR 882.5200 - Aneurysm clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...

  7. 21 CFR 882.5200 - Aneurysm clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...

  8. 21 CFR 882.5200 - Aneurysm clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...

  9. 21 CFR 882.5200 - Aneurysm clip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aneurysm clip. 882.5200 Section 882.5200 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5200 Aneurysm clip. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip is a device used to occlude an intracranial aneurysm (a balloonlike sac formed on a blood...

  10. Voltage-Mediated Control of Spontaneous Bundle Oscillations in Saccular Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.; Quiñones, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells of the vertebrate vestibular and auditory systems convert mechanical inputs into electrical signals that are relayed to the brain. This transduction involves mechanically gated ion channels that open following the deflection of mechanoreceptive hair bundles that reside on top of these cells. The mechano-electrical transduction includes one or more active feedback mechanisms to keep the mechanically gated ion channels in their most sensitive operating range. Coupling between the gating of the mechanosensitive ion channels and this adaptation mechanism leads to the occurrence of spontaneous limit-cycle oscillations, which indeed have been observed in vitro in hair cells from the frog sacculus and the turtle basilar papilla. We obtained simultaneous optical and electrophysiological recordings from bullfrog saccular hair cells with such spontaneously oscillating hair bundles. The spontaneous bundle oscillations allowed us to characterize several properties of mechano-electrical transduction without artificial loading the hair bundle with a mechanical stimulus probe. We show that the membrane potential of the hair cell can modulate or fully suppress innate oscillations, thus controlling the dynamic state of the bundle. We further demonstrate that this control is exerted by affecting the internal calcium concentration, which sets the resting open probability of the mechanosensitive channels. The auditory and vestibular systems could use the membrane potential of hair cells, possibly controlled via efferent innervation, to tune the dynamic states of the cells. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The sensation of sound and balance starts by converting minute mechanical motions into electrical signals. This is accomplished by sensory hair cells, in which the opening and closing of mechanosensitive channels follows the motion of their hair bundles. These hair bundles can exhibit motility without an external drive. Underlying these spontaneous bundle oscillations are two

  11. Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, J.; Guillemin, F.; Proust, F.; Molyneux, A.J.; Fox, A.J.; Claiborne, J.S.; Meder, J.-F.; Rouleau, I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The preventive treatment of unruptured aneur­ysms has been performed for decades despite the lack of evidence of a clinical benefit. Reports of observational studies such as the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) suggest that preventive treatments are rarely justified. Are these reports compelling enough to guide clinical practice? The ISUIA methods and data are reviewed and analysed in a more conventional manner. The design of the appropriate clinical research program is approached by steps, reviewing potential problems, from the formulation of the precise research question to the interpretation of subgroup analyses, including sample size, representativity, duration of observation period, blin­ding, definition of outcome events, analysis of cross-overs, losses to follow-up, and data reporting. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms observed in ISUIA ruptured at a minimal annual rate of 0.8% (0.5-1%), despite multiple methodological difficulties biased in favour of a benign natural history. Available registries do not have the power or the design capable of providing normative guidelines for clinical decisions. The appropriate method to solve the clinical dilemma is a multicentric trial comparing the incidence of a hard clinical outcome events in approximately 2000 patients randomly allocated to a treatment group and a deferred treatment group, all followed for ten years or more. Observational studies have failed to provide reliable evidence in favour or against the preventive treatment of unruptured aneurysms. A randomized trial is in order to clarify what is the role of prevention in this common clinical problem. PMID:20557790

  12. Development of utricular otoliths, but not saccular otoliths, is necessary for vestibular function and survival in zebrafish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, B. B.; Moorman, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    We have been studying the consequences of embryonic vestibular dysfunction caused by the monolith (mnl) mutation in zebrafish. mnl is a dominant mutation that specifically inhibits formation of utricular otoliths. However, briefly immobilizing mnl/mnl embryos in agarose with the otic vesicle orientated at certain angles selectively induces or prevents formation of utricular and/or saccular otoliths. With this noninvasive technique, we generated six phenotypic classes of mnl/mnl mutants, designated S-S, U-U, U-S, S-US, U-US, and US-US, depending on which otoliths are present on each side (U, utricular otolith; S, saccular otolith). All mnl/mnl larvae survived through day 10 of development. Thereafter, S-S larvae showed a rapid decline, probably because of starvation, and none survived to adulthood. Survival rates in all other classes of mnl/mnl larvae (those having at least one utricular otolith) were close to normal. The presence or absence of utricular otoliths also correlated with vestibular function during early larval development, as measured by three criteria: First, unlike wild-type larvae, S-S mutant larvae showed almost no detectable counter-rotation of the eyes when tilted tail up or tail down. Second, 95% of S-S mutant larvae never acquired the ability to maintain a balanced dorsal-up posture. Third, although most wild-type larvae responded to gentle prodding by swimming in a straight line, S-S larvae responded by swimming in rapid circles, showing sudden and frequent changes in direction ("zigzagging"), and/or rolling and spiraling. All other phenotypic classes of mnl/mnl larvae behaved normally in these assays. These data demonstrate that bilateral loss of utricular otoliths disrupts the ability to sense gravity, severely impairs balance and motor coordination, and is invariably lethal. The presence of a utricular otolith in at least one inner ear is necessary and sufficient for vestibular function and survival. In contrast, saccular otoliths are

  13. Spontaneous thrombosis in giant intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, I R; Dorsch, N W; Besser, M

    1982-01-01

    Twelve patients in a series of 22 with giant intracranial aneurysms demonstrated neuroradiological features of partial or total spontaneous intra-aneurysmal thrombosis. The presence of this intra-aneurysmal clot significantly altered the computed tomographic appearance of the giant aneurysm. Massive intra-aneurysmal thrombosis did not protect against subarachnoid haemorrhage and the likelihood of rupture of a clot containing giant aneurysm was not significantly different from that of a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. Although parent artery occlusion from a thrombosed giant aneurysm, and massive aneurysmal thrombosis leading to the formation of giant serpentine aneurysm were documented, these are rare epiphenomena. The risk of embolisation from a partially thrombosed giant aneurysm, which was documented in one case, would appear to be greater than that from a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. The findings in this series, and a review of literature, suggest that the presence of intra-aneurysmal clot in giant intracranial aneurysms has little prognostic significance and does not alter the management or outcome after treatment. Images PMID:7175528

  14. Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Phade, Sachin V.; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies. PMID:22121487

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of abdominal aortic aneurysms. [Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.K.T.; Ling, D.; Heiken, J.P.; Glazer, H.S.; Sicard, G.A.; Totty, W.G.; Levitt, R.G.; Murphy, W.A.

    1984-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 20 patients with radiologically or surgically proven abdominal aortic aneurysms using a Siemens Magnetom scanner with a 0.35-T superconductive magnet. Of nine patients who underwent surgical repair, MRI correctly demonstrated the origin of the aortic aneurysm in nine and accurately determined the status of the iliac arteries in eight. Of 11 patients who did not have surgical repair, MRI findings correlated well with other radiologic studies. MRI was found to be more reliable than sonography in determining the relation between the aneurysm and the renal arteries as well as the status of the iliac arteries. Despite these advantages, the authors still advocate sonography as the screening procedure of choice in patients with suspected abdominal aortic aneurysms because of its lower cost and ease of performance. MRI should be reserved for patients who have had unsuccessful or equivocal sonographic examinations.

  16. Asymptomatic pseudo-aneurysm of the aortic arch in a patient with aberrant right subclavian artery. A complication of Kommerell's diverticulum?

    PubMed

    Panagiotou, Matthew; Filias, Vasilios; Prokakis, Christos; Koletsis, Efsrtratios

    2008-08-01

    Kommerell's diverticulum is an aortic arch deformity associated with an aberrant subclavian artery. Symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures, dilatation of the aortic diverticulum or accelerated atherosclerosis leading to increased risks of dissection and rupture represent the indications for surgical treatment. Several surgical strategies have been used for the management of this congenital abnormality. We present the case of a 56-year-old male with a pseudo-aneurysm of a left aortic arch adjacent to a Kommerell's diverticulum at the orifice of a left subclavian artery. The patient also presented an aberrant right subclavian artery originating from the posterior wall of the ecstatic take-off of the left subclavian artery. Our surgical strategy was limited to the resection of the aneurysm without any manipulation of the aortic diverticulum and aberrant right subclavian artery, as the wall of both aorta adjacent to the saccular aneurysm and left subclavian artery was normal, the Kommerell's diverticulum was small and the patient was asymptomatic.

  17. Idiopathic cystic artery aneurysm complicated with hemobilia.

    PubMed

    Anand, Utpal; Thakur, Sanjeev Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Jha, Achyutanand; Prakash, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    Aneurysm of the cystic artery is not common, and it is a rare cause of hemobilia. Most of reported cases are pseudoaneurysms resulting from either an inflammatory process in the abdomen or abdominal trauma. We report a healthy individual who developed hemobilia associated with cystic artery aneurysm. The patient was managed with cholecystectomy and concomitant aneurysm repair. Visceral artery aneurysms are rare and can rupture with potentially grave outcome due to excessive bleeding. Angiographic embolization is a common method of treatment for visceral artery aneurysms. Open cholecystectomy and aneurysm repair was performed in our patient due to radiological evidence of associated cholecystitis.

  18. Smooth Muscle Cell Foam Cell Formation, Apolipoproteins, and ABCA1 in Intracranial Aneurysms: Implications for Lipid Accumulation as a Promoter of Aneurysm Wall Rupture.

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Eliisa; Tulamo, Riikka; Lehti, Satu; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Kovanen, Petri T; Frösen, Juhana

    2016-07-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysm (sIA) aneurysm causes intracranial hemorrhages that are associated with high mortality. Lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation occur in the sIA wall. A major mechanism for lipid clearance from arteries is adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1)-mediated lipid efflux from foam cells to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). We investigated the association of wall degeneration, inflammation, and lipid-related parameters in tissue samples of 16 unruptured and 20 ruptured sIAs using histology and immunohistochemistry. Intracellular lipid accumulation was associated with wall remodeling (p = 0.005) and rupture (p = 0.020). Foam cell formation was observed in smooth muscle cells, in addition to CD68- and CD163-positive macrophages. Macrophage infiltration correlated with intracellular lipid accumulation and apolipoproteins, including apoA-I. ApoA-I correlated with markers of lipid accumulation and wall degeneration (p = 0.01). ApoA-I-positive staining colocalized with ABCA1-positive cells particularly in sIAs with high number of smooth muscle cells (p = 0.003); absence of such colocalization was associated with wall degeneration (p = 0.017). Known clinical risk factors for sIA rupture correlated inversely with apoA-I. We conclude that lipid accumulation associates with sIA wall degeneration and risk of rupture, possibly via formation of foam cells and subsequent loss of mural cells. Reduced removal of lipids from the sIA wall via ABCA1-apoA-I pathway may contribute to this process.

  19. Smooth Muscle Cell Foam Cell Formation, Apolipoproteins, and ABCA1 in Intracranial Aneurysms: Implications for Lipid Accumulation as a Promoter of Aneurysm Wall Rupture.

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Eliisa; Tulamo, Riikka; Lehti, Satu; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Kovanen, Petri T; Frösen, Juhana

    2016-07-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysm (sIA) aneurysm causes intracranial hemorrhages that are associated with high mortality. Lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation occur in the sIA wall. A major mechanism for lipid clearance from arteries is adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1)-mediated lipid efflux from foam cells to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). We investigated the association of wall degeneration, inflammation, and lipid-related parameters in tissue samples of 16 unruptured and 20 ruptured sIAs using histology and immunohistochemistry. Intracellular lipid accumulation was associated with wall remodeling (p = 0.005) and rupture (p = 0.020). Foam cell formation was observed in smooth muscle cells, in addition to CD68- and CD163-positive macrophages. Macrophage infiltration correlated with intracellular lipid accumulation and apolipoproteins, including apoA-I. ApoA-I correlated with markers of lipid accumulation and wall degeneration (p = 0.01). ApoA-I-positive staining colocalized with ABCA1-positive cells particularly in sIAs with high number of smooth muscle cells (p = 0.003); absence of such colocalization was associated with wall degeneration (p = 0.017). Known clinical risk factors for sIA rupture correlated inversely with apoA-I. We conclude that lipid accumulation associates with sIA wall degeneration and risk of rupture, possibly via formation of foam cells and subsequent loss of mural cells. Reduced removal of lipids from the sIA wall via ABCA1-apoA-I pathway may contribute to this process. PMID:27283327

  20. Haemodynamics of giant cerebral aneurysm: A comparison between the rigid-wall, one-way and two-way FSI models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Bobkova, M. S.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a computer simulation of a blood flow in cerebral vessels with a giant saccular aneurysm at the bifurcation of the basilar artery is performed. The modelling is based on patient-specific clinical data (both flow domain geometry and boundary conditions for the inlets and outlets). The hydrodynamic and mechanical parameters are calculated in the frameworks of three models: rigid-wall assumption, one-way FSI approach, and full (two-way) hydroelastic model. A comparison of the numerical solutions shows that mutual fluid- solid interaction can result in qualitative changes in the structure of the fluid flow. Other characteristics of the flow (pressure, stress, strain and displacement) qualitatively agree with each other in different approaches. However, the quantitative comparison shows that accounting for the flow-vessel interaction, in general, decreases the absolute values of these parameters. Solving of the hydroelasticity problem gives a more detailed solution at a cost of highly increased computational time.

  1. Hemodynamic Intervention of Cerebral Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hui

    2005-11-01

    Cerebral aneurysm is a pathological vascular response to hemodynamic stimuli. Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms essentially alters the blood flow to stop them from continued growth and eventual rupture. Compared to surgical clipping, endovascular methods are minimally invasive and hence rapidly gaining popularity. However, they are not always effective with risks of aneurysm regrowth and various complications. We aim at developing a Virtual Intervention (VI) platform that allows: patient-specific flow calculation and risk prediction as well as recommendation of tailored intervention based on quantitative analysis. This is a lofty goal requiring advancement in three areas of research: (1). Advancement of image-based CFD; (2) Understanding the biological/pathological responses of tissue to hemodynamic factors in the context of cerebral aneurysms; and (3) Capability of designing and testing patient-specific endovascular devices. We have established CFD methodologies based on anatomical geometry obtained from 3D angiographic or CT images. To study the effect of hemodynamics on aneurysm development, we have created a canine model of a vascular bifurcation anastomosis to provide the hemodynamic environment similar to those in CA. Vascular remodeling was studied using histology and compared against the flow fields obtained from CFD. It was found that an intimal pad, similar to those frequently seen clinically, developed at the flow impingement site, bordering with an area of `groove' characteristic of an early stage of aneurysm, where the micro environment exhibits an elevated wall shear stresses. To further address the molecular mechanisms of the flow-mediated aneurysm pathology, we are also developing in vitro cell culture systems to complement the in vivo study. Our current effort in endovascular device development focuses on novel stents that alters the aneurysmal flow to promote thrombotic occlusion as well as favorable remodeling. Realization of an

  2. Aneurysm of the Splenic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, P. D.; Lodge, Brian

    1960-01-01

    This paper records an incidence of 10·4% of aneurysm of the splenic artery in 250 consecutive routine post-mortem examinations. Medial degeneration seemed to be the commonest cause of such aneurysms and although a number were associated with other intraabdominal pathology, including portal hypertension, the association may be fortuitous and not causal. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:13688586

  3. Flow Diverters for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Alderazi, Yazan J.; Kass-Hout, Tareq; Prestigiacomo, Charles J.; Gandhi, Chirag D.

    2014-01-01

    Flow diverters (pipeline embolization device, Silk flow diverter, and Surpass flow diverter) have been developed to treat intracranial aneurysms. These endovascular devices are placed within the parent artery rather than the aneurysm sac. They take advantage of altering hemodynamics at the aneurysm/parent vessel interface, resulting in gradual thrombosis of the aneurysm occurring over time. Subsequent inflammatory response, healing, and endothelial growth shrink the aneurysm and reconstruct the parent artery lumen while preserving perforators and side branches in most cases. Flow diverters have already allowed treatment of previously untreatable wide neck and giant aneurysms. There are risks with flow diverters including in-stent thrombosis, perianeurysmal edema, distant and delayed hemorrhages, and perforator occlusions. Comparative efficacy and safety against other therapies are being studied in ongoing trials. Antiplatelet therapy is mandatory with flow diverters, which has highlighted the need for better evidence for monitoring and tailoring antiplatelet therapy. In this paper we review the devices, their uses, associated complications, evidence base, and ongoing studies. PMID:24967131

  4. When Blood Vessels Bulge: All About Aneurysms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vessels Bulge When Blood Vessels Bulge All About Aneurysms An aneurysm—a balloon-like bulge in an artery—can ... for years without causing any symptoms. But an aneurysm is a silent threat to your health. If ...

  5. Aneurysms - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Aneurysms URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/aneurysms.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  6. Medical management of small abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Baxter, B Timothy; Terrin, Michael C; Dalman, Ronald L

    2008-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common condition that may be lethal when it is unrecognized. Current guidelines suggest repair as the aneurysm diameter reaches 5.0 to 5.5 cm. Most aortic aneurysms are detected incidentally when imaging is done for other purposes or through screening programs. Ninety percent of these aneurysms are below the threshold for intervention at the time of detection. A number of studies have sought to determine factors that lead to progression of aneurysmal disease that might be amenable to intervention during this period of observation. We review these studies and make recommendations for the medical management of small abdominal aortic aneurysms. On the basis of our current knowledge of the causes of aneurysm, a number of approaches have been proposed to prevent progression of aneurysmal disease. These include hemodynamic management, inhibition of inflammation, and protease inhibition. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association clinical practice guidelines rules of evidence have helped to define strength of evidence to support these approaches. Level A evidence (from large randomized trials) is available to indicate that observation of small aneurysms in men is safe up to a size of 5.5 cm and that propranolol does not inhibit aneurysm expansion. Level B evidence (from small randomized trials) suggests that roxithromycin or doxycycline will decrease the rate of aneurysm expansion. A number of studies agree that tobacco use is associated with an increased rate of aneurysm expansion. Level B and C evidence is available to suggest that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) may inhibit aneurysm expansion. There are animal data but no human data demonstrating that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or losartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, will decrease the rate of AAA expansion. A pharmacological agent without important side effects that inhibited aneurysm expansion could change

  7. Endovascular Exclusion of Renal Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Poul Erik Rohr, Nils

    2005-06-15

    A patient who was operated for an abdominal aortic aneurysm 7 years earlier presented with recently discovered iliac and renal artery aneurysms. The renal artery had an angulation of 90{sup o}, but the aneurysm was successfully excluded using a covered vascular stent graft placed over an extrastiff guidewire. Even in cases of complex anatomy of a renal aneurysm, endovascular treatment should be considered. With development of more flexible and low-profile endoprosthesis with accurate deployment, these have become more usable.

  8. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  9. Transcatheter Coil Embolization of Splenic Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Satoshi Hirota, Shozo; Maeda, Hiroaki; Achiwa, Sachiko Arai, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Nakao, Norio

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical results and technical problems of transcatheter coil embolization for splenic artery aneurysm. Subjects were 16 patients (8 men, 8 women; age range, 40-80 years) who underwent transcatheter embolization for splenic artery aneurysm (14 true aneurysms, 2 false aneurysms) at one of our hospitals during the period January 1997 through July 2005. Two aneurysms (12.5%) were diagnosed at the time of rupture. Multiple splenic aneurysms were found in seven patients. Aneurysms were classified by site as proximal (or strictly ostial) (n = 3), middle (n = 3), or hilar (n = 10). The indication for transcatheter arterial embolization was a false or true aneurysm 20 mm in diameter. Embolic materials were fibered coils and interlocking detachable coils. Embolization was performed by the isolation technique, the packing technique, or both. Technically, all aneurysms were devascularized without severe complications. Embolized aneurysms were 6-40 mm in diameter (mean, 25 mm). Overall, the primary technical success rate was 88% (14 of 16 patients). In the remaining 2 patients (12.5%), partial recanalization occurred, and re-embolization was performed. The secondary technical success rate was 100%. Seven (44%) of the 16 study patients suffered partial splenic infarction. Intrasplenic branching originating from the aneurysm was observed in five patients. We conclude that transcatheter coil embolization should be the initial treatment of choice for splenic artery aneurysm.

  10. Hepatic artery mycotic aneurysm of tubercular aetiology.

    PubMed

    Beeresha; Ghotekar, L H; Dutta, T K; Verma, S K; Elangovan, S

    2000-02-01

    Hepatic artery aneurysm caused by tuberculosis is extremely rare, the commonest being atherosclerosis and vasculitis. A 13 year boy admitted with suspected disseminated tuberculosis had a hepatic bruit. Patient died of aneurysmal rupture before antemortem etiological diagnosis could be established. Postmortem examination revealed widespread tubercular lesions in the chest and abdomen and hepatic artery aneurysm.

  11. Current concepts of pathophysiology and management of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Findlay, J M; Macdonald, R L; Weir, B K

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 10 in 100,000 persons suffer rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm annually, and roughly 60% of these will survive the initial catastrophe in reasonable neurological condition. Of the many ensuing complications of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most frustrating continues to be a form of delayed-onset cerebral arterial narrowing known as vasospasm. Because it is caused by thick subarachnoid blood clots coating the adventitial surface of cerebral arteries, the distribution and severity of vasospasm correlates closely with location and volume of subarachnoid hematoma as visualized on computed tomography (CT). Critical vasospasm causes cerebral ischemia and infarction: the "second stroke." It is now know that vasospasm represents sustained arterial contraction rather than structural thickening of the vessel wall with lumen encroachment. A large body of evidence points to oxyhemoglobin, released from lysing erythrocytes, as the principal component of blood clot responsible for this contraction. The precise mechanism by which oxyhemoglobin causes prolonged vascular smooth muscle cell constriction has not yet been established, but possibilities include secondary generation of vasoactive free radicals, lipid peroxides, eicosanoids, bilirubin, and endothelin. Vasospasm treatments are directed at preventing or reversing arterial narrowing, or at preventing or reversing cerebral ischemia. Several treatments from the latter category, namely, hypertensive, hypervolemic hemodilutional therapy and the calcium channel blocker nimodipine, have proven moderately effective and are in widespread clinical use. It has also been possible to mechanically dilate vasospastic vessels with transluminal angioplasty improving cerebral blood flow to ischemic brain. However we are still in need of an effective agent to prevent arterial narrowing, and several hopeful candidates in this category of treatment are clot lytic agent tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and

  12. Blood blister-like aneurysms: single center experience and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ana Marcos; Narata, Ana Paula; Yilmaz, Hasan; Bijlenga, Philippe; Radovanovic, Ivan; Schaller, Karl; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Pereira, Vitor Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) are a controversial entity. They arise from non-branching sites on the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) and are suspected to originate from a dissection. Our aim is to describe the BBA cases seen in our center and to present a systematic review of the literature on BBAs. We analyzed the eleven cases of BBA admitted to our center from 2003 to 2012. We assessed the medical history, treatment modality (endovascular and/or surgery), complications and clinical outcome. The cohort included 8 women and 4 men with a mean age of 53.16 years. Treatment of the BBA consisted of stenting and coiling in 5 patients, stenting only in 4 patients, coiling and clipping in 1 patient, clipping only in 1 patient, and conservative treatment in 1 patient. A good outcome was found in 10 patients, as defined by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) less than or equal to two at three months. A systematic review of the literature was performed, and 314 reported patients were found: 221 patients were treated with a primarily surgical approach, and 87 patients were treated with a primarily endovascular approach. A rescue or second treatment was required in 46 patients (21%). The overall estimated treatment morbidity rate was 17%, and the mortality rate was 15%. BBAs exhibit more aggressive behavior compared to saccular aneurysms, and more intra-operative complications occur with BBAs, independent of the treatment type offered. They are also significantly more likely to relapse and rebleed after treatment. Endovascular treatment offers a lower morbidity-mortality compared with surgical approaches. Multilayer flow-diverting stents appear to be a promising strategy.

  13. Rebleeding after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Starke, R M; Connolly, E S

    2011-09-01

    Rebleeding after initial aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can have substantial impact on overall patient outcome. While older studies have suggested rebleeding occurs in about 4% of patients during the first day after initial aneurysmal bleed, these studies may have failed to capture very early rebleeds and, consequently, underestimated the impact of rebleeding. An electronic literature search was performed to identify English-language articles published or available for review from February 1975 through October 2010. A total of 43 articles (40 original research and 3 review articles) focused on rebleeding after initial aneurysmal SAH in humans were selected for review. Although most studies supported an incidence of rebleeding ≤4%, studies investigating ultra-early rebleeding reported bleeding within the first 24 h following aneurysmal SAH in as many as 9-17% of patients, with most cases occurring within 6 h of initial hemorrhage. Overall, studies investigating antifibrinolytic therapy to reduce rebleeding have failed to clearly demonstrate overall therapeutic benefit. Short-course antifibrinolytic therapy may have a role prior to initial aneurysm repair, although insufficient data are currently available. PMID:21761274

  14. Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Orlando; Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are abnormal dilations of the intracranial vessels, in which all the layers of the vascular wall are affected by degenerative changes that lead to distension of the vessel. Intracranial aneurysms can be classified based on their anatomic location, size, and morphology. Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most devastating clinical presentation. The goal of preventing hemorrhage or rehemorrhage can only be achieved by excluding the aneurysm from the cerebral circulation. Endovascular or surgical clipping can achieve this goal. Multiple surgical and endovascular approaches have been described for treatment of intracranial aneurysm. Surgical approaches for anterior-circulation intracranial aneurysms include: pterional, orbitozygomatic, and lateral supraorbital craniotomies. Modern microsurgical techniques involve skull base dissection to achieve adequate exposure with minimal brain retraction. Endovascular techniques can be divided into: parent artery reconstruction with coil deposition (primary coil, balloon-assisted coiling, stent-assisted coiling, and other new techniques such as neck reconstruction devices and intraluminal occlusion devices); reconstruction with flow diversion; and deconstructive techniques with involving parent artery sacrifice with or without bypass. PMID:27430470

  15. Anomalous Right Subclavian Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Gordon C.; Codd, John E.

    1991-01-01

    During the past 2 years, 3 anomalous right subclavian artery aneurysms have been encountered at the St. Louis Heart Institute. The 1st patient, a 72-year-old woman, was found to have an asymptomatic 5-cm-diameter anomalous right subclavian artery aneurysm after surgery for suspected rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Resection was not attempted because of her poor cardiopulmonary and renal condition. One year later, the patient remains alive with marked cardiopulmonary limitations. The 2nd patient, a 77-year-old man, experienced dysphagia and severe weight loss because of a 14-cm-diameter aneurysm. Three days after undergoing surgical repair, he required reoperation for graft occlusion with right upper-extremity ischemia. Six months after hospital discharge, he died of pulmonary insufficiency and metastatic colon cancer. The 3rd patient, a 73-year-old woman, required emergency surgical intervention because of acute rupture and hypovolemic shock. Thirteen days later, she died of aspiration, asphyxia, and cardiac arrest. On the basis of our experience and a review of the literature, we conclude that symptomatic anomalous right subclavian artery aneurysms are rare, and that surgical intervention entails a relatively high morbidity and mortality rate. If long-term survival is anticipated, associated medical illnesses should be considered before surgery is undertaken. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:209-18) Images PMID:15227483

  16. Genome-wide association study of intracranial aneurysm identifies three new risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Yasuno, Katsuhito; Bilguvar, Kaya; Bijlenga, Philippe; Low, Siew Kee; Krischek, Boris; Auburger, Georg; Simon, Matthias; Krex, Dietmar; Arlier, Zulfikar; Nayak, Nikhil; Ruigrok, Ynte M; Niemela, Mika; Tajima, Atsushi; von und zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Doczi, Tamas; Wirjatijasa, Florentina; Hata, Akira; Blasco, Jordi; Oszvald, Agi; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Zilani, Gulam; Schoch, Beate; Singh, Pankaj; Stüer, Carsten; Risselada, Roelof; Beck, Jürgen; Sola, Teresa; Ricciardi, Filomena; Aromaa, Arpo; Illig, Thomas; Schreiber, Stefan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; van den Berg, Leonard H; Perret, Claire; Proust, Carole; Roder, Constantin; Ozturk, Ali K; Gaál, Emília; Berg, Daniela; Geisen, Christof; Friedrich, Christoph M; Summers, Paul; Frangi, Alejandro F; State, Matthew W; Wichmann, HErich; Breteler, Monique M B; Wijmenga, Cisca; Mane, Shrikant; Peltonen, Leena; Elio, Vivas; Sturkenboom, Miriam CJM; Lawford, Patricia; Byrne, James; Macho, Juan; Sandalcioglu, Erol I; Meyer, Bernhard; Raabe, Andreas; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Rüfenacht, Daniel; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Hernesniemi, Juha; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Zembutsu, Hitoshi; Inoue, Ituro; Palotie, Aarno; Cambien, François; Nakamura, Yusuke; Lifton, Richard P; Günel, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are balloon-like dilations of the intracranial arterial wall; their hemorrhage commonly results in severe neurologic impairment and death. We report a second genome-wide association study with discovery and replication cohorts from Europe and Japan comprising 5,891 cases and 14,181 controls with ∼832,000 genotyped and imputed SNPs across discovery cohorts. We identified three new loci showing strong evidence for association with IA in the combined data set, including intervals near RBBP8 on 18q11.2 (OR=1.22, P=1.1×10-12), STARD13/KL on 13q13.1 (OR=1.20, P=2.5×10-9) and a gene-rich region on 10q24.32 (OR=1.29, P=1.2×10-9). We also confirmed prior associations near SOX17 (8q11.23-q12.1; OR=1.28, P=1.3×10-12) and CDKN2A/B (9p21.3; OR=1.31, P=1.5×10-22). It is noteworthy that several putative risk genes play a role in cell-cycle progression, potentially affecting proliferation and senescence of progenitor cell populations that are responsible for vascular formation and repair. PMID:20364137

  17. Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Findeiss, Laura K.; Cody, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are increasing in prevalence; open repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Repair of isolated descending thoracic aortic aneurysms using stent grafts was introduced in 1995, and in an anatomically suitable subgroup of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm, repair with endovascular stent graft provides favorable outcomes, with decreased perioperative morbidity and mortality relative to open repair. The cornerstones of successful thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair are appropriate patient selection, thorough preprocedural planning, and cautious procedural execution, the elements of which are discussed here. PMID:22379281

  18. Idiopathic thoracic aortic aneurysm at pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Marín-Manzano, E; González-de-Olano, D; Haurie-Girelli, J; Herráiz-Sarachaga, J I; Bermúdez-Cañete, R; Tamariz-Martel, A; Cuesta-Gimeno, C; Pérez-de-León, J

    2009-03-01

    A 6-year-old-boy presented with epigastric pain and vomiting over 1 year. Chest X-ray and esophagogastric transit showed a mediastinal mass. A chest computerized tomography angiogram demonstrated a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. Analytical determinations carried out were all negative. The aneurysm was surgically repaired using a Dacron patch. The anatomopathological study described atherosclerotic lesions with calcifications, compatible with an atherosclerotic aneurysm wall. Aneurysms are uncommon in the pediatric population. Usually, no pathogenesis can be determined, and thus, such cases are grouped as idiopathic. Direct repair with or without patch is a therapeutic alternative in pediatric aneurysms and can allow the growth of the aortic circumference.

  19. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Capucine

    2015-11-01

    Half of acute aortic dissection in women under the age of 40 occurs during pregnancy or peripartum period. Marfan syndrome is the most common syndromic presentation of ascending aortic aneurysm, but other syndromes such as vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Turner syndrome also have ascending aortic aneurysms and the associated cardiovascular risk of aortic dissection and rupture. Management of aortic root aneurysm has been established in recent recommendations, even if levels of evidence are weak. Pregnancy and postpartum period should be followed very closely and determined to be at high risk. Guidelines suggest that women with aortopathy should be counseled against the risk of pregnancy and about the heritable nature of the disease prior to pregnancy.

  20. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Coulon, Capucine

    2015-11-01

    Half of acute aortic dissection in women under the age of 40 occurs during pregnancy or peripartum period. Marfan syndrome is the most common syndromic presentation of ascending aortic aneurysm, but other syndromes such as vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Turner syndrome also have ascending aortic aneurysms and the associated cardiovascular risk of aortic dissection and rupture. Management of aortic root aneurysm has been established in recent recommendations, even if levels of evidence are weak. Pregnancy and postpartum period should be followed very closely and determined to be at high risk. Guidelines suggest that women with aortopathy should be counseled against the risk of pregnancy and about the heritable nature of the disease prior to pregnancy. PMID:26454306

  1. [Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Kalder, J; Kotelis, D; Jacobs, M J

    2016-09-01

    Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) are rare events with an incidence of 5.9 cases per 100,000 persons per year. In Germany approximately 940 TAAA procedures are performed annually. The cause of TAAA is mostly degenerative but they can also occur on the basis of an aortic dissection or connective tissue disease (e. g. Marfan's syndrome). Patients often have severe comorbidities and suffer from hypertension, coronary heart disease or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mostly as a result of smoking. Operative treatment is indicated when the maximum aortic diameter has reached 6 cm (> 5 cm in patients with connective tissue disease) or the aortic diameter rapidly increases (> 5 mm/year). Treatment options are open surgical aortic repair with extracorporeal circulation, endovascular repair with branched/fenestrated endografts and parallel grafts (chimneys) or a combination of open and endovascular procedures (hybrid procedures). Mortality rates after both open and endovascular procedures are approximately 8 % depending on the extent of the repair. Furthermore, there are relevant risks of complications, such as paraplegia (up to 20 %) and the necessity for dialysis. In recent years several approaches to minimize these risks have been proposed. Besides cardiopulmonary risk evaluation, clinical assessment of patients by the physician with respect to the patient-specific anatomy influences the allocation of patients to one treatment option or another. Surgery of TAAA should ideally be performed in high-volume centers in order to achieve better results. PMID:27558261

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  3. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

    2007-01-01

    The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique. PMID:17267674

  4. Parent Artery Occlusion for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lishan; Peng, Qiang; Ha, Wenbo; Zhou, Dexiang; Xu, Yang

    2009-01-01

    Summary Peripheral cerebral aneurysms are difficult to treat with preservation of the parent arteries. We report the clinical and angiographic outcome of 12 patients with cerebral aneurysms located peripherally. In the past five years, 12 patients, six females and six males, presented at our institution with intracranial aneurysms distal to the circle of Willis and were treated endovascularly. The age of our patients ranged from four to 58 years with a mean age of 37 years. Seven of the 12 patients had subarachnoid and/or intracerebral hemorrhage upon presentation. Two patients with P2 dissecting aneurysms presented with mild hemiparesis and hypoesthesia, one patient with a large dissecting aneurysm complained of headaches and two patients with M3 dissecting aneurysms had mild hemiparesis and hypoesthesia of the right arm. Locations of the aneurysms were as follows: posterior cerebral artery in seven patients, anterior inferior cerebellar artery in two, posterior inferior cerebellar artery in one, middle cerebral artery in two. Twelve patients with peripheral cerebral aneurysms underwent parent artery occlusion (PAO). PAO was performed with detachable coils. No patient developed neurologic deficits. Distally located cerebral aneurysms can be treated with parent artery occlusion when selective embolization of the aneurysmal sac with detachable platinum coils or surgical clipping cannot be achieved. PMID:20465914

  5. Giant Serpentine Aneurysms: Multidisciplinary Management

    PubMed Central

    Anshun, W.; Feng, L.; Daming, W.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Sixty-five cases of intracranial giant serpentine aneurysms (GSΛs), including 61 cases reported in the literature and four additional cases presented in this study were reviewed. The clinical presentation, possible causes, natural history, and especially management of GSAs are discussed with emphasis on the need for aggressive intervention and multidisciplinary management. PMID:20667180

  6. Dorsal variant blister aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Couldwell, William T; Chamoun, Roukoz

    2012-01-01

    Dorsal variant proximal carotid blister aneurysms are treacherous lesions to manage. It is important to recognize this variant on preoperative angiographic imaging, in anticipation of surgical strategies for their treatment. Strategies include trapping the involved segment and revascularization if necessary. Other options include repair of the aneurysm rupture site directly. Given that these are not true berry aneurysms, repair of the rupture site involves wrapping or clip-grafting techniques. The case presented here was a young woman with a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dorsal variant blister aneurysm. The technique used is demonstrated in the video and is a modified clip-wrap technique using woven polyester graft material. The patient was given aspirin preoperatively as preparation for the clip-wrap technique. It is the authors' current protocol to attempt a direct repair with clip-wrapping and leaving artery sacrifice with or without bypass as a salvage therapy if direct repair is not possible. Assessment of vessel patency after repair is performed by intraoperative Doppler and indocyanine green angiography. Intraoperative somatosensory and motor evoked potential monitoring is performed in all cases. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/crUreWGQdGo.

  7. Mechanics of left ventricular aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, S; Ghista, D N; Jayaraman, G

    1986-01-01

    When a coronary artery is significantly occluded, the left ventricular myocardial segment, which is perfused by that coronary artery, will become ischaemic and even irreversibly infarcted. An acute infarct has very low stiffness and if it involves the entire wall there is a risk of rupture; however, in the absence of such a critical situation, fibrous tissue is laid into the infarcted myocardial segment. Such an infarcted fibrotic myocardial segment will not be able to contract, and so generate tensile stress. The surrounding intact myocardium will contract and generate wall stress, thereby developing a high intra-chamber systolic pressure; the chronically infarcted and fibrotic segment will have to sustain this high chamber pressure. Its loss of contractility and the resulting reduced systolic stiffness relative to the intact segment, will cause it to deform into a bulge; this is an aneurysm. When a left ventricular chamber with an aneurysm contracts during the systolic phase, some blood also goes into the aneurysm, and this decreases the stroke volume; since the aneurysm wall is passive, stagnant blood flow prevails in the aneurysm itself, which in turn can give rise to the formation of a mural thrombus. These serious consequences provide a justification for the analysis of an infarcted left ventricular chamber, in order to predict the size of the aneurysmic bulge. Such an analysis is presented in this paper. To determine the left ventricular wall deformation, and the stress arising from infarction of a wall segment (which leads to a ventricular aneurysm) the left ventricle is modelled here as a pressurized ellipsoidal shell. Deformations of infarcted wall segments are computed for several damaged wall-thicknesses in left ventricles of different shapes. The analysis involves a derivation of equations for wall-stress equilibrium with the chamber pressure, and myocardial incompressibility before and after infarct formation. The equations are solved by the Newton

  8. Pregnancy-related rupture of arterial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J M; Van Hooydonk, J E; Boehm, F H

    1982-09-01

    Over 50 per cent of ruptured arterial aneurysms in women under the age of 40 are pregnancy-related. The hemodynamic and endocrine changes of pregnancy appear to be the cause of arterial alterations which may lead to new aneurysm formation and/or weakening of preexisting aneurysms. The most commonly reported arteries to have aneurysms rupture during pregnancy are the aorta, cerebral arteries, splenic artery, renal artery, coronary artery, and ovarian artery. In many instances, the rupture of an arterial aneurysm will initially simulate other less serious disease processes, thus delaying the correct diagnosis until a catastrophic event occurs. Early diagnosis and treatment of a ruptured arterial aneurysm are imperative in order to give optimal chances of survival to the mother and fetus.

  9. Clipping techniques in cerebral aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Acciarri, Nicola; Toniato, Giovanni; Raabe, Andreas; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The history of cerebral aneurysm surgery owes a great tribute to the tenacity of pioneering neurosurgeons who designed and developed the clips used to close the aneurysms neck. However, until the beginning of the past century, surgery of complex and challenging aneurysms was impossible due to the lack of surgical microscope and commercially available sophisticated clips. The modern era of the spring clips began in the second half of last century. Until then, only malleable metal clips and other non-metallic materials were available for intracranial aneurysms. Indeed, the earliest clips were hazardous and difficult to handle. Several neurosurgeons put their effort in developing new clip models, based on their personal experience in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Finally, the introduction of the surgical microscope, together with the availability of more sophisticated clips, has allowed the treatment of complex and challenging aneurysms. However, today none of the new instruments or tools for surgical therapy of aneurysms could be used safely and effectively without keeping in mind the lessons on innovative surgical techniques provided by great neurovascular surgeons. Thanks to their legacy, we can now treat many types of aneurysms that had always been considered inoperable. In this article, we review the basic principles of surgical clipping and illustrate some more advanced techniques to be used for complex aneurysms. PMID:26657306

  10. Saccular Transcriptome Profiles of the Seasonal Breeding Plainfin Midshipman Fish (Porichthys notatus), a Teleost with Divergent Sexual Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua; Samanta, Manoj P.; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A.; Manning, Dustin; Sisneros, Joseph A.; Coffin, Allison B.

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic communication is essential for the reproductive success of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). During the breeding season, type I males use acoustic cues to advertise nest location to potential mates, creating an audible signal that attracts reproductive females. Type II (sneaker) males also likely use this social acoustic signal to find breeding pairs from which to steal fertilizations. Estrogen-induced changes in the auditory system of breeding females are thought to enhance neural encoding of the advertisement call, and recent anatomical data suggest the saccule (the main auditory end organ) as one possible target for this seasonal modulation. Here we describe saccular transcriptomes from all three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) collected during the breeding season as a first step in understanding the mechanisms underlying sexual phenotype-specific and seasonal differences in auditory function. We used RNA-Seq on the Ion Torrent platform to create a combined transcriptome dataset containing over 79,000 assembled transcripts representing almost 9,000 unique annotated genes. These identified genes include several with known inner ear function and multiple steroid hormone receptors. Transcripts most closely matched to published genomes of nile tilapia and large yellow croaker, inconsistent with the phylogenetic relationship between these species but consistent with the importance of acoustic communication in their life-history strategies. We then compared the RNA-Seq results from the saccules of reproductive females with a separate transcriptome from the non-reproductive female phenotype and found over 700 differentially expressed transcripts, including members of the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways that mediate cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the inner ear. These data constitute a valuable resource for furthering our understanding of the molecular basis for peripheral auditory function as well as a range of

  11. Saccular Transcriptome Profiles of the Seasonal Breeding Plainfin Midshipman Fish (Porichthys notatus), a Teleost with Divergent Sexual Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Faber-Hammond, Joshua; Samanta, Manoj P; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A; Manning, Dustin; Sisneros, Joseph A; Coffin, Allison B

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic communication is essential for the reproductive success of the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). During the breeding season, type I males use acoustic cues to advertise nest location to potential mates, creating an audible signal that attracts reproductive females. Type II (sneaker) males also likely use this social acoustic signal to find breeding pairs from which to steal fertilizations. Estrogen-induced changes in the auditory system of breeding females are thought to enhance neural encoding of the advertisement call, and recent anatomical data suggest the saccule (the main auditory end organ) as one possible target for this seasonal modulation. Here we describe saccular transcriptomes from all three sexual phenotypes (females, type I and II males) collected during the breeding season as a first step in understanding the mechanisms underlying sexual phenotype-specific and seasonal differences in auditory function. We used RNA-Seq on the Ion Torrent platform to create a combined transcriptome dataset containing over 79,000 assembled transcripts representing almost 9,000 unique annotated genes. These identified genes include several with known inner ear function and multiple steroid hormone receptors. Transcripts most closely matched to published genomes of nile tilapia and large yellow croaker, inconsistent with the phylogenetic relationship between these species but consistent with the importance of acoustic communication in their life-history strategies. We then compared the RNA-Seq results from the saccules of reproductive females with a separate transcriptome from the non-reproductive female phenotype and found over 700 differentially expressed transcripts, including members of the Wnt and Notch signaling pathways that mediate cell proliferation and hair cell addition in the inner ear. These data constitute a valuable resource for furthering our understanding of the molecular basis for peripheral auditory function as well as a range of

  12. [Approach to juxtarenal inflammatory aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Scuro, A; Barzaghi, M E; Griso, A; Ferrari Ruffino, S; Kontothanassis, D; Mirandola, M; Leonardi, G; D'Agata, M

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) in a late review of the literature is estimated about 2-15% overall aortic aneurysms. In our data this type of aneurysm is 3.6 overall aortic aneurysms treated. In the majority of the cases, IAAA is juxtarenal or infrarenal. Ethiopathogenesis of IAAA till today is not certain. Recent hypothesis on IAAA attribute the same ethiopathogenesis in both atherosclerotic and inflammatory aneurysm. The interaction of genetic, environmental and infective factors should be able to determine an autoimmune inflammatory reaction of variable severity. 80% of the patients suffering from IAAA present abdominal or lumbar pain, loss of weight and increase of the RC sedimentation velocity. The IAAA's natural history goes to rupture. Entrapment of nearstanding organs totally involved in the fibrotic process is the most frequent complication. Usually there is a compression of the ureter and the duodenum with consequenced hydroureteronephrosis and bowel obstruction. Preoperative diagnosis is possible; CT scan and MRI guarantee and accuracy about 90%. Intraoperatively the external wall of IAAA appears whitish and translucent and always there are tenacious adhesion given by the avventital wounds inflammation. Confirm is given by the histological examination of the aneurysmatic wall and peravventitial tissues. Our experience and a late review of the literature concorde that surgical indication for the treatment of IAAA is the same for the atherosclerotic one. This conviction is supported by the fact that the diagnostic methodical evolution and the improvement in mininvasive surgical technique lowered perioperating morbility and mortaliy. We prefer, according with many authors, retroperitoneal approach to juxtarenal IAAA, instead of standardized transperitoneal access with xifo-pubical or transversal under costal incision. This approach offers some advantages as easier exposition of aorta, whose postero-lateral wall is hardly ever

  13. Pulmonary artery aneurysm with patent arterial duct: resection of aneurysm and ductal division.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Endale; Teodori, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Congenital or acquired aneurysm of the pulmonary artery (PA) is rare. Although aneurysms are described following surgical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), occurrence of this lesion in association with PDA without previous surgery is extremely uncommon. An eight-year-old patient with PDA and aneurysm of the main PA is described in this report. Clinical diagnosis of PDA was made upon presentation. Diagnosis of PA aneurysm was suspected on chest x-ray and was confirmed on transthoracic echocardiography. Successful surgical resection of the aneurysm and division of the duct were performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient did well on follow-up both from clinical and echocardiographic point of view.

  14. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair in HIV Patients with Ruptured Abdominal Aneurysm and Low CD4

    PubMed Central

    Orrapin, Saritphat; Arworn, Supapong; Reanpang, Termpong

    2016-01-01

    We report two HIV infected patients with ruptured abdominal aneurysm by using endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) technique. A 59-year-old Thai man had a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and a 57-year-old man had a ruptured iliac artery aneurysm. Both patients had a CD4 level below 200 μ/L indicating a low immune status at admission. They were treated by EVAR. Neither patient had any complications in 3 months postoperatively. EVAR may have a role in HIV patients with ruptured abdominal aneurysm together with very low immunity. PMID:27703834

  15. Cochleo-saccular degeneration in one of three sisters with hereditary deafness, absent gastric motility, small bowel diverticulitis and progressive sensory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, M; MacRae, D; O-Uchi, T; Alford, B R

    1981-01-01

    This is a report of cochleo-saccular degeneration found in temporal bones from a patient who had suffered from slowly progressive and total sensorineural deafness which had an inherited origin. At age 8, this patient began to complain of hearing loss, and by age 10 she was totally deaf. The patient was 1 of 3 female siblings who have suffered from an exactly identical progressive disease: deafness, absent gastric motility, small bowel diverticulitis and ulceration, and sensory neuropathy. The temporal bone pathology found in this case was the degenerative change in the cochlear duct and sacculus. No pathology was found in the utriculus and semicircular canals. PMID:6937848

  16. Time evolution and hemodynamics of cerebral aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sforza, Daniel M.; Putman, Christopher; Tateshima, Satoshi; Viñuela, Fernando; Cebral, Juan

    2011-03-01

    Cerebral aneurysm rupture is a leading cause of hemorrhagic strokes. Because they are being more frequently diagnosed before rupture and the prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage is poor, clinicians are often required to judge which aneurysms are prone to progression and rupture. Unfortunately, the processes of aneurysm initiation, growth and rupture are not well understood. Multiple factors associated to these processes have been identified. Our goal is to investigate two of them, arterial hemodynamics (using computational fluid dynamics) and the peri-aneurysmal environment, by studying a group of growing cerebral aneurysms that are followed longitudinally in time. Six patients with unruptured untreated brain aneurysms which exhibited growth during the observation period were selected for the study. Vascular models of each aneurysm at each observation time were constructed from the corresponding computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Subsequently, models were aligned, and geometrical differences quantified. Blood flow was modeled with the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for a Newtonian fluid, and wall shear stress distribution and flow patterns were calculated and visualized. Analysis of the simulations and changes in geometry revealed asymmetric growth patterns and suggests that areas subject to vigorous flows, i.e. relative high wall shear stress and concentrated streamlines patterns; correspond to regions of aneurysm growth. Furthermore, in some cases the geometrical evolution of aneurysms is clearly affected by contacts with bone structures and calcifications in the wall, and as a consequence the hemodynamics is greatly modified. Thus, in these cases the peri-aneurysmal environment must be considered when analyzing aneurysm evolution.

  17. Correlation Between Aneurysm Size and Hemodynamics in One Individual with Multiple Small Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Jou, Liangder; Britz, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objective A large number of cases are needed in the patient-specific modeling of intracranial aneurysms to establish the statistical significance due to individual variation of risk factors that are difficult to account for. However, these risk factors are critical in hemorrhage risk as demonstrated in large clinical studies. Rupture risks for aneurysms in an individual are easier to compare because these aneurysms are under the same physiological environment, and their only differences are the local hemodynamic factors associated with their anatomic locations. Methods Eight small aneurysms (< 7 mm) from one individual were analyzed using patient-specific hemodynamic modeling. Four scenarios with different perfusion assumptions were performed to account for the flow rate at two smaller communicating arteries. Wall shear stresses (WSS) at these aneurysms were compared to determine their relationship with the aneurysm size. Results Each of the three largest aneurysms is either the most proximal or distal aneurysm in a given artery so that blood pressure does not have a direct influence on aneurysm size. No wall shear stress-derived hemodynamic variables are found to be related to aneurysm size. Discussion A study of multiple aneurysms from one individual offers a unique opportunity to examine various hemodynamic factors without selection biases. Aneurysms greater than 4 mm (Group 1) have a higher product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS; aneurysms smaller than 4 mm (Group 2) have a lower product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS. In addition, aneurysm size is linearly correlated with the flow rate at the parent artery in each group. PMID:27555981

  18. Correlation Between Aneurysm Size and Hemodynamics in One Individual with Multiple Small Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Britz, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    Objective A large number of cases are needed in the patient-specific modeling of intracranial aneurysms to establish the statistical significance due to individual variation of risk factors that are difficult to account for. However, these risk factors are critical in hemorrhage risk as demonstrated in large clinical studies. Rupture risks for aneurysms in an individual are easier to compare because these aneurysms are under the same physiological environment, and their only differences are the local hemodynamic factors associated with their anatomic locations. Methods Eight small aneurysms (< 7 mm) from one individual were analyzed using patient-specific hemodynamic modeling. Four scenarios with different perfusion assumptions were performed to account for the flow rate at two smaller communicating arteries. Wall shear stresses (WSS) at these aneurysms were compared to determine their relationship with the aneurysm size. Results Each of the three largest aneurysms is either the most proximal or distal aneurysm in a given artery so that blood pressure does not have a direct influence on aneurysm size. No wall shear stress-derived hemodynamic variables are found to be related to aneurysm size. Discussion A study of multiple aneurysms from one individual offers a unique opportunity to examine various hemodynamic factors without selection biases. Aneurysms greater than 4 mm (Group 1) have a higher product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS; aneurysms smaller than 4 mm (Group 2) have a lower product of maximum WSS and area of low WSS. In addition, aneurysm size is linearly correlated with the flow rate at the parent artery in each group. PMID:27555981

  19. Hepatic artery aneurysm in corticosteroid-treated, adult Kawasaki's disease.

    PubMed

    Caputo, A E; Roberts, W N; Yee, Y S; Posner, M P

    1991-11-01

    We describe a single case of Kawasaki's disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome) with the rare complication of a hepatic artery aneurysm which was surgically repaired. Unusual features include arterial aneurysmal formation in the hepatic arteries rather than in coronary arteries, the unusual morphology of the hepatic artery aneurysm, and the expansion of the aneurysm after corticosteroid therapy.

  20. Ruptured Isolated Spinal Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez Romero, Diego; Batista, Andre Lima; Gentric, Jean Christoph; Raymond, Jean; Roy, Daniel; Weill, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Summary Isolated spinal artery aneurysms are exceedingly rare vascular lesions thought to be related to dissection of the arterial wall. We describe two cases presenting with spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage that underwent conservative management. In the first patient the radiculomedullary branch involved was feeding the anterior spinal artery at the level of D3 and thus, neither endovascular nor surgical approach was employed. Control angiography was performed at seven days and at three months, demonstrating complete resolution of the lesion. In our second case, neither the anterior spinal artery or the artery of Adamkiewicz could be identified during angiography, thus endovascular management was deemed contraindicated. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a stable lesion in the second patient. No rebleeding or other complications were seen. In comparison to intracranial aneurysms, spinal artery aneurysms tend to display a fusiform appearance and lack a clear neck in relation to the likely dissecting nature of the lesions. Due to the small number of cases reported, the natural history of these lesions is not well known making it difficult to establish the optimal treatment approach. Various management strategies may be supported, including surgical and endovascular treatment, but It would seem that a wait and see approach is also viable, with control angiogram and treatment decisions based on the evolution of the lesion. PMID:25496690

  1. Preemptive Medicine for Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    AOKI, Tomohiro; NOZAKI, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Most of cerebral aneurysms (CAs) are incidentally discovered without any neurological symptoms and the risk of rupture of CAs is relatively higher in Japanese population. The goal of treatments for patients with CAs is complete exclusion of the aneurysmal rupture risk for their lives. Since two currently available major treatments, microsurgical clipping and endovascular coiling, have inherent incompleteness to achieve cure of CAs with some considerable treatment risks, and there is no effective surgical or medical intervention to inhibit the formation of CAs in patients with ruptured and unruptured CAs, new treatment strategies with lower risk and higher efficacy should be developed to prevent the formation, growth, and rupture of CAs. Preemptive medicine for CAs should be designed to prevent or delay the onset of symptoms from CAs found in an asymptomatic state or inhibit the de novo formation of CAs, but we have no definite methods to distinguish rupture-prone aneurysms from rupture-resistant ones. Recent advancements in the research of CAs have provided us with some clues, and one of the new treatment strategies for CAs will be developed based on the findings that several inflammatory pathways may be involved in the formation, growth, and rupture of CAs. Preemptive medicine for CAs will be established with specific biomarkers and imaging modalities which can sensor the development of CAs. PMID:27053328

  2. Giant Serpentine Aneurysm of the Middle Cerebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Joo; Kwun, Byung Duk; Kim, Chang Jin

    2010-01-01

    Giant serpentine aneurysms are rare and have distinct angiographic findings. The rarity, large size, complex anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics of giant serpentine aneurysms make treatment difficult. We report a case of a giant serpentine aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) that presented as headache. Treatment involved a superficial temporal artery (STA)-MCA bypass followed by aneurysm resection. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits, and early and late follow-up angiography disclosed successful removal of the aneurysm and a patent bypass graft. We conclude that STA-MCA bypass and aneurysm excision is a successful treatment method for a giant serpentine aneurysm. PMID:20856671

  3. Idiopathic subvalvular aortic aneurysm masquerading as acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Balaji; Ramanathan, Sundar; Subramaniam, Natarajan; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Subvalvular aneurysms are the least common type of left ventricular (LV) aneurysms and can be fatal. Subaortic LV aneurysms are much rarer than submitral LV aneurysms and mostly reported in infancy. They can be congenital or acquired secondary to infections, cardiac surgery or trauma. Here, we report a unique presentation of a large, idiopathic subaortic aneurysm in an adult masquerading as an acute coronary syndrome. Diagnosis was made with the help of a CT aortography. Aneurysm was surgically resected with good results. This case highlights the clinical presentation and management of subaortic aneurysms, an important differential for congenital aortic malformations. PMID:27591034

  4. [A cylinder aneurysm of a penile prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Pannek, J; Bartel, P; Göcking, K

    2011-07-01

    Herniation of a penile prosthesis (cylinder aneurysm) is an extremely rare complication of penile prosthesis surgery. We report the first case of such an aneurysm in a patient with spinal cord injury. The treatment of choice is surgical revision with replacement of the faulty device. Filling of the implanted system with contrast media facilitates preoperative diagnostic workup. PMID:21567276

  5. Two cases of giant serpentine aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kumabe, T; Kaneko, U; Ishibashi, T; Kaneko, K; Uchigasaki, S

    1990-06-01

    Giant serpentine aneurysm (GSA) is an entity defined on radiological and pathological grounds as a giant, partially thrombosed aneurysm containing tortuous vascular channels. We have had the opportunity to study two patients with GSAs, which has allowed for a complete comparative anatomical and radiological study. This report emphasizes the etiology of the GSAs. Twenty-two patients with GSAs have been reported in the literature, of which pathological studies were done in 10. In most of these, the aneurysm was found to be filled with an organized thrombus, but in our patients the aneurysm was filled with relatively new clot. The aneurysm enlarged and a change in the tortuous vascular channel was observed over a period of 1 year in the first patient, whereas a globoid aneurysm developed into a GSA in the brief period of just 2 weeks in the second patient. This rapid transformation of a globoid aneurysm into a GSA is of particular interest when the etiology of GSAs is considered. Our patients therefore shed some interesting light on the possible pathophysiology of GSAs. That is, the bloodstream may change dynamically in a giant aneurysm and may become a serpentine channel under conditions that lead to a "Coanda effect." PMID:2362659

  6. Lessons from Animal Models of Arterial Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Gertz, S. David; Mintz, Yoav; Beeri, Ronen; Rubinstein, Chen; Gilon, Dan; Gavish, Leah; Berlatzky, Yacov; Appelbaum, Liat; Gavish, Lilach

    2013-01-01

    We review the results from the most common animal models of arterial aneurysm, including recent findings from our novel, laparoscopy-based pig model of abdominal aortic aneurysm, that contribute important insights into early pathogenesis. We emphasize the relevance of these findings for evaluation of treatment protocols and novel device prototypes for mechanism-based prevention of progression and rupture. PMID:26798701

  7. Pantopaque simulating thrombosed intracranial aneurysms on MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Lidov, M.W.; Silvers, A.R.; Mosesson, R.E.; Stollman, A.L.; Som, P.M.

    1996-03-01

    A patient is presented in whom iophendylate (Pantopaque) within the basal cisterns closely resembled the appearance on MRI of thrombosed aneurysms of the middle cerebral arteries. The sometimes subtle differences between the appearances on MRI of Pantopaque and aneurysmal clot are discussed to permit accurate diagnosis without resorting to more invasive diagnostic tests, such as cerebral angiography. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M. Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-04-15

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture.

  9. Anesthetic considerations in intracranial aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Steen, Stephen N; Johnson, Calvin; Lumb, Phillip D; Zelman, Vladimer; Mok, Martin S

    2002-03-01

    Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm generally has a poor outcome, though perioperative treatments have improved. At the present time, the important factors in the management of intracranial aneurysm surgery appear to be the maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and the avoidance of hyperglycemia. Relevant features of the anesthetic management of this surgery are discussed.

  10. FSI Simulations of Pulse Wave Propagation in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: The Effects of Sac Geometry and Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Lin, Kexin; Shahmirzadi, Danial

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the effects of geometry and stiffness of aneurysms on the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and propagation in fluid–solid interaction (FSI) simulations of arterial pulsatile flow. Spatiotemporal maps of both the wall displacement and fluid velocity were generated in order to obtain the pulse wave propagation through fluid and solid media, and to examine the interactions between the two waves. The results indicate that the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac and variations in the sac modulus affect the propagation of the pulse waves both qualitatively (eg, patterns of change of forward and reflective waves) and quantitatively (eg, decreasing of PWV within the sac and its increase beyond the sac as the sac stiffness increases). The sac region is particularly identified on the spatiotemporal maps with a region of disruption in the wave propagation with multiple short-traveling forward/reflected waves, which is caused by the change in boundary conditions within the saccular region. The change in sac stiffness, however, is more pronounced on the wall displacement spatiotemporal maps compared to those of fluid velocity. We conclude that the existence of the sac can be identified based on the solid and fluid pulse waves, while the sac properties can also be estimated. This study demonstrates the initial findings in numerical simulations of FSI dynamics during arterial pulsations that can be used as reference for experimental and in vivo studies. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method in identifying very mild sacs, which cannot be detected from medical imaging, where the material property degradation exists under early disease initiation. PMID:27478394

  11. Simultaneous presentation of two cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Ezura, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kazuto; Chonan, Masashi; Mino, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman experienced sudden onset of severe headache. Computed tomography showed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hematoma in the right frontal lobe. Digital subtraction angiography revealed three aneurysms in the anterior communicating artery (AcomA), the right posterior communicating artery (PcomA), and the right middle cerebral artery. The AcomA aneurysm was treated with endovascular coiling. However, her oculomotor nerve palsy was aggravated after the procedure. Embolization of the right PcomA aneurysm was conducted immediately and her oculomotor nerve palsy recovered completely 3 months later. Simultaneous presentation of multiple aneurysms with separate symptoms is rare. We speculate that the progressive oculomotor nerve palsy was caused by tiny enlargement or morphological change of the aneurysm caused by elevated blood pressure and pulsatile effect after SAH.

  12. Aneurysms of the visceral and renal arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotopoulos, Y. P.; Assadourian, R.; Taylor, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    Visceral aneurysms represent a rare clinical entity; however, 10-20% will rupture and this is accompanied by a significant mortality rate of 20-70%, depending on the location of the aneurysm. The incidence, pathogenesis and clinical aspects of splanchnic and renal artery aneurysms are reviewed from the available literature and the problems of diagnosis and treatment are discussed. Their incidence is increasing and controversy still exists regarding their treatment. The decision for intervention has to take into account the size and the natural history of the lesion, the risk of rupture, which is high during pregnancy, and the relative risk of surgical or radiological intervention. For most asymptomatic aneurysms, expectant treatment is acceptable. For large, symptomatic or aneurysms with a high risk of rupture, surgery is advisable. An alternative treatment is the use of endovascular techniques, ie embolisation, or graft stent insertion. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8881722

  13. Cerebral aneurysms: Formation, progression and developmental chronology

    PubMed Central

    Etminan, Nima; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dreier, Rita; Bruckner, Peter; Torner, James C.; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel; Macdonald, R. Loch

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UAIs) in the general population is up to 3%. Existing epidemiological data suggests that only a small fraction of UIAs progress towards rupture over the lifetime of an individual, but the surrogates for subsequent rupture and the natural history of UIAs are discussed very controversially at present. In case of rupture of an UIA, the case-fatality is up to 50%, which therefore continues to stimulate interest in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm formation and progression. Actual data on the chronological development of cerebral aneurysm has been especially difficult to obtain and, until recently, the existing knowledge in this respect is mainly derived from animal or mathematical models or short-term observational studies. Here, we highlight the current data on cerebral aneurysm formation and progression as well as a novel approach to investigate the developmental chronology of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:24323717

  14. [Aneurysm of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery: case report].

    PubMed

    Adorno, Juan Oscar Alarcón; de Andrade, Guilherme Cabral

    2002-12-01

    The intracranial aneurysms of the posterior circulation have been reported between 5 and 10% of all cerebral aneurysms and the aneurysms of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are considered rare, can cause cerebello pontine angle (CPA) syndrome with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Since 1948 few cases were described in the literature. We report on a 33 year-old female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to sacular aneurysm of the left AICA. She was submitted to clipage of the aneurysm without complications.

  15. Multiple fusiform cerebral aneurysms – case report

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Katarzyna; Dołowy, Joanna; Kuśmierska, Małgorzata; Kuniej, Tomasz; Jaźwiec, Przemysław

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: A true aneurysym is a dilation of arterial lumen as a consequence of congenital or acquired abnormalities leading to a reduction of mechanical resistance of vascular wall, most commonly caused by its defected structure in the form of absence or weakening of the muscular and/or elastic layer. From the pathophysiological point of view, cerebral aneurysms can be classified as ‘saccular’ – most commonly occurring, and ‘other types’, including fusiform/dolichoectatic, dissecting, serpentine, posttraumatic, mycotic and giant aneurysms with or without intra-aneurysmal thrombosis. Case Report: We present a rare case of a patient with multiple fusiform dilations of cerebral vessels and giant fusiform aneurysm in supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery. The patient presented to hospital because of sudden, severe vertigo with nausea, impaired balance and disturbed vision. Vascular anomalies were detected on CT scanning without contrast. The diagnostic work-up was complemented by CT angiography, MRI and cerebral angiography. Conclusions: Aneurysm located within the intracranial arteries is one of the most common vascular defects of the brain. The number, size and location of aneurysms are highly variable. Aneurysms can have either supra- or infratentorial location, affecting a single or multiple arteries within one or both brain hemispheres. There is often a correlation between the location of the aneurysm and its etiology, as in case of so-called mirror-image aneurysms. Symmetrically located aneurysms may indicate a defect in vascular structure. Asymmetric location, as in the patient described above, is more likely due to acquired causes, mainly atherosclerosis, but also septic emboli or blood disorders. PMID:22802866

  16. Physical Factors Effecting Cerebral Aneurysm Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivan, Chander; Fiorella, David J.; Woo, Henry H.; Lieber, Baruch B.

    2013-01-01

    Many factors that are either blood-, wall-, or hemodynamics-borne have been associated with the initiation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. The distribution of cerebral aneurysms around the bifurcations of the circle of Willis has provided the impetus for numerous studies trying to link hemodynamic factors (flow impingement, pressure, and/or wall shear stress) to aneurysm pathophysiology. The focus of this review is to provide a broad overview of such hemodynamic associations as well as the subsumed aspects of vascular anatomy and wall structure. Hemodynamic factors seem to be correlated to the distribution of aneurysms on the intracranial arterial tree and complex, slow flow patterns seem to be associated with aneurysm growth and rupture. However, both the prevalence of aneurysms in the general population and the incidence of ruptures in the aneurysm population are extremely low. This suggests that hemodynamic factors and purely mechanical explanations by themselves may serve as necessary, but never as necessary and sufficient conditions of this disease’s causation. The ultimate cause is not yet known, but it is likely an additive or multiplicative effect of a handful of biochemical and biomechanical factors. PMID:23549899

  17. Physical factors effecting cerebral aneurysm pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sadasivan, Chander; Fiorella, David J; Woo, Henry H; Lieber, Baruch B

    2013-07-01

    Many factors that are either blood-, wall-, or hemodynamics-borne have been associated with the initiation, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. The distribution of cerebral aneurysms around the bifurcations of the circle of Willis has provided the impetus for numerous studies trying to link hemodynamic factors (flow impingement, pressure, and/or wall shear stress) to aneurysm pathophysiology. The focus of this review is to provide a broad overview of such hemodynamic associations as well as the subsumed aspects of vascular anatomy and wall structure. Hemodynamic factors seem to be correlated to the distribution of aneurysms on the intracranial arterial tree and complex, slow flow patterns seem to be associated with aneurysm growth and rupture. However, both the prevalence of aneurysms in the general population and the incidence of ruptures in the aneurysm population are extremely low. This suggests that hemodynamic factors and purely mechanical explanations by themselves may serve as necessary, but never as necessary and sufficient conditions of this disease's causation. The ultimate cause is not yet known, but it is likely an additive or multiplicative effect of a handful of biochemical and biomechanical factors.

  18. Growth of basilar artery aneurysm after ventriculo-peritoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung Soo; Oh, Chang-Wan; Han, Dae Hee

    2002-11-01

    We report upon two cases of obstructive hydrocephalus produced by giant basilar artery aneurysms. They initially presented with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, and were managed by a ventriculo-peritoneal (VP) shunt with good symptomatic improvement. With time, however, both showed a gradual deterioration of clinical symptoms due to increased aneurysm size. One, with a basilar tip aneurysm was treated by direct neck-clipping of the aneurysm, and was able to return to work. In the other patient, with a basilar trunk aneurysm, endovascular occlusion of one vertebral artery was attempted in an effort to decrease the aneurysm size, but the aneurysm enlarged precipitating brain stem failure. In conclusion, these cases reveal the risk of the VP shunt, which may induce aneurysmal growth, leading to clinical devastation, and emphasize the importance of definitive treatment for giant cerebral aneurysms whenever possible.

  19. Intracranial blister aneurysms: clip reconstruction techniques.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Daniel L; Pradilla, Gustavo; McCracken, D Jay

    2015-07-01

    Intracranial blister aneurysms are difficult to treat cerebrovascular lesions that typically affect the anterior circulation. These rare aneurysms can lead to acute rupture which usually cannot be treated via endovascular methods, but still require urgent surgical intervention. Surgical options are limited given their unique pathology and often require a combination of wrapping and clip reconstruction. In this video we present two patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured blister aneurysms. We demonstrate several surgical techniques for repairing the vascular defect with and without intraoperative rupture. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/nz-JM45uKQU.

  20. Anterior ethmoidal artery aneurysm and intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L B; Valiante, T; Terbrugge, K; Tymianski, M

    2006-09-01

    The association between the formation of intracranial aneurysms and situations of increased blood flow in certain areas of the brain is well accepted today. It has been seen in association with arteriovenous malformations of the brain, carotid occlusion, and Moyamoya disease. The occurrence of aneurysms in small arteries of the skull base, with the exception of the intracavernous carotid artery, however, is rare. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with an intracerebral hemorrhage caused by a ruptured anterior ethmoidal artery aneurysm. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second case of documented intracranial bleeding from such a lesion.

  1. Giant aortic arch aneurysm complicating Kawasaki's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Kaouthar; Boussada, Rafik; Chaker, Lilia; Ouarda, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a common acute vasculitis in pediatric population that usually involves small- and middle-sized arteries, commonly coronary arteries. Although the incidence and natural course of coronary aneurysms after KD are well documented in studies, related reports on peripheral arterial and aortic aneurysms are scarce. We report the occurrence of a giant aortic aneurysm involving the horizontal part of aortic arch in a 28-month-old boy diagnosed with KD. This complication was managed by steroids therapy in the beginning. Because of mechanical complication and potential risk of rupture, surgery was undertaken. PMID:25298695

  2. Ruptured cerebral aneurysm from choriocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Wang, Rong; Zhao, Jizong

    2013-09-01

    Gestational trophoblastic diseases include hydatidiform moles, invasive moles, choriocarcinoma, placental-site trophoblastic tumours and miscellaneous trophoblastic lesions. Choriocarcinoma is a rare disease that arises from the trophoblastic epithelium of the placenta at the beginning of pregnancy. Among the confirmed cases, 45% occur after molar pregnancy, 25% after normal pregnancy, 25% after an abortion and 5% after ectopic pregnancy. This tumour is usually diagnosed based on its histopathologic appearance and a high level of serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG). Choriocarcinoma exhibits a good response to chemotherapy and radiation. However, it is also known for its tendency to spread rapidly to multiple organs, including the lungs, liver and brain. As one of the worst prognostic factors, brain metastasis complicates 3-28% of gestational choriocarcinoma cases. Increased β-HCG levels and a low serum cerebrospinal fluid β-HCG level can be strongly suggestive of intracranial choriocarcinoma, even in the absence of histopathologically proven disease. Reviewing the literature, there were 23 cases of intracerebral haemorrhage from an oncotic aneurysm as an initial presentation of choriocarcinoma. We report a further case of intracerebral haematoma secondary to oncotic aneurysm as the first presentation of metastatic choriocarcinoma with normal serum β-HCG.

  3. Infectious or Noninfectious? Ruptured, Thrombosed Inflammatory Aortic Aneurysm with Spondylolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stefanczyk, Ludomir; Elgalal, Marcin; Papiewski, Andrzej; Szubert, Wojciech; Szopinski, Piotr

    2013-06-15

    Osteolysis of vertebrae due to inflammatory aortic aneurysm is rarely observed. However, it is estimated that up to 10 % of infectious aneurysms coexist with bone tissue destruction, most commonly the vertebrae. Inflammatory aneurysms with no identified infection factor, along with infiltration of adjacent muscle and in particular extensive destruction of bone tissue have rarely been described in the literature. A case of inflammatory aneurysm with posterior wall rupture and inflammatory infiltration of the iliopsoas muscle and spine, together with extensive vertebral body destruction, is presented. The aneurysm was successfully treated with endovascular aneurysm repair EVAR.

  4. Delayed Vasospasm after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Behcet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Hak; Lee, Si-Un; Huh, Choonwoong; Oh, Chang Wan; Bang, Jae Seung

    2016-01-01

    A man visited the emergency room with a headache. Brain computed tomography showed aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and multiple aneurysms. After aneurysm clipping surgery, the patient was discharged. After 5 days, he was admitted to the hospital with skin ulceration and was diagnosed with Behcet syndrome. An angiogram taken 7 weeks after aneurysmal SAH showed intracranial vasospasm. Because inflammation in Behcet syndrome may aggravate intracranial vasospasm, intracranial vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH in Behcet syndrome should be monitored for longer compared to general aneurysmal SAH. PMID:27114963

  5. Infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to Morganella morganii: CT findings.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Young; Lee, Jong Seok; Choi, Han Sung; Hong, Hoon Pyo; Ko, Young Gwan

    2011-02-01

    An infected aortic aneurysm, or mycotic aneurysm, is a rare arterial dilatation due to destruction of the infected vessel wall. Common pathogens resulting in an infected aortic aneurysm are Salmonella and Clostridium species, as well as Staphylococcus aureus; Morganella morganii, on the other hand, is very rare. An infected abdominal aortic aneurysm has tendencies to grow rapidly and to rupture. The mortality rate is high in patients undergoing emergent surgical intervention. We report the case of a 65-year-old man who presented with an infected abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by M. morganii. A high index of suspicion and imaging tests are necessary in order to diagnose an infected aortic aneurysm.

  6. Microsurgical technique of symptomatic intracavernous aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Fu; Hsu, Sanford P C; Chen, Min-Hsiung; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2015-07-01

    Symptomatic intracavernous aneurysm is rare. Cranial nerves in the cavernous sinus are subjected to the mass effect of an expanding aneurysm. Microsurgical clipping is the treatment of choice to relieve compressive cranial neuropathy. In this video, the authors present a case of intracavernous aneurysm causing diplopia, ptosis, and facial numbness. The patient was operated on via a pretemporal transclinoid-transcavernous approach. The aneurysm was completely obliterated through direct clipping. There were no new-onset neurologic deficits and complications after the operation. Complete recovery of the diplopia, ptosis, and facial numbness was observed at the 6-month postoperative follow up. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/4w5QUoNIAQM. PMID:26132609

  7. A fibromatosis case mimicking abdominal aorta aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Arzu; Kahraman, Cemal; Tasdemir, Kutay; Mavili, Ertugrul

    2013-01-01

    Retroperitoneal fibrosis is a rare fibrosing reactive process that may be confused with mesenteric fibromatosis. Abdominal aorta aneurysm is rare too and mostly develops secondary to Behcet's disease, trauma, and infection or connective tissue diseases. Incidence of aneurysms occurring as a result of atherosclerotic changes increases in postmenopausal period. Diagnosis can be established with arteriography, tomography, or magnetic resonance imaging associated with clinical findings. Tumors and cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis. Abdominal ultrasound and contrast-enhanced computerized tomography revealed an infrarenal abdominal aorta aneurysm in a 41-year-old woman, but, on surgery, retroperitoneal fibrosis surrounding the aorta was detected. We present this interesting case because retroperitoneal fibrosis encircling the abdominal aorta can mimic abdominal aorta aneurysm radiologically.

  8. Giant intracranial aneurysms: rapid sequential computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, R.S.; Cohen, W.A.; Kricheff, I.I.; Redington, R.W.; Berninger, W.H.

    1982-11-01

    Giant intracranial aneurysms often present as mass lesions rather than with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Routine computed tomographic (CT) scans with contrast material will generally detect them, but erroneous diagnosis of basal meningioma is possible. Rapid sequential scanning (dynamic CT) after bolus injection of 40 ml of Renografin-76 can conclusively demonstrate an intracranial aneurysm, differentiating it from other lesions by transit-time analysis of the passage of contrast medium. In five patients, the dynamics of contrast bolus transit in aneurysms were consistently different from the dynamics in pituitary tumors, craniopharyngiomas, and meningiomas, thereby allowing a specific diagnosis. Dynamic CT was also useful after treatment of the aneurysms by carotid artery ligation and may be used as an alternative to angiographic evaluation in determining luminal patency or thrombosis.

  9. Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Ibrahim; Kische, Stephan; Rehders, Tim C.; Nienaber, Christoph A.; Rauchhaus, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    A thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is a potentially life-threatening condition with structural weakness of the aortic wall, which can progress to arterial dilatation and rupture. Today, both an increasing awareness of vascular disease and the access to tomographic imaging facilitate the diagnosis of TAA even in an asymptomatic stage. The risk of rupture for untreated aneurysms beyond a diameter of 5.6 cm ranges from 46% to 74% and the two-year mortality rate is greater than 70%, with most deaths resulting from rupture. Treatment options include surgical and non-surgical repair to prevent aneurysm enlargement and rupture. While most cases of ascending aortic involvement are subject to surgical repair (partially with valve-preserving techniques), aneurysm of the distal arch and descending thoracic aorta are amenable to emerging endovascular techniques as an alternative to classic open repair or to a hybrid approach (combining debranching surgery with stent grafting) in an attempt to improve outcomes. PMID:22419919

  10. Case Report: A Troublesome Ophthalmic Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Meling, T. R.; Sorteberg, W.; Bakke, S. J.; Jacobsen, E. A.; Lane, P.; Vajkoczy, P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective and Importance When treating large unruptured ophthalmic artery (OA) aneurysms causing progressive blindness, surgical clipping is still the preferred method because aneurysm sac decompression may relieve optic nerve compression. However, endovascular treatment of OA aneurysms has made important progress with the introduction of stents. Although this development is welcomed, it also makes the choice of treatment strategy less straightforward than in the past, with the potential of missteps. Clinical Presentation A 56-year-old woman presented with a long history of progressive unilateral visual loss and magnetic resonance imaging showing a 20-mm left-sided OA aneurysm. Intervention Because of her long history of very poor visual acuity, we considered her left eye to be irredeemable and opted for endovascular therapy. The OA aneurysms was treated with stent and coils but continued to grow, threatening the contralateral eye. Because she failed internal carotid artery (ICA) balloon test occlusion, we performed a high-flow extracranial-intracranial bypass with proximal ICA occlusion in the neck. However, aneurysm growth continued due to persistent circulation through reversed blood flow in distal ICA down to the OA and the cavernous portion of the ICA. Due to progressive loss of her right eye vision, we surgically occluded the ICA proximal to the posterior communicating artery and excised the coiled, now giant, OA aneurysm. This improved her right eye vision, but her left eye was permanently blind. Conclusion This case report illustrates complications of the endovascular and surgical treatment of a large unruptured OA aneurysm. PMID:25485220

  11. Multiple tuberculous aneurysms of the aorta.

    PubMed

    Pierret, Charles; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Grand, Bertrand; Boddaert, Guillaume; Laurian, Claude; de Kerangal, Xavier

    2011-06-01

    Tuberculous aneurysms of the aorta are quite rare, but are exceptional when found in multiple locations. We report the case of multiple tuberculous aortic aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta in a 19-year-old female discovered when she consulted for thrombocytopenic purpura. The treatment for both locations included prolonged antituberculous therapy and surgical resection with cryopreserved aortic allograft patch for the reconstruction.

  12. Aneurysmal portosystemic venous shunt: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bodner, G; Glück, A; Springer, P; König, P; Perkmann, R

    1999-10-01

    A case of an aneurysmal portosystemic venous shunt detected by colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) is presented. A young female patient complained of postprandial fatigue and had paroxysmal tachycardia. A direct vascular communication between right portal vein and right hepatic vein was found at CDUS and confirmed by direct portal angiogram. Using detachable coils a complete occlusion of the intrahepatic shunt was obtained. Reports from the literature regarding portovenous aneurysms are reviewed.

  13. Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms in HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Sumeet R; Gupta, Anju; Gupta, Vivek; Singhi, Pratibha D

    2016-08-01

    Neurological findings in HIV are common and include cognitive impairment, microcephaly, nonspecific white matter lesions and seizures. Cerebral vasculopathy and stroke are uncommon and may be due to primary HIV vasculopathy or opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis. The authors describe a 7-y-old boy who presented with severe headache and was detected to have aneurysmal bleed due to intracranial aneurysm. PMID:27072660

  14. Direct clipping of large basilar trunk aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Toshikazu; Nakagawa, Daichi; Kawai, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    A large basilar trunk aneurysm was incidentally found in a 77-year-old woman in examination for headache. Though it was asymptomatic, high signal intensity was noticed in the brainstem around the aneurysm on FLAIR image of MRI. As she was otherwise healthy, surgical clipping was performed through anterior temporal approach. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/0soWM8meCW8 . PMID:25554839

  15. Non coding RNAs in aortic aneurysmal disease

    PubMed Central

    Duggirala, Aparna; Delogu, Francesca; Angelini, Timothy G.; Smith, Tanya; Caputo, Massimo; Rajakaruna, Cha; Emanueli, Costanza

    2015-01-01

    An aneurysm is a local dilatation of a vessel wall which is >50% its original diameter. Within the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases, aortic aneurysms are among the most challenging to treat. Most patients present acutely after aneurysm rupture or dissection from a previous asymptomatic condition and are managed by open surgical or endovascular repair. In addition, patients may harbor concurrent disease contraindicating surgical intervention. Collectively, these factors have driven the search for alternative methods of identifying, monitoring and treating aortic aneurisms using less invasive approaches. Non-coding RNA (ncRNAs) are emerging as new fundamental regulators of gene expression. The small microRNAs have opened the field of ncRNAs capturing the attention of basic and clinical scientists for their potential to become new therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers for aortic aneurysm. More recently, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) have started to be actively investigated, leading to first exciting reports, which further suggest their important and yet largely unexplored contribution to vascular physiology and disease. This review introduces the different ncRNA types and focus at ncRNA roles in aorta aneurysms. We discuss the potential of therapeutic interventions targeting ncRNAs and we describe the research models allowing for mechanistic studies and clinical translation attempts for controlling aneurysm progression. Furthermore, we discuss the potential role of microRNAs and lncRNAs as clinical biomarkers. PMID:25883602

  16. Juxtarenal aortic aneurysm: endoluminal transfemoral repair?

    PubMed

    Ferko, A; Krajina, A; Jon, B; Lesko, M; Voboril, Z; Zizka, J; Eliás, P

    1997-01-01

    Endoluminal transfemoral repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm by a stent graft placement requires a segment of the nondilated infrarenal aorta of at least 15 mm long for safe stent graft attachment. The possibility of endoluminal treatment of a juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm with partially covered spiral Z stent was assessed in experiment and in three clinical cases. In the experiment, the noncovered spiral Z stent was placed into the abdominal aorta, across the origins of renal arteries and mesenteric arteries, in six dogs. In the clinical cases, a partially covered stent graft was attached in 3 patients with the juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (of the group of 12 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm). The stent grafts were attached with proximal uncovered parts across the origins of the renal arteries. In experiment, the renal artery occlusions or stenoses were not observed 36 months after stent placement, and in clinic, 3 patients with the juxtarenal aortic aneurysm were successfully treated by stent graft placement. There were no signs of flow impairment into the renal arteries 14 months after stent graft implantation. This approach can possibly expand the indications for endoluminal grafting in the treatment of juxtarenal aortic aneurysms in patients who are at high risk for surgery.

  17. Biology of intracranial aneurysms: role of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chalouhi, Nohra; Ali, Muhammad S; Jabbour, Pascal M; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula I; Gonzalez, L Fernando; Rosenwasser, Robert H; Koch, Walter J; Dumont, Aaron S

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) linger as a potentially devastating clinical problem. Despite intense investigation, our understanding of the mechanisms leading to aneurysm development, progression and rupture remain incompletely defined. An accumulating body of evidence implicates inflammation as a critical contributor to aneurysm pathogenesis. Intracranial aneurysm formation and progression appear to result from endothelial dysfunction, a mounting inflammatory response, and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotypic modulation producing a pro-inflammatory phenotype. A later final common pathway appears to involve apoptosis of cellular constituents of the vessel wall. These changes result in degradation of the integrity of the vascular wall leading to aneurysmal dilation, progression and eventual rupture in certain aneurysms. Various aspects of the inflammatory response have been investigated as contributors to IA pathogenesis including leukocytes, complement, immunoglobulins, cytokines, and other humoral mediators. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of IA compared with control arteries has prominently featured differential expression of genes involved with immune response/inflammation. Preliminary data suggest that therapies targeting the inflammatory response may have efficacy in the future treatment of IA. Further investigation, however, is necessary to elucidate the precise role of inflammation in IA pathogenesis, which can be exploited to improve the prognosis of patients harboring IA. PMID:22781330

  18. Bronchial Artery Aneurysm Embolization with NBCA

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, Hiroyuki Kawamori, Yasuhiro; Horiti, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Kiyohide; Sanada, Junichiro; Matsui, Osamu

    2006-12-15

    We present a case of asymptomatic bronchial artery aneurysm that formed a fistula with part of the pulmonary artery (there was no definite fistula with the pulmonary vein). We were able to catheterize the feeding vessel but could not reach the aneurysm. We therefore injected a mixture of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA; Histoacryl, B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) and iodized oil (Lipiodol; Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France) from the feeding vessel. The fistula, aneurysm, and feeding vessel were almost totally occluded. After embolization, the patient coughed a little; there were no other definite side effects or complications. One and 3 months later, on chest CT, the aneurysm was almost completely occupied with hyperattenuating NBCA-Lipiodol embolization. NBCA is a liquid embolization material whose time to coagulation after injection can be controlled by diluting it with Lipiodol. It is therefore possible to embolize an aneurysm, feeding vessels, and efferent vessels (in our case, it was a fistula) by using an NBCA-Lipiodol mixture of an appropriate concentration, regardless of whether the catheter can reach the aneurysm or not.

  19. False-negative indocyanine green videoangiography among complex unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms: the importance of further aneurysm inspection.

    PubMed

    Kulwin, Charles; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-10-01

    Successful surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms requires complete occlusion of the aneurysm lumen while maintaining patency of the adjacent branching and perforating arteries. Intraoperative flow assessment allows aneurysm clip repositioning in the event these requirements are not met, avoiding the risk of postoperative rehemorrhage or infarction. A number of modalities have been proposed for primarily intraoperative qualitative blood flow assessment, including microdoppler ultrasonography, intraoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and more recently noninvasive fluorescent angiography including indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent imaging. Puncture of the aneurysm dome to exclude aneurysm sac filling may also assess the efficacy of clip placement. Although a high concordance between ICG and DSA has been reported, there remains an important subset of aneurysms for which negative ICG study may erroneously suggest aneurysm occlusion. A high-risk situation for such a false-negative study is an atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm in which vessel wall plaque interferes with the ICG signal. Furthermore, a decreased flow within the aneurysm may not allow enough emission light for detection under the current technology. In this report, we describe our experience with cases of MCA aneurysms with false-negative ICG-VA studies requiring clip adjustment for optimal surgical treatment and discuss two illustrative cases of MCA aneurysms with intraoperative fluorescence studies that were falsely negative, requiring puncture of the aneurysm to correctly identify incomplete aneurysm occlusion. PMID:24552255

  20. Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... español Talk to Your Doctor about Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Browse Sections The Basics Overview What is AAA? ... doctor about getting screened (tested) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). If AAA isn't found and treated ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions familial TAAD familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection ( familial TAAD ) involves problems with the ...

  2. The experimental study on aneurysm with PIV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueshe, Wang; Xiaoqi, Ma; Di, Li

    2013-07-01

    Cerebral aneurysm, a local enlargement of an artery caused by weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery, has the high death rate and disability rate, and is a threat to public health. The forming mechanism of aneurysm is complex, which motivated many researchers to conduct studies in this field. The results indicated that increasing heart frequency can aggravate the oscillation of wall shear stress, and push The growth points of aneurysm along the aneurysm wall, thereby significantly affecting bthe growth and rupture mechanism of aneurysm. In addition, it is found that the curvature of the vessel is the key to induce the secondary vortex in the aneurysm; the secondary vortex increases the magnitude of WSS near the dome of aneurysm, which can cause the rupture of aneurysm dome. there is a linear relationship between the velocity of blood flow and the square root of hear frequency.

  3. Giant serpentine aneurysm of the distal anterior cerebral artery.

    PubMed

    Senbokuya, Nobuo; Kanemaru, Kazuya; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Horikoshi, Toru

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of a 38-year-old man with a giant serpentine aneurysm arising from the distal anterior cerebral artery. This aneurysm grew from a fusiform aneurysm to a huge aneurysm within 5 months before manifesting as a mass lesion. The aneurysm was largely filled with thrombus, and 4 distal branches arose from the aneurysm dome. Selective balloon test occlusion of the distal anterior cerebral artery using an intravascular technique was performed to confirm the tolerance of the brain tissue. The balloon test occlusion elicited adequate leptomeningeal collateral circulation and no neurologic symptoms; thus, the aneurysm was treated with trapping and resection. The patient had no ischemic complications after the surgery and returned to his job 1 month later. No ischemia developed in the 2 years after surgery. Selective balloon test occlusion of the distal cerebral artery using an intravascular technique can be a very useful tool in planning the therapeutic strategy for a complicated distal cerebral aneurysm.

  4. Aneurysm of the internal carotid artery after minor trauma.

    PubMed

    Laissaoui, Younès; Noureddine El Alami, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of posttraumatic aneurysm of the internal carotid artery. The aneurysm was surgically removed, followed by a simple postoperative course. Such lesions should be highly suspected in cases of penetration into the retroangulomandibular neck region.

  5. Traumatic aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery from fist injury.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, A; Tognetti, F; Lanzino, G

    1990-01-01

    A case of traumatic aneurysm of the superficial temporal artery (STA) from fist injury during a basketball game is described. The published cases of STA aneurysms secondary to sport trauma and their diagnosis and treatment are reviewed.

  6. Management of Splenic Artery Aneurysms and False Aneurysms with Endovascular Treatment in 12 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Guillon, R.; Garcier, J.M.; Abergel, A.; Mofid, R.; Garcia, V.; Chahid, T.; Ravel, A.; Pezet, D.; Boyer, L.

    2003-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the endovascular treatment of splenic artery aneurysms and false aneurysms. Methods: Twelve patients (mean age 59 years, range 47-75 years) with splenic artery aneurysm (n = 10) or false aneurysm (n = 2) were treated. The lesion was asymptomatic in 11 patients; hemobilia was observed in one patient. The lesion was juxta-ostial in one case, located on the intermediate segment of the splenic artery in four, near the splenic hilus in six,and affected the whole length of the artery in one patient. In 10 cases, the maximum lesion diameter was greater than 2 cm; in one case 30% growth of an aneurysm 18 mm in diameter had occurred in 6 months;in the last case, two distal aneurysms were associated (17 and 18 mm in diameter). In one case, stent-grafting was attempted; one detachable balloon occlusion was performed; the 10 other patients were treated with coils. Results: Endovascular treatment was possible in 11 patients (92%) (one failure: stenting attempt). In four cases among 11, the initial treatment was not successful (residual perfusion of aneurysm); surgical treatment was carried out in one case, and a second embolization in two. Thus in nine cases (75%) endovascular treatment was successful: complete and persistent exclusion of the aneurysm but with spleen perfusion persisting at the end of follow-upon CT scans (mean 13 months). An early and transient elevation of pancreatic enzymes was observed in four cases. Conclusion: Ultrasound and CT have made the diagnosis of splenic artery aneurysm or false aneurysm more frequent. Endovascular treatment, the morbidity of which is low, is effective and spares the spleen.

  7. Traumatic aneurysms of the intracranial and cervical vessels: A review.

    PubMed

    Bhaisora, Kamlesh S; Behari, Sanjay; Godbole, Chaitanya; Phadke, Rajendra V

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (TICA) are rare in occurrence, constituting less than 1% of the total cases of intracranial aneurysms. Cervical posttraumatic aneurysms arising from major blood vessels supplying the brain are also extremely rare. Their variable locations, morphological variations and the presence of concomitant head injury makes their diagnosis and treatment a challenge. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, etiology, classification and management issues related to TICA as well as traumatic neck aneurysms and review the pertinent literature.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL MODELLING OF AORTIC ANEURYSMS

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Barry J; Corbett, Timothy J; Cloonan, Aidan J; O’Donnell, Michael R; Walsh, Michael T; Vorp, David A; McGloughlin, Timothy M

    2009-01-01

    A range of silicone rubbers were created based on existing commercially available materials. These silicones were designed to be visually different from one another and have distinct material properties, in particular, ultimate tensile strengths and tear strengths. In total, eleven silicone rubbers were manufactured, with the materials designed to have a range of increasing tensile strengths from approximately 2-4MPa, and increasing tear strengths from approximately 0.45-0.7N/mm. The variations in silicones were detected using a standard colour analysis technique. Calibration curves were then created relating colour intensity to individual material properties. All eleven materials were characterised and a 1st order Ogden strain energy function applied. Material coefficients were determined and examined for effectiveness. Six idealised abdominal aortic aneurysm models were also created using the two base materials of the study, with a further model created using a new mixing technique to create a rubber model with randomly assigned material properties. These models were then examined using videoextensometry and compared to numerical results. Colour analysis revealed a statistically significant linear relationship (p<0.0009) with both tensile strength and tear strength, allowing material strength to be determined using a non-destructive experimental technique. The effectiveness of this technique was assessed by comparing predicted material properties to experimentally measured methods, with good agreement in the results. Videoextensometry and numerical modelling revealed minor percentage differences, with all results achieving significance (p<0.0009). This study has successfully designed and developed a range of silicone rubbers that have unique colour intensities and material strengths. Strengths can be readily determined using a non-destructive analysis technique with proven effectiveness. These silicones may further aid towards an improved understanding of the

  9. Rupture of giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm following flow diversion: mechanical stretch as a potential mechanism for early aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Fox, Benjamin; Humphries, William Edward; Doss, Vinodh T; Hoit, Daniel; Elijovich, Lucas; Arthur, Adam S

    2014-01-01

    A patient with a giant symptomatic vertebrobasilar aneurysm was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus followed by treatment of the aneurysm by flow diversion using a Pipeline Embolization Device. After an uneventful procedure and initial periprocedural period, the patient experienced an unexpected fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1 week later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm rupture (linear whole wall rupture). The patent Pipeline Embolization Device was in its intended location, as was the persistent coil occlusion of the distal left vertebral artery. The aneurysm appeared to rupture in a linear manner and contained a thick large expansile clot that seemed to disrupt or rupture the thin aneurysm wall directly opposite the basilar artery/Pipeline Embolization Device. We feel the pattern of aneurysm rupture in our patient supports the idea that the combination of flow diversion and the resulting growing intra-aneurysmal thrombus can create a mechanical force with the potential to cause aneurysm rupture. PMID:25355741

  10. Rupture of giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm following flow diversion: mechanical stretch as a potential mechanism for early aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Fox, Benjamin; Humphries, William Edward; Doss, Vinodh T; Hoit, Daniel; Elijovich, Lucas; Arthur, Adam S

    2015-11-01

    A patient with a giant symptomatic vertebrobasilar aneurysm was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus followed by treatment of the aneurysm by flow diversion using a Pipeline Embolization Device. After an uneventful procedure and initial periprocedural period, the patient experienced an unexpected fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1 week later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm rupture (linear whole wall rupture). The patent Pipeline Embolization Device was in its intended location, as was the persistent coil occlusion of the distal left vertebral artery. The aneurysm appeared to rupture in a linear manner and contained a thick large expansile clot that seemed to disrupt or rupture the thin aneurysm wall directly opposite the basilar artery/Pipeline Embolization Device. We feel the pattern of aneurysm rupture in our patient supports the idea that the combination of flow diversion and the resulting growing intra-aneurysmal thrombus can create a mechanical force with the potential to cause aneurysm rupture. PMID:25361560

  11. [Giant intracranial aneurysm in three years old boy: case report].

    PubMed

    de Tella, Osvaldo Inácio; Crosera, João Francisco; Herculano, Marco Antonio; de Paiva Neto, Manoel Antonio

    2006-06-01

    Cerebral aneurysms are rare in the pediatric age group and differ from adults' aneurysms in size, localization and incidence. We report a 3-year-old boy with giant middle cerebral artery aneurysms who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was submitted to surgical treatment and the postoperative period was uneventful.

  12. Early and late results of resection of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Scobie, K.; McPhail, N.; Hubbard, C.

    1977-01-01

    Resection of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is being performed with decreasing operative mortality and morbidity. Among 190 patients undergoing this procedure at the Ottawa Civic Hospital between 1970 and 1975, 53 (28%) had a ruptured aneurysm and 137 (72%), a nonruptured aneurysm. Mean age of the patients was 66.2 years. Concomitant disease was frequent, 73% of patients having two or more associated diseases; the average number of associated diseases per patient was 2.25. Operative mortality in the group with ruptured aneurysms was 51%, and in the group with nonruptured aneurysms, 4%. Postoperative morbidity was 85% among those with a ruptured aneurysm, 67% among those with imminent rupture before operation and 34% among the others with a nonruptured aneurysm. Graft complications occurred in 15% of those with a ruptured aneurysm and 9% of those with a nonruptured aneurysm. Among survivors of the operation 73% and 81% of those with a ruptured and a nonruptured aneurysm, respectively, are known to be alive. In both groups causes of late death included infection or thrombosis of the graft and mesenteric thrombosis, as well as causes unrelated to the operation. Surgical management of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is advocated in all but patients at poor risk for operation who have asymptomatic aneurysms less than 6 cm in diameter. PMID:872011

  13. Massive superior mesenteric venous aneurysm with portal venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Starikov, Anna; Bartolotta, Roger J

    2015-01-01

    Portal venous aneurysm is a rare and sometimes dangerous vascular pathology, which can result in thrombosis or rupture. We present the computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and sonographic imaging of a 27-year-old man with superior mesenteric venous aneurysm and subsequent thrombosis following acute pancreatitis. This multimodality imaging approach can prove useful in the evaluation of these rare aneurysms.

  14. The Management of Intracranial Aneurysms During Pregnancy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Barbarite, Eric; Hussain, Shahrose; Dellarole, Anna; Elhammady, Mohamed Samy; Peterson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Hemodynamic changes during pregnancy may favor the formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. Despite this risk, guidelines for managing intracranial aneurysms during pregnancy have not been clearly defined. The objective of this review is to describe the treatment options for pregnant women with intracranial aneurysms, and to report the maternal and fetal outcomes associated with different treatment strategies. A search of the literature was conducted using the PubMed database for the period January 1991 through June 2015. Aneurysm characteristics and management, pregnancy management, and maternal and fetal outcomes were evaluated. The most recent search was performed in June 2015. In total, 50 aneurysms (44 patients) were evaluated. Rupture was confirmed upon imaging in 36 aneurysms (72%), and most aneurysms ruptured during the third trimester (77.8%). Coil embolization was associated with a lower complication rate than clipping in patients with ruptured aneurysms (9.5% vs 23.1%). For patients with unruptured aneurysms, surgical management was associated with 31.9% fewer complications compared to no treatment. Most patients underwent Cesarean delivery (84%), and a combined neurosurgical-obstetrical procedure was used for 8 patients with ruptured aneurysms near term. Adverse outcomes were reported in 11.9% of children. Treatment of intracranial aneurysms during pregnancy is safe and effective. Furthermore, we suggest that coil embolization be considered a first line treatment over clipping for surgical management of the pregnant population. Going forward, we encourage the establishment of formal guidelines for managing intracranial aneurysms during pregnancy. PMID:27400091

  15. 21 CFR 882.4175 - Aneurysm clip applier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aneurysm clip applier. 882.4175 Section 882.4175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4175 Aneurysm clip applier. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip applier is a device used by the surgeon for holding and applying...

  16. 21 CFR 882.4175 - Aneurysm clip applier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aneurysm clip applier. 882.4175 Section 882.4175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4175 Aneurysm clip applier. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip applier is a device used by the surgeon for holding and applying...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4175 - Aneurysm clip applier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aneurysm clip applier. 882.4175 Section 882.4175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4175 Aneurysm clip applier. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip applier is a device used by the surgeon for holding and applying...

  18. 21 CFR 882.4175 - Aneurysm clip applier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aneurysm clip applier. 882.4175 Section 882.4175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4175 Aneurysm clip applier. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip applier is a device used by the surgeon for holding and applying...

  19. 21 CFR 882.4175 - Aneurysm clip applier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aneurysm clip applier. 882.4175 Section 882.4175...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4175 Aneurysm clip applier. (a) Identification. An aneurysm clip applier is a device used by the surgeon for holding and applying...

  20. Endovascular occlusion of intracranial aneurysms with electrically detachable coils: Correlation of aneurysm neck size and treatment results

    SciTech Connect

    Zubillaga, A.F.; Guglielmi, G.; Vinuela, F.; Duckwiler, G.R.

    1994-05-01

    To devise a method to measure aneurysm neck size on angiographic films, and to correlate the sizes obtained with the extent of endovascular aneurysm occlusion, performed with electrically detachable coils. The angiograms of 79 intracranial aneurysms treated by endovascular occlusion using electrically detachable coils were retrospectively analyzed. A method using the average reported caliber of the major intracranial vessels was applied to determine the aneurysm neck sizes on the diagnostic angiograms. The cases were divided into two groups according to neck size, 4 mm being the discriminative value for small and wide necks. The posttreatment angiogram of each case was analyzed to evaluate the degree of occlusion achieved by the technique. Necks were successfully measured in 95% of the aneurysms. Complete aneurysm thrombosis was observed in 85% of the small-necked aneurysms and in 15% of the wide-necked aneurysms. Accurate angiographic measurements of neck diameter can be obtained in most aneurysms. The size of an aneurysm neck correlates well with the results of the endovascular treatment. Small-necked aneurysms can be satisfactorily occluded with this technique. In wide-necked aneurysms this technique should be reserved for lesions having a high surgical risk. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Diseases of the aorta. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  2. The Asymmetric Vascular Stent: Efficacy in a rabbit aneurysm model

    PubMed Central

    Ionita, Ciprian N; Paciorek, Ann M; Dohatcu, Andreea; Hoffmann, Kenneth R; Bednarek, Daniel R; Kolega, John; Levy, Elad I; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Rudin, Stephen; Mocco, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Development of hemodynamic modifying devices to treat intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is an active area of research. The asymmetric vascular stent (AVS), a stent containing a low porosity patch, is such device. We evaluate AVS efficacy in an in vivo IA model. Methods We created twenty-four elastase rabbit model aneurysms: thirteen treated with the AVS, five treated with standard coronary stents, and six untreated controls. Four weeks following treatment, aneurysms underwent follow-up angiography, cone-beam micro-CT, histologic evaluation, and selective electron microscopy scanning. Results Four rabbits died early in the study: three during AVS treatment and one control (secondary to intra-procedural vessel injury and an unrelated tumor, respectively). AVS-treated aneurysms exhibited very weak or no aneurysm flow immediately after treatment and no flow in all aneurysms at follow-up. Stent-treated aneurysms showed flow both after treatment (5/5) and at follow-up (3/5). All control aneurysms remained patent during the study. Micro-CT scans showed: 9/9 of scanned AVS aneurysms were occluded, (6/9) AVSs were ideally placed and (3/9) the low porosity region partially covered the aneurysm neck; stent-treated aneurysms were 1/5 occluded, 2/5 patent, and 2/5 partially-patent. Histology results demonstrated: for AVS-treated aneurysms, advanced thrombus organization in the (9/9); for stent-treated aneurysms (1/4) no thrombus, (2/4) partially-thrombosed and (1/4) fully-thrombosed; for control aneurysms (4/4) no thrombus. Conclusion The use of AVSs shows promise as a viable new therapeutic in intracranial aneurysm treatment. These data encourage further investigation and provide substantial support to the AVS concept. PMID:19131663

  3. Ultrasound Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Clinical Need Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm. In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 2% and 5.4%. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are found in 4% to 8% of older men and in 0.5% to 1.5% of women aged 65 years and older. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are largely asymptomatic. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. Often rupture may occur without warning, causing acute pain. Rupture is always life threatening and requires emergency surgical repair of the ruptured aorta. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. Over one-half of all deaths attributed to a ruptured aneurysm take place before the patient reaches hospital. In comparison, the rate of death in people undergoing elective surgery is 5% to 7%; however, symptoms of AAA rarely occur before rupture. Given that ultrasound can reliably visualize the aorta in 99% of the population, and its sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AAA approaches 100%, screening for aneurysms is worth considering as it may reduce the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and hence reduce unnecessary deaths caused by AAA-attributable mortality. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat used its standard search strategy to retrieve international health technology assessments and English-language journal articles from selected databases to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Case reports, letters, editorials, nonsystematic reviews, non-human studies, and comments were excluded. Questions asked: Is population-based AAA screening effective in improving health outcomes in asymptomatic populations? Is AAA screening acceptable to the population? Does this affect the

  4. Abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Bietz, D S; Merendino, K A

    1975-01-01

    Two patients with aortic abdominal aneurysms in association with horseshoe kidney are presented, making a total of 34 cases recorded in the literature. In 29 patients, the aneurysm was resected and five patients were non-resectable. Because of the abnormalities in vascular supply to the abnormal kidney, it is important to diagnose the combination of aneurysm and horseshoe kidney preoperatively. An error in diagnosis should be unusual if an intravenous pyelogram is routinely obtained on all patients. This study may reveal abnormalities which will allow the diagnosis of horseshoe kidney to be made or suspected. If the intravenous pyelogram is abnormal, it should be followed by an aortogram. This may substantiate the diagnosis of aneurysm and horseshoe kidney and provide the necessary detailed information regarding the pattern of blood supply and its relationship to functioning tissue. The amount and disposition of functioning renal parenchyma may be further amplified by renal scan. If this sequence is followed, the unanticipated combination of abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney should be rare. PMID:1130850

  5. Radiological features of azygous vein aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Arabinda Kumar; Moore, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Mediastinal masses are most commonly associated with malignancy. Azygous vein aneurysm is a very rare differential diagnosis of mediastinal mass. We report here three cases of azygous vein aneurysm including children and adult patients. In the pediatric patient it was further complicated by thrombosis and secondary pulmonary embolism. We describe the radiological features on CXR, MRI, CT, PET-CT, US and angiogram and their differential diagnosis. Imaging findings of continuity with azygous vein, layering of contrast medium on enhanced CT and dynamic MRA showing filling of the mass at the same time as the azygous vein without prior enhancement will be strongly suggestive of azygous vein aneurysm with transtracheal ultrasound being the definitive test in these patients. It is important to keep a vascular origin mass in the differential diagnosis of mediastinal masses. Also, in young healthy patients with pulmonary embolism, a vascular etiology such as azygous vein aneurysm should be carefully evaluated. This article will help the clinicians to learn about the imaging features of azygous vein aneurysm on different imaging modalities.

  6. Aneurysm strength can decrease under calcification.

    PubMed

    Volokh, Konstantin Y; Aboudi, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Aneurysms are abnormal dilatations of vessels in the vascular system that are prone to rupture. Prediction of the aneurysm rupture is a challenging and unsolved problem. Various factors can lead to the aneurysm rupture and, in the present study, we examine the effect of calcification on the aneurysm strength by using micromechanical modeling. The calcified tissue is considered as a composite material in which hard calcium particles are embedded in a hyperelastic soft matrix. Three experimentally calibrated constitutive models incorporating a failure description are used for the matrix representation. Two constitutive models describe the aneurysmal arterial wall and the third one - the intraluminal thrombus. The stiffness and strength of the calcified tissue are simulated in uniaxial tension under the varying amount of calcification, i.e. the relative volume of the hard inclusion within the periodic unit cell. In addition, the triaxiality of the stress state, which can be a trigger for the cavitation instability, is tracked. Results of the micromechanical simulation show an increase of the stiffness and a possible decrease of the strength of the calcified tissue as compared to the non-calcified one. The obtained results suggest that calcification (i.e. the presence of hard particles) can significantly affect the stiffness and strength of soft tissue. The development of refined experimental techniques that will allow for the accurate quantitative assessment of calcification is desirable. PMID:26717251

  7. Current strategies for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Solomon, R A; Fink, M E

    1987-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm represents a major health issue. Although most people who experience an aneurysmal SAH survive to be admitted to a hospital, less than one third of these patients ever return to their premorbid status. Clearly, morbidity of this magnitude demands reevaluation of the clinical approach to this problem. This article reviews the natural history of aneurysmal SAH, and examines the current therapeutic strategies that have been suggested to improve the outcome. Careful evaluation of the existing data suggests that early aneurysm surgery and aggressive postoperative volume expansion therapy constitute the best presently available approach to patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms. PMID:3297009

  8. Radiological features of uncommon aneurysms of the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Kalisz, Kevin; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Although aortic aneurysms are the most common type encountered clinically, they do not span the entire spectrum of possible aneurysms of the cardiovascular system. As cross sectional imaging techniques with cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging continue to improve and becomes more commonplace, once rare cardiovascular aneurysms are being encountered at higher rates. In this review, a series of uncommon, yet clinically important, cardiovascular aneurysms will be presented with review of epidemiology, clinical presentation and complications, imaging features and relevant differential diagnoses, and aneurysm management. PMID:27247710

  9. Brain abscess after endosaccular embolisation of a cerebral aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangzhong; Zhan, Shengquan; Chen, Wei; Li, Zhaojie; Zhou, Dong; Zeng, Shaojian; Lin, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kai; Zhou, Dexiang; Shu, Hang

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular embolization has become an important treatment option for cerebral aneurysms, along with surgical clipping. But few literatures mentioned infectious complications after coiling of aneurysms. We present a patient with a brain abscess that developed after endosaccular embolization of a left middle cerebral artery aneurysm. The brain abscess was located adjacent to the aneurysm and discovered more than 2 months after embolization. We discuss the clinical implications of this rare complication and review the literature for infections related to the coils used for embolization of aneurysms.

  10. Comprehensive Overview of Contemporary Management Strategies for Cerebral Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Manhas, Amitoz; Nimjee, Shahid M; Agrawal, Abhishek; Zhang, Jonathan; Diaz, Orlando; Zomorodi, Ali R; Smith, Tony; Powers, Ciarán J; Sauvageau, Eric; Klucznik, Richard P; Ferrell, Andrew; Golshani, Kiarash; Stieg, Philip E; Britz, Gavin W

    2015-10-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains an important health issue in the United States. Despite recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral aneurysms, the mortality rate following aneurysm rupture. In those patients who survive, up to 50% are left severely disabled. The goal of preventing the hemorrhage or re-hemorrhage can only be achieved by successfully excluding the aneurysm from the circulation. This article is a comprehensive review by contemporary vascular neurosurgeons and interventional neuroradiolgists on the modern management of cerebral aneurysms.

  11. Swine hybrid aneurysm model for endovascular surgery training.

    PubMed

    Namba, K; Mashio, K; Kawamura, Y; Higaki, A; Nemoto, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a technically simple swine aneurysm-training model by inserting a silicone aneurysm circuit in the cervical vessels. A silicone aneurysm circuit was created by designing multiple aneurysms in size and configuration on a silicone vessel. Five swine underwent surgical implantation of this circuit in the cervical vessels: one end in the common carotid artery and the other in the external jugular vein. Using this model, an aneurysm coiling procedure was simulated under fluoroscopic guidance, roadmapping and digital subtraction angiography. Creating an aneurysm model for training purposes by this method was technically simple and enabled the formation of a wide variety of aneurysms in a single procedure. The quality of the model was uniform and the model was reproducible. Coiling training using this model resembled a realistic clinical situation. The swine hybrid aneurysm-training model was advantageous from the standpoint of technical simplicity in the creation and variety of aneurysms it provided. The swine hybrid aneurysm model may be an additional option for aneurysm coiling training. PMID:23693037

  12. Swine Hybrid Aneurysm Model for Endovascular Surgery Training

    PubMed Central

    Namba, K.; Mashio, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Higaki, A.; Nemoto, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to develop a technically simple swine aneurysm-training model by inserting a silicone aneurysm circuit in the cervical vessels. A silicone aneurysm circuit was created by designing multiple aneurysms in size and configuration on a silicone vessel. Five swine underwent surgical implantation of this circuit in the cervical vessels: one end in the common carotid artery and the other in the external jugular vein. Using this model, an aneurysm coiling procedure was simulated under fluoroscopic guidance, roadmapping and digital subtraction angiography. Creating an aneurysm model for training purposes by this method was technically simple and enabled the formation of a wide variety of aneurysms in a single procedure. The quality of the model was uniform and the model was reproducible. Coiling training using this model resembled a realistic clinical situation. The swine hybrid aneurysm-training model was advantageous from the standpoint of technical simplicity in the creation and variety of aneurysms it provided. The swine hybrid aneurysm model may be an additional option for aneurysm coiling training. PMID:23693037

  13. A Case of Glucocorticoid Remediable Aldosteronism and Thoracoabdominal Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Shahrrava, Anahita; Moinuddin, Sunnan; Boddu, Prajwal; Shah, Rohan

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism (GRA) is rare familial form of primary aldosteronism characterized by a normalization of hypertension with the administration of glucocorticoids. We present a case of GRA and thoracoabdominal aneurysm complicated by multiple aortic dissections requiring complex surgical and endovascular repairs. Registry studies have shown a high rate of intracranial aneurysms in GRA patients with high case fatality rates. The association of thoracoabdominal aneurysms with GRA has not been described, thus far, in literature. Studies have shown that high tissue aldosterone levels concomitant with salt intake have a significant role in the pathogenesis of aneurysms and this may explain the formation of aneurysms in the intracranial vasculature and aorta. The association of GRA with thoracic aortic aneurysms needs to be further studied to develop screening recommendations for early identification and optimal treatment. Also, the early use of mineralocorticoid antagonists may have a significant preventive and attenuating effect in aneurysm formation, an association which needs to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:27366333

  14. Endoport-Assisted Microsurgical Treatment of a Ruptured Periventricular Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ching-Jen; Caruso, James; Buell, Thomas; Crowley, R. Webster; Liu, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Importance. Ruptured periventricular aneurysms in patients with moyamoya disease represent challenging pathologies. The most common methods of treatment include endovascular embolization and microsurgical clipping. However, rare cases arise in which the location and anatomy of the aneurysm make these treatment modalities particularly challenging. Clinical Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old female with moyamoya disease who presented with intraventricular hemorrhage. CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed an aneurysm located in the wall of the atrium of the right lateral ventricle. Distal endovascular access was not possible, and embolization risked the sacrifice of arteries supplying critical brain parenchyma. Using the BrainPath endoport system, the aneurysm was able to be accessed. Since the fusiform architecture of the aneurysm prevented clip placement, the aneurysm was ligated with electrocautery. Conclusion. We demonstrate the feasibility of endoport-assisted approach for minimally invasive access and treatment of uncommon, distally located aneurysms. PMID:27195160

  15. Endoport-Assisted Microsurgical Treatment of a Ruptured Periventricular Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Jen; Caruso, James; Starke, Robert M; Ding, Dale; Buell, Thomas; Crowley, R Webster; Liu, Kenneth C

    2016-01-01

    Background and Importance. Ruptured periventricular aneurysms in patients with moyamoya disease represent challenging pathologies. The most common methods of treatment include endovascular embolization and microsurgical clipping. However, rare cases arise in which the location and anatomy of the aneurysm make these treatment modalities particularly challenging. Clinical Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old female with moyamoya disease who presented with intraventricular hemorrhage. CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed an aneurysm located in the wall of the atrium of the right lateral ventricle. Distal endovascular access was not possible, and embolization risked the sacrifice of arteries supplying critical brain parenchyma. Using the BrainPath endoport system, the aneurysm was able to be accessed. Since the fusiform architecture of the aneurysm prevented clip placement, the aneurysm was ligated with electrocautery. Conclusion. We demonstrate the feasibility of endoport-assisted approach for minimally invasive access and treatment of uncommon, distally located aneurysms. PMID:27195160

  16. Resolution of third nerve palsy despite persistent aneurysmal mass effect after flow diversion embolization of posterior communicating artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Binyamin, Tamar R; Dahlin, Brian C; Waldau, Ben

    2016-09-01

    Posterior communicating artery (PCOM) aneurysms may cause third nerve palsies. The optimal treatment with clipping versus coiling remains controversial. Here we report on two cases of resolution of third nerve palsy after flow diversion embolization of large and giant PCOM aneurysms without adjuvant coil placement. The resolution of third nerve palsy was not preceded by significant shrinkage of the aneurysmal sac on MRI. However, one patient showed resolution of T2-weighted signal abnormalities in the midbrain and mesial temporal lobe despite a similar size of the aneurysm. Therefore, flow diversion embolization of a PCOM aneurysm may resolve oculomotor nerve palsies through decreasing arterial pulsations against the nerve or midbrain. PMID:27183957

  17. Uterine cirsoid aneurysm: MRI and MRA

    SciTech Connect

    Joja, Ikuo; Asakawa, Mari; Motoyama, Kazumi

    1996-03-01

    Uterine cirsoid aneurysm is uncommon. It is important to make a diagnosis of this disease preoperatively, because repeated curettages may induce life-threatening massive genital bleeding. We present a case of a 51-year-old woman with uterine cirsoid aneurysm in whom MRI and MRA were very useful for the preoperative diagnosis. The radiologic appearances on ultrasonography, CT, conventional SE MRI, MRA, dynamic MRI, and pelvic angiography are presented. Conventional SE T1-weighted and T2-weighted images demonstrated multiple flow voids in the uterus and bilateral adnexal regions. MRA demonstrated a cluster of distinct, tortuous, and coiled vascular channels in the pelvis. MRA could obtain images almost equal to angiography and was considered to be an excellent noninvasive imaging technique for the diagnosis of uterine cirsoid aneurysm. 28 refs., 7 figs

  18. Infected Aneurysm after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection.

    PubMed

    Gen, Shiko; Usui, Ryuichi; Sasaki, Takaya; Nobe, Kanako; Takahashi, Aya; Okudaira, Keisuke; Ikeda, Naofumi

    2016-01-01

    A 79-year-old man on hemodialysis was hospitalized for further investigation. Early gastric cancer was diagnosed by gastrointestinal endoscopy and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was performed. Fever and abdominal pain thereafter developed, and a severe inflammatory response was observed on a blood test. Contrast computed tomography (CT) showed ulcer-like projections and soft tissue surrounding the aorta, from the celiac to left renal artery. An infected aneurysm was diagnosed. Although infected aneurysms developing after laparoscopic cholecystectomy or biopsy of contiguous esophageal duplication cyst have been reported, those developing after ESD have not. When fever and abdominal pain develop after ESD, an infected aneurysm should be considered and contrast CT performed. PMID:27181541

  19. Giant and thrombosed left ventricular aneurysm.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; de Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Almeria, Carlos; Mahia, Patricia; Luaces, Maria; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Macaya, Carlos; de Isla, Leopoldo Perez

    2015-07-26

    Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent complication of acute extensive myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. A timely diagnosis is vital due to the serious complications that can occur, including heart failure, thromboembolism, or tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with history of previous anterior myocardial infarction and currently under evaluation by chronic heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombosed and calcified anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm. Coronary angiography demonstrated that the left anterior descending artery was chronically occluded, and revealed a big and spherical mass with calcified borders in the left hemithorax. Left ventriculogram confirmed that this spherical mass was a giant calcified left ventricular aneurysm, causing very severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient underwent cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention.

  20. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Current and Future Status

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, R. J. Ivancev, K.

    2008-05-15

    Endovascular aneurysm repair has rapidly expanded since its introduction in the early 1990s. Early experiences were associated with high rates of complications including conversion to open repair. Perioperative morbidity and mortality results have improved but these concerns have been replaced by questions about long-term durability. Gradually, too, these problems have been addressed. Challenges of today include the ability to roll out the endovascular technique to patients with adverse aneurysm morphology. Fenestrated and branch stent-graft technology is in its infancy. Only now are we beginning to fully understand the advantages, limitations, and complications of such technology. This paper outlines some of the concepts and discusses the controversies and challenges facing clinicians involved in endovascular aneurysm surgery today and in the future.

  1. Renal interventions during endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Renal insufficiency is a risk factor for mortality and morbidity during endovascular aneurysm repair. Multiple changes in practice have occurred to mitigate renal injury and renal dysfunction. Transrenal fixation does carry an increased risk of a decline in renal function in the medium term. Renal stenting for athero-occlusive disease during endovascular aneurysm repair needs careful consideration, as indications have changed and there are unexpected consequences with early vessel occlusion. The growing number of renal interventions during complex endovascular aneurysm repair with the advent of chimney snorkel/periscope techniques and the introduction of fenestrated grafts has shown the resilience of the intervention with relatively low renal issues (approximately 10%), but has also illustrated the need for additional device development.

  2. Giant and thrombosed left ventricular aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; de Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Almeria, Carlos; Mahia, Patricia; Luaces, Maria; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Macaya, Carlos; de Isla, Leopoldo Perez

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent complication of acute extensive myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. A timely diagnosis is vital due to the serious complications that can occur, including heart failure, thromboembolism, or tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with history of previous anterior myocardial infarction and currently under evaluation by chronic heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombosed and calcified anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm. Coronary angiography demonstrated that the left anterior descending artery was chronically occluded, and revealed a big and spherical mass with calcified borders in the left hemithorax. Left ventriculogram confirmed that this spherical mass was a giant calcified left ventricular aneurysm, causing very severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient underwent cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention. PMID:26225205

  3. Emergency endovascular treatment of popliteal aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Saratzis, Athanasios; Melas, Nikolaos; Dixon, Hannah; Saratzis, Nikolaos

    2010-12-01

    Popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA), despite being rare, is the most common peripheral aneurysm. It can present as acute thrombosis and occlusion of the aneurysmal segment, and distal embolization, causing either chronic or acute limb ischemia. It has traditionally been treated with open surgical reconstruction. Endovascular repair of PAAs has recently been applied electively with a favourable early and mid-term outcome; however there is a lack of reports on the endovascular treatment of PAAs presenting with acute complications. This report describes the treatment of a thrombosed PAA in a 58 year old male using an endovascular stent-graft and also provides a systematic review of the literature on the emergency endovascular treatment of PAAs.

  4. Embolomycotic Aneurysm of External Iliac Artery

    PubMed Central

    Terán, Nemesio A.; Gonzalez, Nerio M.; García, Luis; Gonzalez, Freddy E.; Rivera, Humberto E.

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of embolomycotic aneurysm of the right iliac artery secondary to bacterial endocarditis. The patient, a 33-year-old woman, presented with unilateral hydronephrosis and lower extremity edema caused by aneurysmal compression of the ipsilateral ureter and the external iliac vein. She was treated with ligation and an extraperitoneal left-external-iliac-artery to right-femoral-artery bypass using a knitted Dacron prosthesis. Since her surgery, our patient has been well except for persistence of moderate leg edema. To the best of our knowledge, we are reporting the 1st case of embolomycotic external-iliac-artery aneurysm secondary to bacterial endocarditis and resulting in hydronephrosis and venous insufficiency. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1989;16:51-55) Images PMID:15227238

  5. Giant and thrombosed left ventricular aneurysm.

    PubMed

    de Agustin, Jose Alberto; de Diego, Jose Juan Gomez; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Rodrigo, Jose Luis; Almeria, Carlos; Mahia, Patricia; Luaces, Maria; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Macaya, Carlos; de Isla, Leopoldo Perez

    2015-07-26

    Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent complication of acute extensive myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. A timely diagnosis is vital due to the serious complications that can occur, including heart failure, thromboembolism, or tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 78-year-old male with history of previous anterior myocardial infarction and currently under evaluation by chronic heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a huge thrombosed and calcified anteroapical left ventricular aneurysm. Coronary angiography demonstrated that the left anterior descending artery was chronically occluded, and revealed a big and spherical mass with calcified borders in the left hemithorax. Left ventriculogram confirmed that this spherical mass was a giant calcified left ventricular aneurysm, causing very severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The patient underwent cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary prevention. PMID:26225205

  6. Factors Influencing the Management of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Rebecca L; Podraza, Katherine M; Luthra, Nijee; Origitano, Thomas C; Schneck, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background Deciding how to manage an unruptured intracranial aneurysm can be difficult for patients and physicians due to controversies about management. The decision as to when and how to intervene may be variable depending on physicians' interpretation of available data regarding natural history and morbidity and mortality of interventions. Another significant factor in the decision process is the patients' conception of the risks of rupture and interventions and the psychological burden of harboring an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Objective  To describe which factors are being considered when patients and their physicians decide how to manage unruptured intracranial aneurysms.  Materials & methods  In a retrospective chart review study, we identified patients seen for evaluation of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Data was collected regarding patient and aneurysm characteristics. The physician note pertaining to the management decision was reviewed for documented reasons for intervention. Results  Of 88 patients included, 36 (41%) decided to undergo open or endovascular surgery for at least one unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Multiple aneurysms were present in 14 (16%) patients. Younger patients and current smokers were more likely to undergo surgery, but gender and race did not affect management. Aneurysm size and location strongly influenced management. The most common documented reasons underlying the decision of whether to intervene were the risk of rupture, aneurysm size, and risks of the procedure. For 23 aneurysms (21%), there were no factors documented for the management decision.  Conclusion  The risk of rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms may be underestimated by currently available natural history data. Major factors weighed by physicians in management decisions include aneurysm size and location, the patient's age, and medical comorbidities along with the risk of procedural complications. Additional data is needed to define

  7. Arterial fenestrations and their association with cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mira A; Caplan, Justin M; Yang, Wuyang; Colby, Geoffrey P; Coon, Alexander L; Tamargo, Rafael J; Huang, Judy

    2014-12-01

    Fenestrations of intracranial arteries and associated aneurysms are rare. The significance of these fenestrations in relation to aneurysms remains unclear. We present four patients with fenestration-associated aneurysms and a comprehensive review of associations with aneurysms and other vascular lesions. A PubMed search of the literature was conducted from 1970-2012 reporting cases of intracranial aneurysms associated with arterial fenestration or duplications. Data were collected on patient presentation, sex, age, aneurysm and fenestration location, aneurysm treatment, and presence of other vascular lesions. We performed a retrospective review of four patients with intracranial fenestrations associated with aneurysms at our institution from 2012-2013. There were 59 cases of fenestrations and associated aneurysms in the literature. Aneurysms were reported as either arising from (n=50) or adjacent to but distinct from (n=13) fenestrations. The most common single fenestration location was at the basilar artery (n=23, 36.5%); however the majority of fenestrations were in the carotid circulation (n=34, 54.0%). The majority of patients with aneurysms and fenestrations at all locations except those at the anterior communicating artery (70.5%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patients with aneurysms arising from a fenestration or adjacent to a fenestration presented with an additional intracranial vascular lesion in 38% and 31% of cases, respectively. The majority of all aneurysms were treated with microsurgical clipping. Aneurysms associated with cerebral arterial fenestrations are most commonly discovered after subarachnoid hemorrhage and are most often located in the carotid circulation. A high index of suspicion must be maintained for an associated vascular lesion if an intracranial fenestration is discovered.

  8. Age at intracranial aneurysm rupture among generations

    PubMed Central

    Woo, D; Hornung, R; Sauerbeck, L; Brown, R; Meissner, I; Huston, J; Foroud, T; Broderick, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have reported intracranial aneurysm (IA) occurring at young ages in subsequent generations. These studies did not correct for duration of follow-up. Second-generation members who would have their ruptured IA late in life may not be detected due to shorter follow-up time than the first generation. We examined families in which ruptured IA occurred in two consecutive generations for the hypothesis that the second generation (F1) was more likely to have a rupture at a younger age than the older generation (F0). Methods: The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm (FIA) Study is a multicenter, international study recruiting families of ruptured and unruptured IA. All available family members are interviewed. Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to examine differences by generation. Results: Although we found that the F1 generation was more likely to have an aneurysm rupture at a younger age than the F0 generation, we found that this was largely because of a lack of follow-up time in the F1 generation. The F1 generation had 50% the rupture rate of the prior generation. When analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves, we found a tendency to have a slightly later rupture rate in the F1 generation once time to follow-up was included in the analysis model. Conclusions: Families of ruptured intracranial aneurysm (IA) do not appear to demonstrate “anticipation.” Our finding suggests that genetic epidemiology of ruptured IA should examine all types of variations such as single base-pair changes, deletions, insertions, and other variations that do not demonstrate anticipation. GLOSSARY FIA = familial intracranial aneurysm; IA = intracranial aneurysm; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:19237697

  9. Aneurysm flow characteristics in realistic carotid artery aneurysm models induced by proximal virtual stenotic plaques: a computational hemodynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Peloc, Nora L.; Chien, Aichi; Goldberg, Ezequiel; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral aneurysms may rarely coexist with a proximal artery stenosis. In that small percent of patients, such coexistence poses a challenge for interventional neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons to make the best treatment decision. According to previous studies, the incidence of cerebral aneurysms in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis is no greater than five percent, where the aneurysm is usually incidentally detected, being about two percent for aneurysms and stenoses in the same cerebral circulation. Those cases pose a difficult management decision for the physician. Case reports showed patients who died due to aneurysm rupture months after endarterectomy but before aneurysm clipping, while others did not show any change in the aneurysm after plaque removal, having optimum outcome after aneurysm coiling. The aim of this study is to investigate the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic changes before and after treatment of stenotic plaque. Virtually created moderate stenoses in vascular models of internal carotid artery aneurysm patients were considered in a number of cases reconstructed from three dimensional rotational angiography images. The strategy to create those plaques was based on parameters analyzed in a previous work where idealized models were considered, including relative distance and stenosis grade. Ipsilateral and contralateral plaques were modeled. Wall shear stress and velocity pattern were computed from finite element pulsatile blood flow simulations. The results may suggest that wall shear stress changes depend on relative angular position between the aneurysm and the plaque.

  10. Embolisation of recently ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, J V; Molyneux, A J; Brennan, R P; Renowden, S A

    1995-01-01

    Patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage due to the rupture of aneurysms unsuitable for craniotomy and clipping have been treated by coil embolisation within three weeks. Sixty nine of 75 consecutive patients were successfully treated. Procedure related complications occurred in 10 patients, resulting in permanent neurological deficits in three and one death (4.8%). The Glasgow outcome scores at six weeks were 53 grade 1, seven grade 2, four grade 3, and five grade 5. These results are comparable with surgical series despite a high proportion of aneurysms in the posterior cerebral circulation. Images PMID:7500100

  11. Prenatal diagnosis of ductus arteriosus aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, S; Hutchinson, D P; Sampson, A J

    2015-11-01

    The ductus arteriosus holds major functional importance within the fetal circulation, and anomalies within the ductus arteriosus may interfere with the integrity of the fetal circulation. Ductus arteriosus aneurysm, previously considered a rare lesion, is now a well-reported finding in infancy with some reports describing this finding in the prenatal period. Postnatally, most ductus arteriosus aneurysms resolve spontaneously; however, a small group of infants show complications such as connective-tissue disorders, thrombo-embolism, compression of surrounding thoracic structures and life-threatening spontaneous rupture requiring surgical correction. As such, postnatal assessment in this group is recommended. PMID:27433265

  12. [A case of retroperitoneal venous aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Maeda, S; Tamaki, M; Yamamoto, N; Takeda, A; Kuriyama, M; Kawada, Y; Mizoguchi, Y; Kasahara, M

    1991-01-01

    Venous aneurysm is a rare entity and the disease occurring in the retroperitoneal space has been reported in only 4 cases. Therefore, the fifth case of retroperitoneal venous aneurysm on the literature was described. A 59-year-old male was referred to our clinic because of painless large mass in the left abdomen. Computed tomography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic mass at the perinephric space. The resected cyst contained yellow-grayish fluid. The cyst wall was microscopically formed of 4 layers; blood and cholesterin, hyaline, muscle and collagen from the inner to outer side. He is well without any trouble after the operation.

  13. Successful Endovascular Treatment of a Left Common Carotid Artery Aneurysm Following Failed Surgery of a Right Common Carotid Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Cil, Barbaros E. Ucar, Ibrahim; Ozsoy, Fatma; Arat, Anil; Yorgancioglu, Cem; Boeke, Erkmen

    2005-04-15

    Aneurysm of the common carotid artery is a rare and serious disease requiring prompt treatment in order to avoid neurologic complications. A 39-year-old man presented with voice impairment and a pulsatile mass at the right side of his neck and was found by color Doppler examination to have bilateral common carotid artery aneurysms of unknown origin. The right-sided large aneurysm was treated with placement of an 8 mm interposition Gore-Tex graft between the right common and internal carotid arteries. The surgical graft thrombosed 7 days after the surgery but the left-sided aneurysm was successfully treated by a Jostent peripheral stent-graft. Color Doppler examination showed a patent stent and no filling of the aneurysm on his first and sixth-month follow-up. Bilateral common carotid artery aneurysm is an exceptionally unusual condition and endovascular treatment of carotid artery aneurysms with covered stents may become an effective treatment alternative for these lesions.

  14. Computational analysis of anterior communicating artery aneurysm shear stress before and after aneurysm formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.

    2011-12-01

    It is widely accepted that complexity in the flow pattern at the anterior communicating artery (AComA) is associated with the high rate of aneurysm formation at that location observed in large studies. The purpose of this work is to study associations between hemodynamic patterns, and AComA aneurysm initiation by comparing hemodynamics in the aneurysm and the normal model where the aneurysm was computationally removed. Vascular models of both right and left circulation were independently reconstructed from three-dimensional rotational angiography images using deformable models after image registration of both images, and fused using a surface merging algorithm. The geometric models were then used to generate high-quality volumetric finite element grids of tetrahedra with an advancing front technique. For each patient, the second anatomical model was created by digitally removing the aneurysm. It was iteratively achieved by applying a Laplacian smoothing filter and remeshing the surface. Finite element blood flow numerical simulations were performed for both the pathological and normal models under the same personalized pulsatile flow conditions imposed at the inlets of both models. The Navier-Stokes equations were numerically integrated by using a finite-element formulation. It was observed that aneurysms initiated in regions of high and moderate WSS in the counterpart normal models. Adjacent or close to those regions, low WSS portions of the arterial wall were not affected by the disease. These results are in line with previous observations at other vascular locations.

  15. Endovascular Aneurysm Sealing for the Treatment of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Brownrigg, Jack R. W.; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Patterson, Benjamin O.; Holt, Peter J. E.; Hinchliffe, Robert J.; Morgan, Robert A.; Loftus, Ian M.; Thompson, Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and report preliminary results of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) repair with endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS), a novel therapeutic alternative whose feasibility has not been established in rAAAs due to the unknown effects of the rupture site on the ability to achieve sealing. Case Report: Between December 2013 and April 2014, 5 patients (median age 71 years, range 57–90; 3 men) with rAAAs were treated with the Nellix EVAS system at a single institution. Median aneurysm diameter was 70 mm (range 67–91). Aneurysm morphology in 4 of the 5 patients was noncompliant with instructions for use (IFU) for both EVAS and standard stent-grafts; the remaining patient was outside the IFU for standard stent-grafts but treated with EVAS under standard IFU for the Nellix system. Median Hardman index was 2 (range 0–3). Two patients died of multiorgan failure after re-laparotomy and intraoperative cardiac arrest, respectively. Among survivors, all devices were patent with no signs of endoleak or failed aneurysm sac sealing at 6 months (median follow-up 9.2 months). Conclusion: EVAS for the management of infrarenal rAAAs appears feasible. The use of EVAS in emergency repairs may broaden the selection criteria of the current endovascular strategy to include patients with more complex aneurysm morphology. PMID:25904491

  16. Partial segregation of posterior crista and saccular fibers to the nodulus and uvula of the cerebellum in mice, and its development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maklad, Adel; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    The projection of the posterior canal crista and saccular afferents to the cerebellum of embryonic and neonatal mice was investigated using carbocyanine dyes. Anterograde tracing from these two endorgans reveals a partial segregation of these two sets of afferents. The saccule projects predominantly to the uvula, with very minor input to the nodulus. The posterior canal projects mainly to the nodulus and, to a lesser extent, to the uvula. Retrograde tracing from the uvula and nodulus confirms this partial segregation for these two endorgans and extends it to other vestibular endorgans. Uvular injections result in many more labeled fibers in the gravistatic maculae than in the canals' cristae. In contrast, nodular injection reveals many more labeled fibers in the canal cristae than in the gravistatic maculae. This partial segregation may play a role in the information processing in these folia. Our developmental data suggest that the initial segregation at E17 coincides with the formation of the postero-lateral fissure. This embryonic segregation of the primary vestibular mossy fibers to the uvula and nodulus commences long before the maturity of their targets, the granule cells and unipolar brush cells. Thus, the segregation of the primary vestibular projection to the uvula and nodulus does not depend on cues related to the target cells. Rather, the segregation may reflect more global cerebellar patterning mechanisms involving guidance for the vestibular afferent fibers independent of the future target cells.

  17. Flow diversion for complex intracranial aneurysms in young children.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ramon; Brown, Benjamin L; Beier, Alexandra; Ranalli, Nathan; Aldana, Philipp; Hanel, Ricardo A

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are exceedingly rare and account for less than 5% of all intracranial aneurysms. Open surgery to treat such aneurysms has been shown to be more durable than endovascular techniques, and durability of treatment is particularly important in the pediatric population. Over the past 2 decades, however, a marked shift in aneurysm treatment from open surgery toward endovascular procedures has occurred for adults. The authors describe their early experience in treating 3 unruptured pediatric brain aneurysms using the Pipeline embolization device (PED). The first patient, a girl with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II who was harboring multiple intracranial aneurysms, underwent two flow diversion procedures for a vertebrobasilar aneurysm and a supraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm. The second patient underwent PED placement on a previously coiled but enlarging posterior communicating artery aneurysm. All procedures were uneventful, with no postsurgical complications, and led to complete angiographic obliteration of the aneurysms. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first series of flow diversion procedures in children reported in the medical literature. While flow diversion is a new and relatively untested technology in children, outcomes in adults have been promising. For challenging lesions in the pediatric population, flow diversion may have a valuable role as a well-tolerated, safe treatment with durable results. Many issues remain to be addressed, such as the durability of flow diverters over a very long follow-up and vessel response to growth in the presence of an endoluminal device.

  18. Flow diversion for complex intracranial aneurysms in young children.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Ramon; Brown, Benjamin L; Beier, Alexandra; Ranalli, Nathan; Aldana, Philipp; Hanel, Ricardo A

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are exceedingly rare and account for less than 5% of all intracranial aneurysms. Open surgery to treat such aneurysms has been shown to be more durable than endovascular techniques, and durability of treatment is particularly important in the pediatric population. Over the past 2 decades, however, a marked shift in aneurysm treatment from open surgery toward endovascular procedures has occurred for adults. The authors describe their early experience in treating 3 unruptured pediatric brain aneurysms using the Pipeline embolization device (PED). The first patient, a girl with Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism Type II who was harboring multiple intracranial aneurysms, underwent two flow diversion procedures for a vertebrobasilar aneurysm and a supraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysm. The second patient underwent PED placement on a previously coiled but enlarging posterior communicating artery aneurysm. All procedures were uneventful, with no postsurgical complications, and led to complete angiographic obliteration of the aneurysms. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first series of flow diversion procedures in children reported in the medical literature. While flow diversion is a new and relatively untested technology in children, outcomes in adults have been promising. For challenging lesions in the pediatric population, flow diversion may have a valuable role as a well-tolerated, safe treatment with durable results. Many issues remain to be addressed, such as the durability of flow diverters over a very long follow-up and vessel response to growth in the presence of an endoluminal device. PMID:25555114

  19. Clinical Analysis of Giant Intracranial Aneurysms with Endovascular Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sang Woo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to perform a clinical analysis of nine patients with giant aneurysms managed with endovascular embolization. Methods From March 2000 to September 2009, nine cases of giant intracranial aneurysms were treated (five unruptured and four ruptured). The nine patients included two males and seven females who were 47 to 72 years old (mean, 59.2 years old). The types of giant intracranial aneurysms were eight internal carotid artery aneurysms and one vertebral artery aneurysm. Treatment for each aneurysm was chosen based on anatomic relationships, aneurysmal factors, and the patients' clinical state. Three patients underwent endovascular coiling with stent and six initially underwent endovascular coiling alone. Medical records, operation records, postoperative angiographies, and follow-up angiographies were reviewed retrospectively. Results Eight out of nine patients showed good clinical outcomes. (six were excellent and two were good) after a mean follow-up period of 27.9 months. Six (67%) of the nine patients had a near-complete occlusions on the post-operative angiogram (mean, 13.5 months after the procedure). Occlusion rates of 90% or higher were obtained for eight (89%) of all the patients. One patient died due to multiple organ failure. Stents were ultimately required at some point for managing four aneurysms. Two patients needed additional procedures because of aneurysm regrowth. Conclusion Endovascular treatment could be an alternative option for managing giant aneurysms adjuvant to surgical intervention. PMID:23210026

  20. Prediction of outcomes in young adults with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Silky; Ahn, Sung-Yong; Moon, Hong-Joo; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Chung, Heung-Seob; Chung, Yong-Gu; Kwon, Taek-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is rare in young adults and little is known about aneurysms in this subgroup. The effect of clinical and prognostic factors on the outcome based on the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores and the predictors of unfavorable outcomes were analyzed in young adults with aneurysmal SAH. A retrospective review of the clinical parameters, including age, sex, hypertension, smoking status, hyperlipidemia, location of the cerebral aneurysm, size of the aneurysm, multiplicity, perioperative complication such as hydrocephalus, vasospasm, and hematoma, and Hunt and Hess and Fisher grading on presentation, was conducted in 108 young adults (mean age 34.8 years) managed at our institute. The outcome was classified based on GOS grading into unfavorable (GOS scores 1-3) or favorable (GOS scores 4 or 5). The overall mortality rate was 3.7% (4/108 patients). Univariate regression analysis for the outcomes at discharge found that age at the time of presentation, male sex, size of aneurysm, multiple aneurysms, hyperlipidemia, and poor Hunt and Hess and Fischer grades were associated with unfavorable outcome. Multivariate regression analysis found independent effects of sex, multiple aneurysms, size of aneurysm, and Hunt and Hess grade on the outcome at discharge. Size of aneurysm, presence of multiple aneurysms, Hunt and Hess grade, and hypertension were the predictors of outcome at mean 2-year follow up based on multivariate exact regression analysis. The multimodal approach with aggressive medical management, early intervention, and surgical treatment might contribute to favorable long-term outcomes in patients with poor expected outcomes.

  1. Molecular basis and genetic predisposition to intracranial aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Weinsheimer, Shantel; Ronkainen, Antti; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms, also called cerebral aneurysms, are dilatations in the arteries that supply blood to the brain. Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is fatal in about 50% of the cases. Intracranial aneurysms can be repaired surgically or endovascularly, or by combining these two treatment modalities. They are relatively common with an estimated prevalence of unruptured aneurysms of 2%–6% in the adult population, and are considered a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Known risk factors include smoking, hypertension, increasing age, and positive family history for intracranial aneurysms. Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms is complex. Genome-wide approaches such as DNA linkage and genetic association studies, as well as microarray-based mRNA expression studies, provide unbiased approaches to identify genetic risk factors and dissecting the molecular pathobiology of intracranial aneurysms. The ultimate goal of these studies is to use the information in clinical practice to predict an individual's risk for developing an aneurysm or monitor its growth or rupture risk. Another important goal is to design new therapies based on the information on mechanisms of disease processes to prevent the development or halt the progression of intracranial aneurysms. PMID:25117779

  2. Combined Endovascular and Microsurgical Management of Complex Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Choudhri, Omar; Mukerji, Nitin; Steinberg, Gary K.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral aneurysms are associated with a 50% mortality rate after rupture and patients can suffer significant morbidity during subsequent treatment. Neurosurgical management of both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms has evolved over the years. The historical practice of using microsurgical clipping to treat aneurysms has benefited in the last two decades from tremendous improvement in endovascular technology. Microsurgery and endovascular therapies are often viewed as competing treatments but it is important to recognize their individual limitations. Some aneurysms are considered complex, due to several factors such as aneurysm anatomy and a patient’s clinical condition. A complex aneurysm often cannot be completely excluded with a single approach and its successful treatment requires a combination of microsurgical and endovascular techniques. Planning such an approach relies on understanding aneurysm anatomy and thus should routinely include 3D angiographic imaging. In patients with ruptured aneurysms, endovascular coiling is a well-tolerated early treatment and residual aneurysms can be treated with intervals of definitive clipping. Microsurgical clipping also can be used to reconstruct the neck of a complex aneurysm, allowing successful placement of coils across a narrow neck. Endovascular techniques are assisted by balloons, which can be used in coiling and testing parent vessel occlusion before sacrifice. In some cases microsurgical bypasses can provide alternate flow for planned vessel sacrifice. We present current paradigms for combining endovascular and microsurgical approaches to treat complex aneurysms and share our experience in 67 such cases. A dual microsurgical–endovascular approach addresses the challenge of intracranial aneurysms. This combination can be performed safely and produces excellent rates of aneurysm obliteration. Hybrid angiographic operating-room suites can foster seamless and efficient complementary application of these two

  3. Genes and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hinterseher, Irene; Tromp, Gerard; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. Since first candidate gene studies were published 20 years ago, nearly 100 genetic association studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in biologically relevant genes have been reported on AAA. The studies investigated SNPs in genes of the extracellular matrix, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, and signaling pathways. Very few studies were large enough to draw firm conclusions and very few results could be replicated in another sample set. The more recent unbiased approaches are family-based DNA linkage studies and genome-wide genetic association studies, which have the potential of identifying the genetic basis for AAA, if appropriately powered and well-characterized large AAA cohorts are used. SNPs associated with AAA have already been identified in these large multicenter studies. One significant association was of a variant in a gene called CNTN3 which is located on chromosome 3p12.3. Two follow-up studies, however, could not replicate the association. Two other SNPs, which are located on chromosome 9p21 and 9q33 were replicated in other samples. The two genes with the strongest supporting evidence of contribution to the genetic risk for AAA are the CDKN2BAS gene, also known as ANRIL, which encodes an antisense RNA that regulates expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors CDKN2A and CDKN2B, and DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival. Functional studies are now needed to establish the mechanisms by which these genes contribute to AAA pathogenesis. PMID:21146954

  4. Pleural Empyema and Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ching-Yang; Su, Ta-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Ko, Po-Jen; Yu, Sheng-Yueh; Kao, Tsung-Chi; Shen, Te-Chun; Chou, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pleural empyema (PE) may evolve into necrosis, fistula in the thorax, and sepsis; thus, it is also associated with high mortality. We investigated and analyzed the risk of aortic aneurysm (AA) in a cohort study of patients with PE. A total of 34,250 patients diagnosed with PE were identified as the PE cohort, and 137,000 patients without PE were selected randomly as the control group and matched by sex, age, and index year of PE diagnosis. Patients ages 20 years and younger with a history of AA were excluded. The risk of AA was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Excess risk of AA development was 1.69-fold higher in PE patients (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39–2.05) compared with non-PE patients. The patients with PE exhibited a greater adjusted risk of AA (aHR = 2.01; CI = 1.44–2.81) even if they did not have any of the 9 comorbidities included in our analysis (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, cardiac artery disease, stroke, bacterial endocarditis, and rheumatic endocarditis). Compared with the patients without any of the 9 comorbidities or PE, the patients with only PE had a greater risk of developing AA (aHR = 2.00; CI = 1.43–2.79). The PE cohort had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of AA than the non-PE cohort did during 12 years of follow-up. In a large-scale cohort, patients with PE are linked with an increased risk of AA. PMID:26632741

  5. Mechanical properties of the aneurysmal aorta.

    PubMed

    MacSweeney, S T; Young, G; Greenhalgh, R M; Powell, J T

    1992-12-01

    The mechanical properties of the abdominal aorta were investigated non-invasively in 30 patients with aortic aneurysm and 11 with peripheral arterial disease. The distensibility of the aorta was measured using M-mode ultrasonography, permitting non-invasive assessment of the pressure--strain elastic modulus or aortic stiffness, Ep. The median Ep value increased from 4.0 N/cm2 in control subjects in their third decade of life (n = 10) to 10.4 N/cm2 in middle age (n = 11) to 14.0 N/cm2 in the elderly (n = 13). In the presence of a normal diameter, peripheral arterial disease with aortic atherosclerosis had little effect on aortic stiffness, median Ep being 16.0 N/cm2. Aneurysmal dilatation was associated with a significant increase in aortic stiffness, median Ep being 31.3 N/cm2 (P < 0.001). For aortas of normal diameter, Ep was at all ages dependent on mean arterial pressure. In patients with aortic aneurysms there was no clear relationship between Ep and mean arterial pressure or aortic diameter. Of the patients studied, 15 underwent aortic reconstruction; increasing aortic stiffness (log Ep) was associated with a decreased medial elastin content of the aortic biopsy (r = -0.63, P < 0.02). This study demonstrates the marked stiffness or inelasticity of dilated or aneurysmal vessels, part of which is attributable to the loss of elastin.

  6. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutakis, Dean J; Zammert, Martin; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Belkin, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms is an important technique in the vascular surgeon's armamentarium, which has created a seismic shift in the management of aortic pathology over the past two decades. In comparison to traditional open repair, the endovascular approach is associated with significantly improved perioperative morbidity and mortality. The early survival benefit of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is sustained up to 3 years postoperatively, but longer-term life expectancy remains poor regardless of operative modality. Nonetheless, most abdominal aortic aneurysms are now repaired using endovascular stent grafts. The technology is not perfect as several postoperative complications, namely endoleak, stent-graft migration, and graft limb thrombosis, can develop and therefore lifelong imaging surveillance is required. In addition, a postoperative inflammatory response has been documented after endovascular repair of aortic aneurysms; the clinical significance of this finding has yet to be determined. Subsequently, the safety and applicability of endovascular stent grafts are likely to improve and expand with the introduction of newer-generation devices and with the simplification of fenestrated systems. PMID:27650343

  7. Portal vein aneurysm: What to know.

    PubMed

    Laurenzi, Andrea; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Lionetti, Raffaella; Meniconi, Roberto Luca; Colasanti, Marco; Vennarecci, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Portal vein aneurysm is an unusual vascular dilatation of the portal vein, which was first described by Barzilai and Kleckner in 1956 and since then less than 200 cases have been reported. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the international literature to better clarify various aspects of this rare nosological entity and provide clear evidence-based summary, when available, of the clinical and surgical management. A systematic literature search of the Pubmed database was performed for all articles related to portal vein aneurysm. All articles published from 1956 to 2014 were examined for a total of 96 reports, including 190 patients. Portal vein aneurysm is defined as a portal vein diameter exceeding 1.9 cm in cirrhotic patients and 1.5 cm in normal livers. It can be congenital or acquired and portal hypertension represents the main cause of the acquired version. Surgical indication is considered in case of rupture, thrombosis or symptomatic aneurysms. Aneurysmectomy and aneurysmorrhaphy are considered in patients with normal liver, while shunt procedures or liver transplantation are the treatment of choice in case of portal hypertension. Being such a rare vascular entity its management should be reserved to high-volume tertiary hepato-biliary centres. PMID:26188840

  8. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the fifth metacarpal.

    PubMed

    Ozyurek, Selahattin; Rodop, Osman; Kose, Ozkan; Cilli, Feridun; Mahirogullari, Mahir

    2009-08-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a rare, rapidly growing, and destructive benign bone tumor that even more rarely involves the bones of the hand. Various treatment options for aneurysmal bone cyst have been reported in the literature, but controversy exists regarding optimal treatment. Due to its rarity in the hand, no evidence-based treatment regimen has been established. A 21-year-old man presented with a history of pain and local swelling over his fifth metacarpal of 5 months' duration. Physical and radiographic examination of the hand was consistent with aneurysmal bone cyst. After biopsy, pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst. En-block resection of the tumor and autologous bicortical strut graft fixation with Kirschner wires was performed. The hand was immobilized in a short arm cast for 3 weeks after the patient received 3 weeks of physiotherapy. Kirschner wires were removed 6 weeks postoperatively. Excellent clinical and functional results were obtained with no recurrence after 3 years of follow-up with en-block resection and reconstruction with iliac crest graft. Radiographic examination demonstrated the osseous integration of the graft with no signs of recurrence. Although treatment should be planned individually according to lesion site and size and to patient age, we suggest en-block resection to prevent recurrence and secondary surgical interventions particularly in cases with no articular involvement.

  9. Endovascular treatment of coarctation and related aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Galiñanes, E L; Krajcer, Z

    2014-06-11

    Today,surgical repair has almost doubled the 30year survival rate in patients with coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and 72% to 98% of patients now reach adulthood. Possible late complications include malignant hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, aortic valve dysfunction, recurrent CoA, and aneurysm formation with risk of rupture. Treating postoperative CoA-related aneurysms with observation alone is associated with a mortality rate of 36%, compared with 9% for surgical repair. Even in the best surgeons' hands, aortic surgery has associated complications, and the complexity of reoperative surgery makes the risks substantially greater. For patients with CoA-related aneurysm, endovascular treatment constitutes a good alternative to reoperative surgery because it poses a lower risk of morbidity and mortality. Implanting an endograft has been shown to be successful in treating CoA and related aneurysms, producing excellent intermediate outcomes and minimal morbidity and mortality. Despite evidence that using covered stents improves outcomes, the superiority of any particular stent type has yet to be established. With a variety of endografts available, the decision of which stent to use depends on anatomy, availability, and operator preference.

  10. The Endovascular Management of Iliac Artery Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Stroumpouli, Evangelia; Nassef, Ahmed; Loosemore, Tom; Thompson, Matt; Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2007-11-15

    Background: Isolated aneurysms of the iliac arteries are uncommon. Previously treated by conventional surgery, there is increasing use of endografts to treat these lesions. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and durability of the stent-grafts for treatment of iliac artery aneurysms (IAAs). The results of endografting for isolated IAAs over a 10-year period were analyzed retrospectively. The treatment methods differed depending on the anatomic location of the aneurysms. Twenty-one patients (1 woman, 20 men) underwent endovascular stent-graft repair, with one procedure carried out under emergency conditions after acute rupture. The mean aneurysm diameter was 4.6 cm.Results:The procedural technical success was 100%. There was zero 30-day mortality. Follow-up was by interval CT scans. At a mean follow-up of 51.2 months, the stent-graft patency rate was 100%. Reintervention was performed in four patients (19%): one patient (4.7%) with a type I endoleak and three patients (14.3%) with type II endoleaks.Conclusion:We conclude that endovascular repair of isolated IAAs is a safe, minimally invasive technique with low morbidity rates. Follow-up results up to 10 years suggest that this approach is durable and should be regarded as a first treatment option for appropriate candidates.

  11. Pulsatile blood flow in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan C.; Singel, Soeren; Varga, Chris

    2001-11-01

    We discuss the results of combined in-vitro laboratory measurements and clinical observations aimed at determining the effect that the unsteady wall shear stresses and the pressure may have on the growth and eventual rupturing of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), a permanent bulging-like dilatation occurring near the aortic bifurcation. In recent years, new non-invasive techniques, such as stenting, have been used to treat these AAAs. However, the development of these implants, aimed at stopping the growth of the aneurysm, has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the effect that the hemodynamic forces have on the growth mechanism. Since current in-vivo measuring techniques lack the precision and the necessary resolution, we have performed measurements of the pressure and shear stresses in laboratory models. The models of the AAA were obtained from high resolution three-dimensional CAT/SCANS performed in patients at early stages of the disease. Preliminary DPIV measurements show that the pulsatile blood flow discharging into the cavity of the aneurysm leads to large spikes of pressure and wall shear stresses near and around its distal end, indicating a possible correlation between the regions of high wall shear stresses and the observed location of the growth of the aneurysm.

  12. Endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Dominique B.; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.; Moll, Frans L.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are usually treated with endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), which has become the standard of care in many hospitals for patients with suitable anatomy. Clinical evidence indicates that EVAR is associated with superior perioperative outcomes and similar long-term survival compared with open repair. Since the randomized, controlled trials that provided this evidence were conducted, however, the stent graft technology for infrarenal AAA has been further developed. Improvements include profile downsizing, optimization of sealing and fixation, and the use of low porosity fabrics. In addition, imaging techniques have improved, enabling better preoperative planning, stent graft placement, and postoperative surveillance. Also in the past few years, fenestrated and branched stent grafts have increasingly been used to manage anatomically challenging aneurysms, and experiments with off-label use of stent grafts have been performed to treat patients deemed unfit or unsuitable for other treatment strategies. Overall, the indications for endovascular management of AAA are expanding to include increasingly complex and anatomically challenging aneurysms. Ongoing studies and optimization of imaging, in addition to technological refinement of stent grafts, will hopefully continue to broaden the utilization of EVAR. PMID:24343568

  13. [A case of retroperitoneal venous aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, A; Nishimura, K; Matsumiya, K; Oka, T; Takaha, M; Arima, R; Kurata, A

    1992-09-01

    A case of retroperitoneal venous aneurysm is reported. A 73-year-old woman was referred to us with the chief complaint of left abdominal mass. A giant abdominal mass was palpable and diagnostic imaging examination including ultrasound tomography, excretory pyelography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and angiography revealed a giant cystic mass encircled by calcification in the left retroperitoneal space. Operation for this cystic mass was performed under the preoperative diagnosis of a giant left renal cyst. During operation the mass was located between the left kidney and the left adrenal gland. Because it was difficult to separate the mass from the left kidney the mass was removed with the left kidney. The extirpated tumor measured 15.5 x 15.0 x 9.5 cm and contained old blood clots and red-yellow colored fluid. A histological examination revealed that the tumor wall was composed of smooth muscle and elastic fibers. Therefore, pathological diagnosis was retroperitoneal venous aneurysm. Retroperitoneal venous aneurysm is very rare. To our knowledge, this is the 8th case of retroperitoneal venous aneurysm reported in Japan.

  14. Bilateral nonfistulous congenital coronary arterial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C S; Weaver, W F; Zeman, E D; Forker, A D

    1975-02-01

    A 15 year old boy collapsed and died after participating in a basketball game. Autopsy revealed bilateral congenital coronary arterial aneurysms. The diagnosis was made post mortem but, retrospectively, might have been suspected during life, even before angiography. The clues to the correct diagnosis were chest pain, a systolic and diastolic murmur and a mass on the right heart border in the chest roentgenogram.

  15. Ehrlichia Meningitis Mimicking Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dredla, Brynn

    2015-01-01

    Thunderclap headache is a sudden and severe headache that can occur after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a medical emergency that requires prompt attention and hospitalization. Patients with thunderclap headache often undergo a noncontrast head computed tomography (CT) scan to ascertain SAH bleeding and, if the scan is negative, then undergo a lumbar puncture to look for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) red blood cells (RBCs), which would be consistent with an aneurysmal leak. If the initial CT is negative and CSF is positive for RBCs, patients are usually admitted to the hospital for evaluation of intracranial aneurysm. We encountered a patient with thunderclap headache whose initial head CT was negative for SAH and whose CSF tested positive for RBCs. The patient was referred to our center for evaluation and management of aneurysmal SAH. However, on careful review of the patient’s medical history, serum laboratory values, and spinal fluid values, the patient was diagnosed with Ehrlichia chaffeensis meningitis. While Ehrlichia meningitis is rare, it is important to recognize the clinical clues that could help avoid formal cerebral angiography, a costly and potentially unnecessary procedure. We present how this case represented a cognitive framing bias and anchoring heuristic as well as steps that medical providers can use to prevent such cognitive errors in diagnosis. PMID:27053985

  16. Endovascular Treatment of ACom Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Finitsis, S.; Anxionnat, R.; Lebedinsky, A.; Albuquerque, P.C.; Clayton, M.F.; Picard, L.; Bracard, S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The immediate and long-term outcomes, complications, recurrences and the need for retreatment were analyzed in a series of 280 consecutive patients with anterior communicating artery aneurysms treated with the endovascular technique. From October 1992 to October 2001 280 patients with 282 anterior communicating artery aneurysms were addressed to our center. For the analysis, the population was divided into two major groups: group 1, comprising 239 (85%) patients with ruptured aneurysms and group 2 comprising of 42 (15%) patients with unruptured aneurysms. In group 1, 185 (77.4%) patients had a good initial pre-treatment Hunt and Hess grade of I-III. Aneurysm size was divided into three categories according to the larger diameter: less than 4 mm, between 4 and 10 mm and larger than 10 mm. The sizes of aneurysms in groups 1 and 2 were identical but a less favorable neck to depth ratio of 0.5 was more frequent in group 2. Endovascular treatment was finally performed in 234 patients in group 1 and 34 patients in group 2. Complete obliteration was more frequently obtained in group 2 unlike a residual neck or opacification of the sac that were more frequently seen in group 1. No peri-treatment complications were recorded in group 2. In group 1 the peri-treatment mortality and overall peri-treatment morbidity were 5.1% and 8.1% respectively. Eight patients (3.4%) in group 1 presented early post treatment rebleeding with a mortality of 88%. The mean time to follow-up was 3.09 years. In group 1, 51 (21.7%) recurrences occurred of which 14 were minor and 37 major. In group 2, eight (23.5%) recurrences occurred, five minor and three major. Two patients (0.8%) presented late rebleeding in group 1. Twenty-seven second endovascular retreatments were performed, 24 (10.2%) in group 1 and three (8.8%) in group 2, seven third endovascular retreatments and two surgical clippings in group 1 only. There was no additional morbidity related to retreatments. Endovascular treatment

  17. Volumetric analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Kevin M.; Kusnick, Catherine A.; Shamsolkottabi, Susanne; Lang, Elvira V.; Corson, J. D.; Stanford, William; Thompson, Brad H.; Hoffman, Eric A.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid, reliable and accurate system of measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysms, using volumetric analysis of x-ray computed tomographic data. This study evaluates illustrative cases, and compares measurements of AAA phantoms, using standard 2D versus volumetric methods. To validate the volumetric analysis, four phantom aneurysms were constructed in a range of diameters (4.5 - 7.0 cm) which presents the greatest management challenge to the clinician. These phantoms were imaged using a Toshiba Xpress SX helical CT. Separate scans were obtained at conventional (10 mm X 10 mm) and thin slice (5 mm X 5 mm) collimations. The thin slices were reconstructed at 2 mm intervals. Data from each of the 96 scans were interpreted using a standard 2D approach, then analyzed using task-oriented volumetric software. We evaluate patient assessments, and compare greatest outer diameters of phantoms, by standard versus volumetric methods. Qualitative differences between solutions based on standard versus volumetric analysis of illustrative patient cases are substantial. Expert radiologists' standard measurements of phantom aneurysms are highly reliable (r2 equals 0.901 - 0.958; p < 0.001), but biased toward significant overestimation of aneurysm diameters in the range of clinical interest. For the same phantoms, volumetric analysis was both more reliable (r2 equals 0.986 - 0.996; p < 0.001), and more accurate, with no significant bias in the range of interest. Volumetric analysis promotes selection of more valid management strategies, by providing vital information not otherwise available, and allowing more reliable and accurate assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. It is particularly valuable in the presence of aortic tortuosity, vessel eccentricity, and uncertain involvement of critical vessels.

  18. Endoscope-Assisted Microneurosurgery for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Galzio, Renato J.; Di Cola, Francesco; Raysi Dehcordi, Soheila; Ricci, Alessandro; De Paulis, Danilo

    2013-01-01

    Background: The endovascular techniques has widely changed the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. However surgery still represent the best therapeutic option in case of broad-based and complex lesions. The combined use of endoscopic and microsurgical techniques (EAM) may improve surgical results. Objective: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the advantages and limits of EAM for intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2012, 173 patients, harboring 206 aneurysms were surgically treated in our department with the EAM technique. One hundred and fifty-seven aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation and 49 were in the posterior circulation. Standard tailored approaches, based on skull base surgery principles, were chosen. The use of the endoscope included three steps: initial inspection, true operative time, and final inspection. For each procedure, an intraoperative video and an evaluation schedule were prepared, to report surgeons’ opinions about the technique itself. In the first cases, we always used the endoscope during surgical procedures in order to get an adequate surgical training. Afterwards we became aware in selecting cases in which to apply the endoscopy, as we started to become familiar with its advantages and limits. Results: After clipping, all patients were undergone postoperative cerebral angiography. No surgical mortality related to EAM were observed. Complications directly related to endoscopic procedures were rare. Conclusion: Our retrospective study suggests that endoscopic efficacy for aneurysms is only scarcely influenced by the preoperative clinical condition (Hunt–Hess grade), surgical timing, presence of blood in the cisterns (Fisher grade) and/or hydrocephalus. However the most important factors contributing to the efficacy of EAM are determined by the anatomical locations and sizes of the lesions. Furthermore, the advantages are especially evident using dedicated scopes and holders, after an

  19. Flow dynamics in a lethal anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kerber, C W; Imbesi, S G; Knox, K

    1999-01-01

    We describe and analyze the flow dynamics in replicas of a human anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The replicas were placed in a circuit of pulsating non-Newtonian fluid, and flows were adjusted to replicate human physiologic parameters. Individual slipstreams were opacified with isobaric dyes, and images were recorded on film and by CT/MR angiography. When flow in the afferent (internal carotid) and efferent (anterior and middle cerebral) arteries was bilaterally equal, slipstreams rarely entered the aneurysm. When flow in either the afferent or efferent vessels was not symmetrical, however, slipstreams entered the aneurysm neck, impinged upon the aneurysm dome, and swirled within the aneurysm. Unequal flow in carotid or cerebral systems may be necessary to direct pathologic, fluid slipstreams into an aneurysm. PMID:10588134

  20. Assessment of coronary artery aneurysms with multiplane transesophageal echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kosar, E; Chandraratna, P A

    1997-05-01

    Coronary artery aneurysms are rare and may be difficult to detect clinically. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography provides numerous imaging planes that may improve the assessment of coronary aneurysms and act as an adjunct to standard angiography. Five patients with angiographically detected coronary aneurysms were studied with multiplane transesophageal echocardiography and Doppler flow imaging. Transesophageal echocardiography was successful in identifying the size and characteristics of the coronary aneurysms. Doppler ultrasound identified markedly increased flow velocity in a patient with a coronary arteriovenous fistula and decreased coronary flow velocity in two patients with aneurysmal coronary arteries and intracoronary thrombus. Multiplane transesophageal echocardiography is a useful, noninvasive method of assessing coronary artery aneurysms and may act as an adjunct to angiography in identifying fistula anastomosis.

  1. Design and biocompatibility of endovascular aneurysm filling devices

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Hwang, Wonjun; Horn, John; Landsman, Todd L.; Boyle, Anthony; Wierzbicki, Mark A.; Hasan, Sayyeda M.; Follmer, Douglas; Bryant, Jesse; Small, Ward; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2014-01-01

    The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, which can result in severe mental disabilities or death, affects approximately 30,000 people in the United States annually. The traditional surgical method of treating these arterial malformations involves a full craniotomy procedure, wherein a clip is placed around the aneurysm neck. In recent decades, research and device development have focused on new endovascular treatment methods to occlude the aneurysm void space. These methods, some of which are currently in clinical use, utilize metal, polymeric, or hybrid devices delivered via catheter to the aneurysm site. In this review, we present several such devices, including those that have been approved for clinical use, and some that are currently in development. We present several design requirements for a successful aneurysm filling device and discuss the success or failure of current and past technologies. We also present novel polymeric based aneurysm filling methods that are currently being tested in animal models that could result in superior healing. PMID:25044644

  2. Thrombus Volume Change Visualization after Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiora, Josu; García, Guillermo; Macía, Iván; Legarreta, Jon Haitz; Boto, Fernando; Paloc, Céline; Graña, Manuel; Abuín, Javier Sanchez

    A surgical technique currently used in the treatment of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA) is the Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR). This minimally invasive procedure involves inserting a prosthesis in the aortic vessel that excludes the aneurysm from the bloodstream. The stent, once in place acts as a false lumen for the blood current to travel down, and not into the surrounding aneurysm sac. This procedure, therefore, immediately takes the pressure off the aneurysm, which thromboses itself after some time. Nevertheless, in a long term perspective, different complications such as prosthesis displacement or bloodstream leaks into or from the aneurysmatic bulge (endoleaks) could appear causing a pressure elevation and, as a result, increasing the danger of rupture. The purpose of this work is to explore the application of image registration techniques to the visual detection of changes in the thrombus in order to assess the evolution of the aneurysm. Prior to registration, both the lumen and the thrombus are segmented

  3. Dissecting aneurysm of the anterior temporal artery: case report.

    PubMed

    Umeoka, Katsuya; Shirokane, Kazutaka; Mizunari, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Shiro; Teramoto, Akira

    2011-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman presented a rare dissecting aneurysm of the anterior temporal artery (ATA) manifesting as headache. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mixed-density mass in the horizontal segment of the middle cerebral artery. Emergent angiography demonstrated aneurysmal dilatation and a thrombosed mass in the sylvian fissure. Infectious aneurysm was excluded. She underwent emergent surgery to reduce the risk of repeated infarction and hemorrhage. The distal side of the ATA manifested occlusive changes suggestive of arterial dissection. The proximal side of the ATA was ligated and the lesion was excised. Histological examination confirmed that the aneurysmal dilatation was attributable to arterial dissection due to disruption of the internal elastic lamina. Distal dissecting aneurysms may occur in the absence of infectious disease. We recommend that ruptured distal dissecting aneurysms be treated surgically in the acute stage immediately after detection.

  4. Aneurysm resection and vascular reconstruction for true aneurysm at the initial segment of splenic artery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Xi; Han, Li-Na; Liang, Fa-Qi; Chu, Fu-Tao; Jia, Xin

    2015-06-01

    The aneurysms at the initial segment of splenic artery are rare. This paper aimed to investigate the methods to treat the true aneurysm at the initial segment of splenic artery by aneurysmectomy plus vascular reconstruction. Retrospectively reviewed were 11 cases of true aneurysm at the initial segment of splenic artery who were treated in our hospital from January 2000 to June 2013. All cases were diagnosed by color ultrasonography, computer tomography (CT) and angiography. Upon resection of the aneurysm, the auto-vein transplantation was performed in situ between the hepatic artery and the distal part of the splenic artery in 1 case; the artificial vessel bypass was done between the infra-renal aorta and distal portion of the splenic artery in 7 cases; the splenectomy was done in 2 cases; the splenectomy in combination with ligation of multiple small aneurysms were performed in 1 case. All cases were cured and discharged from the hospital 10-14 days after operation. A 1-14 year follow-up showed that 9 cases survived, and 2 cases died, including 1 case who died of acute myocardial infarction 2 years after aorta-splenic artery bypass operation and 1 case who died of acute cerebral hemorrhage 5 years after aneurysm resection and the splenectomy. Among 6 cases receiving aorta-splenic artery bypass, 1 gradually developed stenosis at anatomosed site, which eventually progressed to complete occlusion 2 years to 6 years after operation, without suffering from splenic infarction because the spleen was supplied by the short gastric vessel and its collaterals. The other 5 cases receiving aorta-splenic artery bypass and 1 case undergoing autologous vascular transplantation did not develop stricture or pseudoaneurysm at the stoma. Our study showed that the aneurysmectomy plus vascular reconstruction is a better treatment for aneurysm at the initial segment of splenic artery.

  5. Endovascular Treatment of Extracranial Internal Carotid Aneurysms Using Endografts

    SciTech Connect

    Baldi, Sebastian Rostagno, Roman D.; Zander, Tobias; Llorens, Rafael; Schonholz, Claudio; Maynar, Manuel

    2008-03-15

    Aneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery (EICA) are infrequent. They are difficult to treat with conventional surgery because of their distal extension into the skull base. We report three cases of EICA aneurysms in two symptomatic patients successfully treated with polytetrafluoroethylene self-expanding endografts using an endovascular approach. The aneurysms were located distal to the carotid bifurcation and extended to the subpetrous portion of the internal carotid artery.

  6. Coil embolization of ruptured frontopolar artery aneurysm: case report.

    PubMed

    Castaño-Leon, Ana M; Cicuendez, Marta; Paredes, Igor; Alen, Jose F; Navia, Pedro; Lagares, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms are infrequent. The most common location is at the bifurcation of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. Cerebral artery anomalies can sometimes, at least partially, explain aneurysm formation in less common locations in relation to hemodynamic stress caused on the vascular wall. We report a very rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured frontopolar artery aneurysm as a part of an anomalous anterior cerebral artery complex that was, for the first time, treated with endovascular coiling.

  7. A Case of Giant Right Atrial Aneurysm in a Child.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Ravindra S; Tiwari, Ashish; Suresh, P V; Raj, Vimal; Kaushik, Pradeepkumar

    2016-07-01

    Giant right atrial aneurysm is a rare entity in infants and children. It needs to be distinguished from an atrial diverticulum, which can have similar presentation. Generally, an incidental finding in children, it can present with varied symptoms. We report a case of a giant right atrial aneurysm in an asymptomatic child with a large clot in the dilated right atrium, who underwent successful resection of the atrial aneurysm. PMID:26884450

  8. Incidental Superior Hypophygeal Artery Aneurysm Embedded within Pituitary Adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hong-Seok; Kim, Min-Su; Jung, Young-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Intra-cranial aneurysm can be incidental findings in patients with pituitary adenomas, and are usually located outside the pituitary region. However, the coexistence of intrasellar (not intracranial) aneurysms with pituitary adenomas is extremely rare. We report a patient with an incidental superior hypophygeal aneurysm embedded within a non-functional pituitary adenoma which was treated by transsphenoidal surgery after endovascular coil embolization. PMID:24278658

  9. Interposition vein graft for giant coronary aneurysm repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Azoury, F.; Lytle, B. W.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Coronary aneurysms in adults are rare. Surgical treatment is often concomitant to treating obstructing coronary lesions. However, the ideal treatment strategy is poorly defined. We present a case of successful treatment of a large coronary artery aneurysm with a reverse saphenous interposition vein graft. This modality offers important benefits over other current surgical and percutaneous techniques and should be considered as an option for patients requiring treatment for coronary aneurysms.

  10. Recurrent Giant Cell Tumor of Skull Combined with Multiple Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumors are benign but locally invasive and frequently recur. Giant cell tumors of the skull are extremely rare. A patient underwent a surgery to remove a tumor, but the tumor recurred. Additionally, the patient developed multiple aneurysms. The patient underwent total tumor resection and trapping for the aneurysms, followed by radiotherapy. We report this rare case and suggest some possibilities for treating tumor growth combined with aneurysm development. PMID:27195256

  11. Novel repair of an external iliac vein aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, Arjun; Meissner, Mark

    2012-08-01

    Aneurysms involving the venous system are a rare entity. We report the case of a 37-year-old woman who presented to us with activity-limiting left gluteal pain and who on consequent workup was found to have a left external iliac vein aneurysm in a setting of iliocavomegaly. She underwent successful treatment of her aneurysm with a novel approach that involved staple plication and resection of the aneurysm over a balloon mandrel. We discuss the presentation, diagnosis, and surgical technique adopted for the treatment of this uncommon condition. PMID:22704912

  12. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: how can we improve their treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Scobie, T K

    1980-01-01

    Arteriosclerotic abdominal aortic aneurysms are present in a least 2% of the elderly population of the Western world and their number is increasing. Without treatment 30% of patients with asymptomatic aneurysms live for 5 years, although the risk of rupture becomes greater as the size of the aneurysm increases. Of those with untreated symptomatic aneurysms 80% are dead within a year. Elective repair of aneurysms has a low mortality, and 50% of the patients live for at least 5 years. Symptomatic aneurysms all cause pain and may produce other symptoms from pressure on adjacent structures, distal embolism, acute thrombosis or rupture. In 88% of cases an aneurysm can be diagnosed by physical examination alone; confirmatory tests include soft-tissue roentgenography of the abdomen, ultrasonography, computer-assisted tomography and aortography. Repair is indicated for symptomatic or ruptured aortic aneurysms and for asymptomatic aneurysms over 5 cm in diameter. Early diagnosis and referral for repair is essential for optimum treatment of this common condition. PMID:7004617

  13. Dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm associated with tuberculous pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kyong Shil; Choi, Min Kyung; Jeon, Yong Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of thoracic aortic aneurysm associated with the tuberculous pleural effusion. An 82-year-old woman underwent emergency stent graft under a diagnosis of dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm. Preoperative computed tomography revealed right pleural effusion supposed to the hemothorax caused by the dissecting aneurysm. But, the effusion was sanguineous color fluid and it was determined to result from pulmonary tuberculosis. The medical team was exposed to the pulmonary tuberculosis; fortunately no one became infected. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of an infected aortic aneurysm and prepare for pathogen transmission. PMID:27499987

  14. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes. PMID:26929222

  15. Ruptured Gastric Aneurysm in α-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jaruvongvanich, Veeravich; Spanuchart, Ittikorn; Scott Gallacher, T

    2016-07-01

    We present a unique vascular complication of α-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) in a patient with an acute onset of epigastric pain and hemodynamic instability. Abdominal computed tomography angiography detected hemoperitoneum and hematoma within the gastrohepatic ligament with active extravasation. Abdominal angiography revealed left gastric aneurysms. An association between AATD and vascular aneurysms has been suggested to be secondary to unopposed proteolytic activity against arterial structural proteins. The aneurysm formation in aortic, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and splenic arteries has been reported. We report the first case with ruptured gastric artery aneurysm as a complication of AATD. PMID:27622197

  16. Stent Application for the Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Dong Ik

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and striking development in both the techniques and devices make it possible to treat most of cerebral aneurysms endovascularly. Stent has become one of the most important tools in treating difficult aneurysms not feasible for simple coiling. The physical features, the dimensions, and the functional characteristics of the stents show considerable differences. There are also several strategies and tips to treat difficult aneurysms by using stent and coiling. Nevertheless, they require much experience in clinical practice as well as knowledge of the stents to treat cerebral aneurysms safely and effectively. In this report, a brief review of properties of the currently available stents and strategies of their application is presented. PMID:22125751

  17. Thrombosis modeling in intracranial aneurysms: a lattice Boltzmann numerical algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouared, R.; Chopard, B.; Stahl, B.; Rüfenacht, D. A.; Yilmaz, H.; Courbebaisse, G.

    2008-07-01

    The lattice Boltzmann numerical method is applied to model blood flow (plasma and platelets) and clotting in intracranial aneurysms at a mesoscopic level. The dynamics of blood clotting (thrombosis) is governed by mechanical variations of shear stress near wall that influence platelets-wall interactions. Thrombosis starts and grows below a shear rate threshold, and stops above it. Within this assumption, it is possible to account qualitatively well for partial, full or no occlusion of the aneurysm, and to explain why spontaneous thrombosis is more likely to occur in giant aneurysms than in small or medium sized aneurysms.

  18. Intracranial Aneurysms: Wall Motion Analysis for Prediction of Rupture.

    PubMed

    Vanrossomme, A E; Eker, O F; Thiran, J-P; Courbebaisse, G P; Zouaoui Boudjeltia, K

    2015-10-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are a common pathologic condition with a potential severe complication: rupture. Effective treatment options exist, neurosurgical clipping and endovascular techniques, but guidelines for treatment are unclear and focus mainly on patient age, aneurysm size, and localization. New criteria to define the risk of rupture are needed to refine these guidelines. One potential candidate is aneurysm wall motion, known to be associated with rupture but difficult to detect and quantify. We review what is known about the association between aneurysm wall motion and rupture, which structural changes may explain wall motion patterns, and available imaging techniques able to analyze wall motion. PMID:25929878

  19. External jugular vein aneurysm: a source of thrombotic complications.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, C V; Kostas, T; Tsetis, D; Georgakarakos, E; Gionis, M; Katsamouris, A N

    2010-06-01

    Superficial venous aneurysms are rare and usually are uneventful. We present a case in which a 40-year old female presenting with a thrombosed external jugular vein aneurysm which previously caused an undetected pulmonary embolism. The aneurysm was excised and the external jugular vein was ligated under local anesthesia and anticoagulation was initiated. In conclusion aneurysms of the superficial venous system should be considered as a possible source of pulmonary emboli. These sites can safely be excised and ligated under local anesthesia offering long term protection from its possible complications. PMID:20502418

  20. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-02-29

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes.

  1. Matrix Metalloproteinases and Descending Aortic Aneurysms: Parity, Disparity, and Switch

    PubMed Central

    Theruvath, Tom P.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Ikonomidis, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Central to the pathologic changes in developing aortic aneurysms are alterations in the abundance and activity of proteases, of which the most important for aneurysm production comprise the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. In this review, literature demonstrating the role of MMPs in the development of aortic aneurysms is presented, with emphasis on the parity and disparity between the thoracic and abdominal aorta. Furthermore, the role of embryologic cellular origins and evidence of phenotypic switch will be addressed in terms of how this process alters MMP production during aneurysm development. PMID:21958052

  2. Progressive intracranial fusiform aneurysms and T-cell immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Piantino, Juan A; Goldenberg, Fernando D; Pytel, Peter; Wagner-Weiner, Linda; Ansari, Sameer A

    2013-02-01

    In the pediatric population, intracranial fusiform aneurysms have been associated with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and rarely with opportunistic infections related to other immunodeficiencies. The HIV virus and other infectious organisms have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these aneurysms. We present a child with T-cell immunodeficiency but no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus or opportunistic intracranial infections that developed progressive bilateral fusiform intracranial aneurysms. Our findings suggest a role of immunodeficiency or inflammation in the formation of some intracranial aneurysms.

  3. Polyarteritis with symptomatic intracerebral aneurysms at initial presentation.

    PubMed

    Munn, E J; Alloway, J A; Diffin, D C; Arroyo, R A

    1998-10-01

    Polyarteritis rarely involves the cerebral vasculature, and has not been reported to have an initial presentation with intracerebral aneurysms. We describe the first case of polyarteritis presenting with symptomatic intracerebral aneurysms. A literature review from 1966 to 1997 identified 5 additional cases with evidence of intracerebral aneurysms and polyarteritis. The cases reviewed all had evidence of longstanding systemic symptoms suggestive of polyarteritis prior to diagnosis. Polyarteritis with intracerebral aneurysms is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and therefore must be recognized and treated early.

  4. Outcome After Surgical Treatment of Paraclinoid Carotid Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Pasqualin, Alberto; Meneghelli, Pietro; Cozzi, Francesco; Chioffi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Surgery on paraclinoid carotid aneurysms is technically demanding and entails considerable risks, especially to visual function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and visual outcome after surgery in 66 patients with paraclinoid carotid aneurysms (30 ruptured and 36 unruptured) treated between 1990 and 2014. Thirty-six aneurysms were of standard size, and 30 were large (16-20 mm) or giant (>20 mm); the Barami classification was used in every case. During surgery, multiple clips were needed in 25 % of patients with standard, and in 80 % of patients with large-giant aneurysms; temporary carotid occlusion was performed on 11 % of patients with standard and 63 % with large-giant aneurysms. Postoperatively, a cerebrospinal fluid fistula was repaired surgically in two patients. At the 3-month follow-up, the modified Rankin Score (mRS) was favorable (0-2) in 63 % of patients with ruptured and in 97 % with unruptured aneurysms; four patients presenting with large hematomas died. Postoperative visual impairment (worsening or newly developing deficit) was noted in 25 % of cases with standard and 14 % of cases with large-giant ruptured aneurysms, and, respectively, in 10 % with standard and 31 % with large-giant unruptured aneurysms. It has been concluded that surgery remains a reasonable choice in the management of patients with paraclinoid carotid aneurysms. PMID:27637626

  5. Ruptured Gastric Aneurysm in α-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Spanuchart, Ittikorn; Scott Gallacher, T.

    2016-01-01

    We present a unique vascular complication of α-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) in a patient with an acute onset of epigastric pain and hemodynamic instability. Abdominal computed tomography angiography detected hemoperitoneum and hematoma within the gastrohepatic ligament with active extravasation. Abdominal angiography revealed left gastric aneurysms. An association between AATD and vascular aneurysms has been suggested to be secondary to unopposed proteolytic activity against arterial structural proteins. The aneurysm formation in aortic, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric, and splenic arteries has been reported. We report the first case with ruptured gastric artery aneurysm as a complication of AATD. PMID:27622197

  6. Aneurysm of the pulmonary vein: an unusual cause of stroke.

    PubMed

    Emmert, Alexander; Jebran, Ahmad Fawad; Schmidt, Karsten; Hinterthaner, Marc; Bohnenberger, Hanibal; Bähr, Mathias; Schöndube, Friedrich A; Danner, Bernhard C

    2014-11-01

    This clinical report deals with a giant true pulmonary venous aneurysm, which was partially thrombosed. The overall incidence of pulmonary venous aneurysms is unknown, and they are reported only occasionally. We present the case of a previously healthy man with acute onset of ischemic cerebral stroke. The cause was a thrombus in a huge aneurysm of the left superior pulmonary vein. The patient subsequently underwent uncomplicated therapy for stroke, including thrombolysis followed by excision of the giant pulmonary venous aneurysm. As curative therapy we recommend complete resection of this rare entity.

  7. [Giant aneurysm of the inter-atrial septum].

    PubMed

    Akoudad, H; Cherti, M; Chaouki, S; Ztot, S; Haddour, L; el Mrabet, I; el Khadiri, A; Benmimoun, E G; Arharbi, A

    1999-01-01

    We report the case of a large atrial septal aneurysm and a review of the literature. Atrial septal aneurysm is found in 1-8% of normal subjects. Its prevalence is higher among patients with ischemic stroke. Transesophageal echocardiography is an optimal tool for the diagnosis of atrial septal aneurysm. The clinical course may be complicated by arterial embolism, but mechanical complications may also occur, as in this case. Due to the lack of general agreement, treatment options should be discussed on an individual basis for patients with atrial septal aneurysm. PMID:10093663

  8. Sac Angiography and Glue Embolization in Emergency Endovascular Aneurysm Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Yuya Nishimura, Jun-ichi Hase, Soichiro Yamasaki, Motoshige

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to demonstrate a sac angiography technique and evaluate the feasibility of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of the ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac in emergency endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in hemodynamically unstable patients.MethodsA retrospective case series of three patients in whom sac angiography was performed during emergency EVAR for ruptured AAA was reviewed. After stent graft deployment, angiography within the sac of aneurysm (sac angiography) was performed by manually injecting 10 ml of contrast material through a catheter to identify the presence and site of active bleeding. In two patients, sac angiography revealed active extravasation of the contrast material, and NBCA embolization with a coaxial catheter system was performed to achieve prompt sealing.ResultsSac angiography was successful in all three patients. In the two patients who underwent NBCA embolization for aneurysm sac bleeding, follow-up computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated the accumulation of NBCA consistent with the bleeding site in preprocedural CT images.ConclusionsEVAR is associated with a potential risk of ongoing bleeding from type II or IV endoleaks into the disrupted aneurysm sac in patients with severe coagulopathy. Therefore, sac angiography and NBCA embolization during emergency EVAR may represent a possible technical improvement in the treatment of ruptured AAA in hemodynamically unstable patients.

  9. Influencing factors of immediate angiographic results in intracranial aneurysms patients after endovascular treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Xiang; Lai, Ling-Feng; Zheng, Kuang; Li, Guo-Xiong; He, Xu-Ying; Li, Liang-Ping; Duan, Chuan-Zhi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze influencing factors associated with immediate angiographic results in intracranial aneurysms patients after endovascular treatment (EVT), providing theoretical evidence and guidance for clinical treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Totally 529 patients met the inclusive criteria, consisting of 338 males and 191 females. Gender; age; history of hypertension, diabetes, and smoking; intracranial atherosclerosis; rupture status, size and location, features of aneurysmal neck, shapes; vasospasm; treatment modality; and degree of aneurysm occlusion were all carefully and completely recorded. All data were investigated in univariate and multivariate logistic regression model to determine whether they were correlated with the degree of aneurysm occlusion. According to aneurysm size, aneurysms were classified as micro-miniature, miniature, and large aneurysms. There were 451 narrow-neck aneurysms and 78 wide-neck aneurysms. Totally 417 were regular and 112 were irregular. And 125 were un-ruptured aneurysms; 404 were ruptured aneurysms. The modalities of treatment were as follows: embolization with coil (n = 415), stent-assisted coil embolization (n = 89), and balloon-assisted coil embolization (n = 25). Univariate analysis showed that aneurysm size, feature of aneurysm neck, shape, and rupture status might affect the immediate occlusion after EVT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that ruptured aneurysm, tiny aneurysm, and wide-neck aneurysm were independent influencing factors of complete occlusion of intracranial aneurysm. Aneurysm rupture status, size, feature of aneurysmal neck, and shape might be the independent influencing factors of immediate angiographic results in intracranial aneurysm patients after EVT. Un-ruptured, micro-miniature, narrow-neck, and regular-shaped aneurysms were more probable to be occluded completely. PMID:26100332

  10. [Peroperative risks in cerebral aneurysm surgery].

    PubMed

    Mustaki, J P; Bissonnette, B; Archer, D; Boulard, G; Ravussin, P

    1996-01-01

    The perioperative complications associated with cerebral aneurysm surgery require a specific anaesthetic management. Four major perioperative accidents are discussed in this review. The anaesthetic and surgical management in case of rebleeding subsequent to the re-rupture of the aneurysm is mainly prophylactic. It includes haemodynamic stability assurance, maintenance of mean arterial pressure (MAP) between 80-90 mmHg during stimulation of the patient such as endotracheal intubation, application of the skull-pin head-holder, incision, and craniotomy. The aneurysmal transmural pressure should be adequately maintained by avoiding an aggressive decrease of intracranial pressure. Once the skull is open, the brain must be kept slack in order to decrease pressure under the retractors and avoid the risks of stretching and tearing of the adjacent vessels. If, despite these precautions, the aneurysm ruptures again. MAP should be decreased to 60 mmHg and the brain rendered more slack, in order to allow direct clipping of the aneurysm, or temporary clipping of the adjacent vessels. The optimal agents in this situation are isoflurane (which decreases CMRO2), intravenous anaesthetic agents (inspite their negative inotropic effect, they may potentially protect the brain) and sodium nitroprusside. Vasospasm occurs usually between the 3rd and the 7th day after subarachnoid haemorrhage. It may be seen peroperatively. The optimal treatment, as well as prophylaxis, is moderate controlled hypertension (MAP > 100 mmHg), associated with hypervolaemia and haemodilution, the so-called triple H therapy, with strict control of the filling pressures. Other beneficial therapies are calcium antagonists (nimodipine and nicardipine), the removal of the blood accumulated around the brain and in the cisternae, and possibly local administration of papaverine. Abrupt MAP increases are controlled in order to maintain adequate aneurysmal transmural pressure. Beta-blockers, local anaesthetics

  11. Late iliac artery aneurysms and occlusive disease after aortic tube grafts for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. A 35-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, D; Hallett, J W; Ballard, D J; Naessens, J M; Cherry, K J; Gloviczki, P; Pairolero, P C

    1991-01-01

    Controversy continues over whether patients treated with straight Dacron aortic tube grafts for an abdominal aortic aneurysm remain at significant risk for subsequent development of iliac aneurysm or occlusive disease. To address this issue, the authors performed a population-based analysis of 432 patients who had an abdominal aortic aneurysm diagnosed between 1951 and 1984. Aneurysm repair was performed eventually in 206 patients (48%). To ascertain differences in late development of graft-related complications, iliac aneurysms, and arterial occlusions, the authors compared all tube-graft patients with similar numbers of bifurcated-graft patients matched for age and year of operation. In the tube-graft group, no subsequent clinically evident or autopsy-proven iliac aneurysms or iliac occlusive disease were noted. Over a mean follow-up of 6 years (range, 4 to 18 years), new aortic aneurysms occurred in the proximal aorta in both tube and bifurcated-graft patients (5.0% and 2.5%, respectively). In contrast the cumulative incidence of graft-related complications was higher with a bifurcated prosthesis (12.8%) compared with a straight graft (5.0%) (p = 0.15). These problems generally occurred 5 to 15 years postoperatively and emphasize the need for long-term graft surveillance. The authors conclude that straight tube-grafts for repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms provide excellent late patency with minimal risk of subsequent iliac aneurysm development. PMID:1835832

  12. Fenestrated endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a less invasive option for the treatment of juxtarenal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Bryan A; Abularrage, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair has become the predominant surgical therapy for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Whereas anatomical limitations had become the major contraindication to endovascular treatment, fenestrated stent grafts were developed to overcome such obstacles. Fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair now provides an additional treatment option for patients felt to be unsuitable for an invasive open repair whose anatomy is not compatible with more traditional stent grafts. We review the evolution of fenestrated endovascular aortic aneurysm repair and compare its safety and efficacy to other endovascular options.

  13. Management of a dislocated endovascular aneurysm repair in a challenging giant abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Geers, Joachim; Daenen, Geert; Stabel, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Introduction A case report of a contained rupture of an abdominal aneurysm, treated by endovascular technique (EVAR), but complicated by perioperative endoprosthesis limb dislocation. Case report An 81-year old male presented at the emergency department with a contained rupture of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm and bilateral extensive iliac aneurysmatic disease. Open repair was no option, due to the pulmonary condition. The patient was prepped for an emergency EVAR. After placing a bifurcated endoprosthesis, angiography revealed a type IIIa endoleak, due to a dislocation between two left iliac extensions. We converted to a right-sided aorto-uni-iliac endoprosthesis with a femorofemoral bypass. A postoperative CT-scan showed a complete exclusion of the aneurysm, a patent aorto-uni-iliac endoprosthesis and a femorofemoral bypass without an endoleak. Discussion EVAR is feasible with a hostile neck AAA, even in a ruptured AAA. In large AAA, one should consider an overlap larger than suggested in the instructions for use. PMID:27385140

  14. Proximal clamping levels in abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Büket, S; Atay, Y; Islamoğlu, F; Yağdi, T; Posacioğlu, H; Alat, I; Cikirikçioğlu, M; Yüksel, M; Durmaz, I

    1999-01-01

    In the surgical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm, the single proximal cross-clamp can be placed at 3 alternative aortic levels: infrarenal, hiatal, and thoracic. We performed this retrospective study to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the 3 main aortic clamping locations. Eighty patients presented at our institution with abdominal aortic aneurysms from March 1993 through May 1998. Fifty of these patients had intact aneurysms and underwent elective surgery, and 30 had ruptured aneurysms that necessitated emergency surgery. Proximal aortic clamping was applied at the infrarenal level in 24 patients (22 from the intact aneurysm group, 2 from the ruptured group), at the hiatal level in 34 patients (22 intact, 12 ruptured), and at the thoracic level (descending aorta) via a limited left lateral thoracotomy in 22 patients (6 intact, 16 ruptured). Early mortality rates (within 30 days) were 4% (2 of 50 patients) among patients with intact aneurysms and 40% (12 of 30 patients) among those with ruptured aneurysms. In the 2 patients from the intact aneurysm group, proximal aortic clamps were applied at the hiatal level. In the ruptured aneurysm group, proximal aortic clamps were placed at the thoracic level in 10 patients, the infrarenal level in 1, and the hiatal level in 1. According to our study, the clinical status of the patient and the degree of operative urgency--as determined by the extent of the aneurysm--generally dictate the proximal clamp location. Patients who present with aneurysmal rupture or hypovolemic shock benefit from thoracic clamping, because it restores the blood pressure and allows time to replace the volume deficit. Infrarenal placement is advantageous in patients with intact aneurysms if there is sufficient space for the clamp between the renal arteries and the aortic aneurysm. In patients with juxtarenal aneurysms, hiatal clamping enables safe and easy anastomosis to the healthy aorta. Clamping at this level also helps prevent

  15. Small Intracranial Aneurysm Treatment Using Target ® Ultrasoft ™ Coils

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Gaurav; Miller, Timothy; Iyohe, Moronke; Shivashankar, Ravi; Prasad, Vikram; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The introduction of small, soft, complex-shaped microcoils has helped facilitate the endovascular treatment of small intracranial aneurysms (IAs) over the last several years. Here, we evaluate the initial safety and efficacy of treating small IAs using only Target® Ultrasoft™ coils. Materials and methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained clinical database at a single, high volume, teaching hospital was performed from September 2011 to May 2015. IAs smaller than or equal to 5.0 mm in maximal dimension treated with only Target® Ultrasoft™ coils were included. Results A total of 50 patients with 50 intracranial aneurysms were included. Subarachnoid hemorrhage from index aneurysm rupture was the indication for treatment in 23 of 50 (46%) cases, and prior subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from another aneurysm was the indication for treatment in eight of 50 (16%) cases. The complete aneurysm occlusion rate was 70% (35/50), the minimal residual aneurysm rate was 14% (7/50), and residual aneurysm rate was 16% (8/50). One intraoperative aneurysm rupture occurred. Three patients died during hospitalization from clinical sequelae of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Follow-up at a mean of 13.6 months demonstrated complete aneurysm occlusion in 75% (30/40) of cases, near complete occlusion in 15% (6/40) of cases, and residual aneurysm in 10% (4/40) of cases, all four of which were retreated. Conclusion Our initial results using only Target® Ultrasoft™ coils for the endovascular treatment of small intracranial aneurysms demonstrate initial excellent safety and efficacy profiles. PMID:27403224

  16. Rapid virtual stenting for intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Chen, Danyang; Chen, Zihe; Wang, Xiangyu; Paliwal, Nikhil; Xiang, Jianping; Meng, Hui; Corso, Jason J.; Xu, Jinhui

    2016-03-01

    The rupture of Intracranial Aneurysms is the most severe form of stroke with high rates of mortality and disability. One of its primary treatments is to use stent or Flow Diverter to divert the blood flow away from the IA in a minimal invasive manner. To optimize such treatments, it is desirable to provide an automatic tool for virtual stenting before its actual implantation. In this paper, we propose a novel method, called ball-sweeping, for rapid virtual stenting. Our method sweeps a maximum inscribed sphere through the aneurysmal region of the vessel and directly generates a stent surface touching the vessel wall without needing to iteratively grow a deformable stent surface. Our resulting stent mesh has guaranteed smoothness and variable pore density to achieve an enhanced occlusion performance. Comparing to existing methods, our technique is computationally much more efficient.

  17. Rapid Virtual Stenting for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liang; Chen, Danyang; Chen, Zihe; Wang, Xiangyu; Paliwal, Nikhil; Xiang, Jianping; Meng, Hui; Corso, Jason J.; Xu, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The rupture of Intracranial Aneurysms is the most severe form of stroke with high rates of mortality and disability. One of its primary treatments is to use stent or Flow Diverter to divert the blood flow away from the IA in a minimal invasive manner. To optimize such treatments, it is desirable to provide an automatic tool for virtual stenting before its actual implantation. In this paper, we propose a novel method, called ball-sweeping, for rapid virtual stenting. Our method sweeps a maximum inscribed sphere through the aneurysmal region of the vessel and directly generates a stent surface touching the vessel wall without needing to iteratively grow a deformable stent surface. Our resulting stent mesh has guaranteed smoothness and variable pore density to achieve an enhanced occlusion performance. Comparing to existing methods, our technique is computationally much more efficient. PMID:27346910

  18. [Giant vertebro-basilar aneurysm. Frontal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Rosa, A; Mizon, J P; Sevestre, H

    1991-01-01

    A 72-year-old man presented with an apparent frontal syndrome. He also had bilateral trigeminal neuralgia, a pyramidal syndrome of all 4 limbs, balance disturbances, a horizontal nystagmus when looking to the left and a right velopalatine paralysis. CT scan with contrast showed a hyperdense rounded lesion in the left cerebello-pontine angle. Cerebral angiography showed this to be a large aneurysm of the end of the vertebral arteries. The patient died suddenly. Autopsy confirmed the site and presence of the aneurysm. Balance disturbances, the pyramidal syndrome and velopalatine paralysis could all be explained by brain stem compression and the bilateral nature of the trigeminal neuralgia by compression of the trigemino-thalamic tract. The apparent frontal syndrome, the authors suggest could have resulted from subacute raised intracranial pressure.

  19. Cardiovocal Syndrome Secondary to an Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsing-Won; Chen, Mei-Chien; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Lee, Fei-Peng

    2016-01-01

    We reported that a 68-year-old man presented to the ENT outpatient department complaining of hoarseness for more than 10 months. Clinical exam identified left vocal palsy in the paramedian position and atrophic vocal folds were noted. Chest radiography revealed a large bulging contour overlying aorta and left hilar shadow. Aortic aneurysm was proved by CT scanning. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography for further evaluation showed a broad-based aortic aneurysm at proximal descending aorta, projecting anterolaterally. Cardiovocal syndrome was proved. The syndrome is a rare clinical presentation. While a patient with unilateral vocal palsy is encountered, one might keep in mind the possibility of cardiovocal syndrome especially in an adult who had a cardiovascular disease. PMID:27088024

  20. Acute Aortic Syndromes and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ramanath, Vijay S.; Oh, Jae K.; Sundt, Thoralf M.; Eagle, Kim A.

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic aortic diseases have been diagnosed and studied by physicians for centuries. Both the diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases have been steadily improving over time, largely because of increased physician awareness and improvements in diagnostic modalities. This comprehensive review discusses the pathophysiology and risk factors, classification schemes, epidemiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic modalities, management options, and outcomes of various aortic conditions, including acute aortic dissection (and its variants intramural hematoma and penetrating aortic ulcers) and thoracic aortic aneurysms. Literature searches of the PubMed database were conducted using the following keywords: aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, aortic ulcer, and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Retrospective and prospective studies performed within the past 20 years were included in the review; however, most data are from the past 15 years. PMID:19411444

  1. Management of Giant Splenic Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Akbulut, Sami; Otan, Emrah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To provide an overview of the medical literature on giant splenic artery aneurysm (SAA). The PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched using keywords to identify articles related to SAA. Keywords used were splenic artery aneurysm, giant splenic artery aneuryms, huge splenic artery aneurysm, splenic artery aneurysm rupture, and visceral artery aneurysm. SAAs with a diameter ≥5 cm are considered as giant and included in this study. The language of the publication was not a limitation criterion, and publications dated before January 15, 2015 were considered. The literature review included 69 papers (62 fulltext, 6 abstract, 1 nonavailable) on giant SAA. A sum of 78 patients (50 males, 28 females) involved in the study with an age range of 27–87 years (mean ± SD: 55.8 ± 14.0 years). Age range for male was 30–87 (mean ± SD: 57.5 ± 12.0 years) and for female was 27–84 (mean ± SD: 52.7 ± 16.6 years). Most frequent predisposing factors were acute or chronic pancreatitis, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and cirrhosis. Aneurysm dimensions were obtained for 77 patients with a range of 50–300 mm (mean ± SD: 97.1 ± 46.0 mm). Aneurysm dimension range for females was 50–210 mm (mean ± SD: 97.5 ± 40.2 mm) and for males was 50–300 mm (mean ± SD: 96.9 ± 48.9 mm). Intraperitoneal/retroperitoneal rupture was present in 15, among which with a lesion dimension range of 50–180 mm (mean ± SD; 100 ± 49.3 mm) which was range of 50–300 mm (mean ± SD: 96.3 ± 45.2 mm) in cases without rupture. Mortality for rupture patients was 33.3%. Other frequent complications were gastrosplenic fistula (n = 3), colosplenic fistula (n = 1), pancreatic fistula (n = 1), splenic arteriovenous fistula (n = 3), and portosplenic fistula (n = 1). Eight of the patients died in early postoperative period while 67 survived. Survival status of the

  2. Cardiovocal Syndrome Secondary to an Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsing-Won; Chen, Mei-Chien; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Lee, Fei-Peng

    2016-01-01

    We reported that a 68-year-old man presented to the ENT outpatient department complaining of hoarseness for more than 10 months. Clinical exam identified left vocal palsy in the paramedian position and atrophic vocal folds were noted. Chest radiography revealed a large bulging contour overlying aorta and left hilar shadow. Aortic aneurysm was proved by CT scanning. Contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography for further evaluation showed a broad-based aortic aneurysm at proximal descending aorta, projecting anterolaterally. Cardiovocal syndrome was proved. The syndrome is a rare clinical presentation. While a patient with unilateral vocal palsy is encountered, one might keep in mind the possibility of cardiovocal syndrome especially in an adult who had a cardiovascular disease. PMID:27088024

  3. First genetic analysis of aneurysm genes in familial and sporadic abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    van de Luijtgaarden, Koen M; Heijsman, Daphne; Maugeri, Alessandra; Weiss, Marjan M; Verhagen, Hence J M; IJpma, Arne; Brüggenwirth, Hennie T; Majoor-Krakauer, Danielle

    2015-08-01

    Genetic causes for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have not been identified and the role of genes associated with familial thoracic aneurysms in AAA has not been explored. We analyzed nine genes associated with familial thoracic aortic aneurysms, the vascular Ehlers-Danlos gene COL3A1 and the MTHFR p.Ala222Val variant in 155 AAA patients. The thoracic aneurysm genes selected for this study were the transforming growth factor-beta pathway genes EFEMP2, FBN1, SMAD3, TGBF2, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and the smooth muscle cells genes ACTA2, MYH11 and MYLK. Sanger sequencing of all coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of these genes was performed. Patients with at least one first-degree relative with an aortic aneurysm were classified as familial AAA (n = 99), the others as sporadic AAA. We found 47 different rare heterozygous variants in eight genes: two pathogenic, one likely pathogenic, twenty-one variants of unknown significance (VUS) and twenty-three unlikely pathogenic variants. In familial AAA we found one pathogenic and segregating variant (COL3A1 p.Arg491X), one likely pathogenic and segregating (MYH11 p.Arg254Cys), and fifteen VUS. In sporadic patients we found one pathogenic (TGFBR2 p.Ile525Phefs*18) and seven VUS. Thirteen patients had two or more variants. These results show a previously unknown association and overlapping genetic defects between AAA and familial thoracic aneurysms, indicating that genetic testing may help to identify the cause of familial and sporadic AAA. In this view, genetic testing of these genes specifically or in a genome-wide approach may help to identify the cause of familial and sporadic AAA. PMID:26017485

  4. Parallel multiscale simulations of a brain aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinberg, Leopold; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular pathologies, such as a brain aneurysm, are affected by the global blood circulation as well as by the local microrheology. Hence, developing computational models for such cases requires the coupling of disparate spatial and temporal scales often governed by diverse mathematical descriptions, e.g., by partial differential equations (continuum) and ordinary differential equations for discrete particles (atomistic). However, interfacing atomistic-based with continuum-based domain discretizations is a challenging problem that requires both mathematical and computational advances. We present here a hybrid methodology that enabled us to perform the first multiscale simulations of platelet depositions on the wall of a brain aneurysm. The large scale flow features in the intracranial network are accurately resolved by using the high-order spectral element Navier-Stokes solver NɛκTαr. The blood rheology inside the aneurysm is modeled using a coarse-grained stochastic molecular dynamics approach (the dissipative particle dynamics method) implemented in the parallel code LAMMPS. The continuum and atomistic domains overlap with interface conditions provided by effective forces computed adaptively to ensure continuity of states across the interface boundary. A two-way interaction is allowed with the time-evolving boundary of the (deposited) platelet clusters tracked by an immersed boundary method. The corresponding heterogeneous solvers (NɛκTαr and LAMMPS) are linked together by a computational multilevel message passing interface that facilitates modularity and high parallel efficiency. Results of multiscale simulations of clot formation inside the aneurysm in a patient-specific arterial tree are presented. We also discuss the computational challenges involved and present scalability results of our coupled solver on up to 300 K computer processors. Validation of such coupled atomistic-continuum models is a main open issue that has to be addressed in future

  5. Ultrasound of Primary Aneurysmal Bone Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Glazebrook, Katrina N.; Keeney, Gary L.; Rock, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are rare, benign, expansile lesions of bone often found in the metaphyses of long bones in pediatric and young adult population. Multiple fluid levels are typically seen on imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). We describe a case of a primary ABC in the fibula of a 34-year-old man diagnosed on ultrasound with a mobile fluid level demonstrated sonographically. PMID:24587935

  6. Aneurysmal cyst of the petrosal bone.

    PubMed Central

    Lackmann, G M; Töllner, U

    1993-01-01

    An aneurysmal cyst of the petrosal bone presenting as hearing loss and recurrent bacterial meningitis is reported. None of the clinical or radiographic signs described previously were present. Because other diagnostic methods are not reliable, it is recommended that coronal thin section computed tomography be performed in every case of suspected malformation of the skull base and in the diagnosis of recurrent bacterial meningitis. PMID:8215531

  7. Parallel multiscale simulations of a brain aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, Leopold; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular pathologies, such as a brain aneurysm, are affected by the global blood circulation as well as by the local microrheology. Hence, developing computational models for such cases requires the coupling of disparate spatial and temporal scales often governed by diverse mathematical descriptions, e.g., by partial differential equations (continuum) and ordinary differential equations for discrete particles (atomistic). However, interfacing atomistic-based with continuum-based domain discretizations is a challenging problem that requires both mathematical and computational advances. We present here a hybrid methodology that enabled us to perform the first multiscale simulations of platelet depositions on the wall of a brain aneurysm. The large scale flow features in the intracranial network are accurately resolved by using the high-order spectral element Navier–Stokes solver NεκTαr. The blood rheology inside the aneurysm is modeled using a coarse-grained stochastic molecular dynamics approach (the dissipative particle dynamics method) implemented in the parallel code LAMMPS. The continuum and atomistic domains overlap with interface conditions provided by effective forces computed adaptively to ensure continuity of states across the interface boundary. A two-way interaction is allowed with the time-evolving boundary of the (deposited) platelet clusters tracked by an immersed boundary method. The corresponding heterogeneous solvers (NεκTαr and LAMMPS) are linked together by a computational multilevel message passing interface that facilitates modularity and high parallel efficiency. Results of multiscale simulations of clot formation inside the aneurysm in a patient-specific arterial tree are presented. We also discuss the computational challenges involved and present scalability results of our coupled solver on up to 300 K computer processors. Validation of such coupled atomistic-continuum models is a main open issue that has to be addressed in

  8. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the ethmoid bone

    PubMed Central

    Janjua, Noor; Cresswell, Manuela; Sharma, Rishi; Maheshwar, Arcot

    2014-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman presented with headache and diplopia, and a mass in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses was found on CT scan. The patient underwent examination under anaesthesia showing a mass arising from the ethmoid, apparently from the nasal septum. Biopsies taken showed an aneurysmal bone cyst. The patient opted against surgery and has been managed conservatively. A second CT scan 4 years later showed significant increase in size. PMID:24706701

  9. Systemic lupus erythematosus with hepatic aneurysm, valsalva sinus aneurysm and associated polyangiitis: aneurysmal wall remodeling with dense fibrosis and calcification mediated by residual smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K

    2004-01-01

    Isolated case reports have demonstrated the combination of hepatic aneurysm and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The author experienced a rare autopsy case of a 36-year old Japanese male with SLE, a hepatic aneurysm, a Valsalva sinus aneurysm and associated polyangiitis. In the histopathological and ultrastructural examinations of the postmortem organs, most of the angiitis lesions were in the scar phase associated with the histopathological features of collagenous fibrosis with the diminution of the smooth muscle cells and elastic fibre layers. Massive calcification was seen on the wall and obliterative changes in the lumen with calcified thrombi. In the dense collagenous stroma of the aneurysmal wall, residual atrophic smooth muscle cells with immunohistochemical (HHF35+, alpha-smooth-muscle actin+, vimentin+ and desmin almost-) and ultrastructural features (spindle-shaped cells with a few rER and rich intracytoplasmic filaments with peripheral dense patches) were assumed to be involved in the histogenesis of the aneurysmal wall. Massive calcification and degeneration or dynamic remodeling of the extracellular matrices in the aneurysmal wall might be mediated by the residual smooth muscle cells. It was suspected that the generalized polyangiitis as a complication of SLE might have involved the intrahepatic arteries and Valsalva sinus wall and subsequently generated the aneurysm.

  10. Hemodynamic Influences on Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Disease: Application of Biomechanics to Aneurysm Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Monica M.; Dalman, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    “Atherosclerotic” abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) occur with the greatest frequency in the distal aorta. The unique hemodynamic environment of this area predisposes it to site-specific degenerative changes. In this review, we summarize the differential hemodynamic influences present along the length of the abdominal aorta, and demonstrate how alterations in aortic flow and wall shear stress modify AAA progression in experimental models. Improved understanding of aortic hemodynamic risk profiles provides an opportunity to modify patient activity patterns to minimize risk of aneurysmal degeneration. PMID:20347049

  11. [Abdominal aortic aneurysm: an uncommon presentation].

    PubMed

    Taborda, Lúcia; Pereira, Laurinda; Amona, Eurides; Pinto, Erique Guedes; Rodrigues, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Most abdominal aortic aneurysms are asymptomatic, being accidentally found on physical examination or in routinely performed imaging studies. They only require surveillance (which is variable according to the aneurism size) and medical therapy in order to achieve risk factor reduction. However, in certain situations, according to the risk of aneurism rupture, elective surgery or endovascular procedure may be necessary. About 80% of the cases of aneurism rupture occur into the retroperitoneal space, with a high mortality rate. There are uncommon presentations of aneurism rupture as the aorto-caval fistula, which also require fast diagnosis and intervention. The authors present the case of a 71-year-old man, with the previous diagnosis of hypertension, acute myocardial infarction 2 months earlier (undergone primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) and tabagism, who was admitted at the emergency department with intense 24-hour-evolution epigastric pain. On physical examination, the Blood Pressure values measured at the lower limbs were about half the ones measured at the upper limbs and there was an abdominal pulsatile mass, with a high-intensity murmur. As the authors suspected aortic dissection, aneurysm, coarctation or thrombosis, it was done a Computed Tomography scanning with intravenous contrast, which revealed a ruptured abdominal aorta aneurysm with a mural thrombus. The doppler ultrasound confirmed the presence of a high debit aorto-caval fistula. The patient was immediately transferred to the Vascular Surgery. However he died 2 hours later, during surgery. PMID:22525642

  12. Aneurysm of an Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery

    PubMed Central

    Gordini, Veliano; Collice, Massimo; Fedriga, Emanuele; Moreo, Antonella; Morello, Marco; Porrini, Annamaria; Donatelli, Francesco

    1991-01-01

    A 53-year-old man was admitted for treatment of an aberrant right subclavian artery aneurysm that had been diagnosed 5 years earlier and had recently begun to enlarge. The aneurysm, which involved the right subclavian artery from its origin, measured 47 mm in diameter and about 10 cm in length. Because of the lesion's size and friability, a 2-stage operation was performed. In the 1st stage, the right subclavian and right vertebral arteries were revascularized with double bypass grafts via a right cervical approach. In the 2nd stage, the patient was repositioned and a left thoracotomy incision was made. With the aid of left-heart bypass, the aorta was cross-clamped proximal and distal to the lesion, and the aneurysmal orifice was closed with a Dacron patch. The patient was discharged from the hospital on the 17th postoperative day and remains asymptomatic 24 months later. We recommend the 2-stage technique for similar cases because it prevents limb ischemia and reduces the risk of hemorrhagic and embolic complications. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:76-9) Images PMID:15227513

  13. Prevention of ischemic complications during aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Andreas; Seidel, Kathleen

    2016-03-01

    Ischemic complications during aneurysm surgery are a frequent cause of postoperative infarctions and new neurological deficits. In this article, we discuss imaging and neurophysiological tools that may help the surgeon to detect intraoperative ischemia. The strength of intraoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is the full view of the arterial and venous vessel. DSA is the gold standard in complex and giant aneurysms, but due to certain disadvantages, it cannot be considered standard of care. Microvascular Doppler sonography is probably the fastest diagnostic tool and can quickly aid diagnosis of large vessel occlusions. Intraoperative indocyanine green videoangiography is the best tool to assess flow in perforating and larger arteries, as well as occlusion of the aneurysm sac. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring with somatosensory and motor evoked potentials indirectly measures blood flow by recording neuronal function. It covers all causes of intraoperative ischemia, provided that ischemia occurs in the brain areas under surveillance. However, every method has advantages and disadvantages. No single method is superior to the others in every aspect. Therefore, it is very important for the neurosurgeon to know the strengths and weaknesses of each tool in order to have them available, to know how to use them for each individual situation, and to be ready to apply them within the time window for reversible cerebral ischemia.

  14. Can release of urinary retention trigger abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture?

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Andreas; Powell-Bowns, Matilda; Elseedawy, Emad

    2013-04-04

    Only 50% of abdominal aortic aneurysms present with the classic triad of hypotension, back pain and a pulsatile abdominal mass. This variability in symptoms can delay diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a patient presenting with a unique combination of symptoms suggesting that decompression of urinary retention can lead to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture.

  15. Endovascular exclusion of a large external iliac vein aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Mina; Hernandez, Diego

    2013-07-01

    Iliac vein aneurysms are uncommon, and there is no consensus on optimal treatment. We present a case of venous exclusion using an endovascular approach. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a large external iliac vein aneurysm treated endovascularly. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach with satisfactory 1-year follow-up.

  16. Diversity in the Strength and Structure of Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Anne M.; Duan, Xinjie; Aziz, Khaled M.; Hill, Michael R.; Watkins, Simon C.; Cebral, Juan R.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are pathological enlargements of brain arteries that are believed to arise from progressive wall degeneration and remodeling. Earlier work using classical histological approaches identified variability in cerebral aneurysm mural content, ranging from layered walls with intact endothelium and aligned smooth muscle cells, to thin, hypocellular walls. Here, we take advantage of recent advances in multiphoton microscopy, to provide novel results for collagen fiber architecture in 15 human aneurysm domes without staining or fixation as well as in 12 control cerebral arteries. For all aneurysm samples, the elastic lamina was absent and the abluminal collagen fibers had similar diameters to control arteries. In contrast, the collagen fibers on the luminal side showed great variability in both diameter and architecture ranging from dense fiber layers to sparse fiber constructs suggestive of ineffective remodeling efforts. The mechanical integrity of eight aneurysm samples was assessed using uniaxial experiments, revealing two sub-classes (i) vulnerable unruptured aneurysms (low failure stress and failure pressure), and (ii) strong unruptured aneurysms (high failure stress and failure pressure). These results suggest a need to refine the end-point of risk assessment studies that currently do not distinguish risk levels among unruptured aneurysms. We propose that a measure of wall integrity that identifies this vulnerable wall subpopulation will be useful for interpreting future biological and structural data. PMID:25632891

  17. Extracranial arterial aneurysms: a cause of crescendo transient ischaemic attacks.

    PubMed

    Paterson, H M; Holdsworth, R J

    2000-12-01

    Crescendo transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) should be regarded as a medical emergency. Patients require hospitalisation with urgent assessment and symptom control with anticoagulant therapy. We report on three patients, all of whom had atherosclerotic aneurysmal disease of the extracranial arterial circulation who presented with crescendo TIAs. The possibility of extracranial aneurysmal disease should always be considered and excluded.

  18. Harvey W. Cushing and cerebrovascular surgery: Part I, Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Spencer, Dennis D

    2004-09-01

    The development of surgical techniques for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms has paralleled the evolution of the specialty of neurological surgery. During the Cushing era, intracranial aneurysms were considered inoperable and only ligation of the carotid artery was performed. Cushing understood the limitations of this approach and advised the need for a more thorough understanding of aneurysm pathology before further consideration could be given to the surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Despite his focus on brain tumors, Cushing's contributions to the discipline of neurovascular surgery are of great importance. With the assistance of Sir Charles Symonds, Cushing described the syndrome of subarachnoid hemorrhage. He considered inserting muscle strips into cerebral aneurysms to promote aneurysm sac thrombosis and designed the "silver clip," which was modified by McKenzie and later used by Dandy to clip the first intracranial aneurysm. Cushing was the first surgeon to wrap aneurysms in muscle fragments to prevent recurrent hemorrhage. He established the foundation on which pioneers such as Norman Dott and Walter Dandy launched the modern era of neurovascular surgery.

  19. Preoperative evaluation of a patient for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed Central

    Chonchubhair, A. N.; Cunningham, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    Coexistent cardiovascular disease is common in patients presenting for repair of aortic aneurysms. However, preoperative cardiac evaluation prior to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery remains contentious with significant variations in practice between countries, institutions and individual anesthetists. The following case report raises some everyday issues confronting clinical anesthetists. PMID:10604782

  20. Intracranial Aneurysms: Review of Current Treatment Options and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Seibert, Brad; Tummala, Ramachandra P.; Chow, Ricky; Faridar, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed A.; Divani, Afshin A.

    2011-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are present in roughly 5% of the population, yet most are often asymptomatic and never detected. Development of an aneurysm typically occurs during adulthood, while formation and growth are associated with risk factors such as age, hypertension, pre-existing familial conditions, and smoking. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most common presentation due to aneurysm rupture, represents a serious medical condition often leading to severe neurological deficit or death. Recent technological advances in imaging modalities, along with increased understanding of natural history and prevalence of aneurysms, have increased detection of asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Studies reporting on the risk of rupture and outcomes have provided much insight, but the debate remains of how and when unruptured aneurysms should be managed. Treatment methods include two major intervention options: clipping of the aneurysm and endovascular methods such as coiling, stent-assisted coiling, and flow diversion stents. The studies reviewed here support the generalized notion that endovascular treatment of UIA provides a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment. The risks associated with endovascular repair are lower and incur shorter hospital stays for appropriately selected patients. The endovascular treatment option should be considered based on factors such as aneurysm size, location, patient medical history, and operator experience. PMID:21779274

  1. Ruptured renal artery aneurysm: coil packing with GDCs.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Misako; Nakata, Manabu; Kawai, Akira; Suzuki, Kazumi; Morita, Tatsuo; Sugimoto, Hideharu

    2012-06-01

    Renal artery aneurysm (RAA) is a relatively uncommon occurrence, but it can be life-threatening when rupture (although rare) occurs. We present the successful endovascular treatment of a ruptured RAA, which was achieved by packing the aneurysm using Guglielmi and interlocking detachable coils.

  2. Embolization of Large Aneurysms with Long Wire Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Golzarian, Jafar; Dussaussois, Luc; Ait Said, Kamel; Abada, Hicham T.; Dereume, Jean P.; Struyven, Julien

    2002-01-15

    The authors report the experience of using long coils of 2 m length in the management of large aneurysms. Knowledge of the characteristics of these coils is of value for correct placement. These coils are safe and cost-effective for excluding large aneurysms.

  3. [Isolated true aneurysm of the deep femoral artery].

    PubMed

    Salomon du Mont, L; Holzer, T; Kazandjian, C; Saucy, F; Corpataux, J M; Rinckenbach, S; Déglise, S

    2016-07-01

    Aneurysms of the deep femoral artery, accounting for 5% of all femoral aneurysms, are uncommon. There is a serious risk of rupture. We report the case of an 83-year-old patient with a painless pulsatile mass in the right groin due to an aneurysm of the deep femoral artery. History taking revealed no cardiovascular risk factors and no other aneurysms at other localizations. The etiology remained unclear because no recent history of local trauma or puncture was found. ACT angiography was performed, revealing a true isolated aneurysm of the deep femoral artery with a diameter of 90mm, beginning 1cm after its origin. There were no signs of rupture or distal emboli. Due to unsuitable anatomy for an endovascular approach, the patient underwent open surgery, with exclusion of the aneurysm and interposition of an 8-mm Dacron graft to preserve deep femoral artery flow. Due to their localization, the diagnosis and the management of aneurysms of the deep femoral artery can be difficult. Options are surgical exclusion or an endovascular approach in the absence of symptoms or as a bridging therapy. If possible, blood flow to the distal deep femoral artery should be maintained, the decision depending also on the patency of the superficial femoral artery. In case of large size, aneurysms of the deep femoral artery should be treated without any delay.

  4. Diversity in the Strength and Structure of Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Anne M; Duan, Xinjie; Aziz, Khaled M; Hill, Michael R; Watkins, Simon C; Cebral, Juan R

    2015-07-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are pathological enlargements of brain arteries that are believed to arise from progressive wall degeneration and remodeling. Earlier work using classical histological approaches identified variability in cerebral aneurysm mural content, ranging from layered walls with intact endothelium and aligned smooth muscle cells, to thin, hypocellular walls. Here, we take advantage of recent advances in multiphoton microscopy, to provide novel results for collagen fiber architecture in 15 human aneurysm domes without staining or fixation as well as in 12 control cerebral arteries. For all aneurysm samples, the elastic lamina was absent and the abluminal collagen fibers had similar diameters to control arteries. In contrast, the collagen fibers on the luminal side showed great variability in both diameter and architecture ranging from dense fiber layers to sparse fiber constructs suggestive of ineffective remodeling efforts. The mechanical integrity of eight aneurysm samples was assessed using uniaxial experiments, revealing two sub-classes (i) vulnerable unruptured aneurysms (low failure stress and failure pressure), and (ii) strong unruptured aneurysms (high failure stress and failure pressure). These results suggest a need to refine the end-point of risk assessment studies that currently do not distinguish risk levels among unruptured aneurysms. We propose that a measure of wall integrity that identifies this vulnerable wall subpopulation will be useful for interpreting future biological and structural data. PMID:25632891

  5. Mechanisms of Healing in Coiled Intracranial Aneurysms: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Brinjikji, Waleed; Kallmes, David F; Kadirvel, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Recanalization of intracranial aneurysms following endovascular coiling remains a frustratingly common occurrence. An understanding of the molecular and histopathological mechanisms of aneurysm healing following coil embolization is essential to improving aneurysm occlusion rates. Histolopathologic studies in coiled human and experimental aneurysms suggest that during the first month post-coiling, thrombus formation and active inflammation occur within the aneurysm dome. Several months following embolization, the aneurysm is excluded from the parent vessel by formation of a neointimal layer, which is often thin and discontinuous, across the aneurysm neck. Numerous coil modifications and systemic therapies have been tested in animals and humans in an attempt to improve the aneurysm healing process; these modifications have met with variable levels of success. In this review, we summarize the histopathologic and molecular biology of aneurysm healing and discuss how these findings have been applied in an attempt to improve angiographic outcomes in patients harboring intracranial aneurysm. PMID:25430855

  6. Impact of Stent Design on Intra-Aneurysmal Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, M.; Hirabayashi, M.; Wetzel, S.; Lylyk, P.; Wata, H.; Tsutsumi, S.; Rüfenacht, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Summary In addition to providing a skeleton for vessel reconstruction, stent implantation as used for cerebral aneurysm treatment can induce flow redirection, thus reducing vortical flow velocities within the aneurysm cavity. Further, stent characteristics such as strut size, porosity and cell shape influence the changes in intra-aneurysmal flow by analog simulations. The purpose of this computer simulation study was to visualize the flow pattern over the entire neck area of a side wall aneurysm while changing the stent parameters. A 3-D computer model aneurysm was constructed to have a parent artery of 5 mm diameter and an aneurysm of 10 mm diameter. The distance between the midline of main artery and center point of the aneurysm was 6.8 mm, providing a neck length of 5 mm, a width of 3.6 mm, and a neck area of 14 mm 2. The simulations were carried out with a Finite Element Method based flow simulation package. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equation was solved for a steady flow with a mean speed of 290 mm/s, steady viscosity of 3.83 cp, and density of 1.0 g/cm3. Two parallel stent struts (dimensions: 100 µm m 100 µm m 2.0 mm) were introduced into the plane of the aneurysm neck. The fraction of the aneurysm neck cross-section occupied by the stent was 2.83% in all cases. The velocity distribution through the neck of the aneurysm was calculated for three different choices of separation between the struts for each of two orientations of the struts (parallel and perpendicular) relative to the vessel axis. The flow pattern in the aneurysm was composed of an inflow zone at the distal neck and of an outflow zone at the proximal neck. The placement of stent struts at the aneurysm neck resulted in a decrease in the mean speed in the aneurysm. The degree of reduction and the distribution of flow through the neck did depend on the orientation of the stent struts. The struts, when placed parallel or perpendicular to the parent vessel axis affected the mean speed through

  7. [Perioperative management of a ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Peña, J J; Marqués, J I; Mateo, E; Llagunes, J; Aguar, F; de Andrés, J

    2008-03-01

    Congenital sinus of Valsalva aneurysms are extremely rare in Spain. The lesion consists of a defect that allows the aortic media to separate from the annulus fibrosus of the aortic valve, causing it to dilate with arterial pressure. The natural course of the aneurysm involves the risk of complication due to bacterial endocarditis, with conduction blocks or myocardial ischemia. Rupture of the aneurysm, usually into a right chamber, causes a left-right shunt that leads to heart failure and death if untreated. We present the case of a previously asymptomatic 60-year-old woman who presented with a clinical picture that led to a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, and in whom there occurred a coincident rupture of a congenital sinus of Valsalva aneurysm. We describe the anesthetic procedure and emphasize the importance of intraoperative echocardiography throughout the resection of the aneurysm.

  8. Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2014-01-01

    Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2 mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision.

  9. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst: An Uncommon Secondary Event in Calcaneal Chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Barman, Sandip; Diwaker, Preeti; Bansal, Divya; Wadhwa, Neelam; Singh, Gurvinder

    2016-06-01

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon benign bone tumour, involvement of epiphysis of long bones is typical. Chondroblastoma of the calcaneum is uncommon and its association with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst is even rarer. Only two cases of calcaneal chondroblastoma associated with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst have been reported till date. A 22-year-old male presented to the department of orthopaedics with complains of pain and swelling in the left heel since the last 10 months. On clinico-radiological grounds differentials considered were giant cell tumour of bone and aneurysmal bone cyst. In view of the histopathological findings of bone curettage and results of special stain and immunohistochemical marker, final diagnosis of chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst, left calcaneum was rendered. Although rare, chondroblastoma should always be considered in osteolytic lesions of calcaneum. The identification of secondary aneurysmal bone cyst component is important as it has higher chances of recurrence than usual chondroblastoma.

  10. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst: An Uncommon Secondary Event in Calcaneal Chondroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Barman, Sandip; Bansal, Divya; Wadhwa, Neelam; Singh, Gurvinder

    2016-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon benign bone tumour, involvement of epiphysis of long bones is typical. Chondroblastoma of the calcaneum is uncommon and its association with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst is even rarer. Only two cases of calcaneal chondroblastoma associated with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst have been reported till date. A 22-year-old male presented to the department of orthopaedics with complains of pain and swelling in the left heel since the last 10 months. On clinico-radiological grounds differentials considered were giant cell tumour of bone and aneurysmal bone cyst. In view of the histopathological findings of bone curettage and results of special stain and immunohistochemical marker, final diagnosis of chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst, left calcaneum was rendered. Although rare, chondroblastoma should always be considered in osteolytic lesions of calcaneum. The identification of secondary aneurysmal bone cyst component is important as it has higher chances of recurrence than usual chondroblastoma. PMID:27504302

  11. Aneurysmal Bone Cyst: An Uncommon Secondary Event in Calcaneal Chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Barman, Sandip; Diwaker, Preeti; Bansal, Divya; Wadhwa, Neelam; Singh, Gurvinder

    2016-06-01

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon benign bone tumour, involvement of epiphysis of long bones is typical. Chondroblastoma of the calcaneum is uncommon and its association with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst is even rarer. Only two cases of calcaneal chondroblastoma associated with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst have been reported till date. A 22-year-old male presented to the department of orthopaedics with complains of pain and swelling in the left heel since the last 10 months. On clinico-radiological grounds differentials considered were giant cell tumour of bone and aneurysmal bone cyst. In view of the histopathological findings of bone curettage and results of special stain and immunohistochemical marker, final diagnosis of chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst, left calcaneum was rendered. Although rare, chondroblastoma should always be considered in osteolytic lesions of calcaneum. The identification of secondary aneurysmal bone cyst component is important as it has higher chances of recurrence than usual chondroblastoma. PMID:27504302

  12. Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms Associated with Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sangwoo; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Chong-gue

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease is an inflammatory disorder involving multiple organs. Its cause is still unknown, but vasculitis is the major pathologic characteristic. The common vascular lesions associated with Behçet's disease are aneurysm formation, arterial or venous occlusive diseases, and varices. Arterial aneurysms mostly occur in large arteries. Intracranial aneurysms hardly occur with Behçet's disease. We would like to present a 41-year-old female patient with Behçet's disease who showed symptoms of severe headache due to subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brain computed tomography revealed multiple aneurysms. We also present a literature review of intracranial arterial aneurysms associated with Behçet's disease. PMID:27114964

  13. Primary Aneurysm of the Medial Marginal Vein of the Foot

    PubMed Central

    Casian, D.; Culiuc, V.

    2015-01-01

    The primary superficial venous aneurysms of the foot are very rare. A 34-year-old female patient developed a dorsal foot mass during the second trimester of pregnancy with no history of previous trauma, puncture, or infection. One year later, she was referred to the surgical department for excision of “foot hygroma.” Based on the clinical findings, the venous aneurysm was suspected and duplex ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of the aneurysm of the medial marginal vein of the foot. Excision of aneurysm with bipolar ligation of marginal vein was performed under local anesthesia. The postoperative evolution was uneventful. The authors hope that the presented case report will increase the awareness of general practitioners, dermatologists, and surgeons regarding the superficial venous aneurysms of lower limbs. PMID:26576318

  14. [Abdominal aortic aneurysm. Endovascular treatment with fenestrated endoprothesis].

    PubMed

    Rostagno, Román; Cesareo, Vicente; García-Mónaco, Ricardo; Peralta, Oscar; Domenech, Alberto; Bracco, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Endovascular treatment of the abdominal aortic aneurysm is consider an alternative to open surgery for high risk patients. Its goal is to exclude the aneurysm from the circulation by using an endoprothesis introduced from a femoral approach. Patients must be strictly selected to avoid possible complications. The most frequent limitation is related to anatomic contraindications such as visceral arteries involved in the aneurysm. Fenestrated endograft have been recently developed to allow endovascular treatment when anatomic features contraindicate classic endovascular procedures. Fenestrated endograft have holes that match with the origin of the visceral arteries maintaining its potency. In this paper we report the endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm by using a fenestrated endoprothesis in a patient whose left renal artery is originated from the aneurysm.

  15. Wrapping of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a viable alternative.

    PubMed

    Kartchner, M M; Lovett, V F

    1986-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm wrapping is an excellent procedure to use for poor-risk patients, calcified aneurysms, aneurysms extending above the renal arteries, and prophylaxis for small aneurysms. The procedure has a low operative mortality rate and a low long-term graft-related complication rate. It appears that aortic wrapping can be performed with a similar mortality and long-term survival rate as standard resection and grafting procedures, in spite of its application in generally poorer-risk patients. However, we do not believe that this procedure will replace aortic resection and grafting for most lumbar aortic aneurysms, but it should be considered for use in selected instances and should be in the armamentarium of all vascular surgeons.

  16. Spontaneous rupture of hepatic artery aneurysm associated with polyarteritis nodosa.

    PubMed

    Parent, Brodie A; Cho, Sung W; Buck, David G; Nalesnik, Michael A; Gamblin, T Clark

    2010-12-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a vasculitis, which often involves small and medium sized visceral arteries. This condition may result in multifocal aneurismal formation and end-organ damage. Uncommonly, PAN may present with rupture of hepatic artery aneurysms. Here, we report a rare case of a ruptured intrahepatic aneurysm associated with PAN. A 79-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain had CT scan of the abdomen, which revealed hematoma in the right hepatic lobe. Visceral angiogram confirmed pseudo-aneurysm of a right hepatic arterial branch, and this was managed with endovascular coil embolization. The diagnosis of PAN was made and corticosteroid therapy was initiated. We also performed a literature review to define this condition's demographics, clinical presentations, and appropriate management. The review revealed 17 published cases of ruptured PAN-related intrahepatic aneurysms. We conclude that unexplained findings of visceral arterial aneurysms should prompt investigations for vasculitis as the etiology.

  17. Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2015-07-01

    Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2 mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision.

  18. Surgical repair of an aberrant splenic artery aneurysm: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; LaMuraglia, Glenn; Nigri, Giuseppe; Vietri, Francesco

    2007-03-01

    Aneurysms of the splenic artery are the most common splanchnic aneurysms. Aneurysms of a splenic artery with an anomalous origin from the superior mesenteric artery are however rare, with eight previously reported cases. Their indications for treatment are superposable to those of aneurysms affecting an orthotopic artery. Methods of treatment of this condition include endovascular, minimally invasive techniques and surgical resection. We report one more case of aneurysm of an aberrant splenic artery, treated with surgical resection, and preservation of the spleen.

  19. Vertebral Artery Aneurysm Mimicking as Left Subclavian Artery Aneurysm in a Patient with Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor II Mutation.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Rana O; Dhillon, Baltej Singh; Sandhu, Harleen K; Charlton-Ouw, Kristofer M; Estrera, Anthony L; Azizzadeh, Ali

    2015-10-01

    We report successful endovascular repair of a left vertebral artery aneurysm in a patient with transforming growth factor beta receptor II mutation. The patient was initially diagnosed with a left subclavian artery aneurysm on computed tomography angiography. The patient consented to publication of this report.

  20. Enlarged Parent Artery Lumen at Aneurysmal-Neck Segment in Wide-Necked Distal Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Won; Woo, Jung Min; Lim, Ok Kyun; Jo, Ye-eun; Kim, Jae Kyun; Kim, Eun Sang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Hypothesizing that the parent artery (PA) diameter of the aneurysm-neck segment is larger than those of normal segments, especially in wide-necked aneurysm cases, we conducted 3D angiographic analyses in wide-necked aneurysm cases focusing on the luminal morphologic change of the PA. Materials and Methods Under the approval of local IRB, we enrolled 26 patients with distal internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms, which were treated with stent assisted coiling. The PA diameters along the centerline were measured at 6 points with built-in software by two observers. Those 6 points were P1 and P2 proximally, P3 and P4 at the aneurysm ostium margins, and P5 and P6 distally. We performed an ANOVA test and a Bonferroni method for post hoc analyses. Linear regression analysis was performed to find any morphologic influencing factors. Results There were 20 distal ICA aneurysms out of 26 consecutive cases after exclusion. The differences in diameter at each point were statistically significant (p<0.0001). On post hoc analyses, the difference between P4 and P5 was significant both in maximum and mean PA diameters (p<0.0001 and p<0.001, respectively). Multivariate analyses failed to reveal any morphological influencing factor. Conclusion PAs harboring a wide-necked aneurysm requiring stent assistance for coiling showed significant enlargement of the lumen, especially at the distal transition segment of the aneurysm ostium and the PA. PMID:26389011

  1. Aneurysm Study of Pipeline in an Observational Registry (ASPIRe)

    PubMed Central

    Kallmes, David F.; Brinjikji, Waleed; Boccardi, Edoardo; Ciceri, Elisa; Diaz, Orlando; Tawk, Rabih; Woo, Henry; Jabbour, Pascal; Albuquerque, Felipe; Chapot, Rene; Bonafe, Alain; Dashti, Shervin R.; Almandoz, Josser E. Delgado; Given, Curtis; Kelly, Michael E.; Cross, DeWitte T.; Duckwiler, Gary; Razack, Nasser; Powers, Ciaran J.; Fischer, Sebastian; Lopes, Demetrius; Harrigan, Mark R.; Huddle, Daniel; Turner, Raymond; Zaidat, Osama O.; Defreyne, Luc; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Cekirge, Saruhan; Fiorella, David; Hanel, Ricardo A.; Lylyk, Pedro; McDougall, Cameron; Siddiqui, Adnan; Szikora, Istvan; Levy, Elad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Few prospective studies exist evaluating the safety and efficacy of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The Aneurysm Study of Pipeline In an observational Registry (ASPIRe) study prospectively analyzed rates of complete aneurysm occlusion and neurologic adverse events following PED treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Materials and Methods We performed a multicenter study prospectively evaluating patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms treated with PED. Primary outcomes included (1) spontaneous rupture of the Pipeline-treated aneurysm; (2) spontaneous nonaneurysmal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH); (3) acute ischemic stroke; (4) parent artery stenosis, and (5) permanent cranial neuropathy. Secondary endpoints were (1) treatment success and (2) morbidity and mortality at the 6-month follow-up. Vascular imaging was evaluated at an independent core laboratory. Results One hundred and ninety-one patients with 207 treated aneurysms were included in this registry. The mean aneurysm size was 14.5 ± 6.9 mm, and the median imaging follow-up was 7.8 months. Twenty-four aneurysms (11.6%) were small, 162 (78.3%) were large and 21 (10.1%) were giant. The median clinical follow-up time was 6.2 months. The neurological morbidity rate was 6.8% (13/191), and the neurological mortality rate was 1.6% (3/191). The combined neurological morbidity/mortality rate was 6.8% (13/191). The most common adverse events were ischemic stroke (4.7%, 9/191) and spontaneous ICH (3.7%, 7/191). The complete occlusion rate at the last follow-up was 74.8% (77/103). Conclusions Our prospective postmarket study confirms that PED treatment of aneurysms in a heterogeneous patient population is safe with low rates of neurological morbidity and mortality. Patients with angiographic follow-up had complete occlusion rates of 75% at 8 months.

  2. Prevalence of cerebral aneurysm in patients with acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Oshino, Satoru; Nishino, Akio; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Arita, Hideyuki; Tateishi, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Shimokawa, Toshio; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Saitoh, Youichi

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of cerebral aneurysm was retrospectively investigated in 208 patients with acromegaly relative to the rate of cerebral aneurysm in a group of control subjects. Neuroradiological examinations of the cerebral vascular system were conducted in 208 acromegaly patients (101 men; mean age, 48.8 years). The prevalence of cerebral aneurysm in the acromegaly patients was compared to that in a control group consisting of 7,390 subjects who underwent "brain checkup" between 2006 and 2008 (mean age, 51.6 years). In the acromegaly group, cerebral aneurysm was detected in 4.3 % of patients. By sex, the prevalence was 6.9 % in males, a significantly proportion than that in the control group with an odds ratio of 4.40. The prevalence in females did not differ between the two groups. In the acromegaly group, the rate of hypertension was significantly higher in the patients with aneurysm compared to those without aneurysm. Multiple logistic regression identified acromegaly as a significant factor related to the prevalence of cerebral aneurysm in all male subjects; other factors, such as age, hypertension and smoking, were not found to be significant. A significantly higher prevalence of cerebral aneurysm was detected in male patients with acromegaly. This finding indicates that excess growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor 1 affects the cerebral vascular wall, resulting in aneurysm formation. In addition to known systematic complications in the cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, and other systems, the risk of cerebral aneurysm should be considered in the management of acromegaly.

  3. Aneurysm Study of Pipeline in an Observational Registry (ASPIRe)

    PubMed Central

    Kallmes, David F.; Brinjikji, Waleed; Boccardi, Edoardo; Ciceri, Elisa; Diaz, Orlando; Tawk, Rabih; Woo, Henry; Jabbour, Pascal; Albuquerque, Felipe; Chapot, Rene; Bonafe, Alain; Dashti, Shervin R.; Almandoz, Josser E. Delgado; Given, Curtis; Kelly, Michael E.; Cross, DeWitte T.; Duckwiler, Gary; Razack, Nasser; Powers, Ciaran J.; Fischer, Sebastian; Lopes, Demetrius; Harrigan, Mark R.; Huddle, Daniel; Turner, Raymond; Zaidat, Osama O.; Defreyne, Luc; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Cekirge, Saruhan; Fiorella, David; Hanel, Ricardo A.; Lylyk, Pedro; McDougall, Cameron; Siddiqui, Adnan; Szikora, Istvan; Levy, Elad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Few prospective studies exist evaluating the safety and efficacy of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The Aneurysm Study of Pipeline In an observational Registry (ASPIRe) study prospectively analyzed rates of complete aneurysm occlusion and neurologic adverse events following PED treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Materials and Methods We performed a multicenter study prospectively evaluating patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms treated with PED. Primary outcomes included (1) spontaneous rupture of the Pipeline-treated aneurysm; (2) spontaneous nonaneurysmal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH); (3) acute ischemic stroke; (4) parent artery stenosis, and (5) permanent cranial neuropathy. Secondary endpoints were (1) treatment success and (2) morbidity and mortality at the 6-month follow-up. Vascular imaging was evaluated at an independent core laboratory. Results One hundred and ninety-one patients with 207 treated aneurysms were included in this registry. The mean aneurysm size was 14.5 ± 6.9 mm, and the median imaging follow-up was 7.8 months. Twenty-four aneurysms (11.6%) were small, 162 (78.3%) were large and 21 (10.1%) were giant. The median clinical follow-up time was 6.2 months. The neurological morbidity rate was 6.8% (13/191), and the neurological mortality rate was 1.6% (3/191). The combined neurological morbidity/mortality rate was 6.8% (13/191). The most common adverse events were ischemic stroke (4.7%, 9/191) and spontaneous ICH (3.7%, 7/191). The complete occlusion rate at the last follow-up was 74.8% (77/103). Conclusions Our prospective postmarket study confirms that PED treatment of aneurysms in a heterogeneous patient population is safe with low rates of neurological morbidity and mortality. Patients with angiographic follow-up had complete occlusion rates of 75% at 8 months. PMID:27610126

  4. Aneurysmal Lesions of Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Contain Clonally Expanded T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Song; White, John V.; Lin, Wan Lu; Zhang, Xiaoying; Solomides, Charalambos; Evans, Kyle; Ntaoula, Nectaria; Nwaneshiudu, Ifeyinwa; Gaughan, John; Monos, Dimitri S.; Oleszak, Emilia L.

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease with often life-threatening consequences. This vascular disorder is responsible for 1–2% of all deaths in men aged 65 years or older. Autoimmunity may be responsible for the pathogenesis of AAA. Although it is well documented that infiltrating T cells are essentially always present in AAA lesions, little is known about their role in the initiation and/or progression of the disease. To determine whether T cells infiltrating AAA lesions contain clonally expanded populations of T cells, we amplified β-chain TCR transcripts by the nonpalindromic adaptor–PCR/Vβ-specific PCR and/or Vβ-specific PCR, followed by cloning and sequencing. We report in this article that aortic abdominal aneurysmal lesions from 8 of 10 patients with AAA contained oligoclonal populations of T cells. Multiple identical copies of β-chain TCR transcripts were identified in these patients. These clonal expansions are statistically significant. These results demonstrate that αβ TCR+ T lymphocytes infiltrating aneurysmal lesions of patients with AAA have undergone proliferation and clonal expansion in vivo at the site of the aneurysmal lesion, in response to unidentified self- or nonself Ags. This evidence supports the hypothesis that AAA is a specific Ag–driven T cell disease. PMID:24752442

  5. Persistent Aneurysm Growth Following Pipeline Embolization Device Assisted Coiling of a Fusiform Vertebral Artery Aneurysm: A Word of Caution!

    PubMed Central

    Kerolus, Mena; Lopes, Demetrius K.

    2015-01-01

    The complex morphology of vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms makes them one of the most challenging lesions treated by neurointerventionists. Different management strategies in the past included parent vessel occlusion with or without extra-intracranial bypass surgery and endovascular reconstruction by conventional stents. Use of flow diversion has emerged as a promising alternative option with various studies documenting its efficacy and safety. However, there are various caveats associated with use of flow diversion in patients with fusiform vertibrobasilar aneurysms especially in patients presenting with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We report a rare case of persistent aneurysmal growth after coiling and placement of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; ev3, Irvine, California, USA) for SAH from a fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm. As consequences of aneurysm rupture can be devastating especially in patients with a prior SAH, the clinical relevance of recognizing and understanding such patterns of failure cannot be overemphasized as highlighted in the present case. PMID:25763295

  6. [Cerebral infarction and intracranial aneurysm related to the reactivation of varicella zoster virus in a Japanese acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Chiharu; Okada, Kazumasa; Ohnari, Norihiro; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2013-01-01

    A 35-years-old right-handed man admitted to our hospital with a worsening of dysarthria, left facial palsy and left hemiparesis for 2 days. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed when he was 28 years old. At that time, he also was treated for syphilis. After highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was introduced at the age of 35 years old, serum level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was not detected, but the number of CD4+ T cells was still less than 200/μl. He had no risk factors of atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. He had neither coagulation abnormality nor autoimmune disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed acute ischemic infarction spreading from the right corona radiate to the right internal capsule without contrast enhancement. Stenosis and occlusion of intracranial arteries were not detected by MR angiography. Although argatroban and edaravone were administered, his neurological deficits were worsened to be difficult to walk independently. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed a mild mononuclear pleocytosis (16/μl). Oligoclonal band was positive. The titer of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG antibodies was increased, that indicated VZV reactivation in the central nervous system (CNS), although VZV DNA PCR was not detected. Therefore, acyclovir (750 mg/day for 2 weeks) and valaciclovir (3,000 mg/day for 1 month) were administered in addition to stroke therapy. He recovered to be able to walk independently 2 month after the admission.Angiography uncovered a saccular aneurysm of 3 mm at the end of branch artery of right anterior cerebral artery, Heubner artery, 28 days after the admission. We speculated that VZV vasculopathy caused by VZV reactivation in CNS was involved in the pathomechanism of cerebral infarction rather than HIV vasculopathy in the case.

  7. A study of the hemodynamics of anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebral, Juan R.; Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the effects of unequal physiologic flow conditions in the internal carotid arteries on the intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics of anterior communicating artery aneurysms were investigated. Patient-specific vascular computational fluid dynamics models of five cerebral aneurysms were constructed from bilateral 3D rotational angiography images. The aneurysmal hemodynamics was analyzed under a range of physiologic flow conditions including the effects of unequal mean flows and phase shifts between the flow waveforms of the left and right internal carotid arteries. A total of five simulations were performed for each patient, and unsteady wall shear stress (WSS) maps were created for each flow condition. Time dependent curves of average WSS magnitude over selected regions on the aneurysms were constructed and used to analyze the influence of the inflow conditions. It was found that mean flow imbalances in the feeding vessels tend to shift the regions of elevated WSS (flow impingement region) towards the dominating inflow jet and to change the magnitude of the WSS peaks. However, the overall qualitative appearance of the WSS distribution and velocity simulations is not substantially affected. In contrast, phase differences tend to increase the temporal complexity of the hemodynamic patterns and to destabilize the intra-aneurysmal flow pattern. However, these effects are less important when the A1 confluence is less symmetric, i.e. dominated by one of the A1 segments. Conditions affecting the flow characteristics in the parent arteries of cerebral aneurysms with more than one avenue of inflow should be incorporated into flow models.

  8. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Neuroinflammation: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Manoranjan, Branavan; Turner, Ryan C.; McConnell, Evan; Vates, George Edward; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.; Simard, J. Marc

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to devastating outcomes including vasospasm, cognitive decline, and even death. Currently, treatment options are limited for this potentially life threatening injury. Recent evidence suggests that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in injury expansion and brain damage. Red blood cell breakdown products can lead to the release of inflammatory cytokines that trigger vasospasm and tissue injury. Preclinical models have been used successfully to improve understanding about neuroinflammation following aneurysmal rupture. The focus of this review is to provide an overview of how neuroinflammation relates to secondary outcomes such as vasospasm after aneurysmal rupture and to critically discuss pharmaceutical agents that warrant further investigation for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We provide a concise overview of the neuroinflammatory pathways that are upregulated following aneurysmal rupture and how these pathways correlate to long-term outcomes. Treatment of aneurysm rupture is limited and few pharmaceutical drugs are available. Through improved understanding of biochemical mechanisms of injury, novel treatment solutions are being developed that target neuroinflammation. In the final sections of this review, we highlight a few of these novel treatment approaches and emphasize why targeting neuroinflammation following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may improve patient care. We encourage ongoing research into the pathophysiology of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, especially in regards to neuroinflammatory cascades and the translation to randomized clinical trials. PMID:27049383

  9. Uninfected anastomotic false aneurysms following arterial reconstruction with prosthetic grafts.

    PubMed

    Read, R C; Thompson, B W

    1975-01-01

    Thirteen men, aged 49 to 76 years, average 60, were treated at the Little Rock, Arkansas Veterans Administration Hospital between January 1, 1969 and January 1, 1974 for 1-3 false aneurysms, a total of 18, following prosthetic arterial grafting. Most (ten patients, 15 aneurysms) had aorto-femoral bifurcation grafts for Leriche syndrome. Dacron prostheses were employed in ten, Teflon in three. The interval between the initial operation and the appearance of the aneurysms averaged six years. The end-to-side femoral anastomosis broke down in all ten patients with Leriche syndrome. Six of the eight unilateral aneurysms were on the right side, two had bilateral aneurysms and one patient had three. Five patients died some months or years after repair from vascular accidents. Three other patients required amputations sometime later because their grafts clotted. Silk sutures were employed in only two patients. Plastic sutures in the others were found to have pulled out of the recipient vessels. The aneurysms were all uninfected and were repaired by local stitching in four and the addition of further plastic grafting in nine. We conclude that false aneurysms occur with plastic sutures and they relate primarily to disruption of the end-to-side femoral artery attachment from the stresses of movement at the hip joint.

  10. Diverticula of Kommerell and Aberrant Subclavian Arteries Complicated by Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R. G. Whigham, C. J.; Trinh, C.

    2005-06-15

    This is a retrospective evaluation of the incidence of aberrant subclavian arteries (ASAs) and diverticula of Kommerell, as well as the occurrence and significance of associated aneurysms. Thoracic aortograms obtained during a 12.5-year period were reviewed, seeking the presence of aberrant right and left subclavian arteries (ARSAs/ALSAs), diverticula of Kommerell, and the incidence of associated aortic aneurysms. Several cases were evaluated with computed tomography concomitantly. Results were correlated with a literature review. Twenty-two ASAs were identified. Nineteen were on the right (ARSAs) and three were on the left (ALSAs). A diverticulum of Kommerell (DOK) was also present on the right in seven and on the left in three. Five of these patients had complicating aneurysms. Four of these were associated with ARSAs and their diverticula. Two were atherosclerotic; one was a limited dissection and one of uncertain etiology was ruptured. One additional aneurysm (atherosclerotic) involved an ALSA/DOK. The patient with the ruptured aneurysm died in surgery; three were managed conservatively because of concomitant disease; and one is being followed because of the small size (2.5 cm) of the aneurysm. ARSAs are relatively uncommon and ALSAs are rare. Both ARSA and ALSA are frequently associated with a DOK. Aneurysms rarely involve ASAs (with or without a DOK), but they are associated with a high mortality rate if they are not discovered before rupture. Early diagnosis plus surgical and/or endovascular management can be lifesaving.

  11. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel; Varble, Nicole; Xiang, Jianping; Meng, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are potentially devastating pathological dilations of arterial walls that affect 2-5% of the population. In our previous CFD study of 119 IAs, we found that ruptured aneurysms were correlated with complex flow pattern and statistically predictable by low wall shear stress and high oscillatory shear index. To understand flow mechanisms that drive the pathophysiology of aneurysm wall leading to either stabilization or growth and rupture, we aim at exploring vortex dynamics of aneurysmal flow and provide insight into the correlation between the previous predictive morphological parameters and wall hemodynamic metrics. We adopt the Q-criterion definition of coherent structures (CS) and analyze the CS dynamics in aneurysmal flows for both ruptured and unruptured IA cases. For the first time, we draw relevant biological conclusions concerning aneurysm flow mechanisms and pathophysiological outcome. In pulsatile simulations, the coherent structures are analyzed in these 119 patient-specific geometries obtained using 3D angiograms. The images were reconstructed and CFD were performed. Upon conclusion of this work, better understanding of flow patterns of unstable aneurysms may lead to improved clinical outcome.

  12. Endovascular treatment of infectious intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Gross, Bradley A; Puri, Ajit S

    2013-01-01

    Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIA) are rare but a considerable source of morbidity and mortality as a result of rupture. Most patients with these lesions have considerable medical comorbidities, making endovascular approaches a crucial modality in their treatment armamentarium. Contributing our own case, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature to illustrate overall results and outcomes for patients with IIA treated with endovascular approaches. Incorporating our own case, we found 65 patients harboring 72 IIA across 31 reports. Fifty-one were treated via parent artery occlusion (71%), 17 via direct aneurysm embolization (24%), two via stent-coiling (3%), and two with stent monotherapy (3%). Twenty-nine IIAs were treated with n-butylcyanoacrylate (NBCA) (40%), 25 with coils (35%), seven with Onyx or ethylene vinyl alcohol (10%), five with detachable balloons (7%), four with stents (6%), and one with autologous clot (1%). One case of incomplete aneurysm occlusion and two cases of recanalization were reported. Six symptomatic periprocedural ischemic events were reported (9%), with only three resulting in permanent sequelae (5%). No infectious complications were reported. Incorporating the natural history of the disease, 28 patients were neurologically intact (43%), while seven had died at the time of follow-up (11%). Endovascular treatment of ruptured, symptomatic, or enlarging IIA is an excellent treatment modality with high occlusion rates and low procedure-related complication rates. Distal IIA are more often treated with parent artery occlusion, in our hands, preferentially with Onyx, while proximal lesions may be treated with direct stent-coiling or even flow-diverting stent monotherapy.

  13. Beware of the aneurysm in stealth mode!

    PubMed

    Swarnkar, Amar; Ramaswamy, Raghu; Padalino, David J; Deshaies, Eric M

    2015-02-01

    Endovascular treatment is one of the treatment options considered for acute stroke in many primary stroke centers. Outcome from such treatment can be very successful and gratifying if the intervention is timely and patient selection is appropriate. There are however certain pitfalls that need to be kept in mind which, if the interventionalist is not careful, can adversely affect the outcome. We describe such a case where the patient presented with acute stroke due to basilar artery thrombosis but also had an aneurysm in the affected vessel. We also make certain recommendations to reduce the chances of complications arising during treatment of patients with such a condition.

  14. Surrogate Markers of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    PubMed

    Wanhainen, Anders; Mani, Kevin; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    The natural course of many abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is to gradually expand and eventually rupture and monitoring the disease progression is essential to their management. In this publication, we review surrogate markers of AAA progression. AAA diameter remains the most widely used and important marker of AAA growth. Standardized reporting of reproducible methods of measuring AAA diameter is essential. Newer imaging assessments, such as volume measurements, biomechanical analyses, and functional and molecular imaging, as well as circulating biomarkers, have potential to add important information about AAA progression. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use in clinical practice. PMID:26715680

  15. Chylous Ascites after Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Ohki, Shinichi; Kurumisawa, Soki; Misawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was transferred for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. He had no history of abdominal surgeries. Grafting between the infra-renal abdominal aorta and the bilateral common iliac arteries was performed. Proximal and distal cross clamps were applied for grafting. He developed chylous ascites on the 5th post-operative day, 2 days after initiation of oral intake. Fortunately, he responded to treatment with total parenteral hyper-alimentation for 10 days, followed by a low-fat diet. There was no recurrence of ascites. PMID:27087873

  16. [Pulmonary artery aneurysm. A case report].

    PubMed

    Palma Nieto, J C; Sciaccaluga Morelli, C; Antón Martínez, J; Ramos del Amo, V M

    1999-02-01

    The pulmonary artery aneurysm is a rare clinical entity that presents a low incidence and prevalence, of difficult diagnosis to be presented with poorly specific symptoms or also without symptoms, being detected in radiological studies as a widening or mediastinal mass. It can be uni or bilateral and presenting itself isolated or in the context of other sicknesses. The diagnosis of certainty is based in the realization of Echo-Doppler and other studies as a tomography or a magnetic resonance, the therapeutic option being so difficult, and according to cases, by an expectant or aggressive attitude. PMID:10073101

  17. Aneurysm, arachnoiditis and intrathecal Au (gold)

    SciTech Connect

    Pence, D.M.; Kim, T.H.; Levitt, S.H. )

    1990-05-01

    This report is a 20-year follow-up of 14 patients treated with external beam craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal gold (10-45 mCi) for medulloblastoma. Six of the patients died within 2 years of treatment from persistent disease. No patients are alive without complications. Six of eight surviving patients developed arachnoiditis and cauda equina syndrome within 5 to 10 years of treatment. Seven of eight survivors developed aneurysms and/or cerebrovascular accidents 9 to 20 years after treatment. Four of the cerebrovascular events were fatal. Intrathecal gold pools in the basal cisterns and cauda equina delivering an extremely inhomogeneous dose throughout the neuroaxis. Its use is discouraged.

  18. Interleukin-6 as a Prognostic Biomarker in Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Kuo, Chen-Ling; Huang, Ching-Shan; Tseng, Wan-Min; Lin, Ching-Po

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine, was found to surge in the cerebral spinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We hypothesized that the plasma level of IL-6 could be an independent biomarker in predicting clinical outcome of patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Methods We prospectively included 53 consecutive patients treated with platinum coil embolization of the ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Plasma IL-6 levels were measured in the blood samples at the orifices of the aneurysms and from peripheral veins. The outcome measure was the modified Rankin Scale one month after SAH. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between the plasma IL-6 levels and the neurological outcome. Results Significant risk factors for the poor outcome were old age, low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on day 0, high Fisher grades, and high aneurysmal and venous IL-6 levels in univariate analyses. Aneurysmal IL-6 levels showed modest to moderate correlations with GCS on day 0, vasospasm grade and Fisher grade. A strong correlation was found between the aneurysmal and the corresponding venous IL-6 levels (ρ = 0.721; P<0.001). In the multiple logistic regression models, the poor 30-day mRS was significantly associated with high aneurysmal IL-6 level (OR, 17.97; 95% CI, 1.51–214.33; P = 0.022) and marginally associated with high venous IL-6 level (OR, 12.71; 95% CI, 0.90–180.35; P = 0.022) after adjusting for dichotomized age, GCS on day 0, and vasospasm and Fisher grades. Conclusions The plasma level of IL-6 is an independent prognostic biomarker that could be used to aid in the identification of patients at high-risk of poor neurological outcome after rupture of the intracranial aneurysm. PMID:26176774

  19. Aneurysm shape reconstruction from biplane angiograms in the ISUIA collection.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Madhavan L; Sharda, Gaurav V; Huston, John; Mocco, J; Capuano, Ana W; Torner, James C; Saha, Punam K; Meissner, Irene; Brown, Robert D

    2014-04-01

    The International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) is an epidemiologic international study of the natural history of unruptured intracranial aneurysms that enrolled 4,060 subjects. A conventional biplane cerebral angiogram available for central review was required for enrollment resulting in a large database. Data on aneurysms that ruptured during follow-up of the 1,692 untreated subjects provides an opportunity to investigate the anatomic features that may be predictive of future rupture. The objective of the study is to develop and test a method for three-dimensional (3D) shape reconstruction of aneurysms using biplane angiographic data in the ISUIA for retrospective morphometric assessment. Beginning with the two boundaries of the biplane views, curve morphing techniques were employed to estimate a number of intermediate boundaries around the aneurysm sac resulting in the creation of a 3D sac surface. The method was tested using simulated biplane "angiograms" of pre-reconstructed 3D models of patient-specific aneurysms. An algorithm to perform the image analysis was developed, and the morphometric indices of 150 intracranial aneurysms in the ISUIA database were estimated. Simultaneously, experienced neuroradiologists made manual measurements of key dimensions in the sac from the biplane angiograms for all cases. 3D reconstructions using our proposed method matched well with the original pre-reconstructed 3D geometries and were consistent with manual measurements of the neuroradiologists for the ISUIA aneurysms. A method for reconstructing the 3D geometry of the intracranial aneurysm sac from biplane angiograms in the ISUIA database with reasonable fidelity has been developed.

  20. Evaluation the Aortic Aneurysm Remodeling After a Successful Stentgraft Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Nowicka, Monika; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Rusak, Grażyna; Ratajczak, Przemysław; Sobociński, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Routine imaging follow-up after endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) is mainly aimed at detection of endoleaks. The aim of the study was to assess changes in the size of the abdominal aortic aneurysm sack using CT angiography (CTA) after successful treatment using endovascular stent graft implantation. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis of CTA results included 102 patients aged 54–88, who had no postoperative complications. Patients underwent CTA before EVAR and after the treatment (mean time between studies, 7.6 months). The largest cross-sectional area of the aneurysm sac was measured using a curved multiplanar reconstruction. A change of the aneurysm cross-sectional over 10% was considered significant. Results The average cross-sectional area decreased after EVAR by 3% and this change was not statistically significant. Regression of the cross-sectional area was observed in 18.6% of patients, progression was in 23.5%, and no change was seen in 57.8%. Cross-sectional areas before and after EVAR were significantly correlated (r=0.75, p<0.0001). There was no correlation between the cross-sectional area change after EVAR and patients’ age or the time between the treatment and the follow-up CTA. Cross-sectional area before the treatment predicted changes in the aneurysm size after EVAR (p=0.0045). Conclusions Remodeling of abdominal aortic aneurysms after EVAR is not uniform. The change of aneurysm size depends on the initial aneurysm size but not on the time from EVAR. The size of the aneurysm after EVAR should not be considered as a measure of the treatment efficacy. PMID:27800038

  1. Post-Treatment Hemodynamics of a Basilar Aneurysm and Bifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, J.; Hartman, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Maitland, D.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether or not a successful aneurysm treatment procedure can subject a parent artery to harmful hemodynamic stresses, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a patient-specific basilar aneurysm and bifurcation before and after a virtual endovascular treatment. Prior to treatment, the aneurysm at systole is filled with a periodic train of vortex tubes, which form at the aneurysm neck and advect upwards into the dome. Following the treatment procedure however, the motion of the vortex train is inhibited by the aneurysm filling material, which confines the vortex tubes to the region beneath the aneurysm neck. Analysis of the post-treatment flow field indicates that the impingement of the basilar artery flow upon the treated aneurysm neck and the close proximity of a vortex tube to the parent artery wall increase the maximum wall shear stresses to values approximately equal to 50 Pa at systole. Calculation of the time-averaged wall shear stresses indicates that there is a 1.4 × 9 10−7 m2 area on the parent artery exposed to wall shear stresses greater than 37.9 Pa, a value shown by Fry [Circ. Res. 22(2):165–197, 1968] to cause severe damage to the endothelial cells that line the artery wall. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible for a treatment procedure, which successfully isolates the aneurysm from the circulation and leaves no aneurysm neck remnant, to elevate the hemodynamic stresses to levels that are injurious to the artery wall. PMID:18629647

  2. Internal Carotid Artery Reconstruction Using Multiple Fenestrated Clips for Complete Occlusion of Large Paraclinoid Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Kook

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although surgical techniques for clipping paraclinoid aneurysms have evolved significantly in recent times, direct microsurgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms remains a formidable surgical challenge. We review here our surgical experiences in direct surgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms, especially in dealing with anterior clinoidectomy, distal dural ring resection, optic canal unroofing, clipping techniques, and surgical complications. Methods Between September 2001 and February 2012, we directly obliterated ten large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms. In all cases, tailored orbito-zygomatic craniotomies with extradural and/or intradural clinoidectomy were performed. The efficacy of surgical clipping was evaluated with postoperative digital subtraction angiography and computed tomographic angiography. Results Of the ten cases reported, five each were of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. Five aneurysms occurred in the carotid cave, two in the superior hypophyseal artery, two in the intracavernous, and one in the posterior wall. The mean diameter of the aneurysms sac was 18.8 mm in the greatest dimension. All large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms were obliterated with direct neck clipping without bypass. With the exception of the one intracavenous aneurysm, all large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms were occluded completely. Conclusion The key features of successful surgical clipping of large and giant paraclinoid aneurysms include enhancing exposure of proximal neck of aneurysms, establishing proximal control, and completely obliterating aneurysms with minimal manipulation of the optic nerve. Our results suggest that internal carotid artery reconstruction using multiple fenestrated clips without bypass may potentially achieve complete occlusion of large paraclinoid aneurysms. PMID:24527189

  3. Computational Hemodynamic Analysis for the Diagnosis of Atherosclerotic Changes in Intracranial Aneurysms: A Proof-of-Concept Study Using 3 Cases Harboring Atherosclerotic and Nonatherosclerotic Aneurysms Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Hidenori; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Endo, Toshiki; Funamoto, Kenichi; Ohta, Makoto; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    This was a proof-of-concept computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study designed to identify atherosclerotic changes in intracranial aneurysms. We selected 3 patients with multiple unruptured aneurysms including at least one with atherosclerotic changes and investigated whether an image-based CFD study could provide useful information for discriminating the atherosclerotic aneurysms. Patient-specific geometries were constructed from three-dimensional data obtained using rotational angiography. Transient simulations were conducted under patient-specific inlet flow rates measured by phase-contrast magnetic resonance velocimetry. In the postanalyses, we calculated time-averaged wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index, and relative residence time (RRT). The volume of blood flow entering aneurysms through the neck and the mean velocity of blood flow inside aneurysms were examined. We applied the age-of-fluid method to quantitatively assess the residence of blood inside aneurysms. Atherosclerotic changes coincided with regions exposed to disturbed blood flow, as indicated by low WSS and long RRT. Blood entered aneurysms in phase with inlet flow rates. The mean velocities of blood inside atherosclerotic aneurysms were lower than those inside nonatherosclerotic aneurysms. Blood in atherosclerotic aneurysms was older than that in nonatherosclerotic aneurysms, especially near the wall. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that CFD analysis provided detailed information on the exchange and residence of blood that is useful for the diagnosis of atherosclerotic changes in intracranial aneurysms. PMID:27703491

  4. [Transient delayed paraplegia after repair of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Martín Torrijos, M; Aguilar Lloret, C; Ariño Irujo, J J; Serrano Hernando, F J; López Timoneda, F

    2013-11-01

    Thoracoabdominal aneurysm requires multidisciplinary management due to its complexity both in surgical technique and anesthetic considerations. One of the most feared postoperative complication is spinal cord ischemia. It can be presented as different clinical patterns, and its recovery may be partial or complete. The postoperative management of spinal cord ischemia is mainly based on techniques to increase spinal cord perfusion, above all, hemodynamic stability and cerebrospinal fluid drainage. We present two cases of delayed paraplegia after an open repair of a thoracoabdominal aneurysm and a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm repair using an endovascular stent graft. They both had a complete neurological recovery after cerebrospinal fluid drainage.

  5. Multilocular True Ulnar Artery Aneurysm in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Mark W; Sanders, Christopher; Lago, Mary; Hilaire, Hugo St

    2016-01-01

    Ulnar artery aneurysms are an exceedingly rare entity in the pediatric population and have no consistent etiologic mechanism. We present the case of a 15-year-old male with a multilocular ulnar artery aneurysm in the setting of no antecedent history of trauma, no identifiable connective tissue disorders, and no other apparent etiological factors. Furthermore, the patient's arterial palmar arch system was absent. The aneurysm was resected, and arterial reconstruction was successfully performed via open surgical approach with cephalic vein interposition graft. We believe this treatment modality should be considered as the primary approach in all of these pediatric cases in consideration of the possible pitfalls of less comprehensive measures. PMID:27104094

  6. Ruptured ileocolic artery aneurysm: an unusual cause of hemoperitoneum.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Zakaur R; Yousif, Omer F; Halliday, Mark W; Hubaishah, Nasser A; Adam, Khalid A

    2012-01-01

    Ruptured aneurysm of a branch of ileocolic artery is a rare finding and is an unusual cause of haemoperitoneum. Rapid diagnosis, and surgical or endovascular intervention are necessary to avoid devastating consequences and high mortality rates following an emergency operation after rupture. Resection is a good choice for surgical intervention for some aneurysms that are not suitable for endovascular repair. This report describes the case of a middle-aged man with a ruptured superior mesenteric artery branch aneurysm and his subsequent surgical management. PMID:23006464

  7. Ruptured Ileocolic Artery Aneurysm: An Unusual Cause of Hemoperitoneum

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Zakaur R.; Yousif, Omer F.; Halliday, Mark W.; Hubaishah, Nasser A.; Adam, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    Ruptured aneurysm of a branch of ileocolic artery is a rare finding and is an unusual cause of haemoperitoneum. Rapid diagnosis, and surgical or endovascular intervention are necessary to avoid devastating consequences and high mortality rates following an emergency operation after rupture. Resection is a good choice for surgical intervention for some aneurysms that are not suitable for endovascular repair. This report describes the case of a middle-aged man with a ruptured superior mesenteric artery branch aneurysm and his subsequent surgical management. PMID:23006464

  8. Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Thrombosis in Giant Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopard, B.; Ouared, R.; Ruefenacht, D. A.; Yilmaz, H.

    We propose a numerical model of blood flow and blood clotting whose purpose is to describe thrombus formation in cerebral aneurysms. We identify possible mechanisms that can cause occurence of spontaneous thrombosis in unruptured giant intracranial aneurysms. Our main claim is that, under normal conditions, there is a low shear rate threshold below which thrombosis starts and growths. This assumption is supported by several evidences from literature. The proposed mechanisms are incorporated into a Lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for blood flow and platelets adhesion and aggregation. Numerical simulations show that the low shear rate threshold assumption together with aneurysm geometry account well for the observations.

  9. Endovascular coil embolization of unruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Binning, Mandy; Hakma, Zakaria; Veznedaroglu, Erol

    2014-07-01

    The patient is a 60-year-old woman who presented to her primary care physician with new onset of headache. She was neurologically intact without cranial nerve deficit. An outpatient CT angiogram (CTA) revealed no subarachnoid hemorrhage, but showed a right-sided posterior communicating artery aneurysm measuring 11 mm by 10 mm. Digitally subtracted cerebral angiography confirmed these measurements and showed that the aneurysm was amenable to endovascular coil embolization. The patient underwent aneurysm coiling without complication and was discharged to home on postoperative Day 1. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/MjOc3Zpv2K8 . PMID:24983726

  10. Pericardial fat flap for mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshitsugu; Kawatani, Yohei; Ito, Yujiro; Hori, Takaki

    2016-07-01

    Standard treatment for mycotic aneurysm of thoracic aorta is complete debridement with replacement of the aneurysm with a homograft or Dacron graft. However, contamination from surrounding tissues may occur after the graft replacement. Transposition of the viable, well-vascularized tissues should be used to fill surrounding dead space and isolate the graft to prevent reinfection. Although the omentum is regarded as the best tissue, it is not always available for use. We describe here a new alternative technique for such situations, that is, the use of a pericardial fat flap for patients with a mycotic descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. PMID:27059067

  11. Multilocular True Ulnar Artery Aneurysm in a Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Mark W; Sanders, Christopher; Lago, Mary; Hilaire, Hugo St

    2016-01-01

    Ulnar artery aneurysms are an exceedingly rare entity in the pediatric population and have no consistent etiologic mechanism. We present the case of a 15-year-old male with a multilocular ulnar artery aneurysm in the setting of no antecedent history of trauma, no identifiable connective tissue disorders, and no other apparent etiological factors. Furthermore, the patient's arterial palmar arch system was absent. The aneurysm was resected, and arterial reconstruction was successfully performed via open surgical approach with cephalic vein interposition graft. We believe this treatment modality should be considered as the primary approach in all of these pediatric cases in consideration of the possible pitfalls of less comprehensive measures.

  12. Musical hallucinations associated with seizures originating from an intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D L; Tatini, U; Zimmerman, R S; Bortz, J J; Sirven, J I

    2001-04-01

    Hallucinations are defined as sensory phenomena in the absence of external sensory stimuli. Auditory hallucinations have been shown to arise from many different intracranial lesions, but seizures manifesting as musical hallucinations triggered by unruptured intracranial aneurysms are rare. We present a case of persistent, episodic musical hallucinations associated with seizures that led to the discovery of 2 small intracranial aneurysms. Typical electroencephalographic findings for seizure activity were observed but resolved after surgical clipping of the aneurysms. Concomitantly, the patient's hallucinations resolved. The literature on musical hallucinations is reviewed. PMID:11322359

  13. Retroesophageal subclavian artery aneurysm arising from Kommerell's diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Sala, F; Bouillane, P J; Francisci, M P; Diaz, F; Lena, P; Kreitmann, P; Batt, M

    2001-11-01

    This report describes a novel technique used for management of retroesophageal subclavian artery aneurysm arising from Kommerell's diverticulum. The procedure consists of endoaortic exclusion of the aneurysmal neck, using a prosthetic patch after sternotomy during circulatory arrest, and antegrade cold blood cerebroplegia. The advantages of this technique are avoidance of hemorrhagic complications during clamping of the aneurysmal neck, limiting of the extent of dissection of the aortic arch, and elimination of the risk of inadvertent left recurrent nerve paralysis. Antegrade cold blood cerebroplegia provides good cerebral protection and decreases the duration and consequences of extracorporeal circulation.

  14. Polyarteritis nodosa presenting with necrotising appendicitis and hepatic aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed

    Ozçay, Necdet; Arda, Kemal; Sugüneş, Tonguç; Ozdemirel, Deniz; Aydoğ, Gülden; Atalay, Fuat; Akoğlu, Musa

    2003-03-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa is a necrotizing vasculitis which affects small and medium-sized arteries. The clinical features of the disease vary according to the site and extent of involvement. Aneurysmal dilatation and thrombosis in the arteries of the liver and gastrointestinal tract have been reported in polyarteritis nodosa. However, rupture of the hepatic aneurysm and necrotizing appendicitis due to polyarteritis nodosa are uncommon; indeed a case in which these have occurred together has not been reported to date. In this case report, a patient with necrotizing appendicitis and hepatic aneurysm rupture due to underlying poliarteritis nodasa is presented. Extensive intraabdominal hematoma and appendicitis were treated surgically and complete recovery was achieved.

  15. Percutaneous Endoluminal Bypass of Iliac Aneurysms with a Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Ruebben, Alexander; Tettoni, Serena; Muratore, Pierluigi; Rossato, Dennis; Savio, Daniele; Rabbia, Claudio

    1998-07-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of percutaneous treatment of iliac aneurysms, a covered stent was inserted in nine men suffering from common iliac artery aneurysms (six cases), external iliac aneurysms (one case), or pseudoaneurysms (two cases). Placement of the stent was successful in all patients. In one patient, an endoprosthesis thrombosed after 15 days, but was successfully treated by thrombolysis and additional stent placement. At the follow-up examinations (mean period 22 months) all stent-grafts had remained patent. No late leakage or stenosis was observed.

  16. Aneurysmal Neck Clipping as the Primary Treatment Option for Both Ruptured and Unruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jai Ho; Park, Jung Eon; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Bum Su

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms are less amenable to coil embolization, an increasing number of studies support favorable endovascular treatment for them. The purpose of this study is to compare the outcomes of two different treatments (surgery versus coiling) and evaluate the benefits of surgical clipping for MCA aneurysms. Methods Here we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 178 ruptured and unruptured MCA aneurysms treated in patients between September 2008 and April 2012. Parameters assessing treatment outcomes include degree of aneurysm occlusion, presence of regrowth, clinical status, and complications. Results Among 178 MCA aneurysms, 153 were treated surgically. After a mean follow-up of 12 months, the surgery group showed a clinically significant complete occlusion rate (98%) compared with the coiling group (56%) (p<0.001). Follow-up radiologic evaluation showed a higher regrowth rate (four of 16 cases) in the coiling group than in the surgery group (one of 49 cases) (p=0.003). There was no statistically significant difference in favorable clinical outcome rate between the two groups. The procedure-related permanent morbidity and mortality rates were 2% (three of 153 cases) in the surgery group and 0% (0 of 25 cases) in the coiling group. Conclusion Compared to endovascular treatment, surgical neck clipping for both ruptured and unruptured MCA aneurysms results in a significantly higher complete obliteration rate and less regrowth. Therefore, even in this endovascular era, we still recommend surgical clipping as the primary treatment option for MCA aneurysms rather than coil embolization. PMID:27226859

  17. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy.

  18. Endovascular Management of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Fattori, Rossella Russo, Vincenzo; Lovato, Luigi; Buttazzi, Katia; Rinaldi, Giovanni

    2011-12-15

    The overall survival of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) has improved significantly in the past few years. Endovascular treatment, proposed as an alternative to surgery, has been considered a therapeutic innovation because of its low degree of invasiveness, which allows the treatment of even high-surgical risk patients with limited complications and mortality. A major limitation is the lack of adequate evidence regarding long-term benefit and durability because follow-up has been limited to just a few years even in the largest series. The combination of endovascular exclusion with visceral branch revascularization for the treatment of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms involving the visceral aorta has also been attempted. As an alternative, endografts with branches represent a technological evolution that allows treatment of complex anatomy. Even if only small numbers of patients and short follow-up are available, this technical approach, which has with limited mortality (<10%) and paraplegia rates, to expand endovascular treatment to TAA seems feasible. With improved capability to recognize proper anatomy and select clinical candidates, the choice of endovascular stent-graft placement may offer a strategy to optimize management and improve prognosis.

  19. Bilateral Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysms Complicated by Acute Coronary Syndrome and Cardiogenic Shock.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Peter; Lynch, Donald; Jahanayar, Jama; Rogers, Ian S; Tremmel, Jennifer; Boyd, Jack

    2016-04-01

    Giant coronary aneurysms are rare. We present a 25-year-old woman with a known history of non-Kawasaki/nonatherosclerotic bilateral coronary aneurysms. She was transferred to our facility with acute coronary syndrome complicated by cardiogenic shock. Angiography demonstrated giant bilateral coronary aneurysms and complete occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery. Emergent coronary artery bypass grafting was performed. Coronary artery bypass grafting is the preferred approach for addressing giant coronary aneurysms. Intervention on the aneurysm varies in the literature. Aggressive revascularization is recommended in the non-Kawasaki/nonatherosclerotic aneurysm patient, and ligation should be performed in patients with thromboembolic phenomena. PMID:27000621

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Multiple HIV-related Aneurysms Using Multilayer Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Euringer, Wulf; Suedkamp, Michael; Rylski, Bartosz; Blanke, Philipp

    2012-08-15

    Complex peripheral aneurysm anatomy with major artery branches in the immediate vicinity and mycotic aneurysm often impede endovascular management using covered stent grafts. The Cardiatis Multilayer Stent (Cardiatis, Isnes, Belgium) is a recently approved innovative stent system for peripheral aneurysm management. Its multilayer design aims at decreasing mean velocity and vorticity within the aneurysm sac to cause thrombus formation while maintaining patency of branching vessels due to laminar flow. We present a case of bilateral subclavian artery aneurysms and perivisceral aortic aneurysms in an AIDS patient successfully treated with the Cardiatis Multilayer Stent at 18 months' follow-up.

  1. Radiological Changes in Infantile Dissecting Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Treated Endovascularly

    PubMed Central

    Yatomi, Kenji; Oishi, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Munetaka; Suga, Yasuo; Nonaka, Senshu; Yoshida, Kensaku; Arai, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    Summary Intracranial aneurysms are extremely rare in infants, and to our knowledge only seven infants treated for ruptured spontaneous dissecting aneurysms have been reported. Good outcomes have been achieved with endovascular treatment of infantile aneurysm. We the endovascular treatment of a one-month-old girl for ruptured dissecting aneurysm located in the anterior communicating artery, and the unique radiological changes that were observed during the perioperative and follow-up periods. These changes suggest that blood coagulation and fibrinolytic response play a part in the repair and healing processes of dissecting aneurysms. Careful neuroradiological surveys are needed for pediatric dissecting aneurysms treated endovascularly. PMID:25496693

  2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysm caused by polyarteritis nodosa. Case report.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Jun C; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Iihara, Koji; Sakai, Hideki; Higashi, Toshio; Kogure, Shuji; Taniguchi, Ayumi; Ueda, Hatsue I; Nagata, Izumi

    2002-01-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare systemic necrotizing arteritis that involves small- and medium-sized arteries in various organs. Although aneurysm formation in visceral arteries is a typical finding in PAN, intracranial aneurysms are much less common, and only a few cases of aneurysm rupture associated with this disease have been documented. In this paper, the authors report on a ruptured PAN aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery; the lesion was trapped and resected. On histological examination, extensive fibrinoid necrosis and an inflammatory infiltration of leukocytes were seen in the aneurysm wall. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of subarachnoid hemorrhage from a histologically confirmed PAN aneurysm.

  3. Staged Management of a Ruptured Internal Mammary Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, O Young; Kim, Gun Jik; Oh, Tak Hyuk; Lee, Young Ok; Lee, Sang Cjeol; Cho, Jun Yong

    2016-01-01

    The rupture of an internal mammary artery (IMA) aneurysm in a patient with type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF-1) is a rare but life-threatening complication requiring emergency management. A 50-year-old man with NF-1 was transferred to the emergency department of Kyungpook National University Hospital, where an IMA aneurysmal rupture and hemothorax were diagnosed and drained. The IMA aneurysmal rupture and hemothorax were successfully repaired by staged management combining endovascular treatment and subsequent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). The patient required cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation, the staged management of coil embolization, and a subsequent VATS procedure. This staged approach may be an effective therapeutic strategy in cases of IMA aneurysmal rupture. PMID:27066438

  4. Dynamic effects on the formation and rupture of aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Ren, J S

    2010-12-01

    Dynamic analysis of an axially stretched arterial wall with collagen fibers distributed in two preferred directions under a suddenly applied constant internal pressure along with the possibility of the formation and rupture of aneurysm are examined within the framework of nonlinear dynamics. A two layer tube model with the fiber-reinforced composite-based incompressible anisotropic hyper-elastic material is employed to model the mechanical behavior of the arterial wall. The maximum amplitudes and the phase diagrams are given by numerical computation of the differential relation. It is shown that the arterial wall undergoes nonlinear periodic oscillation and no aneurysms are formed under the normal condition. However, an aneurysm may be formed under such abnormal conditions as the stiffness of the fibers is deduced or the direction of the fibers is oriented towards the axial direction. Furthermore, the possibility for the rupture of aneurysm is discussed with the distribution of stresses. PMID:21141675

  5. A Massive Intratumoral Aneurysmal Vessel in a Retroperitoneal Lipoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suk-Bae

    2015-12-01

    Lipoblastoma is a benign tumor and usually does not require radical operation for complete excision. We describe here a case of a retroperitoneal lipoblastoma with a massive intratumoral aneurysmal vessel.

  6. Suggested Connections between Risk Factors of Intracranial Aneurysms: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cebral, Juan R.; Raschi, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review studies of aneurysm risk factors and the suggested hypotheses that connect the different risk factors and the underlying mechanisms governing the aneurysm natural history. The result of this work suggests that at the center of aneurysm evolution there is a cycle of wall degeneration and weakening in response to changing hemodynamic loading and biomechanic stress. This progressive wall degradation drives the geometrical evolution of the aneurysm until it stabilizes or ruptures. Risk factors such as location, genetics, smoking, co-morbidities, and hypertension seem to affect different components of this cycle. However, details of these interactions or their relative importance are still not clearly understood. PMID:23242844

  7. Calcaneal chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Alex; Barreto, Bruno; Soares Barreto, Lara Grimaldi; Athanazio, Daniel A; Athanazio, Paulo R F

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of destructive chondroblastoma associated with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst involving the left calcaneus. Because of the extensive destruction of the calcaneus, total calcanectomy was the treatment of choice.

  8. Coarctation of the aorta and post-stenotic aneurysm formation.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, I M; Pollock, J C

    1990-01-01

    Despite earlier angiography, post-stenotic aneurysm of the aorta was an unexpected finding at operation in two patients with coarctation. One aneurysm was found in an intercostal artery in a 19 year old man and the other was a false aneurysm just distal to the coarctation site in a 7 year old boy. These aneurysms are fragile, apt to rupture, and difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Though local factors such as jet streams and bacterial endocarditis may influence their formation there must be an underlying generalised weakness in the arterial wall. A coarctation should not be regarded as an isolated arterial abnormality because it may be a feature of a more generalised disease. Because of the risk of rupture, which may not be prevented by antihypertensive treatment, operation should not be delayed in any age group. PMID:2245114

  9. Calcaneal chondroblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst: a case report.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Alex; Barreto, Bruno; Soares Barreto, Lara Grimaldi; Athanazio, Daniel A; Athanazio, Paulo R F

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of destructive chondroblastoma associated with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst involving the left calcaneus. Because of the extensive destruction of the calcaneus, total calcanectomy was the treatment of choice. PMID:20350821

  10. Rare Case of Vaginal Delivery in Giant Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Luneva, Ekaterina; Samokhvalova, Maria; Pakhomov, Artem; Mitrofanova, Lubov; Malev, Eduard; Uspenskiy, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman underwent successful vaginal delivery despite previously unsuspected 8-cm ascending and 6-cm descending aortic aneurysms. These were repaired immediately after delivery. PMID:27069941

  11. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with

  12. Recurrent aortic aneurysms in Behçet disease.

    PubMed

    Adams, Corey; Zhen-Yu Tong, Michael; Lawlor, D Kirk; DeRose, Guy; Forbes, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    The following is a case of a 22-year-old male with recurrent thoracic aneurysms with several constitutional symptoms, including gastrointestinal discomfort, irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, and a 2-week history of severe lower back pain. The patient underwent an initial thoracoabdominal repair of a visceral aneurysm followed by endovascular repair of a recurrent thoracic pseudoaneurysm. The etiology of the visceral aneurysm was initially hypothesized to be mycotic; however, further information revealed signs and symptoms consistent with the diagnostic criteria for Behçet disease (BD). We suggest that BD be considered in younger patients who present with an aortic aneurysm. Although open repair is the traditional approach for arterial lesions in BD, the role for endovascular intervention should be considered as it represents a surgical repair with a significant reduction in morbidity. PMID:20822728

  13. Repair of multiple mycotic aortic aneurysms in a newborn.

    PubMed

    Esper, E; Krabill, K A; St Cyr, J A; Patton, C; Foker, J E

    1993-12-01

    Thoracoabdominal aortic and common and internal iliac artery mycotic aneurysms resulted from an umbilical arterial catheter in a 3 1/2-week-old boy. He underwent staged repair including an 8-mm Gore-tax tube graft, primary repair of the common iliac artery aneurysm, and resection of the internal iliac aneurysm. His operative and postoperative course was uneventful. He was asymptomatic at 17 months' follow-up, with equal blood pressure in the upper and lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no stenoses or recurrent aneurysms at the anastomotic sites of the Gore-tex tube graft. Blood supply to his left leg came from collaterals, principally a large crossing vessel from the right iliac artery. This case represents the first successful aortic replacement in a 5 week old with extensive involvement of the thoracoabdominal aorta and its branch vessels. PMID:8301488

  14. Anesthetic considerations for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Kothandan, Harikrishnan; Haw Chieh, Geoffrey Liew; Khan, Shariq Ali; Karthekeyan, Ranjith Baskar; Sharad, Shah Shitalkumar

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysm is defined as a localized and permanent dilatation with an increase in normal diameter by more than 50%. It is more common in males and can affect up to 8% of elderly men. Smoking is the greatest risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and other risk factors include hypertension, hyperlipidemia, family history of aneurysms, inflammatory vasculitis, and trauma. Endovascular Aneurysm Repair [EVAR] is a common procedure performed for AAA, because of its minimal invasiveness as compared with open surgical repair. Patients undergoing EVAR have a greater incidence of major co-morbidities and should undergo comprehensive preoperative assessment and optimization within the multidisciplinary settings. In majority of cases, EVAR is extremely well-tolerated. The aim of this article is to outline the Anesthetic considerations related to EVAR. PMID:26750684

  15. Endocarditis-Induced Mycotic Brain Aneurysm following Right MCA Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Brandon; Desai, Bobby; Falgiani, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of cerebrovascular accident is extremely common in emergency medicine; however, CVA resulting from hemorrhage following mycotic brain aneurysm following embolic stroke is extremely uncommon. This case reports such an event. PMID:23326719

  16. Screening for aortic aneurysm after treatment of coarctation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, James L; Gray, Robert G; LuAnn Minich, L; Wilkinson, Stephen E; Heywood, Mason; Edwards, Reggie; Weng, Hsin Ti; Su, Jason T

    2014-01-01

    Isolated coarctation of the aorta (CoA) occurs in 6-8 % of patients with congenital heart disease. After successful relief of obstruction, patients remain at risk for aortic aneurysm formation at the site of the repair. We sought to determine the diagnostic utility of echocardiography compared with advanced arch imaging (AAI) in diagnosing aortic aneurysms in pediatric patients after CoA repair. The Congenital Heart Databases from 1996 and 2009 were reviewed. All patients treated for CoA who had AAI defined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or catheterization were identified. Data collected included the following: type, timing, and number of interventions, presence and time to aneurysm diagnosis, and mortality. Patients were subdivided into surgical and catheterization groups for analysis. Seven hundred and fifty-nine patients underwent treatment for CoA during the study period. Three hundred and ninety-nine patients had at least one AAI. Aneurysms were diagnosed by AAI in 28 of 399 patients at a mean of 10 ± 8.4 years after treatment. Echocardiography reports were available for 380 of 399 patients with AAI. The sensitivity of echocardiography for detecting aneurysms was 24 %. The prevalence of aneurysms was significantly greater in the catheterization group (p < 0.05) compared with the surgery group. Aneurysm was also diagnosed earlier in the catheterization group compared with the surgery group (p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed a significantly increased risk of aneurysm diagnosis in patients in the catheterization subgroup and in patients requiring more than three procedures. Aortic aneurysms continue to be an important complication after CoA repair. Although serial echocardiograms are the test of choice for following-up most congenital cardiac lesions in pediatrics, our data show that echocardiography is inadequate for the detection of aneurysms after CoA repair. Because the time to aneurysm diagnosis was

  17. Deviation from optimal vascular caliber control at middle cerebral artery bifurcations harboring aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Baharoglu, Merih I; Lauric, Alexandra; Wu, Chengyuan; Hippelheuser, James; Malek, Adel M

    2014-10-17

    Cerebral aneurysms form preferentially at arterial bifurcations. The vascular optimality principle (VOP) decrees that minimal energy loss across bifurcations requires optimal caliber control between radii of parent (r₀) and daughter branches (r1 and r2): r₀(n)=r₁(n)+r₂(n), with n approximating three. VOP entails constant wall shear stress (WSS), an endothelial phenotype regulator. We sought to determine if caliber control is maintained in aneurysmal intracranial bifurcations. Three-dimensional rotational angiographic volumes of 159 middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcations (62 aneurysmal) were processed using 3D gradient edge-detection filtering, enabling threshold-insensitive radius measurement. Radius ratio (RR)=r₀(3)/(r₁(3)+r₂(3)) and estimated junction exponent (n) were compared between aneurysmal and non-aneurysmal bifurcations using Student t-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum analysis. The results show that non-aneurysmal bifurcations display optimal caliber control with mean RR of 1.05 and median n of 2.84. In contrast, aneurysmal bifurcations had significantly lower RR (0.76, p<.0001) and higher n (4.28, p<.0001). Unexpectedly, 37% of aneurysmal bifurcations revealed a daughter branch larger than its parent vessel, an absolute violation of optimality, not witnessed in non-aneurysmal bifurcations. The aneurysms originated more often off the smaller daughter (52%) vs. larger daughter branch (16%). Aneurysm size was not statistically correlated to RR or n. Aneurysmal males showed higher deviation from VOP. Non-aneurysmal MCA bifurcations contralateral to aneurysmal ones showed optimal caliber control. Aneurysmal bifurcations, in contrast to non-aneurysmal counterparts, disobey the VOP and may exhibit dysregulation in WSS-mediated caliber control. The mechanism of this focal divergence from optimality may underlie aneurysm pathogenesis and requires further study.

  18. Utility of Balloon-Assisted Guglielmi Detachable Coiling in the Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Mangiafico, S.; Cellerini, M.; Villa, G.; Nistri, M.; Pandolfo, C.; Ammannati, F.; Mennonna, P.; Giordano, GP.

    2002-01-01

    Summary Balloon-assisted Guglielmi detachable coiling (BAGDC) is a new technical option developed to allow endovascular treatment of wide-necked aneurysms. Aim of the following work is to report a single center experience of BADGC of aneurysms with assessment of its efficacy and safety. BAGDC of wide-necked aneurysms (SNR close to 1) was retrospectively evaluated in 37 patients (28 females, nine males, mean age: 56.6 yrs, range: 27-81 yrs) who underwent the procedure between january 1999 and january 2002 for a total of 45 procedures on 41 aneurysms. Twenty-nine patients presented with SAH from an acutely ruptured aneurysm. In two patients BAGDC failed whereas 35 patients successfully underwent BADGC (39 aneurysms). Twenty-nine patients (31 aneurysms) were available for angiographic follow-up (mean: 10 mo, range: 3-24 mo). At the last angiographic follow-up 29/33 aneurysms (87%) resulted stable and occluded (22 aneurysms with dense and seven with loose packing of the sac and the neck), two aneurysms showed regrowth, one aneurysm showed a neck remnant and another one a sac and neck remnant. Complications directly related to the procedure occurred in five patients (three perforations, one thromboembolism, one femoral AV) with a mortality and morbility rate of 2.7 and 5.4 respectively. BAGDC is a promising adjunct to treatment of wide-necked aneurysms broadening the spectrum of indications for endovascular treament of challenging aneurysms. PMID:20594481

  19. The energy loss may predict rupture risks of anterior communicating aneurysms: a preliminary result.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Qian, Yi; Lee, Chong-Joon; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Ling, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms are well documented to have a higher rupture risk compared with aneurysms at other locations. However, the risk predicting factors for these aneurysms still remain unclear due to the complex arteries geometries and flow patterns involved. The authors introduce a comprehensive method to quantitatively illustrate the development of ACoA aneurysms using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. Seven ACoA aneurysms, which included 2 ruptured and 5 unruptured aneurysms, were employed. Patient-specific whole anterior circulation geometries were segmented to simulate the real circumstances in vivo. The energy losses (EL) and flow architectures of these 7 aneurysms were evaluated using an algorithm modality. Overall, the 2 ruptured aneurysms, along with 1 unruptured aneurysm that was defined as highly likely to rupture due to ACoA location and a bleb sitting at the top of the dome, had a significantly larger EL and more complex and unstable flow architecture than the others. Two aneurysms had a negative value of EL indicating that the geometries with aneurysms of the anterior communicating complex (ACC) had a smaller loss of energy than the geometries without aneurysms. Despite a small sample size resulting in a low statistical significance, EL may serve as a development predictor of ACoA aneurysms. PMID:26064320

  20. Junctional Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms: The Schrödinger's Cat of Vascular Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Andrew P.; Loveren, Harry R. van; Youssef, A. Samy; Agazzi, Siviero

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Despite advances in neuroimaging, it is not always definitive whether a paraclinoid aneurysm is intradural or entirely extradural. We illustrate the potential use of surgical exploration in these aneurysms that we refer to as “junctional” aneurysms. Methods Retrospective review of eight patients with unruptured aneurysms who underwent a planned surgical exploration of a junctional aneurysm. Results Of the eight patients, three underwent exploration of the aneurysm during surgery for a different aneurysm. All three of these were found to be extradural. Five patients underwent a craniotomy for the exclusive purpose of clarifying the location of the aneurysm. Two of these cases were found to be intradural and were clipped. Two cases were found to be extradural. In one patient, the initially extradural aneurysm was converted into an intradural aneurysm during removal of the anterior clinoid process, necessitating surgical clipping. One transient third nerve palsy was observed. Discussion Until further progress in neuroimaging allows clinicians to determine unequivocally the exact anatomical location of a paraclinoid aneurysm, we advocate the use of the term junctional aneurysm to reflect the clinical uncertainty inherent in management decisions made regarding these aneurysms. We have illustrated a strategy of surgical exploration in select patients. PMID:25844299

  1. Junctional Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms: The Schrödinger's Cat of Vascular Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Andrew P; Loveren, Harry R van; Youssef, A Samy; Agazzi, Siviero

    2015-03-01

    Objectives Despite advances in neuroimaging, it is not always definitive whether a paraclinoid aneurysm is intradural or entirely extradural. We illustrate the potential use of surgical exploration in these aneurysms that we refer to as "junctional" aneurysms. Methods Retrospective review of eight patients with unruptured aneurysms who underwent a planned surgical exploration of a junctional aneurysm. Results Of the eight patients, three underwent exploration of the aneurysm during surgery for a different aneurysm. All three of these were found to be extradural. Five patients underwent a craniotomy for the exclusive purpose of clarifying the location of the aneurysm. Two of these cases were found to be intradural and were clipped. Two cases were found to be extradural. In one patient, the initially extradural aneurysm was converted into an intradural aneurysm during removal of the anterior clinoid process, necessitating surgical clipping. One transient third nerve palsy was observed. Discussion Until further progress in neuroimaging allows clinicians to determine unequivocally the exact anatomical location of a paraclinoid aneurysm, we advocate the use of the term junctional aneurysm to reflect the clinical uncertainty inherent in management decisions made regarding these aneurysms. We have illustrated a strategy of surgical exploration in select patients.

  2. The 'Sphere': A Dedicated Bifurcation Aneurysm Flow-Diverter Device.

    PubMed

    Peach, Thomas; Cornhill, J Frederick; Nguyen, Anh; Riina, Howard; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2014-01-01

    We present flow-based results from the early stage design cycle, based on computational modeling, of a prototype flow-diverter device, known as the 'Sphere', intended to treat bifurcation aneurysms of the cerebral vasculature. The device is available in a range of diameters and geometries and is constructed from a single loop of NITINOL(®) wire. The 'Sphere' reduces aneurysm inflow by means of a high-density, patterned, elliptical surface that partially occludes the aneurysm neck. The device is secured in the healthy parent vessel by two armatures in the shape of open loops, resulting in negligible disruption of parent or daughter vessel flow. The device is virtually deployed in six anatomically accurate bifurcation aneurysms: three located at the Basilar tip and three located at the terminus bifurcation of the Internal Carotid artery (at the meeting of the middle cerebral and anterior cerebral arteries). Both steady state and transient flow simulations reveal that the device presents with a range of aneurysm inflow reductions, with mean flow reductions falling in the range of 30.6-71.8% across the different geometries. A significant difference is noted between steady state and transient simulations in one geometry, where a zone of flow recirculation is not captured in the steady state simulation. Across all six aneurysms, the device reduces the WSS magnitude within the aneurysm sac, resulting in a hemodynamic environment closer to that of a healthy vessel. We conclude from extensive CFD analysis that the 'Sphere' device offers very significant levels of flow reduction in a number of anatomically accurate aneurysm sizes and locations, with many advantages compared to current clinical cylindrical flow-diverter designs. Analysis of the device's mechanical properties and deployability will follow in future publications.

  3. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery.

  4. Considerations for patients undergoing endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Ullery, Brant W; Lee, Jason T

    2014-09-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair has taken over open surgery as the primary strategy for treatment of patients with abdominal and thoracic aneurysms. The minimally invasive nature of these techniques requires alterations in preoperative workup, intraoperative management, and familiarity with unique complications that can occur. Familiarity from the anesthetic standpoint of endovascular techniques, including treatment of patients with fenestrated, chimney, snorkel, and periscope grafts, is necessary for the contemporary cardiac anesthesiologist.

  5. Computational study of anterior communicating artery hemodynamics before aneurysm formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan R.

    2012-03-01

    It is widely accepted that complexity in the flow pattern at the anterior communicating artery (AComA) is associated with the high rate of aneurysm formation in that location observed in large studies. A previous computational hemodynamic study showed a possible association between high maximum intraaneurysmal wall shear stress (WSS) at the systolic peak with rupture in a cohort of AComA aneurysms. In another study it was observed a connection between location of aneurysm blebs and regions of high WSS in models where blebs were virtually removed. However, others reported associations between low WSS and either rupture or blister formation. The purpose of this work is to study associations between hemodynamic patterns and AComA aneurysm initiation by comparing hemodynamics in the aneurysm and the normal model where the aneurysm was computationally removed. Vascular models of both right and left circulation were independently reconstructed from three-dimensional rotational angiography images using deformable models, and fused using a surface merging algorithm. The geometric models were then used to generate high-quality volumetric finite element grids of tetrahedra with an advancing front technique. For each patient, the second anatomical model was created by digitally removing the aneurysm. It was iteratively achieved by applying a Laplacian smoothing filter and remeshing the surface. Finite element blood flow numerical simulations were performed. It was observed that aneurysms initiated in regions of high and moderate WSS in the counterpart normal models. Adjacent or close to those regions, low WSS portions of the arterial wall were not affected by the disease.

  6. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery. PMID:11692765

  7. The Outcomes of Endovascular Aneurysm Repair with the Chimney Technique for Juxtarenal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Toshifumi; Toyofuku, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We collected our experience in the use of chimney technique with endovascular aneurysm repair (Ch-EVAR) for juxtarenal aortic aneurysms (JAAs), and reviewed the outcomes. Methods: The patients who were treated with Ch-EVAR between January 2012 and December 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) under general anesthesia. Femoral arterial access was obtained to place the main body of the endograft; brachial or axillary access was obtained to perform the placement of the chimney stent. Results: We treated 12 patients with 15 renal arteries using the Ch-EVAR procedure. Technical success was achieved in 11 of the 12 (91.6%) cases. Within the first 30 days of postoperative period, the target vessel patency rate was 93.3% (14 of 15 renal arteries). After a median follow-up period of 28 months, one patient required Ch-EVAR-related re-intervention due to a type Ia endoleak, and 13 of the 15 renal arteries were patent at the end of the follow-up period. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Ch-EVAR can be completed with a high rate of success. Although early target vessel occlusion or early postoperative mortality might occur, Ch-EVAR could be an alternative treatment for JAA, especially in high risk patients. PMID:26961481

  8. Design and biocompatibility of endovascular aneurysm filling devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Hwang, Wonjun; Horn, John; Landsman, Todd L.; Boyle, Anthony; Wierzbicki, Mark A.; Hasan, Sayyeda M.; Follmer, Douglas; Bryant, Jesse; Small, Ward; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2014-08-04

    We report that the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, which can result in severe mental disabilities or death, affects approximately 30,000 people in the United States annually. The traditional surgical method of treating these arterial malformations involves a full craniotomy procedure, wherein a clip is placed around the aneurysm neck. In recent decades, research and device development have focused on new endovascular treatment methods to occlude the aneurysm void space. These methods, some of which are currently in clinical use, utilize metal, polymeric, or hybrid devices delivered via catheter to the aneurysm site. In this review, we present several such devices, including those that have been approved for clinical use, and some that are currently in development. We present several design requirements for a successful aneurysm filling device and discuss the success or failure of current and past technologies. Lastly, we also present novel polymeric based aneurysm filling methods that are currently being tested in animal models that could result in superior healing.

  9. Design and biocompatibility of endovascular aneurysm filling devices

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Hwang, Wonjun; Horn, John; Landsman, Todd L.; Boyle, Anthony; Wierzbicki, Mark A.; Hasan, Sayyeda M.; Follmer, Douglas; Bryant, Jesse; Small, Ward; et al

    2014-08-04

    We report that the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, which can result in severe mental disabilities or death, affects approximately 30,000 people in the United States annually. The traditional surgical method of treating these arterial malformations involves a full craniotomy procedure, wherein a clip is placed around the aneurysm neck. In recent decades, research and device development have focused on new endovascular treatment methods to occlude the aneurysm void space. These methods, some of which are currently in clinical use, utilize metal, polymeric, or hybrid devices delivered via catheter to the aneurysm site. In this review, we present several suchmore » devices, including those that have been approved for clinical use, and some that are currently in development. We present several design requirements for a successful aneurysm filling device and discuss the success or failure of current and past technologies. Lastly, we also present novel polymeric based aneurysm filling methods that are currently being tested in animal models that could result in superior healing.« less

  10. Computational Hemodynamics Framework for the Analysis of Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Mut, Fernando; Löhner, Rainald; Chien, Aichi; Tateshima, Satoshi; Viñuela, Fernando; Putman, Christopher; Cebral, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Assessing the risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms is important for clinicians because the natural rupture risk can be exceeded by the small but significant risk carried by current treatments. To this end numerous investigators have used image-based computational fluid dynamics models to extract patient-specific hemodynamics information, but there is no consensus on which variables or hemodynamic characteristics are the most important. This paper describes a computational framework to study and characterize the hemodynamic environment of cerebral aneurysms in order to relate it to clinical events such as growth or rupture. In particular, a number of hemodynamic quantities are proposed to describe the most salient features of these hemodynamic environments. Application to a patient population indicates that ruptured aneurysms tend to have concentrated inflows, concentrated wall shear stress distributions, high maximal wall shear stress and smaller viscous dissipation ratios than unruptured aneurysms. Furthermore, these statistical associations are largely unaffected by the choice of physiologic flow conditions. This confirms the notion that hemodynamic information derived from image-based computational models can be used to assess aneurysm rupture risk, to test hypotheses about the mechanisms responsible for aneurysm formation, progression and rupture, and to answer specific clinical questions. PMID:21643491

  11. Chondroblastoma of the patella with aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Tan, Honglue; Yan, Mengning; Yue, Bing; Zeng, Yiming; Wang, You

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma of the patella is rare. Aneurysmal bone cysts, which develop from a prior lesion such as a chondroblastoma, are seldom seen in the patella. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man who presented with 2 years of right knee pain without calor, erythema, pain on palpation, or abnormal range of motion. Radiological studies suggested aneurysmal bone cyst. The lesion was excised with curettage and the residual cavity filled with autogenous bone graft. Histopathology revealed chondroblastoma associated with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. In the follow-up period, the patient demonstrated normal joint activities with no pain. Normal configuration of the patella and bone union were shown on plain radiographs. The authors present a review of the literature of all cases of patellar chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst. This case is the 14th report of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in a chondroblastoma of the patella. According to the literature, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the study of these lesions. The pathologic diagnosis is based on the presence of chondroblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst. Treatment of this lesion includes patellectomy, curettage alone, and curettage with bone grafting. Despite the risk of recurrence of this lesion in the patella, the authors first recommend curettage followed by filling the cavity with bone graft. To protect the anterior tension of the patella intraoperatively, the bone window should be made at the medial edge of the patella to perform the curettage and bone grafting.

  12. Optical coherence tomography: a new method to assess aneurysm healing

    PubMed Central

    Thorell, William E.; Chow, Michael M.; Prayson, Richard A.; Shure, Mark A.; Jeon, Sung W.; Huang, David; Zeynalov, Emil; Woo, Henry H.; Rasmussen, Peter A.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Masaryk, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Object Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage affects approximately 10/100,000 people per year. Endovascular coil embolization is used increasingly to treat cerebral aneurysms and its safety and durability is rapidly developing. The long-term durability of coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms remains in question; patients treated using this modality require multiple follow-up angiography studies and occasional repeated treatments. Methods Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging modality that uses backscattered light to produce high-resolution tomography of optically accessible biological tissues such as the eye, luminal surface of blood vessels, and gastrointestinal tract. Vascular OCT probes in the form of imaging microwires are presently available—although not Food and Drug Administration–approved—and may be adapted for use in the cerebral circulation. In this study the authors describe the initial use of OCT to make visible the neck of aneurysms created in a canine model and treated with coil embolization. Optical coherence tomography images demonstrate changes that correlate with the histological findings of healing at the aneurysm neck and thus may be capable of demonstrating human cerebral aneurysm healing. Conclusions Optical coherence tomography may obviate the need for subsequent follow-up angiography studies as well as aid in the understanding of endovascular tissue healing. Data in this study demonstrate that further investigation of in vivo imaging with such probes is warranted. PMID:15739565

  13. The effect of flow recirculation on abdominal aortic aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taib, Ishkrizat; Amirnordin, Shahrin Hisham; Madon, Rais Hanizam; Mustafa, Norrizal; Osman, Kahar

    2012-06-01

    The presences of flow recirculation at the abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) region yield the unpredictable failure of aneurismal wall. The failure of the aneurismal wall is closely related to the hemodynamic factor. Hemodynamic factor such as pressure and velocity distribution play a significance role of aneurysm growth and rupture. By using the computational approach, the influence of hemodynamic factor is investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method on the virtual AAA model. The virtual 3D AAAs model was reconstructed from Spiral Computed Tomography scan (CT-scan). The blood flow is assumed as being transient, laminar and Newtonian within a rigid section of the vessel. The blood flow also driven by an imposed of pressure gradient in the form of physiological waveform. The pulsating blood flow is also considered in this simulation. The results on pressure distribution and velocity profile are analyzed to interpret the behaviour of flow recirculation. The results show the forming of vortices is seen at the aneurysm bulge. This vortices is form at the aneurysm region then destroyed rapidly by flow recirculation. Flow recirculation is point out much higher at distal end of aneurysm closed to iliac bifurcation. This phenomenon is managed to increase the possibility of aneurysm growth and rupture.

  14. Treatment of vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms with Pipeline embolization device

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Osama; Storey, Christopher; Kalakoti, Piyush; Deep Thakur, Jai; Zhang, Shihao; Nanda, Anil; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Object Treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms with Pipeline embolization device (PED) (ev3/Covidien Vascular Therapies) has gained recent popularity. One application of PEDs that is not well described in the literature is the utility and long-term safety in treatment of vertebrobasilar fusiform (VBF) aneurysms. Despite the advancements in endovascular therapy, VBF aneurysms continue to challenging pathology. The authors provide long-term follow-up of VBF aneurysms treated with PEDs. Methods We retrospectively reviewed four patients that were treated at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in Shreveport with PEDs for VBFs from 2012 to 2014. Each patient was discussed in a multidisciplinary setting between neurosurgeons and neurointerventionalists. Each patient underwent platelet function tests to ensure responsiveness to anti-platelet agents and was treated by one neurointerventionalist (HC). All patients were placed on aspirin and Plavix and were confirmed for therapeutic response prior to discharge. Results Follow-up ranged from 12 to 25 months, with a mean of 14.25 months. Two cases presented with a recurrence after the initial treatment, both of which required subsequent treatment. Of the four patients treated, one patient developed hemiparesis and three died. Conclusion Despite reports describing successful treatment of VBF aneurysms with PEDs, delayed complications after obliteration and remodeling can occur. We describe our institutional experience of VBFs treated with PEDs. Treatment of holobasilar fusiform aneurysms may carry a worse prognosis after treatment. Further long-term follow-up will provide a better understanding of this pathology. PMID:26089246

  15. [Endosaccular embolization of an intrasellar aneurysm with hypopituitarism: case report].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mutsumi; Tone, Osamu; Tomita, Hiroki; Tamaki, Masashi; Akimoto, Hideaki; Shigeta, Keigo; Sampetrean, Oltea; Kanno, Kazuo; Matsushita, Mika

    2008-04-01

    An 81-year-old male presented with weight loss and hyponatremia. A baseline endocrinological examination revealed anterior pituitary dysfunction. A computed tomography and MRI revealed a large, unruptured intrasellar aneurysm protruding from the right internal carotid artery and pushing the pituitary stalk leftward. The patient developed polyuria and polydipsia from 10 days after commencing corticosteroid supplementation and was diagnosed with partial central diabetes insipidus (DI). Balloon assisted endosaccular embolization was performed about one month after the posterior pituitary dysfunction was identified. The unruptured aneurysm was successfully embolized with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) without narrowing of the parent vessel. DI resolved completely and the posterior pituitary dysfunction improved soon after endosaccular embolization. The remission of DI after coil embolization suggested that the DI might have been induced by the progressive mass effect of the aneurysm rather than by the steroid. An endocrinological evaluation and cerebral angiography confirmed partial recovery of anterior pituitary dysfunction and almost complete obliteration of the aneurysm, respectively at 1 year after the operation. We report a case of hypopituitarism secondary to the large intrasellar aneurysm. This aneurysm was embolized with GDCs, resulting in partial recovery of anterior pituitary dysfunction and complete recovery of posterior pituitary dysfunction.

  16. Partially Polyurethane-Covered Stent for Cerebral Aneurysm Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rangwala, Hussain S.; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Rudin, Stephen; Baier, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Partially polyurethane-covered stent (PPCS) is proposed for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. The PPCSs were observed to substantially modify the flow entering the aneurysm in a patient-specific aneurysm phantom (PSAP). These stents can act as flow modulators and the polyurethane (PU) membrane can provide a smooth scaffold for restoring the structural integrity of the diseased vessel. Partial coating of the stent aids in sealing only the entrance to the aneurysm while keeping the perforators around the aneurysm open and patent. Biocompatibility of the PU membrane was monitored using contact angle measurements to show that critical surface tension (CST) values remained in the thromboresistant range of 20–30 mN/m. Stent flexibility, stiffness, and pressure–diameter relationship showed no significant change after asymmetric PU film application. No delamination of the PU membrane from the stent was observed within the working strains of the stent. The flow modulating capability of the PPCS was monitored by intentionally orienting the stent to cover either the proximal or the distal regions along the neck of the PSAP. Time density curves (TDCs) compared the relative metrics of input rate, washout rate, residence time, and influx in the aneurysm before and after the stent placement. PMID:18837459

  17. [Endovascular treatment for cervical carotid artery aneurysm: a case report].

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yasuhiko; Sugiu, Kenji; Hishikawa, Tomohito; Tokunaga, Koji; Takahashi, Kazuya; Date, Isao

    2013-06-01

    We report here a case of cervical carotid artery aneurysm. This 37-year-old male suffered from acute neck swelling when he was taking lunch after physical work. Ultrasonography demonstrated a cervical pseudoaneurysm and a jet flow, which was blowing into the dome from the carotid artery. Angiogram revealed an aneurysm with a diameter of 3 cm at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery. Coil embolization using double-catheter technique was performed and complete occlusion of the aneurysm was obtained without any complications. The patient returned to his normal life. Cervical carotid artery aneurysms are rare and they induce pain by swelling in the neck, hoarseness, swallowing disturbance, hemorrhage, and cerebral ischemia due to embolism. In case of a cervical carotid artery aneurysm, safe and effective treatments are required and endovascular treatment should be considered. Although stent-assisted coil embolization or covered-stent placement were reported as an effective treatment for cervical aneurysms, coil embolization without using a stent was performed in this particular patient who is a young, blue-collar worker because the avoidance of long-term anti-platelet therapy was desirable. Preoperative evaluation is important to select adequate treatment. PMID:23732763

  18. Chondroblastoma of the patella with aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Tan, Honglue; Yan, Mengning; Yue, Bing; Zeng, Yiming; Wang, You

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma of the patella is rare. Aneurysmal bone cysts, which develop from a prior lesion such as a chondroblastoma, are seldom seen in the patella. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man who presented with 2 years of right knee pain without calor, erythema, pain on palpation, or abnormal range of motion. Radiological studies suggested aneurysmal bone cyst. The lesion was excised with curettage and the residual cavity filled with autogenous bone graft. Histopathology revealed chondroblastoma associated with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. In the follow-up period, the patient demonstrated normal joint activities with no pain. Normal configuration of the patella and bone union were shown on plain radiographs. The authors present a review of the literature of all cases of patellar chondroblastoma with aneurysmal bone cyst. This case is the 14th report of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in a chondroblastoma of the patella. According to the literature, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are useful in the study of these lesions. The pathologic diagnosis is based on the presence of chondroblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst. Treatment of this lesion includes patellectomy, curettage alone, and curettage with bone grafting. Despite the risk of recurrence of this lesion in the patella, the authors first recommend curettage followed by filling the cavity with bone graft. To protect the anterior tension of the patella intraoperatively, the bone window should be made at the medial edge of the patella to perform the curettage and bone grafting. PMID:24683664

  19. Surgical options for the management of visceral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Van Petersen, A; Meerwaldt, R; Geelkerken, R; Zeebregts, C

    2011-06-01

    Visceral artery aneurysm (VAA) is a rare entity but increased use of abdominal imaging has led to an increased prevalence. Rupture is related to a high mortality rate. Open repair, endovascular treatment and laparoscopic techniques have been described as treatment options. In this systematic review we describe the surgical options for treating VAA. A literature search identified articles focussing on the key issues of visceral artery aneurysms and surgical options using the Pubmed and Cochrane databases. Case reports dominate the literature about VAA. Twenty-seven small case series and ten review articles have been published in the last 20 years concerning the surgical options for VAA. The evidence does not exceed level 3. Surgical treatment is dictated by both patient and aneurysm characteristics. Whether VAA should be treated largely depends upon age, gender, presence of hypertension (e.g. in renal aneurysm), aneurysm size and presentation. Aneurysm size and characteristics, anatomical location and presence of collateral circulation dictate the surgical option to be chosen. The mortality and morbidity rates after elective open repair are low. Literature about surgical options for treating VAA remains scarce. Only a few clinical trials have shown the possibilities and results of open surgical repair. In general, there is no consensus on the surgical treatment of VAA and the highest level of evidence is based upon expert opinions. PMID:21577188

  20. Surgical options for the management of visceral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Van Petersen, A; Meerwaldt, R; Geelkerken, R; Zeebregts, C

    2011-06-01

    Visceral artery aneurysm (VAA) is a rare entity but increased use of abdominal imaging has led to an increased prevalence. Rupture is related to a high mortality rate. Open repair, endovascular treatment and laparoscopic techniques have been described as treatment options. In this systematic review we describe the surgical options for treating VAA. A literature search identified articles focussing on the key issues of visceral artery aneurysms and surgical options using the Pubmed and Cochrane databases. Case reports dominate the literature about VAA. Twenty-seven small case series and ten review articles have been published in the last 20 years concerning the surgical options for VAA. The evidence does not exceed level 3. Surgical treatment is dictated by both patient and aneurysm characteristics. Whether VAA should be treated largely depends upon age, gender, presence of hypertension (e.g. in renal aneurysm), aneurysm size and presentation. Aneurysm size and characteristics, anatomical location and presence of collateral circulation dictate the surgical option to be chosen. The mortality and morbidity rates after elective open repair are low. Literature about surgical options for treating VAA remains scarce. Only a few clinical trials have shown the possibilities and results of open surgical repair. In general, there is no consensus on the surgical treatment of VAA and the highest level of evidence is based upon expert opinions.