Science.gov

Sample records for crash notification systems

  1. The Potential for Automatic Crash Notification Systems to Reduce Road Fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Lahausse, Julie A.; Fildes, Brian N.; Page, Yves; Fitzharris, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    This predictive study investigated the effectiveness of Automatic Crash Notification (ACN) systems in reducing road fatalities, due to enabling faster emergency medical services (EMS) notification times, and therefore, the earlier provision of treatment. The cost-effectiveness associated with fleet installation of ACN systems in Australia was also evaluated. A range of data sources were used to identify the range of road fatalities that ACN systems could potentially mitigate, with urban and rural crashes analyzed separately, due to the average EMS notification time being slower for rural areas. It was established that ACN would provide an average crash-to-EMS notification time of one minute, which represented a three minute reduction in the total crash-to-hospital time for urban areas, with the corresponding reduction for rural areas being six minutes. Calculations revealed that these reductions would save an estimated 104 fatalities on Australian roads per annum (41 urban and 63 rural), assuming all vehicles were fitted with ACN. This corresponds to almost 11% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities. Despite the potential for ACN to significantly influence the Australian road toll, the benefit-cost-ratio analysis indicated that without government support, the systems are unlikely to be a cost-effective option for mandatory installation in all registered passenger vehicles. It was also recommended, however, that the benefits of ACN systems should be further investigated, in order to better establish their potential to increase road safety. PMID:19026225

  2. Intelligent geocoding system to locate traffic crashes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiao; Parker, Steven; Liu, Yi; Graettinger, Andrew J; Forde, Susie

    2013-01-01

    State agencies continue to face many challenges associated with new federal crash safety and highway performance monitoring requirements that use data from multiple and disparate systems across different platforms and locations. On a national level, the federal government has a long-term vision for State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) to report state route and off-state route crash data in a single network. In general, crashes occurring on state-owned or state maintained highways are a priority at the Federal and State level; therefore, state-route crashes are being geocoded by state DOTs. On the other hand, crashes occurring on off-state highway system do not always get geocoded due to limited resources and techniques. Creating and maintaining a statewide crash geographic information systems (GIS) map with state route and non-state route crashes is a complicated and expensive task. This study introduces an automatic crash mapping process, Crash-Mapping Automation Tool (C-MAT), where an algorithm translates location information from a police report crash record to a geospatial map and creates a pinpoint map for all crashes. The algorithm has approximate 83 percent mapping rate. An important application of this work is the ability to associate the mapped crash records to underlying business data, such as roadway inventory and traffic volumes. The integrated crash map is the foundation for effective and efficient crash analyzes to prevent highway crashes. PMID:22921783

  3. Alarm Notification System

    1995-03-12

    AN/EMS, the Alarm Notification Energy Management System, is used to monitor digital sensors in PETC buildings and to notify the safety/security operator by both a video and an audio system when a possibly hazardous condition arises.

  4. Emerging technology for vehicular safety and emergency response to roadway crashes.

    PubMed

    Champion, H R; Cushing, B

    1999-12-01

    Emerging technology for vehicular safety and emergency response to roadway crashes is the topic of this article. Reduction in emergency medical services system notification time, improvements in vehicular safety, crash avoidance and protection, post-crash injury control, triage, national automatic crash notification systems, and technologic improvements in emergency diagnostics and treatment during the past year are discussed. PMID:10625974

  5. Automated Status Notification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Automated Status Notification System (ASNS) was born out of need. To prevent "hacker attacks," Lewis' telephone system needed to monitor communications activities 24 hr a day, 7 days a week. With decreasing staff resources, this continuous monitoring had to be automated. By utilizing existing communications hardware, a UNIX workstation, and NAWK (a pattern scanning and processing language), we implemented a continuous monitoring system.

  6. Alert Notification System Router

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurganus, Joseph; Carey, Everett; Antonucci, Robert; Hitchener, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Alert Notification System Router (ANSR) software provides satellite operators with notifications of key events through pagers, cell phones, and e-mail. Written in Java, this application is specifically designed to meet the mission-critical standards for mission operations while operating on a variety of hardware environments. ANSR is a software component that runs inside the Mission Operations Center (MOC). It connects to the mission's message bus using the GMSEC [Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC)] standard. Other components, such as automation and monitoring components, can use ANSR to send directives to notify users or groups. The ANSR system, in addition to notifying users, can check for message acknowledgements from a user and escalate the notification to another user if there is no acknowledgement. When a firewall prevents ANSR from accessing the Internet directly, proxies can be run on the other side of the wall. These proxies can be configured to access the Internet, notify users, and poll for their responses. Multiple ANSRs can be run in parallel, providing a seamless failover capability in the event that one ANSR system becomes incapacitated.

  7. Evaluating the reliability of automated collision notification systems.

    PubMed

    Akella, Mohan R; Bang, Chaewon; Beutner, Rob; Delmelle, Eric M; Batta, Rajan; Blatt, Alan; Rogerson, Peter A; Wilson, Glenn

    2003-05-01

    The use of an automated collision notification (ACN) device in vehicles can greatly reduce the time between crash occurrence and notification of emergency medical services (EMSs). Most ACN devices rely on cellular technology to report important crash information to the proper authorities. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of the existing western New York cellular analog system to support ACN systems. The first task was to develop a model predicting the probability of successfully completing an emergency ACN call at attenuated levels of received signal strength indicator (RSSI), a measurement of the bond between cell phone and tower. Then, empirical estimates were made of the time necessary for call completion at given levels of the RSSI. The RSSI is sampled at locations throughout Erie County, New York, and this information is used to determine the probability of successful call completion for different locations within the county. This model was then applied to historic data for selected past crashes. Finally, the findings were compared with real-world crash data obtained from the ACN Field Operational Test program, where 750 ACN devices were installed in cars and their performance examined over time. An interpolated map of the sampled RSSI values suggests that cellular coverage in Erie County is adequate to support the automated collision network technology. The models and techniques described here are applicable to other areas and regions of the country. PMID:12643952

  8. Millimeter wave radar for automobile crash avoidance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguenin, G. Richard

    1994-08-01

    Low cost, millimeter wave, forward looking radar sensors for applications in Autonomous Collision Warning and Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control systems will be described. These safety related systems promise the largest payoff in preventing highway crashes.

  9. Deployable System for Crash-Load Attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, Sotiris; Jackson, Karen E.

    2007-01-01

    An externally deployable honeycomb structure is investigated with respect to crash energy management for light aircraft. The new concept utilizes an expandable honeycomb-like structure to absorb impact energy by crushing. Distinguished by flexible hinges between cell wall junctions that enable effortless deployment, the new energy absorber offers most of the desirable features of an external airbag system without the limitations of poor shear stability, system complexity, and timing sensitivity. Like conventional honeycomb, once expanded, the energy absorber is transformed into a crush efficient and stable cellular structure. Other advantages, afforded by the flexible hinge feature, include a variety of deployment options such as linear, radial, and/or hybrid deployment methods. Radial deployment is utilized when omnidirectional cushioning is required. Linear deployment offers better efficiency, which is preferred when the impact orientation is known in advance. Several energy absorbers utilizing different deployment modes could also be combined to optimize overall performance and/or improve system reliability as outlined in the paper. Results from a series of component and full scale demonstration tests are presented as well as typical deployment techniques and mechanisms. LS-DYNA analytical simulations of selected tests are also presented.

  10. Design of a clinical notification system.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M M; Tsui, F C; Pike, J; Pike, L

    1999-01-01

    We describe the requirements and design of an enterprise-wide notification system. From published descriptions of notification schemes, our own experience, and use cases provided by diverse users in our institution, we developed a set of functional requirements. The resulting design supports multiple communication channels, third party mappings (algorithms) from message to recipient and/or channel of delivery, and escalation algorithms. A requirement for multiple message formats is addressed by a document specification. We implemented this system in Java as a CORBA object. This paper describes the design and current implementation of our notification system. PMID:10566509

  11. The Hazard Notification System (HANS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snedigar, S. F.; Venezky, D. Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) has developed a Hazard Notification System (HANS) for distributing volcanic activity information collected by scientists to airlines, emergency services, and the general public. In the past year, data from HANS have been used by airlines to make decisions about diverting or canceling flights during the eruption of Mount Redoubt. HANS was developed to provide a single system that each of the five U.S. volcano observatories could use for communicating and storing volcanic information about the 160+ potentially active U.S. volcanoes. The data that cover ten tables and nearly 100 fields are now stored in similar formats, and the information can be released in styles requested by our agency partners, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Currently, HANS has about 4500 reports stored; on average, two - three reports are added daily. HANS (at its most basic form) consists of a user interface for entering data into one of many release types (Daily Status Reports, Weekly Updates, Volcano Activity Notifications, etc.); a database holding previous releases as well as observatory information such as email address lists and volcano boilerplates; and a transmission system for formatting releases and sending them out by email or other web related system. The user interface to HANS is completely web based, providing access to our observatory scientists from any online PC. The underlying database stores the observatory information and drives the observatory and program websites' dynamic updates and archived information releases. HANS also runs scripts for generating several different feeds including the program home page Volcano Status Map. Each observatory has the capability of running an instance of HANS. There are currently three instances of HANS and each instance is synchronized to all other instances using a master-slave environment. Information can be entered on any node; slave nodes transmit data to the master node

  12. The Evolution of Notification Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jeanne Jackson

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the American public's favorite methods of notification are still phone and e-mail, but advancements in technology over the past several years have changed the way many district leaders contact parents when an emergency arises at school. The latest tech feature popular in the general public--text messages--is taking hold…

  13. Crash simulations of wheelchair-occupant systems in transport.

    PubMed

    Kang, W; Pilkey, W D

    1998-01-01

    A nonlinear multirigid body dynamic computer model has been developed to simulate the dynamic responses of a wheelchair-occupant system in a vehicle during a crash. The occupant, restrained by safety belts, is seated in a wheelchair that is, in turn, tied down in a vehicle. Validated extensively by crash sled tests at three laboratories, this model has been used to predict the responses of wheelchair-occupant systems in various crash environments. To evaluate the crashworthiness of different wheelchair tie-downs, the sensitivity of several design parameters, such as tiedown stiffness, wheel stiffness, and tiedown positions, has been studied using this model, and optimal values of these parameters for the wheelchair-occupant system have been obtained. Moreover, the model has been used to study the sensitivity of crash sled test pulse corridors in an effort to develop a sled test standard. It has been found that an existing ISO corridor allows large variation and should be "tightened." The model was implemented using a version of the multibody dynamic simulator, the Articulated Total Body program. PMID:9505255

  14. The relative contribution of system failures and extreme behaviour in South Australian crashes.

    PubMed

    Wundersitz, Lisa; Baldock, Matthew; Raftery, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Within the road system, there are compliant road users who may make an error that leads to a crash, resulting in a 'system failure', and there are also road users who deliberately take risks and display dangerous or 'extreme' behaviours that lead to a crash. Crashes resulting from system failures can be addressed through improvements to road system design more readily than crashes resulting from extreme behaviours. The classification of crash causation in terms of system failures or extreme behaviour is important for determining the extent to which a Safe System approach (i.e. improvements to road system design to serve compliant road users) is capable of reducing the number of crashes. This study examined the relative contribution of system failures and extreme behaviour in South Australian crashes as identified from information in Coroner's investigation files and in-depth crash investigations conducted by the Centre for Automotive Safety Research (CASR). The analysis of 189 fatal crashes, 272 non-fatal metropolitan injury crashes and 181 non-fatal rural crashes indicated that very few non-fatal crashes (3% metropolitan, 9% rural) involved extreme behaviour by road users and, even in fatal crashes, the majority (54%) were the result of system failures. Fatal crashes resulting from system failures were more likely than those resulting from extreme behaviour to occur during the day, on weekdays, in rural areas and on roads with high speed limits. Findings from the current study suggest that improvements to the road transport system (i.e. forgiving road infrastructure, appropriate speed limits, and safe vehicle design) can be expected to be much more effective in reducing crashes than concentrating on preventing extreme behaviours. Such a strategy could reduce the incidence and severity of a large proportion of crashes in South Australia. PMID:25238295

  15. The relative contribution of system failures and extreme behaviour in South Australian crashes.

    PubMed

    Wundersitz, Lisa; Baldock, Matthew; Raftery, Simon

    2014-12-01

    Within the road system, there are compliant road users who may make an error that leads to a crash, resulting in a 'system failure', and there are also road users who deliberately take risks and display dangerous or 'extreme' behaviours that lead to a crash. Crashes resulting from system failures can be addressed through improvements to road system design more readily than crashes resulting from extreme behaviours. The classification of crash causation in terms of system failures or extreme behaviour is important for determining the extent to which a Safe System approach (i.e. improvements to road system design to serve compliant road users) is capable of reducing the number of crashes. This study examined the relative contribution of system failures and extreme behaviour in South Australian crashes as identified from information in Coroner's investigation files and in-depth crash investigations conducted by the Centre for Automotive Safety Research (CASR). The analysis of 189 fatal crashes, 272 non-fatal metropolitan injury crashes and 181 non-fatal rural crashes indicated that very few non-fatal crashes (3% metropolitan, 9% rural) involved extreme behaviour by road users and, even in fatal crashes, the majority (54%) were the result of system failures. Fatal crashes resulting from system failures were more likely than those resulting from extreme behaviour to occur during the day, on weekdays, in rural areas and on roads with high speed limits. Findings from the current study suggest that improvements to the road transport system (i.e. forgiving road infrastructure, appropriate speed limits, and safe vehicle design) can be expected to be much more effective in reducing crashes than concentrating on preventing extreme behaviours. Such a strategy could reduce the incidence and severity of a large proportion of crashes in South Australia.

  16. Potential Occupant Injury Reduction in Pre-Crash System Equipped Vehicles in the Striking Vehicle of Rear-end Crashes.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate the severity of rear-end and other collisions, Pre-Crash Systems (PCS) are being developed. These active safety systems utilize radar and/or video cameras to determine when a frontal crash, such as a front-to-back rear-end collisions, is imminent and can brake autonomously, even with no driver input. Of these PCS features, the effects of autonomous pre-crash braking are estimated. To estimate the maximum potential for injury reduction due to autonomous pre-crash braking in the striking vehicle of rear-end crashes, a methodology is presented for determining 1) the reduction in vehicle crash change in velocity (ΔV) due to PCS braking and 2) the number of injuries that could be prevented due to the reduction in collision severity. Injury reduction was only performed for belted drivers, as unbelted drivers have an unknown risk of being thrown out of position. The study was based on 1,406 rear-end striking vehicles from NASS / CDS years 1993 to 2008. PCS parameters were selected from realistic values and varied to examine the effect on system performance. PCS braking authority was varied from 0.5 G's to 0.8 G's while time to collision (TTC) was held at 0.45 seconds. TTC was then varied from 0.3 second to 0.6 seconds while braking authority was held constant at 0.6 G's. A constant braking pulse (step function) and ramp-up braking pulse were used. The study found that automated PCS braking could reduce the crash ΔV in rear-end striking vehicles by an average of 12% - 50% and avoid 0% - 14% of collisions, depending on PCS parameters. Autonomous PCS braking could potentially reduce the number of injured drivers who are belted by 19% to 57%.

  17. Potential Occupant Injury Reduction in Pre-Crash System Equipped Vehicles in the Striking Vehicle of Rear-end Crashes.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Kristofer D; Gabler, Hampton C

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate the severity of rear-end and other collisions, Pre-Crash Systems (PCS) are being developed. These active safety systems utilize radar and/or video cameras to determine when a frontal crash, such as a front-to-back rear-end collisions, is imminent and can brake autonomously, even with no driver input. Of these PCS features, the effects of autonomous pre-crash braking are estimated. To estimate the maximum potential for injury reduction due to autonomous pre-crash braking in the striking vehicle of rear-end crashes, a methodology is presented for determining 1) the reduction in vehicle crash change in velocity (ΔV) due to PCS braking and 2) the number of injuries that could be prevented due to the reduction in collision severity. Injury reduction was only performed for belted drivers, as unbelted drivers have an unknown risk of being thrown out of position. The study was based on 1,406 rear-end striking vehicles from NASS / CDS years 1993 to 2008. PCS parameters were selected from realistic values and varied to examine the effect on system performance. PCS braking authority was varied from 0.5 G's to 0.8 G's while time to collision (TTC) was held at 0.45 seconds. TTC was then varied from 0.3 second to 0.6 seconds while braking authority was held constant at 0.6 G's. A constant braking pulse (step function) and ramp-up braking pulse were used. The study found that automated PCS braking could reduce the crash ΔV in rear-end striking vehicles by an average of 12% - 50% and avoid 0% - 14% of collisions, depending on PCS parameters. Autonomous PCS braking could potentially reduce the number of injured drivers who are belted by 19% to 57%. PMID:21050603

  18. Digital video data archive for crash test systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hock, Christian

    1997-04-01

    Kayser-Threde has been invested many years in developing technology used in crash testing, data acquisition and test data archiving. Since 1976 the department Measurement Systems has ben supplying European car manufacturers and test houses with ruggedized on-board data acquisition units for use in safety tests according to SAE J 211. The integration of on-board high-speed digital cameras has completed the data acquisition unit. Stationary high-speed cameras for external observation are also included in the controlling and acquisition system of the crash test site. The occupation of Kayser-Threde's department High Speed Data Systems is the design and integration of computerized data flow systems under real-time conditions. The special circumstances of crash test applications are taken into account for data acquisition, mass storage and data distribution. The two fundamental components of the video data archiving systems are, firstly, the recording of digital high-speed images as well as digital test data and secondly, an organized filing in mass archiving systems with the capability of near on-line access. In combination with sophisticated and reliable hardware components Kayser-Threde is able to deliver high performance digital data archives with storage capacities of up to 2600 TeraBytes.

  19. A Study of Transport Airplane Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Lisa (Technical Monitor); Robertson, S. H.; Johnson, N. B.; Hall, D. S.; Rimson, I. J.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study, funded by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), of transport airplane crash-resistant fuel system (CRFS). The report covers the historical studies related to aircraft crash fires and fuel containment concepts undertaken by the FAA, NASA, and the U.S. Army, which ultimately led to the current state of the art in CRFS technology. It describes the basic research, testing, field investigations and production efforts which have led to the highly successful military CRFS, which has saved many lives and reduced costs of accidents. Current CRFS technology used in transport category airplanes is defined and compared to the available state-of-the-art technology. The report provides information to the FAA and other government organizations which can help them plan their efforts to improve the state of crash fire protection in the transport airplane fleet. The report provides guidance to designers looking for information about CRFS design problems, analysis tools to use for product improvement, and a summary of current and proposed regulations for transport category airplane fuel systems.

  20. 10 CFR 1705.03 - Systems of records notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systems of records notification. 1705.03 Section 1705.03 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD PRIVACY ACT § 1705.03 Systems of records notification. (a... writing. Written requests should be directed to: Privacy Act Officer, Defense Nuclear Facilities...

  1. 10 CFR 1705.03 - Systems of records notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Systems of records notification. 1705.03 Section 1705.03 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD PRIVACY ACT § 1705.03 Systems of records notification. (a... writing. Written requests should be directed to: Privacy Act Officer, Defense Nuclear Facilities...

  2. 10 CFR 1705.03 - Systems of records notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Systems of records notification. 1705.03 Section 1705.03 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD PRIVACY ACT § 1705.03 Systems of records notification. (a... writing. Written requests should be directed to: Privacy Act Officer, Defense Nuclear Facilities...

  3. 10 CFR 1705.03 - Systems of records notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Systems of records notification. 1705.03 Section 1705.03 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD PRIVACY ACT § 1705.03 Systems of records notification. (a... writing. Written requests should be directed to: Privacy Act Officer, Defense Nuclear Facilities...

  4. Objective test and performance measurement of automotive crash warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, S.; Norcross, R. J.; Falco, J. A.

    2007-04-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), under an interagency agreement with the United States Department of Transportation (DOT), is supporting development of objective test and measurement procedures for vehicle-based warning systems intended to warn an inattentive driver of imminent rear-end, road-departure and lane-change crash scenarios. The work includes development of track and on-road test procedures, and development of an independent measurement system, which together provide data for evaluating warning system performance. This paper will provide an overview of DOT's Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety System (IVBSS) program along with a review of the approach for objectively testing and measuring warning system performance.

  5. Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full scale transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Knight, Vernie H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    NASA Langley's Crash Response Data System (CRDS) which is designed to acquire aircraft structural and anthropomorphic dummy responses during the full-scale transport CID test is described. Included in the discussion are the system design approach, details on key instrumentation subsystems and operations, overall instrumentation crash performance, and data recovery results. Two autonomous high-environment digital flight instrumentation systems, DAS 1 and DAS 2, were employed to obtain research data from various strain gage, accelerometer, and tensiometric sensors installed in the B-720 test aircraft. The CRDS successfully acquired 343 out of 352 measurements of dynamic crash data.

  6. Requirements of a system to reduce car-to-vulnerable road user crashes in urban intersections.

    PubMed

    Habibovic, Azra; Davidsson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Intersection crashes between cars and vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as pedestrians and bicyclists, often result in injuries and fatalities. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) can prevent, or mitigate, these crashes. To derive functional requirements for such systems, an understanding of the underlying contributing factors and the context in which the crashes occur is essential. The aim of this study is to use microscopic and macroscopic crash data to explore the potential of information and warning providing ADASs, and then to derive functional sensor, collision detection, and human-machine interface (HMI) requirements. The microscopic data were obtained from the European project SafetyNet. Causation charts describing contributing factors for 60 car-to-VRU crashes had been compiled and were then also aggregated using the SafetyNet Accident Causation System (SNACS). The macroscopic data were obtained from the Swedish national crash database, STRADA. A total of 9702 crashes were analyzed. The results show that the most frequent contributing factor to the crashes was the drivers' failure to observe VRUs due to reduced visibility, reduced awareness, and/or insufficient comprehension. An ADAS should therefore help drivers to observe the VRUs in time and to enhance their ability to interpret the development of events in the near future. The system should include a combination of imminent and cautionary collision warnings, with additional support in the form of information about intersection geometry and traffic regulations. The warnings should be deployed via an in-vehicle HMI and according to the likelihood of crash risk. The system should be able to operate under a variety of weather and light conditions. It should have the capacity to support drivers when their view is obstructed by physical objects. To address problems that vehicle-based sensors may face in this regard, the use of cooperative systems is recommended.

  7. Requirements of a system to reduce car-to-vulnerable road user crashes in urban intersections.

    PubMed

    Habibovic, Azra; Davidsson, Johan

    2011-07-01

    Intersection crashes between cars and vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as pedestrians and bicyclists, often result in injuries and fatalities. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs) can prevent, or mitigate, these crashes. To derive functional requirements for such systems, an understanding of the underlying contributing factors and the context in which the crashes occur is essential. The aim of this study is to use microscopic and macroscopic crash data to explore the potential of information and warning providing ADASs, and then to derive functional sensor, collision detection, and human-machine interface (HMI) requirements. The microscopic data were obtained from the European project SafetyNet. Causation charts describing contributing factors for 60 car-to-VRU crashes had been compiled and were then also aggregated using the SafetyNet Accident Causation System (SNACS). The macroscopic data were obtained from the Swedish national crash database, STRADA. A total of 9702 crashes were analyzed. The results show that the most frequent contributing factor to the crashes was the drivers' failure to observe VRUs due to reduced visibility, reduced awareness, and/or insufficient comprehension. An ADAS should therefore help drivers to observe the VRUs in time and to enhance their ability to interpret the development of events in the near future. The system should include a combination of imminent and cautionary collision warnings, with additional support in the form of information about intersection geometry and traffic regulations. The warnings should be deployed via an in-vehicle HMI and according to the likelihood of crash risk. The system should be able to operate under a variety of weather and light conditions. It should have the capacity to support drivers when their view is obstructed by physical objects. To address problems that vehicle-based sensors may face in this regard, the use of cooperative systems is recommended. PMID:21545892

  8. Real-Time Multimission Event Notification System for Mars Relay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallick, Michael N.; Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wang, Paul; Hy, Franklin H.

    2013-01-01

    As the Mars Relay Network is in constant flux (missions and teams going through their daily workflow), it is imperative that users are aware of such state changes. For example, a change by an orbiter team can affect operations on a lander team. This software provides an ambient view of the real-time status of the Mars network. The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) comprises a number of tools to coordinate, plan, and visualize various aspects of the Mars Relay Network. As part of MaROS, a feature set was developed that operates on several levels of the software architecture. These levels include a Web-based user interface, a back-end "ReSTlet" built in Java, and databases that store the data as it is received from the network. The result is a real-time event notification and management system, so mission teams can track and act upon events on a moment-by-moment basis. This software retrieves events from MaROS and displays them to the end user. Updates happen in real time, i.e., messages are pushed to the user while logged into the system, and queued when the user is not online for later viewing. The software does not do away with the email notifications, but augments them with in-line notifications. Further, this software expands the events that can generate a notification, and allows user-generated notifications. Existing software sends a smaller subset of mission-generated notifications via email. A common complaint of users was that the system-generated e-mails often "get lost" with other e-mail that comes in. This software allows for an expanded set (including user-generated) of notifications displayed in-line of the program. By separating notifications, this can improve a user's workflow.

  9. Enhanced, Partially Redundant Emergency Notification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pounds, Clark D.

    2005-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Emergency Notification System (JENS) software utilizes pre-existing computation and communication infrastructure to augment a prior variable-tone, siren-based, outdoor alarm system, in order to enhance the ability to give notice of emergencies to employees working in multiple buildings. The JENS software includes a component that implements an administrative Web site. Administrators can grant and deny access to the administrative site and to an originator Web site that enables authorized individuals to quickly compose and issue alarms. The originator site also facilitates maintenance and review of alarms already issued. A custom client/server application program enables an originator to notify every user who is logged in on a Microsoft Windows-based desktop computer by means of a pop-up message that interrupts, but does not disrupt, the user s work. Alternatively or in addition, the originator can send an alarm message to recipients on an e-mail distribution list and/or can post the notice on an internal Web site. An alarm message can consist of (1) text describing the emergency and suggesting a course of action and (2) a replica of the corresponding audible outdoor alarm.

  10. A Combined Water-Bromotrifluoromethane Crash-Fire Protection System for a T-56 Turbopropeller Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John A.; Busch, Arthur M.

    1959-01-01

    A crash-fire protection system is described which will suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbo-propeller engine. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame, means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine ingested fuel, and means for blanketing with bromotrifluoromethane massive metal parts that may reheat after the engine stops rotating. Combustion-chamber flames were rapidly extinguished at the engine fuel nozzles by a fuel shutoff and drain valve. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 42 pounds of water discharged at seven engine stations. Massive metal parts that could reheat were inerted with 10 pounds of bromotrifluoromethane discharged at two engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire protection system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, actuating the crash-fire protection system, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

  11. Causation mechanisms in car-to-vulnerable road user crashes: implications for active safety systems.

    PubMed

    Habibovic, Azra; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-11-01

    Vulnerable road users (VRUs), such as pedestrians and bicyclists, are often involved in crashes with passenger cars. One way to prevent these crashes is to deploy active safety systems that support the car drivers and/or VRUs. However, to develop such systems, a thorough understanding of crash causation mechanisms is required. The aim of this study is to identify crash causation mechanisms from the perspective of the VRUs, and to explore the implications of these mechanisms for the development of active safety systems. Data originate from the European project SafetyNet, where 995 crashes were in-depth investigated using the SafetyNet Accident Causation System (SNACS). To limit the scope, this study analyzed only intersection crashes involving VRUs. A total of 56 VRU crashes were aggregated. Results suggest that, while 30% of the VRUs did not see the conflict car due to visual obstructions in the traffic environment, 70% of the VRUs saw the car before the collision, but still misunderstood the traffic situation and/or made an inadequate plan of action. An important implication that follows from this is that, while detection of cars is clearly an issue that needs to be addressed, it is even more important to help the VRUs to correctly understand traffic situation (e.g., does the driver intend to slow down, and if s/he does, is it to let the VRU cross or for some other reason?). The former issue suggests a role for various cooperative active safety systems, as the obstacles are generally impenetrable with regular sensors. The latter issue is less straightforward. While various systems can be proposed, such as providing gap size estimation and reducing the car speed variability, the functional merits of each such a system need to be further investigated. PMID:23036427

  12. 76 FR 76333 - Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... Statement can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Notification for Airborne Wind Energy Systems (AWES) AGENCY...,'' to airborne wind energy systems (AWES). In addition, this notice requests information from...

  13. A test-based method for the assessment of pre-crash warning and braking systems.

    PubMed

    Bálint, András; Fagerlind, Helen; Kullgren, Anders

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a test-based assessment method for pre-crash warning and braking systems is presented where the effectiveness of a system is measured by its ability to reduce the number of injuries of a given type or severity in car-to-car rear-end collisions. Injuries with whiplash symptoms lasting longer than 1 month and MAIS2+ injuries in both vehicles involved in the crash are considered in the assessment. The injury reduction resulting from the impact speed reduction due to a pre-crash system is estimated using a method which has its roots in the dose-response model. Human-machine interaction is also taken into account in the assessment. The results reflect the self-protection as well as the partner-protection performance of a pre-crash system in the striking vehicle in rear-end collisions and enable a comparison between two or more systems. It is also shown how the method may be used to assess the importance of warning as part of a pre-crash system. PMID:23792618

  14. Crash-Fire Protection System for T-56 Turbopropeller Engine Using Water as Cooling and Inerting Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, Arthur M.; Campbell, John A.

    1959-01-01

    A crash-fire protection system to suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbopropeller engine is described. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame and means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine-ingested fuel. Combustion-chamber flames were extinguished in 0.07 second at the engine fuel manifold. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 52 pounds of water discharged at ten engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire prevention system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, stopping the normal fuel flow to the engine, starting the water discharge, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

  15. Emergency Locator Transmitter System Performance During Three Full-Scale General Aviation Crash Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.; Stimson, Chad M.

    2016-01-01

    Full-scale crash tests were conducted on three Cessna 172 aircraft at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research facility during the summer of 2015. The purpose of the three tests was to evaluate the performance of commercially available Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) systems and support development of enhanced installation guidance. ELTs are used to provide location information to Search and Rescue (SAR) organizations in the event of an aviation distress situation, such as a crash. The crash tests simulated three differing severe but survivable crash conditions, in which it is expected that the onboard occupants have a reasonable chance of surviving the accident and would require assistance from SAR personnel. The first simulated an emergency landing onto a rigid surface, while the second and third simulated controlled flight into terrain. Multiple ELT systems were installed on each airplane according to federal regulations. The majority of the ELT systems performed nominally. In the systems which did not activate, post-test disassembly and inspection offered guidance for non-activation cause in some cases, while in others, no specific cause could be found. In a subset of installations purposely disregarding best practice guidelines, failure of the ELT-to-antenna cabling connections were found. Recommendations for enhanced installation guidance of ELT systems will be made to the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) Special Committee 229 for consideration for adoption in a future release of ELT minimum operational performance specifications. These recommendations will be based on the data gathered during this test series as well as a larger series of crash simulations using computer models that will be calibrated based on these data

  16. Children in crashes: mechanisms of injury and restraint systems

    PubMed Central

    Lapner, Peter C.; McKay, Morag; Howard, Andrew; Gardner, Bill; German, Alan; Letts, Mervyn

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To explore the levels of protection offered to children involved in motor vehicle collisions. Design A joint study by the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) and Transport Canada, Ottawa, conducted in 2 phases: retrospective from 1990 to 1997 and prospective from 1998 to 2000. Setting CHEO, a university affiliated tertiary care centre. Patients Children admitted to CHEO between 1990 and 2000 with spinal trauma due to motor vehical crashes (MVCs). Phase 1 of the study involved analysis, in a series of 45 children after MVAs, by location of spinal injury versus belt type. Phase 2 was a prospective study of 22 children injured in 15 MVAs. Interventions A biomechanical assessment of the vehicle and its influence on the injuries sustained. Main outcome measures The nature and extent of the injuries sustained, and the vehicle dynamics and associated occupant kinematics. Results The odds ratio of sustaining a spinal injury while wearing a 2-point belt versus a 3-point belt was 24 (95% confidence interval 2.0–2.45, p < 0.1), indicating a much higher incidence with a lap belt than a shoulder strap. Conclusions Proper seat-belt restraint reduces the morbidity in children involved in MVCs. Children under the age of 12 years should not be front-seat passengers until the sensitivity of air bags has been improved. Three-point pediatric seat belts should be available for family automobiles to reduce childhood trauma in MVCs. PMID:11764879

  17. Do not blame the driver: a systems analysis of the causes of road freight crashes.

    PubMed

    Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia

    2015-03-01

    Although many have advocated a systems approach in road transportation, this view has not meaningfully penetrated road safety research, practice or policy. In this study, a systems theory-based approach, Rasmussens's (1997) risk management framework and associated Accimap technique, is applied to the analysis of road freight transportation crashes. Twenty-seven highway crash investigation reports were downloaded from the National Transport Safety Bureau website. Thematic analysis was used to identify the complex system of contributory factors, and relationships, identified within the reports. The Accimap technique was then used to represent the linkages and dependencies within and across system levels in the road freight transportation industry and to identify common factors and interactions across multiple crashes. The results demonstrate how a systems approach can increase knowledge in this safety critical domain, while the findings can be used to guide prevention efforts and the development of system-based investigation processes for the heavy vehicle industry. A research agenda for developing an investigation technique to better support the application of the Accimap technique by practitioners in road freight transportation industry is proposed.

  18. Anatomy of a system accident: The crash of Avianca Flight 052

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    On January 25, 1990, Avianca Flight 052 crashed after running out of fuel following a missed approach to New York's John F. Kennedy Airport. Weather was poor on the East Coast of the United States that day, and the flight had experienced several holding patterns enroute from Medellin, Colombia, to New York. The accident is analyzed in terms of Helmreich and Foushee's (1993) model of crew performance and Reason's (1990) model of latent pathogens in system operations.

  19. Driver education and teen crashes and traffic violations in the first two years of driving in a graduated licensing system.

    PubMed

    Shell, Duane F; Newman, Ian M; Córdova-Cazar, Ana Lucía; Heese, Jill M

    2015-09-01

    Our primary research question was whether teens obtaining their intermediate-level provisional operators permit (POP) in a graduated driver licensing (GDL) environment through driver education differed in crashes and traffic violations from teens who obtained their POP by completing a supervised driving certification log without taking driver education. A descriptive epidemiological study examining a census of all teen drivers in Nebraska (151,880 teens, 48.6% girls, 51.4% boys) during an eight year period from 2003 to 2010 was conducted. The driver education cohort had significantly fewer crashes, injury or fatal crashes, violations, and alcohol-related violations than the certification log cohort in both years one and two of driving following receipt of the POP. Hierarchical logistic regression was conducted, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, median household income, urban-rural residence, and age receiving the POP. In both year one and two of driving, teens in the certification log cohort had higher odds of a crash, injury or fatal crash, violation, or alcohol-related violation. Findings support that relative to a supervised driving certification log approach, teens taking driver education are less likely to be involved in crashes or to receive a traffic violation during their first two years of driving in an intermediate stage in a graduated driver licensing system. Because teen crash and fatality rates are highest at ages 16-18, these reductions are especially meaningful. Driver education appears to make a difference in teen traffic outcomes at a time when risk is highest.

  20. 10 CFR 1304.112 - Notification of systems of Privacy Act records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of systems of Privacy Act records. 1304.112 Section 1304.112 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.112 Notification of systems of Privacy Act records. (a) Public notice. On November 22, 1996, the Board published...

  1. 4 CFR 200.12 - Notification of systems of Privacy Act records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of systems of Privacy Act records. 200.12 Section 200.12 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 200.12 Notification of systems of Privacy Act records. (a) Public notice. The Board periodically reviews its...

  2. 10 CFR 1304.112 - Notification of systems of Privacy Act records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of systems of Privacy Act records. 1304.112 Section 1304.112 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.112 Notification of systems of Privacy Act records. (a) Public notice. On November 22, 1996, the Board published...

  3. 10 CFR 1304.112 - Notification of systems of Privacy Act records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of systems of Privacy Act records. 1304.112 Section 1304.112 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.112 Notification of systems of Privacy Act records. (a) Public notice. On November 22, 1996, the Board published...

  4. 10 CFR 1304.112 - Notification of systems of Privacy Act records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of systems of Privacy Act records. 1304.112 Section 1304.112 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.112 Notification of systems of Privacy Act records. (a) Public notice. On November 22, 1996, the Board published...

  5. 10 CFR 1304.112 - Notification of systems of Privacy Act records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of systems of Privacy Act records. 1304.112 Section 1304.112 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1304.112 Notification of systems of Privacy Act records. (a) Public notice. On November 22, 1996, the Board published...

  6. 40 CFR 281.30 - New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification. 281.30 Section 281.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Stringent § 281.30 New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification. In order to...

  7. 40 CFR 281.30 - New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification. 281.30 Section 281.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Stringent § 281.30 New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification. In order to...

  8. 40 CFR 281.30 - New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification. 281.30 Section 281.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...-Stringent § 281.30 New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification. In order to...

  9. Learning Messages Notification System to Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, M. Lourdes

    2005-01-01

    The work presents a new method to send educational messages in e-learning systems. The communication tools are one of the main characteristics of the virtual formative actions, in addition of the contents and the evaluation. The system must help to motivate the students, mainly those who do not leave the formative action and continue it until the…

  10. 14 CFR 29.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... alone, measured at the system component's center of gravity without structural damage to the system components, fuel tanks, or their attachments that would leak fuel to an ignition source. (a) Drop test... to either significant ignition sources, such as engines, heaters, and auxiliary power units,...

  11. 14 CFR 27.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... alone, measured at the system component's center of gravity, without structural damage to system components, fuel tanks, or their attachments that would leak fuel to an ignition source. (a) Drop test... to either significant ignition sources, such as engines, heaters, and auxiliary power units,...

  12. 14 CFR 27.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... alone, measured at the system component's center of gravity, without structural damage to system components, fuel tanks, or their attachments that would leak fuel to an ignition source. (a) Drop test... to either significant ignition sources, such as engines, heaters, and auxiliary power units,...

  13. 14 CFR 27.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... alone, measured at the system component's center of gravity, without structural damage to system components, fuel tanks, or their attachments that would leak fuel to an ignition source. (a) Drop test... to either significant ignition sources, such as engines, heaters, and auxiliary power units,...

  14. 14 CFR 29.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... alone, measured at the system component's center of gravity without structural damage to the system components, fuel tanks, or their attachments that would leak fuel to an ignition source. (a) Drop test... to either significant ignition sources, such as engines, heaters, and auxiliary power units,...

  15. 14 CFR 29.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... alone, measured at the system component's center of gravity without structural damage to the system components, fuel tanks, or their attachments that would leak fuel to an ignition source. (a) Drop test... to either significant ignition sources, such as engines, heaters, and auxiliary power units,...

  16. 14 CFR 29.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... alone, measured at the system component's center of gravity without structural damage to the system components, fuel tanks, or their attachments that would leak fuel to an ignition source. (a) Drop test... to either significant ignition sources, such as engines, heaters, and auxiliary power units,...

  17. 14 CFR 27.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... alone, measured at the system component's center of gravity, without structural damage to system components, fuel tanks, or their attachments that would leak fuel to an ignition source. (a) Drop test... to either significant ignition sources, such as engines, heaters, and auxiliary power units,...

  18. 14 CFR 29.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... alone, measured at the system component's center of gravity without structural damage to the system components, fuel tanks, or their attachments that would leak fuel to an ignition source. (a) Drop test... to either significant ignition sources, such as engines, heaters, and auxiliary power units,...

  19. 14 CFR 27.952 - Fuel system crash resistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... alone, measured at the system component's center of gravity, without structural damage to system components, fuel tanks, or their attachments that would leak fuel to an ignition source. (a) Drop test... to either significant ignition sources, such as engines, heaters, and auxiliary power units,...

  20. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Britton, Charles L.; Pearce, James; Jagadish, Usha; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2008-11-11

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interference circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitting with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  1. Remote shock sensing and notification system

    DOEpatents

    Muralidharan, Govindarajan [Knoxville, TN; Britton, Charles L [Alcoa, TN; Pearce, James [Lenoir City, TN; Jagadish, Usha [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod K [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-11-02

    A low-power shock sensing system includes at least one shock sensor physically coupled to a chemical storage tank to be monitored for impacts, and an RF transmitter which is in a low-power idle state in the absence of a triggering signal. The system includes interface circuitry including or activated by the shock sensor, wherein an output of the interface circuitry is coupled to an input of the RF transmitter. The interface circuitry triggers the RF transmitter with the triggering signal to transmit an alarm message to at least one remote location when the sensor senses a shock greater than a predetermined threshold. In one embodiment the shock sensor is a shock switch which provides an open and a closed state, the open state being a low power idle state.

  2. Situation analysis for automotive pre-crash systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhning, Marcus A.; Ritter, Henning; Rohling, Herrman

    2008-01-01

    According to the "World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention" jointly issued by the World Health Organization and the World Bank about 1.2 million people are killed and up to 50 million people are injured in road traffic accidents worldwide each year. While passive safety systems like the airbag are already deployed successfully to reduce fatalities and injuries, active safety systems assist the driver by issuing a warning or by taking corrective actions to either avoid a collision completely or, if impossible, to mitigate collision consequences. Today's radar sensors have the ability to detect and track objects with a high accuracy in range and velocity, therefore a collision warning system may consist of a radar sensor, a data processing unit and a model to describe possible evasion maneuvers. This allows to analyze the probability of a collision and to calculate the danger potential of the current situation. In this paper, such a system is proposed and it is verified with synthetic as well as real sensor data.

  3. Evaluating the Emergency Notification Systems of the NASA White Sands Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Alfred Paul

    2004-01-01

    The problem was that the NASA Fire and Emergency Services did not know if the current emergency notification systems on the NASA White Sands Test Facility were appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. The purpose of this Applied Research Project was to determine if the current emergency notification systems of the White Sands Test Facility are appropriate for alerting the employees of an emergency. This was a descriptive research project. The research questions were: 1) What are similar facilities using to alert the employees of an emergency?; 2) Are the current emergency notification systems suitable for the community hazards on the NASA White Sands Test Facility?; 3) What is the NASA Fire and Emergency Services currently using to measure the effectiveness of the emergency notification systems?; and 4) What are the current training methods used to train personnel to the emergency notification systems at the NASA White Sands Test Facility? The procedures involved were to research other established facilities, research published material from credible sources, survey the facility to determine the facility perception of the emergency notification systems, and evaluate the operating elements of the established emergency notification systems for the facility. The results were that the current systems are suitable for the type of hazards the facility may endure. The emergency notification systems are tested frequently to ensure effectiveness in the event of an emergency. Personnel are trained and participate in a yearly drill to make certain personnel are educated on the established systems. The recommendations based on the results were to operationally improve the existing systems by developing and implementing one system that can overall notify the facility of a hazard. Existing procedures and training should also be improved to ensure that all personnel are educated on what to do when the emergency notification systems are activated.

  4. Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR): the concept.

    PubMed

    Baker, E L

    1989-12-01

    Although many states have laws that require health providers to report cases of occupational illness and injury, most states do not maintain a comprehensive system that actively identifies and targets potential sources of case reports and then responds to such reports. NIOSH has developed a Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR) that uses targeted sources of sentinel providers to recognize and report selected occupational disorders to a state surveillance center. SENSOR is a cooperative state-federal effort designed to develop local capability for preventing selected occupational disorders. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, NIOSH initially funded seven SENSOR projects in 1987 and three additional projects in early 1988 (Table 1). Currently, these projects are in the preliminary stages of organization and start-up, with some having begun to receive case reports. As funds become available, NIOSH intends to gradually expand the scope of the program to include additional states over the next several years.

  5. Misuse of Child Restraint Systems in Crash Situations - Danger and Possible Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Lesire, Philippe; Cuny, Sophie; Alonzo, François; Cataldi, Manuela

    2007-01-01

    Based on real-world crash data and recent field studies, an ad-hoc group was set up in order to have a better comprehension of the effects of misuse of Child Restraint Systems (CRS) on child protection. A testing programme of 60 single misuse situations was conducted. Test results confirmed that, in frontal impact, children have higher risk of being injured on a number of different body regions when CRS’s are misused. This work provides material for educational and training purposes to help parents understand that child restraints need to be correctly fitted in order to provide the level of protection they are designed for. PMID:18184494

  6. Evaluating adverse rural crash outcomes using the NHTSA State Data System

    PubMed Central

    Peura, Christine; Kilch, Joseph A.; Clark, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The population-based rate of motor vehicle crash mortality is consistently higher in rural locations, but it is unclear how much of this disparity might be due to geographic barriers or deficiencies in emergency medical services (EMS). We sought to analyze separately factors associated with the occurrence of a severe injury and those associated with death after injury had occurred. Methods Data from all police-reported crashes in 11 states from 2005–2007 were obtained through the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) State Data System (SDS). Logistic regression was used to estimate factors associated with (1) death; (2) severe (incapacitating or fatal) injury; and (3) death given severe injury. Models included covariates related to the person, vehicle, and event; county location was specified using Rural–Urban Continuum Codes (RUCC). Results Older age, not wearing a belt, ejection, alcohol involvement, high speed, and early morning times were associated with increased risk of both severe injury and death. Controlling for these factors, and restricting analysis to persons who had suffered a severe injury, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) associated with death was higher for counties classified rural (RUCC 6–7, aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16–1.31) or very rural (RUCC 8–9, aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.18–1.46). Conclusions Persons severely injured in crashes are more likely to die if they are in rural locations, possibly due to EMS constraints. As NHTSA-SDS data become more available and more uniform, they may be useful to explore specific factors contributing to this increased risk. PMID:26117802

  7. Driver education and teen crashes and traffic violations in the first two years of driving in a graduated licensing system.

    PubMed

    Shell, Duane F; Newman, Ian M; Córdova-Cazar, Ana Lucía; Heese, Jill M

    2015-09-01

    Our primary research question was whether teens obtaining their intermediate-level provisional operators permit (POP) in a graduated driver licensing (GDL) environment through driver education differed in crashes and traffic violations from teens who obtained their POP by completing a supervised driving certification log without taking driver education. A descriptive epidemiological study examining a census of all teen drivers in Nebraska (151,880 teens, 48.6% girls, 51.4% boys) during an eight year period from 2003 to 2010 was conducted. The driver education cohort had significantly fewer crashes, injury or fatal crashes, violations, and alcohol-related violations than the certification log cohort in both years one and two of driving following receipt of the POP. Hierarchical logistic regression was conducted, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, median household income, urban-rural residence, and age receiving the POP. In both year one and two of driving, teens in the certification log cohort had higher odds of a crash, injury or fatal crash, violation, or alcohol-related violation. Findings support that relative to a supervised driving certification log approach, teens taking driver education are less likely to be involved in crashes or to receive a traffic violation during their first two years of driving in an intermediate stage in a graduated driver licensing system. Because teen crash and fatality rates are highest at ages 16-18, these reductions are especially meaningful. Driver education appears to make a difference in teen traffic outcomes at a time when risk is highest. PMID:26043429

  8. Crash analysis of a conceptual electric vehicle with a multifunctional battery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukreja, Jaspreet S.

    For current electric vehicles, batteries are employed only as an energy source. Due to safety concerns, the space for battery storage is co-allocated with passenger space, which would constrain the design for the vehicle. An architectured multifunctional battery-structure material, namely Granular Battery Assembly (GBA), has been proposed by Tsutsui et al., 2014. Such a material system utilizes the deformation of sacrificing tubes to dissipate impact energy and protect the battery cells, thereby allowing the batteries to be placed in the front crumple zone of an electric vehicle, while also ensuring occupant safety. The primary focus of this study was vehicle level design analysis of GBA for application in an electric vehicle. A parametric study was performed to determine suitable characteristics of the GBA system for installation in a vehicle. To reduce computational cost, a homogenized material was used to represent GBA in the finite element model of the vehicle. Frontal crash simulation of a vehicle with GBA placed in crumple zone was performed on LS-DYNA platform.The crash response was used to demonstrate the utility of GBA mechanism to keep the batteries and passengers safe. The incorporation of GBA into an electric vehicle would allow for battery space to be decoupled from passenger space, thereby increasing the vehicle design freedom. Use of the crumple zone for battery storage would also result in increasing the available battery space.

  9. Network Event Recording Device: An automated system for Network anomaly detection, and notification. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, D.G.; Wilkins, R.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of the Network Event Recording Device (NERD) is to provide a flexible autonomous system for network logging and notification when significant network anomalies occur. The NERD is also charged with increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of currently implemented network security procedures. While it has always been possible for network and security managers to review log files for evidence of network irregularities, the NERD provides real-time display of network activity, as well as constant monitoring and notification services for managers. Similarly, real-time display and notification of possible security breaches will provide improved effectiveness in combating resource infiltration from both inside and outside the immediate network environment.

  10. Development of a motion analysis system specialized for car-crash tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Young-Hoo; Lee, Jea-Sun

    1995-05-01

    A prototype of a PC-based motion analysis system specialized for the car-crash test with 2D and 3D analysis capabilities was developed. The core of the proposed motion analysis system is the film-to-video conversion and the semiautomatic marker tracking. Construction of the converter using a 16 mm film projector and a CCD camera is currently undergoing. The semiautomatic marker tracking system was tested in an outdoor pilot experiment a with a small-sized passenger car. A film-to- video converter, a PC with a frame grabber, an RGB video monitor and the tracking software are the components of the tracking system. A location- prediction & marker-detection algorithm was embedded in the tracking software of automatic marker detection. Other data analysis features were also discussed.

  11. Crash reconstruction and injury-mechanism analysis using event data recorder technology.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, B R; Galganski, R A; Lawrence, R D; Blatt, A

    2001-01-01

    Sophisticated onboard crash-event data recorders (EDRs) that log key vehicle dynamics information can be used to improve crash reconstruction, model occupant response, study the mechanisms of injury, and estimate occupant injury probabilities in near-real time. Such an EDR was developed and utilized as part of the Automatic Collision Notification (ACN) system for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. This paper presents the results of a study in which the reconstruction of an actual crash was augmented using EDR/ACN-supplied three-dimensional acceleration and other data in a vehicle occupant model configured using the Articulated Total Body (ATB) computer code. ATB-generated occupant-motion imagery and body-region acceleration response information provided valuable insights that permitted crash-reconstruction specialists to ascertain the true nature of the collision and identify the probable cause of an injury suffered by one of the victims. The authors also posit that the use of EDR data from an ACN-type system as inputs to occupant crash-response modeling may be someday support crash-victim emergency medical treatment and triage.

  12. Simulation System of Car Crash Test in C-NCAP Analysis Based on an Improved Apriori Algorithm*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, LI

    In order to analysis car crash test in C-NCAP, an improved algorithm is given based on Apriori algorithm in this paper. The new algorithm is implemented with vertical data layout, breadth first searching, and intersecting. It takes advantage of the efficiency of vertical data layout and intersecting, and prunes candidate frequent item sets like Apriori. Finally, the new algorithm is applied in simulation of car crash test analysis system. The result shows that the relations will affect the C-NCAP test results, and it can provide a reference for the automotive design.

  13. Modeling the Car Crash Crisis Management System Using HiLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölzl, Matthias; Knapp, Alexander; Zhang, Gefei

    An aspect-oriented modeling approach to the Car Crash Crisis Management System (CCCMS) using the High-Level Aspect (HiLA) language is described. HiLA is a language for expressing aspects for UML static structures and UML state machines. In particular, HiLA supports both a static graph transformational and a dynamic approach of applying aspects. Furthermore, it facilitates methodologically turning use case descriptions into state machines: for each main success scenario, a base state machine is developed; all extensions to this main success scenario are covered by aspects. Overall, the static structure of the CCCMS is modeled in 43 classes, the main success scenarios in 13 base machines, the use case extensions in 47 static and 31 dynamic aspects, most of which are instantiations of simple aspect templates.

  14. Field Tests of a Tractor Rollover Detection and Emergency Notification System.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Koc, A B

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of a rollover detection and emergency notification system for farm tractors using field tests. The emergency notification system was developed based on a tractor stability model and implemented on a mobile electronic device with the iOS operating system. A complementary filter was implemented to combine the data from the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors to improve their accuracies in calculating the roll and pitch angles and the roll and pitch rates. The system estimates a stability index value during tractor operation, displays feedback messages when the stability index is lower than a preset threshold value, and transmits emergency notification messages when an overturn happens. Ten tractor rollover tests were conducted on a field track. The developed system successfully monitored the stability of the tractor during all of the tests. The iOS application was able to detect rollover accidents and transmit emergency notifications in the form of a phone call and email when an accident was detected. The system can be a useful tool for training and education in safe tractor operation. The system also has potential for stability monitoring and emergency notification of other on-road and off-road motorized vehicles. PMID:26204787

  15. 42 CFR 433.123 - Notification of changes in system requirements, performance standards or other conditions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of changes in system requirements, performance standards or other conditions for approval or reapproval. 433.123 Section 433.123 Public Health... Systems § 433.123 Notification of changes in system requirements, performance standards or...

  16. 42 CFR 433.123 - Notification of changes in system requirements, performance standards or other conditions for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification of changes in system requirements, performance standards or other conditions for approval or reapproval. 433.123 Section 433.123 Public Health... Systems § 433.123 Notification of changes in system requirements, performance standards or...

  17. A regional review of air medical transports for fatal motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Garthe, E A; Mango, N K; Prenney, B

    2000-01-01

    This article presents study results from an assessment of the performance of the air medical (and advanced life support) components of the EMS system in response to fatal motor vehicle crashes. Results are presented for one of Massachusetts' five EMS regions, including the finding that air medical transports are involved in 20% of the fatal crashes for the region and transport 11% of the involved individuals. Although the study focused on air medical utilization, it also identified issues related to the future implementation of motor vehicle automatic crash notification (ACN) and telematics that could relay crash severity data from onboard computers (e.g., event data recorders) to auto manufacturers' help centers or state emergency call centers. This technology will place new demands on state EMS systems. To meet the challenges posed by these technological changes, states will need to assess the type and number of EMS services required to respond to ACN motor vehicle crashes and develop methods to determine what level of service to deploy based on the information relayed from the vehicles. An initial step in this evaluation process is to determine the current use of EMS resources to place planned system changes and demand into context.

  18. 40 CFR 281.30 - New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... than 25 gallons at one time. (c) All UST system owners and operators must notify the implementing state... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New UST system design, construction...-Stringent § 281.30 New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification. In order to...

  19. 40 CFR 281.30 - New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... than 25 gallons at one time. (c) All UST system owners and operators must notify the implementing state... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New UST system design, construction...-Stringent § 281.30 New UST system design, construction, installation, and notification. In order to...

  20. Antilock braking system effectiveness in prevention of road traffic crashes in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anti-lock Brake System (ABS) helps the equipped vehicles to stop under heavy braking, in a shorter distance and with a better control of direction. It was expected that this technology will reduce the rate of fatal road traffic crashes (RTC); however, the outcome is controversial in the real world. The aim of this study is to compare the claimed annual incidence rate and financial losses due to RTCs in ABS vs. non-ABS personal vehicles in Iran. Methods A telephone survey among drivers of two similar models of personal vehicles was arranged. The studied vehicles were of the same brand and type; but only one of them was equipped with ABS. The number of RTCs, subsequent financial loss, and drivers’ knowledge and perception about ABS were sought. The sample consisted of drivers of 1232 ABS and 3123 non-ABS vehicles. Results The annual incidence rate of RTC involving another vehicle was 145.1 (134.8-155.9) per 1000 vehicle-years and there was not a statistically significant difference between study groups. The incidence of RTC with another vehicle due to brake failure was 50.3 (42.9-58.5) for 1000 non ABS vehicle-years and 30.0 (21.2-41.2) for 1000 ABS equipped vehicle-years. The difference was statistically significant after adjustment for the driver and vehicle's age and the daily driving time. The attributable risk of RTC for non-ABS vehicles was 20/1000 vehicles and the excess fraction was 39.8%. The mean financial loss due to reported RTCs was $987.9 ± $1547.3 US Dollars and there was not a statistically significant difference between study groups. While 61.1% of ABS vehicle drivers reported situations in which they believed the ABS had prevented a crash, 44.1% of them however, they did not know how to use ABS efficiently. Conclusions Law enforcement to maintain safe distance and adhere to speed limit while driving, is needed to raise the effectiveness of ABS. This is as necessary as considering mandatory outfitting of ABS. Safety authorities

  1. 49 CFR 238.403 - Crash energy management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crash energy management. 238.403 Section 238.403... Equipment § 238.403 Crash energy management. (a) Each power car and trailer car shall be designed with a crash energy management system to dissipate kinetic energy during a collision. The crash...

  2. 49 CFR 238.403 - Crash energy management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crash energy management. 238.403 Section 238.403... Equipment § 238.403 Crash energy management. (a) Each power car and trailer car shall be designed with a crash energy management system to dissipate kinetic energy during a collision. The crash...

  3. 49 CFR 238.403 - Crash energy management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crash energy management. 238.403 Section 238.403... Equipment § 238.403 Crash energy management. (a) Each power car and trailer car shall be designed with a crash energy management system to dissipate kinetic energy during a collision. The crash...

  4. 49 CFR 238.403 - Crash energy management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crash energy management. 238.403 Section 238.403... Equipment § 238.403 Crash energy management. (a) Each power car and trailer car shall be designed with a crash energy management system to dissipate kinetic energy during a collision. The crash...

  5. 49 CFR 238.403 - Crash energy management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crash energy management. 238.403 Section 238.403... Equipment § 238.403 Crash energy management. (a) Each power car and trailer car shall be designed with a crash energy management system to dissipate kinetic energy during a collision. The crash...

  6. System-Integrated Finite Element Analysis of a Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Test with Deployable Energy Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin S.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter was conducted in December 2009 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research facility (LandIR). The MD-500 helicopter was fitted with a composite honeycomb Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA) and tested under vertical and horizontal impact velocities of 26-ft/sec and 40-ft/sec, respectively. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the performance of the DEA concept under realistic crash conditions and to generate test data for validation of a system integrated finite element model. In preparation for the full-scale crash test, a series of sub-scale and MD-500 mass simulator tests was conducted to evaluate the impact performances of various components, including a new crush tube and the DEA blocks. Parameters defined within the system integrated finite element model were determined from these tests. The objective of this paper is to summarize the finite element models developed and analyses performed, beginning with pre-test predictions and continuing through post-test validation.

  7. Impact of pavement conditions on crash severity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingfeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Ding, Liang

    2013-10-01

    Pavement condition has been known as a key factor related to ride quality, but it is less clear how exactly pavement conditions are related to traffic crashes. The researchers used Geographic Information System (GIS) to link Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) Crash Record Information System (CRIS) data and Pavement Management Information System (PMIS) data, which provided an opportunity to examine the impact of pavement conditions on traffic crashes in depth. The study analyzed the correlation between several key pavement condition ratings or scores and crash severity based on a large number of crashes in Texas between 2008 and 2009. The results in general suggested that poor pavement condition scores and ratings were associated with proportionally more severe crashes, but very poor pavement conditions were actually associated with less severe crashes. Very good pavement conditions might induce speeding behaviors and therefore could have caused more severe crashes, especially on non-freeway arterials and during favorable driving conditions. In addition, the results showed that the effects of pavement conditions on crash severity were more evident for passenger vehicles than for commercial vehicles. These results provide insights on how pavement conditions may have contributed to crashes, which may be valuable for safety improvement during pavement design and maintenance. Readers should notice that, although the study found statistically significant effects of pavement variables on crash severity, the effects were rather minor in reality as suggested by frequency analyses.

  8. Space Shuttle Orbiter crash and rescue information - Basic characteristics of the Space Shuttle system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, N. C.

    1976-01-01

    Major fire and rescue activity procedures developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter are reproduced, together with diagrams of the Orbiter's ejection seat and of emergency egress-ingress hatches and blowout panels. Duties assigned to the Manager of the Fire, Crash and Rescue division of the Space Shuttle Program are discussed, including training of both ground and flight personnel in accordance with the Orbiter Crash Rescue Information manual. The special problem of providing a means of egress and rescue for the flight and ground crews of the Orbiter while it is in the piggyback configuration on top the Boeing 747 carrier was solved by use of a modified 85-foot articulated boom.

  9. 78 FR 40737 - Notification of Deletion of System of Records; Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... AGENCY Notification of Deletion of System of Records; Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics... Investigations Center, Office of Criminal Enforcement, Forensics & Training at (303) 462-9051 or Tammy Stein..., Forensics & Training at (303) 462-9054, P.O. Box 25227, Denver Federal Center, 6th and Kipling, Building...

  10. A market systems analysis of the U.S. Sport Utility Vehicle market considering frontal crash safety technology and policy.

    PubMed

    Hoffenson, Steven; Frischknecht, Bart D; Papalambros, Panos Y

    2013-01-01

    Active safety features and adjustments to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) consumer-information crash tests have the potential to decrease the number of serious traffic injuries each year, according to previous studies. However, literature suggests that risk reductions, particularly in the automotive market, are often accompanied by adjusted consumer risk tolerance, and so these potential safety benefits may not be fully realized due to changes in consumer purchasing or driving behavior. This article approaches safety in the new vehicle market, particularly in the Sport Utility Vehicle and Crossover Utility Vehicle segments, from a market systems perspective. Crash statistics and simulations are used to predict the effects of design and policy changes on occupant crash safety, and discrete choice experiments are conducted to estimate the values consumers place on vehicle attributes. These models are combined in a market simulation that forecasts how consumers respond to the available vehicle alternatives, resulting in predictions of the market share of each vehicle and how the change in fleet mixture influences societal outcomes including injuries, fuel consumption, and firm profits. The model is tested for a scenario where active safety features are implemented across the new vehicle fleet and a scenario where the U.S. frontal NCAP test speed is modified. While results exhibit evidence of consumer risk adjustment, they support adding active safety features and lowering the NCAP frontal test speed, as these changes are predicted to improve the welfare of both firms and society. PMID:22898094

  11. A multivariate spatial crash frequency model for identifying sites with promise based on crash types.

    PubMed

    Jonathan, Aguero-Valverde; Wu, Kun-Feng Ken; Donnell, Eric T

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have proposed the use of a systemic approach to identify sites with promise (SWiPs). Proponents of the systemic approach to road safety management suggest that it is more effective in reducing crash frequency than the traditional hot spot approach. The systemic approach aims to identify SWiPs by crash type(s) and, therefore, effectively connects crashes to their corresponding countermeasures. Nevertheless, a major challenge to implementing this approach is the low precision of crash frequency models, which results from the systemic approach considering subsets (crash types) of total crashes leading to higher variability in modeling outcomes. This study responds to the need for more precise statistical output and proposes a multivariate spatial model for simultaneously modeling crash frequencies for different crash types. The multivariate spatial model not only induces a multivariate correlation structure between crash types at the same site, but also spatial correlation among adjacent sites to enhance model precision. This study utilized crash, traffic, and roadway inventory data on rural two-lane highways in Pennsylvania to construct and test the multivariate spatial model. Four models with and without the multivariate and spatial correlations were tested and compared. The results show that the model that considers both multivariate and spatial correlation has the best fit. Moreover, it was found that the multivariate correlation plays a stronger role than the spatial correlation when modeling crash frequencies in terms of different crash types.

  12. Development of an Electronic Notification System for Influenza-Like Illness Sentinel Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Mehnaz; Peterkin, Donald; Mackereth, Graham

    2016-01-01

    An electronic Influenza like Illness surveillance system developed to support general practices to electronically notify the cases of influenza like illness (ILI) for national sentinel surveillance in New Zealand. Content analysis was performed to capture the information necessary for ILI surveillance. An online form was implemented within the patient management system to record the details of ILI cases. A middleware framework was developed to manage the information flow between GPs and national influenza surveillance coordinators. The framework used an HL7 version 2.4 messaging standard to receive the notification data and Rhapsody integration engines to parse the message and store the information in national ILI data base. This paper presents the system design and implementation details of electronic ILI notification system. It presents data model designed to capture information for ILI case along with the HL7 messages structure implemented in the system. PMID:27440281

  13. Naturalistic Assessment of Novice Teenage Crash Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suzanne E.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crash risk is highest during the first months after licensure. Current knowledge about teenagers’ driving exposure and the factors increasing their crash risk is based on self-reported data and crash database analyses. While these research tools are useful, new developments in naturalistic technologies have allowed researchers to examine newly-licensed teenagers’ exposure and crash risk factors in greater detail. The Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study (NTDS) described in this paper is the first study to follow a group of newly-licensed teenagers continuously for 18 months after licensure. The goals of this paper are to compare the crash and near-crash experience of drivers in the NTDS to national trends, to describe the methods and lessons learned in the NTDS, and to provide initial data on driving exposure for these drivers. Methods A data acquisition system was installed in the vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers 16 years of age during their first 18 months of independent driving. It consisted of cameras, sensors (accelerometers, GPS, yaw, front radar, lane position, and various sensors obtained via the vehicle network), and a computer with removable hard drive. Data on the driving of participating parents was also collected when they drove the instrumented vehicle. Findings The primary findings after 18 months included the following: (1) crash and near-crash rates among teenage participants were significantly higher during the first six months of the study than the final 12 months, mirroring the national trends; (2) crash and near-crash rates were significantly higher for teenage than adult (parent) participants, also reflecting national trends; (3) teenaged driving exposure averaged between 507-710 kilometers (315-441 miles) per month over the study period, but varied substantially between participants with standard errors representing 8-14 percent of the mean; and (4) crash and near-crash types were very similar for male and female

  14. Relative risk of death from ejection by crash type and crash mode.

    PubMed

    Esterlitz, J R

    1989-10-01

    In virtually all circumstances, the chance of survival in a crash is much greater if the occupant is not ejected from the vehicle. Several estimates of the increased risk of death as a result of ejection (ranging from 2.5 to 25) have been made, but none were specific to the crash mode and most did not control for crash severity. The current study examined the relative risk of fatality due to ejection, by crash type and crash mode, using the Fatal Accident Reporting System data from the years 1982 through 1986. Crash type was defined as either single vehicle or multivehicle and crash mode included rollover, nonrollover, and/or direction of impact. Crash severity was controlled for using a paired comparison method of analysis. Both crash type and crash mode were found to have substantial effects on the relative risk of death due to ejection. In addition, risk differences across seating position exist. Depending on crash mode or type, the risks ranged from about 1.5 to 8. Single-vehicle rollover crashes have the highest increased risk of death due to ejection: about eightfold for the driver and sevenfold for the right front passenger. PMID:2619855

  15. Crash reconstruction and crash modification factors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the following question: Under what conditions can reconstructed road crashes be used to estimate the effect of a safety-related countermeasure? Results developed by Pearl and his associates are used to draw two main conclusions. First, when one can (1) identify a structural equation describing a type of crash, (2) identify an additional structural equation describing the countermeasure's impact, and (3) estimate the initiating conditions for a set of reconstructed crashes, then a lower bound for a crash modification factor can be estimated by simulating whether or not each of the reconstructed crashes would still have occurred had the countermeasure been present. If the countermeasure's effect is monotonic this bound becomes tight. Second, in situations where it is not possible to reliably identify the structural equations needed for simulation, but where one can (1) identify a set of crash inputs which, when given, make the crash outcome conditionally independent of the countermeasure, and (2) predict how the distribution of these inputs will change in response to the countermeasure, then nonparametric estimation of the countermeasure's crash modification factor is possible. When it is not possible to predict the countermeasure's effect on the conditioning variables it may still be possible to identify constraints or specifications which the countermeasure should satisfy in order to realize a target crash modification.

  16. Emergency Notification Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsouros, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In higher education, the IT department is often the service provider for the institution's emergency notification system (ENS). For many institutions, the complexity of providing emergency notification to students, faculty, and staff makes using a local, on-premise solution unrealistic. But finding the right commercially hosted technical solution…

  17. Long-term effect of the North Carolina graduated driver licensing system on licensed driver crash incidence: a 5-year survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Masten, Scott V; Foss, Robert D

    2010-11-01

    Several studies document the success of graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems in reducing young teen crash rates, but it is not yet clear whether any portion of the crash reduction is achieved by producing more capable drivers. The purpose of this study was to determine whether young teen drivers licensed under the North Carolina GDL system remain crash-free longer than those licensed prior to GDL, independent of the crude reductions in exposure (i.e., decreasing and delaying licensure) that may be responsible for most documented effects of GDL. Survival analysis was used to compare retrospective cohorts of 16-17 year olds before (n=105,569) and after (n=327,054) the North Carolina GDL system was implemented. The crash incidence of GDL-licensed 16-17 year olds (combined) was 10% lower than that for pre-GDL teens for at least 5 years after being licensed to drive independently (hazard ratio [HR]=0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.89, 0.91). However, more refined analysis revealed the reductions to only be among females (7%; HR=0.93; CI=0.91, 0.94) and males (15%; HR=0.85, CI=0.84, 0.87) licensed at age 16 and not among females (0%; HR=1.00; CI=0.95, 1.06) and males (0%; HR=1.00; CI=0.92, 1.09) licensed at age 17. Sixteen-year-old drivers licensed under the North Carolina GDL system experienced lower first-crash incidence during the first 5 years of unsupervised driving than did those licensed under the previous system. The benefits are greater for males, who tend to have higher crash rates. The findings contradict conventional wisdom that the entire benefit of GDL results merely from decreasing or delaying licensure among young drivers.

  18. Asynchronous data change notification between database server and accelerator controls system

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, W.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.

    2011-10-10

    Database data change notification (DCN) is a commonly used feature. Not all database management systems (DBMS) provide an explicit DCN mechanism. Even for those DBMS's which support DCN (such as Oracle and MS SQL server), some server side and/or client side programming may be required to make the DCN system work. This makes the setup of DCN between database server and interested clients tedious and time consuming. In accelerator control systems, there are many well established software client/server architectures (such as CDEV, EPICS, and ADO) that can be used to implement data reflection servers that transfer data asynchronously to any client using the standard SET/GET API. This paper describes a method for using such a data reflection server to set up asynchronous DCN (ADCN) between a DBMS and clients. This method works well for all DBMS systems which provide database trigger functionality. Asynchronous data change notification (ADCN) between database server and clients can be realized by combining the use of a database trigger mechanism, which is supported by major DBMS systems, with server processes that use client/server software architectures that are familiar in the accelerator controls community (such as EPICS, CDEV or ADO). This approach makes the ADCN system easy to set up and integrate into an accelerator controls system. Several ADCN systems have been set up and used in the RHIC-AGS controls system.

  19. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  20. U.S. Geological Survey's Alert Notification System for Volcanic Activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Cynthia A.; Guffanti, Marianne C.

    2006-01-01

    The United States and its territories have about 170 volcanoes that have been active during the past 10,000 years, and most could erupt again in the future. In the past 500 years, 80 U.S. volcanoes have erupted one or more times. About 50 of these recently active volcanoes are monitored, although not all to the same degree. Through its five volcano observatories, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) issues information and warnings to the public about volcanic activity. For clarity of warnings during volcanic crises, the USGS has now standardized the alert-notification system used at its observatories.

  1. 49 CFR 234.303 - Emergency notification systems for telephonic reporting of unsafe conditions at highway-rail and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reporting of unsafe conditions at highway-rail and pathway grade crossings. 234.303 Section 234.303..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings § 234.303 Emergency notification systems for...

  2. 49 CFR 234.303 - Emergency notification systems for telephonic reporting of unsafe conditions at highway-rail and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reporting of unsafe conditions at highway-rail and pathway grade crossings. 234.303 Section 234.303..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings § 234.303 Emergency notification systems for...

  3. 49 CFR 234.303 - Emergency notification systems for telephonic reporting of unsafe conditions at highway-rail and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reporting of unsafe conditions at highway-rail and pathway grade crossings. 234.303 Section 234.303..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND... at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings § 234.303 Emergency notification systems for...

  4. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the plutonium finishing plant safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-05-20

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  5. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.F.

    1997-04-21

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the PFP Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  6. Technical Seminar: "Crash Safety"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    This seminar addresses the history and successful progress in predicting and improving the crash safety characteristics of vehicles, with particular emphasis on rotary wing aircraft and composite s...

  7. A qualitative evaluation of the post accident notification system to health visitors.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, L

    1996-01-01

    Childhood accidental injuries are a major public health problem, whether measured in terms of morbidity or mortality, and accident prevention is subsequently a priority issue. The Accident and Emergency Notification System to health visitors provides them with vital information and statistics with which to plan accident prevention work, both on an individual basis or in group work. This small study aimed to look at this system from the health visitor's perspective and explore the action taken. The grounded theory approach was used to uncover the processes used by the health visitors. Data were collected using unstructured interviews and by writing notes. These were transcribed on the same day as recorded. Nine categories were identified and an analysis of the processes involved when receiving the notification slip is presented. The categories included 'knowing the family', 'age and development', 'pressure of work' and 'gut feeling/extra sensory perception'. This study is a small contribution to our understanding of the processes involved in everyday health visiting practice.

  8. Unattended monitoring system at a static storage area with real-time event notification.

    SciTech Connect

    West, J. D.; Betts, S. E.; Michel, K. D.; Schanfein, M. J.; Ricketts, T. E.

    2005-01-01

    Domestic Safeguards at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and throughout the Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) complex has historically relied on administrative and non-integrated approaches to implement nuclear safeguards at its facilities. Besides the heavy cost born by the facility and the compliance oversight organization, the safeguards assurance is only periodic, potentially allowing an adversary a longer time before detection. Even after detection, the lack of situational awareness makes it difficult to assess events. By leveraging unattended monitoring systems (UMS) used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), we have designed a baseline system that has high reliability through fault tolerant designs for both hardware and software. Applying IAEA design goals to assure no loss of data and using a dual containment strategy, this system is a first step in implementing modern safeguards monitoring systems at LANL and, hopefully, applications at other DOE/NNSA sites. This paper will review the design requirements and how they will be met, to provide a real-time event notification for a static storage location. The notification system triggers communications to pagers and email addresses for a fast response by facility personnel to the violation of a defined safeguards exclusion zone. Since the system has to be installed in an existing facility, the challenges to the designers will be presented. Aside from the initial baseline system that relies on surveillance cameras and seals, other optional upgrades will be detailed, showing both the power and the promise of unattended systems for domestic safeguards. We will also include a short discussion of the business obstacles to modernizing safeguards and how a UMS system may be applied to dynamic activities at a nuclear facility. Ultimately, the current lack of such modern monitoring systems reflects the many business obstacles internal to DOE/NNSA to the use of

  9. Development of mobile preventive notification system (PreNotiS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhinav; Akopian, David; Chen, Philip

    2009-02-01

    The tasks achievable by mobile handsets continuously exceed our imagination. Statistics show that the mobile phone sales are soaring, rising exponentially year after year with predictions being that they will rise to a billion units in 2009, with a large section of these being smartphones. Mobile service providers, mobile application developers and researchers have been working closely over the past decade to bring about revolutionary and hardware and software advancements in hand-sets such as embedded digital camera, large memory capacity, accelerometer, touch sensitive screens, GPS, Wi- Fi capabilities etc. as well as in the network infrastructure to support these features. Recently we presented a multi-platform, massive data collection system from distributive sources such as cell phone users1 called PreNotiS. This technology was intended to significantly simplify the response to the events and help e.g. special agencies to gather crucial information in time and respond as quickly as possible to prevent or contain potential emergency situations and act as a massive, centralized evidence collection mechanism that effectively exploits the advancements in mobile application development platforms and the existing network infrastructure to present an easy-touse, fast and effective tool to mobile phone users. We successfully demonstrated the functionality of the client-server application suite to post user information onto the server. This paper presents a new version of the system PreNotiS, with a revised client application and with all new server capabilities. PreNotiS still puts forth the idea of having a fast, efficient client-server based application suite for mobile phones which through a highly simplified user interface will collect security/calamity based information in a structured format from first responders and relay that structured information to a central server where this data is sorted into a database in a predefined manner. This information which

  10. Making the Most of Alert Notification Systems: Eleven Tips for Using Emergency Communication Solutions in Your District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Districts are finding that alert notification systems that deliver automated phone messages are an effective way to reach parents and employees. Implementing the technology is one thing and getting the most out of it is another. This article presents the Districts' goal to get in touch with parents and employees in emergency situations. Andy…

  11. 78 FR 53774 - Guide for the Evaluation of Alert and Notification Systems for Nuclear Power Plants, FEMA-REP-10...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... not available when FEMA REP-10 was first developed, such as smartphones and social media. Removes... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Guide for the Evaluation of Alert and Notification Systems...

  12. Hubble Witnesses Comet Crash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Quick Time Movie for PIA02122 Hubble Witnesses Comet Crash

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Hubble Witnesses Comet Crash

    These pictures of comet Tempel 1 were taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. They show the comet before and after it ran over NASA's Deep Impact probe.

  13. Forensic aspects of the highway crash.

    PubMed

    Gikas, P W

    1983-01-01

    It can be stated that patterns of injury in highway crashes can often be related to specific design and damage features of the vehicle. The restraint systems designed to attenuate injury may also, under severe crash circumstances, produce trauma. Problems may arise as to identification of vehicular drivers. It behooves the pathologist concerned with the necropsy of crash victims and the physician responsible for treating crash victims to become familiar with the pathogenesis of injuries. Such knowledge can be utilized in the recommendation for improvement of vehicles to render them more crashworthy. Awareness of the various mechanisms of injury in vehicle crashes also enhances the diagnostic skill of the initial treating physician when he or she is confronted with a crash victim in the emergency department. Ideally, when the victim arrives at the hospital, the emergency room physician should be supplied with the details of the crash including the type of vehicle, position within the vehicle, use or nonuse of restraint systems, and the direction of the impact. When a fatality results from a car crash, ideally the autopsy pathologist should inspect the vehicle or at least view pictures of the exterior and interior of the vehicle to help establish the pathogenesis of injury in a specific collision. Unfortunately, because of time constraints, this ideal is not always achieved. Because of the considerable volume of civil and criminal litigation resulting from highway crashes, there is a need for competent medical expertise to help both the plaintiff and the defendent. The pathologist involved in forensic work and the treating physician play a particularly important role in the judicial arena.

  14. Mass Notification for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Mass notification is a high priority in educational institutions. As the number of electronic communication devices has diversified, so has the complexity of designing an effective mass notification system. Picking the right system, with the right features, support services and price, can be daunting. This publication, updated quarterly due to…

  15. Do elevated gravitational-force events while driving predict crashes and near crashes?

    PubMed

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Zhang, Zhiwei; Jackson, John C; Albert, Paul S

    2012-05-15

    The purpose of this research was to determine the extent to which elevated gravitational-force event rates predict crashes and near crashes. Accelerometers, global positioning systems, cameras, and other technology were installed in vehicles driven by 42 newly licensed Virginia teenage drivers for a period of 18 months between 2006 and 2009. Elevated gravitational force and crash and near-crash events were identified, and rates per miles driven were calculated. (One mile = 1.6 km.) The correlation between crashes and near crashes and elevated gravitational-force event rates was 0.60. Analyses were done by using generalized estimating equations with logistic regression. Higher elevated gravitational-force event rates in the past month substantially increased the risk of a crash in the subsequent month (odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.12). Although the difference in this relation did not vary significantly by time, it was highest in the first 6 months compared with the second and third 6-month periods. With a receiver operating characteristic curve, the risk models showed relatively high predictive accuracy with an area under the curve of 0.76. The authors conclude that elevated gravitational-force event rates can be used to assess risk and to show high predictive accuracy of a near-future crash.

  16. Automatic recloser circuit breaker integrated with GSM technology for power system notification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lada, M. Y.; Khiar, M. S. A.; Ghani, S. A.; Nawawi, M. R. M.; Rahim, N. H.; Sinar, L. O. M.

    2015-05-01

    Lightning is one type of transient faults that usually cause the circuit breaker in the distribution board trip due to overload current detection. The instant tripping condition in the circuit breakers clears the fault in the system. Unfortunately most circuit breakers system is manually operated. The power line will be effectively re-energized after the clearing fault process is finished. Auto-reclose circuit is used on the transmission line to carry out the duty of supplying quality electrical power to customers. In this project, an automatic reclose circuit breaker for low voltage usage is designed. The product description is the Auto Reclose Circuit Breaker (ARCB) will trip if the current sensor detects high current which exceeds the rated current for the miniature circuit breaker (MCB) used. Then the fault condition will be cleared automatically and return the power line to normal condition. The Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) system will send SMS to the person in charge if the tripping occurs. If the over current occurs in three times, the system will fully trip (open circuit) and at the same time will send an SMS to the person in charge. In this project a 1 A is set as the rated current and any current exceeding a 1 A will cause the system to trip or interrupted. This system also provides an additional notification for user such as the emergency light and warning system.

  17. Critical market crashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornette, D.

    2003-04-01

    This review presents a general theory of financial crashes and of stock market instabilities that his co-workers and the author have developed over the past seven years. We start by discussing the limitation of standard analyses for characterizing how crashes are special. The study of the frequency distribution of drawdowns, or runs of successive losses shows that large financial crashes are “outliers”: they form a class of their own as can be seen from their statistical signatures. If large financial crashes are “outliers”, they are special and thus require a special explanation, a specific model, a theory of their own. In addition, their special properties may perhaps be used for their prediction. The main mechanisms leading to positive feedbacks, i.e., self-reinforcement, such as imitative behavior and herding between investors are reviewed with many references provided to the relevant literature outside the narrow confine of Physics. Positive feedbacks provide the fuel for the development of speculative bubbles, preparing the instability for a major crash. We demonstrate several detailed mathematical models of speculative bubbles and crashes. A first model posits that the crash hazard drives the market price. The crash hazard may sky-rocket at some times due to the collective behavior of “noise traders”, those who act on little information, even if they think they “know”. A second version inverses the logic and posits that prices drive the crash hazard. Prices may skyrocket at some times again due to the speculative or imitative behavior of investors. According the rational expectation model, this entails automatically a corresponding increase of the probability for a crash. We also review two other models including the competition between imitation and contrarian behavior and between value investors and technical analysts. The most important message is the discovery of robust and universal signatures of the approach to crashes. These precursory

  18. Flash crashes, bursts, and black swans: parallels between financial markets and healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    West, Bruce J; Clancy, Thomas R

    2010-11-01

    As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies in the field of complex systems have generated new perspectives on management in social organizations such as hospitals. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This is the 16th in a series of articles applying complex systems science to the traditional management concepts of planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling. In this article, Dr Clancy, the editor of this column, and co-author, Dr West, discuss how the collapse of global financial markets in 2008 may provide valuable insight into mechanisms of complex system behavior in healthcare. Dr West, a physicist and expert in the field of complex systems and network science, is author of a chapter in the book, On the Edge: Nursing in the Age of Complexity (Lindberg C, Nash S, Linberg C. Bordertown, NJ: Plexus Press; 2008) and his most recent book, Disrupted Networks: From Physics to Climate Change (West BJ, Scafetta N. Singapore: Disrupted Networks, World Scientific Publishing; 2010). PMID:20978411

  19. The Performance of Various Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems in a Frontal Crash

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, C. P.; Abdelilah, Y.; Crandall, J. R.; Stevens, S. L.; Saggese, J. M.; Eichelberger, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    Current forward facing (FF) child restraint designs use LATCH and ISOFIX systems to couple the restraint to the vehicle. Rear facing (RF) child restraints, however, have multiple coupling methods that vary by manufacturer and country of origin. Sled tests were performed with the CRABI 12 month dummy in six different RF attachment conditions. The performance of the rear facing child restraints (restraint kinematics, head accelerations, and neck loads) was highly dependent on the coupling method used. The results were also compared to a FF LATCH restraint. PMID:15319132

  20. Identification of a crash model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizzi, J. P.; Jezequel, L.

    1992-11-01

    Our knowledge of the behaviour of passenger cars and road safety systems during a crash trial is based on experimental studies. A survey was carried out on the modelling of the front compartment of a passenger car: the model will make it possible to enlarge the conclusions drawn from a test by extending the results to different situations. We have designed a mathematical spring-masses model which simulates the behaviour of a passenger car during various frontal crash configurations. However, the main difficulty is to know perfectly the laws of behaviour of the springs. That is why an identification methodology was envisaged from the configuration of the experimental results. To know the vehicle's real behaviour during a crash trial, it is necessary to have experimental devices which make it possible to rebuild the space kinematics of the components. We thus designed, in each case, suitable acquisition and processing software. Different non-parametric and parametric identification methods were then tested on simple and then complex models. The results have permitted us to determine which is the best adapted to solve our problem.

  1. Development of a Human Motor Model for the Evaluation of an Integrated Alerting and Notification Flight Deck System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiker, Ron; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A human motor model was developed on the basis of performance data that was collected in a flight simulator. The motor model is under consideration as one component of a virtual pilot model for the evaluation of NextGen crew alerting and notification systems in flight decks. This model may be used in a digital Monte Carlo simulation to compare flight deck layout design alternatives. The virtual pilot model is being developed as part of a NASA project to evaluate multiple crews alerting and notification flight deck configurations. Model parameters were derived from empirical distributions of pilot data collected in a flight simulator experiment. The goal of this model is to simulate pilot motor performance in the approach-to-landing task. The unique challenges associated with modeling the complex dynamics of humans interacting with the cockpit environment are discussed, along with the current state and future direction of the model.

  2. Crash and Creativeness in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punke, Harold H.

    1977-01-01

    American patterns of cultural growth are sometimes said to be characterized by "crash programs"--indifference or neglect followed by a crash emphasis on air and water pollution, urban decay and ghettos, population growth, etc. Considers the neglect-and-crash approach as it relates to three areas within the field of education. (Author/RK)

  3. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    PubMed

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  4. Crash protection of stock car racing drivers--application of biomechanical analysis of Indy car crash research.

    PubMed

    Melvin, John W; Begeman, Paul C; Faller, Ronald K; Sicking, Dean L; McClellan, Scott B; Maynard, Edwin; Donegan, Michael W; Mallott, Annette M; Gideon, Thomas W

    2006-11-01

    Biomechanical analysis of Indy car crashes using on-board impact recorders (Melvin et al. 1998, Melvin et al. 2001) indicates that Indy car driver protection in high-energy crashes can be achieved in frontal, side, and rear crashes with severities in the range of 100 to 135 G peak deceleration and velocity changes in the range of 50 to 70 mph. These crashes were predominantly single-car impacts with the rigid concrete walls of oval tracks. This impressive level of protection was found to be due to the unique combination of a very supportive and tight-fitting cockpit-seating package, a six-point belt restraint system, and effective head padding with an extremely strong chassis that defines the seat and cockpit of a modern Indy car. In 2000 and 2001, a series of fatal crashes in stock car racing created great concern for improving the crash protection for drivers in those racecars. Unlike the Indy car, the typical racing stock car features a more spacious driver cockpit due to its resemblance to the shape of a passenger car. The typical racing seat used in stock cars did not have the same configuration or support characteristics of the Indy car seat, and five-point belt restraints were used. The tubular steel space frame chassis of a stock car also differs from an Indy car's composite chassis structure in both form and mechanical behavior. This paper describes the application of results of the biomechanical analysis of the Indy car crash studies to the unique requirements of stock car racing driver crash protection. Sled test and full-scale crash test data using both Hybrid III frontal crash anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and BioSID side crash ATDs for the purpose of evaluating countermeasures involving restraint systems, seats and head/neck restraints has been instrumental in guiding these developments. In addition, the development of deformable walls for oval tracks (the SAFER Barrier) is described as an adjunct to improved occupant restraint through control

  5. Patterns of Drug Use in Fatal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Pollini, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize drug prevalence among fatally injured drivers, identify significant associations (i.e., day of week, time of day, age, gender), and compare findings with those for alcohol. Design Descriptive and logistic mixed-model regression analyses of Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Setting U.S. states with drug test results for >80% of fatally injured drivers, 1998-2010. Participants Drivers killed in single-vehicle crashes on public roads who died at the scene of the crash (N=16,942). Measurements Drug test results, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gender, age, and day and time of crash. Findings Overall, 45.1% of fatally injured drivers tested positive for alcohol (39.9% BAC>0.08) and 25.9% for drugs. The most common drugs present were stimulants (7.2%) and cannabinols (7.1%), followed by “other” drugs (4.1%), multiple drugs (4.1%), narcotics (2.1%), and depressants (1.5%). Drug-involved crashes occurred with relative uniformity throughout the day while alcohol-involved crashes were more common at night (p<.01). The odds of testing positive for drugs varied depending upon drug class, driver characteristics, time of day, and the presence of alcohol. Conclusions Fatal single vehicle crashes involving drugs are less common than those involving alcohol and the characteristics of drug-involved crashes differ depending upon drug class and whether alcohol is present. Concerns about drug-impaired driving should not detract from the current law enforcement focus on alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:23600629

  6. Innovative Anti Crash Absorber for a Crashworthy Landing Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Michele; Marulo, Francesco; Montesarchio, Bruno; Bruno, Massimiliano

    2014-06-01

    This paper defines an innovative concept to anti-crash absorber in composite material to be integrated on the landing gear as an energy-absorbing device in crash conditions to absorb the impact energy. A composite cylinder tube in carbon fiber material is installed coaxially to the shock absorber cylinder and, in an emergency landing gear condition, collapses in order to enhance the energy absorption performance of the landing system. This mechanism has been developed as an alternative solution to a high-pressure chamber installed on the Agusta A129 CBT helicopter, which can be considered dangerous when the helicopter operates in hard and/or crash landing. The characteristics of the anti-crash device are presented and the structural layout of a crashworthy landing gear adopting the developed additional energy absorbing stage is outlined. Experimental and numerical results relevant to the material characterization and the force peaks evaluation of the system development are reported. The anti-crash prototype was designed, analysed, optimized, made and finally the potential performances of a landing gear with the additional anti-crash absorber system are tested by drop test and then correlated with a similar test without the anti-crash system, showing that appreciable energy absorbing capabilities and efficiencies can be obtained in crash conditions.

  7. Bicycling crash characteristics: An in-depth crash investigation study.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ben; Stevenson, Mark; Newstead, Stuart; Cameron, Peter; Judson, Rodney; Edwards, Elton R; Bucknill, Andrew; Johnson, Marilyn; Gabbe, Belinda

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the crash characteristics and patient outcomes of a sample of patients admitted to hospital following bicycle crashes. Injured cyclists were recruited from the two major trauma services for the state of Victoria, Australia. Enrolled cyclists completed a structured interview, and injury details and patient outcomes were extracted from the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR) and the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). 186 cyclists consented to participate in the study. Crashes commonly occurred during daylight hours and in clear weather conditions. Two-thirds of crashes occurred on-road (69%) and were a combination of single cyclist-only events (56%) and multi-vehicle crashes (44%). Of the multi-vehicle crashes, a motor vehicle was the most common impact partner (72%) and distinct pre-crash directional interactions were observed between the cyclist and motor vehicle. Nearly a quarter of on-road crashes occurred when the cyclist was in a marked bicycle lane. Of the 31% of crashes that were not on-road, 28 (15%) occurred on bicycle paths and 29 (16%) occurred in other locations. Crashes on bicycle paths commonly occurred on shared bicycle and pedestrian paths (83%) and did not involve another person or vehicle. Other crash locations included mountain bike trails (39%), BMX parks (21%) and footpaths (18%). While differences in impact partners and crash characteristics were observed between crashes occurring on-road, on bicycle paths and in other locations, injury patterns and severity were similar. Most cyclists had returned to work at 6 months post-injury, however only a third of participants reported a complete functional recovery. Further research is required to develop targeted countermeasures to address the risk factors identified in this study. PMID:27544886

  8. Bicycling crash characteristics: An in-depth crash investigation study.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ben; Stevenson, Mark; Newstead, Stuart; Cameron, Peter; Judson, Rodney; Edwards, Elton R; Bucknill, Andrew; Johnson, Marilyn; Gabbe, Belinda

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the crash characteristics and patient outcomes of a sample of patients admitted to hospital following bicycle crashes. Injured cyclists were recruited from the two major trauma services for the state of Victoria, Australia. Enrolled cyclists completed a structured interview, and injury details and patient outcomes were extracted from the Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR) and the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). 186 cyclists consented to participate in the study. Crashes commonly occurred during daylight hours and in clear weather conditions. Two-thirds of crashes occurred on-road (69%) and were a combination of single cyclist-only events (56%) and multi-vehicle crashes (44%). Of the multi-vehicle crashes, a motor vehicle was the most common impact partner (72%) and distinct pre-crash directional interactions were observed between the cyclist and motor vehicle. Nearly a quarter of on-road crashes occurred when the cyclist was in a marked bicycle lane. Of the 31% of crashes that were not on-road, 28 (15%) occurred on bicycle paths and 29 (16%) occurred in other locations. Crashes on bicycle paths commonly occurred on shared bicycle and pedestrian paths (83%) and did not involve another person or vehicle. Other crash locations included mountain bike trails (39%), BMX parks (21%) and footpaths (18%). While differences in impact partners and crash characteristics were observed between crashes occurring on-road, on bicycle paths and in other locations, injury patterns and severity were similar. Most cyclists had returned to work at 6 months post-injury, however only a third of participants reported a complete functional recovery. Further research is required to develop targeted countermeasures to address the risk factors identified in this study.

  9. Identify sequence of events likely to result in severe crash outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Thor, Craig P; Ardiansyah, Muhammad Nashir

    2016-11-01

    The current practice of crash characterization in highway engineering reduces multiple dimensions of crash contributing factors and their relative sequential connections, crash sequences, into broad definitions, resulting in crash categories such as head-on, sideswipe, rear-end, angle, and fixed-object. As a result, crashes that are classified in the same category may contain many different crash sequences. This makes it difficult to develop effective countermeasures because these crash categorizations are based on the outcomes rather than the preceding events. Consequently, the efficacy of a countermeasure designed for a specific type of crash may not be appropriate due to different pre-crash sequences. This research seeks to explore the use of event sequence to characterize crashes. Additionally, this research seeks to identify crash sequences that are likely to result in severe crash outcomes so that researchers can develop effective countermeasures to reduce severe crashes. This study utilizes the sequence of events from roadway departure crashes in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), and converts the information to form a new categorization called "crash sequences." The similarity distance between each pair of crash sequences were calculated using the Optimal Matching approach. Cluster analysis was applied to group crash sequences that are etiologically similar in terms of the similarity distance. A hybrid model was constructed to mitigate the potential sample selection bias of FARS data, which is biased toward more severe crashes. The major findings include: (1) in terms of a roadway departure crash, the crash sequences that are most likely to result in high crash severity include a vehicle that first crosses the median or centerline, runs-off-road on the left, and then collides with a roadside fixed-object; (2) seat-belt and airbag usage reduces the probability of dying in a roadway departure crash by 90%; and (3) occupants who are seated on the

  10. Identify sequence of events likely to result in severe crash outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Thor, Craig P; Ardiansyah, Muhammad Nashir

    2016-11-01

    The current practice of crash characterization in highway engineering reduces multiple dimensions of crash contributing factors and their relative sequential connections, crash sequences, into broad definitions, resulting in crash categories such as head-on, sideswipe, rear-end, angle, and fixed-object. As a result, crashes that are classified in the same category may contain many different crash sequences. This makes it difficult to develop effective countermeasures because these crash categorizations are based on the outcomes rather than the preceding events. Consequently, the efficacy of a countermeasure designed for a specific type of crash may not be appropriate due to different pre-crash sequences. This research seeks to explore the use of event sequence to characterize crashes. Additionally, this research seeks to identify crash sequences that are likely to result in severe crash outcomes so that researchers can develop effective countermeasures to reduce severe crashes. This study utilizes the sequence of events from roadway departure crashes in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), and converts the information to form a new categorization called "crash sequences." The similarity distance between each pair of crash sequences were calculated using the Optimal Matching approach. Cluster analysis was applied to group crash sequences that are etiologically similar in terms of the similarity distance. A hybrid model was constructed to mitigate the potential sample selection bias of FARS data, which is biased toward more severe crashes. The major findings include: (1) in terms of a roadway departure crash, the crash sequences that are most likely to result in high crash severity include a vehicle that first crosses the median or centerline, runs-off-road on the left, and then collides with a roadside fixed-object; (2) seat-belt and airbag usage reduces the probability of dying in a roadway departure crash by 90%; and (3) occupants who are seated on the

  11. Reading as Wedding Crashing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Grappling with difficult texts can make readers feel as though they're crashing a party that wasn't meant for them. They don't know the occasion. They don't know the guests. They have a hard time fitting in. In this article, Thomas Newkirk suggests several reasons why students find texts difficult to understand. Students may be…

  12. 48 CFR 245.7308 - Antitrust notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antitrust notification. 245.7308 Section 245.7308 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7308 Antitrust notification. (a)...

  13. 29 CFR 2400.5 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRIVACY ACT § 2400.5 Notification. (a) Notification of systems. The following procedures permit individuals to determine the types of systems of records maintained by OSHRC. (1) Upon written request, OSHRC shall notify any individual whether a specific system named by him contains a record pertaining to...

  14. Factors Affecting Ejection Risk in Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  15. Factors affecting ejection risk in rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Bain, Charles E; Wirth, Jeffrey L; Bonugli, Enrique B; Watson, Richard A

    2012-01-01

    Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 - 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130

  16. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  17. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  18. Crash and Risky Driving Involvement Among Novice Adolescent Drivers and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Zhang, Zhiwei; Klauer, Sheila E.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Wang, Jing; Albert, Paul S.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We compared rates of risky driving among novice adolescent and adult drivers over the first 18 months of adolescents' licensure. Methods. Data-recording systems installed in participants’ vehicles provided information on driving performance of 42 newly licensed adolescent drivers and their parents. We analyzed crashes and near crashes and elevated g-force event rates by Poisson regression with random effects. Results. During the study period, adolescents were involved in 279 crashes or near crashes (1 involving injury); parents had 34 such accidents. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) comparing adolescent and parent crash and near-crash rates was 3.91. Among adolescent drivers, elevated rates of g-force events correlated with crashes and near crashes (r = 0.60; P < .001). The IRR comparing incident rates of risky driving among adolescents and parents was 5.08. Adolescents’ rates of crashes and near crashes declined with time (with a significant uptick in the last quarter), but elevated g-force event rates did not decline. Conclusions. Elevated g-force events among adolescents may have contributed to crash and near-crash rates that remained much higher than adult levels after 18 months of driving. PMID:22021319

  19. Sikorski - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Roof instrument panel between pilot stations, right view. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  20. Sikorski - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Roof instrument panel between pilot stations - left view. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  1. Sikorsky - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Sub-floor, inside view showing details of limited crushing. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  2. Sikorsky - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Left view of cockpit showing manikin head against panel. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  3. Sikorsky - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Right view of cabin showing troop seat fabric failure. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  4. Automatic Notifications Mediated by Anesthesia Information Management Systems Reduce the Frequency of Prolonged Gaps in Blood Pressure Documentation

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenfeld, Jesse M.; Epstein, Richard H.; Bader, Stephen; Kheterpal, Sachin; Sandberg, Warren S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Arterial blood pressure (BP) measurement at least every five minutes is part of the American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA) monitoring standard, but prolonged BP gaps in electronic anesthesia records have been noted. We undertook multicenter studies to determine the frequency of cases with at least one interval ≥ 10 minutes between successive BP measurements and then to ascertain if educational feedback via an electronic, near real-time notification system alerting providers to the presence of such gaps would reduce their incidence. Methods We evaluated 212,706 electronic anesthesia records from three large academic centers. We determined the fraction of cases with ≥ 10 minute BP monitoring gaps at baseline and did a root cause analysis to determine common causes for these lapses. We then designed and implemented automated systems at two of the hospitals to notify point-of-care providers immediately after such 10-minute gaps occurred and determined the subsequent impact of this feedback on BP gap incidence, compared to baseline. Results At Hospital A, the notification system reduced the incidence of cases with at least one BP gap (1.48% ± 0.19% SD vs 0.79% ± 0.36% SD, p<0.0001). At Hospital B, the gap incidence was not significantly altered when notification was provided after a 10-min gap had already occurred (2.72% ± 0.60% SD vs. 2.45% ± 0.48% SD, P=0.27), but the incidence was reduced when such notification was provided after 6 minutes without a BP reading (2.72% ± 0.60% SD vs 1.54% ± 0.19% SD, P<0.0001). At Hospital C, where notification was not implemented, the baseline rate of BP gaps was consistent across the preintervention and follow-up periods (7.03% ± 1.27% SD vs. 7.13% ± 0.11% SD, p=0.74). Although monitors disconnected during position change was the most common identifiable cause of BP gaps, reasons for the missing BPs were often not documented. During a week when the electronic charting system was temporarily inoperable, no

  5. 48 CFR 52.224-1 - Privacy Act Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Act Notification....224-1 Privacy Act Notification. As prescribed in 24.104, insert the following clause in solicitations... required to accomplish an agency function: Privacy Act Notification (APR 1984) The Contractor will...

  6. Resisting "Crash Diet" Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane

    2008-01-01

    People often respond to the pressure of attending a high school reunion or their child's wedding by going on a crash diet to get quick results. In response, friends may marvel about how good they look on the outside. But what folks don't acknowledge is that, in the name of getting results, crash dieters have done some very unhealthy things to…

  7. A reexamination of the small overlap frontal crash.

    PubMed

    Scullion, Paul; Morgan, Richard M; Mohan, Pradeep; Kan, Cing-Dao; Shanks, Kurt; Jin, Wook; Tangirala, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and rank the Small Overlap Frontal Crash as one of the eight-group taxonomy proposed by Ford. The Ford taxonomy classifies real-world frontal-impact crashes based on the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). Frontally-impacted vehicles were identified for 1985 - 2008 model year passenger vehicles with Collision Deformation Classification (CDC) data from the 1995 - 2008 years of NASS. Small overlap frontal cases were identified where there was no engagement of the vehicle frame rails, and the direct damage was located entirely outside of the vehicle frame rails. The results are that full engagement and offset (offset category means the direct damage overlaps the vehicle frame rail, with the center of direct damage between the frame rails) were the most frequent crashes contributing 35% each. The frequency of the small overlap frontal was 6%. The risks of injury (AIS ≥ 2) for the full engagement, offset, and small overlap were 8%, 6%, and 3% respectively. For this study, the number of small overlap vehicles was 1,118 and the number of injured nearside occupants was 100. This study-following the Ford approach and reasonably identifying the location of the longitudinal rails based on CDC-suggests that the small overlap is at worst a moderately dangerous crash in the overall scheme of frontal crashes. The implications of this study are that the safety community should reexamine the significance of the small overlap frontal crash against an overall taxonomy of crashes. PMID:21050598

  8. Requirements for the Crash Protection of Older Vehicle Passengers

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Andrew; Welsh, Ruth; Hassan, Ahamedali

    2003-01-01

    This study compares injury outcomes in vehicle crashes involving different age groups of belted passengers. Two datasets were considered. Firstly, UK national data revealed that younger passengers are much more likely to be involved in crashes per million miles travelled compared to older passengers although older passengers are much more likely to be killed or seriously injured compared to younger passengers. Secondly, in-depth vehicle crash injury data were examined to determine some of the underlying reasons for the enhanced injury risk amongst older passengers. In crashes of approximately equal severity, the older passenger group were significantly more likely to be fatally injured in frontal crashes (p<0.001). However young passengers were as equally likely to be killed in struck-side crashes compared to the older group. The results also showed that older passengers sustained more serious injuries to the chest region in frontal crashes compared with the younger aged group (p<0.0001) and it is this body region that is particularly problematic. When the data were analysed further, it was found that a large proportion of passengers were female and that in the majority of cases, the seat belt was responsible for injury. Since by the year 2030, 1 in 4 persons will be aged over 65 in most OECD countries, the results suggest a need for intervention through vehicle design including in-vehicle crashworthiness systems that take into account reduced tolerance to impact with ageing. PMID:12941224

  9. Did Advances in Global Surveillance and Notification Systems Make a Difference in the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic?–A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Lopez-Gatell, Hugo; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia M.; Stoto, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2009 H1N1 outbreak provides an opportunity to identify strengths and weaknesses of disease surveillance and notification systems that have been implemented in the past decade. Methods Drawing on a systematic review of the scientific literature, official documents, websites, and news reports, we constructed a timeline differentiating three kinds of events: (1) the emergence and spread of the pH1N1 virus, (2) local health officials’ awareness and understanding of the outbreak, and (3) notifications about the events and their implications. We then conducted a “critical event” analysis of the surveillance process to ascertain when health officials became aware of the epidemiologic facts of the unfolding pandemic and whether advances in surveillance notification systems hastened detection. Results This analysis revealed three critical events. First, medical personnel identified pH1N1in California children because of an experimental surveillance program, leading to a novel viral strain being identified by CDC. Second, Mexican officials recognized that unconnected outbreaks represented a single phenomenon. Finally, the identification of a pH1N1 outbreak in a New York City high school was hastened by awareness of the emerging pandemic. Analysis of the timeline suggests that at best the global response could have been about one week earlier (which would not have stopped spread to other countries), and could have been much later. Conclusions This analysis shows that investments in global surveillance and notification systems made an important difference in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. In particular, enhanced laboratory capacity in the U.S. and Canada led to earlier detection and characterization of the 2009 H1N1. This includes enhanced capacity at the federal, state, and local levels in the U.S., as well as a trilateral agreement enabling collaboration among U.S., Canada, and Mexico. In addition, improved global notification systems contributed by helping

  10. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System Portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    2000-04-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the definition and means of maintaining the safety envelope (SE) for the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System (ENES). Together with the appendices, it provides: (1) The system requirements for determining system operability (Section 3.0); (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4.0); (3) List of system drawings that are annotated to show the SE boundaries (Appendix A); (4) Identification of the SE equipment by reference to systems and drawings (Appendix B); (5) Requirements for the individual SE equipment (Section 4.0); and (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the SE (Sections 5.0 and 6.0). The Private Automatic Exchange (PAX) phones and PAX switchers are outside the safety envelope defined in WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010, Section 5.4.10, ''Safety Communication and Alarm Systems,'' Section 5.4.1 0.1, ''Major Components and Operating Characteristics,'' and Section 5.4.10.1.12, ''PAX System.'' The PAX override microphone system maintains the safety envelope, and functions as a backup to the evacuation sirens during an emergency.

  11. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs.

  12. Crash risk analysis for Shanghai urban expressways: A Bayesian semi-parametric modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjie; Wang, Xuesong; Yang, Kui; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Urban expressway systems have been developed rapidly in recent years in China; it has become one key part of the city roadway networks as carrying large traffic volume and providing high traveling speed. Along with the increase of traffic volume, traffic safety has become a major issue for Chinese urban expressways due to the frequent crash occurrence and the non-recurrent congestions caused by them. For the purpose of unveiling crash occurrence mechanisms and further developing Active Traffic Management (ATM) control strategies to improve traffic safety, this study developed disaggregate crash risk analysis models with loop detector traffic data and historical crash data. Bayesian random effects logistic regression models were utilized as it can account for the unobserved heterogeneity among crashes. However, previous crash risk analysis studies formulated random effects distributions in a parametric approach, which assigned them to follow normal distributions. Due to the limited information known about random effects distributions, subjective parametric setting may be incorrect. In order to construct more flexible and robust random effects to capture the unobserved heterogeneity, Bayesian semi-parametric inference technique was introduced to crash risk analysis in this study. Models with both inference techniques were developed for total crashes; semi-parametric models were proved to provide substantial better model goodness-of-fit, while the two models shared consistent coefficient estimations. Later on, Bayesian semi-parametric random effects logistic regression models were developed for weekday peak hour crashes, weekday non-peak hour crashes, and weekend non-peak hour crashes to investigate different crash occurrence scenarios. Significant factors that affect crash risk have been revealed and crash mechanisms have been concluded.

  13. Crash risk analysis for Shanghai urban expressways: A Bayesian semi-parametric modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjie; Wang, Xuesong; Yang, Kui; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Urban expressway systems have been developed rapidly in recent years in China; it has become one key part of the city roadway networks as carrying large traffic volume and providing high traveling speed. Along with the increase of traffic volume, traffic safety has become a major issue for Chinese urban expressways due to the frequent crash occurrence and the non-recurrent congestions caused by them. For the purpose of unveiling crash occurrence mechanisms and further developing Active Traffic Management (ATM) control strategies to improve traffic safety, this study developed disaggregate crash risk analysis models with loop detector traffic data and historical crash data. Bayesian random effects logistic regression models were utilized as it can account for the unobserved heterogeneity among crashes. However, previous crash risk analysis studies formulated random effects distributions in a parametric approach, which assigned them to follow normal distributions. Due to the limited information known about random effects distributions, subjective parametric setting may be incorrect. In order to construct more flexible and robust random effects to capture the unobserved heterogeneity, Bayesian semi-parametric inference technique was introduced to crash risk analysis in this study. Models with both inference techniques were developed for total crashes; semi-parametric models were proved to provide substantial better model goodness-of-fit, while the two models shared consistent coefficient estimations. Later on, Bayesian semi-parametric random effects logistic regression models were developed for weekday peak hour crashes, weekday non-peak hour crashes, and weekend non-peak hour crashes to investigate different crash occurrence scenarios. Significant factors that affect crash risk have been revealed and crash mechanisms have been concluded. PMID:26847949

  14. Relationship between organisational safety culture dimensions and crashes.

    PubMed

    Varmazyar, Sakineh; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Arghami, Shirazeh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Knowing about organisational safety culture in public transportation system can provide an appropriate guide to establish effective safety measures and interventions to improve safety at work. The aim of this study was investigation of association between safety culture dimensions (leadership styles and company values, usage of crashes information and prevention programmes, management commitment and safety policy, participation and control) with involved self-reported crashes. The associations were considered through Spearman correlation, Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression. The results showed an association among self-reported crashes (occurrence or non-occurrence) and factors including leadership styles and company values; management commitment and safety policy; and control. Moreover, it was found a negative correlation and an odds ratio less than one between control and self-reported crashes.

  15. Relationship between organisational safety culture dimensions and crashes.

    PubMed

    Varmazyar, Sakineh; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Arghami, Shirazeh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Knowing about organisational safety culture in public transportation system can provide an appropriate guide to establish effective safety measures and interventions to improve safety at work. The aim of this study was investigation of association between safety culture dimensions (leadership styles and company values, usage of crashes information and prevention programmes, management commitment and safety policy, participation and control) with involved self-reported crashes. The associations were considered through Spearman correlation, Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression. The results showed an association among self-reported crashes (occurrence or non-occurrence) and factors including leadership styles and company values; management commitment and safety policy; and control. Moreover, it was found a negative correlation and an odds ratio less than one between control and self-reported crashes. PMID:25494102

  16. Heavy Vehicle Crash Characteristics in Oman 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bulushi, Islam; Edwards, Jason; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Al-Reesi, Hamed; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Oman has seen a shift in the burden of diseases towards road accidents. The main objective of this paper, therefore, is to describe key characteristics of heavy vehicle crashes in Oman and identify the key driving behaviours that influence fatality risks. Crash data from January 2009 to December 2011 were examined and it was found that, of the 22,543 traffic accidents that occurred within this timeframe, 3,114 involved heavy vehicles. While the majority of these crashes were attributed to driver behaviours, a small proportion was attributed to other factors. The results of the study indicate that there is a need for a more thorough crash investigation process in Oman. Future research should explore the reporting processes used by the Royal Oman Police, cultural influences on heavy vehicle operations in Oman and improvements to the current licensing system. PMID:26052451

  17. Sikorsky - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Top view from gantry, showing helicopter in final position after sliding 23 feet from initial impact. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  18. Sikorsky - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Sub-floor, inside view between station 175 and 143, showing limited crushing. Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  19. Sikorsky - (ACAP) - helicopter crash test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Sikorsky - Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) - helicopter crash test. Overall view of the nose landing gear (originally from Sikorsky S-76 helicopter). Photographed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility, building 1297.

  20. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that distracted driving, especially among new drivers, ... whenever the cars were moving. A suite of sensors recorded acceleration, sudden braking or swerving, and other ...

  1. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  2. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists. PMID:24499413

  3. Validity of Surrogate Measures of Alcohol Involvement When Applied to Nonfatal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Peck, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970s, nighttime fatal crashes have been used as a surrogate measure for alcohol-related fatalities for crashes for which more direct measures were absent. The validity of this approach was confirmed in 1985, but has not been re-evaluated since. Although this measure has also been applied to identify alcohol involvement in nonfatal crashes, its validity when applied to non-fatal cases has never been determined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of using nighttime crashes as surrogate measures for alcohol impairment when applied to fatal and nonfatal injury and property damage only (PDO) crashes. To do so, we used data from a crash-control design study collected at the roadside in two U.S. states between 1997 and 1999, as well as from the 1997–1999, and 2004–2006 Fatality Analysis Reporting System. The outcome of this study confirms the validity of using nighttime crashes as a surrogate measure for alcohol-related fatalities and supports the use of after-midnight crashes for measuring alcohol involvement in nonfatal and PDO crashes when the number of late-night crashes permits. PMID:19393802

  4. Analysis of pregnant occupant crash exposure and the potential effectiveness of four-point seatbelts in far side crashes.

    PubMed

    Duma, Stefan M; Moorcroft, David M; Gabler, Hampton C; Manoogian, Sarah M; Stitzel, Joel D; Duma, Greg G

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the crash exposure patterns of pregnant occupants and to evaluate the effectiveness of restraint systems, including four-point seatbelts, in far side crashes. The NASS CDS database revealed that 53.0 % of pregnant occupants are exposed to frontal crashes while 13.5 % are exposed to far side impacts. Given that far side crashes were the second leading crash mode after frontal impacts, a previously validated MADYMO computer model of a 30 week pregnant occupant was utilized to investigate pregnant occupant biomechanics in far side crashes. Three impact speeds (5, 15, and 25 mph) were simulated with four restraint conditions: unbelted, lap-belt only, three-point belt, and a four-point belt. Direct abdominal contact from the shoulder strap of the three-point or four-point belt caused uterine-placental strain in contrast to the inertial loading induced strain in the lap-belt and unbelted cases. Overall, the three-point and four-point belt systems provide superior restraint effectiveness for the pregnant occupant compared to the lap-belt and no restraint cases. The four-point resulted in slightly better performance than the three-point belt by reducing the fetal injury risk and occupant excursion.

  5. An assessment of the crash fire hazard of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The crash fire hazards of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft relative to those of mission equivalent aircraft fueled either with conventional fuel or with liquefied methane were evaluated. The aircraft evaluated were based on Lockheed Corporation design for 400 passenger, Mach 0.85, 5500 n. mile aircraft. Four crash scenarios were considered ranging from a minor incident causing some loss of fuel system integrity to a catastrophic crash. Major tasks included a review of hazardous properties of the alternate fuels and of historic crash fire data; a comparative hazard evluation for each of the three fuels under four crash scenarios a comprehensive review and analysis and an identification of areas further development work. The conclusion was that the crash fire hazards are not significantly different when compared in general for the three fuels, although some fuels showed minor advantages in one respect or another.

  6. "Crashing the gates" - selection criteria for television news reporting of traffic crashes.

    PubMed

    De Ceunynck, Tim; De Smedt, Julie; Daniels, Stijn; Wouters, Ruud; Baets, Michèle

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates which crash characteristics influence the probability that the crash is reported in the television news. To this purpose, all news items from the period 2006-2012 about traffic crashes from the prime time news of two Belgian television channels are linked to the official injury crash database. Logistic regression models are built for the database of all injury crashes and for the subset of fatal crashes to identify crash characteristics that correlate with a lower or higher probability of being reported in the news. A number of significant biases in terms of crash severity, time, place, types of involved road users and victims' personal characteristics are found in the media reporting of crashes. More severe crashes are reported in the media more easily than less severe crashes. Significant fluctuations in media reporting probability through time are found in terms of the year and month in which the crash took place. Crashes during week days are generally less reported in the news. The geographical area (province) in which the crash takes place also has a significant impact on the probability of being reported in the news. Crashes on motorways are significantly more represented in the news. Regarding the age of the involved victims, a clear trend of higher media reporting rates of crashes involving young victims or young fatalities is observed. Crashes involving female fatalities are also more frequently reported in the news. Furthermore, crashes involving a bus have a significantly higher probability of being reported in the news, while crashes involving a motorcycle have a significantly lower probability. Some models also indicate a lower reporting rate of crashes involving a moped, and a higher reporting rate of crashes involving heavy goods vehicles. These biases in media reporting can create skewed perceptions in the general public about the prevalence of traffic crashes and eventually may influence people's behaviour.

  7. "Crashing the gates" - selection criteria for television news reporting of traffic crashes.

    PubMed

    De Ceunynck, Tim; De Smedt, Julie; Daniels, Stijn; Wouters, Ruud; Baets, Michèle

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates which crash characteristics influence the probability that the crash is reported in the television news. To this purpose, all news items from the period 2006-2012 about traffic crashes from the prime time news of two Belgian television channels are linked to the official injury crash database. Logistic regression models are built for the database of all injury crashes and for the subset of fatal crashes to identify crash characteristics that correlate with a lower or higher probability of being reported in the news. A number of significant biases in terms of crash severity, time, place, types of involved road users and victims' personal characteristics are found in the media reporting of crashes. More severe crashes are reported in the media more easily than less severe crashes. Significant fluctuations in media reporting probability through time are found in terms of the year and month in which the crash took place. Crashes during week days are generally less reported in the news. The geographical area (province) in which the crash takes place also has a significant impact on the probability of being reported in the news. Crashes on motorways are significantly more represented in the news. Regarding the age of the involved victims, a clear trend of higher media reporting rates of crashes involving young victims or young fatalities is observed. Crashes involving female fatalities are also more frequently reported in the news. Furthermore, crashes involving a bus have a significantly higher probability of being reported in the news, while crashes involving a motorcycle have a significantly lower probability. Some models also indicate a lower reporting rate of crashes involving a moped, and a higher reporting rate of crashes involving heavy goods vehicles. These biases in media reporting can create skewed perceptions in the general public about the prevalence of traffic crashes and eventually may influence people's behaviour. PMID:25909390

  8. Injury severity data for front and second row passengers in frontal crashes

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Theresa; Leszek Gawarecki; Tavakoli, Massoud

    2016-01-01

    The data contained here were obtained from the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration׳s National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the years 2008–2014. This publically available data set monitors motor vehicle crashes in the United States, using a stratified random sample frame, resulting in information on approximately 5000 crashes each year that can be utilized to create national estimates for crashes. The NASS-CDS data sets document vehicle, crash, and occupant factors. These data can be utilized to examine public health, law enforcement, roadway planning, and vehicle design issues. The data provided in this brief are a subset of crash events and occupants. The crashes provided are exclusively frontal crashes. Within these crashes, only restrained occupants who were seated in the right front seat position or the second row outboard seat positions were included. The front row and second row data sets were utilized to construct occupant pairs crashes where both a right front seat occupant and a second row occupant were available. Both unpaired and paired data sets are provided in this brief. PMID:27077084

  9. Characteristics of Older Motorcyclist Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Stutts, Jane; Foss, Robert; Svoboda, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    In the U.S. as well as other countries, the number of motorcyclists killed in traffic crashes has risen sharply over the past five years, due in part to the increased popularity of motorcycling among older riders. This paper examines trends in motorcyclist casualties and vehicle registrations from 1990–2002, based on national and state (North Carolina) motor vehicle crash and vehicle registration data. The data show similar patterns of increased fatalities that parallel a growth in motorcycle registrations. Whereas the number of motorcyclists ages 16–24 declined over the 13–year study period, the number of riders ages 35 and older increased. Three years of recent (2000–2002) NC data are examined to identify salient characteristics of the crashes of these older riders. Results are discussed with respect to approaches for mitigating the increase in motorcyclist deaths and injuries. PMID:15319126

  10. A crash-prediction model for road tunnels.

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Ciro; De Guglielmo, Maria Luisa; Guida, Maurizio

    2013-06-01

    Considerable research has been carried out into open roads to establish relationships between crashes and traffic flow, geometry of infrastructure and environmental factors, whereas crash-prediction models for road tunnels, have rarely been investigated. In addition different results have been sometimes obtained regarding the effects of traffic and geometry on crashes in road tunnels. However, most research has focused on tunnels where traffic and geometric conditions, as well as driving behaviour, differ from those in Italy. Thus, in this paper crash prediction-models that had not yet been proposed for Italian road tunnels have been developed. For the purpose, a 4-year monitoring period extending from 2006 to 2009 was considered. The tunnels investigated are single-tube ones with unidirectional traffic. The Bivariate Negative Binomial regression model, jointly applied to non-severe crashes (accidents involving material-damage only) and severe crashes (fatal and injury accidents only), was used to model the frequency of accident occurrence. The year effect on severe crashes was also analyzed by the Random Effects Binomial regression model and the Negative Multinomial regression model. Regression parameters were estimated by the Maximum Likelihood Method. The Cumulative Residual Method was used to test the adequacy of the regression model through the range of annual average daily traffic per lane. The candidate set of variables was: tunnel length (L), annual average daily traffic per lane (AADTL), percentage of trucks (%Tr), number of lanes (NL), and the presence of a sidewalk. Both for non-severe crashes and severe crashes, prediction-models showed that significant variables are: L, AADTL, %Tr, and NL. A significant year effect consisting in a systematic reduction of severe crashes over time was also detected. The analysis developed in this paper appears to be useful for many applications such as the estimation of accident reductions due to improvement in existing

  11. PTSD After Severe Vehicular Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Ryb, Gabriel E.; Dischinger, Patricia C.; Read, Kathleen M.; Kufera, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe predictors of PTSD after motor vehicle crashes (MVC). Methods: MVC patients were interviewed during their hospitalization and at 6 and 12 months post-injury. Interviews included information about behavioral factors, circumstances around the crash, recovery and PTSD screening. PTSD was defined as the development of 3 or more of 7 PTSD symptoms. Association of risk factors with PTSD development at 6 and 12 months was analyzed using contingency tables. Multiple regression models were built for the prediction of PTSD. Results: 367 and 317 patients completed the 6 and 12 month interviews respecively. PTSD developed in 27.5 % (n=101) and 24.3 % (n=77) of the population at 6 and 12 months repectively. PTSD occurred more frequently among females, those with a previous history of depression, violent injury, or other traumatic events, and those whose crashes involved a fatality. Those who were culpable for the crash, age<30, and sustained brain injuries were less likely to develop PTSD at 6 months. Occupant position, education, marital status, alcohol problems, injury severity, heart rate, and blood alcohol + status did not show any significant association with PTSD. In the multiple logistic regression, female gender, history of depression, culpabilty, prior violent injury, and a fatality in the crash were associated with PTSD at 6 months. Only prior violent injury, and a death in same crash were predictors at one year. Conclusion: PTSD occurs frequently after MVCs. Female gender, prior violent injury, death of another occupant and history of depression are associated with PTSD development. PMID:20184843

  12. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2011.

    PubMed

    Bareja, Christina; Waring, Justin; Stapledon, Richard; Toms, Cindy; Douglas, Paul

    2014-12-31

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,385 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2011, representing a rate of 6.2 cases per 100,000 population. While Australia has maintained a rate of 5 to 6 cases per 100,000 for TB since the mid-1980s, there has been a steady increase in incidence over the past decade. In 2011, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications (88%) with a notification rate of 20.2 per 100,000. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade and showed no clear trend; however, in 2011 the notification rate was 4.9 per 100,000, which is a notable decrease from the 7.5 per 100,000 recorded in 2010. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.9 per 100,000. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases nationally (n=25), all of which were identified in the overseas-born population. To ensure that Australia can retain its low TB rate and work toward reducing rates further, it is essential that Australia maintains good centralised national TB reporting to monitor trends and identify at-risk populations, and continues to contribute to global TB control initiatives.

  13. An overview of disease surveillance and notification system in Nigeria and the roles of clinicians in disease outbreak prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Isere, Elvis E; Fatiregun, Akinola A; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O

    2015-01-01

    While outbreaks of infectious diseases have long presented a public health challenge, especially in developing countries like Nigeria; within recent years, the frequency of such outbreaks has risen tremendously. Furthermore, with the recent outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola virus disease and other epidemic prone diseases in Nigeria demanding immediate public health action, there is a need to strengthen the existing notifiable disease surveillance and notification system with increased clinicians' involvement in timely reporting of notifiable diseases to designated public health authorities for prompt public health action. Hence, this paper provides the opportunity to increase awareness among clinicians on the importance of immediate reporting of notifiable diseases and intensify engagement of clinicians in disease notification activities by describing various notifiable diseases in Nigeria using their surveillance case definition, outlines the reporting channel for notifying these diseases and highlights the roles of clinicians in the current disease surveillance and notification network for early disease outbreak detection and public health response in Nigeria. PMID:26229222

  14. Crash involvement of large trucks by configuration: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, H S; Jones, I S

    1988-01-01

    For a two-year period, large truck crashes on the interstate system in Washington State were investigated using a case-control method. For each large truck involved in a crash, three trucks were randomly selected for inspection from the traffic stream at the same time and place as the crash but one week later. The effects of truck and driver characteristics on crashes were assessed by comparing their relative frequency among the crash-involved and comparison sample trucks. Double trailer trucks were consistently overinvolved in crashes by a factor of two to three in both single and multiple vehicle crashes. Single unit trucks pulling trailers also were overinvolved. Doubles also had a higher frequency of jackknifing compared to tractor-trailers. The substantial overinvolvement of doubles in crashes was found regardless of driver age, hours of driving, cargo weight, or type of fleet. Younger drivers, long hours of driving, and operating empty trucks were also associated with higher crash involvement. PMID:3354729

  15. Understanding crash mechanism on urban expressways using high-resolution traffic data.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Moinul; Muromachi, Yasunori

    2013-08-01

    Urban expressways play a vital role in the modern mega cities by serving peak hour traffic alongside reducing travel time for moderate to long distance intra-city trips. Thus, ensuring safety on these roads holds high priority. Little knowledge has been acquired till date regarding crash mechanism on these roads. This study uses high-resolution traffic data collected from the detectors to identify factors influencing crash. It also identifies traffic patterns associated with different types of crashes and explains crash phenomena thereby. Unlike most of the previous studies on conventional expressways, the research separately investigates the basic freeway segments (BFS) and the ramp areas. The study employs random multinomial logit, a random forest of logit models, to rank the variables; expectation maximization clustering algorithm to identify crash prone traffic patterns and classification and regression trees to explain crash phenomena. As accentuated by the study outcome, crash mechanism is not generic throughout the expressway and it varies from the BFS to the ramp vicinities. The level of congestion and speed difference between upstream and downstream traffic best explains crashes and their types for the BFS, whereas, the ramp flow has the highest influence in determining the types of crashes within the ramp vicinities. The paper also discusses about the applicability of different countermeasures, such as, variable speed limits, temporary restriction on lane changing, posting warnings, etc., to attenuate different patterns of hazardous traffic conditions. The study outcome can be utilized in designing location and traffic condition specific proactive road safety management systems for urban expressways.

  16. Spatial regression analysis of traffic crashes in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Kyoung-Ah; Kim, Joon-Ki; Lee, Young-ihn; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F

    2016-06-01

    Traffic crashes can be spatially correlated events and the analysis of the distribution of traffic crash frequency requires evaluation of parameters that reflect spatial properties and correlation. Typically this spatial aspect of crash data is not used in everyday practice by planning agencies and this contributes to a gap between research and practice. A database of traffic crashes in Seoul, Korea, in 2010 was developed at the traffic analysis zone (TAZ) level with a number of GIS developed spatial variables. Practical spatial models using available software were estimated. The spatial error model was determined to be better than the spatial lag model and an ordinary least squares baseline regression. A geographically weighted regression model provided useful insights about localization of effects. The results found that an increased length of roads with speed limit below 30 km/h and a higher ratio of residents below age of 15 were correlated with lower traffic crash frequency, while a higher ratio of residents who moved to the TAZ, more vehicle-kilometers traveled, and a greater number of access points with speed limit difference between side roads and mainline above 30 km/h all increased the number of traffic crashes. This suggests, for example, that better control or design for merging lower speed roads with higher speed roads is important. A key result is that the length of bus-only center lanes had the largest effect on increasing traffic crashes. This is important as bus-only center lanes with bus stop islands have been increasingly used to improve transit times. Hence the potential negative safety impacts of such systems need to be studied further and mitigated through improved design of pedestrian access to center bus stop islands. PMID:26994374

  17. A Reexamination of the Small Overlap Frontal Crash

    PubMed Central

    Scullion, Paul; Morgan, Richard M.; Mohan, Pradeep; Kan, Cing-Dao; Shanks, Kurt; Jin, Wook; Tangirala, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine and rank the Small Overlap Frontal Crash as one of the eight-group taxonomy proposed by Ford. The Ford taxonomy classifies real-world frontal-impact crashes based on the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS). Frontally-impacted vehicles were identified for 1985 – 2008 model year passenger vehicles with Collision Deformation Classification (CDC) data from the 1995 – 2008 years of NASS. Small overlap frontal cases were identified where there was no engagement of the vehicle frame rails, and the direct damage was located entirely outside of the vehicle frame rails. The results are that full engagement and offset (offset category means the direct damage overlaps the vehicle frame rail, with the center of direct damage between the frame rails) were the most frequent crashes contributing 35% each. The frequency of the small overlap frontal was 6%. The risks of injury (AIS ≥ 2) for the full engagement, offset, and small overlap were 8%, 6%, and 3% respectively. For this study, the number of small overlap vehicles was 1,118 and the number of injured nearside occupants was 100. This study—following the Ford approach and reasonably identifying the location of the longitudinal rails based on CDC—suggests that the small overlap is at worst a moderately dangerous crash in the overall scheme of frontal crashes. The implications of this study are that the safety community should reexamine the significance of the small overlap frontal crash against an overall taxonomy of crashes. PMID:21050598

  18. Can-Filled Crash Barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1983-01-01

    Crash barrier composed largely of used aluminum beverage cans protects occupants of cars in collisions with poles or trees. Lightweight, can-filled barrier very effective in softening impact of an automobile in head-on and off-angle collisions. Preliminary results indicate barrier is effective in collisions up to 40 mi/h (64 km/h).

  19. The Sound of Cymbals Crashing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sal

    1991-01-01

    Presents an outdoor experiment to measure the speed of sound as a classroom experience to begin the teaching year. Measures the delay time from seeing and hearing crashing cymbals across a field to calculate the speed. Exposes students to experimental uncertainties and limits of uncertainty in measurement. (MDH)

  20. Notification following new positive HIV test results.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Lin A; Hutchinson, Angela B; Hollis, NaTasha D; Sansom, Stephanie L

    2016-09-01

    Client notification of a new HIV diagnosis is critical for timely access to treatment and reduction in behaviours associated with HIV infection. It is also an important input in HIV transmission and disease progression models. We used national, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded HIV testing events data collected through the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation system to update estimates of the proportion of newly identified HIV-positives notified of their status. We compared estimates from 2008 to 2010 across test technologies, settings, and HIV risk groups. In 2010, notification following a positive rapid test was 99.6% compared with 99.3% in 2008. Notification following a positive conventional test was 81.5% in 2010 compared with 80.8% in 2008. To realise the full promise of early HIV diagnosis and treatment for the prevention of additional HIV cases, efforts to ensure prompt notification following a new HIV diagnosis will be crucial. PMID:26378191

  1. The effects of roadway characteristics on farm equipment crashes: A GIS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenan, Mitchell Joseph

    Tractors and other self-propelled farm equipment, such as combines, sprayers, and towed grain carts, are often used on public roadways as the primary means for traveling from homestead to homestead or from homestead to a distributer. Increased roadway exposure has led to a growing concern for crashes involving farm equipment on the public roadway. A handful of studies exist examining public roadway crashes involving farm equipment using crash data, but none thus far have evaluated road segment data to identify road-specific risk factors. The objective of this study is to identify if roadway characteristics (traffic density, speed limit, road type, surface type, road width, and shoulder width) affect the risk of a crash involving farm equipment on Iowa public roadways. A retrospective cohort study of Iowa roads was conducted to identify the types of roads that are at an increased risk of having a farm-equipment crash on them. Crash data from the Iowa Department of Transportation (to identify crashes) were spatial linked to Iowa roadway data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Logistic regression was used to calculate ORs and 95% CL. Out of 319,705 road segments in Iowa, 0.4% segments (n=1,337) had a farm equipment crash from 2005-2011. The odds of having a farm equipment crash were significantly higher for road segments with increased traffic density and speed limit. Roads with an average daily traffic volume of at least 1,251 vehicles were at a 5.53 times greater odds of having a crash than roads with a daily traffic volume between 0-30 vehicles. (CI: 3.90-7.83). Roads with a posted speed limit between 50mph and 60mph were at a 4.88 times greater odds of having a crash than roads with a posted speed limit of 30mph or less. (CI: 3.85-6.20). Specific roadway characteristics such as roadway and shoulder width were also associated with the risk of a crash. For every 5 foot increase in road width, the odds for a crash decreased by 6 percent (CI: 0.89-0.99) and

  2. Investigations of Crashes Involving Pregnant Occupants

    PubMed Central

    Klinich, Kathleen DeSantis; Schneider, Lawrence W.; Moore, Jamie L.; Pearlman, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    Case reports of 16 crashes involving pregnant occupants are presented that illustrate the main conclusions of a crash-investigation program that includes 42 crashes investigated to date. Some unusual cases that are exceptions to the overall trends are also described. The study indicates a strong association between adverse fetal outcome and both crash severity and maternal injury. Proper restraint use, with and without airbag deployment, generally leads to acceptable fetal outcomes in lower severity crashes, while it does not affect fetal outcome in high-severity crashes. Compared to properly restrained pregnant occupants, improperly restrained occupants have a higher risk of adverse fetal outcome in lower severity crashes, which comprise the majority of all motor-vehicle collisions. PMID:11558095

  3. 33 CFR 135.307 - Notification contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Notification of Pollution Incidents § 135.307 Notification contents. (a) In each notification provided...

  4. 33 CFR 135.307 - Notification contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Notification of Pollution Incidents § 135.307 Notification contents. (a) In each notification provided...

  5. 33 CFR 135.307 - Notification contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Notification of Pollution Incidents § 135.307 Notification contents. (a) In each notification provided...

  6. 33 CFR 135.307 - Notification contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Notification of Pollution Incidents § 135.307 Notification contents. (a) In each notification provided...

  7. 40 CFR 141.201 - General public notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations § 141.201 General public notification requirements. Public water systems in States with primacy for the public water system supervision (PWSS) program must comply with the requirements in...

  8. 40 CFR 141.201 - General public notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Public Notification of Drinking Water Violations § 141.201 General public notification requirements. Public water systems in States with primacy for the public water system supervision (PWSS) program must comply with the requirements in...

  9. 48 CFR 52.243-7 - Notification of Changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of Changes. 52.243-7 Section 52.243-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.243-7 Notification of Changes. As...

  10. Aircraft-mounted crash-activated transmitter device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manoli, R.; Ulrich, B. R. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An aircraft crash location transmitter tuned to transmit on standard emergency frequencies is reported that is shock mounted in a sealed circular case atop the tail of an aircraft by means of a shear pin designed to fail under a G loading associated with a crash situation. The antenna for the transmitter is a metallic spring blade coiled like a spiral spring around the outside of the circular case. A battery within the case for powering the transmitter is kept trickle charged from the electrical system of the aircraft through a break away connector on the case. When a crash occurs, the resultant ejection of the case from the tail due to a failure of the shear pin releases the free end of the antenna which automatically uncoils. The accompanying separation of the connector effects closing of the transmitter key and results in commencement of transmission.

  11. Evaluation of the Second Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT 2) Full Scale Crash Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin; Littell, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Two Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) full-scale tests were performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility in 2013 and 2014. Two CH-46E airframes were impacted at 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocities onto soft soil, which represents a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. TRACT 1 provided a baseline set of responses, while TRACT 2 included retrofits with composite subfloors and other crash system improvements based on TRACT 1. For TRACT 2, a total of 18 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate ATD responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and activation of emergency locator transmitters and crash sensors. Combinations of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. The structural response of the airframe was assessed based on accelerometers located throughout the airframe and using three-dimensional photogrammetric techniques. Analysis of the photogrammetric data indicated regions of maximum deflection and permanent deformation. The response of TRACT 2 was noticeably different in the longitudinal direction due to changes in the cabin configuration and soil surface, with higher acceleration and damage occurring in the cabin. Loads from ATDs in energy absorbing seats and restraints were within injury limits. Severe injury was likely for ATDs in forward facing passenger seats.

  12. Overview of the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) Full Scale Crash Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin; Littell, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) full-scale tests were performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility in 2013 and 2014. Two CH-46E airframes were impacted at 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocities onto soft soil, which represents a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. TRACT 1 provided a baseline set of responses, while TRACT 2 included retrofits with composite subfloors and other crash system improvements based on TRACT 1. For TRACT 2, a total of 18 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and activation of emergency locator transmitters and crash sensors. Combinations of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 ATDs were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. The structural response of the airframe was assessed based on accelerometers located throughout the airframe and using three-dimensional photogrammetric techniques. Analysis of the photogrammetric data indicated regions of maximum deflection and permanent deformation. The response of TRACT 2 was noticeably different in the horizontal direction due to changes in the cabin configuration and soil surface, with higher acceleration and damage occurring in the cabin. Loads from ATDs in energy absorbing seats and restraints were within injury limits. Severe injury was likely for ATDs in forward facing passenger seats.

  13. Comparison of Test and Finite Element Analysis for Two Full-Scale Helicopter Crash Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta,Lucas G.

    2011-01-01

    Finite element analyses have been performed for two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of a composite deployable energy absorber under combined flight loads. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish the baseline loads. The use of an energy absorbing device reduced the impact acceleration levels by a factor of three. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to analytical results. Details of the full-scale crash tests and development of the system-integrated finite element model are briefly described along with direct comparisons of acceleration magnitudes and durations for the first full-scale crash test. Because load levels were significantly different between tests, models developed for the purposes of predicting the overall system response with external energy absorbers were not adequate under more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. Relative error comparisons were inadequate to guide model calibration. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used for the second full-scale crash test. The calibrated parameter set reduced 2-norm prediction error by 51% but did not improve impact shape orthogonality.

  14. Medical Devices; Exemption From Premarket Notification; Method, Metallic Reduction, Glucose (Urinary, Nonquantitative) Test System in a Reagent Tablet Format. Final order.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is publishing an order denying a petition requesting exemption from the premarket notification requirements for method, metallic reduction, glucose (urinary, nonquantitative) devices that are in a reagent tablet format and are classified as class II devices as urinary glucose (nonquantitative) test system (hereinafter referred to as "copper reduction tablet test"). Urinary glucose (nonquantitative) measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of carbohydrate metabolism disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. FDA is publishing this order in accordance with procedures established by the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (FDAMA).

  15. Crashing galaxies, cosmic fireworks

    SciTech Connect

    Keel, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study of binary systems is reviewed. The history of the study of interacting galaxies, the behavior of gas in binary systems, studies to identify the processes that occur when galaxies interact, and the relationship of Seyfert galaxies and quasars to binary systems are discussed. The development of an atlas of peculiar galaxies (Arp, 1966) and methods for modeling galaxy interactions are examined.

  16. Rayleigh-Taylor instability simulations with CRASH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.-C.; Fryxell, B.; Drake, R. P.

    2012-03-01

    CRASH is a code package developed for the predictive study of radiative shocks. It is based on the BATSRUS MHD code used extensively for space-weather research. We desire to extend the applications of this code to the study of hydrodynamically unstable systems. We report here the results of Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) simulations with CRASH, as a necessary step toward the study of such systems. Our goal, motivated by the previous comparison of simulations and experiment, is to be able to simulate the magnetic RTI with self-generated magnetic fields produced by the Biermann Battery effect. Here we show results for hydrodynamic RTI, comparing the effects of different solvers and numerical parameters. We find that the early-time behavior converges to the analytical result of the linear theory. We observe that the late-time morphology is sensitive to the numerical scheme and limiter beta. At low-resolution limit, the growth of RTI is highly dependent on the setup and resolution, which we attribute to the large numerical viscosity at low resolution.

  17. Re-visiting crash-speed relationships: A new perspective in crash modelling.

    PubMed

    Imprialou, Maria-Ioanna M; Quddus, Mohammed; Pitfield, David E; Lord, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Although speed is considered to be one of the main crash contributory factors, research findings are inconsistent. Independent of the robustness of their statistical approaches, crash frequency models typically employ crash data that are aggregated using spatial criteria (e.g., crash counts by link termed as a link-based approach). In this approach, the variability in crashes between links is explained by highly aggregated average measures that may be inappropriate, especially for time-varying variables such as speed and volume. This paper re-examines crash-speed relationships by creating a new crash data aggregation approach that enables improved representation of the road conditions just before crash occurrences. Crashes are aggregated according to the similarity of their pre-crash traffic and geometric conditions, forming an alternative crash count dataset termed as a condition-based approach. Crash-speed relationships are separately developed and compared for both approaches by employing the annual crashes that occurred on the Strategic Road Network of England in 2012. The datasets are modelled by injury severity using multivariate Poisson lognormal regression, with multivariate spatial effects for the link-based model, using a full Bayesian inference approach. The results of the condition-based approach show that high speeds trigger crash frequency. The outcome of the link-based model is the opposite; suggesting that the speed-crash relationship is negative regardless of crash severity. The differences between the results imply that data aggregation is a crucial, yet so far overlooked, methodological element of crash data analyses that may have direct impact on the modelling outcomes.

  18. Crash energy absorption of two-segment crash box with holes under frontal load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choiron, Moch. Agus; Sudjito, Hidayati, Nafisah Arina

    2016-03-01

    Crash box is one of the passive safety components which designed as an impact energy absorber during collision. Crash box designs have been developed in order to obtain the optimum crashworthiness performance. Circular cross section was first investigated with one segment design, it rather influenced by its length which is being sensitive to the buckling occurrence. In this study, the two-segment crash box design with additional holes is investigated and deformation behavior and crash energy absorption are observed. The crash box modelling is performed by finite element analysis. The crash test components were impactor, crash box, and fixed rigid base. Impactor and the fixed base material are modelled as a rigid, and crash box material as bilinear isotropic hardening. Crash box length of 100 mm and frontal crash velocity of 16 km/jam are selected. Crash box material of Aluminum Alloy is used. Based on simulation results, it can be shown that holes configuration with 2 holes and ¾ length locations have the largest crash energy absorption. This condition associated with deformation pattern, this crash box model produces axisymmetric mode than other models.

  19. Magnetorheological impact seat suspensions for ground vehicle crash mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xian-Xu; Wereley, Norman M.

    2014-04-01

    Semi-active magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) are one type of the most promising actuator for both the vibration and shock control. This paper investigates the frontal crash mitigation performance of semi-active MR impact seat suspensions for ground vehicles. The characteristics of two MREAs, a conventional MREA and an MREA with an internal bypass, with an identical volume, are theoretically evaluated and compared. To explore the control effectiveness of MREAs in the shock control systems, the mechanical model of a 4-degree-of-freedom (4DOF) sliding seat suspension system with MREAs is constructed. An optimal Bingham number control, which is to minimize the crash pulse loads transmitted to occupants by utilizing maximum stroke of the MREAs based on initial velocity of crash pulse, mass, and damping, is proposed and developed to improve the crash mitigation performance of the 4DOF MR sliding seat suspension control systems. The simulated control performances of the mitigation systems based on the MREAs with different functional structures are evaluated, compared, and analyzed. The research results indicate that (1) the constant stroking load velocity range of the MREAs is of significance to evaluate the controllability of the MREAs (i.e., the effectiveness of the semi-active shock control systems), and (2) suboptimal Bingham number control cannot realize "soft landing" (i.e., either an end-stop impact or incomplete utilization of the MREA stroke happens).

  20. Development of a low-cost crash cushion using recycled automobile tires. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Habors, D.T.; Hossain, M.

    1998-09-01

    Approximately thirty percent of all vehicle related fatalities that occur each year caused by a single vehicle leaving the road and striking a fixed object; the most common objects struck being trees, guardrails, and utility poles. In many cases current crash cushion systems are not cost effective to be installed on such obstacles. In addition to high initial costs many crash cushions require extensive maintenance or expensive replacement parts driving costs up even more. This makes the development of a more cost-effective crash cushion a necessity. This study proposed an initial design for a low-cost, reusable crash cushion using recycled materials. Used tires and tire-derived materials were tested in both static and dynamic modes to evaluate their application in a crash cushion. Both proved to be able to sustain high loads and durable, making them good candidates for use in a crash cushion. However, the tire-derived pads had excessively high loads per unit deflection prohibiting their use in a crash cushion. This problem could be eliminated if voids were added to allow material to deflect more under loading. The used tires could be used effectively as energy absorbing elements in crash cushions or truck mounted attenuators (TMA`s) if compressed horizontally or vertically.

  1. Crash Frequency Modeling Using Real-Time Environmental and Traffic Data and Unbalanced Panel Data Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren; Ma, Xiaoxiang

    2016-06-18

    Traffic and environmental conditions (e.g., weather conditions), which frequently change with time, have a significant impact on crash occurrence. Traditional crash frequency models with large temporal scales and aggregated variables are not sufficient to capture the time-varying nature of driving environmental factors, causing significant loss of critical information on crash frequency modeling. This paper aims at developing crash frequency models with refined temporal scales for complex driving environments, with such an effort providing more detailed and accurate crash risk information which can allow for more effective and proactive traffic management and law enforcement intervention. Zero-inflated, negative binomial (ZINB) models with site-specific random effects are developed with unbalanced panel data to analyze hourly crash frequency on highway segments. The real-time driving environment information, including traffic, weather and road surface condition data, sourced primarily from the Road Weather Information System, is incorporated into the models along with site-specific road characteristics. The estimation results of unbalanced panel data ZINB models suggest there are a number of factors influencing crash frequency, including time-varying factors (e.g., visibility and hourly traffic volume) and site-varying factors (e.g., speed limit). The study confirms the unique significance of the real-time weather, road surface condition and traffic data to crash frequency modeling.

  2. Crash Frequency Modeling Using Real-Time Environmental and Traffic Data and Unbalanced Panel Data Models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren; Ma, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Traffic and environmental conditions (e.g., weather conditions), which frequently change with time, have a significant impact on crash occurrence. Traditional crash frequency models with large temporal scales and aggregated variables are not sufficient to capture the time-varying nature of driving environmental factors, causing significant loss of critical information on crash frequency modeling. This paper aims at developing crash frequency models with refined temporal scales for complex driving environments, with such an effort providing more detailed and accurate crash risk information which can allow for more effective and proactive traffic management and law enforcement intervention. Zero-inflated, negative binomial (ZINB) models with site-specific random effects are developed with unbalanced panel data to analyze hourly crash frequency on highway segments. The real-time driving environment information, including traffic, weather and road surface condition data, sourced primarily from the Road Weather Information System, is incorporated into the models along with site-specific road characteristics. The estimation results of unbalanced panel data ZINB models suggest there are a number of factors influencing crash frequency, including time-varying factors (e.g., visibility and hourly traffic volume) and site-varying factors (e.g., speed limit). The study confirms the unique significance of the real-time weather, road surface condition and traffic data to crash frequency modeling. PMID:27322306

  3. Crash Frequency Modeling Using Real-Time Environmental and Traffic Data and Unbalanced Panel Data Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren; Ma, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Traffic and environmental conditions (e.g., weather conditions), which frequently change with time, have a significant impact on crash occurrence. Traditional crash frequency models with large temporal scales and aggregated variables are not sufficient to capture the time-varying nature of driving environmental factors, causing significant loss of critical information on crash frequency modeling. This paper aims at developing crash frequency models with refined temporal scales for complex driving environments, with such an effort providing more detailed and accurate crash risk information which can allow for more effective and proactive traffic management and law enforcement intervention. Zero-inflated, negative binomial (ZINB) models with site-specific random effects are developed with unbalanced panel data to analyze hourly crash frequency on highway segments. The real-time driving environment information, including traffic, weather and road surface condition data, sourced primarily from the Road Weather Information System, is incorporated into the models along with site-specific road characteristics. The estimation results of unbalanced panel data ZINB models suggest there are a number of factors influencing crash frequency, including time-varying factors (e.g., visibility and hourly traffic volume) and site-varying factors (e.g., speed limit). The study confirms the unique significance of the real-time weather, road surface condition and traffic data to crash frequency modeling. PMID:27322306

  4. 78 FR 2363 - Notification of Deletion of a System of Records; Automated Trust Funds Database

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Agriculture (USDA) published in the Federal Register (73 FR 23414- 23416, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0026) a system of records notice establishing the Automated Trust Funds (ATF) database system of records. The... Trust Funds Database AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  5. Teenaged Drivers and Fatal Crash Responsibility. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.; Karpf, Ronald S.

    According to data obtained for the year 1978 from the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) and from state governments under contract to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, teenaged drivers (especially males) have much higher rates of fatal crash involvement than older drivers. In addition, teenaged drivers are more likely than…

  6. 78 FR 40138 - Notification of Deletion of System of Records: Kid's Club Membership List (EPA-57)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... site has been taken down. DATES: This notice is effective immediately upon publication in the Federal... the system and the Web site has been taken down. How can I get copies of this document and...

  7. Evaluation of the First Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT 1) Full-Scale Crash Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin S.; Littell, Justin D.; Jackson, Karen E.; Bark, Lindley W.; DeWeese, Rick L.; McEntire, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the NASA Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Program initiated the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research program by obtaining two CH-46E helicopters from the Navy CH-46E Program Office (PMA-226) at the Navy Flight Readiness Center in Cherry Point, North Carolina. Full-scale crash tests were planned to assess dynamic responses of transport-category rotorcraft under combined horizontal and vertical impact loading. The first crash test (TRACT 1) was performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR), which enables the study of critical interactions between the airframe, seat, and occupant during a controlled crash environment. The CH-46E fuselage is categorized as a medium-lift rotorcraft with fuselage dimensions comparable to a regional jet or business jet. The first TRACT test (TRACT 1) was conducted in August 2013. The primary objectives for TRACT 1 were to: (1) assess improvements to occupant loads and displacement with the use of crashworthy features such as pre-tensioning active restraints and energy absorbing seats, (2) develop novel techniques for photogrammetric data acquisition to measure occupant and airframe kinematics, and (3) provide baseline data for future comparison with a retrofitted airframe configuration. Crash test conditions for TRACT 1 were 33-ft/s forward and 25-ft/s vertical combined velocity onto soft soil, which represent a severe, but potentially survivable impact scenario. The extraordinary value of the TRACT 1 test was reflected by the breadth of meaningful experiments. A total of 8 unique experiments were conducted to evaluate ATD responses, seat and restraint performance, cargo restraint effectiveness, patient litter behavior, and photogrammetric techniques. A combination of Hybrid II, Hybrid III, and ES-2 Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) were placed in forward and side facing seats and occupant results were compared against injury criteria. Loads from ATDs in energy

  8. Factors associated with pilot fatalities in work-related aircraft crashes--Alaska, 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    2002-04-26

    Despite its large geographic area, Alaska has only 12,200 miles of public roads, and 90% of the state's communities are not connected to a highway system. Commuter and air-taxi flights are essential for transportation of passengers and delivery of goods, services, and mail to outlying communities (Figure 1). Because of the substantial progress in decreasing fatalities in the fishing and logging industries, aviation crashes are the leading cause of occupational death in Alaska. During 1990-1999, aircraft crashes in Alaska caused 107 deaths among workers classified as civilian pilots. This is equivalent to 410 fatalities per 100,000 pilots each year, approximately five times the death rate for all U.S. pilots and approximately 100 times the death rate for all U.S. workers. As part of a collaborative aviation safety initiative that CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is implementing with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and the National Weather Service, CDC analyzed data from NTSB crash reports to determine factors associated with pilot fatalities in work-related aviation crashes in Alaska. This report summarizes the result of this analysis, which found that the following factors were associated with pilot fatalities: crashes involving a post-crash fire, flights in darkness or weather conditions requiring instrument use, crashes occurring away from an airport, and crashes in which the pilot was not using a shoulder restraint. Additional pilot training, improved fuel systems that are less likely to ignite in crashes, and company policies that discourage flying in poor weather conditions might help decrease pilot fatalities. More detailed analyses of crash data, collaborations with aircraft operators to improve safety, and evaluation of new technologies are needed. PMID:12004985

  9. 47 CFR 10.260 - Timing of subscriber notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timing of subscriber notification. 10.260 Section 10.260 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Election To Participate in Wireless Emergency Alerts System § 10.260 Timing of subscriber notification....

  10. 47 CFR 10.260 - Timing of subscriber notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timing of subscriber notification. 10.260 Section 10.260 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL WIRELESS EMERGENCY ALERTS Election To Participate in Wireless Emergency Alerts System § 10.260 Timing of subscriber notification....

  11. 78 FR 77649 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Xylem Water Systems USA LLC, Subzone 37D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ..., Subzone 37D, (Centrifugal, Submersible Pumps and Related Components), Auburn, New York Xylem Water Systems... already has authority to produce centrifugal pumps, submersible pumps, and related controllers. The... control panels (2.7%) and centrifugal and submersible pumps (free) for the foreign status inputs...

  12. 77 FR 26027 - Privacy Act: Notification of a New Privacy Act System of Records, Veterans Homelessness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Maintaining Records About Individuals,'' July 25, 1994 (59 FR 37914). Authority: 5 U.S.C. 552a 88 Stat. 1896... Homelessness Prevention Demonstration Evaluation Data Files System AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information... of Records Notice (SORN) for the Veterans Homelessness Prevention Demonstration Evaluation Data...

  13. a Hybrid Pull-Push System for Near Real-Time Notifications on Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Liang, S.

    2012-08-01

    World-wide sensor web generates tremendous amount of sensor data stream allowing people to observe events that were previously unobservable. Sensor web has been wildly applied in many monitoring systems; some of them are extremely time-sensitive, e.g., disaster management systems. However, with the growing amount of sensor data, the traditional request/response communication model becomes inefficient as it is based on point-to-point pulling interactions between users and data providers. In order to address this issue, publish/subscribe communication model has been proposed and applied in many applications, e.g., web blogging. The publish/subscribe model utilizes an intermediary broker on matching predefined queries with the data pushed to the broker. However, we argue that the publish/subscribe model is hard to be directly applied to sensor web due to the fact that most sensor web services are based on pulling interaction model only. For instance, more and more sensor data providers are publishing their sensor data with the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Observation Service (SOS) standards, and the OGC SOS services are based on the request/response model. Therefore, in order to address this issue, we propose a hybrid pull-push system to retrieve sensor web data in a timely manner. The preliminary experimental results indicate that the proposed system is able to fetch near real time sensor streams from pull-based sensor web services.

  14. Multifractal analysis of stock exchange crashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siokis, Fotios M.

    2013-03-01

    We analyze the complexity of rare events of the DJIA Index. We reveal that the returns of the time series exhibit strong multifractal properties meaning that temporal correlations play a substantial role. The effect of major stock market crashes can be best illustrated by the comparison of the multifractal spectra of the time series before and after the crash. Aftershock periods compared to foreshock periods exhibit richer and more complex dynamics. Compared to an average crash, calculated by taking into account the larger 5 crashes of the DJIA Index, the 1929 event exhibits significantly more increase in multifractality than the 1987 crisis.

  15. CDC Vital Signs: Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries: Costly but Preventable

    MedlinePlus

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries Costly but Preventable Language: English Español ( ... and how to prevent future crashes. Problem Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury in ...

  16. Modeling Pilot Behavior for Assessing Integrated Alert and Notification Systems on Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cover, Mathew; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Numerous new flight deck configurations for caution, warning, and alerts can be conceived; yet testing them with human-in-the-Ioop experiments to evaluate each one would not be practical. New sensors, instruments, and displays are being put into cockpits every day and this is particularly true as we enter the dawn of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). By modeling pilot behavior in a computer simulation, an unlimited number of unique caution, warning, and alert configurations can be evaluated 24/7 by a computer. These computer simulations can then identify the most promising candidate formats to further evaluate in higher fidelity, but more costly, Human-in-the-Ioop (HITL) simulations. Evaluations using batch simulations with human performance models saves time, money, and enables a broader consideration of possible caution, warning, and alerting configurations for future flight decks.

  17. Decision-aids for enhancing intergovernmental interactions: The Pre-notification Analysis Support System (PASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, M.; Liebow, E.; Holm, J.

    1994-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) plans to honor its commitment to government-to-government interactions by providing advance notice of DOE spent fuel and high-level waste shipments to Indian tribes whose jurisdictions are crossed by or adjacent to transportation routes. The tribes are important contributors to a regional response network, and providing tribes with advance notice of DOE shipping plans marks the start -- not the end -- of direct, government-to-government interactions with DOE. The Tribal Prenotification Analysis Support System (PASS) is being developed for the Office of Special Programs within the Department`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. PASS will help DOE-Headquarters to coordinate field office activities and provide technical and institutional support to the DOE field offices. PASS is designed to be used by anyone with minimum computer literacy and having contemporary computer hardware and software. It uses on-screen maps to choose and display a shipment route, and to display the tribal jurisdictions. With forms that are easy to understand, it provides information about each jurisdiction and points of contact. PASS records all contacts, commitments made, and actions taken.

  18. Comparison of teen and adult driver crash scenarios in a nationally representative sample of serious crashes.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Catherine C; Curry, Allison E; Kandadai, Venk; Sommers, Marilyn S; Winston, Flaura K

    2014-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and acquired disability during the first four decades of life. While teen drivers have the highest crash risk, few studies examine the similarities and differences in teen and adult driver crashes. We aimed to: (1) identify and compare the most frequent crash scenarios-integrated information on a vehicle's movement prior to crash, immediate pre-crash event, and crash configuration-for teen and adult drivers involved in serious crashes, and (2) for the most frequent scenarios, explore whether the distribution of driver critical errors differed for teens and adult drivers. We analyzed data from the National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey, a nationally representative study of serious crashes conducted by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration from 2005 to 2007. Our sample included 642 16- to 19-year-old and 1167 35- to 54-year-old crash-involved drivers (weighted n=296,482 and 439,356, respectively) who made a critical error that led to their crash's critical pre-crash event (i.e., event that made the crash inevitable). We estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare the relative frequency of crash scenarios and driver critical errors. The top five crash scenarios among teen drivers, accounting for 37.3% of their crashes, included: (1) going straight, other vehicle stopped, rear end; (2) stopped in traffic lane, turning left at intersection, turn into path of other vehicle; (3) negotiating curve, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; (4) going straight, off right edge of road, right roadside departure; and (5) stopped in lane, turning left at intersection, turn across path of other vehicle. The top five crash scenarios among adult drivers, accounting for 33.9% of their crashes, included the same scenarios as the teen drivers with the exception of scenario (3) and the addition of going straight, crossing over an intersection, and continuing on a

  19. Inverse propensity weighting to adjust for bias in fatal crash samples

    PubMed Central

    Clark, David E.; Hannan, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) has data from all areas of the United States, but is limited to fatal crashes. The National Automotive Sampling System – General Estimates System (NASS-GES) includes all types of serious traffic crashes, but is limited to a few sampling areas. Combining the strengths of these two samples might offset their limitations. Methods Logistic regression (allowing for sample design, and conditional upon selected person-, event-, and geographic-level factors) was used to determine the propensity (PFC) for each injured person in 2002–2008 NASS-GES data to be in a fatal crash sample. NASS-GES subjects injured in fatal crashes were then reweighted by a factor of WFC = (1/PFC) to create a “pseudopopulation”. The weights (WFC) derived from NASS-GES were also applied to injured subjects in 2007 FARS data to create another pseudopopulation. Characteristics and mortality predictions from these artificial pseudopopulations were compared to those obtained using the original NASS-GES sample. The sum of WFC for FARS cases was also used to estimate the number of crash injuries for rural and urban locations, and compared to independently reported data. Results Compared to regression results using the original NASS-GES sample, unadjusted models based on fatal crash samples gave inaccurate estimates of covariate effects on mortality for injured subjects. After reweighting using WFC, estimates based upon the pseudopopulations were similar to results obtained using the original NASS-GES sample. The sum of WFC for FARS cases gave reasonable estimates for the number of crash injuries in rural and urban locations, and provided an estimate of the rural effect on mortality after controlling for other factors. Conclusions Weights derived from analysis of NASS-GES data (the inverse propensity for selection into a fatal crash sample) allow appropriate adjustment for selection bias in fatal crash samples, including FARS. PMID:23084095

  20. Crash test for the Copenhagen problem.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Jan

    2004-06-01

    The Copenhagen problem is a simple model in celestial mechanics. It serves to investigate the behavior of a small body under the gravitational influence of two equally heavy primary bodies. We present a partition of orbits into classes of various kinds of regular motion, chaotic motion, escape and crash. Collisions of the small body onto one of the primaries turn out to be unexpectedly frequent, and their probability displays a scale-free dependence on the size of the primaries. The analysis reveals a high degree of complexity so that long term prediction may become a formidable task. Moreover, we link the results to chaotic scattering theory and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems. PMID:15244719

  1. Crash test for the Copenhagen problem.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Jan

    2004-06-01

    The Copenhagen problem is a simple model in celestial mechanics. It serves to investigate the behavior of a small body under the gravitational influence of two equally heavy primary bodies. We present a partition of orbits into classes of various kinds of regular motion, chaotic motion, escape and crash. Collisions of the small body onto one of the primaries turn out to be unexpectedly frequent, and their probability displays a scale-free dependence on the size of the primaries. The analysis reveals a high degree of complexity so that long term prediction may become a formidable task. Moreover, we link the results to chaotic scattering theory and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems.

  2. Higher Crash and Near-Crash Rates in Teenaged Drivers With Lower Cortisol Response

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Brown, Thomas G.; Guo, Feng; Klauer, Sheila G.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Fang, Youjia; Lee, Suzanne E.; Gianoulakis, Christina; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Road traffic crashes are one of the leading causes of injury and death among teenagers worldwide. Better understanding of the individual pathways to driving risk may lead to better-targeted intervention in this vulnerable group. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between cortisol, a neurobiological marker of stress regulation linked to risky behavior, and driving risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study was designed to continuously monitor the driving behavior of teenagers by instrumenting vehicles with kinematic sensors, cameras, and a global positioning system. During 2006–2008, a community sample of 42 newly licensed 16-year-old volunteer participants in the United States was recruited and driving behavior monitored. It was hypothesized in teenagers that higher cortisol response to stress is associated with (1) lower crash and near-crash (CNC) rates during their first 18 months of licensure and (2) faster reduction in CNC rates over time. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Participants’ cortisol response during a stress-inducing task was assessed at baseline, followed by measurement of their involvement in CNCs and driving exposure during their first 18 months of licensure. Mixed-effect Poisson longitudinal regression models were used to examine the association between baseline cortisol response and CNC rates during the follow-up period. RESULTS Participants with a higher baseline cortisol response had lower CNC rates during the follow-up period (exponential of the regression coefficient, 0.93; 95%CI, 0.88–0.98) and faster decrease in CNC rates over time (exponential of the regression coefficient, 0.98; 95%, CI, 0.96–0.99). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Cortisol is a neurobiological marker associated with teenaged-driving risk. As in other problem-behavior fields, identification of an objective marker of teenaged-driving risk promises the development of more personalized intervention approaches. PMID:24710522

  3. Utilizing the eigenvectors of freeway loop data spatiotemporal schematic for real time crash prediction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shou'en; Xie, Wenjing; Wang, Junhua; Ragland, David R

    2016-09-01

    The concept of crash precursor identification is gaining more practicality due to the recent advancements in Advanced Transportation Management and Information Systems. Investigating the shortcomings of the existing models, this paper proposes a new method to model the real time crash likelihood based on loop data through schematic eigenvectors. Firstly, traffic volume, occupancy and density spatiotemporal schematics in certain duration before an accident occurrence were constructed to describe the traffic flow status. Secondly, eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the spatiotemporal schematics were extracted to represent traffic volume, occupancy and density situation before the crash occurrence. Thirdly, by setting the vectors in crash time as case and those at crash free time as control, a logistic model is constructed to identify the crash precursors. Results show that both the eigenvectors and eigenvalues can significantly impact the accident likelihood compared to the previous study, the proposed model has the advantage of avoiding multicollinearity, better reflection of the overall traffic flow status before the crash, and improving missing data problem of loop detectors.

  4. Utilizing the eigenvectors of freeway loop data spatiotemporal schematic for real time crash prediction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shou'en; Xie, Wenjing; Wang, Junhua; Ragland, David R

    2016-09-01

    The concept of crash precursor identification is gaining more practicality due to the recent advancements in Advanced Transportation Management and Information Systems. Investigating the shortcomings of the existing models, this paper proposes a new method to model the real time crash likelihood based on loop data through schematic eigenvectors. Firstly, traffic volume, occupancy and density spatiotemporal schematics in certain duration before an accident occurrence were constructed to describe the traffic flow status. Secondly, eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the spatiotemporal schematics were extracted to represent traffic volume, occupancy and density situation before the crash occurrence. Thirdly, by setting the vectors in crash time as case and those at crash free time as control, a logistic model is constructed to identify the crash precursors. Results show that both the eigenvectors and eigenvalues can significantly impact the accident likelihood compared to the previous study, the proposed model has the advantage of avoiding multicollinearity, better reflection of the overall traffic flow status before the crash, and improving missing data problem of loop detectors. PMID:27258946

  5. Case series analysis of hindfoot injuries sustained by drivers in frontal motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Funk, James; Forbes, Aaron; Hurwitz, Shepard; Shaw, Greg; Crandall, Jeff; Freeth, Rob; Michetti, Chris; Rudd, Rodney; Scarboro, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Improvements to vehicle frontal crashworthiness have led to reductions in toe pan and instrument panel intrusions as well as leg, foot, and ankle loadings in standardized crash tests. Current field data, however, suggests the proportion of foot and ankle injuries sustained by drivers in frontal crashes has not decreased over the past two decades. To explain the inconsistency between crash tests results and real world lower limb injury prevalence, this study investigated the injury causation scenario for the specific hind-foot injury patterns observed in frontal vehicle crashes. Thirty-four cases with leg, foot, and ankle injuries were selected from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database. Talus fractures were present in 20 cases, representing the most frequent hind-foot skeletal injuries observed among the reviewed cases. While axial compression was the predominant loading mechanism causing 18 injuries, 11 injured ankles involved inversion or eversion motion, and 5 involved dorsiflexion as the injury mechanism. Injured ankles of drivers were more biased towards the right aspect with foot pedals contributing to injuries in 13 of the 34 cases. Combined, the results suggest that despite recent advancement of vehicle performance in crash tests, efforts to reduce axial forces sustained in lower extremity should be prioritized. The analysis of injury mechanisms in this study could aid in crash reconstructions and the development of safety systems for vehicles. PMID:26183693

  6. Rainfall effect on single-vehicle crash severities using polychotomous response models.

    PubMed

    Jung, Soyoung; Qin, Xiao; Noyce, David A

    2010-01-01

    As part of the Wisconsin road weather safety initiative, the objective of this study is to assess the effects of rainfall on the severity of single-vehicle crashes on Wisconsin interstate highways utilizing polychotomous response models. Weather-related factors considered in this study include estimated rainfall intensity for 15 min prior to a crash occurrence, water film depth, temperature, wind speed/direction, stopping sight distance and deficiency of car-following distance at the crash moment. For locations with unknown weather information, data were interpolated using the inverse squared distance method. Non-weather factors such as road geometrics, traffic conditions, collision types, vehicle types, and driver and temporal attributes were also considered. Two types of polychotomous response models were compared: ordinal logistic and sequential logistic regressions. The sequential logistic regression was tested with forward and backward formats. Comparative models were also developed for single vehicle crash severity during clear weather. In conclusion, the backward sequential logistic regression model produced the best results for predicting crash severities in rainy weather where rainfall intensity, wind speed, roadway terrain, driver's gender, and safety belt were found to be statistically significant. Our study also found that the seasonal factor was significant in clear weather. The seasonal factor is a predictor suggesting that inclement weather may affect crash severity. These findings can be used to determine the probabilities of single vehicle crash severity in rainy weather and provide quantitative support on improving road weather safety via weather warning systems, highway facility improvements, and speed limit management.

  7. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J. , Blocksome; Michael A. , Parker; Jeffrey J.

    2011-02-15

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for DMA transfer completion notification that include: inserting, by an origin DMA on an origin node in an origin injection FIFO, a data descriptor for an application message; inserting, by the origin DMA, a reflection descriptor in the origin injection FIFO, the reflection descriptor specifying a remote get operation for injecting a completion notification descriptor in a reflection injection FIFO on a reflection node; transferring, by the origin DMA to a target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; in response to completing the message transfer, transferring, by the origin DMA to the reflection node, the completion notification descriptor in dependence upon the reflection descriptor; receiving, by the origin DMA from the reflection node, a completion packet; and notifying, by the origin DMA in response to receiving the completion packet, the origin node's processing core that the message transfer is complete.

  8. The risk of groundling fatalities from unintentional airplane crashes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, K M; Rabouw, R F; Cooke, R M

    2001-12-01

    The crashes of four hijacked commercial planes on September 11, 2001, and the repeated televised images of the consequent collapse of the World Trade Center and one side of the Pentagon will inevitably change people's perceptions of the mortality risks to people on the ground from crashing airplanes. Goldstein and colleagues were the first to quantify the risk for Americans of being killed on the ground from a crashing airplane for unintentional events, providing average point estimates of 6 in a hundred million for annual risk and 4.2 in a million for lifetime risk. They noted that the lifetime risk result exceeded the commonly used risk management threshold of 1 in a million, and suggested that the risk to "groundlings" could be a useful risk communication tool because (a) it is a man-made risk (b) arising from economic activities (c) from which the victims derive no benefit and (d) exposure to which the victims cannot control. Their results have been used in risk communication. This analysis provides updated estimates of groundling fatality risks from unintentional crashes using more recent data and a geographical information system approach to modeling the population around airports. The results suggest that the average annual risk is now 1.2 in a hundred million and the lifetime risk is now 9 in ten million (below the risk management threshold). Analysis of the variability and uncertainty of this estimate, however, suggests that the exposure to groundling fatality risk varies by about a factor of approximately 100 in the spatial dimension of distance to an airport, with the risk declining rapidly outside the first 2 miles around an airport. We believe that the risk to groundlings from crashing airplanes is more useful in the context of risk communication when information about variability and uncertainty in the risk estimates is characterized, but we suspect that recent events will alter its utility in risk communication. PMID:11824678

  9. Effects of Enforcement Intensity on Alcohol Impaired Driving Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Waehrer, Geetha; Voas, Robert B.; Auld-Owens, Amy; Carr, Katie; Pell, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Research measuring levels of enforcement has investigated whether increases in police activities (e.g., checkpoints, driving-while-intoxicated [DWI] special patrols) above some baseline level are associated with reduced crashes and fatalities. Little research, however, has attempted to quantitatively measure enforcement efforts and relate different enforcement levels to specific levels of the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of law-enforcement intensity in a sample of communities on the rate of crashes involving a drinking driver. We analyzed the influence of different enforcement strategies and measures: (1) specific deterrence -annual number of driving-under-the-influence (DUI) arrests per capita; (2) general deterrence -frequency of sobriety checkpoint operations; (3) highly visible traffic enforcement -annual number of traffic stops per capita; (4) enforcement presence - number of sworn officers per capita; and (5) overall traffic enforcement - the number of other traffic enforcement citations per capita (i.e., seat belt citations, speeding tickets, and other moving violations and warnings) in each community. Methods We took advantage of nationwide data on the local prevalence of impaired driving from the 2007 National Roadside Survey (NRS), measures of DUI enforcement activity provided by the police departments that participated in the 2007 NRS, and crashes from the General Estimates System (GES) in the same locations as the 2007 NRS. We analyzed the relationship between the intensity of enforcement and the prevalence of impaired driving crashes in 22 to 26 communities with complete data. Log-linear regressions were used throughout the study. Results A higher number of DUI arrests per 10,000 driving-aged population was associated with a lower ratio of drinking-driver crashes to non-drinking-driver crashes (p=0.035) when controlling for the percentage of legally intoxicated

  10. Calibration of Airframe and Occupant Models for Two Full-Scale Rotorcraft Crash Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta, Lucas G.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility in support of NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Project. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an externally mounted composite deployable energy absorber under combined impact conditions. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish baseline loads that are regarded as severe but survivable. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to a system integrated finite element model of the test article. Results from 19 accelerometers placed throughout the airframe were compared to finite element model responses. The model developed for the purposes of predicting acceleration responses from the first crash test was inadequate when evaluating more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used to calibrate model results for the second full-scale crash test. This combination of heuristic and quantitative methods was used to identify modeling deficiencies, evaluate parameter importance, and propose required model changes. It is shown that the multi-dimensional calibration techniques presented here are particularly effective in identifying model adequacy. Acceleration results for the calibrated model were compared to test results and the original model results. There was a noticeable improvement in the pilot and co-pilot region, a slight improvement in the occupant model response, and an over-stiffening effect in the passenger region. This approach should be adopted early on, in combination with the building-block approaches that are customarily used, for model development and test planning guidance. Complete crash simulations with validated finite element models can be used

  11. Hot-Air Balloon Tours: Crash Epidemiology in the United States, 2000-2011

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Beaty, Leland P.; Baker, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hot-air balloon tours are FAR Part 91-governed balloon rides conducted for compensation or hire. Part 91, General Aviation, in general involves the least strict federal regulations and accounts for the majority of aviation crashes and fatalities. Methods National Transportation Safety Board reports of hot-air balloon tour crashes in the United States from 2000 through 2011 were read and analyzed. Results During the 12-yr period, 78 hot-air balloon tours crashed, involving 518 occupants. There were 91 serious injuries and 5 fatalities; 83% of crashes resulted in one or more serious or fatal outcomes. Of the serious injuries characterized, 56% were lower extremity fractures. Most crashes (81%) occurred during landing; 65% involved hard landings. Fixed object collisions contributed to 50% of serious injuries and all 5 fatalities. During landing sequences, gondola dragging, tipping, bouncing, and occupant ejection were associated with poor outcomes. Of the crashes resulting in serious or fatal outcomes, 20% of balloons were significantly damaged or destroyed. Discussion The incidence of morbidity and mortality is high among hot-air balloon tour crashes, and the proportion of balloon crashes attributed to paid rides appears to have increased over time. In addition to examining the role of restraint systems, personal protective equipment, and power line emergency procedures in ballooning, injury prevention efforts should target factors such hard landings, object strikes, gondola instability, and occupant ejections, which are associated with balloon injuries and deaths. Crash outcomes may also improve with vehicle engineering that enables balloons themselves to absorb impact forces. PMID:24279231

  12. Attributions of responsibility for motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Alan E

    2005-07-01

    A sample of 321 motor vehicle crash survivors completed a survey in which they provided attribution ratings of the extent to which they were responsible for their crashes, other people (drivers) were responsible, or road/weather conditions were responsible. The attribution ratings were consistent with the predictions of defensive attribution theory (DAT; [Walster, E., 1966. Assignment of responsibility for an accident. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 3, 73-79]) in that people who experienced crashes of greater severity (necessitating medical treatment for injuries) attributed greater responsibility to other drivers than to self or to weather/road conditions. People who were in crashes of lesser severity attributed approximately the same amount of responsibility to themselves as they did to others. An actor-observer effect also appeared in survivors' attribution ratings in that self-acceptance of responsibility for the crash was positively correlated with attributions to the situation (road/weather conditions) whereas such attributions to the situation were negatively correlated with attributions of responsibility to other drivers. Consistent with results of prior research, survivors who assigned crash responsibility to other drivers reported increased levels of driving and riding avoidance compared to people who accepted responsibility for their crashes.

  13. Post-crash fuel dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.

    1997-03-01

    This paper is a brief overview of work over the last several decades in understanding what occurs to jet fuel stored in aircraft fuel tanks on impact with the ground. Fuel dispersal is discussed in terms of the overall crash dynamics process and impact regimes are identified. In a generic sense, the types of flow regimes which can occur are identified and general descriptions of the processes are given. Examples of engineering level tools, both computational and experimental, which have applicability to analyzing the complex environments are presented. Finally, risk based decision is discussed as a quick means of identifying requirements for development of preventative or mitigation strategies, such as further work on the development of an anti-misting agent.

  14. Influences of pre-crash braking induced dummy - forward displacements on dummy behaviour during EuroNCAP frontal crashtest.

    PubMed

    Woitsch, Gernot; Sinz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Combination of active and passive safety systems is a future key to further improvement in vehicle safety. Autonomous braking systems are able to reduce collision speeds, and therefore severity levels significantly. Passengers change their position due to pre-impact vehicle motion, a fact, which has not yet been considered in common crash tests. For this paper, finite elements simulations of crash tests were performed to show that forward displacements due to pre-crash braking do not necessarily increase dummy load levels. So the influence of different pre-crash scenarios, all leading to equal closing speeds in the crash phase, are considered in terms of vehicle motion (pitching, deceleration) and restraint system configurations (belt load limiter, pretensioner). The influence is evaluated by dummy loads as well as contact risk between the dummy and the interior. PMID:24211558

  15. Influences of pre-crash braking induced dummy - forward displacements on dummy behaviour during EuroNCAP frontal crashtest.

    PubMed

    Woitsch, Gernot; Sinz, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Combination of active and passive safety systems is a future key to further improvement in vehicle safety. Autonomous braking systems are able to reduce collision speeds, and therefore severity levels significantly. Passengers change their position due to pre-impact vehicle motion, a fact, which has not yet been considered in common crash tests. For this paper, finite elements simulations of crash tests were performed to show that forward displacements due to pre-crash braking do not necessarily increase dummy load levels. So the influence of different pre-crash scenarios, all leading to equal closing speeds in the crash phase, are considered in terms of vehicle motion (pitching, deceleration) and restraint system configurations (belt load limiter, pretensioner). The influence is evaluated by dummy loads as well as contact risk between the dummy and the interior.

  16. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers.

    PubMed

    Bates, Lyndel J; Davey, Jeremy; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Armstrong, Kerry

    2014-08-01

    Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  17. 49 CFR 234.101 - Employee notification rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS... Highway-Rail Grade Crossings § 234.101 Employee notification rules. Each railroad shall issue...

  18. 49 CFR 234.101 - Employee notification rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS... Highway-Rail Grade Crossings § 234.101 Employee notification rules. Each railroad shall issue...

  19. 49 CFR 234.101 - Employee notification rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS... Highway-Rail Grade Crossings § 234.101 Employee notification rules. Each railroad shall issue...

  20. Full-Scale Crash Tests and Analyses of Three High-Wing Single

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin S.; Littell, Justin D.; Stimson, Chad M.; Jackson, Karen E.; Mason, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Emergency Locator Transmitter Survivability and Reliability (ELTSAR) project was initiated in 2014 to assess the crash performance standards for the next generation of ELT systems. Three Cessna 172 aircraft have been acquired to conduct crash testing at NASA Langley Research Center's Landing and Impact Research Facility. Testing is scheduled for the summer of 2015 and will simulate three crash conditions; a flare to stall while emergency landing, and two controlled flight into terrain scenarios. Instrumentation and video coverage, both onboard and external, will also provide valuable data of airframe response. Full-scale finite element analyses will be performed using two separate commercial explicit solvers. Calibration and validation of the models will be based on the airframe response under these varying crash conditions.

  1. How Common are Noise Sources on the Crash Arc of Malaysian Flight 370

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Kunkle, Thomas David; Stead, Richard J.

    2014-10-21

    Malaysian Flight 370 disappeared nearly without a trace. Besides some communication handshakes to the INMASAT satellite, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty monitoring system could have heard the aircraft crash into the southern Indian Ocean. One noise event from Cape Leeuwin has been suggested by Stead as the crash and occurs within the crash location suggested by Kunkle at el. We analyze the hydrophone data from Cape Leeuwin to understand how common such noise events are on the arc of possible locations where Malaysian Flight 370 might have crashed. Few other noise sources were found on the arc. The noise event found by Stead is the strongest. No noise events are seen within the Australian Transportation Safety Board (ATSB) new search location until the 10th strongest event, an event which is very close to the noise level.

  2. Crash protection for children in ambulances.

    PubMed

    Bull, M J; Weber, K; Talty, J; Manary, M

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the most effective and reliable means of restraining children on an ambulance cot and to develop recommended field procedures for emergency medical service providers. A series of crash tests at 48 km/h were conducted using convertible child restraints, car beds, and harness systems tested with 3-year, infant, and 6-year size dummies. Belt configuration and backrest position were varied. A new cot and fastener system significantly improved restraint performance over older systems previously tested. A two-belt attachment with elevated cot backrest was found to be the method with the least performance variability for securing either a convertible child restraint or a car bed. It was concluded that children who weight up to 18 kg, fit in a convertible child restraint, and can tolerate a semi-upright seated position can be restrained in a convertible child restraint secured with two belts to an ambulance cot. Infants who must lie flat can be restrained in a car bed modified for two seatbelt paths and secured to a cot. In each case, the cot backrest must be elevated, and the cot and anchor system must be crashworthy. None of the harness configurations tested proved to be satisfactory, but an effective system could be developed by following accepted restraint design principles. PMID:12214360

  3. Crash Tests of Protective Airplane Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-absorbing floors reduce structural buckling and impact forces on occupants. 56-page report discusses crash tests of energy-absorbing aircraft floors. Describes test facility and procedures; airplanes, structural modifications, and seats; crash dynamics; floor and seat behavior; and responses of anthropometric dummies seated in airplanes. Also presents plots of accelerations, photographs and diagrams of test facility, and photographs and drawings of airplanes before, during, and after testing.

  4. Occupant injury in rollover crashes - Contribution of planar impacts with objects and other vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Johan; Poplin, Gerald; McMurry, Tim; Crandall, Jeff; Kerrigan, Jason

    2015-12-01

    Planar impacts with objects and other vehicles may increase the risk and severity of injury in rollover crashes. The current study compares the frequency of injury measures (MAIS 2+, 3+, and 4+; fatal; AIS 2+ head and cervical spine; and AIS 3+ head and thorax) as well as vehicle type distribution (passenger car, SUV, van, and light truck), crash kinematics, and occupant demographics between single vehicle single event rollovers (SV Pure) and multiple event rollovers to determine which types of multiple event rollovers can be pooled with SV Pure to study rollover induced occupant injury. Four different types of multiple event rollovers were defined: single and multi-vehicle crashes for which the rollover is the most severe event (SV Prim and MV Prim) and single and multi-vehicle crashes for which the rollover is not the most severe event (SV Non-Prim and MV Non-Prim). Information from real world crashes was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the period from 1995 through 2011. Belted, contained or partially ejected, adult occupants in vehicles that completed 1-16 lateral quarter turns were assigned to one of the five rollover categories. The results showed that the frequency of injury in non-primary rollovers (SV Non-Prim and MV Non-Prim) involving no more than one roof inversion is substantially greater than in SV Pure, but that this disparity diminishes for crashes involving multiple inversions. It can further be concluded that for a given number of roof inversions, the distribution of injuries and crash characteristics in SV Pure and SV Prim crashes are sufficiently similar for these categories to be considered collectively for purposes of understanding etiologies and developing strategies for prevention.

  5. Occupant injury in rollover crashes - Contribution of planar impacts with objects and other vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Johan; Poplin, Gerald; McMurry, Tim; Crandall, Jeff; Kerrigan, Jason

    2015-12-01

    Planar impacts with objects and other vehicles may increase the risk and severity of injury in rollover crashes. The current study compares the frequency of injury measures (MAIS 2+, 3+, and 4+; fatal; AIS 2+ head and cervical spine; and AIS 3+ head and thorax) as well as vehicle type distribution (passenger car, SUV, van, and light truck), crash kinematics, and occupant demographics between single vehicle single event rollovers (SV Pure) and multiple event rollovers to determine which types of multiple event rollovers can be pooled with SV Pure to study rollover induced occupant injury. Four different types of multiple event rollovers were defined: single and multi-vehicle crashes for which the rollover is the most severe event (SV Prim and MV Prim) and single and multi-vehicle crashes for which the rollover is not the most severe event (SV Non-Prim and MV Non-Prim). Information from real world crashes was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for the period from 1995 through 2011. Belted, contained or partially ejected, adult occupants in vehicles that completed 1-16 lateral quarter turns were assigned to one of the five rollover categories. The results showed that the frequency of injury in non-primary rollovers (SV Non-Prim and MV Non-Prim) involving no more than one roof inversion is substantially greater than in SV Pure, but that this disparity diminishes for crashes involving multiple inversions. It can further be concluded that for a given number of roof inversions, the distribution of injuries and crash characteristics in SV Pure and SV Prim crashes are sufficiently similar for these categories to be considered collectively for purposes of understanding etiologies and developing strategies for prevention. PMID:26418467

  6. Marijuana Use and Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mu-Chen; Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Lusardi, Arielle R.; Tzong, Keane Y.; Li, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996, 16 states and the District of Columbia in the United States have enacted legislation to decriminalize marijuana for medical use. Although marijuana is the most commonly detected nonalcohol drug in drivers, its role in crash causation remains unsettled. To assess the association between marijuana use and crash risk, the authors performed a meta-analysis of 9 epidemiologic studies published in English in the past 2 decades identified through a systematic search of bibliographic databases. Estimated odds ratios relating marijuana use to crash risk reported in these studies ranged from 0.85 to 7.16. Pooled analysis based on the random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 2.66 (95% confidence interval: 2.07, 3.41). Analysis of individual studies indicated that the heightened risk of crash involvement associated with marijuana use persisted after adjustment for confounding variables and that the risk of crash involvement increased in a dose-response fashion with the concentration of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol detected in the urine and the frequency of self-reported marijuana use. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that marijuana use by drivers is associated with a significantly increased risk of being involved in motor vehicle crashes. PMID:21976636

  7. Transient analysis techniques in performing impact and crash dynamic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, A. B.; Winter, R.

    1989-01-01

    Because of the emphasis being placed on crashworthiness as a design requirement, increasing demands are being made by various organizations to analyze a wide range of complex structures that must perform safely when subjected to severe impact loads, such as those generated in a crash event. The ultimate goal of crashworthiness design and analysis is to produce vehicles with the ability to reduce the dynamic forces experienced by the occupants to specified levels, while maintaining a survivable envelope around them during a specified crash event. DYCAST is a nonlinear structural dynamic finite element computer code that started from the plans systems of a finite element program for static nonlinear structural analysis. The essential features of DYCAST are outlined.

  8. Crash test for the restricted three-body problem.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Jan

    2005-02-01

    The restricted three-body problem serves to investigate the chaotic behavior of a small body under the gravitational influence of two heavy primary bodies. We analyze numerically the phase space mixing of bounded motion, escape, and crash in this simple model of (chaotic) celestial mechanics. The presented extensive numerical analysis reveals a high degree of complexity. We extend the recently presented findings for the Copenhagen case of equal main masses to the general case of different primary body masses. Collisions of the small body onto the primaries are comparatively frequent, and their probability displays a scale-free dependence on the size of the primaries as shown for the Copenhagen case. Interpreting the crash as leaking in phase space the results are related to both chaotic scattering and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems. PMID:15783407

  9. Crash test for the restricted three-body problem.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Jan

    2005-02-01

    The restricted three-body problem serves to investigate the chaotic behavior of a small body under the gravitational influence of two heavy primary bodies. We analyze numerically the phase space mixing of bounded motion, escape, and crash in this simple model of (chaotic) celestial mechanics. The presented extensive numerical analysis reveals a high degree of complexity. We extend the recently presented findings for the Copenhagen case of equal main masses to the general case of different primary body masses. Collisions of the small body onto the primaries are comparatively frequent, and their probability displays a scale-free dependence on the size of the primaries as shown for the Copenhagen case. Interpreting the crash as leaking in phase space the results are related to both chaotic scattering and the theory of leaking Hamiltonian systems.

  10. Flight-crash events in turbulence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haitao; Pumir, Alain; Falkovich, Gregory; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Shats, Michael; Xia, Hua; Francois, Nicolas; Boffetta, Guido

    2014-05-27

    The statistical properties of turbulence differ in an essential way from those of systems in or near thermal equilibrium because of the flux of energy between vastly different scales at which energy is supplied and at which it is dissipated. We elucidate this difference by studying experimentally and numerically the fluctuations of the energy of a small fluid particle moving in a turbulent fluid. We demonstrate how the fundamental property of detailed balance is broken, so that the probabilities of forward and backward transitions are not equal for turbulence. In physical terms, we found that in a large set of flow configurations, fluid elements decelerate faster than accelerate, a feature known all too well from driving in dense traffic. The statistical signature of rare "flight-crash" events, associated with fast particle deceleration, provides a way to quantify irreversibility in a turbulent flow. Namely, we find that the third moment of the power fluctuations along a trajectory, nondimensionalized by the energy flux, displays a remarkable power law as a function of the Reynolds number, both in two and in three spatial dimensions. This establishes a relation between the irreversibility of the system and the range of active scales. We speculate that the breakdown of the detailed balance characterized here is a general feature of other systems very far from equilibrium, displaying a wide range of spatial scales.

  11. Estimating under-reporting of road crash injuries to police using multiple linked data collections.

    PubMed

    Watson, Angela; Watson, Barry; Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2015-10-01

    The reliance on police data for the counting of road crash injuries can be problematic, as it is well known that not all road crash injuries are reported to police which under-estimates the overall burden of road crash injuries. The aim of this study was to use multiple linked data sources to estimate the extent of under-reporting of road crash injuries to police in the Australian state of Queensland. Data from the Queensland Road Crash Database (QRCD), the Queensland Hospital Admitted Patients Data Collection (QHAPDC), Emergency Department Information System (EDIS), and the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit (QISU) for the year 2009 were linked. The completeness of road crash cases reported to police was examined via discordance rates between the police data (QRCD) and the hospital data collections. In addition, the potential bias of this discordance (under-reporting) was assessed based on gender, age, road user group, and regional location. Results showed that the level of under-reporting varied depending on the data set with which the police data was compared. When all hospital data collections are examined together the estimated population of road crash injuries was approximately 28,000, with around two-thirds not linking to any record in the police data. The results also showed that the under-reporting was more likely for motorcyclists, cyclists, males, young people, and injuries occurring in Remote and Inner Regional areas. These results have important implications for road safety research and policy in terms of: prioritising funding and resources; targeting road safety interventions into areas of higher risk; and estimating the burden of road crash injuries.

  12. Coverage of motor vehicle crashes with injuries in U.S. newspapers, 1999–2002

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Problem The aims of the study were to evaluate information on motor-vehicle crashes with injuries provided in newspaper reports and to assess the frequency of thematic and episodic reporting of motor-vehicle crashes. Method The present study used Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS) derived variables to code a nationally representative sample of U.S. newspaper reports of motor-vehicle crashes from 1999–2002. A total 473 newspaper reports of motor-vehicle crashes with injuries were included. Information on the crash event, people involved, and vehicles was extracted. The reports were coded for episodic and thematic news framing. Results A majority of newspaper reports used episodic framing. The majority of reports included information on the type of crash, but characteristics about people and vehicles were rarely reported. Discussion Lack of information in newspapers makes them an incomplete source from which to influence public perceptions and attitudes. Impact on industry This provides an opportunity for news print media to improve public health content. PMID:19010121

  13. Vehicular crash data used to rank intersections by injury crash frequency and severity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Li, Zongzhi; Liu, Jingxian; Patel, Harshingar

    2016-09-01

    This article contains data on research conducted in "A double standard model for allocating limited emergency medical service vehicle resources ensuring service reliability" (Liu et al., 2016) [1]. The crash counts were sorted out from comprehensive crash records of over one thousand major signalized intersections in the city of Chicago from 2004 to 2010. For each intersection, vehicular crashes were counted by crash severity levels, including fatal, injury Types A, B, and C for major, moderate, and minor injury levels, property damage only (PDO), and unknown. The crash data was further used to rank intersections by equivalent injury crash frequency. The top 200 intersections with the highest number of crash occurrences identified based on crash frequency- and severity-based scenarios are shared in this brief. The provided data would be a valuable source for research in urban traffic safety analysis and could also be utilized to examine the effectiveness of traffic safety improvement planning and programming, intersection design enhancement, incident and emergency management, and law enforcement strategies.

  14. Vehicular crash data used to rank intersections by injury crash frequency and severity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Li, Zongzhi; Liu, Jingxian; Patel, Harshingar

    2016-09-01

    This article contains data on research conducted in "A double standard model for allocating limited emergency medical service vehicle resources ensuring service reliability" (Liu et al., 2016) [1]. The crash counts were sorted out from comprehensive crash records of over one thousand major signalized intersections in the city of Chicago from 2004 to 2010. For each intersection, vehicular crashes were counted by crash severity levels, including fatal, injury Types A, B, and C for major, moderate, and minor injury levels, property damage only (PDO), and unknown. The crash data was further used to rank intersections by equivalent injury crash frequency. The top 200 intersections with the highest number of crash occurrences identified based on crash frequency- and severity-based scenarios are shared in this brief. The provided data would be a valuable source for research in urban traffic safety analysis and could also be utilized to examine the effectiveness of traffic safety improvement planning and programming, intersection design enhancement, incident and emergency management, and law enforcement strategies. PMID:27508245

  15. Thoracolumbar Spine Fractures in Frontal Impact Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Pintar, Frank A.; Yoganandan, Narayan; Maiman, Dennis J.; Scarboro, Mark; Rudd, Rodney W.

    2012-01-01

    There is currently no injury assessment for thoracic or lumbar spine fractures in the motor vehicle crash standards throughout the world. Compression-related thoracolumbar fractures are occurring in frontal impacts and yet the mechanism of injury is poorly understood. The objective of this investigation was to characterize these injuries using real world crash data from the US-DOT-NHTSA NASS-CDS and CIREN databases. Thoracic and lumbar AIS vertebral body fracture codes were searched for in the two databases. The NASS database was used to characterize population trends as a function of crash year and vehicle model year. The CIREN database was used to examine a case series in more detail. From the NASS database there were 2000–4000 occupants in frontal impacts with thoracic and lumbar vertebral body fractures per crash year. There was an increasing trend in incidence rate of thoracolumbar fractures in frontal impact crashes as a function of vehicle model year from 1986 to 2008; this was not the case for other crash types. From the CIREN database, the thoracolumbar spine was most commonly fractured at either the T12 or L1 level. Major, burst type fractures occurred predominantly at T12, L1 or L5; wedge fractures were most common at L1. Most CIREN occupants were belted; there were slightly more females involved; they were almost all in bucket seats; impact location occurred approximately half the time on the road and half off the road. The type of object struck also seemed to have some influence on fractured spine level, suggesting that the crash deceleration pulse may be influential in the type of compression vector that migrates up the spinal column. Future biomechanical studies are required to define mechanistically how these fractures are influenced by these many factors. PMID:23169137

  16. Geographic information systems supporting the solution of emergencies and their connection to self-actuated notification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reil, Adam; Bureš, Luděk; Roub, Radek; Hejduk, Tomáš; Novák, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    Geographic information systems represent an important tool in supporting the operation and crisis management of Integrated Rescue System (IRS) branches. The technology of geographic information systems makes it possible to localize specific information directly in the concerned area. A basic pre-requisite for efficient IRS functioning is the identification of so-called critical points in the given territory. The next step is the identification of endangered persons and properties. In these issues, emphasis is put particularly on the time scale, which represents a key aspect of the crisis management. In case of flood danger, the Early Flood Warning Service would inform flood authorities responsible for warning the population, declaring flood activity degrees, IRS activation and organization. For their decision-making, the flood authorities need data on level heights, current discharge rates and inundation areas. The information about discharge rates and height levels can be obtained from the network of recording stream gauge stations operated by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute. Inundation areas are plotted in the flood control plans of municipalities, which however contain default information about areas flooded at the N-year flood discharges Q5, Q20 and Q100. Because of large intervals, these three scenarios are insufficient for the crisis management of larger communities and towns. Therefore, a data store was suggested that would include maps showing flow rate fields and inundation areas for a finer scale of flood discharges at regular intervals. The scale should be based on the N-year flood discharges with a possibility of extension if required by flood authorities. The discharge interval size should be selected with regard to the dynamics of level height change in the given watercourse. The inundation areas will be then established by way of calculation using the MIKE 21C 2D hydrodynamic model. The novel approach was applied recently in the cadastral

  17. Surveillance and prevention of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome: an application of the Sentinel Events Notification System for Occupational Risks.

    PubMed

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L; Dervin, K; Sankaranarayan, M

    1995-05-01

    In response to limitations in state-based, occupational disease surveillance, the California Department of Health Services developed a model for provider- and case-based surveillance of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome. The objectives were to enhance case reporting, identify risk factors and high-risk work sites, and link preventive interventions to work sites and the broader community. Using elements from surveillance of communicable diseases and sentinel health events, a model was integrated into the pre-existing reporting system in one California county. Between 1989 and 1991, 54 Santa Clara County health care providers reported 382 suspected cases, of which 365 from 195 work sites met reporting guidelines. Risk factors were profiled from interviews of 135 prioritized cases and 38 employers. Of 24 work sites prioritized for a free, voluntary, nonenforcement inspection, 18 refused and 6 completed an on-site visit. Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR) captured many cases not reported to the pre-existing reporting system. Case interviews indicated a profile of symptoms and signs, treatment, and exposure to uncontrolled occupational risk factors, including a lack of training on ergonomics hazards. Employer health insurance, rather than workers' compensation, was the apparent source of payment for most medical bills. Employers lacked knowledge and motivation to reduce ergonomic risks. Governmentally mandated occupational ergonomics standards are urgently needed.

  18. Homogenization of Vehicle Fleet Frontal Crash Pulses from 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Toh, Akira; Belwadi, Aditya; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    Full-scale vehicle crash tests are performed globally to assess vehicle structure and restraint system performance. The crash pulse, captured by accelerometers mounted within the occupant compartment, measures the motion of the vehicle during the impact event. From an occupant’s perspective, the crash pulse is the inertial event to which the vehicle’s restraint systems must respond in order to mitigate the forces and accelerations that act on a passenger, and thus reduce injury risk. The objective of this study was to quantify the characteristics of crash pulses for different vehicle types in the contemporary North American fleet, and delineate current trends in crash pulse evolution. NHTSA and Transport Canada crash test databases were queried for full-frontal rigid barrier crash tests of passenger vehicles model year 2000–2010 with impact angle equaling zero degrees. Acceleration-time histories were analyzed for all accelerometers attached to the vehicle structure within the occupant compartment. Custom software calculated the following crash pulse characteristics (CPCs): peak deceleration, time of peak deceleration, onset rate, pulse duration, and change in velocity. Vehicle body types were classified by adapting the Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) methodology, and vehicles were assigned a generation start year in place of model year in order to more accurately represent structural change over time. 1094 vehicle crash tests with 2795 individual occupant compartment-mounted accelerometers were analyzed. We found greater peak decelerations and and shorter pulse durations across multiple vehicle types in newer model years as compared to older. For midsize passenger cars, large passenger cars, and large SUVs in 56 km/h rigid barrier tests, maximum deceleration increased by 0.40, 0.96, and 1.57 g/year respectively, and pulse duration decreased by 0.74, 1.87, and 2.51 ms/year. We also found that the crash pulse characteristics are becoming more homogeneous in

  19. Homogenization of vehicle fleet frontal crash pulses from 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    Locey, Caitlin M; Garcia-Espana, J Felipe; Toh, Akira; Belwadi, Aditya; Arbogast, Kristy B; Maltese, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    Full-scale vehicle crash tests are performed globally to assess vehicle structure and restraint system performance. The crash pulse, captured by accelerometers mounted within the occupant compartment, measures the motion of the vehicle during the impact event. From an occupant's perspective, the crash pulse is the inertial event to which the vehicle's restraint systems must respond in order to mitigate the forces and accelerations that act on a passenger, and thus reduce injury risk. The objective of this study was to quantify the characteristics of crash pulses for different vehicle types in the contemporary North American fleet, and delineate current trends in crash pulse evolution. NHTSA and Transport Canada crash test databases were queried for full-frontal rigid barrier crash tests of passenger vehicles model year 2000-2010 with impact angle equaling zero degrees. Acceleration-time histories were analyzed for all accelerometers attached to the vehicle structure within the occupant compartment. Custom software calculated the following crash pulse characteristics (CPCs): peak deceleration, time of peak deceleration, onset rate, pulse duration, and change in velocity. Vehicle body types were classified by adapting the Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI) methodology, and vehicles were assigned a generation start year in place of model year in order to more accurately represent structural change over time. 1094 vehicle crash tests with 2795 individual occupant compartment-mounted accelerometers were analyzed. We found greater peak decelerations and and shorter pulse durations across multiple vehicle types in newer model years as compared to older. For midsize passenger cars, large passenger cars, and large SUVs in 56 km/h rigid barrier tests, maximum deceleration increased by 0.40, 0.96, and 1.57 g/year respectively, and pulse duration decreased by 0.74, 1.87, and 2.51 ms/year. We also found that the crash pulse characteristics are becoming more homogeneous in the

  20. Best Practices for Crash Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    Aviation safety can be greatly enhanced by the expeditious use of computer simulations of crash impact. Unlike automotive impact testing, which is now routine, experimental crash tests of even small aircraft are expensive and complex due to the high cost of the aircraft and the myriad of crash impact conditions that must be considered. Ultimately, the goal is to utilize full-scale crash simulations of aircraft for design evaluation and certification. The objective of this publication is to describe "best practices" for modeling aircraft impact using explicit nonlinear dynamic finite element codes such as LS-DYNA, DYNA3D, and MSC.Dytran. Although "best practices" is somewhat relative, it is hoped that the authors' experience will help others to avoid some of the common pitfalls in modeling that are not documented in one single publication. In addition, a discussion of experimental data analysis, digital filtering, and test-analysis correlation is provided. Finally, some examples of aircraft crash simulations are described in several appendices following the main report.

  1. Aircraft crash caused by stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Kolkman, H.J.; Kool, G.A.; Wanhill, R.J.H.

    1996-01-01

    An aircraft crash in the Netherlands was caused by disintegration of a jet engine. Fractography showed that the chain of events started with stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of a pin attached to a lever arm of the compressor variable vane system. Such a lever arm-pin assembly costs only a few dollars. Investigation of hundreds of pins from the accident and a number of identical engines revealed that this was not an isolated case. Many pins exhibited various amounts of SCC. The failed pin in the accident engine happened to be the first fractured one. SCC requires the simultaneous presence of tensile stress, a corrosive environment, and a susceptible material. In this case the stress was a residual stress arising from the production method. There was a clear correlation between the presence of salt deposits on the levers and SCC of the pins. It was shown that these deposits were able to reach the internal space between the pin and lever arm, thereby initiating SCC in this space. The corrosive environment in Western Europe explains why the problem manifested itself in the Netherlands at a relatively early stage in engine life. The main point is, however, that the manufacturer selected an SCC-prone material in the design stage. The solution has been to change the pin material.

  2. Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR): Recommendations for control of silica exposure at Woodbridge Sanitary Pottery Corporation, Woodbridge, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Caplan, P.E.; Valiante, D.; Cooper, T.C.; Crouch, K.G.; Gideon, J.A.

    1989-06-01

    An in-depth survey of exposure to silica dust at the Woodbridge Sanitary Pottery Corporation, Woodbridge, New Jersey was conducted as a part of the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR) cooperative effort. The facility manufactured vitreous china products, including toilet bowls and lavatories. Personal and area atmospheric sampling showed that personal exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust ranged from 0.12 to 0.18 mg/m{sup 3} with at least half the samples exceeding the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m{sup 3} for crystalline silica. The workers in the Slip House suffered the highest exposures, where area concentrations averaged 0.38 mg/m{sup 3}. Of the other three areas, casting, glaze spraying, and glaze preparation, the highest personal exposures were in the glaze-spraying areas where 67% of the personal samples exceeded the OSHA permissible exposure limits for respirable dust. Ergonomic evaluations were conducted to determine lifting hazards at several workstations. The authors conclude that there were excessive exposures to respirable silica dust and respirable dust. There was also a high risk of lost time in injuries from manual handling of heavy loads. Improvements should be made in the design and maintenance of ventilation control systems, work stations, and work practices.

  3. Predicting crash risk and identifying crash precursors on Korean expressways using loop detector data.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ho-Chan; Kho, Seungyoung

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve traffic safety on expressways, it is important to develop proactive safety management strategies with consideration for segment types and traffic flow states because crash mechanisms have some differences by each condition. The primary objective of this study is to develop real-time crash risk prediction models for different segment types and traffic flow states on expressways. The mainline of expressways is divided into basic segment and ramp vicinity, and the traffic flow states are classified into uncongested and congested conditions. Also, Korean expressways have irregular intervals between loop detector stations. Therefore, we investigated on the effect and application of the detector stations at irregular intervals for the crash risk prediction on expressways. The most significant traffic variables were selected by conditional logistic regression analysis which could control confounding factors. Based on the selected traffic variables, separate models to predict crash risk were developed using genetic programming technique. The model estimation results showed that the traffic flow characteristics leading to crashes are differed by segment type and traffic flow state. Especially, the variables related to the intervals between detector stations had a significant influence on crash risk prediction under the uncongested condition. Finally, compared with the single model for all crashes and the logistic models used in previous studies, the proposed models showed higher prediction performance. The results of this study can be applied to develop more effective proactive safety management strategies for different segment types and traffic flow states on expressways with loop detector stations at irregular intervals. PMID:26710266

  4. Predicting crash risk and identifying crash precursors on Korean expressways using loop detector data.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ho-Chan; Kho, Seungyoung

    2016-03-01

    In order to improve traffic safety on expressways, it is important to develop proactive safety management strategies with consideration for segment types and traffic flow states because crash mechanisms have some differences by each condition. The primary objective of this study is to develop real-time crash risk prediction models for different segment types and traffic flow states on expressways. The mainline of expressways is divided into basic segment and ramp vicinity, and the traffic flow states are classified into uncongested and congested conditions. Also, Korean expressways have irregular intervals between loop detector stations. Therefore, we investigated on the effect and application of the detector stations at irregular intervals for the crash risk prediction on expressways. The most significant traffic variables were selected by conditional logistic regression analysis which could control confounding factors. Based on the selected traffic variables, separate models to predict crash risk were developed using genetic programming technique. The model estimation results showed that the traffic flow characteristics leading to crashes are differed by segment type and traffic flow state. Especially, the variables related to the intervals between detector stations had a significant influence on crash risk prediction under the uncongested condition. Finally, compared with the single model for all crashes and the logistic models used in previous studies, the proposed models showed higher prediction performance. The results of this study can be applied to develop more effective proactive safety management strategies for different segment types and traffic flow states on expressways with loop detector stations at irregular intervals.

  5. 33 CFR 135.307 - Notification contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification contents. 135.307 Section 135.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Notification of Pollution Incidents § 135.307 Notification contents. (a) In each notification provided...

  6. Drowsy Driving Causes 1 in 5 Fatal Crashes: Report

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Drowsy Driving Causes 1 in 5 Fatal Crashes: Report Teens and young adults, shift-workers and ... day. And, drowsy driving was a factor in crashes that claimed about 5,000 lives last year, ...

  7. Differences in Factors Affecting Various Crash Types with High Numbers of Fatalities and Injuries in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; He, Jie; Ding, Jianxun; Shi, Qin; Wang, Changjun; Li, Pingfan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Road traffic crashes that involve very high numbers of fatalities and injuries arouse public concern wherever they occur. In China, there are two categories of such crashes: a crash that results in 10–30 fatalities, 50–100 serious injuries or a total cost of 50–100 million RMB ($US8-16m) is a “serious road traffic crash” (SRTC), while a crash that is even more severe or costly is a “particularly serious road traffic crash” (PSRTC). The aim of this study is to identify the main factors affecting different types of these crashes (single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact) with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods Detailed descriptions of the SRTCs and PSRTCs that occurred from 2007 to 2014 were collected from the database “In-depth Investigation and Analysis System for Major Road Traffic Crashes” (IIASMRTC), which is maintained by the Traffic Management Research Institute of the Ministry of Public Security of China (TMRI). 18 main risk factors, which were categorized into four areas (participant, vehicle, road and environment-related) were chosen as potential independent variables for the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Comparisons were made among the single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact crashes in terms of factors affecting crash occurrence. Findings Five risk factors were significant for the six multinomial logistic regression models, which were location, vertical alignment, roadside safety rating, driver distraction and overloading of cargo. It was indicated that intersections were more likely to have side impact SRTCs and PSRTCs, especially with poor visibility at night. Overloaded freight vehicles were more likely to be involved in a rear-end crash than other freight vehicles. Driver distraction is an important risk factor for head-on crashes, while vertical alignment and roadside safety rating are positively associated with single-vehicle crashes. Conclusion Based

  8. Conscientious personality and young drivers’ crash risk

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne Fox; Perlus, Jessamyn; O’Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Method Participants’ driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18 months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants’ KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Results Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c = −0.034, p = .09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a = −0.040, p = .09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a = −0.053, p = .03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b = 0.376, p = .02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c’ = −0.025, p = .20). Conclusions Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, suffered fewer CNC. Practical Applications Part of the variability in crash-risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage

  9. 48 CFR 252.249-7002 - Notification of anticipated contract termination or reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of...: Notification of Anticipated Contract Termination or Reduction(OCT 2010) (a) Definitions. Major defense program means a program that is carried out to produce or acquire a major system (as defined in 10 U.S.C....

  10. Origin and Prevention of Crash Fires in Turbojet Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I Irving; Weiss, Solomon; Preston, G Merritt; Pesman, Gerard J

    1957-01-01

    The manner in which the jet engine may start a crash fire was explored in test-stand and full-scale crash studies. On the basis of these studies, a method was devised for inserting and cooling the engine parts that may serve as ignition sources in crash. This method was tried successfully in full-scale crashes of jet-powered airplanes carrying engines in pod nacelles and engines buried within the airplane structure.

  11. Factors associated with civilian drivers involved in crashes with emergency vehicles.

    PubMed

    Drucker, Christopher; Gerberich, Susan G; Manser, Michael P; Alexander, Bruce H; Church, Timothy R; Ryan, Andrew D; Becic, Ensar

    2013-06-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving civilian and emergency vehicles (EVs) have been a known problem that contributes to fatal and nonfatal injuries; however, characteristics associated with civilian drivers have not been examined adequately. This study used data from The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System to identify driver, roadway, environmental, and crash factors, and consequences for civilian drivers involved in fatal and nonfatal crashes with in-use and in-transport EVs. In general, drivers involved in emergency-civilian crashes (ECCs) were more often driving: straight through intersections (vs. same direction) of four-points or more (vs. not at intersection); where traffic signals were present (vs. no traffic control device); and at night (vs. midday). For nonfatal ECCs, drivers were more often driving: distracted (vs. not distracted); with vision obstructed by external objects (vs. no obstruction); on dark but lighted roads (vs. daylight); and in opposite directions (vs. same directions) of the EVs. Consequences included increased risk of injury (vs. no injury) and receiving traffic violations (vs. no violation). Fatal ECCs were associated with driving on urban roads (vs. rural), although these types of crashes were less likely to occur on dark roads (vs. daylight). The findings of this study suggest drivers may have difficulties in visually detecting EVs in different environments.

  12. The USGS Earthquake Notification Service (ENS): Customizable notifications of earthquakes around the globe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, Lisa A.; Wald, David J.; Schwarz, Stan; Presgrave, Bruce; Earle, Paul; Martinez, Eric; Oppenheimer, David

    2008-01-01

    At the beginning of 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earthquake Hazards Program (EHP) introduced a new automated Earthquake Notification Service (ENS) to take the place of the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) "Bigquake" system and the various other individual EHP e-mail list-servers for separate regions in the United States. These included northern California, southern California, and the central and eastern United States. ENS is a "one-stop shopping" system that allows Internet users to subscribe to flexible and customizable notifications for earthquakes anywhere in the world. The customization capability allows users to define the what (magnitude threshold), the when (day and night thresholds), and the where (specific regions) for their notifications. Customization is achieved by employing a per-user based request profile, allowing the notifications to be tailored for each individual's requirements. Such earthquake-parameter-specific custom delivery was not possible with simple e-mail list-servers. Now that event and user profiles are in a structured query language (SQL) database, additional flexibility is possible. At the time of this writing, ENS had more than 114,000 subscribers, with more than 200,000 separate user profiles. On a typical day, more than 188,000 messages get sent to a variety of widely distributed users for a wide range of earthquake locations and magnitudes. The purpose of this article is to describe how ENS works, highlight the features it offers, and summarize plans for future developments.

  13. Drinking, Driving, and Crashing: A Traffic-Flow Model of Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Accidents*

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Fred W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of on-premise alcohol-outlet densities and of drinking-driver densities on rates of alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. A traffic-flow model is developed to represent geographic relationships between residential locations of drinking drivers, alcohol outlets, and alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Method: Cross-sectional and time-series cross-sectional spatial analyses were performed using data collected from 144 geographic units over 4 years. Data were obtained from archival and survey sources in six communities. Archival data were obtained within community areas and measured activities of either the resident population or persons visiting these communities. These data included local and highway traffic flow, locations of alcohol outlets, population density, network density of the local roadway system, and single-vehicle nighttime (SVN) crashes. Telephone-survey data obtained from residents of the communities were used to estimate the size of the resident drinking and driving population. Results: Cross-sectional analyses showed that effects relating on-premise densities to alcohol-related crashes were moderated by highway traffic flow. Depending on levels of highway traffic flow, 10% greater densities were related to 0% to 150% greater rates of SVN crashes. Time-series cross-sectional analyses showed that changes in the population pool of drinking drivers and on-premise densities interacted to increase SVN crash rates. Conclusions: A simple traffic-flow model can assess the effects of on-premise alcohol-outlet densities and of drinking-driver densities as they vary across communities to produce alcohol-related crashes. Analyses based on these models can usefully guide policy decisions on the siting of on-premise alcohol outlets. PMID:20230721

  14. The relative risk of involvement in fatal crashes as a function of race/ethnicity and blood alcohol concentration

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Pedro; Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.; de la Rosa, Mario; Lacey, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The literature presents a puzzling picture of Latinos being overrepresented in alcohol-related crashes, but not in noncrash drinking and driving. This report examines if, like other demographic variables in which some groups are at a higher crash risk than others (e.g., young drivers), different racial/ethnic groups face different crash risks Method This study compares blood-alcohol information from the 2006–2007 U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with control data from the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey. Logistic regression, including a dual interaction between BAC and race/ethnicity, was used to estimate crash risk at different BAC levels. Results It was found that, although Hispanic and African-American drivers were less likely to be involved in single-vehicle crashes than their White counterparts, all drivers face similar BAC relative crash risk regardless of their group membership. The overrepresentation of Latino drivers in alcohol-related crashes could be explained by differences in patterns of consumption, driving exposure, lack of awareness of driving rules, and/or socioeconomics. PMID:24529097

  15. Comparison of risk factors for cervical spine, head, serious, and fatal injury in rollover crashes.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Manoogian, Sarah J

    2012-03-01

    Previous epidemiological studies of rollover crashes have focused primarily on serious and fatal injuries in general, while rollover crash testing has focused almost exclusively on cervical spine injury. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the risk factors for cervical spine, head, serious, and fatal injury in real world rollover crashes. Rollover crashes from 1995-2008 in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) were investigated. A large data set of 6015 raw cases (2.5 million weighted) was generated. Nonparametric univariate analyses, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression were conducted. Complete or partial ejection, a lack of seatbelt use, a greater number of roof inversions, and older occupant age significantly increased the risk of all types of injuries studied (p<0.05). Far side seating position increased the risk of fatal, head, and cervical spine injury (p<0.05), but not serious injury in general. Higher BMI was associated with an increased risk of fatal, serious, and cervical spine injury (p<0.05), but not head injury. Greater roof crush was associated with a higher rate of fatal and cervical spine injury (p<0.05). Vehicle type, occupant height, and occupant gender had inconsistent and generally non-significant effects on injury. This study demonstrates both common and unique risk factors for different types of injuries in rollover crashes. PMID:22269486

  16. Statistical implications of using moving violations to determine crash responsibility in young driver crashes.

    PubMed

    Curry, Allison E; Pfeiffer, Melissa R; Myers, Rachel K; Durbin, Dennis R; Elliott, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    Traditional methods for determining crash responsibility - most commonly moving violation citations - may not accurately characterize at-fault status among crash-involved drivers given that: (1) issuance may vary by factors that are independent of fault (e.g., driver age, gender), and (2) these methods do not capture driver behaviors that are not illegal but still indicative of fault. We examined the statistical implications of using moving violations to determine crash responsibility in young driver crashes by comparing it with a method based on crash-contributing driver actions. We selected all drivers in police-reported passenger-vehicle crashes (2010-2011) that involved a New Jersey driver <21 years old (79,485 driverscrash responsibility was determined from the crash report using two alternative methods: (1) issuance of a moving violation citation; and (2) presence of a driver action (e.g., failure to yield, inattention). Overall, 18% of crash-involved drivers were issued a moving violation while 50% had a driver action. Only 32.2% of drivers with a driver action were cited for a moving violation. Further, the likelihood of being cited given the presence of a driver action was higher among certain driver subgroups-younger drivers, male drivers, and drivers in single-vehicle and more severe crashes. Specifically among young drivers, those driving at night, carrying peer passengers, and having a suspended or no license were more often cited. Conversely, fatally-injured drivers were almost never cited. We also demonstrated that using citation data may lead to statistical bias in the characterization of at-fault drivers and of quasi-induced exposure measures. Studies seeking to accurately determine crash responsibility should thoughtfully consider the potential sources of bias that may result from using legal culpability methods. For many studies, determining driver responsibility via the identification of

  17. Statistical implications of using moving violations to determine crash responsibility in young driver crashes

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Allison E.; Pfeiffer, Melissa R.; Myers, Rachel K.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Elliott, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods for determining crash responsibility—most commonly moving violation citations—may not accurately characterize at-fault status among crash-involved drivers given that: (1) issuance may vary by factors that are independent of fault (e.g., driver age, gender), and (2) these methods do not capture driver behaviors that are not illegal but still indicative of fault. We examined the statistical implications of using moving violations to determine crash responsibility in young driver crashes by comparing it with a method based on crash-contributing driver actions. We selected all drivers in police-reported passenger-vehicle crashes (2010–2011) that involved a New Jersey driver <21 years old (79,485 drivers < age 21, 61,355 drivers ≥ age 21.) For each driver, crash responsibility was determined from the crash report using two alternative methods: (1) issuance of a moving violation citation; and (2) presence of a driver action (e.g., failure to yield, inattention). Overall, 18% of crash-involved drivers were issued a moving violation while 50% had a driver action. Only 32.2% of drivers with a driver action were cited for a moving violation. Further, the likelihood of being cited given the presence of a driver action was higher among certain driver subgroups—younger drivers, male drivers, and drivers in single-vehicle and more severe crashes. Specifically among young drivers, those driving at night, carrying peer passengers, and having a suspended or no license were more often cited. Conversely, fatally-injured drivers were almost never cited. We also demonstrated that using citation data may lead to statistical bias in the characterization of at-fault drivers and of quasi-induced exposure measures. Studies seeking to accurately determine crash responsibility should thoughtfully consider the potential sources of bias that may result from using legal culpability methods. For many studies, determining driver responsibility via the identification

  18. Astronomical network event and observation notification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. R.; Allan, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Bloom, J.; Graham, M.; Hessman, F. V.; Marka, S.; Rots, A.; Scholberg, K.; Seaman, R.; Stoughton, C.; Vestrand, W. T.; Williams, R.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2006-09-01

    Networks are becoming a key element in most current and all future, telescope and observatory projects. The ability to easily and efficiently pass observation data, alert data and instrumentation requests between distributed systems could enable science as never before. However, any effective large scale or meta-network of astronomical resources will require a common communication format or development resources will have to be continuously dedicated to creating interpreters. The necessary elements of any astronomy communication can be easily identified, efficiently described and rigidly formatted so that both robotic and human operations can use the same data. In this paper we will explore the current state of notification, what notification requirements are essential to create a successful standard and present a standard now under development by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), called the VOEvent.

  19. Robotics and Design: An Interdisciplinary Crash Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonarini, A.; Romero, M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors designed and ran a crash course on emotional robotics involving students from both the Information Engineering School and the Design School of Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy. The course consisted of two intensive days of short introductory lessons and lab activity, done in interdisciplinary groups and supported by a well-equipped…

  20. Analysis of Large Truck Rollover Crashes

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, A. James; Bahouth, George T.

    2008-01-01

    The Large Truck Crash Causation Study undertaken by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration describes 239 crashes in which a truck rolled over. In-depth analysis revealed almost half resulted from failing to adjust speed to curves in the road, (mostly on-and off-ramps), the load being carried, condition of the brakes, road surface, and intersection conditions. A second major crash contributor involved attention: simply being inattentive, dozing or falling asleep, and distraction, all leading to situations where a sudden direction change resulted in a rollover. The third large crash contributor involved steering: over-steering to the point of rolling over, not steering enough to stay in lane, and overcorrecting to the point of having to counter-steer to remain on the road. Finally, loads are a frequent problem when drivers fail to take account of their weight, height or security, or when loading takes place before they are assigned. Instruction in rollover prevention, like most truck driver training, comes through printed publications. The use of video would help drivers recognize incipient rollovers while currently available simulation would allow drivers to experience the consequences of mistakes without risk. PMID:19026244

  1. A History of Full-Scale Aircraft and Rotorcraft Crash Testing and Simulation at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Jones, Lisa E.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes 2-1/2 decades of full-scale aircraft and rotorcraft crash testing performed at the Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF) located at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The IDRF is a 240-ft.-high steel gantry that was built originally as a lunar landing simulator facility in the early 1960's. It was converted into a full-scale crash test facility for light aircraft and rotorcraft in the early 1970 s. Since the first full-scale crash test was preformed in February 1974, the IDRF has been used to conduct: 41 full-scale crash tests of General Aviation (GA) aircraft including landmark studies to establish baseline crash performance data for metallic and composite GA aircraft; 11 full-scale crash tests of helicopters including crash qualification tests of the Bell and Sikorsky Advanced Composite Airframe Program (ACAP) prototypes; 48 Wire Strike Protection System (WSPS) qualification tests of Army helicopters; 3 vertical drop tests of Boeing 707 transport aircraft fuselage sections; and, 60+ crash tests of the F-111 crew escape module. For some of these tests, nonlinear transient dynamic codes were utilized to simulate the impact response of the airframe. These simulations were performed to evaluate the capabilities of the analytical tools, as well as to validate the models through test-analysis correlation. In September 2003, NASA Langley closed the IDRF facility and plans are underway to demolish it in 2007. Consequently, it is important to document the contributions made to improve the crashworthiness of light aircraft and rotorcraft achieved through full-scale crash testing and simulation at the IDRF.

  2. Development and use of computational techniques in Army Aviation research and development programs for crash resistant helicopter technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrows, Leroy T.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1960's over 30 full-scale aircraft crash tests were conducted by the Flight Safety Foundation under contract to the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) of the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command (AVSCOM). The purpose of these tests were to conduct crash injury investigations that would provide a basis for the formulation of sound crash resistance design criteria for light fixed-wing and rotary wing aircraft. This resulted in the Crash Survival Design Criteria Designer's Guide which was first published in 1967 and has been revised numerous times, the last being in 1989. Full-scale aircraft crash testing is an expensive way to investigate structural deformations of occupied spaces and to determine the decelerative loadings experienced by occupants in a crash. This gave initial impetus to the U.S. Army to develop analytical methods to predict the dynamic response of aircraft structures in a crash. It was believed that such analytical tools could be very useful in the preliminary design stage of a new helicopter system which is required to demonstrate a level of crash resistance and had to be more cost effective than full-scale crash tests or numerous component design support tests. From an economic point of view, it is more efficient to optimize for the incorporation of crash resistance features early in the design stage. However, during preliminary design it is doubtful if sufficient design details, which influence the exact plastic deformation shape of structural elements, will be available. The availability of simple procedures to predict energy absorption and load-deformation characteristics will allow the designer to initiate valuable cost, weight, and geometry tradeoff studies. The development of these procedures will require some testing of typical specimens. This testing should, as a minimum, verify the validity of proposed procedures for providing pertinent nonlinear load-deformation data. It was hoped that through the use of these

  3. Motor vehicle crash deaths related to police pursuits in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, F; Mack, C

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the number and characteristics of motor vehicle crash deaths related to police pursuits in the United States. Methods: Analysis of the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the Crashworthiness Data System of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration for the years 1994–2002. Results: There were 2654 fatal crashes involving 3965 vehicles and 3146 fatalities during the nine year study period. Of these, 1088 were to people not in the fleeing vehicle. These crashes often occurred at high speed, in the night, on local roads. Most of the pursued drivers had prior motor vehicle related convictions. Conclusions: Many deaths related to police pursuits are to innocent victims. Given that most of the pursued drivers had prior convictions, alternative means of detaining them should be explored. PMID:15066973

  4. Epidemiology of Child Motor Vehicle Crash Injuries and Fatalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Durbin, Dennis R.

    Although children represent only 10-15 % of the overall traffic fatality burden in the United States, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remain the leading cause of death and disability for children and young adults; and, close to half of all unintentional injury deaths to children and adolescents (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System [CDC NCIPC WISQARS] 2010). Moreover, their exposure to motor vehicle risk is significant because they travel by motor vehicles nearly as much as adults. Prevention of the fatalities, injuries and disability associated with MVC must be a priority for ensuring our children's overall health.

  5. Survivors’ experiences from a train crash

    PubMed Central

    Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2011-01-01

    Rarely described are people's lived experiences from severe injury events such as train crashes. The number of train crashes named disasters with ≥10 killed and/or ≥100 nonfatally injured grows globally and the trend shows that more people survive these disasters today than did so in the past. This results in an increased number of survivors needing care. The aim of the study was to explore survivors’ experiences from a train crash. Narrative interviews were performed with 14 passengers 4 years after a train crash event. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the interviews. Experiences were captured in three main themes: (1) Living in the mode of existential threat describes how the survivors first lost control, then were thrown into a state of unimaginable chaos as they faced death. (2) Dealing with the unthinkable described how survivors restored control, the central role of others, and the importance of reconstructing the event to move forward in their processing. (3) Having cheated death shows how some became shackled by their history, whereas others overcame the haunting of unforgettable memories. Furthermore, the result shows how all experienced a second chance in life. Experiencing a train crash meant that the passengers experienced severe vulnerability and a threat to life and interdependence turned out to play a crucial role. Focusing on helping other passengers on site was one way to regain the loss of control and kept the chaos at bay. Family, friends, and fellow passengers turned out to be extremely important during the recovery process why such closeness should be promoted and facilitated. PMID:22125573

  6. Effectiveness of Mandatory Alcohol Testing Programs in Reducing Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Motor Carrier Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; Baker, Susan P.; DiMaggio, Charles; McCarthy, Melissa L.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Mandatory alcohol testing programs for motor carrier drivers were implemented in the United States in 1995 and have not been adequately evaluated. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System during 1982–2006, the authors assessed the effectiveness of mandatory alcohol testing programs in reducing alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. The study sample consisted of 69,295 motor carrier drivers and 83,436 non–motor-carrier drivers who were involved in 66,138 fatal multivehicle crashes. Overall, 2.7% of the motor carrier drivers and 19.4% of the non–motor-carrier drivers had positive blood alcohol concentrations. During the study period, the prevalence of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes decreased by 80% among motor carrier drivers and 41% among non–motor-carrier drivers. With adjustment for driver age, sex, history of driving while intoxicated, and survival status, implementation of the mandatory alcohol testing programs was found to be associated with a 23% reduced risk of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by motor carrier drivers (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). Results from this study indicate that mandatory alcohol testing programs may have contributed to a significant reduction in alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. PMID:19692328

  7. Experimental Photogrammetric Techniques Used on Five Full-Scale Aircraft Crash Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    Between 2013 and 2015, full-scale crash tests were conducted on five aircraft at the Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Two tests were conducted on CH-46E airframes as part of the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) project, and three tests were conduced on Cessna 172 aircraft as part of the Emergency Locator Transmitter Survivability and Reliability (ELTSAR) project. Each test served to evaluate a variety of crashworthy systems including: seats, occupants, restraints, composite energy absorbing structures, and Emergency Locator Transmitters. As part of each test, the aircraft were outfitted with a variety of internal and external cameras that were focused on unique aspects of the crash event. A subset of three camera was solely used in the acquisition of photogrammetric test data. Examples of this data range from simple two-dimensional marker tracking for the determination of aircraft impact conditions to entire full-scale airframe deformation to markerless tracking of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs, a.k.a. crash test dummies) during the crash event. This report describes and discusses the techniques used and implications resulting from the photogrammetric data acquired from each of the five tests.

  8. Defining and screening crash surrogate events using naturalistic driving data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Jovanis, Paul P

    2013-12-01

    Naturalistic driving studies provide an excellent opportunity to better understand crash causality and to supplement crash observations with a much larger number of near crash events. The goal of this research is the development of a set of diagnostic procedures to define, screen, and identify crash and near crash events that can be used in enhanced safety analyses. A way to better understand crash occurrence and identify potential countermeasures to improve safety is to learn from and use near crash events, particularly those near crashes that have a common etiology to crash outcomes. This paper demonstrates that a multi-stage modeling framework can be used to search through naturalistic driving data, extracting statistically similar crashes and near crashes. The procedure is tested using data from the VTTI 100-car study for road departure events. A total of 63 events are included in this application. While the sample size is limited in this empirical study, the authors believe the procedure is ready for testing in other applications.

  9. The Pattern of Road Traffic Crashes in South East Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Mahdieh; Martiniuk, Alexandra LC.; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Rashedi, Fariborz; Ghasemi, Ardavan

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the present study, the epidemiologic aspects of road traffic crashes in South East of Iran are described. Methods: This cross-sectional study included the profile of 2398 motor vehicle crashes recorded in the police office in one Year in South East of Iran. Data collected included: demographics, the type of crash, type of involved vehicle, location of crash and factors contributing to the crash. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: Collisions with other vehicles or objects contributed the highest proportion (62.4%) of motor vehicle crashes. Human factors including careless driving, violating traffic laws, speeding, and sleep deprivation/fatigue were the most important causal factors accounting for 90% of road crashes. Data shows that 41% of drivers were not using a seat belt at the time of crash. One- third of the crashes resulted in injury (25%) or death (5%). Conclusions: Reckless driving such as speeding and violation of traffic laws are major risk factors for crashes in the South East of Iran. This highlights the need for education along with traffic law enforcement to reduce motor vehicle crashes in future. PMID:27157159

  10. Degree of Urbanization and Mortality From Motor Vehicular Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Ryb, Gabriel E; Dischinger, Patricia C; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to establish whether motor vehicular crash (MVC) case fatality varies across different urbanization levels in the USA using a representative sample of crashes. Methods: Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between urbanization level [i.e., central city (CC), suburban (SU) and others (OT)] and mortality were estimated in the 1997 - 2010 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Multiple logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. Analysis was repeated for the occurrence of pre-hospital and hospital deaths. Results: 49,040,520 weighted occupants were included in the study. The distribution of occupants by urbanization categories was: SU 45%, OT 42%, and CC 13%. Case fatality was higher among OT occupants (0.81%) than among SU (0.51%) and CC (0.37%) occupants. Similar findings were present for pre-hospital deaths (OT 0.52%, SU 0.30%, and CC 0.21%) and hospital deaths (OT 0.29%, SU 0.21%, and CC 0.16%). Multivariate analysis revealed that adjusted odds of death were higher for OT cases [OR=1.55 (1.05–2.30)] than the CC. Adjusted odds of death for SU (OR=1.05 (0.81–1.37) were not different than CCs. Similar but accentuated findings were found for pre-hospital deaths. In contrast, adjusted odds of hospital death were not different among the 3 groups. Conclusion: Occupants of vehicles crashing in OT (i.e., rural areas and small cities) experience a higher likelihood of dying after MVCs than those in CC and SU. Pre-hospital deaths, not hospital deaths, are responsible for this disparity. PMID:23169128

  11. 48 CFR 22.1010 - Notification to interested parties under collective bargaining agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification to interested parties under collective bargaining agreements. 22.1010 Section 22.1010 Federal Acquisition Regulations... ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1010 Notification to interested parties...

  12. 48 CFR 252.246-7003 - Notification of Potential Safety Issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Issues. 252.246-7003 Section 252.246-7003 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.246-7003 Notification of Potential Safety Issues. As prescribed in 246.371(a), use the following clause: Notification of Potential Safety Issues (JAN 2007)...

  13. 36 CFR 1008.12 - Requests for notification of existence of records: Action on.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... existence of records: Action on. 1008.12 Section 1008.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST REQUESTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT § 1008.12 Requests for notification of existence of records: Action on. (a... system of records is one which has been excepted from the notification provisions of the Privacy Act...

  14. 36 CFR 1008.12 - Requests for notification of existence of records: Action on.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... existence of records: Action on. 1008.12 Section 1008.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST REQUESTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT § 1008.12 Requests for notification of existence of records: Action on. (a... system of records is one which has been excepted from the notification provisions of the Privacy Act...

  15. 36 CFR 1008.12 - Requests for notification of existence of records: Action on.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... existence of records: Action on. 1008.12 Section 1008.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST REQUESTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT § 1008.12 Requests for notification of existence of records: Action on. (a... system of records is one which has been excepted from the notification provisions of the Privacy Act...

  16. 36 CFR 1008.12 - Requests for notification of existence of records: Action on.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... existence of records: Action on. 1008.12 Section 1008.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST REQUESTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT § 1008.12 Requests for notification of existence of records: Action on. (a... system of records is one which has been excepted from the notification provisions of the Privacy Act...

  17. 36 CFR 1008.12 - Requests for notification of existence of records: Action on.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... existence of records: Action on. 1008.12 Section 1008.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST REQUESTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT § 1008.12 Requests for notification of existence of records: Action on. (a... system of records is one which has been excepted from the notification provisions of the Privacy Act...

  18. 21 CFR 21.40 - Procedures for submitting requests for notification and access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Procedures for submitting requests for notification and access. 21.40 Section 21.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... in Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.40 Procedures for submitting requests for notification and...

  19. 21 CFR 21.40 - Procedures for submitting requests for notification and access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Procedures for submitting requests for notification and access. 21.40 Section 21.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... in Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.40 Procedures for submitting requests for notification and...

  20. 21 CFR 21.40 - Procedures for submitting requests for notification and access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Procedures for submitting requests for notification and access. 21.40 Section 21.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... in Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.40 Procedures for submitting requests for notification and...

  1. 21 CFR 21.40 - Procedures for submitting requests for notification and access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Procedures for submitting requests for notification and access. 21.40 Section 21.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... in Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.40 Procedures for submitting requests for notification and...

  2. 21 CFR 21.40 - Procedures for submitting requests for notification and access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for submitting requests for notification and access. 21.40 Section 21.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... in Privacy Act Record Systems § 21.40 Procedures for submitting requests for notification and...

  3. Side Impact Regulatory Trends, Crash Environment and Injury Risk in the USA.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius; Chouinard, Aline

    2015-11-01

    Light duty vehicles in the US are designed to meet and exceed regulatory standards, self-imposed industry agreements and safety rating tests conducted by NHTSA and IIHS. The evolution of side impact regulation in the US from 1973 to 2015 is discussed in the paper along with two key industry agreements in 2003 affecting design of restraint systems and structures for side impact protection. A combination of all the above influences shows that vehicles in the US are being designed to more demanding and comprehensive requirements than in any other region of the world. The crash environment in the US related to side impacts was defined based on data in the nationally representative crash database NASS. Crash environment factors, including the distribution of cars, light trucks and vans (LTV's), and medium-to-heavy vehicles (MHV's) in the fleet, and the frequency of their interactions with one another in side impacts, were considered. Other factors like, crash severity in terms of closing velocity between two vehicles involved in crash, gender and age of involved drivers in two-vehicle and single vehicle crashes, were also examined. Injury risks in side impacts to drivers and passengers were determined in various circumstances such as near-side, far-side, and single vehicle crashes as a function of crash severity, in terms of estimated closing speed or lateral delta-V. Also injury risks in different pairs of striking and struck cars and LTV's, were estimated. A logistic regression model for studying injury risks in two vehicle crashes was developed. The risk factors included in the model include case and striking vehicles, consisting of cars, SUV's, vans, and pickup trucks, delta-V, damage extent, occupant proximity to the impact side, age and gender of the occupant, and belt use. Results show that car occupants make up the vast majority of serious-to-fatally injured occupants. Injury rates of car occupants in two-vehicle collision are highest when the car is struck by a

  4. Side Impact Regulatory Trends, Crash Environment and Injury Risk in the USA.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius; Chouinard, Aline

    2015-11-01

    Light duty vehicles in the US are designed to meet and exceed regulatory standards, self-imposed industry agreements and safety rating tests conducted by NHTSA and IIHS. The evolution of side impact regulation in the US from 1973 to 2015 is discussed in the paper along with two key industry agreements in 2003 affecting design of restraint systems and structures for side impact protection. A combination of all the above influences shows that vehicles in the US are being designed to more demanding and comprehensive requirements than in any other region of the world. The crash environment in the US related to side impacts was defined based on data in the nationally representative crash database NASS. Crash environment factors, including the distribution of cars, light trucks and vans (LTV's), and medium-to-heavy vehicles (MHV's) in the fleet, and the frequency of their interactions with one another in side impacts, were considered. Other factors like, crash severity in terms of closing velocity between two vehicles involved in crash, gender and age of involved drivers in two-vehicle and single vehicle crashes, were also examined. Injury risks in side impacts to drivers and passengers were determined in various circumstances such as near-side, far-side, and single vehicle crashes as a function of crash severity, in terms of estimated closing speed or lateral delta-V. Also injury risks in different pairs of striking and struck cars and LTV's, were estimated. A logistic regression model for studying injury risks in two vehicle crashes was developed. The risk factors included in the model include case and striking vehicles, consisting of cars, SUV's, vans, and pickup trucks, delta-V, damage extent, occupant proximity to the impact side, age and gender of the occupant, and belt use. Results show that car occupants make up the vast majority of serious-to-fatally injured occupants. Injury rates of car occupants in two-vehicle collision are highest when the car is struck by a

  5. 76 FR 66949 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notification of the Establishment of a Privacy Act System of Records, HUD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Records, HUD Integrated Acquisition Management System (HIAMS) AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information.... HUD/CPO/01 System Name: HUD Integrated Acquisition Management System (HIAMS). System Location: HUD... Officer is implementing the HIAMS as an enterprise-wide, end-to-end acquisition management system....

  6. Defective equipment and tractor-trailer crash involvement.

    PubMed

    Jones, I S; Stein, H S

    1989-10-01

    The role of defective equipment in large truck crashes on interstate highways in Washington State was investigated using a case-control study design. For each large truck involved in a crash, three trucks were randomly selected from the traffic stream at the same time and place as the crash, but one week later both crash and comparison trucks were inspected by Commercial Vehicle Enforcement officers of the Washington State Patrol. The effects of truck equipment condition, truck operating characteristics (carrier type, carrier operation, and truck load), and driver characteristics (driver age, hours of driving) on crash involvement were analyzed by comparing their relative frequency among crash-involved and comparison sample tractor-trailers. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio for each factor. Overall, 77% of tractor-trailers in crashes and 66% of those not involved in crashes had defective equipment warranting a citation. Forty-one percent in crashes had defective equipment warranting taking the truck out of service, and 31% not in crashes had these defects. Brake defects were the most common type and were found in 56% of tractor-trailers in crashes; steering equipment defects were found in 21%. The relative risk of crash involvement for trucks with brake defects was about one and one-half times that for trucks without brake defects. For trucks with steering defects, the relative risk of crash involvement was at least twice that for trucks with steering defects, the relative risk of crash involvement was at least twice that for trucks without defects, and the risk increased substantially for trucks with out-of-service steering defects.

  7. Crash Injury Prediction and Vehicle Damage Reporting by Paramedics

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Federico E.; Anderson, Craig L.; Herrera, Harold; Patel, Chirag; Silman, Eric F.; DeGuzman, Rhian; Lahham, Shadi; Kohl, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The accuracy of pre-hospital crash scene details and crash victim assessment has important implications for initial trauma care assessment and management. Similarly, it is known to influence physician perception of crash victim injury severity. The goal of this feasibility study was to examine paramedic accuracy in predicting crash victim injury profile, disability outcome at hospital discharge, and reporting vehicle damage with other crash variables. Methods: This prospective case series study was undertaken at a Southern California, Level I trauma center certified by the American College of Surgeons. Paramedics transporting crash injured motor vehicle occupants to our emergency department (ED)/trauma center were surveyed. We abstracted ED and in-patient records of injured vehicle occupants. Vehicle and crash scene data were obtained from a professional crash reconstruction, which included the assessment of deformation, crash forces, change in velocity, and the source of each injury. Results: We used survey, injury, and crash reconstruction data from 22 collision cases in the final analysis. The median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was five (range 1–24). No enrolled patients died, and none were severely disabled at the time of discharge from the hospital. The paramedic crash injury severity predictions were sensitive for an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) of 2–4. Paramedics often agreed with the crash reconstruction on restraint use, ejection, and other fatalities at the scene, and had lower levels of agreement for front airbag deployment, steering wheel damage, and window/windshield impact. Paramedics had 80% accuracy in predicting any disability at the time of hospital discharge. Conclusion: Paramedic prediction of injury profile was sensitive, and prediction of disability outcome at discharge was accurate when compared to discharge diagnosis. Their reporting of vehicle specific crash variables was less accurate. Further study should be undertaken to

  8. Tuberculosis notifications in Australia, 2012 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Toms, Cindy; Stapledon, Richard; Waring, Justin; Douglas, Paul

    2015-06-30

    The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System received 1,317 tuberculosis (TB) notifications in 2012 and 1,263 notifications in 2013. This represents a rate of 5.8 per 100,000 population in 2012 and 5.5 per 100,000 population in 2013 and a reversal of the upward trend in TB incidence reported since 2007. In 2012 and 2013, Australia's overseas-born population continued to represent the majority of TB notifications with an incidence rate of 19.5 per 100,000 and 18.4 per 100,000 respectively. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born Indigenous population has fluctuated over the last decade; however, it remained reasonably steady in 2012 and 2013 with an incidence rate of 4.5 per 100,000 and 4.6 per 100,000 respectively. The incidence of TB in the Australian-born non-Indigenous population has continued to remain low at 0.7 per 100,000 in 2012 and 0.8 per 100,000 in 2013. Australia continued to record only a small number of multi-drug resistant TB cases nationally (2012: n=20; 2013: n=22) of which nearly all were identified in the overseas-born population. This report demonstrates excellent and sustained control of TB in Australia and reflects Australia's commitment to reducing the global burden of TB.

  9. Economic costs of motor vehicle crashes involving teenaged drivers in Kentucky, 1994.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, L. A.; Spurlock, C. W.; Kidd, P. S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze data from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) involving teenaged drivers in Kentucky for 1994, and derive cost estimates of these crashes. METHODS: Crash data were obtained from the Kentucky Traffic Accident Facts 1994 Report and the Kentucky Accident Reporting System. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Crash-Cost program was used to generate cost estimates for Kentucky data. RESULTS: Teenaged drivers had significantly higher MVC fatal and non-fatal injury rates than did adult drivers. The deaths rates were 43.6 and 19.0 per 100,000 for teens and adult drivers, respectively. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to estimate the relative risk for (1) involvement in an MVC, (2) fatal or incapacitating injury, and (3) fatal injury for teenaged compared with adult drivers. The crude ORs were statistically significant at each age. Cost estimates were calculated on a per person/vehicle basis. A single fatal injury was $642,700. A critical injury was $563,000. In general, unit costs rose with increasing levels of injury severity. For the total number of fatal injuries, costs exceeded $91 million. For non-fatal injuries and property damage only crashes, total costs were $318 million. Overall, the total cost estimate for MVCs involving teenaged drivers was nearly $410 million. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies aimed to reduce the number of MVCs attributed to teenaged drivers should reduce both the number and costs of crash related deaths and injuries. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems are one plausible approach toward achieving this goal. By recently enacting a GDL system in Kentucky, it is anticipated that many lives and dollars will be saved. PMID:9338832

  10. Using hierarchical Bayesian binary probit models to analyze crash injury severity on high speed facilities with real-time traffic data.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjie; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Severe crashes are causing serious social and economic loss, and because of this, reducing crash injury severity has become one of the key objectives of the high speed facilities' (freeway and expressway) management. Traditional crash injury severity analysis utilized data mainly from crash reports concerning the crash occurrence information, drivers' characteristics and roadway geometric related variables. In this study, real-time traffic and weather data were introduced to analyze the crash injury severity. The space mean speeds captured by the Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) system on the two roadways were used as explanatory variables in this study; and data from a mountainous freeway (I-70 in Colorado) and an urban expressway (State Road 408 in Orlando) have been used to identify the analysis result's consistence. Binary probit (BP) models were estimated to classify the non-severe (property damage only) crashes and severe (injury and fatality) crashes. Firstly, Bayesian BP models' results were compared to the results from Maximum Likelihood Estimation BP models and it was concluded that Bayesian inference was superior with more significant variables. Then different levels of hierarchical Bayesian BP models were developed with random effects accounting for the unobserved heterogeneity at segment level and crash individual level, respectively. Modeling results from both studied locations demonstrate that large variations of speed prior to the crash occurrence would increase the likelihood of severe crash occurrence. Moreover, with considering unobserved heterogeneity in the Bayesian BP models, the model goodness-of-fit has improved substantially. Finally, possible future applications of the model results and the hierarchical Bayesian probit models were discussed.

  11. Type, size and age of vehicles driven by teenage drivers killed in crashes during 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-04-01

    Given teenagers' elevated crash rates, it is especially important that their vehicles have key safety features and good crash protection. A profile of vehicles driven by teenagers killed in crashes was developed. Data on vehicles of drivers ages 15-17 and ages 35-50 who died in crashes during 2008-2012 were obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Using vehicle identification numbers, the vehicle make, model and model year were identified. 29% of fatally injured teenagers were driving mini or small cars, 82% were driving vehicles at least 6 years old, and 48% were driving vehicles at least 11 years old. Compared with middle-aged drivers, teenagers' vehicles more often were small or mini cars or older vehicles. Few teenagers' vehicles had electronic stability control or side airbags as standard features. Parents should consider safety when choosing vehicles for their teenagers.

  12. Detection of aircraft crash sites from space using fully polarimetric SIR-C SAR imagery for search and rescue applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Christopher R.; Rais, Houra

    1999-08-01

    The Beaconless Search & Rescue Program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been working to solve the technological challenges associated with detecting small aircraft crash sites using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. One area of work has focused on the use of fully polarimetric imagery to both improve image quality and distinguish the crash sites from the natural background. Data from aircraft based SARs have been used for development but since a SAR satellite deployment is one possible option for a practical Search and Rescue system, the work is being extended to satellite SAR imagery. This paper presents the results of processing Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) data collected over an aircraft crash site near Wadesboro, North Carolina through the target detection software developed at GSFC. The results demonstrate the ability to achieve crash site detection using SAR data collected from Earth orbit.

  13. 40 CFR 63.999 - Notifications and other reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Closed Vent Systems, Control Devices, Recovery Devices and Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.999 Notifications and other reports. (a) Performance test and flare...) Routing storage vessel or transfer rack emissions to a process or fuel gas system. An owner or...

  14. 48 CFR 970.4401-3 - Advance notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advance notification. 970.4401-3 Section 970.4401-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... the management and operating contractor's purchasing system and methods provides for advance notice...

  15. 48 CFR 970.4401-3 - Advance notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advance notification. 970.4401-3 Section 970.4401-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... the management and operating contractor's purchasing system and methods provides for advance notice...

  16. 48 CFR 970.4401-3 - Advance notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advance notification. 970.4401-3 Section 970.4401-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY... the management and operating contractor's purchasing system and methods provides for advance notice...

  17. Cost-effectiveness of provider-based HIV partner notification in urban Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, Sarah E; Brown, Lillian B; Biddle, Andrea K; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Kamanga, Gift; Mmodzi, Pearson; Nyirenda, Naomi; Mofolo, Innocent; Rosenberg, Nora E; Hoffman, Irving F; Miller, William C

    2014-01-01

    Provider-initiated partner notification for HIV effectively identifies new cases of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, but is not widely implemented. Our objective was to determine whether provider-based HIV partner notification strategies are cost-effective for preventing HIV transmission compared with passive referral. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analytic model from the health system perspective during a 1-year period. Costs and outcomes of all strategies were estimated with a decision-tree model. The study setting was an urban sexually transmitted infection clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, using a hypothetical cohort of 5000 sex partners of 3500 HIV-positive index cases. We evaluated three partner notification strategies: provider notification (provider attempts to notify indexes’ locatable partners), contract notification (index given 1 week to notify partners then provider attempts notification) and passive referral (index is encouraged to notify partners, standard of care). Our main outcomes included cost (US dollars) per transmission averted, cost per new case identified and cost per partner tested. Based on estimated transmissions in a 5000-person cohort, provider and contract notification averted 27.9 and 27.5 new infections, respectively, compared with passive referral. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $3560 per HIV transmission averted for contract notification compared with passive referral. Provider notification was more expensive and slightly more effective than contract notification, yielding an ICER of $51 421 per transmission averted. ICERs were sensitive to the proportion of partners not contacted, but likely HIV positive and the probability of transmission if not on antiretroviral therapy. The costs per new case identified were $36 (provider), $18 (contract) and $8 (passive). The costs per partner tested were $19 (provider), $9 (contract) and $4 (passive). We conclude that, in this population, provider

  18. Severe frostbite injury in a 19-year-old patient requiring amputation of both distal forearms and lower legs due to delayed rescue: a need for advanced accident collision notification systems?

    PubMed

    Kloeters, Oliver; Ryssel, Henning; Suda, Arnold J; Lehnhardt, Marcus

    2011-06-01

    Frostbite injury is a rare but severe injury especially when rescue triage is prolonged. We here report the case of a 19-year-old male patient with severe frostbite injuries requiring amputation of both distal forearms and both lower legs due to delayed admission to medical care. This case demonstrates that even mild ambient temperatures can cause deleterious injuries if the exposure time is long enough paralleling our knowledge of burn trauma. Immediate admission to medical care is, therefore, paramount and GPS-based automated accident collision notification systems would therefore be of great benefit especially in rural areas. PMID:21298278

  19. Safety impacts of platform tram stops on pedestrians in mixed traffic operation: A comparison group before-after crash study.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Farhana; Currie, Graham; Logan, David; Sarvi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Tram stops in mixed traffic environments present a variety of safety, accessibility and transport efficiency challenges. In Melbourne, Australia the hundred year-old electric tram system is progressively being modernized to improve passenger accessibility. Platform stops, incorporating raised platforms for level entry into low floor trams, are being retro-fitted system-wide to replace older design stops. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety impacts of platform stops over older design stops (i.e. Melbourne safety zone tram stops) on pedestrians in the context of mixed traffic tram operation in Melbourne, using an advanced before-after crash analysis approach, the comparison group (CG) method. The CG method evaluates safety impacts by taking into account the general trends in safety and the unobserved factors at treatment and comparison sites that can alter the outcomes of a simple before-after analysis. The results showed that pedestrian-involved all injury crashes reduced by 43% after platform stop installation. This paper also explores a concern that the conventional CG method might underestimate safety impacts as a result of large differences in passenger stop use between treatment and comparison sites, suggesting differences in crash risk exposure. To adjust for this, a modified analysis explored crash rates (crash counts per 10,000 stop passengers) for each site. The adjusted results suggested greater reductions in pedestrian-involved crashes after platform stop installation: an 81% reduction in pedestrian-involved all injury crashes and 86% reduction in pedestrian-involved FSI crashes, both are significant at the 95% level. Overall, the results suggest that platform stops have considerable safety benefits for pedestrians. Implications for policy and areas for future research are explored. PMID:26476596

  20. Database improvements for motor vehicle/bicycle crash analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, Anne C; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Farvid, Maryam S

    2015-01-01

    Background Bicycling is healthy but needs to be safer for more to bike. Police crash templates are designed for reporting crashes between motor vehicles, but not between vehicles/bicycles. If written/drawn bicycle-crash-scene details exist, these are not entered into spreadsheets. Objective To assess which bicycle-crash-scene data might be added to spreadsheets for analysis. Methods Police crash templates from 50 states were analysed. Reports for 3350 motor vehicle/bicycle crashes (2011) were obtained for the New York City area and 300 cases selected (with drawings and on roads with sharrows, bike lanes, cycle tracks and no bike provisions). Crashes were redrawn and new bicycle-crash-scene details were coded and entered into the existing spreadsheet. The association between severity of injuries and bicycle-crash-scene codes was evaluated using multiple logistic regression. Results Police templates only consistently include pedal-cyclist and helmet. Bicycle-crash-scene coded variables for templates could include: 4 bicycle environments, 18 vehicle impact-points (opened-doors and mirrors), 4 bicycle impact-points, motor vehicle/bicycle crash patterns, in/out of the bicycle environment and bike/relevant motor vehicle categories. A test of including these variables suggested that, with bicyclists who had minor injuries as the control group, bicyclists on roads with bike lanes riding outside the lane had lower likelihood of severe injuries (OR, 0.40, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.98) compared with bicyclists riding on roads without bicycle facilities. Conclusions Police templates should include additional bicycle-crash-scene codes for entry into spreadsheets. Crash analysis, including with big data, could then be conducted on bicycle environments, motor vehicle potential impact points/doors/mirrors, bicycle potential impact points, motor vehicle characteristics, location and injury. PMID:25835304

  1. Survey of NASA research on crash dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.; Carden, H. D.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Ten years of structural crash dynamics research activities conducted on general aviation aircraft by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are described. Thirty-two full-scale crash tests were performed at Langley Research Center, and pertinent data on airframe and seat behavior were obtained. Concurrent with the experimental program, analytical methods were developed to help predict structural behavior during impact. The effects of flight parameters at impact on cabin deceleration pulses at the seat/occupant interface, experimental and analytical correlation of data on load-limiting subfloor and seat configurations, airplane section test results for computer modeling validation, and data from emergency-locator-transmitter (ELT) investigations to determine probable cause of false alarms and nonactivations are assessed. Computer programs which provide designers with analytical methods for predicting accelerations, velocities, and displacements of collapsing structures are also discussed.

  2. Pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter crash injuries.

    PubMed

    McBratney, Colleen M; Rush, Stephen; Kharod, Chetan U

    2014-01-01

    USAF Pararescuemen (PJs) respond to downed aircrew as a fundamental mission for personnel recovery (PR), one of the Air Force's core functions. In addition to responding to these in Military settings, the PJs from the 212 Rescue Squadron routinely respond to small plane crashes in remote regions of Alaska. While there is a paucity of information on the latter, there have been articles detailing injuries sustained from helicopter crashes and while ejecting or parachuting from fixed wing aircraft. The following represents a new chapter added to the Pararescue Medical Operations Handbook, Sixth Edition (2014, editors Matt Wolf, MD, and Stephen Rush, MD, in press). It was designed to be a quick reference for PJs and their Special Operations flight surgeons to help with understanding of mechanism of injury with regard to pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter accident injuries. It outlines the nature of the injuries sustained in such mishaps and provides an epidemiologic framework from which to approach the problem.

  3. Burn injuries from small airplane crashes.

    PubMed

    Moye, S J; Cruse, C W; Watkins, G M

    1991-11-01

    Because a large amount of general aviation activity occurs in Central Florida, we reviewed our admissions for victims of small airplane crashes. We identified 13 burn victims of small aircraft accidents over a 7-year period. Of the 13, 12 survived their burn injuries, an overall survival rate of 92%. The extent of burn injury, Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI), complications, other injuries and rehabilitation potential are reviewed. Burn injury resulting from small airplane crashes is usually survivable if the patient arrives at the Burn Center alive. These burn victims generally are highly motivated individuals, are easily rehabilitated, and continue productive lives. Small airports and local hospitals should be aware of burn center availability because of the usual major extent of the burn injury.

  4. Pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter crash injuries.

    PubMed

    McBratney, Colleen M; Rush, Stephen; Kharod, Chetan U

    2014-01-01

    USAF Pararescuemen (PJs) respond to downed aircrew as a fundamental mission for personnel recovery (PR), one of the Air Force's core functions. In addition to responding to these in Military settings, the PJs from the 212 Rescue Squadron routinely respond to small plane crashes in remote regions of Alaska. While there is a paucity of information on the latter, there have been articles detailing injuries sustained from helicopter crashes and while ejecting or parachuting from fixed wing aircraft. The following represents a new chapter added to the Pararescue Medical Operations Handbook, Sixth Edition (2014, editors Matt Wolf, MD, and Stephen Rush, MD, in press). It was designed to be a quick reference for PJs and their Special Operations flight surgeons to help with understanding of mechanism of injury with regard to pilot ejection, parachute, and helicopter accident injuries. It outlines the nature of the injuries sustained in such mishaps and provides an epidemiologic framework from which to approach the problem. PMID:25399374

  5. Safer Roadside Crash Walls Would Limit Deceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C.; Locke, James P.

    2003-01-01

    The figure depicts the aspects of a proposed deceleration-limiting design for crash walls at the sides of racetracks and highways. The proposal is intended to overcome the disadvantages of both rigid barriers and kinetic-energy-absorbing barriers of prior design. Rigid barriers can keep high-speed crashing motor vehicles from leaving roadways and thereby prevent injury to nearby persons and objects, but they can also subject the occupants of the vehicles to deceleration levels high enough to cause injury or death. Kinetic-energy-absorbing barriers of prior design reduce deceleration levels somewhat, but are not designed to soften impacts optimally; moreover, some of them allow debris to bounce back onto roadways or onto roadside areas, and, in cases of glancingly incident vehicles, some of them can trap the vehicles in such a manner as to cause more injury than would occur if the vehicles were allowed to skid along the rigid barriers. The proposed crash walls would (1) allow tangentially impacting vehicles to continue sliding along the racetrack without catching them, (2) catch directly impacting vehicles to prevent them from injuring nearby persons and objects, and (3) absorb kinetic energy in a more nearly optimum way to limit decelerations to levels that human occupants could survive.

  6. Dynamic model for automotive side impact crashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ludong; Taghvaeeyan, Saber; Rajamani, Rajesh

    2014-07-01

    A rigid body model to represent a side impact crash is constructed using five degrees-of-freedom (dof) for the vehicle and three dof for each occupant in the vehicle. Nonlinear stiffness and damping elements and the presence of physical gaps between several components make the model highly nonlinear. The model is validated using experimental crash test data from a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) database. To simplify the parameter identification process and reduce the number of parameters to be identified at each stage, a two-step process is adopted in which the vehicle is first assumed to be unaffected by the presence of the occupants, and its model parameters are identified. Subsequently, the parameters in the occupant models are identified. The active set method with a performance index that includes both the L2 and L∞ norms is used for parameter identification. A challenge is posed by the fact that the optimisation problem involved is non-convex. To overcome this challenge, a large set of random initial values of parameter estimates is generated and the optimisation method is applied with all these initial conditions. The values of parameters that provide the minimal performance index from the entire set of initial conditions are then chosen as the best parameter values. The optimal parameters values thus identified are shown to significantly improve the match between the model responses and the experimentally measured sensor signals from the NHTSA crash test.

  7. Biomechanics of under ride motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sri; Sances, Anthony; Enz, Bruce; Frieder, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluates the biomechanical aspects of injuries sustained by occupants of passenger cars during collisions with the trailer portion of a tractor/trailer rig. In such collisions, the occupants of the passenger car often sustain serious injuries when the passenger car passes beneath the trailer. This process by which the car "underrides" the trailer occurs due to the mismatch in height between the lowermost edge of the trailer and the crash mitigation structures in the vehicle. The study outlines a car-to-trailer crash testing methodology used to determine the effectiveness of one potential trailer underride guard in preventing serious injuries to occupants of passenger cars. The results from initial crash tests suggest that occupants of cars that collide with the unguarded sides of trailers are at a high risk of serious injury to the head, neck, and chest due the large intrusion of the roof and roof support structures into the occupant compartment. Testing of a trailer fitted with an underride guard showed that occupants of vehicles that collide with the sides of trailers that have been modified to engage the energy absorbing structures of passenger cars are exposed to a smaller risk of injury.

  8. The relationship of alcohol safety laws to drinking drivers in fatal crashes.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B; Tippetts, A S; Fell, J

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the relationships between the passage of key alcohol safety laws and the number of drinking drivers in fatal crashes. The study evaluated three major alcohol safety laws--administrative license revocation laws, 0.10 illegal per se, and 0.08 illegal per se laws--on the proportion of drinking drivers in fatal crashes. Drivers aged 21 and older in fatal crashes at two BAC levels--0.01-0.09 and 0.10 or greater--were considered separately. Drivers under age 21 were not included because they are affected by the Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) law. This study used data on drinking drivers in fatal crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) covering 16 years (1982-1997) for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Also included in the study were such variables as per capita alcohol consumption and annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), which could affect the number of alcohol-related crashes. The results indicate that each of the three laws had a significant relationship to the downward trend in alcohol-related fatal crashes in the United States over that period. This paper points out that this long-term trend is not the product of a single law. Instead, it is the result of the growing impact of several laws over time plus the affect of some factors not included in the model tested (such as the increasing use of sobriety checkpoints and the media's attention to the drinking-and-driving problem).

  9. Effect of delta-V errors in NASS on frontal crash risk calculations.

    PubMed

    Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Gabler, Hampton C

    2008-10-01

    The most important factor in predicting the risk of injury or death in a frontal crash is the crash severity, which is expressed as the velocity change, or delta-V, experienced by the vehicle during the crash. The National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) is the largest database in the world linking injury outcomes with delta-Vs, which are obtained from field reconstructions. The accuracy of these reconstructions was assessed by analyzing 228 NASS cases involving single event frontal crashes in which the vehicle's frontal delta-V was also measured directly by an onboard event data recorder (EDR). Compared to the EDR measurements, the delta-V values in NASS averaged 19% lower with a standard deviation of 8.6 kph. The effect of this error on injury and fatality risk calculations was investigated using NASS data from 1997 - 2006 for frontal crashes with a known delta-V. Injury and fatality risk functions were calculated by curve fitting the distributions of the delta-V values associated with injury and fatality incidence normalized by the fitted crash exposure distribution. Individual delta-V values were linearly scaled to correct for the bias error, and the delta-V distributions were corrected for scatter error using a numerical deconvolution technique. Correcting for delta-V bias error shifted the calculated risk curves to the right and correcting for delta-V scatter error shifted the curves back to the left, but to a lesser extent. The effects of occupant age, gender, and belt use on injury and fatality risk were substantial.

  10. 32 CFR 989.24 - Public notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of possible notification methods in 40 CFR 1506.6(b)(3) is only illustrative. The EPF may use other... notification include: (1) An EA and FONSI. (2) An EIS NOI. (3) Public scoping meetings. (4) Availability of...

  11. 32 CFR 989.24 - Public notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of possible notification methods in 40 CFR 1506.6(b)(3) is only illustrative. The EPF may use other... notification include: (1) An EA and FONSI. (2) An EIS NOI. (3) Public scoping meetings. (4) Availability of...

  12. 32 CFR 989.24 - Public notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of possible notification methods in 40 CFR 1506.6(b)(3) is only illustrative. The EPF may use other... notification include: (1) An EA and FONSI. (2) An EIS NOI. (3) Public scoping meetings. (4) Availability of...

  13. 32 CFR 989.24 - Public notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of possible notification methods in 40 CFR 1506.6(b)(3) is only illustrative. The EPF may use other... notification include: (1) An EA and FONSI. (2) An EIS NOI. (3) Public scoping meetings. (4) Availability of...

  14. 32 CFR 989.24 - Public notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of possible notification methods in 40 CFR 1506.6(b)(3) is only illustrative. The EPF may use other... notification include: (1) An EA and FONSI. (2) An EIS NOI. (3) Public scoping meetings. (4) Availability of...

  15. Optimization of Car Body under Constraints of Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH), and Crash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kodiyalam, Srinivas; Yang, Ren-Jye; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    To be competitive on the today's market, cars have to be as light as possible while meeting the Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) requirements and conforming to Government-man dated crash survival regulations. The latter are difficult to meet because they involve very compute-intensive, nonlinear analysis, e.g., the code RADIOSS capable of simulation of the dynamics, and the geometrical and material nonlinearities of a thin-walled car structure in crash, would require over 12 days of elapsed time for a single design of a 390K elastic degrees of freedom model, if executed on a single processor of the state-of-the-art SGI Origin2000 computer. Of course, in optimization that crash analysis would have to be invoked many times. Needless to say, that has rendered such optimization intractable until now. The car finite element model is shown. The advent of computers that comprise large numbers of concurrently operating processors has created a new environment wherein the above optimization, and other engineering problems heretofore regarded as intractable may be solved. The procedure, shown, is a piecewise approximation based method and involves using a sensitivity based Taylor series approximation model for NVH and a polynomial response surface model for Crash. In that method the NVH constraints are evaluated using a finite element code (MSC/NASTRAN) that yields the constraint values and their derivatives with respect to design variables. The crash constraints are evaluated using the explicit code RADIOSS on the Origin 2000 operating on 256 processors simultaneously to generate data for a polynomial response surface in the design variable domain. The NVH constraints and their derivatives combined with the response surface for the crash constraints form an approximation to the system analysis (surrogate analysis) that enables a cycle of multidisciplinary optimization within move limits. In the inner loop, the NVH sensitivities are recomputed to update the NVH

  16. The Stock Market Crashes of 1929 and 1987: Linking History and Personal Finance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopus, Jane S.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses two twentieth-century stock market crashes: the crash of 1929 and the crash of 1987. When this material is presented to students, they see important parallels between the two historical events. But despite remarkable similarities in the severity and many other aspects of the two crashes, the crash of 1929 was followed by the…

  17. 41 CFR 102-34.295 - To whom do we send crash reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false To whom do we send crash... MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.295 To whom do we send crash reports? Send crash reports as... agency directives. (b) If the motor vehicle is leased from GSA Fleet, report the crash to GSA...

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.295 - To whom do we send crash reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false To whom do we send crash... MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.295 To whom do we send crash reports? Send crash reports as... agency directives. (b) If the motor vehicle is leased from GSA Fleet, report the crash to GSA...

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.295 - To whom do we send crash reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false To whom do we send crash... MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.295 To whom do we send crash reports? Send crash reports as... agency directives. (b) If the motor vehicle is leased from GSA Fleet, report the crash to GSA...

  20. 41 CFR 102-34.295 - To whom do we send crash reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false To whom do we send crash... MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.295 To whom do we send crash reports? Send crash reports as... agency directives. (b) If the motor vehicle is leased from GSA Fleet, report the crash to GSA...

  1. 41 CFR 102-34.295 - To whom do we send crash reports?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false To whom do we send crash... MANAGEMENT Motor Vehicle Crash Reporting § 102-34.295 To whom do we send crash reports? Send crash reports as... agency directives. (b) If the motor vehicle is leased from GSA Fleet, report the crash to GSA...

  2. Graduated Driver Licensing Night Driving Restrictions and Drivers Aged 16 or 17 Years Involved in Fatal Night Crashes - United States, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Shults, Ruth A; Williams, Allan F

    2016-01-01

    Fatal crash risk is higher at night for all drivers, but especially for young, inexperienced drivers (1). To help address the increased crash risk for beginner teen drivers, 49 states and the District of Columbia include a night driving restriction (NDR) in their Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) system. NDRs have been shown to reduce crashes among newly licensed teens, with higher reductions associated with NDRs starting at 10:00 p.m. or earlier (2-3). However, in 23 states and the District of Columbia, NDRs begin at 12:00 a.m. or later, times when most teen drivers subject to GDL are not driving. CDC analyzed 2009-2014 national and state-level data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) to determine the proportion of drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes who crashed at night (9:00 p.m.-5:59 a.m.) and the proportion of these drivers who crashed before 12:00 a.m. Nationwide, among 6,104 drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes during 2009-2014, 1,865 (31%) were involved in night crashes. Among drivers involved in night crashes, 1,054 (57%) crashed before 12:00 a.m. State-level analyses revealed an approximately twofold variation among states in both the proportions of drivers aged 16 or 17 years involved in fatal crashes that occurred at night and the proportions of night fatal crash involvements that occurred before 12:00 a.m. Because nearly all of the night driving trips taken by drivers aged 16 or 17 years end before 12:00 a.m., NDRs beginning at 12:00 a.m. or later provide minimal protection. States could consider updating their NDR coverage to include earlier nighttime hours. This descriptive report summarizes the characteristics of NDRs, estimates the extent to which drivers aged 16 or 17 years drive at night, and describes their involvement in fatal nighttime crashes during 2009-2014. The effects of NDRs on crashes were not evaluated because of the small state-level sample sizes during the 6-year study period. PMID

  3. Notification of change in a data base

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, B.C.

    1981-10-05

    The Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility is an event driven system; tasks that handle specific events are active only when those events occur. One method of monitoring and generating events is the data base notification facility; a task can request that it be loaded and started by the dbms if a data element is touched or goes outside of a specified range. The motivations for this facility (along with an example of its use and some specifics regarding how it is done) are presented.

  4. An assessment of the case notification system 16 months after Typhoon Haiyan in Region 8, the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes, Vikki Carr; Sucaldito, Ma Nemia; Ligon-Imperio, Lilia; Peñas, Johnette; Rebato, Niño; Tayag, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Philippines Department of Health uses the Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR) system to monitor 25 diseases and syndromes that have the potential to cause outbreaks. The focus of this system is to strengthen the capacity of local government units for early detection and response to outbreaks. After Typhoon Haiyan, routine disease surveillance activities were suspended at the Epidemiology and Surveillance Units (ESUs) at the city and provincial levels, as well as laboratory services; surveillance resumed as soon as local conditions allowed. Method We conducted an assessment of PIDSR in March 2015, 16 months post-Haiyan, in Region 8, the most heavily affected region. We used key informant interviews and a review of data from the system to assess the core surveillance and support functions. Results All ESUs reported they were performing all surveillance core functions, although laboratory confirmation needed to be strengthened at the regional reference laboratory. Access to working communication equipment also needed improvement as did timeliness and completeness of reporting. Discussion Assessment of surveillance activities, resources and quality should be conducted post-disaster. The strength and operations of the disease surveillance system usually requires support from the local, regional and national governments, especially if there are legal mandates and legislation that includes the system in disaster planning. Regular monitoring of the system is recommended to ensure stability, system development, increased outbreak detection and fewer morbidities and fatalities. PMID:26767140

  5. Identifying critical road geometry parameters affecting crash rate and crash type.

    PubMed

    Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lannér, Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this traffic safety investigation was to find critical road parameters affecting crash rate (CR). The study was based on crash and road maintenance data from Western Sweden. More than 3000 crashes, reported from 2000 to 2005 on median-separated roads, were collected and combined with road geometric and surface data. The statistical analysis showed variations in CR when road elements changed confirming that road characteristics affect CR. The findings indicated that large radii right-turn curves were more dangerous than left curves, in particular, during lane changing manoeuvres. However sharper curves are more dangerous in both left and right curves. Moreover, motorway carriageways with no or limited shoulders have the highest CR when compared to other carriageway widths, while one lane carriageway sections on 2+1 roads were the safest. Road surface results showed that both wheel rut depth and road roughness have negative impacts on traffic safety.

  6. 48 CFR 1452.224-1 - Privacy Act Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Privacy Act Notification. 1452.224-1 Section 1452.224-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  7. 48 CFR 1452.224-1 - Privacy Act Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Privacy Act Notification. 1452.224-1 Section 1452.224-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  8. 48 CFR 1452.224-1 - Privacy Act Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Act Notification. 1452.224-1 Section 1452.224-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  9. 48 CFR 1452.224-1 - Privacy Act Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Privacy Act Notification. 1452.224-1 Section 1452.224-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  10. 48 CFR 1452.224-1 - Privacy Act Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Privacy Act Notification. 1452.224-1 Section 1452.224-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  11. 76 FR 9780 - Notification of Deletion of System of Records; EPA Parking Control Office File (EPA-10) and EPA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... EPA Parking Control Office File (EPA-10), published in the Federal Register on January 25, 1978 (43 FR... into the Office of Administrative Services Information System (OASIS) (EPA-41). DATES: This notice...

  12. A tree-structured crash surrogate measure for freeways.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yan; Qu, Xiaobo; Wang, Shuaian

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel methodology to define and estimate a surrogate measure. By imposing a hypothetical disturbance to the leading vehicle, the following vehicle's action is represented as a probabilistic causal model. After that, a tree is built to describe the eight possible conflict types under the model. The surrogate measure, named Aggregated Crash Index (ACI), is thus proposed to measure the crash risk. This index reflects the accommodability of freeway traffic state to a traffic disturbance. We further apply this measure to evaluate the crash risks in a freeway section of Pacific Motorway, Australia. The results show that the proposed indicator outperforms the three traditional crash surrogate measures (i.e., Time to Collision, Proportion of Stopping Distance, and Crash Potential Index) in representing rear-end crash risks. The applications of this measure are also discussed.

  13. Factors Leading to Crash Fatalities to Children in Child Restraints

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Christopher P.; Ferguson, Susan A.; Crandall, Jeff R.

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to improve child restraint designs would benefit from more detailed information on how child occupants are dying in crashes. Detailed reports involving 92 children (ages 5 and younger) in child restraints who died in crashes in 2000 were obtained from police departments. Cases were reviewed to obtain basic crash information and determine the factor most responsible for the fatality. Half of the crashes were considered unsurvivable for the child, and 12 percent of fatalities were judged to result from gross misuse of the child restraint. Forty percent of all of the crashes were side impacts, and in all fatal side impact crashes there was intrusion at the child’s seating position. PMID:12941235

  14. Geospatial and machine learning techniques for wicked social science problems: analysis of crash severity on a regional highway corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Effati, Meysam; Thill, Jean-Claude; Shabani, Shahin

    2015-04-01

    The contention of this paper is that many social science research problems are too "wicked" to be suitably studied using conventional statistical and regression-based methods of data analysis. This paper argues that an integrated geospatial approach based on methods of machine learning is well suited to this purpose. Recognizing the intrinsic wickedness of traffic safety issues, such approach is used to unravel the complexity of traffic crash severity on highway corridors as an example of such problems. The support vector machine (SVM) and coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) algorithms are tested as inferential engines to predict crash severity and uncover spatial and non-spatial factors that systematically relate to crash severity, while a sensitivity analysis is conducted to determine the relative influence of crash severity factors. Different specifications of the two methods are implemented, trained, and evaluated against crash events recorded over a 4-year period on a regional highway corridor in Northern Iran. Overall, the SVM model outperforms CANFIS by a notable margin. The combined use of spatial analysis and artificial intelligence is effective at identifying leading factors of crash severity, while explicitly accounting for spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity effects. Thanks to the demonstrated effectiveness of a sensitivity analysis, this approach produces comprehensive results that are consistent with existing traffic safety theories and supports the prioritization of effective safety measures that are geographically targeted and behaviorally sound on regional highway corridors.

  15. First car-to-car crashes involving young adult drivers: main patterns and their relation to car and driver characteristics.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, L; Hasselberg, M; Kullgren, A; Vaez, M

    2006-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to examine the relationship between patterns in car-to-car crashes involving young drivers and car and driver characteristics and the research design was a national register-based prospective cohort study. Individual records in a cohort born 1970-1972 are linked to road-traffic-crash data (1988-2000). Subjects' first police-registered two-car crash leading to severe or fatal injury (n = 4875) are identified. Typical crash patterns are highlighted and associations between pattern and both car and individual socio-demographic characteristics are tested. Four crash patterns are highlighted. Male drivers and those with lower educational attainment are over-represented in all patterns. Pattern-based risk levels vary considerably according to car safety level and driver's age at time of injury and socio-economic status. Crash patterns might be considered in young adult driver education systems, bearing in mind the consistent higher risks of male drivers and of drivers with lower educational attainment. PMID:16943161

  16. 40 CFR 63.1353 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Notification, Reporting and Recordkeeping § 63.1353 Notification requirements. (a) The notification provisions of 40 CFR... required by § 63.9(b) through (d). For the purposes of this subpart, a Title V or 40 CFR part 70...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1353 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Notification, Reporting and Recordkeeping § 63.1353 Notification requirements. (a) The notification provisions of 40 CFR... required by § 63.9(b) through (d). For the purposes of this subpart, a Title V or 40 CFR part 70...

  18. 40 CFR 96.362 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Notification of non-recordation. Within 10 business days of receipt of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 96.362 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days...

  19. 40 CFR 96.362 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Season Allowance Transfers § 96.362 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days of recordation of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer under § 96.361, the Administrator will...) Notification of non-recordation. Within 10 business days of receipt of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season...

  20. 40 CFR 96.362 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Notification of non-recordation. Within 10 business days of receipt of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 96.362 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days...

  1. 40 CFR 96.362 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Notification of non-recordation. Within 10 business days of receipt of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance... TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 96.362 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days...

  2. Mechanism of Start and Development of Aircraft Crash Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I. Irving; Preston, G. Merritt; Pesman, Gerard J.

    1952-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft crashes were made to investigate the mechanism of the start and development of aircraft crash fires. The results are discussed herein. This investigation revealed the characteristics of the ignition sources, the manner in which the combustibles spread, the mechanism of the union of the combustibles and ignition sources, and the pertinent factors governing the development of a crash fire as observed in this program.

  3. Mechanism of Start and Development of Aircraft Crash Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I. Irving; Preston, G. Merritt; Pesman, Gerard J.

    1952-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft crashes, devised to give surge fuel spillage and a high incidence of fire, were made to investigate the mechanism of the start and development of aircraft crash fires. The results are discussed. herein. This investigation revealed the characteristics of the ignition sources, the manner in which the combustibles spread., the mechanism of the union of the combustibles and ignition sources, and the pertinent factors governing the development of a crash fire as observed in this program.

  4. Relating crash frequency and severity: evaluating the effectiveness of shoulder rumble strips on reducing fatal and major injury crashes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Donnell, Eric T; Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    To approach the goal of "Toward Zero Deaths," there is a need to develop an analysis paradigm to better understand the effects of a countermeasure on reducing the number of severe crashes. One of the goals in traffic safety research is to search for an effective treatment to reduce fatal and major injury crashes, referred to as severe crashes. To achieve this goal, the selection of promising countermeasures is of utmost importance, and relies on the effectiveness of candidate countermeasures in reducing severe crashes. Although it is important to precisely evaluate the effectiveness of candidate countermeasures in reducing the number of severe crashes at a site, the current state-of-the-practice often leads to biased estimates. While there have been a few advanced statistical models developed to mitigate the problem in practice, these models are computationally difficult to estimate because severe crashes are dispersed spatially and temporally, and cannot be integrated into the Highway Safety Manual framework, which develops a series of safety performance functions and crash modification factors to predict the number of crashes. Crash severity outcomes are generally integrated into the Highway Safety Manual using deterministic distributions rather than statistical models. Accounting for the variability in crash severity as a function geometric design, traffic flow, and other roadway and roadside features is afforded by estimating statistical models. Therefore, there is a need to develop a new analysis paradigm to resolve the limitations in the current Highway Safety Manual methods. We propose an approach which decomposes the severe crash frequency into a function of the change in the total number of crashes and the probability of a crash becoming a severe crash before and after a countermeasure is implemented. We tested this approach by evaluating the effectiveness of shoulder rumble strips on reducing the number of severe crashes. A total of 310 segments that have

  5. Real-time assessment of fog-related crashes using airport weather data: a feasibility analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed M; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Yu, Rongjie

    2014-11-01

    The effect of reduction of visibility on crash occurrence has recently been a major concern. Although visibility detection systems can help to mitigate the increased hazard of limited-visibility, such systems are not widely implemented and many locations with no systems are experiencing considerable number of fatal crashes due to reduction in visibility caused by fog and inclement weather. On the other hand, airports' weather stations continuously monitor all climate parameters in real-time, and the gathered data may be utilized to mitigate the increased risk for the adjacent roadways. This study aims to examine the viability of using airport weather information in real-time road crash risk assessment in locations with recurrent fog problems. Bayesian logistic regression was utilized to link six years (2005-2010) of historical crash data to real-time weather information collected from eight airports in the State of Florida, roadway characteristics and aggregate traffic parameters. The results from this research indicate that real-time weather data collected from adjacent airports are good predictors to assess increased risk on highways.

  6. 75 FR 34754 - Privacy Act; Notification of a New Privacy Act System of Records, Title Eight Automated Paperless...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... Maintaining Records About Individuals,'' July 25, 1994 (59 FR 37914). Authority: 42 U.S.C. 3601. Dated: June... process, track, and maintain housing discrimination complaints submitted by complainants with allegations of housing discrimination. FHEO will utilize TEAPOTS as an automated case management system,...

  7. 76 FR 11992 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...FRA is proposing amendments to its primary regulations on grade crossing safety. The major amendments proposed would require a railroad that dispatches a train through a public or private highway- rail or pathway grade crossing to establish and maintain a system that allows a member of the public to call the railroad and report an emergency or other unsafe condition at the crossing. Upon......

  8. Effects of forming history on crash simulation of a vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökler, M. İ.; Doğan, U. Ç.; Darendeliler, H.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of forming on the crash simulation of a vehicle have been investigated by considering the load paths produced by sheet metal forming process. The frontal crash analysis has been performed by the finite element method, firstly without considering the forming history, to find out the load paths that absorb the highest energy. The sheet metal forming simulations have been realized for each structural component of the load paths and the frontal crash analysis has been repeated by including forming history. The results of the simulations with and without forming effects have been compared with the physical crash test results available in literature.

  9. Externality of risk and crash severity at roundabouts.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Stijn; Brijs, Tom; Nuyts, Erik; Wets, Geert

    2010-11-01

    The severity of 1491 crashes on 148 roundabouts in Flanders-Belgium was examined in order to investigate which factors might explain the severity of crashes or injuries and to relate these factors to the existing knowledge about contributing factors for injury severity in traffic. Logistic regression and hierarchical binomial logistic regression techniques were used. A clear externality of risk appeared to be present in the sense that vulnerable road user groups (pedestrians, bicyclists, moped riders and motorcyclists) are more severely affected than others. Fatalities or serious injuries in multiple-vehicle crashes for drivers of four-wheel vehicles are much rarer. Injury severity increases with higher age. Crashes at night and crashes outside built-up areas are more severe. Single-vehicle crashes seem to have more severe outcomes than multiple-vehicle crashes. However, systematic differences in the reporting rate of crashes are likely to exist and may have affected the stated results. Correlations with important, but unobserved variables like the impact speeds in the crashes might exist as well and could provide an alternative explanation for some results.

  10. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    SciTech Connect

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-03-22

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash frequencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash Frequency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash frequency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash frequency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash frequency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more frequent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required.

  11. To crash or not to crash: how do hoverflies cope with free-fall situations and weightlessness?

    PubMed

    Goulard, Roman; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Viollet, Stéphane

    2016-08-15

    Insects' aptitude to perform hovering, automatic landing and tracking tasks involves accurately controlling their head and body roll and pitch movements, but how this attitude control depends on an internal estimation of gravity orientation is still an open question. Gravity perception in flying insects has mainly been studied in terms of grounded animals' tactile orientation responses, but it has not yet been established whether hoverflies use gravity perception cues to detect a nearly weightless state at an early stage. Ground-based microgravity simulators provide biologists with useful tools for studying the effects of changes in gravity. However, in view of the cost and the complexity of these set-ups, an alternative Earth-based free-fall procedure was developed with which flying insects can be briefly exposed to microgravity under various visual conditions. Hoverflies frequently initiated wingbeats in response to an imposed free fall in all the conditions tested, but managed to avoid crashing only in variably structured visual environments, and only episodically in darkness. Our results reveal that the crash-avoidance performance of these insects in various visual environments suggests the existence of a multisensory control system based mainly on vision rather than gravity perception. PMID:27535987

  12. Identification and validation of a logistic regression model for predicting serious injuries associated with motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Kononen, Douglas W; Flannagan, Carol A C; Wang, Stewart C

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate logistic regression model, based upon National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) data for calendar years 1999-2008, was developed to predict the probability that a crash-involved vehicle will contain one or more occupants with serious or incapacitating injuries. These vehicles were defined as containing at least one occupant coded with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of greater than or equal to 15, in planar, non-rollover crash events involving Model Year 2000 and newer cars, light trucks, and vans. The target injury outcome measure was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-led National Expert Panel on Field Triage in their recent revision of the Field Triage Decision Scheme (American College of Surgeons, 2006). The parameters to be used for crash injury prediction were subsequently specified by the National Expert Panel. Model input parameters included: crash direction (front, left, right, and rear), change in velocity (delta-V), multiple vs. single impacts, belt use, presence of at least one older occupant (≥ 55 years old), presence of at least one female in the vehicle, and vehicle type (car, pickup truck, van, and sport utility). The model was developed using predictor variables that may be readily available, post-crash, from OnStar-like telematics systems. Model sensitivity and specificity were 40% and 98%, respectively, using a probability cutpoint of 0.20. The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the final model was 0.84. Delta-V (mph), seat belt use and crash direction were the most important predictors of serious injury. Due to the complexity of factors associated with rollover-related injuries, a separate screening algorithm is needed to model injuries associated with this crash mode. PMID:21094304

  13. The surveillance of work-related pesticide illness: an application of the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)

    PubMed Central

    Maizlish, N; Rudolph, L; Dervin, K

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. In response to limitations in state-based occupational disease surveillance, the California Department of Health Services developed a model for surveillance of acute, work-related pesticide illness. The objectives were to enhance case reporting and link case reports to preventive interventions. METHODS. Elements from surveillance of communicable diseases and sentinel health events were used to integrate a model into the preexisting system in one agricultural country. RESULTS. Between 1988 and 1991, 45 Fresno County health care providers reported 230 suspected cases, of which 217 from 80 work sites met reporting guidelines. Risk factors were profiled from interviews of 81 prioritized case patients and 36 employers. Fifteen work sites were visited and 117 recommendations were made, of which 6% were identified in enforcement inspections. Pest management experts consulted with growers on reducing future pesticide use. CONCLUSIONS. Risk factors for pesticide illness were prevalent. Agricultural inspectors did not detect routine and serious hazards. Integrated pest management should be expanded and linked to occupational health. Agricultural enforcement personnel should be oriented and trained in occupational safety and health. PMID:7762714

  14. Australia's notifiable disease status, 2010: annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Milton, Alison; Stirzaker, Stefan; Trungove, Mark; Knuckey, Dougald; Martin, Nicolee; Hastie, Chris; Pennington, Kate; Sloan-Gardner, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Gerard; Knope, Katrina; Martinek, Samantha; Mills, Lucas; Barry, Christina; Wright, Phil; Power, Mark

    2012-03-01

    In 2010, 65 diseases and conditions were nationally notifiable in Australia. States and territories reported a total of 209,079 notifications of communicable diseases to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, a decrease of 12% on the number of notifications in 2009. This decrease was largely due to a reduction of influenza compared with the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic 2009. In 2010, the most frequently notified diseases were sexually transmissible infections (86,620 notifications, 41.4% of total notifications), vaccine preventable diseases (61,964 notifications, 29.6% of total notifications), and gastrointestinal diseases (31,548 notifications, 15.1% of total notifications). There were 18,302 notifications of bloodborne diseases; 8,244 notifications of vectorborne diseases; 1,866 notifications of other bacterial infections; 532 notifications of zoonoses and 3 notifications of quarantinable diseases. PMID:23153082

  15. 5 CFR 843.209 - Waiver of notification requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver of notification requirement. 843.209 Section 843.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  16. 5 CFR 843.209 - Waiver of notification requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waiver of notification requirement. 843.209 Section 843.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  17. 5 CFR 843.209 - Waiver of notification requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waiver of notification requirement. 843.209 Section 843.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  18. 49 CFR 234.101 - Employee notification rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employee notification rules. 234.101 Section 234.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS...

  19. 49 CFR 234.101 - Employee notification rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employee notification rules. 234.101 Section 234.101 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS...

  20. Functional Requirements for the Next Generation of Mass Notification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbo, Berkly

    2012-01-01

    While the latest update to National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) redefines mass notification as "emergency communications systems" (ECS), the end user community is formulating expectations related to the future functionality of today's alerting solutions. Numerous best practices have surfaced since alerting technology began its rapid,…

  1. 48 CFR 43.104 - Notification of contract changes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... changes. 43.104 Section 43.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS General 43.104 Notification of contract changes. (a) When a contractor considers that the Government has effected or may effect a change in the contract that has...

  2. 5 CFR 843.209 - Waiver of notification requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of notification requirement. 843.209 Section 843.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  3. 5 CFR 843.209 - Waiver of notification requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waiver of notification requirement. 843.209 Section 843.209 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE REFUNDS...

  4. 50 CFR 25.54 - Posting and public notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Posting and public notification. 25.54 Section 25.54 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Fees and Charges § 25.54...

  5. Injury in U.S. Army helicopter crashes October 1979-September 1985.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, D F; Shanahan, M O

    1989-04-01

    All U.S. Army class A and B mishaps of four types of helicopters occurring from 1 October 1979 through 30 September 1985 were reviewed. During this 6-year period, there were 298 crashes involving 303 aircraft. There were 1,060 individuals aboard the crashed aircraft and 611 were injured, 136 fatally. The most common cause of injury was the "secondary impact" caused by collapse of structure into occupied areas, by inadequate restraint of the occupants which allowed them to flail into structure, or by a combination of both mechanisms. Injury solely related to acceleration occurred infrequently. The most frequently injured body regions in survivable crashes were the head (28%) and extremities (43%). Injury patterns are compared for different helicopter types and related to differences in design. Basic principles of crash injury protection, including individual protection by helmets, seatbelts, and airbags, and structural modifications to minimize injury potential, as well as crashworthy fuel systems, are reviewed, and recommendations are made to increase the crashworthiness of helicopters, such as adapting designs and standards on the basis of active field investigations. PMID:2709450

  6. Disparities in road crash mortality among pedestrians using wheelchairs in the USA: results of a capture–recapture analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, John D; Benton, Connor S

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to quantify and describe the burden of fatal pedestrian crashes among persons using wheelchairs in the USA from 2006 to 2012. Design The occurrence of fatal pedestrian crashes among pedestrians using wheelchairs was assessed using two-source capture-recapture. Descriptive analysis of fatal crashes was conducted using customary approaches. Setting Two registries were constructed, both of which likely undercounted fatalities among pedestrians who use wheelchairs. The first used data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, and the second used a LexisNexis news search. Outcome measures Mortality rate (per 100 000 person-years) and crash-level, driver-level and pedestrian-level characteristics of fatal crashes. Results This study found that, from 2006 to 2012, the mortality rate for pedestrians using wheelchairs was 2.07/100 000 person-years (95% CI 1.60 to 2.54), which was 36% higher than the overall population pedestrian mortality rate (p=0.02). Men's risk was over fivefold higher than women's risk (p<0.001). Compared to the overall population, persons aged 50–64 using wheelchairs had a 38% increased risk (p=0.04), and men who use wheelchairs aged 50–64 had a 75% increased risk over men of the same age in the overall population (p=0.006). Almost half (47.6%; 95% CI 42.8 to 52.5) of fatal crashes occurred in intersections and 38.7% (95% CI 32.0 to 45.0) of intersection crashes occurred at locations without traffic control devices. Among intersection crashes, 47.5% (95% CI 40.6 to 54.5) involved wheelchair users in a crosswalk; no crosswalk was available for 18.3% (95% CI 13.5 to 24.4). Driver failure to yield right-of-way was noted in 21.4% (95% CI 17.7 to 25.7) of crashes, and no crash avoidance manoeuvers were detected in 76.4% (95% CI 71.0 to 81.2). Conclusions Persons who use wheelchairs experience substantial pedestrian mortality disparities calling for behavioural and built environment interventions. PMID:26589426

  7. Traffic crash liability determination: Danger and Dodge model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sikui; Huang, Helai

    2016-10-01

    By proposing a systematic set of rules for traffic crash liability determination, this paper attempts to prove the feasibility and practicability of legal liability in handling traffic crashes. Two sequential elements are identified for crash occurrence, i.e., the occurrence of a dangerous situation and failure in dodging the dangerous situation. A Danger and Dodge model is subsequently established for liability determination in a traffic crash. By investigating the basic mechanism of a crash occurrence, the specific contents of causalties and the effect of the parties' acts in traffic crashes are specified. Based on the theories of social adequancy, the principle of reliance and the duty of care, the study further proposes to use the "peril" of a dangerous situation and the "possibility" of dodging the dangerous situation to appraise the effect of the parties' acts upon a crash occurrence, with the rule of the "pattern deciding effect". The proposed approach would be very helpful to the concreteness of the determination of liability in a traffic crash. Two case studies are presented for demonstration.

  8. Analyzing angle crashes at unsignalized intersections using machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Haleem, Kirolos

    2011-01-01

    A recently developed machine learning technique, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), is introduced in this study to predict vehicles' angle crashes. MARS has a promising prediction power, and does not suffer from interpretation complexity. Negative Binomial (NB) and MARS models were fitted and compared using extensive data collected on unsignalized intersections in Florida. Two models were estimated for angle crash frequency at 3- and 4-legged unsignalized intersections. Treating crash frequency as a continuous response variable for fitting a MARS model was also examined by considering the natural logarithm of the crash frequency. Finally, combining MARS with another machine learning technique (random forest) was explored and discussed. The fitted NB angle crash models showed several significant factors that contribute to angle crash occurrence at unsignalized intersections such as, traffic volume on the major road, the upstream distance to the nearest signalized intersection, the distance between successive unsignalized intersections, median type on the major approach, percentage of trucks on the major approach, size of the intersection and the geographic location within the state. Based on the mean square prediction error (MSPE) assessment criterion, MARS outperformed the corresponding NB models. Also, using MARS for predicting continuous response variables yielded more favorable results than predicting discrete response variables. The generated MARS models showed the most promising results after screening the covariates using random forest. Based on the results of this study, MARS is recommended as an efficient technique for predicting crashes at unsignalized intersections (angle crashes in this study).

  9. Determining older driver crash responsibility from police and insurance data.

    PubMed

    Langford, Jim; Koppel, Sjaanie; Andrea, Dale; Fildes, Brian

    2006-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the extent to which older drivers can be considered responsible for their crashes, to identify key factors in those crashes for which older drivers have been judged responsible, and to assess the extent to which older drivers' extra crash responsibility contributes to the road toll. Insurance claims from the State of Tasmania, Australia, for 1998-2002 were linked with police records for crashes involving drivers aged either 41-55 years or 65 years or older. Insurance and police data sets contained independent judgments of crash responsibility. There was a high level of agreement between the two sets of judgments, with older drivers judged around 1.5 times more likely to be responsible for their crashes than middle-aged drivers and, conversely, older drivers were around 0.6 as likely to be absolved from crash responsibility. It was concluded that older drivers' additional crash responsibility while valuable in explaining "what went wrong," currently makes only a small contribution to the overall road toll.

  10. Risk factors for fatal crashes in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Siskind, Victor; Steinhardt, Dale; Sheehan, Mary; O'Connor, Teresa; Hanks, Heather

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents findings from the rural and remote road safety study, conducted in Queensland, Australia, from March 2004 till June 2007, and compares fatal crashes and non-fatal but serious crashes in respect of their environmental, vehicle and operator factors. During the study period there were 613 non-fatal crashes resulting in 684 hospitalised casualties and 119 fatal crashes resulting in 130 fatalities. Additional information from police sources was available on 103 fatal and 309 non-fatal serious crashes. Over three quarters of both fatal and hospitalised casualties were male and the median age in both groups was 34 years. Fatal crashes were more likely to involve speed, alcohol and violations of road rules and fatal crash victims were 2½ times more likely to be unrestrained inside the vehicle than non-fatal casualties, consistent with current international evidence. After controlling for human factors, vehicle and road conditions made a minimal contribution to the seriousness of the crash outcome. Targeted interventions to prevent fatalities on rural and remote roads should focus on reducing speed and drink driving and promoting seatbelt wearing. PMID:21376905

  11. The Impact of Underage Drinking Laws on Alcohol-Related Fatal Crashes of Young Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Fisher, Deborah A.; Voas, Robert B.; Blackman, Kenneth; Tippetts, A. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background This study used a pre-post design to evaluate the influence on drinking-and-driving fatal crashes of six laws directed at youth aged 20 and younger and four laws targeting all drivers. Methods Data on the laws were drawn from the Alcohol Policy Information System data set (1998–2005), the Digests of State Alcohol-Highway Safety Related Legislation (1983-2006), and the Westlaw database. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set (1982-2004) was used to assess the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers involved in fatal crashes (fatal crash incidence ratio [CIR]). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Results Significant decreases in the underage fatal CIR were associated with presence of four of the laws targeting youth (possession, purchase, use and lose, and zero tolerance) and three of the laws targeting all drivers (.08 blood alcohol concentration illegal per se law, secondary or upgrade to a primary seat belt law, and an administrative license revocation law). Beer consumption was associated with a significant increase in the underage fatal CIR. The direct effects of laws targeting drivers of all ages on adult drinking drivers aged 26 and older were similar but of a smaller magnitude compared to the findings for those aged 20 and younger. It is estimated that the two core underage drinking laws (purchase and possession) and the zero-tolerance law are currently saving an estimated 732 lives per year controlling for other exposure factors. If all states adopted use and lose laws, an additional 165 lives could be saved annually. Conclusions These results provide substantial support for the effectiveness of under age 21 drinking laws with four of the six laws examined having significant associations with reductions in underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes. These findings point to the importance of key underage drinking and traffic safety laws in efforts to reduce underage drinking-driver crashes. PMID

  12. Effect of vehicular size on chain-reaction crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    We present the dynamic model of the chain-reaction crash to take account of the vehicular size. Drivers brake according to taillights of the forward vehicle. We investigate the effect of the vehicular size on the chain-reaction crash (multiple-vehicle collision) in the traffic flow controlled by taillights. In the multiple-vehicle collision, the first crash induces more collisions. We investigate how the first collision induces the chain-reaction crash numerically. We derive, analytically, the transition points and the region maps for the chain-reaction crash in the traffic flow of vehicles with finite sizes. We clarify the effect of the vehicular size on the multiple-vehicle collision.

  13. Emergency Notification in an Instant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the past year, adding new security has "become like a religion." The business of electronic notification hadn't really gained much attention until the terrorist attacks that destroyed the World Trade Center and damaged the Pentagon in 2001, killing more than 3,000 people. Critical attention on alerts got a huge boost after the Virginia Tech…

  14. Severity of road crashes involving pedestrians in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Verzosa, Nina; Miles, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Pedestrians are considered as one of the most vulnerable road users in less developed countries (LDCs). Yet, pedestrian safety remains poorly addressed in both urban and rural transportation plans in most LDCs. Since most pedestrian injury severity studies are conducted in developed countries, this study fills the gap with an inquiry focused on a highly urbanized region of an LDC that faces a rapid increase in car ownership and increasing pedestrian-related traffic injuries, documenting specific pedestrian safety issues and providing guidance for injury prevention measures in such places. Using the Metro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) data from 2008 to 2011, this study combines binomial logistic regression and street level analysis that further explores the statistical results and examines other factors that contribute to collisions and increase the potential for serious injury or death in three cities in Metro Manila: Makati, Manila, and Quezon. The results of the binomial regression analysis show that traffic crashes that involve heavy and multiple vehicles, and an elderly pedestrian (60 years old and above), as well as those that occurred during the evening (7 pm to midnight) and late at night (1 am to 5 am) have significantly higher odds of resulting in a fatal outcome; when the crash involves a female pedestrian and when the road surface is wet the odds of a fatal outcome are lower. Moreover, by closely examining the environment of these roadways, the study finds that most pedestrian fatalities occur on high-speed, high-traffic-volume, multilane roadways, that are surrounded by land uses that generate a particularly problematic mix of heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The street level analysis also finds that fatal pedestrian crashes occur close to different types of transit stations. The results of this study of three cities in Metro Manila, reflect the twofold challenge to pedestrian safety in rapidly urbanizing areas in

  15. Severity of road crashes involving pedestrians in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Verzosa, Nina; Miles, Rebecca

    2016-09-01

    Pedestrians are considered as one of the most vulnerable road users in less developed countries (LDCs). Yet, pedestrian safety remains poorly addressed in both urban and rural transportation plans in most LDCs. Since most pedestrian injury severity studies are conducted in developed countries, this study fills the gap with an inquiry focused on a highly urbanized region of an LDC that faces a rapid increase in car ownership and increasing pedestrian-related traffic injuries, documenting specific pedestrian safety issues and providing guidance for injury prevention measures in such places. Using the Metro Manila Accident Reporting and Analysis System (MMARAS) data from 2008 to 2011, this study combines binomial logistic regression and street level analysis that further explores the statistical results and examines other factors that contribute to collisions and increase the potential for serious injury or death in three cities in Metro Manila: Makati, Manila, and Quezon. The results of the binomial regression analysis show that traffic crashes that involve heavy and multiple vehicles, and an elderly pedestrian (60 years old and above), as well as those that occurred during the evening (7 pm to midnight) and late at night (1 am to 5 am) have significantly higher odds of resulting in a fatal outcome; when the crash involves a female pedestrian and when the road surface is wet the odds of a fatal outcome are lower. Moreover, by closely examining the environment of these roadways, the study finds that most pedestrian fatalities occur on high-speed, high-traffic-volume, multilane roadways, that are surrounded by land uses that generate a particularly problematic mix of heavy vehicular and pedestrian traffic. The street level analysis also finds that fatal pedestrian crashes occur close to different types of transit stations. The results of this study of three cities in Metro Manila, reflect the twofold challenge to pedestrian safety in rapidly urbanizing areas in

  16. Evaluating the road safety effects of a fuel cost increase measure by means of zonal crash prediction modeling.

    PubMed

    Pirdavani, Ali; Brijs, Tom; Bellemans, Tom; Kochan, Bruno; Wets, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Travel demand management (TDM) consists of a variety of policy measures that affect the transportation system's effectiveness by changing travel behavior. The primary objective to implement such TDM strategies is not to improve traffic safety, although their impact on traffic safety should not be neglected. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the traffic safety impact of conducting a fuel-cost increase scenario (i.e. increasing the fuel price by 20%) in Flanders, Belgium. Since TDM strategies are usually conducted at an aggregate level, crash prediction models (CPMs) should also be developed at a geographically aggregated level. Therefore zonal crash prediction models (ZCPMs) are considered to present the association between observed crashes in each zone and a set of predictor variables. To this end, an activity-based transportation model framework is applied to produce exposure metrics which will be used in prediction models. This allows us to conduct a more detailed and reliable assessment while TDM strategies are inherently modeled in the activity-based models unlike traditional models in which the impact of TDM strategies are assumed. The crash data used in this study consist of fatal and injury crashes observed between 2004 and 2007. The network and socio-demographic variables are also collected from other sources. In this study, different ZCPMs are developed to predict the number of injury crashes (NOCs) (disaggregated by different severity levels and crash types) for both the null and the fuel-cost increase scenario. The results show a considerable traffic safety benefit of conducting the fuel-cost increase scenario apart from its impact on the reduction of the total vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT). A 20% increase in fuel price is predicted to reduce the annual VKT by 5.02 billion (11.57% of the total annual VKT in Flanders), which causes the total NOCs to decline by 2.83%. PMID:23200453

  17. Evaluating the road safety effects of a fuel cost increase measure by means of zonal crash prediction modeling.

    PubMed

    Pirdavani, Ali; Brijs, Tom; Bellemans, Tom; Kochan, Bruno; Wets, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Travel demand management (TDM) consists of a variety of policy measures that affect the transportation system's effectiveness by changing travel behavior. The primary objective to implement such TDM strategies is not to improve traffic safety, although their impact on traffic safety should not be neglected. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the traffic safety impact of conducting a fuel-cost increase scenario (i.e. increasing the fuel price by 20%) in Flanders, Belgium. Since TDM strategies are usually conducted at an aggregate level, crash prediction models (CPMs) should also be developed at a geographically aggregated level. Therefore zonal crash prediction models (ZCPMs) are considered to present the association between observed crashes in each zone and a set of predictor variables. To this end, an activity-based transportation model framework is applied to produce exposure metrics which will be used in prediction models. This allows us to conduct a more detailed and reliable assessment while TDM strategies are inherently modeled in the activity-based models unlike traditional models in which the impact of TDM strategies are assumed. The crash data used in this study consist of fatal and injury crashes observed between 2004 and 2007. The network and socio-demographic variables are also collected from other sources. In this study, different ZCPMs are developed to predict the number of injury crashes (NOCs) (disaggregated by different severity levels and crash types) for both the null and the fuel-cost increase scenario. The results show a considerable traffic safety benefit of conducting the fuel-cost increase scenario apart from its impact on the reduction of the total vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT). A 20% increase in fuel price is predicted to reduce the annual VKT by 5.02 billion (11.57% of the total annual VKT in Flanders), which causes the total NOCs to decline by 2.83%.

  18. Age thresholds for increased mortality of predominant crash induced thoracic injuries.

    PubMed

    Stitzel, Joel D; Kilgo, Patrick D; Weaver, Ashley A; Martin, R Shayn; Loftis, Kathryn L; Meredith, J Wayne

    2010-01-01

    The growing elderly population in the United States presents medical, engineering, and legislative challenges in trauma management and prevention. Thoracic injury incidence, morbidity, and mortality increase with age. This study utilized receiver-operator characteristic analysis to identify the quantitative age thresholds associated with increased mortality in common isolated types of thoracic injuries from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs).The subject pool consisted of patients with a single AIS 3+ thorax injury and no injury greater than AIS 2 in any other body region. A logistic regression algorithm was performed for each injury to estimate an age threshold that maximally discriminates between survivors and fatalities. The c-index describing discrimination of the model and odds ratio describing the increased mortality risk associated with being older than the age threshold were computed.Twelve leading thoracic injuries were included in the study: unilateral and bilateral pulmonary contusion (AIS 3/4), hemo/pneumothorax, rib fractures with and without hemo/pneumothorax (AIS 3/4), bilateral flail chest, and thoracic penetrating injury with hemo/pneumothorax. Results are consistent with the traditional age threshold of 55, but were injury-specific. Pulmonary contusions had lower age thresholds compared to rib fractures. Higher severity pulmonary contusions and rib fractures had lower age thresholds compared to lower severity injuries.This study presents the first quantitatively estimated mortality age thresholds for common isolated thoracic injuries. This data provides information on the ideal 'threshold' beyond which age becomes an important factor to patient survival. Results of the current study and future work could lead to improvements in automotive safety design and regulation, automated crash notification, and hospital treatment for the elderly.

  19. Comparing the Effects of Age, BMI and Gender on Severe Injury (AIS 3+) in Motor-Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrick M.; Flannagan, Carol A.C.; Reed, Matthew P.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and gender on motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are not well understood and current prevention efforts do not effectively address variability in occupant characteristics. Objectives 1) Characterize the effects of age, BMI and gender on serious-to-fatal MVC injury 2) Identify the crash modes and body regions where the effects of occupant characteristics onthe numbers of occupants with injuryis largest, and thereby aid in prioritizing the need forhuman surrogates that the represent different types of occupant characteristics and adaptive restraint systems that consider these characteristics. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the effects of occupant characteristics (age, BMI, gender), vehicle and crash characteristics on serious-to-fatal injuries (AIS 3+) by body region and crash mode using the 2000-2010 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS) dataset. Logistic regression models were applied to weighted crash data to estimate the change in the number of annual injured occupants with AIS 3+ injury that would occur if occupant characteristics were limited to their 5th percentiles (age ≤ 17 years old, BMI ≤ 19 kg/m2) or male gender. Results Limiting age was associated with a decrease inthe total number of occupants with head [8,396, 95% CI 6,871-9,070] and thorax injuries [17,961, 95% CI 15,960 – 18,859] across all crash modes, decreased occupants with spine [3,843, 95% CI 3,065 – 4,242] and upper extremity [3,578, 95% CI 1,402 – 4,439] injuries in frontal and rollover crashes and decreased abdominal [1,368, 95% CI 1,062 – 1,417] and lower extremity [4,584, 95% CI 4,012 – 4,995] injuries in frontal impacts. The age effect was modulated by gender with older females morelikely to have thorax and upper extremity injuries than older males. Limiting BMI was associated with 2,069 [95% CI 1,107 – 2,775] fewer thorax injuries in nearside crashes, and 5,304 [95% CI 4,279 – 5

  20. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2010-08-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for DMA transfer completion notification that include: inserting, by an origin DMA engine on an origin compute node in an injection FIFO buffer, a data descriptor for an application message to be transferred to a target compute node on behalf of an application on the origin compute node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine, a completion notification descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer after the data descriptor for the message, the completion notification descriptor specifying an address of a completion notification field in application storage for the application; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target compute node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that the transfer of the message is complete, including performing a local direct put operation to store predesignated notification data at the address of the completion notification field.

  1. Direct memory access transfer completion notification

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-02-15

    DMA transfer completion notification includes: inserting, by an origin DMA engine on an origin node in an injection first-in-first-out (`FIFO`) buffer, a data descriptor for an application message to be transferred to a target node on behalf of an application on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine, a completion notification descriptor in the injection FIFO buffer after the data descriptor for the message, the completion notification descriptor specifying a packet header for a completion notification packet; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; sending, by the origin DMA engine, the completion notification packet to a local reception FIFO buffer using a local memory FIFO transfer operation; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in response to receiving the completion notification packet in the local reception FIFO buffer.

  2. 28 CFR 73.3 - Form of notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... name or names of the agent making the notification, the firm name, if any, and the business address or.... Notification by agents engaged in intelligence, counterintelligence, espionage, counterespionage...

  3. Impact of traffic states on freeway crash involvement rates.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Hwasoo; Jang, Kitae; Skabardonis, Alexander; Kang, Seungmo

    2013-01-01

    Freeway traffic accidents are complicated events that are influenced by multiple factors including roadway geometry, drivers' behavior, traffic conditions and environmental factors. Among the various factors, crash occurrence on freeways is supposed to be strongly influenced by the traffic states representing driving situations that are changed by road geometry and cause the change of drivers' behavior. This paper proposes a methodology to investigate the relationship between traffic states and crash involvements on the freeway. First, we defined section-based traffic states: free flow (FF), back of queue (BQ), bottleneck front (BN) and congestion (CT) according to their distinctive patterns; and traffic states of each freeway section are determined based on actual measurements of traffic data from upstream and downstream ends of the section. Next, freeway crash data are integrated with the traffic states of a freeway section using upstream and downstream traffic measurements. As an illustrative study to show the applicability, we applied the proposed method on a 32-mile section of I-880 freeway. By integrating freeway crash occurrence and traffic data over a three-year period, we obtained the crash involvement rate for each traffic state. The results show that crash involvement rate in BN, BQ, and CT states are approximately 5 times higher than the one in FF. The proposed method shows promise to be used for various safety performance measurement including hot spot identification and prediction of the number of crash involvements on freeway sections.

  4. Crash Testing of Helicopter Airframe Fittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Charles W.; Townsend, William; Boitnott, Richard

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Rotary Wing Structures Technology Demonstration (RWSTD) program, a surrogate RAH-66 seat attachment fitting was dynamically tested to assess its response to transient, crash impact loads. The dynamic response of this composite material fitting was compared to the performance of an identical fitting subjected to quasi-static loads of similar magnitude. Static and dynamic tests were conducted of both smaller bench level and larger full-scale test articles. At the bench level, the seat fitting was supported in a steel fixture, and in the full-scale tests, the fitting was integrated into a surrogate RAH-66 forward fuselage. Based upon the lessons learned, an improved method to design, analyze, and test similar composite material fittings is proposed.

  5. U.S. Civil Air Show Crashes, 1993 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Osorio, Victor B.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides new public health data about U.S. civil air shows. Risk factors for fatalities in civil air show crashes were analyzed. The value of the FIA score in predicting fatal outcomes was evaluated. With the use of the FAA’s General Aviation and Air Taxi Survey and the National Transportation Safety Board’s data, the incidence of civil air show crashes from 1993 to 2013 was calculated. Fatality risk factors for crashes were analyzed by means of regression methods. The FIA index was validated to predict fatal outcomes by using the factors of fire, instrument conditions, and away-from-airport location, and was evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The civil air show crash rate was 31 crashes per 1,000 civil air events. Of the 174 civil air show crashes that occurred during the study period, 91 (52%) involved at least one fatality; on average, 1.1 people died per fatal crash. Fatalities were associated with four major risk factors: fire [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4 to 20.6, P < .001], pilot error (AOR = 5.2, 95% CI = 1.8 to 14.5, P = .002), aerobatic flight (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.6 to 8.2, P = .002), and off-airport location (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.5 to 7.5, P = .003). The area under the FIA score’s ROC curve was 0.71 (95% CI = 0.64 to 0.78). Civil air show crashes were marked by a high risk of fatal outcomes to pilots in aerobatic performances but rare mass casualties. The FIA score was not a valid measurement of fatal risk in civil air show crashes. PMID:27773963

  6. Drug and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types of Fatal Crashes*

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of drunk and drugged driving to the occurrence of fatal crashes associated with speeding, failure to obey/yield, inattention, and seat belt nonuse. Method: We examined data for fatally injured drivers involved in single-vehicle crashes killed in states in which more than 79% of the drivers were tested for drugs other than alcohol and had a known result. Results: About 25% of the drivers tested positive for drugs, a figure almost double that estimated by the 2007 National Roadside Survey. Cannabinoids and stimulants each contributed to about 23% of the drug-positive results (6% among all fatally injured single-vehicle drivers). Stimulants more than cannabinoids were found to be associated with the four types of crashes under study. Some drugs showed a protective effect over the four crash types under study. Significant interactions between drugs and alcohol were observed. Stimulants contributed to the different types of fatal crashes irrespective of the levels of alcohol consumed by the drivers. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of a link between drug consumption and fatal crashes. It also opens the door to some interesting and sometimes unexpected questions regarding the way drugs contribute to crashes, which we found varies depending on the type of crash considered, the class of drug, and the presence of alcohol. Research is also needed on drugs that could have a protective effect on the occurrence of fatal crashes. These findings could be highly relevant to the design of drug-related traffic laws and programs targeted at curbing drugged driving. PMID:21683038

  7. Crash Certification by Analysis - Are We There Yet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of crash certification by analysis. This broad topic encompasses many ancillary issues including model validation procedures, uncertainty in test data and analysis models, probabilistic techniques for test-analysis correlation, verification of the mathematical formulation, and establishment of appropriate qualification requirements. This paper will focus on certification requirements for crashworthiness of military helicopters; capabilities of the current analysis codes used for crash modeling and simulation, including some examples of simulations from the literature to illustrate the current approach to model validation; and future directions needed to achieve "crash certification by analysis."

  8. Projecting Fatalities in Crashes Involving Older Drivers, 2000-2025

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P.S.

    2001-03-23

    As part of this research effort, we developed a new methodology for projecting elderly traffic crash fatalities. This methodology separates exposure to crashes from crash risk per se, and further divides exposure into two components, the number of miles driven and the likelihood of being a driver. This component structure permits conceptually different determinants of traffic fatalities to be projected separately and has thorough motivation in behavioral theory. It also permits finer targeting of particular aspects of projections that need improvement and closer linking of projections to possible policy instruments for influencing them.

  9. A new tool for coding and interpreting injuries in fatal airplane crashes: the crash injury pattern assessment tool application to the Air France Flight AF447 disaster (Rio de Janeiro-Paris), 1st of June 2009.

    PubMed

    Schuliar, Yves; Chapenoire, Stéphane; Miras, Alain; Contrand, Benjamin; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2014-09-01

    For investigation of air disasters, crash reconstruction is obtained using data from flight recorders, physical evidence from the site, and injuries patterns of the victims. This article describes a new software, Crash Injury Pattern Assessment Tool (CIPAT), to code and analyze injuries. The coding system was derived from the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Scores were created corresponding to the amount of energy required causing the trauma (ER), and the software was developed to compute summary variables related to the position (assigned seat) of victims. A dataset was built from the postmortem examination of 154/228 victims of the Air France disaster (June 2009), recovered from the Atlantic Ocean after a complex and difficult task at a depth of 12790 ft. The use of CIPAT allowed to precise cause and circumstances of deaths and confirmed major dynamics parameters of the crash event established by the French Civil Aviation Safety Investigation Authority.

  10. Characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes into roadside safety barriers in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jama, Hussein H; Grzebieta, Raphael H; Friswell, Rena; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a retrospective case series study of fatal motorcyclist-roadside barrier collisions. Cases were retrieved from the National Coroners Information System (NCIS), the coronial case files of Australian jurisdictions, and the Crash Analysis System (CAS) of the New Zealand Transport Agency. Seventy seven (77) motorcycle fatalities involving a roadside barrier in Australia and New Zealand were examined. The fatalities usually involved a single vehicle crash and young men. The roadside barriers predominantly involved were steel W-beams, typically on a bend in the horizontal alignment of the road. A majority of fatalities occurred on a weekend, during daylight hours, on clear days with dry road surface conditions indicating predominantly recreational riding. Speeding and driving with a blood alcohol level higher than the legal limit contributed to a significant number of these fatalities. PMID:21376851

  11. Analysis of crash parameters and driver characteristics associated with lower limb injury.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Poplin, Gerald; Bose, Dipan; Forbes, Aaron; Hurwitz, Shepard; Shaw, Greg; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate changes in frequency, risk, and patterns of lower limb injuries due to vehicle and occupant parameters as a function of vehicle model year. From the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System, 10,988 observations were sampled and analyzed, representing 4.7 million belted drivers involved in frontal crashes for the years 1998-2010. A logistic regression model was developed to understand the association of sustaining knee and below knee lower limb injuries of moderate or greater severity with motor vehicle crash characteristics such as vehicle type and model years, toepan and instrument panel intrusions in addition to the occupant's age, gender, height and weight. Toepan intrusion greater than 2cm was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of injury (odds ratio: 9.10, 95% confidence interval 1.82-45.42). Females sustained a higher likelihood of distal lower limb injuries (OR: 6.83, 1.56-29.93) as compared to males. Increased mass of the driver was also found to have a positive association with injury (OR: 1.04, 1.02-1.06), while age and height were not associated with injury likelihood. Relative to passenger cars, vans exhibited a protective effect against sustaining lower limb injury (OR: 0.24, 0.07-0.78), whereas no association was shown for light trucks (OR: 1.31, 0.69-2.49) or SUVs (OR: 0.76, 0.28-2.02). To examine whether current crash testing results are representative of real-world NASS-CDS findings, data from frontal offset crash tests performed by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) were examined. IIHS data indicated a decreasing trend in vehicle foot well and toepan intrusion, foot accelerations, tibia axial forces and tibia index in relation to increasing vehicle model year between the year 1995 and 2013. Over 90% of vehicles received the highest IIHS rating, with steady improvement from the upper and lower tibia index, tibia axial force and the resultant foot acceleration

  12. Analysis of crash parameters and driver characteristics associated with lower limb injury.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Poplin, Gerald; Bose, Dipan; Forbes, Aaron; Hurwitz, Shepard; Shaw, Greg; Crandall, Jeff

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate changes in frequency, risk, and patterns of lower limb injuries due to vehicle and occupant parameters as a function of vehicle model year. From the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System, 10,988 observations were sampled and analyzed, representing 4.7 million belted drivers involved in frontal crashes for the years 1998-2010. A logistic regression model was developed to understand the association of sustaining knee and below knee lower limb injuries of moderate or greater severity with motor vehicle crash characteristics such as vehicle type and model years, toepan and instrument panel intrusions in addition to the occupant's age, gender, height and weight. Toepan intrusion greater than 2cm was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of injury (odds ratio: 9.10, 95% confidence interval 1.82-45.42). Females sustained a higher likelihood of distal lower limb injuries (OR: 6.83, 1.56-29.93) as compared to males. Increased mass of the driver was also found to have a positive association with injury (OR: 1.04, 1.02-1.06), while age and height were not associated with injury likelihood. Relative to passenger cars, vans exhibited a protective effect against sustaining lower limb injury (OR: 0.24, 0.07-0.78), whereas no association was shown for light trucks (OR: 1.31, 0.69-2.49) or SUVs (OR: 0.76, 0.28-2.02). To examine whether current crash testing results are representative of real-world NASS-CDS findings, data from frontal offset crash tests performed by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) were examined. IIHS data indicated a decreasing trend in vehicle foot well and toepan intrusion, foot accelerations, tibia axial forces and tibia index in relation to increasing vehicle model year between the year 1995 and 2013. Over 90% of vehicles received the highest IIHS rating, with steady improvement from the upper and lower tibia index, tibia axial force and the resultant foot acceleration

  13. Structure and dynamics of sawteeth crashes in ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Igochine, V.; Guenter, S.; Lackner, K.; Pereverzev, G.; Zohm, H.; Boom, J.; Classen, I.; Dumbrajs, O.

    2010-12-15

    The crash phase of the sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak [Herrmann et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 44(3), 569 (2003)] is investigated in detail in this paper by means of soft x-ray (SXR) and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics. Analysis of precursor and postcursor (1,1) modes shows that the crash does not affect the position of the resonant surface q=1. Our experimental results suggest that sawtooth crash models should contain two ingredients to be consistent with experimental observations: (1) the (1,1) mode structure should survive the crash and (2) the flux changes should be small to preserve the position of the q=1 surface close to its original location. Detailed structure of the reconnection point was investigated with ECE imaging diagnostic. It is shown that reconnection starts locally. The expelled core is hot which is consistent with SXR tomography results. The observed results can be explained in the framework of a stochastic model.

  14. Structure and dynamics of sawteeth crashes in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igochine, V.; Boom, J.; Classen, I.; Dumbrajs, O.; Günter, S.; Lackner, K.; Pereverzev, G.; Zohm, H.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2010-12-01

    The crash phase of the sawteeth in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak [Herrmann et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 44(3), 569 (2003)] is investigated in detail in this paper by means of soft x-ray (SXR) and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics. Analysis of precursor and postcursor (1,1) modes shows that the crash does not affect the position of the resonant surface q =1. Our experimental results suggest that sawtooth crash models should contain two ingredients to be consistent with experimental observations: (1) the (1,1) mode structure should survive the crash and (2) the flux changes should be small to preserve the position of the q =1 surface close to its original location. Detailed structure of the reconnection point was investigated with ECE imaging diagnostic. It is shown that reconnection starts locally. The expelled core is hot which is consistent with SXR tomography results. The observed results can be explained in the framework of a stochastic model.

  15. Crash in Australian outback ends NASA ballooning season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Margaret

    2010-06-01

    NASA has temporarily suspended all its scientific balloon launches after the balloon-borne Nuclear Compton Tele scope (NCT) crashed during take-off, scattering a trail of debris across the remote launch site and overturning a nearby parked car.

  16. Why Do Markets Crash? Bitcoin Data Offers Unprecedented Insights.

    PubMed

    Donier, Jonathan; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Crashes have fascinated and baffled many canny observers of financial markets. In the strict orthodoxy of the efficient market theory, crashes must be due to sudden changes of the fundamental valuation of assets. However, detailed empirical studies suggest that large price jumps cannot be explained by news and are the result of endogenous feedback loops. Although plausible, a clear-cut empirical evidence for such a scenario is still lacking. Here we show how crashes are conditioned by the market liquidity, for which we propose a new measure inspired by recent theories of market impact and based on readily available, public information. Our results open the possibility of a dynamical evaluation of liquidity risk and early warning signs of market instabilities, and could lead to a quantitative description of the mechanisms leading to market crashes. PMID:26448333

  17. Chain-reaction crash in traffic flow controlled by taillights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    We study the chain-reaction crash (multiple-vehicle collision) in low-visibility condition on a road. In the traffic situation, drivers brake according to taillights of the forward vehicle. The first crash may induce more collisions. We investigate whether or not the first collision induces the chain-reaction crash, numerically and analytically. The dynamic transitions occur from no collisions through a single collision, double collisions and triple collisions, to multiple collisions with decreasing the headway. Also, we find that the dynamic transition occurs from the finite chain reaction to the infinite chain reaction when the headway is less than the critical value. We derive, analytically, the transition points and the region maps for the chain-reaction crash in traffic flow controlled by taillights.

  18. Why Do Markets Crash? Bitcoin Data Offers Unprecedented Insights

    PubMed Central

    Donier, Jonathan; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Crashes have fascinated and baffled many canny observers of financial markets. In the strict orthodoxy of the efficient market theory, crashes must be due to sudden changes of the fundamental valuation of assets. However, detailed empirical studies suggest that large price jumps cannot be explained by news and are the result of endogenous feedback loops. Although plausible, a clear-cut empirical evidence for such a scenario is still lacking. Here we show how crashes are conditioned by the market liquidity, for which we propose a new measure inspired by recent theories of market impact and based on readily available, public information. Our results open the possibility of a dynamical evaluation of liquidity risk and early warning signs of market instabilities, and could lead to a quantitative description of the mechanisms leading to market crashes. PMID:26448333

  19. ELT antenna gain distributions under simulated crash conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, H.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the relative merits of ELT antenna positions, when mounted on a small aircraft, is presented. The gain distribution of the best antenna position together with the worst crash scenario is also given.

  20. Why Do Markets Crash? Bitcoin Data Offers Unprecedented Insights.

    PubMed

    Donier, Jonathan; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Crashes have fascinated and baffled many canny observers of financial markets. In the strict orthodoxy of the efficient market theory, crashes must be due to sudden changes of the fundamental valuation of assets. However, detailed empirical studies suggest that large price jumps cannot be explained by news and are the result of endogenous feedback loops. Although plausible, a clear-cut empirical evidence for such a scenario is still lacking. Here we show how crashes are conditioned by the market liquidity, for which we propose a new measure inspired by recent theories of market impact and based on readily available, public information. Our results open the possibility of a dynamical evaluation of liquidity risk and early warning signs of market instabilities, and could lead to a quantitative description of the mechanisms leading to market crashes.

  1. Helicopter crash in water: effects of simulator escape training.

    PubMed

    Hytten, K

    1989-01-01

    Findings are presented from an interview study of five crew members who survived a helicopter crash. Four of the five surviving men had received simulated helicopter accident training prior to the crash. One untrained crew member died. The four previously trained survivors claimed that the training was of decisive moment in their escape and survival. Contributions from training appeared to be provision of confidence and thought control. The author discusses these as the development of a positive response-outcome expectancy.

  2. Pilot Age and Error in Air-Taxi Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The associations of pilot error with the type of flight operations and basic weather conditions are well documented. The correlation between pilot characteristics and error is less clear. This study aims to examine whether pilot age is associated with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Methods Investigation reports from the National Transportation Safety Board for crashes involving non-scheduled Part 135 operations (i.e., air taxis) in the United States between 1983 and 2002 were reviewed to identify pilot error and other contributing factors. Crash circumstances and the presence and type of pilot error were analyzed in relation to pilot age using Chi-square tests. Results Of the 1751 air-taxi crashes studied, 28% resulted from mechanical failure, 25% from loss of control at landing or takeoff, 7% from visual flight rule conditions into instrument meteorological conditions, 7% from fuel starvation, 5% from taxiing, and 28% from other causes. Crashes among older pilots were more likely to occur during the daytime rather than at night and off airport than on airport. The patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes were similar across age groups. Of the errors identified, 27% were flawed decisions, 26% were inattentiveness, 23% mishandled aircraft kinetics, 15% mishandled wind and/or runway conditions, and 11% were others. Conclusions Pilot age is associated with crash circumstances but not with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Lack of age-related differences in pilot error may be attributable to the “safe worker effect.” PMID:19601508

  3. Light Airplane Crash Test at Three Pitch Angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Victor L., Jr.; Alfaro-Bou, Emilio

    1979-01-01

    Three similar twin-engine general-aviation airplane specimens were crash tested at the Langley Impact Dynamics Research Facility at 27 m/sec, a flight-path angle of -15deg, and pithch angles of -15deg, 0deg, and 15deg. Other crash parameters were held constant. The test facility, instrumentation, test specimens, and test method are briefly described. Structural damage and accelerometer data for each of the three impact conditions are presented and discussed.

  4. Spatial analysis of fatal and injury crashes in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan; Jovanis, Paul P

    2006-05-01

    Using injury and fatal crash data for Pennsylvania for 1996-2000, full Bayes (FB) hierarchical models (with spatial and temporal effects and space-time interactions) are compared to traditional negative binomial (NB) estimates of annual county-level crash frequency. Covariates include socio-demographics, weather conditions, transportation infrastructure and amount of travel. FB hierarchical models are generally consistent with the NB estimates. Counties with a higher percentage of the population under poverty level, higher percentage of their population in age groups 0-14, 15-24, and over 64 and those with increased road mileage and road density have significantly increased crash risk. Total precipitation is significant and positive in the NB models, but not significant with FB. Spatial correlation, time trend, and space-time interactions are significant in the FB injury crash models. County-level FB models reveal the existence of spatial correlation in crash data and provide a mechanism to quantify, and reduce the effect of, this correlation. Addressing spatial correlation is likely to be even more important in road segment and intersection-level crash models, where spatial correlation is likely to be even more pronounced.

  5. Three Cases of Spine Fractures after an Airplane Crash

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han Joo; Moon, Bong Ju; Pennant, William A.; Shin, Dong Ah; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yoon, Do Heum

    2015-01-01

    While injuries to the spine after an airplane crash are not rare, most crashes result in fatal injuries. As such, few studies exist that reported on spine fractures sustained during airplane accidents. In this report, we demonstrate three cases of spine fractures due to crash landing of a commercial airplane. Three passengers perished from injuries after the crash landing, yet most of the passengers and crew on board survived, with injuries ranging from minor to severe. Through evaluating our three spine fracture patients, it was determined that compression fracture of the spine was the primary injury related to the airplane accident. The first patient was a 20-year-old female who sustained a T6-8 compression fracture without neurologic deterioration. The second patient was a 33-year-old female with an L2 compression fracture, and the last patient was a 49-year-old male patient with a T8 compression fracture. All three patients were managed conservatively and required spinal orthotics. During the crash, each of these patients were subjected to direct, downward high gravity z-axis (Gz) force, which gave rise to load on the spine vertically, thereby causing compression fracture. Therefore, new safety methods should be developed to prevent excessive Gz force during airplane crash landings. PMID:27169094

  6. Car insurance and the risk of car crash injury.

    PubMed

    Blows, Stephanie; Ivers, Rebecca Q; Connor, Jennie; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Norton, Robyn

    2003-11-01

    Despite speculation about the role of vehicle insurance in road traffic accidents, there is little research estimating the direction or extent of the risk relationship. Data from the Auckland Car Crash Injury Study (1998-1999) were used to examine the association between driving an uninsured motor vehicle and car crash injury. Cases were all cars involved in crashes in which at least one occupant was hospitalized or killed anywhere in the Auckland region. Controls were 588 drivers of randomly selected cars on Auckland roads. Participants completed a structured interview. Uninsured drivers had significantly greater odds of car crash injury compared to insured drivers after adjustment for age, sex, level of education, and driving exposure (odds ratio 4.77, 95% confidence interval 2.94-7.75). The causal mechanism for insurance and car crash injury is not easily determined. Although we examined the effects of multiple potential confounders in our analysis including socioeconomic status and risk-taking behaviours, both of which have been previously observed to be associated with both insurance status and car crash injury, residual confounding may partly explain this association. The estimated proportion of drivers who are uninsured is between 5 and 15% in developed countries, representing a significant public health problem worthy of further investigation. PMID:12971933

  7. Seat integrated and conventional restraints: a study of crash injury/fatality rates in rollovers.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Burnett, Roger A

    2008-10-01

    This study used police-reported motor vehicle crash data from eleven states to determine ejection, fatality, and fatal/serious injury risks for belted drivers in vehicles with conventional seatbelts compared to belted drivers in vehicles with seat integrated restraint systems (SIRS). Risks were compared for 11,159 belted drivers involved in single- or multiple-vehicle rollover crashes. Simple driver ejection (partial and complete), fatality, and injury rates were derived, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine relative contribution of factors (including event calendar year, vehicle age, driver age/gender/alcohol use) that significantly influence the likelihood of fatality and fatal/serious injury to belted drivers in rollovers. Results show no statistically significant difference in driver ejection, fatality, or fatal/serious injury rates between vehicles with conventional belts and vehicles with SIRS. PMID:19026243

  8. Seat Integrated and Conventional Restraints: A Study of Crash Injury/Fatality Rates in Rollovers

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya; Burnett, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    This study used police-reported motor vehicle crash data from eleven states to determine ejection, fatality, and fatal/serious injury risks for belted drivers in vehicles with conventional seatbelts compared to belted drivers in vehicles with seat integrated restraint systems (SIRS). Risks were compared for 11,159 belted drivers involved in single- or multiple-vehicle rollover crashes. Simple driver ejection (partial and complete), fatality, and injury rates were derived, and logistic regression analyses were used to determine relative contribution of factors (including event calendar year, vehicle age, driver age/gender/alcohol use) that significantly influence the likelihood of fatality and fatal/serious injury to belted drivers in rollovers. Results show no statistically significant difference in driver ejection, fatality, or fatal/serious injury rates between vehicles with conventional belts and vehicles with SIRS. PMID:19026243

  9. 50 CFR 300.41 - Investigation notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation notification. 300.41 Section 300.41 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.41 Investigation notification. Upon commencement of...

  10. 42 CFR 34.4 - Medical notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medical notifications. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF ALIENS § 34.4 Medical notifications. (a) Medical examiners shall issue...

  11. 42 CFR 34.4 - Medical notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medical notifications. 34.4 Section 34.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF ALIENS § 34.4 Medical notifications. (a) Medical examiners shall issue...

  12. 22 CFR 62.13 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification requirements. 62.13 Section 62.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions § 62.13 Notification requirements. (a) Change of circumstances. Sponsors shall notify...

  13. 22 CFR 62.13 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notification requirements. 62.13 Section 62.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions § 62.13 Notification requirements. (a) Change of circumstances. Sponsors shall notify...

  14. 22 CFR 62.13 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification requirements. 62.13 Section 62.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions § 62.13 Notification requirements. (a) Change of circumstances. Sponsors shall notify...

  15. 22 CFR 62.13 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification requirements. 62.13 Section 62.13 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions § 62.13 Notification requirements. (a) Change of circumstances. Sponsors shall notify...

  16. 40 CFR 279.51 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notification. 279.51 Section 279.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF USED OIL Standards for Used Oil Processors and Re-Refiners § 279.51 Notification....

  17. 50 CFR 300.41 - Investigation notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Investigation notification. 300.41 Section 300.41 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.41 Investigation notification. Upon commencement of...

  18. 21 CFR 107.240 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.240 Notification requirements. (a) Notification of a violative infant formula. A manufacturer shall promptly notify the Food and Drug..., and Cosmetic Act (the act)) that reasonably supports the conclusion that an infant formula that...

  19. 50 CFR 665.626 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notifications. 665.626 Section 665.626 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Pacific Remote Island Area Fisheries § 665.626 Notifications. Any...

  20. 50 CFR 665.126 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notifications. 665.126 Section 665.126 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.126 Notifications. Any special permit...

  1. 50 CFR 665.226 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notifications. 665.226 Section 665.226 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.226 Notifications. Any special permit holder...

  2. 50 CFR 665.226 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notifications. 665.226 Section 665.226 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.226 Notifications. Any special permit holder...

  3. 50 CFR 665.626 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notifications. 665.626 Section 665.626 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Pacific Remote Island Area Fisheries § 665.626 Notifications. Any...

  4. 50 CFR 665.126 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notifications. 665.126 Section 665.126 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.126 Notifications. Any special permit...

  5. 50 CFR 665.226 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notifications. 665.226 Section 665.226 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.226 Notifications. Any special permit holder...

  6. 50 CFR 665.626 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notifications. 665.626 Section 665.626 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Pacific Remote Island Area Fisheries § 665.626 Notifications. Any...

  7. 50 CFR 665.126 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notifications. 665.126 Section 665.126 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.126 Notifications. Any special permit...

  8. 50 CFR 665.626 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notifications. 665.626 Section 665.626 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Pacific Remote Island Area Fisheries § 665.626 Notifications. Any...

  9. 50 CFR 665.226 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notifications. 665.226 Section 665.226 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.226 Notifications. Any special permit holder...

  10. 50 CFR 665.126 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notifications. 665.126 Section 665.126 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.126 Notifications. Any special permit...

  11. 40 CFR 97.262 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers § 97.262 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days of recordation of a CAIR SO2 allowance... of receipt of a CAIR SO2 allowance transfer that fails to meet the requirements of § 97.261(a),...

  12. 40 CFR 97.262 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers § 97.262 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days of recordation of a CAIR SO2 allowance... of receipt of a CAIR SO2 allowance transfer that fails to meet the requirements of § 97.261(a),...

  13. 40 CFR 97.262 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers § 97.262 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days of recordation of a CAIR SO2 allowance... of receipt of a CAIR SO2 allowance transfer that fails to meet the requirements of § 97.261(a),...

  14. 40 CFR 97.262 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers § 97.262 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days of recordation of a CAIR SO2 allowance... of receipt of a CAIR SO2 allowance transfer that fails to meet the requirements of § 97.261(a),...

  15. 40 CFR 97.262 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR SO2 Allowance Transfers § 97.262 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days of recordation of a CAIR SO2 allowance... of receipt of a CAIR SO2 allowance transfer that fails to meet the requirements of § 97.261(a),...

  16. 40 CFR 97.73 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notifications. 97.73 Section 97.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Monitoring and Reporting § 97.73 Notifications. (a) The NOX authorized...

  17. 40 CFR 96.73 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notifications. 96.73 Section 96.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO 2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Monitoring and Reporting § 96.73 Notifications. The...

  18. 40 CFR 63.9 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Administrator in writing that the source is subject to the relevant standard. The notification, which shall be... information in writing to the Administrator: (i) A notification of intention to construct a new major-emitting... reconstruction is not required under § 63.5(d) must provide the following information in writing to...

  19. 40 CFR 63.9 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator in writing that the source is subject to the relevant standard. The notification, which shall be... information in writing to the Administrator: (i) A notification of intention to construct a new major-emitting... reconstruction is not required under § 63.5(d) must provide the following information in writing to...

  20. 40 CFR 273.32 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... indicating that the handler is accumulating more than 5,000 kilograms of universal waste at one time. ... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.32 Notification... universal waste must have sent written notification of universal waste management to the...

  1. 40 CFR 273.32 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... indicating that the handler is accumulating more than 5,000 kilograms of universal waste at one time. ... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.32 Notification... universal waste must have sent written notification of universal waste management to the...

  2. 40 CFR 273.32 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... indicating that the handler is accumulating more than 5,000 kilograms of universal waste at one time. ... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.32 Notification... universal waste must have sent written notification of universal waste management to the...

  3. 40 CFR 273.32 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... indicating that the handler is accumulating more than 5,000 kilograms of universal waste at one time. ... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.32 Notification... universal waste must have sent written notification of universal waste management to the...

  4. 40 CFR 273.32 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... indicating that the handler is accumulating more than 5,000 kilograms of universal waste at one time. ... UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Large Quantity Handlers of Universal Waste § 273.32 Notification... universal waste must have sent written notification of universal waste management to the...

  5. 40 CFR 97.73 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notifications. 97.73 Section 97.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Monitoring and Reporting § 97.73 Notifications. (a) The NOX authorized...

  6. 40 CFR 75.61 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... submit written notification of initial certification tests and revised test dates as specified in § 75.20... this section. The owner or operator shall also provide written notification of testing performed under § 75.19(c)(1)(iv)(A) to establish fuel-and-unit-specific NOX emission rates for low mass...

  7. 12 CFR 347.216 - Depositor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Depositor notification. 347.216 Section 347.216... INTERNATIONAL BANKING Foreign Banks § 347.216 Depositor notification. Any state branch that is exempt from the insurance requirement pursuant to § 347.215 shall: (a) Display conspicuously at each window or place...

  8. 12 CFR 347.216 - Depositor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Depositor notification. 347.216 Section 347.216... INTERNATIONAL BANKING Foreign Banks § 347.216 Depositor notification. Any state branch that is exempt from the insurance requirement pursuant to § 347.215 shall: (a) Display conspicuously at each window or place...

  9. 12 CFR 347.216 - Depositor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Depositor notification. 347.216 Section 347.216... INTERNATIONAL BANKING Foreign Banks § 347.216 Depositor notification. Any state branch that is exempt from the insurance requirement pursuant to § 347.215 shall: (a) Display conspicuously at each window or place...

  10. 12 CFR 347.216 - Depositor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Depositor notification. 347.216 Section 347.216... INTERNATIONAL BANKING Foreign Banks § 347.216 Depositor notification. Any state branch that is exempt from the insurance requirement pursuant to § 347.215 shall: (a) Display conspicuously at each window or place...

  11. 12 CFR 347.216 - Depositor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Depositor notification. 347.216 Section 347.216... INTERNATIONAL BANKING Foreign Banks § 347.216 Depositor notification. Any state branch that is exempt from the insurance requirement pursuant to § 347.215 shall: (a) Display conspicuously at each window or place...

  12. 14 CFR 1214.1107 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification. 1214.1107 Section 1214.1107 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1107 Notification. Selectees and the appropriate military...

  13. 14 CFR 1214.1107 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification. 1214.1107 Section 1214.1107 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1107 Notification. Selectees and the appropriate military...

  14. 14 CFR 1214.1107 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification. 1214.1107 Section 1214.1107 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1107 Notification. Selectees and the appropriate military...

  15. 14 CFR § 1214.1107 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification. § 1214.1107 Section § 1214.1107 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1107 Notification. Selectees and the appropriate...

  16. 14 CFR 1214.1107 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Notification. 1214.1107 Section 1214.1107 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1107 Notification. Selectees and the appropriate military...

  17. 50 CFR 300.41 - Investigation notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation notification. 300.41 Section 300.41 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.41 Investigation notification. Upon commencement of...

  18. 50 CFR 300.41 - Investigation notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Investigation notification. 300.41 Section 300.41 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.41 Investigation notification. Upon commencement of...

  19. 50 CFR 300.41 - Investigation notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Investigation notification. 300.41 Section 300.41 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.41 Investigation notification. Upon commencement of...

  20. 33 CFR 135.305 - Notification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of Subpart B of 33 CFR part 153 concerning Notice of the Discharge of Oil. ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Notification of Pollution Incidents § 135.305 Notification procedures. (a) The person in charge of a vessel...

  1. 33 CFR 135.305 - Notification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements of subpart B of 33 CFR Part 153 concerning Notice of the Discharge of Oil. ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Notification of Pollution Incidents § 135.305 Notification procedures. (a) The person in charge of a vessel...

  2. 33 CFR 135.305 - Notification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements of subpart B of 33 CFR Part 153 concerning Notice of the Discharge of Oil. ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Notification of Pollution Incidents § 135.305 Notification procedures. (a) The person in charge of a vessel...

  3. 33 CFR 135.305 - Notification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements of subpart B of 33 CFR Part 153 concerning Notice of the Discharge of Oil. ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Notification of Pollution Incidents § 135.305 Notification procedures. (a) The person in charge of a vessel...

  4. 33 CFR 135.305 - Notification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of subpart B of 33 CFR Part 153 concerning Notice of the Discharge of Oil. ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Notification of Pollution Incidents § 135.305 Notification procedures. (a) The person in charge of a vessel...

  5. 40 CFR 97.362 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-recordation. Within 10 business days of receipt of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that fails to... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 97.362 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days of recordation of a...

  6. 40 CFR 97.362 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-recordation. Within 10 business days of receipt of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that fails to... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 97.362 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days of recordation of a...

  7. 40 CFR 97.362 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-recordation. Within 10 business days of receipt of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that fails to... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 97.362 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days of recordation of a...

  8. 40 CFR 97.362 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-recordation. Within 10 business days of receipt of a CAIR NOX Ozone Season allowance transfer that fails to... BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Ozone Season Allowance Transfers § 97.362 Notification. (a) Notification of recordation. Within 5 business days of recordation of a...

  9. 45 CFR 1610.5 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification. 1610.5 Section 1610.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION USE OF NON-LSC FUNDS, TRANSFERS OF LSC FUNDS, PROGRAM INTEGRITY § 1610.5 Notification. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  10. 40 CFR 96.73 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notifications. 96.73 Section 96.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Monitoring and Reporting § 96.73 Notifications. The...

  11. 40 CFR 97.273 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notifications. 97.273 Section 97.273 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Monitoring and Reporting § 97.273 Notifications. The CAIR designated...

  12. 40 CFR 97.73 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notifications. 97.73 Section 97.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS Monitoring and Reporting § 97.73 Notifications. (a) The NOX authorized...

  13. 16 CFR 1119.5 - Enforcement notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement notification. 1119.5 Section 1119.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS CIVIL PENALTY FACTORS § 1119.5 Enforcement notification. A potential violator will be informed...

  14. 10 CFR 35.14 - Notifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notifications. 35.14 Section 35.14 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Information § 35.14 Notifications. (a) A licensee shall provide the Commission a copy of the board certification and the written attestation(s), signed by a preceptor, the Commission...

  15. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make...

  16. 5 CFR 179.304 - Notification procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification procedures. 179.304 Section 179.304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.304 Notification procedures. Before collecting any...

  17. 40 CFR 51.285 - Public notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public notification. 51.285 Section 51... Requirements § 51.285 Public notification. By March 1, 1980, the State shall submit a plan revision that contains provisions for: (a) Notifying the public on a regular basis of instances or areas in which...

  18. 40 CFR 57.815 - State notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State notification. 57.815 Section 57.815 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Technology § 57.815 State notification. The Administrator shall give notice of the final decision in...

  19. 49 CFR 192.16 - Customer notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer notification. 192.16 Section 192.16... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.16 Customer notification. (a) This section applies to each operator of a service line who does not maintain the customer's buried piping...

  20. 44 CFR 206.39 - Notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification. 206.39 Section 206.39 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE The Declaration Process § 206.39 Notification....