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Sample records for craton south australia

  1. Refined Proterozoic evolution of the Gawler Craton, South Australia, through U-Pb zircon geochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fanning, C.M.; Flint, R.B.; Parker, A.J.; Ludwig, K. R.; Blissett, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Through the application of both conventional U-Pb zircon analyses and small-sample U-Pb isotopic analyses, the nature and timing of tectonic events leading to the formation of the Gawler Craton have been defined more precisely. Constraints on deposition of Early Proterozoic iron formation-bearing sediments have been narrowed down to the period 1960-1847 Ma. Deformed acid volcanics, including the economically important Moonta Porphyry, have zircon ages of ??? 1790 and 1740 Ma. The voluminous acid Gawler Range Volcanics and correlatives to the east were erupted over a short interval at 1592 ?? 2 Ma, and were intruded by anorogenic granites at ??? 1575 Ma. Small-sample zircon analyses proved to be an extremely valuable adjunct to conventional analyses, generally yielding more-concordant data which forced a curved discordia through an upper intercept slightly younger than from a conventional straight-line discordia. ?? 1988.

  2. Otosclerosis in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Gristwood, R E; Venables, W N

    1984-08-01

    In this paper we report on the prevalence of clinical otosclerosis in South Australia, and discuss some aspects of its distribution and character. Our data comes from an exhaustive search for stapedectomy patients in a relatively closed population within a fixed time span, and hence our figures represent a lower limit for the true prevalence and not an unbiased estimate. Nevertheless, even with no allowance for this downward bias it would seem that South Australia has a high prevalence of otosclerosis by world standards, particularly of obliterative cases. The highest prevalence is about 5 per 1 000 of population for men and 10 per 1 000 of population for women, which occurs in the 50-59 year old age group. In common with many other studies, our data shows a prevalence for females approximately twice that for males, over most age groups. PMID:6333941

  3. Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia (27.0S, 136.0E) is normally a dry lakebed for years on end. However on rare occasions small amounts of rainfall are recorded and ponding can be seen in low parts of the lake, as in this image, where an algae bloom in the water is seen as a dark pink area on the lakebed. The Finke Riverbed intersects Lake Eyre but it is normally a dry wash and seldom contributes water to the lake.

  4. Re-Os isotopic composition of peridotitic sulphide inclusions in diamonds from Ellendale, Australia: Age constraints on Kimberley cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, K. V.; Shirey, S. B.; Richardson, S. H.; le Roex, A. P.; Gurney, J. J.

    2010-06-01

    Sulphide-bearing diamonds recovered from the ˜20 Ma Ellendale 4 and 9 lamproite pipes in north-western Australia were investigated to determine the nitrogen aggregation state of the diamonds and Re-Os isotope geochemistry of the sulphide inclusions. The majority of diamond studies have been based on diamonds formed in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) below stable cratons, whereas the Ellendale lamproites intrude the King Leopold Orogen, south of the Kimberley craton. The sulphide inclusions consist of pyrrhotite-pentlandite-chalcopyrite assemblages, and can be divided into peridotitic and eclogitic parageneses on the basis of their Ni and Os contents. A lherzolitic paragenesis for the high-Ni sulphide inclusions is suggested from their Re and Os concentrations. Regression analysis of the Re-Os isotope data for the lherzolitic sulphides yields an age of 1426 ± 130 Ma, with an initial 187Os/ 188Os ratio of 0.1042 ± 0.0034. The upper limit of the uncertainty on the 187Os/ 188Os initial ratio gives a Re depletion age of 2.96 Ga, indicating the presence of SCLM beneath Ellendale since at least the Mesoarchaean, with the lherzolitic diamond-forming event much younger and unrelated to the craton keel stabilisation. The nitrogen aggregation state of the diamonds and calculated mantle residence temperatures suggest an origin and storage of the Ellendale diamonds in a stable cratonic SCLM, consistent with the King Leopold Orogen being cratonised by about 1.8 Ga. The diamonds do not show evidence for pervasive deformation or platelet degradation, which suggests that the diamonds had a relatively undisturbed 1.4 billion year mantle storage history.

  5. Thermotectonic Evolution of the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: Insights into Gondwana Amalgmation and Breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, S.; Phillips, D.; Kohn, B. P.; Gleadow, A. J. W.; Matchan, E.; Li, G.

    2015-12-01

    The post-cratonisation history of the Yilgarn craton is somewhat fragmentary due to the paucity or absence of a stratigraphic record. Previously reported Rb-Sr biotite cooling ages suggest that the western craton margin was subjected to late 'Pan-African' tectonism (~400-600 Ma) and E-W compression, resulting in tectonic sedimentary loading. We report 40Ar/39Ar results on muscovite and single biotite grains from well-documented sample sites broadly comparable to those sampled for Rb-Sr biotite analysis. Muscovites record consistent ages between ~2400 and 2200 Ma. Coexisting single-grain biotite results, however, reveal significant age variations, showing similar ages of ~2500 Ma across much of the craton but decreasing abruptly to ~620-1000 Ma over a ~50-100 km wide belt at the western margin. Petrographic and chemical studies indicate that biotites are distinctly different in origin, i.e. magmatic to the east versus hydrothermal to the west. The more scattered biotite ages along the western margin are therefore unlikely to represent cooling ages, but rather indicate probable fluid-induced partial or complete biotite recrystallization at ~620 Ma. This age is in agreement with palaeomagnetic reconstructions suggesting oblique collision between Great India and Australian during Gondwana amalgamation. Complementary zircon He data from low radiation damage grains ([eU] <900 ppm), yield consistent ages 256 ±13 Ma, whereas those with [eU] values of 900-2000 ppm are negatively correlated with younger ages (~ 40-200 Ma). Coexisting apatite fission track ages are similar in range to zircon He ages, whereas apatite He ages are younger (227 ±18 Ma). These data confirm that much of the Yilgarn craton experienced extremely slow cooling (<0.1 ºC/Myr) from the Late Archean to Permian times. However, during the Late Permian to Triassic, the craton apparently experienced accelerated cooling (>4 ºC/Myr), possibly related to earliest rifting between Great India and Western

  6. Terminal suturing of Gondwana along the southern margin of South China Craton: Evidence from detrital zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes in Cambrian and Ordovician strata, Hainan Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yajun; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng; Zhong, Zengqiu; Hughes, Nigel C.

    2014-12-01

    Hainan Island, located near the southern end of mainland South China, consists of the Qiongzhong Block to the north and the Sanya Block to the south. In the Cambrian, these blocks were separated by an intervening ocean. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of detrital zircons from the Cambrian succession in the Sanya Block suggest that the unit contains detritus derived from late Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic units along the western margin of the West Australia Craton (e.g., Northampton Complex) or the Albany-Fraser-Wilkes orogen, which separates the West Australia and Mawson cratons. Thus, in the Cambrian the Sanya Block was not part of the South China Craton but rather part of the West Australian Craton and its environs. In contrast, overlying Late Ordovician strata display evidence for input of detritus from the Qiongzhong Block, which constituted part of the southeastern convergent plate margin of the South China Craton in the early Paleozoic. The evolving provenance record of the Cambrian and Ordovician strata suggests that the juxtaposition of South China and West Australian cratons occurred during the early to mid-Ordovician. The event was linked with the northern continuation of Kuungan Orogeny, with South China providing a record of final assembly of Gondwana.

  7. Archaean triple junction as a plumbing system: an example from the eastern Pilbara craton (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébaud, N.; Rey, P.; Philippot, P.

    2003-04-01

    It is largely accepted that the development of Archaean ore deposits is related to the mobilisation of fluids through the crust, their channelling along shear zones and concentration in domains bounded by zones of low permeability. In many Archaean cratons a number of modern studies argue that the regional structure, together with the characteristics of metamorphism and plutonism are compatible with the gravity-driven exhumation of granitic domes and sagduction of greenstone basins. Structural mapping in the Pilbara confirms that strain, in Archaean domes and basins, displays a large but coherent spatial variability. Planar fabric develops in domal position, planar-linear fabric develops at the contact between two granitic domes, and intense linear and vertical fabric develops at foliation triple junction where three or more granitic domes interact. We believe this network is the backbone element of an Archaean plumbing system that has channeled and concentrated ore bearing fluids. The Warawoonna syncline in the East Pilbara craton (Western Australia) offers a horizontal section through one spectacular example of triple junction. On the regional scale we have recognized a main drain along a shear zone characterized by a hydraulic breccia. A detailed sampling has been conducted across this breccia and bulk stable isotope (d18O) analyses conducted on mafic, ultramafic and felsic rocks show significant variations in its vicinity that is most likely the signature of fluid rock interaction. At the outcrop scale, the Warawoonna syncline is pervasively intruded by a few quartz veins generations one of which is oriented at high angle to the direction of maximum finite stretching. Fluid inclusions study (micro-thermometry, RAMAN spectroscopy) has been conducted on quartz veins. These preliminary analyses show primary and secondary populations of fluid inclusions with contrasted composition of the trapped phases (e.g. H2O-CO2, H2O, H2O-CO2-CH4…). This is consistent with a

  8. Three-dimensional crustal structure of a craton rim: Preliminary results from passive seismic imaging of the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Spaggiari, Catherine V.; Gessner, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Western Australia consists of two Archaean cratons (Yilgarn and Pilbara) and a number of Proterozoic orogens surrounding them that attest to past continental collisions. While the former feature seismically fast crust of average thickness (around 35 km) and a usually well defined Moho overlying a thick mantle lithospheric keel, the latter have been significantly less well studied and appear to be less uniform in terms of their crustal architecture. Thicker crust and a more fuzzy Moho are two common characteristics of these belts. The Albany-Fraser orogen, situated at the south-eastern margin of the Yilgarn craton, has been interpreted as an old suture zone from the collision of the West Australian craton (Yilgarn and Pilbara already welded together) with the Mawson craton (southern Australia and part of Antarctica today). Newer evidence, however, might point at an original rift or backarc setting of the units. It is a complex amalgam of different structures that vary significantly along its strike, featuring heavily reworked parts of the outermost Yilgarn craton as well as younger units accreted or intruded significantly later. Two major deformation stages at 1345-1260 Ma and 1214-1140 Ma have been deduced for these, the first of which has been associated with the aforementioned collision/backarc rifting itself, while the second phase is commonly interpreted as intracratonic reworking due to a major thermal event. No large-scale tectonic overprint has occurred in the region since the second deformation phase, which means that the originally emplaced units have been unusually well preserved until the present day. However, surface outcrops of rocks are very rare, so that most knowledge about extent and geometric configuration of different rock suites comes from the interpretation of magnetic and gravity data. The eastern end of the Albany-Fraser orogen, in all likelihood corresponding to the Mawson craton's westernmost edge, is hidden beneath the limestones of the

  9. Geological Setting of Diamond Drilling for the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, A.

    2004-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) is a collaborative international research project conducting systematic (bio)geochemical investigations to improve our understanding of the biosphere of the early Earth. The Pilbara Craton of Western Australia, which includes exceptionally well preserved 3.52 to 2.70 Ga sedimentary sequences, was selected for an innovative sampling program commencing in 2003. To avoid near-surface alteration and contamination effects, sampling was by diamond drilling to depths of between 150 and 300 m, and was located at sites where the target lithologies were least deformed and had lowest metamorphic grade (below 300°C). The first of five successful drilling sites (Jasper Deposit) targeted red, white and black chert in the 3.46 Ga Marble Bar Chert Member. This chert marks the top of a thick mafic-felsic volcanic cycle, the third of four such cycles formed by mantle plumes between 3.52 and 3.43 Ga. The geological setting was a volcanic plateau founded on 3.72 to 3.60 Ga sialic crust (isotopic evidence). The second hole (Salgash) was sited on the basal section of the fourth cycle, and sampled sulfidic (Cu-Zn-Fe), carbon-rich shale and sandstone units separated by flows of peridotite. The third hole (Eastern Creek) was sited on the margin of a moderately deep-water rift basin, the 2.95 to 2.91 Ga Mosquito Creek Basin. This is dominated by turbidites, but the sandstones and carbon-rich shales intersected at the drilling site were deposited in shallower water. The fourth and fifth holes, located 300 km apart, sampled 2.77 to 2.76 Ga continental formations of the Fortescue Group; both holes included black shales.

  10. Paleoproterozoic Paleomagnetic Data from South American and African Cratons: An Unorthodox Configuration of Atlantica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapalini, A. E.; Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Badgen, E.; Vásquez, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    Several South American and African cratonic blocks share similar geologic evolutions in mid- Paleoproterozoic times. The Rio de la Plata, Congo-Sao Francisco, Guyana (Proto-Amazonia) and West-Africa cratons, plus other minor blocks, display a very significant crustal forming phase from around 2.2 to 2.0 Ga. This includes juvenile basic to ultrabasic as well as bimodal metavolcanic rocks intercalated with metasediments, highly deformed and metamorphosed granitoids and gneisses and 2.1-1.9 Ga undeformed granitoids that indicate crustal stabilization. These similarities have been interpreted by several authors as evidence of continental assembly that led to formation of the Atlantica "supercontinent". According to this model, Atlantica was formed by the above mentioned cratons in the late Rhyacian and/or early Orosinian with each block occupying a position virtually identical to the one they presented within Gondwana in the Phanerozoic. Testing the existence and configuration of Atlantica is very important for any model of global paleogeographic evolution as well as for the geologic evolution of large areas of South America and Africa. In the last decade, paleomagnetic data from well dated rocks in the interval 2.1-1.95 Ga have become available from the Rio de la Plata, Sao Francisco, Guyana and West Africa cratons, allowing testing the Atlantica hypothesis. Coeval paleomagnetic poles from these blocks cannot be reconciled in the traditional Atlantica configuration suggesting that it is not a valid paleogeographic hypothesis. However, a radically different configuration permits a conciliation of the paleomagnetic data with a single land-mass encompassing the four blocks. According to the available data, the cratons underwent a rapid displacement from polar to mid-latitudes during and immediately after amalgamation between around 2.1 and 2.0 Ga. Data also suggest that West Africa might have been the last block to be accreted.

  11. The 3.26-3.24 Ga Barberton asteroid impact cluster: Tests of tectonic and magmatic consequences, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew; Vickers, John

    2006-01-01

    The location in the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Kaapvaal Craton) of ∼3.26-3.24 Ga asteroid impact ejecta units at, and immediately above, a sharp break between a > 12 km-thick mafic-ultramafic volcanic crust (Onverwacht Group ∼3.55-3.26 Ga, including the ∼3.298 > 3.258 Ga Mendon Formation) and a turbidite-felsic volcanic rift-facies association (Fig Tree Group ∼3.258-3.225 Ga), potentially represents the first documented example of cause-effect relations between extraterrestrial bombardment and major tectonic and igneous events [D.R. Lowe, G.R. Byerly, F. Asaro, F.T. Kyte, Geological and geochemical record of 3400 Ma old terrestrial meteorite impacts, Science 245 (1989) 959-962; D.R. Lowe, G.R. Byerly, F.T. Kyte, A. Shukolyukov, F. Asaro, A. Krull, Spherule beds 3.47-3.34 Ga-old in the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa: a record of large meteorite impacts and their influence on early crustal and biological evolution, Astrobiology 3 (2003) 7-48; A.Y. Glikson, The astronomical connection of terrestrial evolution: crustal effects of post-3.8 Ga mega-impact clusters and evidence for major 3.2 ± 0.1 Ga bombardment of the Earth-Moon system, J. Geodyn. 32 (2001) 205-229]. Here we correlate this boundary with a contemporaneous break and peak magmatic and faulting events in the Pilbara Craton, represented by the truncation of a 3.255-3.235 Ga-old volcanic sequence (Sulphur Springs Group-SSG) by a turbidite-banded iron formation-felsic volcanic association (Pincunah Hill Formation, basal Gorge Creek Group). These events are accompanied by ∼3.252-3.235 Ga granitoids (Cleland plutonic suite). The top of the komatiite-tholeiite-rhyolite sequence of the SSG is associated with a marker chert defined at 3.238 ± 3-3.235 ± 3 Ga, abruptly overlain by an olistostrome consisting of mega-clasts of felsic volcanics, chert and siltstone up to 250 × 150 m-large, intercalated with siliciclastic sedimentary rocks and felsic volcanics (Pincunah Hill Formation-basal Gorge

  12. Sulfide Mineralization In The Marble Bar Greenstone Belt Around Mount Edger Batholith, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazono, S.; Nedachi, M.; Taguchi, S.

    2004-12-01

    Pilbara Craton is one of the most important regions in the world to understand the evolution of early Earth, because the geological history is well preserved through the metamorphism of low grade. Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, consists of two different tectonic components formed 3.6 and 2.8 Ga; an older Archean granite occupying the east Pilbara and greenstone belt. In the east Pilbara, the most conspicuous structures are broad domal granitoid complex separated by narrow synformal greenstone belts, and a model of continuous lithostratigraphy in the greenstones in which the dominant structures were produced by multi-stage granitoid diapirism. The Marble Bar greenstone belt is distributed around the Mount Edgar of granitoid pluton, and numerous hydrothermal gold veins are distributed in the greenstone near the boundary of pluton. Also base-metal veins and volcanogenic sedimentary type deposits are located in the same area. In this study, we examined the hydrothermal mineralization observed in the core samples of the Marble Bar greenstone belt, drilled at the Salgash area by the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP). The Salgash drill hole is composed of tuff breccias with numerous fragments of black shale of 100 m in thickness, alternation of sandstone and shale of 40 m in thickness, basaltic lava and tuff of 30 m in thickness, and shale and sandstone of 110m in thickness with some sills of basalt and ultramafic rock. The rocks had been metamorphosed, and the grade is near the boundary between green schist and amphibolite facies. Low REE content (43 to 88 ppm), low La/Yb ratio (6.3 to 14.3), and high Eu/Eu* ratio (0.9 to 1.3) of the volcanic rocks are ordinal as the basaltic rock in Archean greenstone belts. On the other hand, these rocks show extremely high values of Cr (1500ppm), Ni (700ppm), Co (70 ppm), and Zn (600 ppm). The C isotopic ratios of carbonate in the volcanic rocks are around -3.8 permil. The clastic sediment sandstone and black shale show

  13. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  14. Multifractal spatial organisation in hydrothermal gold systems of the Archaean Yilgarn craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Mark; Ord, Alison; Hobbs, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A range of factors controls the location of hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralisation in the Earth's crust. These include the broad-scale lithospheric architecture, availability of fluid sources, fluid composition and pH, pressure-temperature conditions, microscopic to macroscopic structural development, the distribution of primary lithologies, and the extent of fluid-rock interactions. Consequently, the spatial distribution of alteration and mineralization in hydrothermal systems is complex and often considered highly irregular. However, despite this, do they organize themselves in a configuration that can be documented and quantified? Wavelets, mathematical functions representing wave-like oscillations, are commonly used in digital signals analysis. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis involves incrementally scanning a wavelet across the dataset multiple times (varying its scale) and recording its degree of fit to the signal at each interval. This approach (the wavelet transform modulus maxima method) highlights patterns of self-similarity present in the dataset and addresses the range of scales over which these patterns replicate themselves (expressed by their range in 'fractal dimension'). Focusing on seven gold ore bodies in the Archaean Yilgarn craton of Western Australia, this study investigates whether different aspects of hydrothermal gold systems evolve to organize themselves spatially as multifractals. Four ore bodies were selected from the Sunrise Dam deposit (situated in the Laverton tectonic zone of the Kurnalpi terrane) in addition to the Imperial, Majestic and Salt Creek gold prospects, situated in the Yindarlgooda dome of the Mount Monger goldfield (approximately 40km due east of Kalgoorlie). The Vogue, GQ, Cosmo East and Astro ore bodies at Sunrise Dam were chosen because they exhibit different structural geometries and relationships between gold and associated host-rock alteration styles. Wavelet-based analysis was conducted on 0.5m and 1m

  15. Geology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of the Mount Deans Pegmatite Field, Eastern Yilgarn Craton/Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Lithium-Cesium-Tantal (LCT) pegmatites are an important source for the rare metals Li, Cs and Ta, commodities that are now consumed in a rapidly increasing amount in high technology applications. Despite that LCT pegmatites are characteristic features for the Archaean geology of Western Australia, only the Greenbushes, Cattlin Creek and Wodgina deposits are currently exploited for Li and Ta. Therefore, Western Australia still possesses a great potential for the identification of additional resources for Li, Ta and possibly also Cs. The present study presents an overview of the geology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Mount Deans pegmatite field, located c. 13 km S of Norseman, in the Eastern Goldfields Terrane of the Yilgarn Craton. The Mount Deans pegmatite field is Meso- to Neo-Archaean in age and hosted in the N-S trending Dundas Hill greenstone belt. The pegmatite field covers an area of 6 km in N-S and 4 km in E-W extension and comprises several dozens of individual pegmatite sheets and lenses. Structurally the pegmatite bodies are subdivided into two distinct types. Type I occurs predominantly in the southern part, is gently dipping (5-10°) to various directions and has variable thicknesses (3-25 m). Type II occurs in the northern part of the pegmatite field, dips steeply (50-90°) with a general N-S striking and has only a limited thickness (10 cm to 5 m). A clear distinction can also be made through their internal structure and mineralogy. Type I pegmatites exhibit a distinct structural and mineralogical zoning, whereas type II pegmatites are unzoned. Also albite, zinnwaldite, lepidolite and quartz form the bulk of the pegmatite; lepidolite is considerably more common in type II. Based on its peraluminous and strongly calc-alkaline character, as well as its enrichment in rare elements (i.e., Li, Rb, Cs, Ta, Nb, F), the pegmatites at Mount Deans are interpreted as LCT-pegmatites. However, despite the occurrence of rare element minerals like cassiterite

  16. Linking south China to northern Australia and India on the margin of Gondwana: Constraints from detrital zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes in Cambrian strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yajun; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng; Hu, Lisha; Yu, Wenchao; Zhu, Yanhui; Li, Wenchao

    2013-12-01

    sedimentary rocks in the southern part of the South China Craton were derived from a source that lay to the south or southeast, beyond the current limits of the craton and which is no longer preserved nearby. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data on detrital zircons from the Cambrian sequence define two distinctive age peaks at 1120 Ma and 960 Ma, with ɛHf(t) values for each group identical to the coeval detrital zircons from Western Australia and the Tethyan Himalaya zone, respectively. The circa 1120 Ma detrital zircons were most likely derived from the Wilkes-Albany-Fraser belt between southwest Australia and Antarctica, whereas the circa 960 Ma detrital zircons could have been sourced from the Rayner-Eastern Ghats belt between India and Antarctica. Derivation of detritus from these sources suggests that south China was located at the nexus between India, Antarctica, and Australia, along the northern margin of East Gondwana during the Cambrian.

  17. Biogenicity of morphologically diverse carbonaceous microstructures from the ca. 3400 Ma Strelley pool formation, in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, Kenichiro; Lepot, Kevin; Nagaoka, Tsutomu; Mimura, Koichi; Van Kranendonk, Martin; Oehler, Dorothy Z; Walter, Malcolm R

    2010-11-01

    Morphologically diverse structures that may constitute organic microfossils are reported from three remote and widely separated localities assigned to the ca. 3400 Ma Strelley Pool Formation in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. These localities include the Panorama, Warralong, and Goldsworthy greenstone belts. From the Panorama greenstone belt, large (> 40 μm) lenticular to spindle-like structures, spheroidal structures, and mat-forming thread-like structures are found. Similar assemblages of carbonaceous structures have been identified from the Warralong and Goldsworthy greenstone belts, though these assemblages lack the thread-like structures but contain film-like structures. All structures are syngenetic with their host sedimentary black chert, which is associated with stromatolites and evaporites. The host chert is considered to have been deposited in a shallow water environment. Rigorous assessment of biogenicity (considering composition, size range, abundance, taphonomic features, and spatial distributions) suggests that cluster-forming small (<15 μm) spheroids, lenticular to spindle-like structures, and film-like structures with small spheroids are probable microfossils. Thread-like structures are more likely fossilized fibrils of biofilm, rather than microfossils. The biogenicity of solitary large (>15 μm) spheroids and simple film-like structures is less certain. Although further investigations are required to confirm the biogenicity of carbonaceous structures from the Strelley Pool Formation, this study presents evidence for the existence of morphologically complex and large microfossils at 3400 Ma in the Pilbara Craton, which can be correlated to the contemporaneous, possible microfossils reported from South Africa. Although there is still much to be learned, they should provide us with new insights into the early evolution of life and shallow water ecosystems. PMID:21118023

  18. Biogenicity of morphologically diverse carbonaceous microstructures from the ca. 3400 Ma Strelley pool formation, in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, Kenichiro; Lepot, Kevin; Nagaoka, Tsutomu; Mimura, Koichi; Van Kranendonk, Martin; Oehler, Dorothy Z; Walter, Malcolm R

    2010-11-01

    Morphologically diverse structures that may constitute organic microfossils are reported from three remote and widely separated localities assigned to the ca. 3400 Ma Strelley Pool Formation in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. These localities include the Panorama, Warralong, and Goldsworthy greenstone belts. From the Panorama greenstone belt, large (> 40 μm) lenticular to spindle-like structures, spheroidal structures, and mat-forming thread-like structures are found. Similar assemblages of carbonaceous structures have been identified from the Warralong and Goldsworthy greenstone belts, though these assemblages lack the thread-like structures but contain film-like structures. All structures are syngenetic with their host sedimentary black chert, which is associated with stromatolites and evaporites. The host chert is considered to have been deposited in a shallow water environment. Rigorous assessment of biogenicity (considering composition, size range, abundance, taphonomic features, and spatial distributions) suggests that cluster-forming small (<15 μm) spheroids, lenticular to spindle-like structures, and film-like structures with small spheroids are probable microfossils. Thread-like structures are more likely fossilized fibrils of biofilm, rather than microfossils. The biogenicity of solitary large (>15 μm) spheroids and simple film-like structures is less certain. Although further investigations are required to confirm the biogenicity of carbonaceous structures from the Strelley Pool Formation, this study presents evidence for the existence of morphologically complex and large microfossils at 3400 Ma in the Pilbara Craton, which can be correlated to the contemporaneous, possible microfossils reported from South Africa. Although there is still much to be learned, they should provide us with new insights into the early evolution of life and shallow water ecosystems.

  19. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  20. Aeromagnetic interpretation in the south-central Zimbabwe Craton: (reappraisal of) crustal structure and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganai, Rubeni T.; Whaler, Kathryn A.; Ebinger, Cynthia J.

    2015-12-01

    Regional aeromagnetic data from the south-central Zimbabwe Craton have been digitally processed and enhanced for geological and structural mapping and tectonic interpretation integrated with gravity data, to constrain previous interpretations based on tentative geologic maps and provide new information to link these structural features to known tectonic events. The derived maps show excellent correlation between magnetic anomalies and the known geology, and extend lithological and structural mapping to the shallow/near subsurface. In particular, they reveal the presence of discrete crustal domains and several previously unrecognised dykes, faults, and ultramafic intrusions, as well as extensions to others. Five regional structural directions (ENE, NNE, NNW, NW, and WNW) are identified and associated with trends of geological units and cross-cutting structures. The magnetic lineament patterns cut across the >2.7 Ga greenstone belts, which are shown by gravity data to be restricted to the uppermost 10 km of the crust. Therefore, the greenstone belts were an integral part of the lithosphere before much of the upper crustal (brittle) deformation occurred. Significantly, the observed magnetic trends have representatives craton-wide, implying that our interpretation and inferences can be applied to the rest of the craton with confidence. Geological-tectonic correlation suggests that the interpreted regional trends are mainly 2.5 Ga (Great Dyke age) and younger, and relate to tectonic events including the reactivation of the Limpopo Belt at 2.0 Ga and the major regional igneous/dyking events at 1.8-2.0 Ga (Mashonaland), 1.1 Ga (Umkondo), and 180 Ma (Karoo). Thus, their origin is here inferred to be inter- and intra-cratonic collisions and block movements involving the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal Cratons and the Limpopo Belt, and later lithospheric heating and extension associated with the break-up of Gondwana. The movements produced structures, or reactivated older fractures

  1. Asymmetry and polarity of the South Atlantic conjugated margins related to the presence of cratons: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés-Martínez, Miguel; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; de Monserrat Navarro, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.

    2015-04-01

    Tectonic asymmetry of conjugated passive margins, where one margin is much narrower than the conjugate one, is commonly observed at many passive margins world-wide. Conjugate margin asymmetry has been suggested to be a consequence of lateral changes in rheology, composition, temperature gradient or geometries of the crust and lithosphere. Here we use the South Atlantic margins (from Camamu/Gabon to North Santos/South Kwanza) as a natural laboratory to understand conjugate margin asymmetry. Along this margin sector the polarity of the asymmetry changes. To the North, the Brazilian margin developed in the strong Sao Francisco craton, and this constitutes the narrow side of the conjugate pair. To the South, the Brazilian margin developed in the Ribeira fold belt, and the margin is wide. The opposite is true for the African side. We have thus numerically analysed how the relative distance between the initial location of extension and the craton influences the symmetry/asymmetry and polarity of the conjugate margin system. Our numerical model is 2D visco-elasto-plastic and has a free surface, strain weakening and shear heating. The initial set-up includes a cratonic domain, a mobile belt and a transition area between both. We have run tests with different rheologies, thickness of the lithosphere, and weak seeds at different distances from the craton. Results show asymmetric conjugated margins, where the narrower margin is generally the closest to the craton. Our models also allow us to study how the polarity is controlled by the distance between the initial weakness and the craton, and help to understand how the presence of cratonic domains affects the final architecture of the conjugated margins.

  2. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure of the eastern margin of the Yilgarn Craton (Australia) from passive seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian; Spaggiari, Catherine; Gessner, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    The Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia is one of the largest units of Archean lithosphere on earth. Along its southern and southeastern margin, it is bounded by the Albany-Fraser Orogen (AFO), a Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic extensioal-accretionary orogen. In this contribution, we investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of the AFO and adjacent regions using passive seismic data collected during the recent ALFREX experiment. Since the entire region has not been significantly reactivated since the Mesoproterozoic, the old signature of craton edge modification should have been well preserved until today. From November 2013 until January 2016, we operated a temporary passive seismic network consisting of 70 stations in the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen. The array had an average station spacing of about 40 km and was designed to fill the gap between recently acquired active seismic profiles. We present results from the analysis of P receiver functions and ambient noise tomography using the ALFREX data. Receiver functions were used to derive a Moho depth map via H-K stacking, for direct imaging (common conversion point stacking) as well as joint inversion with surface wave dispersion data to derive 1D S-velocity profiles beneath the stations. The obtained receiver functions show a marked change of character from west to east across the array. Whereas they feature clear and sharp Moho phases for stations on the Yilgarn Craton, significantly more crustal complexity and fainter Moho phases are seen throughout the AFO. Crustal thickness increases from 36-39 km for the Yilgarn Craton to values between 42 and 48 km across the AFO, decreasing to around 40 km in the east. Ambient noise cross-correlations were used to derive maps of phase and group velocities of Rayleigh waves at periods between 1 and 30 seconds. A three-dimensional model of S wavespeeds throughout the area was then computed by pixelwise inversion of dispersion curves. Obtained S wavespeeds are generally

  3. Unusual lithospheric structure and evolutionary pattern of the cratonic segments of the South Indian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, P. K.; Pandey, O. P.

    2004-02-01

    The southern Indian shield, characterised by several prominent geological and geophysical features, can be divided into three distinct tectonic segments: Western Dharwar craton (WDC), Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC) and Southern Granulite terrain (SGT). With the exception of WDC, the entire crust beneath EDC and SGT has been remobilized several times since their formation during the mid- to late Archeans (3.0-2.5 Ga). In order to understand the evolutionary history of these segments, a multiparametric geological and geophysical study has been made which indicates that the south Indian shield, characterized by a reduced heat flow of 23-38 mW/m2 has a much thinner (88-163 km) lithosphere compared to ˜200-450 km found in other global shields. In the EDC-SGT terrain, high velocity upper crust is underlain by considerably low mantle velocity with a thick high conductive/low velocity zone sandwiched at mid crustal level. Our study reveals that the entire EDC region is underlain by granulite facies rocks with a density of about 2.85 to 3.16 g/cm3 at a shallow depth of about 8 km in the southern part and at even shallower depth of about 1 to 2 km below the Hyderabad granitic region in the north. Cratonic mantle lithosphere beneath EDC may contain a highly conductive, anisotropic and hydrous metasomatic zone between the depth of 90 and 105 km where estimated temperatures are in the range of 850-975°C. It is likely that before the early Proterozoic, the entire south Indian shield was a coherent crustal block which subsequently got segmented due to persistent plume-induced episodic thermal reactivations during the last 2.7 Ga. These reactivations led to self destruction of cratonic roots giving rise to negative buoyancy at deeper levels which may have been responsible for crustal remobilisations, followed by regional uplifting and erosion of once substantially thick greenstone belts. Consequently, the crustal column beneath the EDC has become highly evolved and now corresponds

  4. A major Archean, gold- and crust-forming event in the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Jason; Ruiz, Joaquin; Chesley, John; Walshe, John; England, Gavin

    2002-09-13

    The 2.89- to 2.76-gigayear-old conglomerates of the Central Rand Group of South Africa host an immense concentration of gold. The gold and rounded pyrites from the conglomerates yield a rhenium-osmium isochron age of 3.03 +/- 0.02 gigayears and an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.1079 +/- 0.0001. This age is older than that of the conglomerates. Thus, the gold is detrital and was not deposited by later hydrothermal fluids. This Middle Archean gold mineralization event corresponds to a period of rapid crustal growth in which much of the Kaapvaal craton was formed and is evidence for a significant noble metal flux from the mantle. PMID:12228713

  5. A major Archean, gold- and crust-forming event in the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Jason; Ruiz, Joaquin; Chesley, John; Walshe, John; England, Gavin

    2002-09-13

    The 2.89- to 2.76-gigayear-old conglomerates of the Central Rand Group of South Africa host an immense concentration of gold. The gold and rounded pyrites from the conglomerates yield a rhenium-osmium isochron age of 3.03 +/- 0.02 gigayears and an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.1079 +/- 0.0001. This age is older than that of the conglomerates. Thus, the gold is detrital and was not deposited by later hydrothermal fluids. This Middle Archean gold mineralization event corresponds to a period of rapid crustal growth in which much of the Kaapvaal craton was formed and is evidence for a significant noble metal flux from the mantle.

  6. Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Australia's largest city of Sydney was clouded with smoke when more than 70 wildfires raged across the state of New South Wales. These images were captured on the morning of December 30, 2001, by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The left-hand image is from the instrument's 26-degree forward-viewing camera, and the right-hand image is from the 60-degree forward-viewing camera. The vast extent of smoke from numerous fires is visible, particularly in the more oblique view. Sydney is located just above image center.

    Dubbed the 'black Christmas' fires, the blazes destroyed more than 150 homes and blackened over 5000 square kilometers (about 1.24 million acres) of farmland and wilderness between December 23, 2001 and January 3, 2002. Many of the fires are believed to have been caused by arsonists, with only one fire linked to natural causes. The fires were aggravated by gusty winds and hot dry weather conditions. Approximately 20,000 people have worked to contain the blazes. No people have lost their lives or been seriously injured. Nevertheless, the fires are considered to be the most prolonged and destructive of any in Australia since the Ash Wednesday conflagration of 1983 that claimed 72 lives.

    The images represent an area 322 kilometers x 374 kilometers and were captured during Terra orbit 10829.

  7. A modern analogue for tectonic, eustatic, and climatic processes in cratonic basins: Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine; Mattick, R.E.; de Deckker, Patrick; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S.

    2003-01-01

    The Gulf of Carpentaria is a tropical, silled epicontinental sea and may be a modern analogue for ancient cratonic basins. For the purpose of this study, the Gulf of Carpentaria is compared to Pennsylvanian cratonic basins of the United States. During the Pennsylvanian, the North American continent moved from the Southern Hemisphere, through the Equator, into the Northern Hemisphere. Today, the Gulf of Carpentaria–New Guinea region is a few degrees south of the Equator and is moving towards it. During the Pennsylvanian, the world was subjected to major glaciations and associated sea-level changes. The island of New Guinea and the Gulf of Carpentaria have undergone similar processes during the Quaternary. A reconnaissance seismic survey of the gulf conducted by the USGS and the Australian National University (ANU), combined with oil-exploration well data, provided the first step in a systematic evaluation of a modern tropical epicontinental system. During the Cenozoic, the region was dominated by terrestrial sedimentation in a temperate climate. At the same time, carbonates were being deposited on the northern shelf edge of the Australian Plate. During the Miocene, carbonate deposition expanded southward into the gulf region. Then in the Late Miocene, carbonate sedimentation was replaced by terrigenous clastics derived from the developing Central Range of the island of New Guinea, which developed a wetter climate while moving northwards into the tropics. At least 14 basin-wide transgressive–regressive cycles are identified by channels that were eroded under subaerial conditions since about the Miocene. Comparison of the modern Gulf of Carpentaria sequences with those of the Pennsylvanian reveals many similarities.

  8. Unusual lithospheric structure beneath the Hyderabad granitic region, eastern Dharwar craton, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, O. P.; Agrawal, P. K.; Chetty, T. R. K.

    2002-03-01

    Using multiparametric geological and geophysical data, the evolutionary history of the lithosphere beneath the Late Archean—early Proterozoic Hyderabad granitic region (HGR) of the eastern Dharwar craton of south Indian shield has been attempted. Our study reveals that the entire granitic region and the surroundings (˜200 km×200 km) is being neotectonically uplifted possibly due to a major intrusive body situated at sub-crustal depth, leading to changes in river courses and also erosion of several kilometers (˜10 km) from its upper crustal column. Beneath this region, the Moho is elevated (32-33 km), the reduced heat flow is of the order of 28 mW/m 2 and the asthenosphere is located at shallow depths of about 124 km, i.e. far less than 200-400 km depth found in Precambrian shield areas of the globe. The cratonic mantle lithosphere beneath HGR contains a highly conductive (15 Ωm) hydrous and seismically anisotropic metasomatic zone between depth of 90 and 100 km, where the estimated temperatures could be in the range of 900-1000 °C. The surface granitic layer, containing unusually high radioactivity (5.25 μW/m 3), appears very thin probably a kilometer or so, beneath which the entire crustal column seems to be differentiated and made up of low radioactive granulite facies (?) rocks of acid to intermediate composition. Persistent episodic thermal reactivations during the last 2.6 gega years and continuous uplifting seems to have played a major role towards making its crustal column unusual.

  9. 3D modelling of the Leonora district, Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia) Implication for the tectonostratigraphic evolution and Au - mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebaud, Nicolas; Miller, John; McCuaig, Campbell; Mudrovska, Inna; Love, Bob; McArthur, Adrian; Gallardo, Luis

    2010-05-01

    We present the results of a recent investigation of the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Leonora gold district in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. Our approach relies on a combination of field based structural investigation, the compilation of existing and recently acquired U-Pb SHRIMP data and digital 3D modelling. Our research strategy rigorously tests the geological model(s) generated through the field based study and lithostratigraphic correlation by using 3DGeoModeller geological modelling software. 3DGeoModeller implicitly models the geometry of rock units in 3D constrain by the geological and potential field (gravity and magnetic) data. The results of our research indicate a structural evolution for the Leonora district that can be divided in 3 principal stages. The first stage is associated with the deposition of mafic/ultramafic sequence prior to ca. ca. 2751Ma. Lateral thickness variation of the lithostratigraphic units bounded by cross-structure delineated on potential field images are interpreted as remains of an early basin architecture active prior to or during the time of the greenstone deposition. This early architecture was then affected by at least two major penetrative ductile deformations. D1 is associated with a phase of regional granitic doming dated at ca. 2751 Ma generated through a combination of gravitational tectonic and far-field extension. During this deformation stage the early basin architecture defined during the deposition of the supracrustal cover may have controlled the dome geometry and early fault may have been reactivated to accommodate the deformation. Followed by the deposition of felsic volcanics and metasediments in the greenstone belts, D1 structures are overprinted by a second ductile deformation event D2. D2 is characterized by steep NW-SE- to N-S trending foliations and upright folds. D2 strain is strongly partitioned over the area with granitoid plutons emplaced during D1 acting as rigid block and

  10. Paleomagnetism of the Marble Bar Chert Member, Western Australia: Implications for apparent polar wander path for Pilbara craton during Archean time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Yusuke; Hamano, Yozo; Niitsuma, Sachiko; Hoashi, Masamichi; Hisamitsu, Toshio; Niitsuma, Nobuaki; Kodama, Kazuto; Nedachi, Munetomo

    2006-12-01

    The Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP) drilled a continuous 270 m long oriented core from the Towers Formation, which includes the Marble Bar Chert Member (3456.1-3476.0 Ma) in the Pilbara craton, northwestern Australia. A paleomagnetic study of 261 discrete specimens, collected from a 158.5 to 182.0 m section of the Marble Bar Chert Member, revealed two distinct magnetic components (LT and MT). The MT component yields seven different mean paleomagnetic directions clustered as MB1 to MB7. These, together with the published paleomagnetic poles of early Archean rocks from the Pilbara craton, draw a continuous paleomagnetic pole path, which likely to be regarded as the early to late Archean apparent polar wander path (APWP) for the Pilbara craton. The APWP implies that the Pilbara craton underwent a latitudinal drift of about 21° during the interval when the magnetization of the Marble Bar Chert Member was acquired. The estimated speed of the lateral drift is 12-112 cm/yr (120-1120 km/Myr), which is large compared with current plate motion velocities, suggesting that continents might have moved during the Archean faster than in the Phanerozoic.

  11. Heat flow, heat generation and crustal thermal structure of the northern block of the South Indian Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Mohan L.; Sharma, S. R.; Sundar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Heat flow values and heat generation data calculated from the concentration of heat producing radioactive elements, U, Th and K in surface rocks were analyzed. The South Indian Craton according to Drury et al., can be divided into various blocks, separated by late Proterozoic shear belts. The northern block comprises Eastern and Western Dharwar Cratons of Rogers (1986), Naqvi and Rogers (1987) and a part of the South Indian granulite terrain up to a shear system occupying the Palghat-Cauvery low lands. The geothermal data analysis clearly demonstrates that the present thermal characteristics of the above two Archaean terrains of the Indian and Australian Shields are quite similar. Their crustal thermal structures are likely to be similar also.

  12. 69 FR 11040 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa AGENCY... terminating its antidumping investigations on electrolytic manganese dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland... dioxide from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa (investigations Nos. 731-TA-1048 and...

  13. Australian Vocational Education & Training. South Australia: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    A study examined the publicly-funded vocational education and training (VET) system in South Australia (SA) in 1997. Background information indicated SA is a geographically large state with a relatively small population that is older compared to the rest of Australia, with 14 percent aged over 65 compared with 12 percent nationally. Findings were…

  14. A Sm-Nd and Pb isotope study of Archaean greenstone belts in the southern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    An Sm-Nd and Pb study on a wide variety of lithologies in Archaean greenstone belt fragments in the southern Kaapvaal Craton reveals a complex petrogenetic history. The fragments are important because they represent a 350 km transect through the craton south of Barberton to its southern margin. The Commondale greenstone belt yields a precise Sm-Nd age of 3334 + or - 18 Ma on an exceptionally well preserved peridotite suite of komatiitic affinity. The wide range of Sm/Nd from 0.6 to 1.0 is attributed to the unusual occurrence of orthopyroxene in the spinifex-bearing rocks. A considerably younger age of about 3.2 Ga is suggested for the Nondweni greenstone belt close to the southern margin of the craton on the basis of separate Sm-Nd isochrons on individual lithologies ranging from komatiite, through komatiitic basalt and basalt to felsic volcanic rocks. On the basis of the present study the greenstone belts appear to have been emplaced at progressively younger ages toward the southern margin of the craton.

  15. Fluctuations of Lake Eyre, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. However, this low-lying lake attracts run-off from one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world. The drainage basin is very responsive to rainfall variations, and changes dramatically with Australia's inter-annual weather fluctuations. When Lake Eyre fills,as it did in 1989, it is temporarily Australia's largest lake, and becomes dense with birds, frogs and colorful plant life. The Lake responds to extended dry periods (often associated with El Nino events) by drying completely.

    These four images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer contrast the lake area at the start of the austral summers of 2000 and 2002. The top two panels portray the region as it appeared on December 9, 2000. Heavy rains in the first part of 2000 caused both the north and south sections of the lake to fill partially and the northern part of the lake still contained significant standing water by the time these data were acquired. The bottom panels were captured on November 29, 2002. Rainfall during 2002 was significantly below average ( http://www.bom.gov.au/ ), although showers occurring in the week before the image was acquired helped alleviate this condition slightly.

    The left-hand panels portray the area as it appeared to MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and are false-color views comprised of data from the near-infrared, green and blue channels. Here, wet and/or moist surfaces appear blue-green, since water selectively absorbs longer wavelengths such as near-infrared. The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree forward, nadir and 60-degree backward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In these multi-angle composites, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and indicate textural properties of the surface related to roughness and/or moisture

  16. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes, it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake.

  17. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, south Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K. )

    1988-02-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake. A third type of dolomite occurs in some Coorong lakes. A basal dolomite, which is more crystalline than the other two forms of dolomite, appears to have formed some 6000 years ago when the rising Pleistocene water table (driven by a transgressing sea) first caused continental ground waters to outcrop and evaporate at the surface.

  18. 2.6-2.7 Ga continental crust growth in Yangtze craton, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Gao, S.; Wu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A combined study of zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes and whole rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes has been conducted for 10 granitic and tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses from the Kongling terrain, the only known Archean microcontinent in the Yangtze craton, South China. The results reveal a significant magmatic event at ~2.6-2.7 Ga (Fig. 1), in addition to the previously reported ~2.9 Ga and ~3.2-3.3 Ga magmatism (Zhang et al., 2006; Jiao et al., 2009; Gao et al., 2011). The ~2.6-2.7 Ga rocks show relatively high REE (530-1074 ppm), apparently negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.22-0.35), low #Mg (19.51-22.63) and low LaN/YbN (10.3-24.2). Besides, they have high K-feldspar proportion and relatively evaluated (K2O+Na2O)/CaO, TFeO/MgO, Zr, Nb, Ce and Y contents. Their 10000 × Ga/Al ratios range between 3.00 and 3.54. All these features suggest that the protoliths of these gneisses are A-type granites. Most of the ~2.6-2.7 Ga zircon grains have ɛHf(t) values >0 (up to 7.93, close to the depleted mantle value). This clearly indicates a considerably higher proportion of new crustal components in the ~2.6-2.7 Ga granitoids compared to the ~3.2-3.3 Ga and ~2.9 Ga TTGs. Our results support the conclusion of worldwide studies of igneous and detrital zircons that age peaks at 2.65-2.76 Ga represent increases in the volume of juvenile continental crust. The present study also confirms the existence of the two older magmatic events in the Kongling terrain. Both whole rock ɛNd(t) values (-3.74 to 1.59) and the zircon ɛHf(t) values (-11.18 to 3.55) for the ~2.9 Ga TTG and the Hf isotopes of ~3.2-3.3 Ga igneous zircons (-7.37 to 3.12) are chondritic or subchondritic, suggesting that they were mainly generated by reworking of older rocks with a small amount of new crustal additions. References Gao, S., Yang, J., Zhou, L., Li, M., Hu, Z.C., Guo, J.L., Yuan, H.L., Gong, H.J., Xiao, G.Q., Wei, J.Q., 2011. Age and growth of the Archean Kongling terrain

  19. Magnetic Properties through the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Transition from the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Bio-environmental Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isambert, A.; Carlut, J. H.; Bouquerel, H.; Pecoits, E.; Philippot, P.; Vennin, E.; Ader, M.; Thomazo, C.; Buoncristiani, J. F.; Baton, F.; Le Huen, A. L.; Muller, E.; Deldicque, D.; Sforna, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The origin of iron oxides in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Banded Iron Formations is still a matter of debate. We report here low and high temperature magnetic properties, susceptibility and saturation magnetization results coupled with scanning microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Raman observations and microprobe analyses along a 60 meters section, which encompasses the uppermost Archean Boolgeeda Iron Formation and its transition into the lower Paleoproterozoic Kungarra Formation in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. With the exception of two volcanoclastic intervals characterized by low susceptibility and magnetization, nearly pure magnetite is identified as the main magnetic carrier in all iron-rich layers including hematite-bearing jasper beds. The relative magnetic contribution of magnetite and hematite throughout the section is evidenced by IRM acquisition curves. We observed a sharp decrease in magnetization at the Archean-Proterozoic transition and a general trend in the Verwey temperature. Two populations of magnetically distinct magnetites are reported from a 2 meter-thick interval lying within the late Archean section of the core. Each population shows a specific Verwey transition temperature: one around 120-124K and the other in the range of 105-110K. The two Verwey transitions are interpreted to reflect two distinct stoichiometry and likely two stages of magnetite crystallization. The 120-124K transition is attributed to nearly pure stoichiometric magnetite, whereas SEM, TEM and microprobe observations suggest that the lower temperature transition is related to chemically impure silician magnetite. Microbial-induced partial substitution of iron by silicon is suggested here. This is supported by an increase in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the same interval and Raman spectroscopy data showing a close association of organic carbon with magnetite.

  20. A Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal field inhabited by diverse microbial communities: the Strelley Pool Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Suzuki, K; Senda, R; Asahara, Y; Wallis, S; Van Kranendonk, M J

    2015-11-01

    The 3.4-Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) at the informally named 'Waterfall Locality' in the Goldsworthy greenstone belt of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, provides deeper insights into ancient, shallow subaqueous to possibly subaerial ecosystems. Outcrops at this locality contain a thin (<3 m) unit of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous cherts and silicified sandstones that were deposited in a shallow-water coastal environment, with hydrothermal activities, consistent with the previous studies. Carbonaceous, sulfide-rich massive black cherts with coniform structures up to 3 cm high are characterized by diverse rare earth elements (REE) signatures including enrichment of light [light rare earth elements (LREE)] or middle rare earth elements and by enrichment of heavy metals represented by Zn. The massive black cherts were likely deposited by mixing of hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal fluids. Coniform structures in the cherts are characterized by diffuse laminae composed of sulfide particles, suggesting that unlike stromatolites, they were formed dominantly through physico-chemical processes related to hydrothermal activity. The cherts yield microfossils identical to previously described carbonaceous films, small and large spheres, and lenticular microfossils. In addition, new morphological types such as clusters composed of large carbonaceous spheroids (20-40 μm across each) with fluffy or foam-like envelope are identified. Finely laminated carbonaceous cherts are devoid of heavy metals and characterized by the enrichment of LREE. This chert locally contains conical to domal structures characterized by truncation of laminae and trapping of detrital grains and is interpreted as siliceous stromatolite formed by very early or contemporaneous silicification of biomats with the contribution of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids. Biological affinities of described microfossils and microbes constructing siliceous stromatolites are under investigation. However, this

  1. A Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal field inhabited by diverse microbial communities: the Strelley Pool Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Suzuki, K; Senda, R; Asahara, Y; Wallis, S; Van Kranendonk, M J

    2015-11-01

    The 3.4-Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) at the informally named 'Waterfall Locality' in the Goldsworthy greenstone belt of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, provides deeper insights into ancient, shallow subaqueous to possibly subaerial ecosystems. Outcrops at this locality contain a thin (<3 m) unit of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous cherts and silicified sandstones that were deposited in a shallow-water coastal environment, with hydrothermal activities, consistent with the previous studies. Carbonaceous, sulfide-rich massive black cherts with coniform structures up to 3 cm high are characterized by diverse rare earth elements (REE) signatures including enrichment of light [light rare earth elements (LREE)] or middle rare earth elements and by enrichment of heavy metals represented by Zn. The massive black cherts were likely deposited by mixing of hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal fluids. Coniform structures in the cherts are characterized by diffuse laminae composed of sulfide particles, suggesting that unlike stromatolites, they were formed dominantly through physico-chemical processes related to hydrothermal activity. The cherts yield microfossils identical to previously described carbonaceous films, small and large spheres, and lenticular microfossils. In addition, new morphological types such as clusters composed of large carbonaceous spheroids (20-40 μm across each) with fluffy or foam-like envelope are identified. Finely laminated carbonaceous cherts are devoid of heavy metals and characterized by the enrichment of LREE. This chert locally contains conical to domal structures characterized by truncation of laminae and trapping of detrital grains and is interpreted as siliceous stromatolite formed by very early or contemporaneous silicification of biomats with the contribution of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids. Biological affinities of described microfossils and microbes constructing siliceous stromatolites are under investigation. However, this

  2. Cyanobacterial Inhabitation on Archean Rock Surfaces in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Yosuke; George, Simon C

    2015-07-01

    High abundances of 7- and 6-monomethylalkanes as well as C17 n-alkane, indicative of cyanobacteria, have been discovered near the surfaces of Archean carbonate rocks of the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The presence of cyanobacterial biomarkers is mostly limited to the surface layer (<1 cm thickness) of the rocks, indicating that the cyanobacteria are an endolithic species. Biomarkers are found in bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and also in bitumen II (solvent-extracted decarbonated rock). The abundance of biomarkers is generally the same between both bitumen fractions in the surface layer, which suggests that the cyanobacteria penetrated into the carbonate minerals. Trace amounts of the biomarkers have also diffused into a deeper part of the rocks, but this influence is only seen in bitumen I. This implies that hydrocarbons moved toward the inside of the rock through pores and fissures in the rock fabric. In contrast, hydrocarbons in bitumen II, which mainly come from within the carbonate minerals, are isolated from the hydrocarbon migration from the outside of the rock and may be ancient indigenous organic matter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the past or modern inhabitation of cyanobacteria on Archean rocks in the Pilbara region for which hydrocarbon biomarker analyses was used. PMID:26153724

  3. Magnetotelluric deep soundings, gravity and geoid in the south São Francisco craton: Geophysical indicators of cratonic lithosphere rejuvenation and crustal underplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Luis Gustavo Rodrigues; de Pádua, Marcelo Banik; Ussami, Naomi; Vitorello, Ícaro; Padilha, Antonio Lopes; Braitenberg, Carla

    2010-09-01

    In the south São Francisco craton a circular and 8-m amplitude geoid anomaly coincides with the outcropping terrain of an Archean-Paleoproterozoic basement. Broadband magnetotelluric (MT) data inversions of two radial profiles within the positive geoid and Bouguer gravity anomaly yield geo-electrical crustal sections, whereby the lower crust is locally more conductive (10 to 100 Ωm) in spatial coincidence with a denser lower crust modeled by the gravity data. This anomalous lower crust may have resulted from magmatic underplating, associated with Mesoarchean and Proterozoic episodes of tholeiitic dike intrusion. Long-period MT soundings reveal a low electrical resistivity mantle (20 to 200 Ωm) from depths beyond 120 km. Forward geoid modeling, using the scope of the low electrical resistivity region within the mantle as a constraint, entails a density increase (40 to 50 kg/m 3) possibly due to Fe enrichment of mantle minerals. However, this factor alone does not explain the observed resistivity. A supplemented presence of small amounts of percolated carbonatite melting (~ 0.005 vol.%), dissolved water and enhanced oxygen fugacity within the peridotitic mantle are viable agents that could explain the less resistive upper mantle. We propose that metasomatic processes confined in the sub-continental lithospheric mantle foster the conditions for a low degree melting with variable CO 2, H 2O and Fe content. Even though the precise age of this metasomatism is unknown it might be older than the Early Cretaceous based on the evidence that a high-degree of melting in a lithospheric mantle impregnated with carbonatites originated the tholeiitic dike intrusions dispersed from the southeastern border of the São Francisco craton, during the onset of the lithosphere extension and break-up of the western Gondwana. The proxies are the NE Paraná and Espinhaço (130 Ma, Ar/Ar ages) tholeiitic dikes, which contain (~ 3%) carbonatites in their composition. The occurrence of a

  4. Palaeointensity determinations on rocks from Palaeoproterozoic dykes from the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.; Lubnina, N. V.

    2014-06-01

    Palaeointensity study of the Proterozoic-Archean volcanic rocks from the Kaapvaal Craton South Africa) are reported. Palaeomagnetic study of this collection was performed earlier by Olsson et al. Electron microscope observations, thermomagnetic and hysteresis measurements indicate the presence of single-domain and pseudo-single-domain (SD-PSD) magnetite grains as the main magnetic mineral. The samples demonstrated a very good stability to heating, the electron micrograph observations revealed magnetite-ilmenite exsolution structure. Palaeointensity determinations were obtained by Coe-modified Thellier procedure. A total 58 samples from 14 sites were studied but only seven samples from one site NL28 of the Early Proterozoic age of 1.9 Ga passed palaeointensity selection criteria. Reliable palaeointensity determinations were obtained by both Thellier and Wilson methods on 18 cubes (subsamples) from site NL28 yielding rather low mean virtual dipole moment (VDM) = (2.82 ± 0.12) ×1022 Am2 which is in agreement with the suggestion of existence of the `Proterozoic dipole low period'.

  5. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  6. Moho geometry along a north-south passive seismic transect through Central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Receiver functions from a temporary deployment of 25 broadband stations along a north-south transect through Central Australia are used to retrieve crustal and uppermost mantle structural constraints from a combination of different methods. Using H-K stacking as well as receiver function inversion, overall thick crust with significant thickness variation along the profile (40 to ≥ 55 km) is found. Bulk crustal vp/vs values are largely in the felsic to intermediate range, with the southernmost stations on the Gawler Craton exhibiting higher values in excess of 1.8. A common conversion point (CCP) stacking profile shows three major discontinuities of the crust-mantle boundary: (1) a two-sided Moho downwarp beneath the Musgrave Province, which has previously been associated with the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian Petermann Orogeny, (2) a Moho offset along the Redbank Shear Zone further north attributed to the Middle to Late Paleozoic Alice Springs Orogeny, and (3) another Moho offset further north, located at the boundary between the Davenport and Warramunga Provinces, which has not been imaged before. In all cases, the difference in crustal thickness between the two sides of the offset is > 8-10 km. Unlike the two southern Moho offsets, the northernmost one does not coincide with a prominent gravity anomaly. Its location and the absence of known reactivation events in the region make it likely that it belongs to a Proterozoic suture zone that marks a previously unknown block boundary within the North Australian Craton.

  7. Asymmetry of Non-Volcanic Passive Margins Induced by the Proximity of a Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres-Martinez, M.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Morgan, J. P.; Araujo, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Symmetry of conjugated rifted margins is controlled by the rheology of the crust and the mantle, extension velocities and heterogeneities in the lithosphere. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how the feedbacks between these initial conditions influence the final architecture of passive margins and the polarity of the asymmetry. Here we focus on cratons as stiff heterogeneities which potentially induce asymmetry. For simplicity, we choose to address only non-volcanic rifted margins developed next to cratons, such as the Brazil-Congo and Australia-Antarctica margin pairs. In the South Atlantic case, where cratons are closer to the margins (north of Sao Francisco craton and north and south of Congo craton) the margins are narrow, while wide margins develop far away from cratons. Extreme asymmetry occurs where rifting takes place close to a craton in one margin (narrow) and a fold belt in the conjugate (wide). The same is observed for the Australia-Antarctic pair in the sector of Recherche basin, where the Australian margin is narrow next to the Yilgarn craton and widens towards the east as it lays further from the craton. We use numerical models in order to study how cratons induce asymmetry of conjugated rifted margins and affect the polarity of the asymmetry. We ran experiments with different lower crustal rheologies for a fold belt lithosphere in order to understand which rheologies 'naturally' result in asymmetric margins. We also ran experiments where a cratonic lithosphere is placed next to a fold belt lithosphere, and where rifting is initiated by a weak seed in the fold belt at different distances from the craton. We found that where some fold belt experiments result in symmetric margins, their equivalent experiments with craton result in asymmetric margins. Furthermore, strong- and intermediate-rheology experiments with cratons showcase narrow margins in the craton side and wide margins on the fold belt side. We also observe that the distance from the

  8. Structural controls on gold mineralization on the margin of the Yilgarn craton, Albany-Fraser orogen: The Tropicana deposit, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenkinsop, Tom G.; Doyle, Mark G.

    2014-10-01

    The Tropicana gold deposit is located adjacent to the margin of the Yilgarn craton in the Albany-Fraser orogen, Western Australia. The deposit is hosted in granulite facies quartzo-feldspathic gneisses of the Archean Tropicana Gneiss. Ore bodies comprise biotite-pyrite alteration concentrated in shear zones that formed during NE-SW shortening in the late Archean, and clearly postdate the formation and deformation of high-grade gneiss fabrics (D1 and D2). The orientation of the ore bodies is controlled by the shear zones that are in turn localised by the gneissic banding. Mineralization also involved solution and coeval microfracturing and veining of more competent pegmatitic units. The mineralizing event (D3) was followed by at least two further deformations, which reactivated and overprinted the biotite fabrics with sericite and chlorite, created new shear zones, and affected gold distribution. D5 consisted of dextral shear on ∼E-W shear zones, which subdivide the deposit into five major structural domains. The importance of structurally controlled permeability at Tropicana is similar in cratonic lode gold deposits, as is the protracted deformation/fluid flow history. Like Renco mine in Zimbabwe, Tropicana gold deposit was formed by hydrothermal fluid flow peripheral to the craton: economic gold mineralization was clearly post-peak metamorphism.

  9. Multidisciplinary Study of the Precambrian Biosphere and Surficial Oxygenation, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa: The Agouron Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Beukes, N. J.; Evans, D. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Knoll, A. H.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2004-12-01

    The Campbellrand-Kuruman carbonate-iron formation stratigraphic succession, which drapes the Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, provides a unique opportunity to study the latest Archean/Earliest Proterozoic time interval in a multidisciplinary fashion, for four principal reasons: 1) The >1 km-thick succession of carbonates, cherts, shales, and associated iron formations is a storehouse of various geochemical and paleoclimatic proxy records, 2) the carbonate platform has never been significantly buried and contains abundant limestone, thus offering strong potential for preservation of organic biomarkers, 3) the occurrence of early chert and abundant early sea-floor carbonate crusts provide good potential for the preservation of microfossils and magnetofossils, and 4) much of the stratigraphic succession has not been significantly deformed and we have estabilshed a chronostratigraphic framework in which shallow water facies can be traced down the ancient paleoslope into facies deposited at water depths > 250 meters within a sequence stratigraphic context, supplemented with correlation of three impact spherule layers. The geologic framework provided by this sequence of rock offers an unparalleled opportunity to study the structure and composition of the Archean ocean and to merge this information with co-existing paleontological and geochemical records. With support from the Agouron Institute, two separate cores, each ~ 1.5 km in length, were drilled through the margin of the carbonate platform, spaced so as to intercept the transitional facies at two paleodepths. The holes were deviated slightly from vertical so that a ball-mark system could be used to obtain absolute orientation. To enhance the utility for paleomagnetic investigations, core barrels and bits were demagnetized routinely with a portable mu-metal shielded coil assembly to reduce remagnetization problems, and all core slicing was done with non-magnetic blades. To minimize contamination problems for

  10. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-11-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71 km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to illuminate the basement structure and affinity in this area. The modelling approach was to create an initial model from well constrained geological information, integrate it with previous seismic ray tracing and tomographic models and then alter it outside the a priori constraints in order to reach the best fit between observed and calculated potential field anomalies. The results support a realignment of the position of the TTZ (Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone), the profound tectonic boundary within Europe that separates Precambrian cratonic lithosphere of the East European Craton (EEC) from younger accreted lithosphere of Phanerozoic mobile belts to its west. The TTZ is shown to lie further to the south-west than was previously inferred within Romania, where it is largely obscured by the Carpathian nappes. The crust of the EEC beneath the south-eastern Carpathians is inferred to terminate along a major crustal structure lying just west of the Vrancea seismogenic zone. The intermediate depth seismicity of the Vrancea Zone therefore lies within the EEC lithosphere, generally supporting previously proposed models invoking delamination of cratonic lithosphere as the responsible mechanism.

  11. 2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean

  12. MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    article title:  MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia     ... October 24, 2013 - MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia project:  MISR ...

  13. Genesis of superimposed hypogene and supergene Fe orebodies in BIF at the Madoonga deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duuring, Paul; Hagemann, Steffen

    2013-03-01

    The Madoonga iron ore body hosted by banded iron formation (BIF) in the Weld Range greenstone belt of Western Australia is a blend of four genetically and compositionally distinct types of high-grade (>55 wt% Fe) iron ore that includes: (1) hypogene magnetite-talc veins, (2) hypogene specular hematite-quartz veins, (3) supergene goethite-hematite, and (4) supergene-modified, goethite-hematite-rich detrital ores. The spatial coincidence of these different ore types is a major factor controlling the overall size of the Madoonga ore body, but results in a compositionally heterogeneous ore deposit. Hypogene magnetite-talc veins that are up to 3 m thick and 50 m long formed within mylonite and shear zones located along the limbs of isoclinal, recumbent F1 folds. Relative to least-altered BIF, the magnetite-talc veins are enriched in Fe2O3(total), P2O5, MgO, Sc, Ga, Al2O3, Cl, and Zr; and depleted in SiO2 and MnO2. Mafic igneous countryrocks located within 10 m of the northern contact of the mineralised BIF display the replacement of primary igneous amphibole and plagioclase, and metamorphic chlorite by hypogene ferroan chlorite, talc, and magnetite. Later-forming, hypogene specular hematite-quartz veins and their associated alteration halos partly replace magnetite-talc veins in BIF and formed during, to shortly after, the F2-folding and tilting of the Weld Range tectono-stratigraphy. Supergene goethite-hematite ore zones that are up to 150 m wide, 400 m long, and extend to depths of 300 m replace least-altered BIF and existing hypogene alteration zones. The supergene ore zones formed as a result of the circulation of surface oxidised fluids through late NNW- to NNE-trending, subvertical brittle faults. Flat-lying, supergene goethite-hematite-altered, detrital sediments are concentrated in a paleo-topographic depression along the southern side of the main ENE-trending ridge at Madoonga. Iron ore deposits of the Weld Range greenstone belt record remarkably similar

  14. Apatite at Olympic Dam, South Australia: A petrogenetic tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krneta, Sasha; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ehrig, Kathy; Kontonikas-Charos, Alkis

    2016-10-01

    The > 10,000 million tonne Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U-Ag deposit, (eastern Gawler Craton, South Australia) is one of the largest orebodies in the World. The deposit is hosted within the Olympic Dam Breccia Complex, placed at the centre of, and resulting from multiple brecciation and Fe-metasomatism of the Roxby Downs Granite (RDG). The latter is part of a larger batholith emplaced at ~ 1.6 Ga. Apatite petrography and chemistry were studied in non-mineralised RDG and coeval granitoids and dolerites, as well as in mineralised RDG from deep (> 2 km) and distal (2.7 km to NE) locations. In both latter cases, although the mineralisation corresponds to the same, early chalcopyrite-pyrite-magnetite ± hematite stage identified in the outer and deeper zones of the deposit itself, the character of granite alteration differs: sericite-chlorite alteration with all feldspar replaced in the deep location; and red-stained K-feldspar on top of prevailing albitization in the distal location. Close-to end-member fluorapatite is a key accessory mineral in all igneous rocks and a common product of early hydrothermal alteration within mineralised granite. Variations in habit, morphology and textures correlate with chemical trends expressed as evolving Cl/F ratios, and concentrations of REE + Y (hereafter REY), Sr, Mn, S, Si and Na. Magmatic apatite is unzoned in the dolerite but features core to REY-enriched rim zonation in the granitoids. Increases in Cl- and Sr-contents correlate with rock basicity. Calculation of Cl in the vapour phase relative to melt at the apatite saturation temperature for zoned apatite in the RDG shows higher values for grains with inclusion-rich cores associated with mafic enclaves, concordant with assimilation of exotic material during magma crystallisation. Hydrothermal alteration of magmatic apatite is most varied in the dolerite where interaction with fluids is expressed as subtle changes in Cl- versus F- and REY-enrichment, and most importantly, S-enrichment in

  15. The Thermal Structure and Strength of Cratons and their Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C. P.; Mareschal, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The large cratons of today are made of younger terranes that wrap around older cores. Deformation due to accretion did not proceed in homogeneous fashion and was concentrated in the younger belts. This is illustrated clearly in the Archean Superior Province, Canada. In this area, one observes little imbrication of accreted crust and craton core, in contrast to the laterally extensive thrusting that has affected the younger terranes to the South. The boundary between the craton core and accreted belts is a nearly vertical interface delineated by steeply dipping electrical and seismic anomalies extending to the base of the lithosphere. These steeply dipping structures have been interpreted as relicts of the subduction that drove accretion. By contrast, the sub-crustal subduction remnant that is imaged beneath younger terranes to the south shows up as a moderately dipping (≈30°) structure. These observations suggest a stiff craton surrounded by weaker belts. This strength contrast may have affected later events, such as the Keweenawan rifing, which propagated northward through the accreted terranes but stopped short of impinging the craton core. In the Superior Province, crustal heat production is much higher in the accreted terranes than in the craton core, implying higher temperatures and lower mechanical strength. Such a remarkable dichotomy also exists in South Africa, where the Limpopo and Namaqua belts are characterized by higher heat flux and crustal heat production than the adjacent Archean Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. The generality of this cannot be assessed on the basis of heat flow and heat production data which are scarce in most other cratons. These cratons, however, are characterized by post-orogenic high temperature metamorphism which is best explained by high crustal heat production. This is true, for example, for the Jimperding metamorphic belt at the edge of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. Thus, cratons appear to be surrounded, and

  16. Late Cambrian palaeomagnetic data from the Cupala Creek Formation, western New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vérard, Christian

    2012-08-01

    The Tasmanides of south-eastern Australia comprises the Delamerian Orogen, considered to be stable relative to the craton of Gondwana since the mid Cambrian, despite the presence of the Grasmere Knee Zone, a change of structural trends in the Broken Hill area. A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out on the Late Cambrian red sandstones of the Cupala Creek Formation, a post-Delamerian formation gently folded in the latest Ordovician-Early Silurian and/or Early Devonian. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements show that internal strain is negligible and low Königsberger ratios indicate that lightning effects can be discarded. The magnetisation observed is complex with four components, which are sometimes difficult to isolate clearly. The orientation of the first component corresponds to the present-day field and appears to be associated with weathering effects. The second component (~185°-350°C) is of reverse polarity relative to the third (350°-575°C). These two components are interpreted to represent a chemical remagnetisation, which lasted long enough to record a reversal as the reversal test is positive and classified C. The overprint must be Early Palaeozoic in age. The last component is carried by haematite and/or maghaemite and is believed to be primary, which is supported by the positive `pseudo-unconformity' test with the underlying Early-Middle Cambrian Teltawongee beds, and by the good correspondence of the pole [PLong. 351.3°/PLat.+33.9° (dp=3.6° dm=6.0°) African coordinates] with other poles of the same age for Gondwana. Despite the presence of the Grasmere Knee Zone, these results imply that this area of the Delamerian Orogen did not record any movement or rotation since the Late Cambrian and can be considered as part of the craton of Gondwana.

  17. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  18. Australia.

    PubMed

    1984-05-01

    This discussion of Australia covers the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, foreign relations and defense, and relations between the US and Australia. In 1983 the population of Australia totaled 15.3 million with an annual growth rate of 1.3%. The infant mortality rate is 9.9/1000 live births with a life expectancy of 74 years. The people of Australia are predominantly of British origin, and their culture and outlook are similar to those of the US. The aboriginal population is estimated to be 1% of the total. Much of Australia's culture is derived from European roots, but distinctive Australian trends have evolved from the environment, aboriginal culture, and the influence of Australia's neighbors. Australia, the world's smallest continent but 1 of the largest nations, is located below the Southeast Asian archipelago and is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean and on the west by the Indian Ocean. Most of the continent is a low, irregular plateau. Little is known of Australia before its discovery by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On January 26, 1788 the Colony of New South Wales was founded and formal proclamation on the site of Sydney followed on February 7. Many of the 1st settlers were convicts. The mid-19th century began a policy of emancipation of convicts and assisted immigration of free people. The 1st federal Parliament was opened at Melbourne in May 1901. Australia passed the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act in 1942, which officially established Australia's complete autonomy in both internal and external affairs. The Commonwealth government was created with a constitution patterned partly on the US constitution. Australia is a fully independent nation within the Commonwealth. The federal Parliament is bicameral, consisting of a Senate and a House of Representatives. At the apex of the court system is the High Court of Australia. The 3 main political groups in Australia are the Liberal Party, the

  19. Petrogenesis and Tectonic Implications of Paleoproterozoic Metapelitic Rocks in the Archean Kongling Complex from the Northern Yangtze Craton, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, W.; Xiong, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The Archean Kongling Complex in the northern Yangtze Craton is an ideal target to investigate the Precambrian accretion and evolution of continental crust in South China. This study aims to unravel the crustal evolution and tectonic setting of the Yangtze Craton during the Paleoproterozoic time, using integrated studies of petrography, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemistry of Paleoproterozoic metapelitic rocks in the Kongling Complex. These rocks contain garnet, sillimanite, biotite, plagioclase, minor graphite and ilmenite. Zircons from the samples show nebulous sector-zoning and rim-core structure, suggesting both metamorphic origin and detrital origin with metamorphic overprints. The metamorphic zircons and metamorphic overprints have concordant 207Pb/206Pb age at ~2.0 Ga, while detrital grains yield three distinct concordant-age populations of >2.5 Ga, 2.4-2.2 Ga and 2.2-2.1 Ga. The age patterns indicate that the depositional age of the metasedimentary rocks was 2.1-2.0 Ga. Those 2.2-2.1 Ga detrital zircons with variable ɛHf(t) values (-7.28 to 2.97) suggest the addition of juvenile materials from depleted mantle to the crust during 2.2-2.1 Ga. The 2.4-2.2 Ga zircons have Hf model ages (TDM2) of ~2.6-3.5 Ga and >2.5 Ga zircons have TDM2 ages varying from 2.9 Ga to 3.3 Ga. The new data suggest that the Kongling Complex was originally a Paleoarchean (old up to 3.5 Ga) continental nucleus, which experienced multiple episodes of growth and reworking events at 3.3-3.2 Ga, 2.9 Ga, 2.7-2.6 Ga, 2.4-2.2 Ga and 2.2-2.1 Ga. In combination with available data, the new results in this study suggest a continent-arc-continent evolution model to explain the tectonic evolution of the Yangtze Craton during the Paleoproterozoic time: the western margin of Yangtze Craton was originally an individual continent, which underwent a reworking event during 2.4-2.2 Ga and a crust growth event caused by continent-arc collision during 2.2-2.1 Ga; it subsequently collided

  20. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Greg R.; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  1. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Greg R; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  2. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Greg R; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  3. Cancer incidence in Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Grulich, A. E.; McCredie, M.; Coates, M.

    1995-01-01

    Cancer incidence during 1972-90 in Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, is described. Overall cancer incidence was lower than in the Australia born in most migrant groups, and this reached significance in migrants born in China/Taiwan, the Philippines, Vietnam and India/Sri Lanka, and in male migrants born in Indonesia. For the majority of cancers, rates were more similar to those in the Australia born than to those in the countries of birth. For cancers of the breast, colorectum and prostate, rates were relatively low in the countries of birth, but migrants generally exhibited rates nearer those of the Australia born. For cancers of the liver and cervix and, in India/Sri Lanka-born migrants, of the oral cavity, incidence was relatively high in the countries of birth but tended to be lower, nearer Australia-born rates, in the migrants. For these cancers, environmental factors related to the migrant's adopted country, and migrant selection, appeared to have a major effect on the risk of cancer. For certain other cancers, incidence was more similar to that in the countries of birth. Nasopharyngeal cancer, and lung cancer in females, had high rates in both the countries of birth and in migrants to Australia. Nasopharyngeal cancer rates were highest in China/Taiwan and Hong Kong-born migrants, and were also significantly high in migrants from Malaysia/Singapore, Vietnam and the Philippines. Rates of lung cancer were significantly high in women born in China/Taiwan, and the excess was greater for adenocarcinoma than for squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma had low rates in both the migrants and in the countries of birth. For these cancers, it was probable that genetic factors, or environmental factors acting prior to migration, were important in causation. PMID:7841061

  4. Barriers to Participation in Physical Activity Among South Sudanese Children in South Australia: Parents' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mude, William; Mwanri, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the determinants of childhood obesity. Although its facilitators are well documented for the general community, limited evidence exists informing newly arrived and emerging migrant communities in Australia. To explore parents' perspectives of barriers to participation in physical activity among South Sudanese children in South Australia. Qualitative, face-to-face interviews were conducted with parents. Data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed thematically using NVivo software. Multiple and complex barriers to physical activity participation were described. Enabling and supportive programs are needed to improve physical activity participation and health outcomes of new migrants. PMID:27536934

  5. High-quality heat flow determination from the crystalline basement of the south-east margin of North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guangzheng; Tang, Xiaoyin; Rao, Song; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Linyou; Zhao, Ping; Hu, Shengbiao

    2016-03-01

    Very few of heat flow data have come from the crystalline basement in the North China Craton but rather from boreholes in the sedimentary cover of oil-gas basins. Explorations for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources and porphyry gold deposits in eastern China offer now valuable opportunities to study the terrestrial heat flow in the crystalline basement. In this study, we obtained continuous temperature logs from two boreholes (the LZ borehole with a depth of 3471 m and the DR borehole with a depth of 2179 m) located in the south-east margin of the North China Craton. The boreholes have experienced long shut-in times (442 days and 261 days for the LZ borehole and DR borehole, respectively); thus, it can be expected that the temperature conditions have re-equilibrated after drilling and drill-mud circulation. Rock thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat production were measured for 68 crystalline rock samples from these two boreholes. The measured heat-flow density was determined to be 71.8 ± 2.3 mW m-2 (for the LZ borehole) and 91.5 ± 1.2 mW m-2 (for the DR borehole). The heat flow for the LZ borehole is close to the value of 75 mW m-2 determined in the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling main hole (CCSD MH), both being in the Sulu-Dabie orogenic belt and thus able to verify each other. The value for the DR borehole is higher than the above two values, which supports former high heat-flow values determined in the Bohai Bay Basin.

  6. Gravity survey of the Mt. Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Mt. Toondina impact structure is located in northern South Australia, about 45 km south of the town of Oodnadatta. Only the central uplift is exposed. The outcrops at Mt. Toondina reveal a remarkable structural anomaly surrounded by a broad expanse of nearly flat-lying beds of the Bulldog Shale of Early Cretaceous age. A gravity survey was undertaken in 1989 to determine the diameter of the impact structure, define the form of the central uplift, and understand the local crustal structure. Data were collected along two orthogonal lines across the structure. In addition to the profiles, a significant number of measurements were made on and around the central uplift. The 1989 gravity data combined with 1963 gravity data and the seismic reflection data provide an excellent data base to interpret the subsurface structure of the Mt. Toondina feature.

  7. Geology of the Early Archean Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal System in the North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, K.; Maruyama, S.

    2007-12-01

    An Archean hydrothermal system in the North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton is associated with extensive fluid circulation driven by numerous extensional fracture systems and the underlying heat source. The fracture system is now occupied by abundant fine-grained quartz aggregate, hence we call this as silica dikes. Some of the fracture system extends deeper structural levels as listric normal faults down to 1000 m depth in the MORB crust. Barite-bearing fine-grained quartz predominant mineralogy indicates the extensive development of fracturing and quenching in a short time. Accompanying the fluid circulation, the extensive metasomatism proceeded to form the four different chemical courses, (1) silicification, (2) carbonation, (3) potassium-enrichment, and (4) Fe- enrichment. Silicification occurs along the silica dikes, carbonated greenstones are distributed relatively shallower level. Potassium-enriched (mica-rich) greenstones occur at the top of the greenstone sequence, and Fe-enriched (chlorite-rich) greenstones are distributed at lower part of the basaltic greenstones. The down going fluid precipitated carbonate-rich layer at shallow levels, whereas depleted in SiO2. Then, the fluid went down to more deeper level, and was dissolved SiO2 at high temperature (~350°C) and chlorite-rich greenstone was formed by water-rock interaction. The upwelling fluid precipitated dominantly SiO2 and formed silica dikes. Silica dikes cement the fractures formed by extensional faulting at earliest stage of development of oceanic crust. Therefore, the hydrothermal system must have related to normal fault system simultaneously with MORB volcanism. Particularly the greenish breccia with cherty matrix (oregano chert) was formed at positions by upwelling near ridge axis. After the horizontal removal of MORB crust from the ridge-axis with time, the propagating fracture into deeper levels, transports hydrothermal fluids into 500-1000 m depth range where metasomatic element exchange between

  8. Palaeointensity and palaeodirection determinations of Paleoproterozoic dykes in the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Lubnina, N. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2012-04-01

    A combined palaeodirectional and palaeointensity study of a representative collection from the Bushveld Igneous Complex from 27 dolerite dykes from the 2.9, 2.7, and 1.8 Ga age swarms radiating SE, E and NE, respectively [Olsson et al., 2010] was carried out. Conventional progressive thermal or AF demagnetization was applied to all specimens. The palaeomagnetic directions have been calculated after thermal demagnetization. The ChRMs were isolated over the temperature interval 440-590 C and their intensities amount to 95% of total NRMs. Paleopole calculate from the primary high-temperature component, separated in the 2.9 Ga SE-dykes, is close to the paleopoles, obtained by Wingate (1998) and Strik et al. (2007) for 2.78 Ga volcanics. The paleopole calculated for the 2.7 Ga age E-trending dykes of the eastern region does not correspond to any of the previously obtained Archean-Paleoproterozoic paleopoles for the Kaapvaal Craton. The paleopole calculated for some NE-trending dykes of the Black Ridge swarm in the NE region is close to the 1.87 Ga pole of the Kaapvaal Craton obtained by Hanson et al. (2004). Palaeointensity determinations were carried out on rocks from ten dykes of different ages using Thellier-Coe method with the "check-points" procedure on specimens of 1 cm in edge length cut from either drilled cores or hand samples. Rock magnetic measurements were made on sister specimens. Curie temperatures and the thermal stability of magnetic minerals were estimated from thermomagnetic heating-cooling cycles to incrementally higher temperatures Ti with a Curie balance in an external magnetic field H = 0.45 T. To assess the magnetic hardness and mineralogy of samples, measurements of magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis loop parameters were performed. The domain structure (DS) was estimated also from the thermomagnetic criterion by evaluating the tails of pTRMs. Wilson's method of palaeointensity determination based on comparison of thermodemagnetization curves

  9. Injury patterns and features of cycling fatalities in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Olds, Kelly; Byard, Roger W; Langlois, Neil E I

    2015-08-01

    There has been an increase in cycling in Australia. This means that more cyclists are at risk of injuries, which account for a proportion of transport-related fatalities. In this study, all cyclist fatalities from 2002 to 2013 in South Australia where post-mortem examinations were performed were investigated. There were 42 deaths representing 3% of the total road fatalities over the same time. Of this total number of cases, 13 deaths (31%) involved collapse (mostly natural causes from an underlying medical condition) and 29 (69%) resulted from trauma. There were no cases of hyperthermia. Of the decedents 95% were male, and the mean age at death was 47 years. Fatal incidents were more likely to occur during April and November, and on a Monday. However, statistical analysis was not possible due to the small number of cases. Fatalities (traumatic and collapse) predominantly occurred whilst the cyclist was riding (86%). The majority of riding fatalities were as a result of collision with vehicles (81%). Drugs (including alcohol) were detected in two (15%) of the 13 cases of the collapses, and in seven (26%) of the 27 trauma cases tested. In trauma cases, death was most often due to multiple injuries. The most frequent area for injury was the head (found in 90% of traumatic deaths). Despite the increasing numbers of cyclists on South Australian roads over the last decade, death rates have trended downwards suggesting that road safety campaigns and the provision of more dedicated bicycle lanes have had a positive outcome. PMID:26165666

  10. Epidemiology of Down syndrome in South Australia, 1960-89.

    PubMed Central

    Staples, A J; Sutherland, G R; Haan, E A; Clisby, S

    1991-01-01

    During 1960-89 687 Down syndrome live births and 46 Down syndrome pregnancy terminations were identified in South Australia. Ascertainment was estimated to be virtually complete. The sex distribution of Down syndrome live births was found to be statistically different from the non-Down syndrome live-birth sex distribution (P less than .01). Smoothed maternal age-specific incidence was derived using both maternal age calculated to the nearest month and a discontinuous-slope regression model. The incidence of Down syndrome at birth for the study period was estimated to be 1.186 Down syndrome births/1,000 live births. Annual population incidence was shown to be correlated with trends in the maternal age distribution of confinements. If current trends in the maternal age distribution of confinements continue, the population incidence of Down syndrome in South Australia is predicted to exceed 1.5 Down syndrome births/1,000 live births during the 1990-94 quinquennium. PMID:1833972

  11. The Acraman impact and its widespread ejecta, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostin, V. A.; Keays, R. R.; Wallace, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    Discovery of a widespread horizon of shock-deformed volcaniclastic ejecta preserved in Late Proterozoic (approx. 600 Ma) shales in South Australia and its probable link to the Acraman impact structure in the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range. Volcanics provide a rare opportunity to study the effects of a major terrestrial impact, including the sedimentology and distribution of an ejecta blanket and its precious-metal signature. The ejecta horizon occurs in the Bunyeroo Formation at many localities within the Adelaide Geosyncline, including the Wearing Hills, which are approx. 350 km northeast of the Acraman impact site. Following a search at the same stratigraphic level in other basins in South Australia, the ejecta has been located within the Lower Rodda beds of the Officer Basin, extending the limits of the ejecta to approx. 470 km northwest of the Acraman impact structure. The ejecta is therefore widely dispersed, and provides an important chronostratigraphic marker enabling precise correlation of Late Proterozoic sequences in southern Australia. In summary, the Bunyeroo ejecta is unique as the only known example of a widely dispersed, coarse-grained ejecta blanket that is, moreover, strongly linked to a known major impact structure. The marked Ir-PGE anomalies in the ejecta horizon provide support for the hypothesis that meteorite impact events can produce Ir anomalies interrestrial sediments. The findings also indicate that Ir can be mobilized and concentrated in sediments by low-temperature diagenetic processes. The identification of ejecta horizons in sedimentary rocks therefore should be based on the coincidence of shock-metamorphic features in the detritus and clear Ir anomalies.

  12. U-Th-Pb isotopic constraints on the oxidation age of 3.4 Ga basalts from Marble Bar, Pilbara Craton, NW Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Johnson, C.; Beard, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Determining the evolution of Earth's early atmosphere is critical to understanding the geologic history of the Earth, and one of the key aspects of atmospheric evolution has been the development of free oxygen. A common model involves an increase in free O2 between 2.4 and 2.2 Ga, termed the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). Although there is growing evidence for free O2 in the atmosphere or photic zone of the oceans several hundred m.y. before the GOE, hematite alteration products in 3.4 Ga basalts from the Marble Bar area of the Pilbara Craton, NW Australia have been used to infer the presence of an O2-bearing atmosphere even earlier. These Fe-oxides have not been directly dated, however, raising the possibility that they formed at a later time. Here we report new U-Th-Pb isotopic results of Apex Basalt samples from the ABDP-1 drill core at Marble Bar that allows determination of the age of the iron oxides. The basalt samples that have been variously oxidized have highly variable Pb and U concentrations, and scatter about a 207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb array that could be interpreted as an Archean age. U/Pb ratios are positively correlated with Fe(III)/ Fetotal ratios, indicating that U enrichment accompanied oxidation. In contrast, Th is positively correlated with Zr, suggesting Th has been immobile. The samples do not form isochrons on 238U/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb, 235U/204Pb-207Pb/204Pb, or 232Th/204Pb-208Pb/204Pb diagrams, indicating post-formation U and Pb addition. The 207Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb array, therefore, is a mixing line and not an isochron. The U-Pb isotope data mandate that the age for U addition for three basalt samples must be younger than 2.5 Ga, even in the most conservative estimate. A more stringent model, which compares the measured U/Th ratios with those required to produce the 208Pb/204Pb-206Pb/204Pb variations, indicates that U enrichment most likely occurred in the last 200 m.y. This relatively young age for U enrichment is consistent with the deep

  13. Triassic mafic and intermediate magmatism associated with continental collision between the North and South China Cratons in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Sang-Bong; Oh, Chang Whan; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Choi, Seon-Gyu; Kim, Taesung; Yi, Keewook

    2016-03-01

    Triassic coeval mafic and intermediate magmatism occurred in the area suggested to be the southern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Gyeonggi Massif (GM) of the Korean Peninsula. This study investigates aspects of the mafic and intermediate magmatism using SHRIMP zircon ages and whole-rock chemical and isotopic Sr-Nd data. The mafic and intermediate rocks intruded into a basement paragneiss in three areas (Yangpyeong, Odesan and Yangyang) within the GM at ca. 230 Ma. The paragneiss was metamorphosed in both the Paleoproterozoic and Triassic. Gabbros (hornblende gabbro and pyroxene-mica gabbro) from the study areas exhibit strong light REE (LREE) enrichment relative to chondrite (LaN/YbN = 11.1-30.6) and a high LILE/HFSE pattern, Ta-Nb-P-Ti troughs and positive Ba-K-Pb-Sr spikes on the N-MORB-normalized multi-element variation diagram. These features are typical characteristics of arc-related gabbros. The gabbros also show strongly enriched initial isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7100-0.7137; εNd(t) = - 13.1 to - 19.7). The coeval intermediate intrusive rocks also exhibit whole-rock chemical and isotopic features (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7099-0.7143; εNd(t) = - 10.8 to - 18.6) similar to those of the gabbros. The mafic and intermediate intrusive rocks plot in the within-plate and/or post-collisional fields on tectonic discrimination diagrams. These data indicate that the mafic and intermediate magmatism in the study areas occurred during the Triassic post-collisional relaxation period via partial melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) that was enriched in a subduction environment prior to (or during) the Permo-Triassic continental collision between the NCC and the South China Craton (SCC). The highly enriched mantle signatures revealed by the gabbros from the study areas are matched to the enriched features identified in Cretaceous mafic igneous rocks (ca. 130 Ma) on the southern margin of the NCC. Thus, this study suggests that the

  14. Remelting and Remobilization in a Magmatic Arc: the St Peter Suite, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symington, Neil; Weinberg, Roberto; Hasalová, Pavlina

    2014-05-01

    Thermo-mechanical models of magmatic arcs suggest that intermittent intrusion of magma batches should lead to remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks as a result of fluctuations in temperature and water content. However, examples of remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks, formed during arc-building, are surprisingly rare. We investigate the evolution of magmatic rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic St Peter Suite, in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. This suite records multiple intrusions, magma hybridization, and the remelting and remobilization of these intrusions to form migmatites and newly-formed leucocratic magmas. In this paper we detail first how multiple magma batches interact with one another as liquids and mushes during syn-magmatic deformation phases, and then detail the nature of migmatites resulting from anatexis of these same magmatic rocks and the resulting channel ways that allowed for magma remobilization. LA-ICP/MS U/Pb zircon dating yielded crystallization ages of 1647±12 Ma for an early diorite-to-granite suite, and 1604±12 Ma for a later magmatic suite of broadly similar composition. Both these suites underwent anatectic events. Titanite from late-formed leucosomes found within D2 shear zones in the older suite, yielded SHRIMP U/Pb age of 1605±7 Ma, within error of the age of the younger suite. We therefore infer that intrusion, crystallization and remelting/remobilization of this younger suite of rocks occurred within 10-15 M.yr. Thus, the St Peter Suite exposures record many of the key processes expected in arcs, including the prediction that early intrusive arc rocks remelt to form younger more fractionated magmas.

  15. Remelting and Remobilization in a Magmatic Arc: the St Peter Suite, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symington, N.; Weinberg, R. F.; Hasalova, P.

    2013-12-01

    Thermo-mechanical models of magmatic arcs suggest that intermittent intrusion of magma batches should lead to remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks as a result of fluctuations in temperature and water content. However, examples of remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks, formed during arc-building, are surprisingly rare. We investigate the evolution of magmatic rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic St Peter Suite, in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. This suite records multiple intrusions, magma hybridization, and the remelting and remobilization of these intrusions to form migmatites and newly-formed leucocratic magmas. In this paper we detail first how multiple magma batches interact with one another as liquids and mushes during syn-magmatic deformation phases, and then detail the nature of migmatites resulting from anatexis of these same magmatic rocks and the resulting channel ways that allowed for magma remobilization. LA-ICP/MS U/Pb zircon dating yielded crystallization ages of 1647×12 Ma for an early dioritic-to-granitic suite, and 1604×12 Ma for a later magmatic suite of broadly similar composition. Both these suites underwent anatectic events. Titanite from late-formed leucosomes found within D2 shear zones in the older suite, yielded SHRIMP U/Pb age of 1605×7 Ma, within error of the age of the younger suite. We therefore infer that intrusion, crystallization and remelting/remobilization of this younger suite of rocks occurred within 10-15 M.yr. We propose that the St Peter Suite exposures represent a frozen-in record of a continuous, multi-stage, repetitive process, common to the core of arcs where multiple magma intrusions drive multiple hybridization events and fluctuations in temperature and water-content trigger remelting and remobilization of the more fractionated sectors of earlier intrusive. Thus, the St Peter Suite record many of the key processes expected in arcs, including the prediction that early intrusive arc

  16. Multi-decadal climate variability, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Franks, S W

    2004-01-01

    Traditional hydrological risk estimation has treated the observations of hydro-climatological extremes as being independent and identically distributed, implying a static climate risk. However, recent research has highlighted the persistence of multi-decadal epochs of distinct climate states across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Climatological studies have also revealed multi-decadal variability in the magnitude and frequency of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impacts. In this paper, examples of multi-decadal variability are presented with regard to flood and drought risk. The causal mechanisms for the observed variability are then explored. Finally, it is argued that the insights into climate variability provide (a) useful lead time for forecasting seasonal hydrological risk, (b) a strong rationale for a new framework for hydrological design and (c) a strong example of natural climate variability for use in the testing of General Circulation Models of climate change.

  17. Multi-decadal climate variability, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Franks, S W

    2004-01-01

    Traditional hydrological risk estimation has treated the observations of hydro-climatological extremes as being independent and identically distributed, implying a static climate risk. However, recent research has highlighted the persistence of multi-decadal epochs of distinct climate states across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Climatological studies have also revealed multi-decadal variability in the magnitude and frequency of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impacts. In this paper, examples of multi-decadal variability are presented with regard to flood and drought risk. The causal mechanisms for the observed variability are then explored. Finally, it is argued that the insights into climate variability provide (a) useful lead time for forecasting seasonal hydrological risk, (b) a strong rationale for a new framework for hydrological design and (c) a strong example of natural climate variability for use in the testing of General Circulation Models of climate change. PMID:15195429

  18. Hydrocarbons preserved in a ~2.7 Ga outcrop sample from the Fortescue Group, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Y; Flannery, D T; Walter, M R; George, S C

    2015-03-01

    The hydrocarbons preserved in an Archean rock were extracted, and their composition and distribution in consecutive slices from the outside to the inside of the rock were examined. The 2.7 Ga rock was collected from the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and bitumen II (solvent-extracted hydrochloric acid-treated rock) fractions have different hydrocarbon compositions. Bitumen I contains only trace amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and virtually no aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, bitumen II contains abundant aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference seems to reflect the weathering history and preservational environment of the investigated rock. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I are considered to be mainly from later hydrocarbon inputs, after initial deposition and burial, and are therefore not indigenous. The lack of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I suggests a severe weathering environment since uplift and exposure of the rock at the Earth's surface in the Cenozoic. On the other hand, the high abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen II suggests that bitumen II hydrocarbons have been physically isolated from removal by their encapsulation within carbonate minerals. The richness of aromatic hydrocarbons and the relative scarcity of aliphatic hydrocarbons may reflect the original compositions of organic materials biosynthesised in ancient organisms in the Archean era, or the high thermal maturity of the rock. Cyanobacterial biomarkers were observed in the surficial slices of the rock, which may indicate that endolithic cyanobacteria inhabited the surface outcrop. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons implies a high thermal maturity, which is consistent with the lack of any specific biomarkers, such as hopanes and steranes, and the prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphic grade.

  19. Hydrocarbons preserved in a ~2.7 Ga outcrop sample from the Fortescue Group, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Y; Flannery, D T; Walter, M R; George, S C

    2015-03-01

    The hydrocarbons preserved in an Archean rock were extracted, and their composition and distribution in consecutive slices from the outside to the inside of the rock were examined. The 2.7 Ga rock was collected from the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and bitumen II (solvent-extracted hydrochloric acid-treated rock) fractions have different hydrocarbon compositions. Bitumen I contains only trace amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and virtually no aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, bitumen II contains abundant aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference seems to reflect the weathering history and preservational environment of the investigated rock. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I are considered to be mainly from later hydrocarbon inputs, after initial deposition and burial, and are therefore not indigenous. The lack of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I suggests a severe weathering environment since uplift and exposure of the rock at the Earth's surface in the Cenozoic. On the other hand, the high abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen II suggests that bitumen II hydrocarbons have been physically isolated from removal by their encapsulation within carbonate minerals. The richness of aromatic hydrocarbons and the relative scarcity of aliphatic hydrocarbons may reflect the original compositions of organic materials biosynthesised in ancient organisms in the Archean era, or the high thermal maturity of the rock. Cyanobacterial biomarkers were observed in the surficial slices of the rock, which may indicate that endolithic cyanobacteria inhabited the surface outcrop. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons implies a high thermal maturity, which is consistent with the lack of any specific biomarkers, such as hopanes and steranes, and the prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphic grade. PMID:25393450

  20. Constraining the Protolith of Large, Macroscopically Layered Kyanite-bearing Eclogite Xenoliths from the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebelo, C. C.; Gurney, J. J.; Richardson, S. H.; Shaw-Kahle, B.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the geochemistry of a suite of ten layered, kyanite-bearing eclogites from the Roberts Victor kimberlite, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. All samples are characterized by clear zonation corresponding to the presence or absence of kyanite and the state of preservation of clinopyroxene. The sampled zones are defined as KF (free of kyanite, with well-preserved garnet and clinopyroxene), KZ (preserved clinopyroxene is absent; garnet occurs with kyanite); and TZ (partially preserved clinopyroxene and more altered garnet; kyanite may or may not be present). We report on results of petrographic observations, mineral chemistry, and trace element and oxygen isotope analyses for the different zones. Results from adjacent zones are presented as geochemical transects perpendicular to the layering for each xenolith. We use the results to infer the geochemical evolution of likely protoliths for the various samples. Mineral chemistry of garnets across the different zones shows decreasing FeO*, Cr2O3, MgO and MnO and increasing in CaO from KF into KZ. Clinopyroxene shows increasing in Al2O3 and Na2O from KF into KZ. Clinopyroxenes approach a more jadeitic composition towards the KZ and are more diopsidic in KF. Trace element analyses were conducted with laser ablation ICP-MS on hand-picked mineral separates. Garnets show subchondritic LREE depletion and superchondritic HREE enrichment in both KF and KZ. Positive europium anomalies in garnet are present in all zones, with relatively larger anomalies in garnet grains from KZ. Preserved clinopyroxenes show complementary REE patterns to garnet grains, with superchondritic LREEs and subchondritic HREEs. For the suite of xenoliths, results from mass spectrometry on oxygen extracted by laser fluorination on mineral separates show that δ18O values are above the accepted mantle value and fall within the range of hydrothermally altered oceanic crustal material. At this stage of the research, the bulk protolith is interpreted to

  1. The Kimberlites and related rocks of the Kuruman Kimberlite Province, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Cara L.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman J.; Shee, Simon R.

    2011-03-01

    The Kuruman Kimberlite Province is comprised of 16 small pipes and dikes and contains some of the oldest known kimberlites (>1.6 Ga). In this study, 12 intrusions are subdivided into three groups with distinct petrology, age, and geochemical and isotopic compositions: (1) kimberlites with groundmass perovskites defining a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1787 ± 69 Ma, (2) orangeite with a U-Pb perovskite age of 124 ± 16 Ma, and (3) ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikite and mela-aillikite) with a zircon U-Pb age of 1642 ± 46 Ma. The magma type varies across the Province, with kimberlites in the east, lamprophyres in the west and orangeite and ultramafic lamprophyres to the south. Differences in the age and petrogenesis of the X007 orangeite and Clarksdale and Aalwynkop aillikites suggest that these intrusions are probably unrelated to the Kuruman Province. Kimberlite and orangeite whole-rock major and trace element compositions are similar to other South African localities. Compositionally, the aillikites typically lie off kimberlite and orangeite trends. Groundmass mineral chemistry of the kimberlites has some features more typical of orangeites. Kimberlite whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopes show zoning across the Province. When the kimberlites erupted at ~1.8 Ga, they sampled a core volume (ca 50 km across) of relatively depleted SCLM that was partially surrounded by a rim of more metasomatized mantle. This zonation may have been related to the development of the adjacent Kheis Belt (oldest rocks ~2.0 Ga), as weaker zones surrounding the more resistant core section of SCLM were more extensively metasomatized.

  2. Sexual Difficulties for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redelman, Margaret Juliet

    2009-01-01

    This 1992 study was conducted to ascertain the incidence of sexual difficulties in individuals diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in New South Wales, Australia. New South Wales is a state lying roughly 29-36 [degrees] south of the equator. This is currently the largest study conducted. The anonymous questionnaire completed by 283…

  3. A whole rock absolute paleointensity determination of dacites from the Duffer Formation (ca. 3.467 Ga) of the Pilbara Craton, Australia: An impossible task?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Krasa, David; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2016-09-01

    We have conducted a whole-rock type magnetic and absolute paleointensity determination of the red dacite of the Duffer Formation from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. The age of the dated rock unit is 3467 ± 5 Ma (95% confidence). Vector analyses results of the step-wise alternating field demagnetization (NRM up to 100 mT) and thermal demagnetization (from NRM up to 650 °C) yield three components of magnetization. Curie point determinations indicate three characteristic temperatures, one at 150-200 °C, a second one at ∼450 °C and a third one at ∼580 °C. Magnetic grain-size experiments were performed on small specimens with a variable field translation balance (VFTB). The coercivity of remanence (Hcr) suggests that the NRM is carried by low-coercivity grains that are associated with a magnetite fraction as is shown by the high-temperature component with blocking temperatures above 450 °C and up to at least 580 °C. The ratios of the hysteresis parameters plotted as a modified Day diagram show that most grain sizes are scattered within the Single Domain (SD) and the Superparamagnetic and Single Domain SP-SD domain ranges. In addition to the rock magnetic experiments we have performed absolute paleointensity experiments on the samples using the modified Thellier-Coe double heating method to determine the paleointensities. Partial-TRM (p-TRM) checks were performed systematically to document magnetomineralogical changes during heating. The temperature was incremented by steps of 50 °C between room temperature and 590 °C. The paleointensity determinations were obtained from the slope of Arai diagrams. Our paleointensity results indicate that the paleofield obtained was ∼6.4 ± 0.68 (N = 11) micro-Teslas with a Virtual Dipole Moment (VDM) of 1.51 ± 0.81 × 1022 Am2, from a medium-to high-temperature component ranging from 300 to 590 °C that has been interpreted to be the oldest magnetization yet recorded in paleomagnetic studies of the Duffer Formation. The

  4. 68 FR 47607 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-08-11

    ..., except to the extent permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide From Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan,...

  5. 68 FR 55062 - Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-09-22

    ..., Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of August 11, 2003 (68 FR 47607). The... COMMISSION Electrolytic Manganese Dioxide from Australia, China, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and South Africa... States is materially injured by reason of imports from Australia, Greece, Ireland, Japan, and...

  6. Episodic granitoid emplacement in the western Kaapvaal Craton: evidence from the Archæan Kraaipan granite-greenstone terrane, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhaeusser, Carl R.; Walraven, Feo

    1999-02-01

    Field, petrological, geochemical, isotopic and geophysical data have been assembled to determine the nature and extent of Archæan Kraaipan granite-greenstone rocks on the western edge of the Kaapvaal Craton, southern Africa. The Kraaipan greenstone belts, consisting of metamorphosed mafic volcanic rocks and interlayered metasediments (mainly banded iron formations, jaspilites and ferruginous cherts), occur poorly exposed beneath cover sequences comprising mainly Neoarchæan Ventersdorp Supergroup volcanic rocks and a blanket of Tertiary-Recent Kalahari sediments. A variety of granitoid rocks intruded the Kraaipan greenstones, which, on the basis of whole rock PbPb dating of banded iron formations, have yielded an age of 3410+61/-64 Ma. The earliest granitic rocks, which comprise tonalites and trondhjemitic gneisses, were dated using the single grain Pb evaporation technique on zircons, and yielded minimum ages ranging from 3162±8 to 3070±7 Ma in the study area. This, coupled with 3250-3030 Ma ages reported for gneisses in the Kimberley and other areas on the western edge of the Kaapvaal Craton, suggests a prolonged evolution for the basement gneisses which were also disturbed between 2940 and 2816 Ma ago, probably during episodes of migmatisation. Potassium-rich granitoids, also dated using the single grain Pb evaporation method, range in age from 2880±2 to 2846±22 Ma and extend from the Schweizer-Reneke area in the south to the Botswana border and beyond in the north. Geophysical evidence (aeromagnetic and Bouguer gravity data) suggest that the intrusions may be interconnected and might have been emplaced episodically across the study area. A close spatial relationship exists between these granodiorites and adamellites, and known Au mineralisation present in the Kraaipan-Madibe areas in the north and the Amalia area in the south. This suggests a possible genetic link which could be of significance in mineral exploration. Lastly, a late granitoid pluton

  7. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E

    1988-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  8. Conjunctivitis associated with Chlamydia pecorum in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Oliver; Johnson, Lynley; Woolford, Lucy; Boardman, Wayne; Polkinghorne, Adam; McLelland, David

    2013-10-01

    Chlamydiosis is a significant factor contributing to the decline of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in Australia but has not previously been reported in South Australia. We describe conjunctivitis in three wild koalas from South Australia, with Chlamydia pecorum identified by quantitative PCR.

  9. Origin of cratonic basins

    SciTech Connect

    de V. Klein, G.; Hsui, A.T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520-460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530-500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation, histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian supercontinent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  10. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  11. ArcGIS studies and field relationships of Paleoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms from the south of Devarakonda area, Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India: Implications for their relative ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samal, Amiya K.; Srivastava, Rajesh K.; Sinha, Lokesh K.

    2015-07-01

    Google Earth Image and cross-cutting field relationships of distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from south of Devarakonda area in the Eastern Dharwar Craton has been studied to establish relative emplacement ages. The Devarakonda, covering an area of ˜700 km2, shows spectacular cross-cutting field relationships between different generations of mafic dykes, and is therefore selected for the present study. Although some recent radiometric age data are available for distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from the Eastern Dharwar Craton, there is no analogous age data available for the study area. Therefore, relative age relationships of distinct mafic dykes have been established for the study area using cross-cutting field relationships and GIS techniques, which shows slightly different picture than other parts of the Eastern Dharwar Craton. It is suggested that NE-SW trending mafic dykes are youngest in age (probably belong to ˜1.89 Ga dyke swarm), whereas NNW-SSE trending mafic dykes have oldest emplacement age. Further, the NNW-SSE mafic dykes are older to the other two identified mafic dyke swarms, i.e., WNW-ESE (˜2.18 Ga) and N-S trending (˜2.21 Ga) mafic dyke swarms, as dykes of these two swarms cross-cut a NNW-SSE dyke. It provides an evidence for existence of a new set of mafic dykes that is older to the ˜2.21 Ga and probably younger to the ˜2.37 Ga swarm. Present study also supports existence of two mafic dyke swarms having similar trend (ENE-WSW to NE-SW) but emplaced in two different ages (one is ˜2.37 Ga and other ˜1.89 Ga).

  12. Metasedimentary rocks of the Angara-Kan granulite-gneiss block (Yenisey Ridge, south-western margin of the Siberian Craton): Provenance characteristics, deposition and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urmantseva, L. N.; Turkina, O. M.; Larionov, A. N.

    2012-04-01

    The Angara-Kan granulite-gneiss block (Yenisey Ridge) is one of the main basements uplift within the south-western margin of the Siberian Craton. The major part of the Angara-Kan block is composed of Early Precambrian high-grade metamorphic rocks. Metasedimentary association of the Kan granulitic complex is composed of garnet-bearing, garnet-orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene-bearing gneisses, garnet- and orthopyroxene-bearing gneisses with cordierite and sillimanite. Studied paragneisses were formed at the expense of granulite metamorphism of terrigenous rocks, ranging from graywacke to pelitic rock or mudstone. To estimate the time of sedimentation and metamorphism of the terrigenous deposits, the U-Pb zircon dating has been performed using the SHRIMP II ion microprobe. Detrital zircon cores from the biotite-orthopyroxene and high-alumina gneisses yield ages of 2.6-1.94 and 2.4-1.94 Ga, respectively. Together with the age of the magmatic zircons formed during high-grade metamorphism and partial melting (˜1.89 Ga) and metamorphic rims (˜1.87 Ga) it defines the time of sedimentation between 2.0-1.94 and 1.89-1.87 Ga. Detrital zircon ages indicate both Archean and Paleoproterozioc rocks in provenance source, that agrees with the Nd model ages of metasediments ranging in interval 2.4-2.8 Ga. Potential source of the Archean detrital zircons was the exposed basement of the southwestern Siberian Craton, whereas the Paleoproterozoic juvenile crustal source seems to be buried basement of the Tungus province of the Siberian Craton. Deposition of the Kan terrigeneous rocks was coeval with sedimentation in the southeastern part of the Sharyzhalgay uplift, where ages of detrital zircon cores and metamorphic rims from paragneisses bracket sediment deposition between 1.95 and 1.85 Ga.

  13. Provenance and reconnaissance study of detrital zircons of the Palaeozoic Cape Supergroup in South Africa: revealing the interaction of the Kalahari and Río de la Plata cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourie, Pieter H.; Zimmermann, Udo; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Naidoo, Thanusha; Kobayashi, Katsuro; Kosler, Jan; Nakamura, Eizo; Tait, Jenny; Theron, Johannes N.

    2011-04-01

    In order to facilitate the understanding of the geological evolution of the Kalahari Craton and its relation to South America, the provenance of the first large-scale cratonic cover sequence of the craton, namely the Ordovician to Carboniferous Cape Supergroup was studied through geochemical analyses of the siliciclastics, and age determinations of detrital zircon. The Cape Supergroup comprises mainly quartz-arenites and a Hirnantian tillite in the basal Table Mountain Group, subgreywackes and mudrocks in the overlying Bokkeveld Group, while siltstones, interbedded shales and quartz-arenites are typical for the Witteberg Group at the top of the Cape Supergroup. Palaeocurrent analyses indicate transport of sediment mainly from northerly directions, off the interior of the Kalahari Craton with subordinate transport from a westerly source in the southwestern part of the basin near Cape Town. Geochemical provenance data suggest mainly sources from passive to active continental margin settings. The reconnaissance study of detrital zircons reveals a major contribution of Mesoproterozoic sources throughout the basin, reflecting the dominance of the Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Belt, situated immediately north of the preserved strata of Cape Supergroup, as a source with Archaean-aged zircons being extremely rare. We interpret the Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Belt to have been a large morphological divide at the time of deposition of the Cape Supergroup that prevented input of detrital zircons from the interior early Archaean Kaapvaal cratonic block of the Kalahari Craton. Neoproterozoic and Cambrian zircons are abundant and reflect the basement geology of the outcrops of Cape strata. Exposures close to Cape Town must have received sediment from a cratonic fragment that was situated off the Kalahari Craton to the west and that has subsequently drifted away. This cratonic fragment predominantly supplied Meso- to Neoproterozoic, and Cambrian-aged zircon grains in addition to minor

  14. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  15. A Study on Problem and Pathological Gambling among University Students in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, A. R.; Blanksby, P.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlates of problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Convenience sampling method was used to select participants ("n" = 163; 55.2 per cent women, 44.8 per cent men; age range 17-57 years) from two faculties in a South Australian university. A…

  16. Clastic metasediments of the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group, New South Wales, Australia: Geochemistry, provenance, and metallogenic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Stevens, B.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Whole-rock analyses of samples of pelite, psammite, and psammopelite from the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group (Willyama Supergroup) in the Broken Hill Block, New South Wales, Australia, reveal distinctive geochemical signatures. Major-element data show high Al2O3 and K2O, low MgO and Na2O, and relatively high Fe2O3T MgO ratios, compared to average Early Proterozoic clastic metasediments. High field strength elements (HFSE) are especially abundant, including Nb (most 15-27 ppm), Ta (most 1.0-2.2 ppm), Th (17-36 ppm), Hf (4-15 ppm), and Zr (most 170-400 ppm); Y (33-74 ppm) is also high. Concentrations of ferromagnesian elements are generally low (Sc = < 20 ppm, Ni = ??? 62 ppm, Co = <26 ppm; Cr = most < 100 ppm). Data for rare earth elements (REEs) show high abundances of light REEs (LaCN = 116-250 ?? chondrite; LaCN = 437 in one sample), high LaCN YbCN ratios (5.6-13.9), and large negative Eu anomalies ( Eu Eu* = 0.32-0.57). The geochemical data indicate derivation of the metasedimentary rocks of the Broken Hill Group by the erosion mainly of felsic igneous (or meta-igneous) rocks. High concentrations of HFSE, Y, and REEs in the metasediments suggest a provenance dominanted by anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites, including those with A-type chemistry. Likely sources of the metasediments were the rhyolitic to rhyodacitic protoliths of local quartz + feldspar ?? biotite ?? garnet gneisses (e.g., Potosi-type gneiss) that occur within the lower part of the Willyama Supergroup, or chemically similar basement rocks in the region; alternative sources may have included Early Proterozoic anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites in the Mount Isa and(or) Pine Creek Blocks of northern Australia, or in the Gawler craton of South Australia. Metallogenic considerations suggest that the metasediments of the Broken Hill Block formed enriched source rocks during the generation of pegmatite-hosted deposits and concentrations of La, Ce, Nb, Ta, Th, and Sn in the region. Li, Be, B, W

  17. Isotopic fractionation of nitrogen and carbon in Paleoarchean cherts from Pilbara craton, Western Australia: Origin of 15N-depleted nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinti, Daniele L.; Hashizume, Ko; Sugihara, Akiyo; Massault, Marc; Philippot, Pascal

    2009-07-01

    Nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions, together with mineralogy and trace element geochemistry, were studied in a few kerogen-rich Paleoarchean cherts, a barite and a dolomitic stromatolite belonging to the eastern (Dixon Island Formation) and western (Dresser and Strelley Pool Chert Formations; North Pole Dome and Marble Bar) terranes of Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The aim of the study was to search for 15N-depleted isotopic signatures, often found in kerogens of this period, and explain the origin of these anomalies. Trace elements suggest silica precipitation by hydrothermal fluids as the main process of chert formation with a contamination from volcanoclastic detritus. This is supported by the occurrence of hydrothermal-derived minerals in the studied samples indicating precipitation temperatures up to 350 °C. Only a dolomitic stromatolite from Strelley Pool shows a superchondritic Y/Ho ratio of 72 and a positive Eu/Eu * anomaly of 1.8, characteristic of chemical precipitates from the Archean seawater. The bulk δ 13C vs. δ 15N values measured in the cherts show a roughly positive co-variation, except for one sample from the North Pole (PI-85-00). The progressive enrichment in 15N and 13C from a pristine source having δ 13C ⩽ -36‰ and δ 15N ⩽ -4‰ is correlated with a progressive depletion in N content and to variations in Ba/La and Co/As ratios. These trends have been interpreted as a progressive hydrothermal alteration of the cherts by metamorphic fluids. Isotopic exchange at 350 °C between NH 4+(rock) and N 2(fluid) may explain the isotopic and elemental composition of N in the studied cherts. However, we need to assume isotopic exchange at 350 °C between carbonate C and graphite to explain the large 13C enrichment recorded. Only sample PI-85-00 shows a large N loss (90%) with a positive δ 15N value (+11‰), while C (up to 120 ppm and δ 13C -38‰) seems to be unaffected. This pattern has been interpreted as the result of

  18. Leaching of silica bands and concentration of magnetite in Archean BIF by hypogene fluids: Beebyn Fe ore deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duuring, Paul; Hagemann, Steffen

    2013-03-01

    The ~2,752-Ma Weld Range greenstone belt in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia hosts several Fe ore deposits that provide insights into the role of early hypogene fluids in the formation of high-grade (>55 wt% Fe) magnetite-rich ore in banded iron formation (BIF). The 1.5-km-long Beebyn orebody comprises a series of steeply dipping, discontinuous, <50-m-thick lenses of magnetite-(martite)-rich ore zones in BIF that extend from surface to vertical depths of at least 250 m. The ore zones are enveloped by a 3-km-long, 150-m-wide outer halo of hypogene siderite and ferroan dolomite in BIF and mafic igneous country rocks. Ferroan chlorite characterises 20-m-wide proximal alteration zones in mafic country rocks. The magnetite-rich Beebyn orebody is primarily the product of hypogene fluids that circulated through reverse shear zones during the formation of an Archean isoclinal fold-and-thrust belt. Two discrete stages of hypogene fluid flow caused the pseudomorphic replacement of silica-rich bands in BIF by Stage 1 siderite and magnetite and later by Stage 2 ferroan dolomite. The resulting carbonate-altered BIF is markedly depleted in SiO2 and enriched in CaO, MgO, LOI, P2O5 and Fe2O3(total) compared with the least-altered BIF. Subsequent reactivation of these shear zones and circulation of hypogene fluids resulted in the leaching of existing hypogene carbonate minerals and the concentration of residual magnetite-rich bands. These Stage 3 magnetite-rich ore zones are depleted in SiO2 and enriched in K2O, CaO, MgO, P2O5 and Fe2O3(total) relative to the least-altered BIF. Proximal wall rock hypogene alteration zones in mafic igneous country rocks (up to 20 m from the BIF contact) are depleted in SiO2, CaO, Na2O, and K2O and are enriched in Fe2O3(total), MgO and P2O5 compared with distal zones. Recent supergene alteration affects all rocks within about 100 m below the present surface, disturbing hypogene mineral and the geochemical zonation patterns associated with

  19. Hypothesis of homeothermy evolution on isolated South China Craton that moved from equator to cold north latitudes 250-200Myr ago.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Based on avian and mammalian fossils found in the northeastern Chinese province of Liaoning and physiological traits linked to homeothermy, a hypothesis of evolution of homeothermic animals is proposed. It is based on the importance of muscle function in cold environment, as a strong selection pressure that favors endothermic metabolism during periods of cold climates. The presented hypothesis postulates that in progressively cooling environment, animals will develop thermal insulation, increased basal metabolism if food is available, and torpor when food is scarce. Since late Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous global temperatures were high, an exceptional place that gradually became cold was needed for the homeothermy evolution. South China Craton is here proposed as a plausible candidate for that role since it drifted across the Paleo-Tethys ocean, from equator to high northern latitudes in a journey that lasted from 250 to 200Myr ago. After this small continent collided with North China Craton some 200Myr ago, the already cold-adapted animals had spread to large, mostly empty spaces on the North China Craton, due to their evolutionary advantage of making active living in the cold environment. The most advantageous early homeothermic animals went further north to the cold Liaoning to start an oasis that delivered modern birds during next 50Myr. Modern mammals possibly evolved somewhere in the cold vicinity. This made Liaoning and similarly cold places the cradles of early birds and early mammals since for the following millions of years these places remained too cold for poikilotherms to enter and warm enough for homeotherms to dwell, until the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event and subsequent global cooling that diminished poikilotherms. Homeothermy was probably even more important as a survival advantage in cooler climates of Paleogene, when mammals and birds became dominant animals. This interpretation is probably supported by a recent report that a small

  20. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, Pavlina; Weinberg, Roberto; Ward, Lindsay; Fanning, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex because of strong rheological contrast between layers with different melt contents and because of magma migration leading to volume changes. Migmatite deformation is intimately linked with magma extraction and the origin of granitoids. We investigate here the relationships between an evolving deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the ca. 500Ma Delamerian orogeny, exposed on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Here, several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt. During an early upright, non-cylindrical folding event, magma was channeled towards the hinge zones of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root zone that link up towards a central axial planar channel, forming the main magma extraction paths during folding. Extraction was associated with fold limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption by magma accumulation and transfer. During a later deformation phase, melt-rich diatexites were deformed, and schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes indicative of dextral shearing flow. During flow, magma accumulated preferentially along shear planes, indicating a dilatational component during shearing (transtension) and in strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned, magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to N-trending, steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels not associated to any deformational feature. The funnel-shape of these structures indicates the direction of magma flow. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those formed during dewatering of soft sediments. Despite a high degree of complexity, magma migration and extraction features record distinct responses to the evolving deformation which can be used to understand deformation, and nature and direction of melt extraction. The oldest and youngest magmatic rocks from migmatites were dated (U-Pb monazite, SHRIMP

  1. Adult and Community Education: A Snapshot of the Conditions and Circumstances of Being a Community-Based Adult Community Education (ACE) Provider in South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria from September to December 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwencke, Helen

    This report compiles information from a study tour to identify the current status, development, and issues of nonprofit organizations with voluntary boards of management that provide adult and community-based education (ACE) in Australia. An overview of the community-based ACE sector covers organizations in South Australia, Western Australia,…

  2. Groundwater recharge to a sedimentary aquifer in the topographically closed Uley South Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordens, Carlos M.; Werner, Adrian D.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Hutson, John L.; Simmons, Craig T.; Irvine, Benjamin M.

    2012-02-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) and water-table fluctuation (WTF) analysis methods were used to estimate recharge rates in the Uley South Basin, South Australia. Groundwater hydrochemistry and isotope data were used to infer the nature of recharge pathways and evapotranspiration processes. These data indicate that some combination of two plausible processes is occurring: (1) complete evaporation of rainfall occurs, and the precipitated salts are washed down and redissolved when recharge occurs, and (2) transpiration dominates over evaporation. It is surmised that sinkholes predominantly serve to by-pass the shallow soil zone and redistribute infiltration into the deeper unsaturated zone, rather than transferring rainfall directly to the water table. Chlorofluorocarbon measurements were used in approximating recharge origins to account for coastal proximity effects in the CMB method and pumping seasonality was accounted for in the WTF-based recharge estimates. Best estimates of spatially and temporally averaged recharge rates for the basin are 52-63 and 47-129 mm/year from the CMB and WTF analyses, respectively. Adaptations of both the CMB and WTF analyses to account for nuances of the system were necessary, demonstrating the need for careful application of these methods.

  3. The development of an 'Indigenous team' in a mainstream mental health service in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Fielke, Ken; Cord-Udy, Nigel; Buckskin, John; Lattanzio, Adriana

    2009-08-01

    The Social Justice Report 2005 recommended that the governments of Australia commit to achieving equal health status for all Australians "within a generation". Improving the accessibility of mainstream health services for Aboriginal people is highlighted as a central requirement. This paper describes the establishment, roles and functions of the 'Indigenous team' embedded within the South Australian Rural and Remote Mental Health Service (RRMHS) as one strategy to improve access and responsiveness of mental health services to Aboriginal patients in South Australia. We report on our progress to date and possible future directions for the team. PMID:19579113

  4. Adult Retraining and Reskilling in Australia and South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Katrina; Lee, Young-Hyun; Phan, Oanh; Ra, Young-Sun

    A study explored the mechanisms used by adults in Australia and Korea to keep their skills current or to enhance their range of skills. Data were gathered through recent research reports and unpublished unemployment and training data. The study identified areas of the vocational education and training systems in the two countries that are…

  5. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  6. Tectonic evolution of greenstone-Gneiss association in Dharwar Craton, South India: Problems and perspectives for future research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Y. J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The two fold stratigraphic subdivision of the Archean-Proterozoic greenstone-gneiss association of Dharwar craton into an older Sargur group (older than 2.9 Ga.) and a younger Dharwar Supergroup serves as an a priori stratigraphic model. The concordant greenstone (schist)-gneiss (Peninsular gneiss) relationships, ambiguities in stratigraphic correlations of the schist belts assigned to Sargur group and difficulties in deciphering the older gneiss units can be best appreciated if the Sargur group be regarded as a trimodal association of: (1) ultrabasic-mafic metavolcanics (including komatiites), (2) clastic and nonclastic metasediments and paragneisses and (3) mainly tonalite/trondhemite gneisses and migmatites of diverse ages which could be as old as c. 3.4 ga. or even older. The extensive occurrence of this greenstone-gneiss complex is evident from recent mapping in many areas of central and southern Karnataka State.

  7. Geochemistry and provenance of sediments from the Pongola Supergroup, South Africa: Evidence for a 3.0-Ga-old continental craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronkiewicz, David J.; Condie, Kent C.

    1989-07-01

    The ~3.0 Ga Pongola Supergroup of South Africa is one of the oldest well-preserved supracrustal successions. The sequence is divided into the Nsuze (chiefly volcanics, quartzites, and pelites) and the overlying Mozaan Groups (chiefly quartzites and pelites). Relative to North American Shale Composite (NASC), most Pongola pelites have similar La/Yb and Eu/Eu∗ ratios and Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILE), High Field Strength Elements (HFSE), REE, V and Sc contents. Ni (30-300 ppm) and Cr (100-800 ppm) contents are greater than those of NASC, while Cr/Ni ratios are generally higher than shales and pelites of all ages. These trends may reflect residual Cr enrichment during intense chemical weathering of komatiitic source rocks. Local populations of Nsuze pelites, based on major and trace element data, may result from source heterogeneities and/or contemporaneous volcanic input into the sedimentary basin. Pongola quartzite compositions and detrital modes are similar to those of sandstones from Phanerozoic passive-margin and basement uplift tectonic settings. REE, LILE and HFSE contents in pelites suggest that Pongola source rocks were remarkably similar in composition to average Phanerozoic upper-continental crust. Trace element, geographic and isotopic constraints favor 3.2 to 3.0 Ga hood granites as a major source for Pongola detritus. Moderate contributions from mafic sources are also required, whereas relatively minor contributions from tonalite and komatiite are allowed. These results indicate the existence of a chemically evolved (felsic) craton in southern Africa by 3.0 Ga. This craton appears to have been more evolved than sources for either older Moodies (~3.3 Ga) or most of the younger Witwatersrand sediments (2.8-2.7 Ga). Pelites from the Kaapvaal craton record at least two mafic to felsic source-area compositional cycles in pelites deposited from the mid to late Archean. Additional cycles may be masked by a depositional or erosional hiatus between the

  8. Early precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Glikson, Andrew Y

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering studies of Precambrian impact fallout units and associated tsunami deposits in the Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, by B.M. Simonson and S.W. Hassler, document a range of tsunami deposits associated with impact fallout units whose impact connection is identified by associated microtektites and microkrystites (condensation spherules). The impact connection of these particles is demonstrated by iridium anomalies, unique platinum group elements patterns, and Ni-rich mineral phases. Densely packed tsunami-transported fragments and boulders overlie microkrystite units of the >2629 +/- 5 Ma top Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL). Tsunami events closely follow spherule settling associated with the 2561 +/- 8 Ma Spherule Marker Bed SMB-1 and SMB-2 impact events, Bee Gorge Member, Wittenoom Formation. The two impact cycles are separated by a stratigraphically consistent silicified black siltstone, representing a "Quiet Interval." The SMB turbidites display turbulence eddies, climbing ripples, conglomerate pockets, slumps, and waterlogged sediment deformation features. Consequences of tsunami in the probably contemporaneous Carawine Dolomite (Pb-Pb carbonate ages of approximately 2.56-2.54 Ga), eastern Hamersley Basin, include sub-autochthonous below-wave base excavation and megabrecciation of sea floor substrata, resulting in a unique 10-30-m-thick spherule-bearing megabreccia marker mapped over a nearly 100-km north-south strike distance in the east Hamersley Basin. The field relations suggest a pretsunami settling of the bulk of the spherules. Tsunami wave effects include: (1). dispersal of the spherule-rich soft upper sea floor sediments as a subaqueous mud cloud and (2). excavation of consolidated substrata below the soft sediment zone. Excavation and megabrecciation included injection of liquefied spherule-bearing microbreccia into dilated fractures in the disrupted underlying carbonates. Near-perfect preservation of the spherules within the

  9. Early precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Glikson, Andrew Y

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering studies of Precambrian impact fallout units and associated tsunami deposits in the Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, by B.M. Simonson and S.W. Hassler, document a range of tsunami deposits associated with impact fallout units whose impact connection is identified by associated microtektites and microkrystites (condensation spherules). The impact connection of these particles is demonstrated by iridium anomalies, unique platinum group elements patterns, and Ni-rich mineral phases. Densely packed tsunami-transported fragments and boulders overlie microkrystite units of the >2629 +/- 5 Ma top Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL). Tsunami events closely follow spherule settling associated with the 2561 +/- 8 Ma Spherule Marker Bed SMB-1 and SMB-2 impact events, Bee Gorge Member, Wittenoom Formation. The two impact cycles are separated by a stratigraphically consistent silicified black siltstone, representing a "Quiet Interval." The SMB turbidites display turbulence eddies, climbing ripples, conglomerate pockets, slumps, and waterlogged sediment deformation features. Consequences of tsunami in the probably contemporaneous Carawine Dolomite (Pb-Pb carbonate ages of approximately 2.56-2.54 Ga), eastern Hamersley Basin, include sub-autochthonous below-wave base excavation and megabrecciation of sea floor substrata, resulting in a unique 10-30-m-thick spherule-bearing megabreccia marker mapped over a nearly 100-km north-south strike distance in the east Hamersley Basin. The field relations suggest a pretsunami settling of the bulk of the spherules. Tsunami wave effects include: (1). dispersal of the spherule-rich soft upper sea floor sediments as a subaqueous mud cloud and (2). excavation of consolidated substrata below the soft sediment zone. Excavation and megabrecciation included injection of liquefied spherule-bearing microbreccia into dilated fractures in the disrupted underlying carbonates. Near-perfect preservation of the spherules within the

  10. Bovine theileriosis--an emerging problem in south-eastern Australia?

    PubMed

    Islam, M Khyrul; Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-12-01

    Bovine theileriosis is an arthropod-borne disease caused by one or more haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Theileria. Traditionally, Theileria infection in cattle in Australia was largely asymptomatic and recognized to be associated with Theileria buffeli, now assigned to the Theileria orientalis-group. There have been some recent outbreaks of theileriosis in dairy and beef cattle, mainly in subtropical climatic zone (New South Wales) of Australia. Here, we provide the first published evidence of an outbreak of bovine theileriosis in the south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria) linked to the ikeda and chitose genotypes of T. orientalis. Future investigations should focus sharply on the elucidating the epidemiology and ecology of Theileria in this region to subvert the possible impact on the cattle industry.

  11. The South Australia Health Chronic Disease Self-Management Internet Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L.; Plant, Kathryn; Laurent, Diana D.; Kelly, Pauline; Rowe, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an online chronic disease self-management program for South Australia residents. Method: Data were collected online at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The intervention was an asynchronous 6-week chronic disease self-management program offered online. The authors measured eight health status measures,…

  12. Tertiary Educators' Voices in Australia and South Africa: Experiencing and Engaging in African Music and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Music tertiary educators can foster positive experiences that promote diversity, enhance intercultural and cross-cultural understanding through our teaching. Through findings of interview data of tertiary music educators' understandings of multicultural music practice at two South African universities and at an Australia university, I used…

  13. Engagement with Empires: Irish Catholic Female Religious Teachers in Colonial South Australia 1868-1901

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the roles of Irish Catholic female religious institutes for teachers in the context of the recent debates about education and empire. Nineteenth century colonial South Australia provides an opportunity to examine such institutes, for example the Irish Dominicans from Cabra Dublin, the Irish Mercy Institute from Baggot Street,…

  14. Sunny Prospects: The Non-School-Leaver Segment in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clermont, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of demand-driven funding following the Bradley Review has seen the progressive removal of constraints on the number of undergraduate places that universities can offer, therefore allowing universities to set their own growth levels. In South Australia, there is little unmet demand for university places. Traditionally, universities…

  15. Democratic Citizenship Education in the Information Age: A Comparative Study of South Korea and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roh, Young-Ran

    2004-01-01

    Democratic citizenship education in the information age must concern itself with the goal of nurturing future generations with the capacity to make appropriate use of the changes driven by the advances of ICTs so as to activate political and social democracy. Using Australia and South Korea as case studies, this paper discusses the role that…

  16. Mortality among a Cohort of Persons with an Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florio, Tony; Trollor, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the study was to compare mortality for people with an intellectual disability (ID) to the general population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A second objective was to provide mortality data for people with an intellectual disability from NSW in a standardized format, which allows for international comparisons…

  17. Native Tongue, Captive Voice: The Representation of the Aboriginal "Voice" in Colonial South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robert; Muhlhausler, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Examines the way in which the Aboriginal "voice" was represented in colonial South Australia, particularly in the form of pidgin English. The first part of the article focuses on the first decade of settlement; the second part examines the period between 1860 and the turn of the century. Findings indicate that the Aboriginal voice in South…

  18. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  19. The Gendered Shaping of University Leadership in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…

  20. Is Isolation a Problem? Issues Faced by Rural Libraries and Rural Library Staff in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Rebecca; Calvert, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate current issues faced by public library staff in rural South Australia and to examine some of the reasons why people choose to work in rural libraries. The study took a mixed methods approach, combining interviews and questionnaires to gain a fuller understanding of the issues and experiences of rural…

  1. Rickettsia Detected in the Reptile Tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri from the Lizard Tiliqua rugosa in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Custance, Georgie; Graves, Stephen; Stenos, John; Taylor, Michael; Ross, Kirstin; Gardner, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiosis is a potentially fatal tick borne disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, which is transferred to humans through salivary excretions of ticks during the biting process. Globally, the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing; as such, there is a need for a greater understanding of tick–host interactions to create more informed risk management strategies. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses has been identified throughout Australia (Tasmania, South Australia, Queensland and Torres Strait Islands) with possible identifications in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Italy. Flinders Island spotted fever is thought to be spread through tick bites and the reptile tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri has been implicated as a vector in this transmission. This study used qPCR to assay Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts on mainland South Australia near where spotted fever cases have been identified. We report that, although we discovered Rickettsia in all tick samples, it was not Rickettsia honei. This study is the first to use PCR to positively identify Rickettsia from South Australian Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts. These findings suggest that B. hydrosauri may be a vector of multiple Rickettsia spp. Also as all 41 tested B. hydrosauri ticks were positive for Rickettsia this indicates an extremely high prevalence within the studied area in South Australia. PMID:27338482

  2. Counter-Geographies: The Campaign against Rationalisation of Agricultural Research Stations in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris; Dufty, Rae; Phillips, Samantha; Smith, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses an example of community action mounted in a rural region of New South Wales, Australia, in response to proposals by the State Government to rationalise agricultural research stations operated by the Department of Primary Industries. Informed by a Foucaultian understanding of power and the concept of governmentality,…

  3. The acraman impact structure: source of ejecta in late precambrian shales, South australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, G E

    1986-07-11

    A major probable impact structure occurs in middle Proterozoic dacitic volcanics in the Gawler Ranges, central South Australia. The structure has an inner depressed area about 30 kilometers in diameter that contains the Lake Acraman salina, an intermediate depression or ring about 90 kilometers in diameter, and a possible outer ring approximately 160 kilometers in diameter. Outcrops of dacite in Lake Acraman are intensely shattered and contain shatter cones and multiple sets of shock lamellac in quartz grains. The Acraman structure is the largest probable impact structure known in Australia and is the likely source of dacitic ejecta found in late Precambrian marine shales some 300 kilometers to the east.

  4. Widespread refertilization of cratonic and circum-cratonic lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Ying, Ji-Feng; Su, Ben-Xun

    2013-03-01

    Studies of mantle xenoliths have confirmed that Archean subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) is highly depleted in basaltic components (such as Al, Ca and Na) due to high-degree extraction of mafic and ultramafic melts and thus is refractory and buoyant, which made it chronically stable as tectonically independent units. However, increasing studies show that ancient SCLM can be refertilized by episodic rejuvenation events like infiltration of upwelling fertile material. The North China Craton is one of the most typical cases for relatively complete destruction of its Archean keel since the eruption of Paleozoic kimberlites, as is evidenced by a dramatic change in the compositions of mantle xenoliths sampled by Paleozoic to Cenozoic magmas, reflecting significant lithospheric thinning and the change in the character of the SCLM. The compositional change has been interpreted as the result of refertilization of Archean SCLM via multiple-stage peridotite-melt reactions, suggested by linear correlations between MgO and indices of fertility, covariations of Al2O3 with CaO, La/Yb, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 187Os/188Os and Re-depletion ages (TRD), high Re abundances, scatter in Re-Os isotopic plot, variable in situ TRD ages of sulfides, and correlation between TRD ages and olivine Fo of peridotite xenoliths in Paleozoic kimberlites and Cenozoic basalts on the craton. By integrating major and trace element, Sr, Nd and Os isotopic compositions of peridotite xenoliths and orogenic massif peridotites from the continents of Europe, Asia, America, Africa and Australia, together with previous studies of petrology and geochemistry of global peridotites, we suggest that (1) refertilization of cratonic and circum-cratonic lithospheric mantle is widespread; (2) Archean SCLM worldwide has experienced a multi-stage history of melt depletion and refertilization since segregation from the convecting mantle; (3) cratonic SCLM may be more susceptible to compositional change caused by

  5. The basement of the Punta del Este Terrane (Uruguay): an African Mesoproterozoic fragment at the eastern border of the South American Río de La Plata craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basei, Miguel A. S.; Peel, Elena; Sánchez Bettucci, Leda; Preciozzi, Fernando; Nutman, Allen P.

    2011-04-01

    The Punta del Este Terrane (eastern Uruguay) lies in a complex Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano/Pan-African) orogenic zone considered to contain a suture between South American terranes to the west of Major Gercino-Sierra Ballena Suture Zone and eastern African affinities terranes. Zircon cores from Punta del Este Terrane basement orthogneisses have U-Pb ages of ca. 1,000 Ma, which indicate an lineage with the Namaqua Belt in Southwestern Africa. U-Pb zircon ages also provide the following information on the Punta del Este terrane: the orthogneisses containing the ca. 1,000 Ma inheritance formed at ca. 750 Ma; in contrast to the related terranes now in Africa, reworking of the Punta del Este Terrane during Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenesis was very intense, reaching granulite facies at ca. 640 Ma. The termination of the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny is marked by formation of acid volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks at ca. 570 Ma (Sierra de Aguirre Formation), formation of late sedimentary basins (San Carlos Formation) and then intrusion at ca. 535 Ma of post-tectonic granitoids (Santa Teresa and José Ignacio batholiths). The Punta del Este Terrane and unrelated western terranes represented by the Dom Feliciano Belt and the Río de La Plata Craton were in their present positions by ca. 535 Ma.

  6. Lu-Hf isotopic memory of plume-lithosphere interaction in the source of layered mafic intrusions, Windimurra Igneous Complex, Yilgarn Craton, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, O.; Arculus, R. J.; Ivanic, T. J.; Nebel-Jacobsen, Y. J.

    2013-10-01

    Most layered mafic intrusions (LMI) are formed via multiple magma injections into crustal magma chambers. These magmas are originally sourced from the mantle, likely via plume activity, but may interact with the overriding lithosphere during ascent and emplacement in the crust. The magma injections lead to the establishment of different layers and zones with complex macroscopic, microscopic and cryptic compositional layering through magmatic differentiation and associated cumulate formation, sometimes accompanied by crustal assimilation. These complex mineralogical and petrological processes obscure the nature of the mantle sources of LMI, and typically have limited the degree to which parental liquids can be fully characterised. Here, we present Lu-Hf isotope data for samples from distinct layers of the Upper Zone of the Windimurra Igneous Complex (WIC), an immense late-Archean LMI in the West Australian Yilgarn Craton. Lu-Hf isotope systematics of whole rocks are well correlated (MSWD=5.6, n=17) with an age of ˜3.05±0.05 Ga and initial ɛHf˜+8. This age, however, is older than whole rock Sm-Nd and zircon U-Pb ages of the intrusion, both of which are ca. 2.8 Ga. Stratigraphically-controlled initial Hf isotope variations (associated with multiple episodes of emplacement at ca. 2.8 Ga) indicate isotope mixing between a near-chondritic and an ultra-radiogenic component, the latter with ɛHf[2.8 Ga]>+15. This Hf isotope mixing creates a pseudochron-relationship at the time of intrusion of ˜250 Myr that is superimposed on subsequent radiogenic ingrowth after crystallisation, generating an age that predates the actual emplacement event. Mixing between late-stage crystallisation products (melt + crystals) from the Middle Zone and replenishing, plume-derived liquids was followed by crystal accumulation in a chemically evolving magma chamber. The ultra-radiogenic Hf isotope endmember in the WIC mantle source requires parent-daughter ratios consistent with very early

  7. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia. PMID:12177993

  8. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  9. Bi-directional subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean during the Late Silurian: Magmatic records from both the southern Central Tianshan Block and northern Tarim Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jinjiang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Ge, Maohui

    2016-10-01

    The subduction polarity of the South Tianshan Ocean (STO) is a matter of debate, primarily in that the Paleozoic structures of Tianshan orogenic belt have been strongly overprinted by the Cenozoic intra-continental deformation. Indentifying the arc-related magmatic rocks may provide a convincible clue for understanding the closure process of the STO. In this study, whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotope were presented on the andesite and monzonite from the Bayanbulak area of the southern Central Tianshan Block (CTB) and on the quartz diorite from the Ouxidaban area of the northern Tarim Craton. Geochemically, all the samples are Na-rich, enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Ba, U, K and Pb), and depleted in high strength field elements (Nb, Ta and Ti), like most arc-type igneous rocks. The Bayanbulak andesite samples display high MgO, Fe2O3T, TiO2 and Mg# values, and positive εHf(t) values, indicating magma source from the wedge mantle. But the existence of xenocrystic zircons implies that continental crust material were involved during magma ascend, suggesting a continental arc setting for the Bayanbulak andesite. The Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite samples display relatively higher SiO2 contents, and lower MgO, Fe2O3T and TiO2 concentrations, indicating crustal sources. But the Mg# values of the Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite are 48.76-51.85 and 50.31-53.73, and the εHf(t) values are -2.5 to 8.7 and -1.7 to 4.1, indicating that their magma sources were also mixed by mantle-derived components. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that the Bayanbulak andesite, the Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite were formed at 423, 424 Ma, and 421 Ma, respectively. The age and geochemical data indicate that both the southern CTB and northern Tarim Craton were active continental margins during the Late Silurian, favoring a bi-directional subduction

  10. Stable isotope study of the Archaean rocks of the Vredefort impact structure, central Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, Åke; Harris, Chris; La Grange, Mandy; Stevens, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The Vredefort dome in the Kaapvaal Craton was formed as a result of the impact of a large meteorite at 2.02 Ga. The central core of Archaean granitic basement rocks is surrounded by a collar of uplifted and overturned strata of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, exposing a substantial depth section of the Archaean crust. Orthogneisses of the core show little variation in whole-rock δ 18O value, with the majority being between 8 and 10‰, with a mean of 9.2‰ ( n = 35). Quartz and feldspar have per mil differences that are consistent with O-isotope equilibrium at high temperatures, suggesting minimal interaction with fluids during subsequent cooling. These data refute previous suggestions that the Outer Granite Gneiss (OGG) and Inlandsee Leucogranofels (ILG) of the core represent middle and lower crust, respectively. Granulite-facies greenstone remnants from the ILG have δ 18O values that are on average 1.5‰ higher than the ILG host rocks and are unlikely, therefore, to represent the residuum from the partial melting event that formed the host rock. Witwatersrand Supergroup sedimentary rocks of the collar, which were metamorphosed at greenschist-to amphibolite-facies conditions, generally have lower δ 18O values than the core rocks with a mean value for metapelites of 7.7‰ ( n = 45). Overall, through an ˜20 km thick section of crust, there is a general increase in whole-rock δ 18O value with increasing depth. This is the reverse of what is normal in the crust, largely because the collar rocks have δ 18O values that are unusually low in comparison with metamorphosed sedimentary rocks worldwide. The collar rocks have δD values ranging from -35 to -115‰ (average -62‰, n = 29), which are consistent with interaction with water of meteoric origin, having a δD of about -25 to -45‰. We suggest that fluid movement through the collar rocks was enhanced by impact-induced secondary permeability in the dome structure.

  11. Breakup of pangaea and isolation of relict mammals in australia, South america, and madagascar.

    PubMed

    Fooden, J

    1972-02-25

    The composition of aboriginal land mammal faunas in Australia and New Guinea (prototherians and metatherians), South America (metatherians and eutherians) and Madagascar (eutherians only) is reconsidered in light of continental drift reconstructions of Mesozoic-Tertiary world paleogeography It is proposed that these three faunas represent successively detached samples of the evolving world mammal fauna as it existed when each of these land masses became faunally isolated from the rest of the world as a result of the progressive fragmentation of Pangaea. Isolation of aboriginal prototherians and metatherians in Australia and New Guinea may date from the Upper JurassicLower Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal metatherians and eutherians in South America may date from the Middle Cretaceous-Upper Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal eutherians in Madagascar may date from the Paleocene-Eocene.

  12. The Influence of Economic Factors on Practice in Further Education. Submission to Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ian L.; Parkinson, Kevin J.

    The unprecedented economic growth sustained in the period following World War II to the early 1970s in the world, in Australia, and in particular, in South Australia fostered the growth of liberal education and emphasis on self-development and excellence of the individual. However, the growth in inflation from the modest levels of the early 1970s…

  13. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whisson, Corey S.; Breure, Abraham S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  14. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Whisson, Corey S; Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-01-01

    Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  15. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Whisson, Corey S; Breure, Abraham S H

    2016-01-01

    Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic.

  16. Management of death, dying and euthanasia: attitudes and practices of medical practitioners in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Stevens, C A; Hassan, R

    1994-03-01

    This article presents the first results of a study of the decisions made by health professionals in South Australia concerning the management of death, dying, and euthanasia, and focuses on the findings concerning the attitudes and practices of medical practitioners. Mail-back, self-administered questionnaires were posted in August 1991 to a ten per cent sample of 494 medical practitioners in South Australia randomly selected from the list published by the Medical Board of South Australia. A total response rate of 68 per cent was obtained, 60 per cent of which (298) were usable returns. It was found that forty-seven per cent had received requests from patients to hasten their deaths. Nineteen per cent had taken active steps which had brought about the death of a patient. Sixty-eight per cent thought that guidelines for withholding and withdrawal of treatment should be established. Forty-five per cent were in favour of legalisation of active euthanasia under certain circumstances. PMID:8035439

  17. LAB and other lithospheric discontinuities below Cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, Forough

    2013-04-01

    Cratons are extremely stable continental areas of the Earth's crust, which have been formed and remained largely unchanged since Precambrian. However, their formation and how they survived destruction over billions of years remains a subject of debate. Seismic properties of the cratonic lithosphere reflect its composition and physical state and obtain basic constraints on processes of the formation and evolution of continents. Insight on these issues may be gained by determining the depth and the nature of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB), which is a necessary element of the plate tectonic theory. However, It has proved quite "elusive" beneath the oldest continental areas. What is missing to date is a consensus on the feature that would correspond to the LAB and whether such a feature exists everywhere beneath cratons. The relatively recently developed S receiver function technique employing S-to-P conversions appears promising for detecting the LAB with a sufficiently high resolution and density. A growing number of regional observations obtained from S receiver function studies has detected discontinuities characterized by a significant negative velocity contrast in the upper mantle. However, challenges still remain in detecting the S-to-P conversions from the LAB beneath the Precambrian cratons. Some recent SRF studies observed a deep (> 160 km) negative velocity contrast beneath cratons and interpreted it as the LAB. For example, a deep LAB at about 250 km was reported beneath the Kalahari craton by different authors. Similar results were also obtained beneath some parts of the Canadian shield, East European Craton, Australia, the Arabian Shield and Tanzania craton. In contrast, other SRF studies found no evidence for negative discontinuities at these depths in the North American craton, in Kalahari craton or in Australia. Instead they revealed a very sharp negative velocity gradient at much shallower depth (60-150 km), leading some authors to infer

  18. The dehydration, rehydration and tectonic setting of greenstone belts in a portion of the northern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanreenen, D. D.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Roering, C.; Vanschalkwyk, J. C.; Smit, C. A.; Debeer, J. D.; Stettler, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    High-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade granite-greenstone terranes are well known in several Archaean domains. The geological relationship between these different crustal regions, however, is still controversial. One school of thought favors fundamental genetic differences between high-grade and low-grade terranes while others argue for a depth-controlled crustal evolution. The detailed examination of well-exposed Archaean terranes at different metamorphic grades, therefore, is not only an important source of information about the crustal levels exposed, but also is critical to the understanding of the possible tectonic and metamorphic evolution of greenstone belts with time. Three South African greenstone belts are compared.

  19. Metasomatic enrichment of Proterozoic mantle south of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa: origin of sinusoidal REE patterns in clinopyroxene and garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roex, Anton; Class, Cornelia

    2016-02-01

    Xenoliths of mantle peridotite have been sampled from four kimberlite intrusions, Melton Wold, Hebron, Uintjiesberg and Markt, emplaced through the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Belt, along the southern border of the Kaapvaal Craton. Although many of the xenoliths are heavily altered, constituent clinopyroxene, garnet and phlogopite are fresh and have been analysed by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation ICP-MS for trace elements. Primitive mantle-normalised REE abundances in clinopyroxene are all strongly LREE enriched and show a range of patterns including uniformly MREE-HREE sloped (referred to here as `normal'), sinusoidal and humped sinusoidal patterns. HREE abundances are extremely low (Yb = 0.3-0.06 × PM). REEN patterns in coexisting garnets show a similar range of patterns. When normalised to primitive mantle values, trace element patterns in some clinopyroxenes show strong relative depletion in Rb-Ba, Ta-Nb and Ti, with some samples also being relatively depleted in Zr-Hf. These trace element characteristics are indistinguishable from those found in clinopyroxene and garnet from peridotites from the adjacent cratonic mantle. Numerical modelling of reactive porous flow of an enriched metasomatic melt through a geochemically depleted peridotite matrix can account for the full range in observed REEN patterns. The relative depletion in Rb-Ba, Ta-Nb and Ti can be accounted for by an early crystallisation of phlogopite from the percolating melt. The relative depletion in Zr-Hf in some clinopyroxenes requires either zircon to crystallise in the proximal metasomatic assemblage, or metasomatism by a carbonatitic melt. Modelling results, together with the absence of clinopyroxene with depleted or even partially enriched REEN patterns, suggest that all clinopyroxene has been modally introduced through metasomatism into an initially highly depleted harzburgitic protolith. The range in Sr and Pb isotopic composition of the clinopyroxenes

  20. Large vertical δ13CDIC gradients in Early Triassic seas of the South China craton: Implications for oceanographic changes related to Siberian Traps volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Horacek, Micha; Qiu, Haiou; Song, Haijun; Tian, Li; Chen, Zhong-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Vertical gradients in the δ13C of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon (Δδ13CDIC) can be estimated for paleomarine systems based on δ13Ccarb data from sections representing a range of depositional water depths. An analysis of eight Lower Triassic sections from the northern Yangtze Platform and Nanpanjiang Basin, representing water depths of ~ 50 to 500 m, allowed reconstruction of Δδ13CDIC in Early Triassic seas of the South China craton for seven time slices representing four negative (N) and three positive (P) carbon-isotope excursions: 8.5‰ (N1), 5.8‰ (P1), 3.5‰ (N2), 6.5‰ (P2), 7.8‰ (N3), - 1.9‰ (P3), and 2.2‰ (N4). These values are much larger than vertical δ13CDIC gradients in the modern ocean (~ 1-3‰) due to intensified stratification and reduced vertical mixing in Early Triassic seas. Peaks in Δδ13CDIC around the PTB (N1) and in the early to mid-Smithian (P2-N3) coincided with episodes of strong climatic warming, reduced marine productivity, and expanded ocean anoxia. The Dienerian-Smithian boundary marks the onset of a major mid-Early Triassic disturbance, commencing ~ 1 Myr after the latest Permian mass extinction, that we link to a second eruptive stage of the Siberian Traps. Inhospitable oceanic conditions generally persisted until the early Spathian, when strong climatic cooling caused re-invigoration of global-ocean circulation, leading to an interval of negative Δδ13CDIC values and a sharp increase in δ13Ccarb driven by upwelling of nutrient-rich deepwaters. These developments marked the end of the main eruptive stage of the Siberian Traps.

  1. Constraints on Shear Velocity in the Cratonic Upper Mantle From Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, A. C.; Dalton, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the prevailing notion of Precambrian continental lithosphere as a thick boundary layer (200-300 km), defined by a depleted composition and a steady-state conductively cooled temperature structure, has been challenged by several lines of seismological evidence. One, profiles of shear velocity with depth beneath cratons exhibit lower wave speed at shallow depths and higher wave speed at greater depths than can be explained by temperature alone. These profiles are also characterized by positive or flat velocity gradients with depth and anomalously high attenuation in the uppermost mantle, both of which are difficult to reconcile with the low temperatures and large thermal gradient expected with a thermal boundary layer. Two, body-wave receiver-function studies have detected a mid-lithospheric discontinuity that requires a large and abrupt velocity decrease with depth in cratonic regions that cannot be achieved by thermal gradients alone. Here, we used forward-modeling to identify the suite of shear-velocity profiles that are consistent with phase-velocity observations made for Rayleigh waves that primarily traversed cratons in North America, South America, Africa, and Australia. We considered two approaches; with the first, depth profiles of shear velocity were predicted from thermal models of the cratonic upper mantle that correspond to a range of assumed values of mantle potential temperature, surface heat flow, and radiogenic heat production in the crust and upper mantle. With the second approach, depth profiles of shear velocity were randomly generated. In both cases, Rayleigh wave phase velocity was calculated from the Earth models and compared to the observed values. We show that it is very difficult to match the observations with an Earth model containing a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle; instead, the best-fit models contain a flat or positive velocity gradient with depth. We explore the implications of this result for the thermal and

  2. Perceived Challenges in Dementia Care by Vietnamese Family Caregivers and Care Workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Habel, Lesley; De Bellis, Anita

    2015-09-01

    The majority of Vietnamese Australians migrated to Australia as refugees to escape a war and this unique migration background may affect their ability to access and utilize healthcare services in Australia. Inability to utilize dementia services is associated with higher levels of caregiver burden, higher rates of morbidities and mortality and hospitalization. The aim of the study was to explore the perceived challenges of dementia care from Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret and describe the experiences of the participants. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with six Vietnamese family caregivers and a focus group with Vietnamese care workers using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited from a Vietnamese community care organization in South Australia. Five themes were identified from the data analysis namely: (1) a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate dementia education programs; (2) a willingness and unwillingness to seek help; (3) poor knowledge of health care service availability related to dementia; (4) the effect of language barrier in accessing services; and (5) the main sources of services utilized. The study revealed that Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers held different views on the association of stigma with dementia. Findings also revealed factors that impacted accessing and utilizing dementia services. These findings facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of Vietnamese family caregivers' needs and have implications for developing individualized support for family caregivers and for consumer-directed dementia services in Australia.

  3. Perceived Challenges in Dementia Care by Vietnamese Family Caregivers and Care Workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Habel, Lesley; De Bellis, Anita

    2015-09-01

    The majority of Vietnamese Australians migrated to Australia as refugees to escape a war and this unique migration background may affect their ability to access and utilize healthcare services in Australia. Inability to utilize dementia services is associated with higher levels of caregiver burden, higher rates of morbidities and mortality and hospitalization. The aim of the study was to explore the perceived challenges of dementia care from Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers. Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics was used to interpret and describe the experiences of the participants. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with six Vietnamese family caregivers and a focus group with Vietnamese care workers using purposive sampling. Participants were recruited from a Vietnamese community care organization in South Australia. Five themes were identified from the data analysis namely: (1) a need for culturally and linguistically appropriate dementia education programs; (2) a willingness and unwillingness to seek help; (3) poor knowledge of health care service availability related to dementia; (4) the effect of language barrier in accessing services; and (5) the main sources of services utilized. The study revealed that Vietnamese family caregivers and Vietnamese care workers held different views on the association of stigma with dementia. Findings also revealed factors that impacted accessing and utilizing dementia services. These findings facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of Vietnamese family caregivers' needs and have implications for developing individualized support for family caregivers and for consumer-directed dementia services in Australia. PMID:25935206

  4. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: rising rates with obesity and aboriginality in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, A R; Ling, J; Gomes, B; Antoniou, G; Sutherland, L M; Cundy, P J

    2011-10-01

    We analysed the incidence of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in South Australia, investigating possible associations between an increased incidence of SCFE, the local indigenous population and the Australian obesity epidemic during the last 20 years. Data including race, age and gender were collected to obtain a profile of the South Australian SCFE patient, and were then compared with epidemiological data for South Australian adolescents. We concluded that the incidence of both obesity and SCFE is increasing. We also noted that the median weight of SCFE patients has increased and the mean age at diagnosis has decreased. Despite weight profiles comparable with those of the general population, we noted that an indigenous child was three times more likely to develop SCFE than a non-indigenous child. As far as we know there is no published literature on the predisposition of Aboriginal Australians to SCFE.

  5. Applications of Mobile GIS in Forestry South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battad, D. T.; Mackenzie, P.

    2012-07-01

    South Australian Forestry Corporation (ForestrySA) had been actively investigating the applications of mobile GIS in forestry for the past few years. The main objective is to develop an integrated mobile GIS capability that allows staff to collect new spatial information, verify existing data, and remotely access and post data from the field. Two (2) prototype mobile GIS applications have been developed already using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ARCGISR technology as the main spatial component. These prototype systems are the Forest Health Surveillance System and the Mobile GIS for Wetlands System. The Forest Health Surveillance System prototype is used primarily for aerial forest health surveillance. It was developed using a tablet PC with ArcMapR GIS. A customised toolbar was developed using ArcObjectsR in the Visual Basic 6 Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The resulting dynamic linked library provides a suite of custom tools which enables the following: - quickly create spatial features and attribute the data - full utilisation of global positioning system (GPS) technology - excellent screen display navigation tools, i.e. pan, rotate map, capture of flight path - seamless integration of data into GIS as geodatabase (GDB) feature classes - screen entry of text and conversion to annotation feature classes The Mobile GIS for Wetlands System prototype was developed for verifying existing wetland areas within ForestrySA's plantation estate, collect new wetland data, and record wetland conditions. Mapping of actual wetlands within ForestrySA's plantation estate is very critical because of the need to establish protection buffers around these features during the implementation of plantation operations. System development has been focussed on a mobile phone platform (HTC HD2R ) with WindowsR Mobile 6, ESRI's ArcGISR Mobile software development kit (SDK) employing ArcObjectsR written on C#.NET IDE, and ArcGIS ServerR technology. The system

  6. Building a Nation: Religion and Values in the Public Schools of the USA, Australia, and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, Jacqueline Joy; de Waal, Elda

    2008-01-01

    Although the systems of public schools differ among Australia, South Africa and the USA, all three countries recognize that religion plays a significant role in determining values. All three countries have written constitutions but only South Africa and the USA have a Bill of Rights that protects persons' exercise of religious beliefs. In…

  7. Mineral thermobarometry and fluid inclusion studies on the Closepet granite, Eastern Dharwar Craton, south India: Implications to emplacement and evolution of late-stage fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Sourabh; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.; Jayananda, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Closepet granite (CPG), a spectacularly exposed magmatic body along with other intrusive bodies (to the east of it) typifies the late Archean granitic activity in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC), south India. In the present study, the P-T-fO2 conditions of emplacement and physico-chemical environment of the associated magmatic-hydrothermal regime of CPG have been retrieved on the basis of mineral chemical and fluid inclusion studies. Amphibole-plagioclase Ti-in-amphibole and Ti-in-biotite geothermometers along with Al-in-amphibole geobarometer have been used to reconstruct the emplacement temperature and pressure conditions in the majority of the pluton. Estimated temperatures of emplacement of CPG vary from to 740 to 540 °C. A variation of pressure from 4.8 to 4.1 kilo bars corresponding to this temperature range was obtained. While there is a faint south to north negative gradient in temperature, the variation of pressure does not seem to follow this trend and indicates more or less same crustal level of emplacement for the body between Ramanagaram-Kalyandurga segment extending for about 230 km. Mineral chemistry of biotite indicates crystallization of CPG under high oxygen fugacity conditions (mostly above QFM buffer) with no clear spatial variation in the fugacity of halogen species in the late-stage magmatic fluid. It may be surmised that barring the southernmost part of CPG, there is no perceptible variation in the physicochemical environment of emplacement. Fluid Inclusion studies in the granitic matrix quartz and pegmatite/vein quartz show dominance of H2O and H2O-CO2 fluids respectively in them. The difference in the fluid characteristics is interpreted in terms of the initial loss of CO2 rich fluid from granitic magma and aqueous-rich nature during the later stages of crystallization of quartz. The exsolved CO2-rich fluid was responsible in formation of the later quartz and pegmatitic veins at different crustal levels and also possibly was

  8. Making the most of open windows: establishing health in all policies in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Williams, Carmel; Lawless, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Significant improvements in population health are likely to arise when the social determinants ofhealth are addressed. This creates a challenge for health systems, as the policy levers to influence the determinants largely lie outside of their direct control. Health agencies have been attempting to develop responses that affect these policy levers with mixed success. Success often requires particular conditions or "windows of opportunity" to be present before even small systemic change can be made. The government of South Australia has developed a practical, policy-oriented response to address the determinants of health--Health in All Policies--and has been successfully working across government for the past five years, using a policy learning process to implement this approach. This article will focus on how the South Australian Health in All Policies initiative started and the conditions that enabled South Australia to establish a centralized governance structure, harness a group of cross-sector policy entrepreneurs, and conduct health lens projects across a range of policy issues. The authors will comment on the nature of these conditions and their relevance for other governments struggling to reduce the burden of chronic disease and growing health budgets by addressing the social determinants of health. PMID:24684091

  9. Geochemistry of C, N, S, Fe, and Mo in the 3.2 and 2.7 Ga sulfide-rich carbonaceous shales from Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, K. E.

    2013-05-01

    Archean sulfidic black shales, if they are modern-weathering-free drillcores, provide unique information on the co-evolution of Earth and Life. To investigate temporal and spatial changes in the early environments, we conducted a series of geochemical and stable isotope analyses for organic C, organic N, S speciation (pyrite S, sulfate S, organic S, and elemental S), major and minor element compositions including Mo, Fe speciation, and micro FT-IR and laser Raman spectroscopy for extracted kerogen, for >100 samples in total. Here we report our recent progress in the studies of biogeochemical cycling of C, N, S, Fe, and Mo and the origin of organic matter in the 3.2 and 2.7 Ga black shales (drillcores CL1, CL2, DX, WRL1, RHDH2A). The CL1, CL2, DX drillcores were recovered by our "Dixon Island- Cleaverville Drilling Project" (DXCL-DP) in Pilbara, Western Australia. The WRL1 and RHDH2A drillcores were used by Brocks et al. (1999), Lindsay and Braiser (2002), Yamaguchi (2002), Yamaguchi et al. (2005), and Eigenbrode and Freeman (2006). All of the obtained data are very difficult to explain only by geochemical processes in strictly anoxic environments, where both atmosphere and oceans were completely anoxic, like an environment before the inferred "Great Oxidation Event" when pO2 was lower than 0.00001 PAL. Thus, our extensive data set may be used as a strong evidence for at least local and temporal existence of oxidized environment as far back as 3.2 Ga ago, and modern-style biogeochemical cycling of C, N, S, Fe, and Mo has been operating since then. This further implies that oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans was substantial during deposition of the sediments, ~800 Ma earlier than commonly thought.

  10. Hydrothermal remobilisation around a deformed and remobilised komatiite-hosted Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit, Sarah's Find, Agnew Wiluna greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vaillant, Margaux; Saleem, Ahmad; Barnes, Stephen J.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Miller, John; Beresford, Steve; Perring, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    The Sarah's Find nickel deposit, located 4.5 km north of the Mount Keith nickel mine, Western Australia, was chosen as a case study to investigate the nature and three-dimensional geometry of a geochemical halo created by the hydrothermal remobilisation of base metals and platinum group elements into the country rock surrounding a small massive Ni sulphide orebody. Portable and laboratory-based XRF analyses were carried out on samples from a shear zone localised along the basal komatiite-dacite contact that hosts the orebody. A geochemical halo was identified that extends along the shear zone up to 1780 m away from the massive sulphides, parallel to a prominent stretching lineation. Elevated Ni and Pd are associated with high As, Co, Cu and S. Palladium and Pt concentrations increase with proximity to massive sulphides (from 6 to 1190 ppb Pd). These anomalous concentrations reflect the presence of sulfarsenides and sulphides, either physically remobilised and forming veinlets close to the massive sulphides, or hydrothermally transported and redeposited within the foliation. In situ laser ablation ICP-MS indicates that Pd and Pt are hosted within these nickel sulfarsenides. This Ni-Co-As-Pd geochemical halo, observed around the Sarah's Find ore body, is interpreted as forming syn deformation, by the circulation of As-rich hydrothermal fluids dissolving base metals, Pd and Pt from the orebody and redepositing them along the sheared footwall contact. Similar Ni-Co-Pd-Pt-As geochemical haloes could potentially exist around any magmatic nickel sulphide mineral system that has undergone a phase of arsenic metasomatism and may be a generally applicable proximity indicator for nickel sulphides in hydrothermally altered terranes.

  11. Inter-annual rainfall variations and suicide in New South Wales, Australia, 1964-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Neville; Butler, Colin D.; Hanigan, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in New South Wales is shown to be related to annual precipitation, supporting a widespread and long-held assumption that drought in Australia increases the likelihood of suicide. The relationship, although statistically significant, is not especially strong and is confounded by strong, long-term variations in the suicide rate not related to precipitation variations. A decrease in precipitation of about 300 mm would lead to an increase in the suicide rate of approximately 8% of the long-term mean suicide rate.

  12. Impact ejecta horizon within late precambrian shales, adelaide geosyncline, South australia.

    PubMed

    Gostin, V A; Haines, P W; Jenkins, R J; Compston, W; Williams, I S

    1986-07-11

    A solitary layer of shattered crustal rock fragments has been traced over a distance of 260 kilometers within folded 600-million-year-old Precambrian marine shales of the Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia. The fragments consist entirely of acid to intermediate volcanics (approximately 1575 million years old) displaying shattered mineral grains, shock lamellae in quartz, and small shatter cones. Fragments reach 30 centimeters in diameter and show evidence of vertical fall emplacement. Available evidence points to derivation of the rock fragments from a distant hypervelocity impact into the Gawler Range Volcanics at Lake Acraman, approximately 300 kilometers west of the Adelaide Geosyncline.

  13. The struggle for recognition: The nurse practitioner in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Appel, A L; Malcolm, P

    1999-09-01

    Recognition of clinical expertise seems to be a worldwide struggle for nurses. In New South Wales (NSW), Australia, nurse practitioners (NPs) are currently struggling for formal recognition of their position. The role of NP is seen as a means of fulfilling the desire of expert nurses for optimal autonomy and recognition in the health care system. This article examines advanced nursing practice within the context of the Australian health care system and the NP movement in NSW, including the pilot projects conducted. Discussion includes contentious issues such as nurse-prescribed medications, Medicare funding, and support for the NP role from within the nursing and medical professions. PMID:11188555

  14. Colonial judiciaries, Aboriginal protection and South Australia's policy of punishing "with exemplary severity".

    PubMed

    Nettelbeck, Amanda; Foster, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ways in which Europeans experienced the legal system for crimes against Aboriginal people needs more systematic research. Although for the first fifty years of Australian settlement Aboriginal legal status was protractedly ambiguous, the foundational principle of later-established South Australia was that Aboriginal people were British subjects and settler crimes against them would be punished 'with exemplary severity'. This paper puts this foundational principle to the test by examining the working of the legal system where Europeans were investigated for the deaths of Aboriginal people. Ultimately, we argue, the principle of protecting Aboriginal people as British subjects not only failed, but became inverted into a principle of Aboriginal punishment.

  15. New SHRIMP U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the crustal stabilization of southern South America, from the margin of the Rio de Plata (Sierra de Ventana) craton to northern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, E.; Cawood, P. A.; Rossello, E.; Lopez de Luchi, M. G.; Rapalini, A.; Jourdan, F.

    2008-12-01

    Two models exist to explain the late Paleozoic tectonic history for southern South America: an accretionary model of crustal growth through magmatism and a collisional model involving pre-existing continental elements, namely, the Rio de Plata craton and the possibly allochthonous terrane(s) of Patagonia, the Northern Patagonia Massif and the Deseado Massif. We report new U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar results from rocks within a posited collision zone between the SW edge of the Rio de Plata craton and the northern margin of the Northern Patagonia Massif. Igneous basement samples from the Sierra de Ventana region, Buenos Aires province, were dated by ion microprobe (SHRIMP) analysis of zircon. A previously unrecognized occurrence of Paleoproterozoic basement indicates that the Rio de Plata craton extends ca.250 km farther west than considered. The majority of the basement rocks are shallow mid-Cambrian granitoids and rhyolites, including the rocks of the Cerro Colorado granite, which is intrusive into the sediments of the Curamalal Gp, signifying that these mature quartzites and conglomerates are older than early Cambrian in age, possibly correlated with the low-grade sedimentary rocks of the Tandilia Range that includes the La Tinta Fm. The 40Ar/39Ar ages from biotite, muscovite, and sericite from three different sheared basement localities demonstrates deformation in the latest Permian (265-260 Ma), ca. 20 Ma after the foreland deposition of the synorogenic Tunas Fm. in the upper Pilahuinco Gp, constrained by 282.4 ± 2.8 Ma zircon ages in volcanic ashbeds. Farther south, along the northern margin of the Northern Patagonian Massif, late Ordovician 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of granites intrusive into the Cambro-Ordovician Nahuel Niyeu Fm. are consistent with the presence of Ordovician magmatism along the W edge of the Rio de Plata craton. These ages alternate with late Permian 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from undeformed granites and pegmatites, as well as early Jurassic cross

  16. Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Shephard, Lisa; Bastian, Ivan; Globan, Maria; Fyfe, Janet A M; Cousins, Debby V; Machado, Aaron; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the first case in South Australia, Australia, of Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia with intrahistocytic acid-fast beaded filamentous bacilli was seen on histology. M. pinnipedii was confirmed by full 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spillover concerns for public health and cattle are discussed. PMID:25632695

  17. Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Shephard, Lisa; Bastian, Ivan; Globan, Maria; Fyfe, Janet A M; Cousins, Debby V; Machado, Aaron; Woolford, Lucy

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the first case in South Australia, Australia, of Mycobacterium pinnipedii tuberculosis in a free-ranging Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus). Severe pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia with intrahistocytic acid-fast beaded filamentous bacilli was seen on histology. M. pinnipedii was confirmed by full 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spillover concerns for public health and cattle are discussed.

  18. Lead in livers and gizzards of waterfowl shot in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kingsford, R T; Kacprzak, J L; Ziaziaris, J

    1994-01-01

    Few data exist on lead in waterfowl within New South Wales, Australia, despite global concern about lead poisoning in this group of birds. The gizzards and livers from 716 ducks (seven species) were collected from six sites within New South Wales during the 1992 duck shooting season. Six birds had ingested shot in their gizzards (<1%); four waterfowl had high concentrations of lead in their livers (>6 mg kg(-1) wet-weight (ww)) and a further three had elevated concentrations of lead in their livers (>2 mg kg(-1) ww). Mean lead concentrations in the livers of birds were low (range 0.11-0.28 mg kg(-1) ww; among six sites). Lead concentrations in livers of the herbivorous maned duck Chenonetta jubata were generally lower than in other omnivorous or carnivorous species. Low lead concentrations in tissues reflected low hunting pressure at all sites (0-0.27 hunters ha(-1) year(-1)).

  19. Pyrosequencing reveals diverse microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; He, Liming; Li, Zhiyong

    2014-05-01

    Diverse sessile organisms inhabit the coral reef ecosystems, including corals, sponges, and sea anemones. In the past decades, scleractinian corals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Scleractinia) and their associated microorganisms have attracted much attention. Zoanthids (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Zoanthidea) are commonly found in coral reefs. However, little is known about the community structure of zoanthid-associated microbiota. In this study, the microbial community associated with the zoanthid Palythoa australiae in the South China Sea was investigated by 454 pyrosequencing. As a result, 2,353 bacterial, 583 archaeal, and 36 eukaryotic microbial ribotypes were detected, respectively. A total of 22 bacterial phyla (16 formally described phyla and six candidate phyla) were recovered. Proteobacteria was the most abundant group, followed by Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria. High-abundance Rhizobiales and diverse Chloroflexi were observed in the bacterial community. The archaeal population was composed of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, with Marine Group I as the dominant lineage. In particular, Candidatus Nitrosopumilus dominated the archaeal community. Besides bacteria and archaea, the zoanthid harbored eukaryotic microorganisms including fungi and algae though their diversity was very low. This study provided the first insights into the microbial community associated with P. australiae by 454 pyrosequencing, consequently laid a basis for the understanding of the association of P. australiae-microbes symbioses.

  20. Lyme disease: a search for a causative agent in ticks in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Russell, R C; Doggett, S L; Munro, R; Ellis, J; Avery, D; Hunt, C; Dickeson, D

    1994-04-01

    Attempts were made to identify the causative organism of Lyme disease in Australia from possible tick vectors. Ticks were collected in coastal areas of New South Wales, Australia, from localities associated with putative human infections. The ticks were dissected; a portion of the gut contents was examined for spirochaetes by microscopy, the remaining portion inoculated into culture media. The detection of spirochaetes in culture was performed using microscopy, and immunochemical and molecular (PCR) techniques. Additionally, whole ticks were tested with PCR for spirochaetes. From 1990 to 1992, approximately 12,000 ticks were processed for spirochaetes. No evidence of Borrelia burgdorferi or any other spirochaete was recovered from or detected in likely tick vectors. Some spirochaete-like objects detected in the cultures were shown to be artifacts, probably aggregates of bacterial flagellae. There is no definitive evidence for the existence in Australia of B. burgdorferi the causative agent of true Lyme disease, or for any other tick-borne spirochaete that may be responsible for a local syndrome being reported as Lyme disease.

  1. Stalled Orogen Linked to East Antarctic Craton Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos, Y. M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, C.; Bell, R. E.; Jordan, T. A.; Damaske, D.

    2015-12-01

    The interior of East Antarctica is often regarded as a coherent Archean craton surrounded by Paleo to Neoproterozoic orogenic belts. Here we use recent aerogeophysical, satellite magnetic, satellite gravity and passive seismic results in central East Antarctica to challenge this view. Firstly, anomalously thick crust (compared to most other cratons) has been imaged in East Antarctica by both passive seismic and gravity modelling with values up to 60 km (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature; An et al., 2015, JGR). The thick crust underlies both the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and an elevated region between Lake Vostok and Dronning Maud Land, referred to as the East Antarctic Mountain Ranges plateau (An et al., 2015). Second, satellite magnetic data reveal that the Gamburtev Province lies in between the Ruker/Princess Elizabeth Land, Vostok, Nimrod/South Pole and Recovery provinces. The Nimrod/ South Pole province is a Paleo to Meso Proterozoic igneous province formed along the edges of the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Mawson continent (e.g. Goodge and Fanning, 2010 JGR). Our aerogeophysical and sediment provenance data interpretations suggest that the Gamburtsev Province represents a distinct Grenvillian-age orogenic belt. A stalled orogen with thick crust (i.e. an orogen where widespread orogenic collapse and root delamination has not occurred)- is preserved in the interior of East Antarctica resembling e.g. the Paleoproterozoic Trans Hudson Orogen and segments of Grenvillian orogens in Laurentia. The stalled orogen may relate to widespread accretionary and collisional events within Rodinia. However, passive seismic interpretations (An et al., 2015) favour linking crustal thickening to the Pan-African age assembly of Greater India, East Antarctica and Australia within Gondwana (e.g. Aitken et al., 2014 GRL). Further aerogeophysical observations over Princess Elizabeth Land are timely to enable more robust correlations with geological observations and to help dating the

  2. 40Ar- 39Ar dating of detrital muscovite in provenance investigations: a case study from the Adelaide Rift Complex, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Peter W.; Turner, Simon P.; Kelley, Simon P.; Wartho, Jo-Anne; Sherlock, Sarah C.

    2004-11-01

    Detrital zircon ages are commonly used to investigate sediment provenance and supply routes. Here, we explore the advantages of employing multiple, complimentary techniques via a case study of the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian of the Adelaide Rift Complex, South Australia. Detrital muscovite Ar-Ar ages are presented from stratigraphic units, or equivalents, that have previously been the subject of U-Pb detrital zircon dating, and, in some cases, whole-rock Sm-Nd isotope studies. The zircon age ranges and whole-rock Sm-Nd isotope data suggest that early Neoproterozoic sediments from near the base of the Adelaide Rift Complex comprise a mixture of detritus derived from the adjacent Gawler Craton (Palaeoproterozoic to earliest Mesoproterozoic) and overlying Gairdner flood basalts. In contrast, detrital muscovites from this level have a broad scatter of Mesoproterozoic infrared (IR) laser total fusion Ar-Ar ages, while UV laser traverses indicate that the age spread reflects partial resetting by multiple heating events, rather than a mixture of sources. Younger Neoproterozoic sediments document replacement of the Gawler Craton by the more distant Musgrave and/or Albany-Fraser Orogens as the main provenance. The Cambrian Kanmantoo Group marks an abrupt change in depositional style and a new sediment source. The Kanmantoo Group have older Nd model ages than underlying strata, yet are dominated by near to deposition-aged (˜500-650 Ma) detrital zircons and muscovites, suggesting rapid cooling and exhumation of a tectonically active provenance region. Although this source remains uncertain, evidence points towards the distant Pan-African orogenic belts. Deposition in the Adelaide Rift Complex was terminated in the late Early Cambrian by the Delamerian Orogeny, and the results of previous detrital mineral dating studies from the Lachlan Fold Belt to the east are consistent with at least partial derivation of these sediments from reworked upper Adelaide Rift Complex (Kanmantoo

  3. The electrical resistivity structure of lithosphere across the Dharwar craton nucleus and Coorg block of South Indian shield: Evidence of collision and modified and preserved lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Azeez, K. K.; Veeraswamy, K.; Gupta, Arvind K.; Babu, Narendra; Chandrapuri, Sateesh; Harinarayana, T.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetotelluric-derived two-dimensional lithospheric resistivity structure of the western Dharwar craton (WDC) and adjoining Coorg block indicates isolated low-resistivity zones in the crust and three striking upper mantle conductive features within the highly resistive Archean lithosphere. The crustal conductors in the WDC show good spatial correlation with the exposed supracrustal rocks conformable with the relic schist belt channels having conductive mineral grains. Conductive zones within the Coorg crust might be related to the relatively young (933 Ma) metamorphic processes in the area and/or possible fluids derived from the Cretaceous passage of Reunion plume in the proximity of Coorg area. A near-vertical conductive structure extending from the lower crust into the upper mantle coincides with the transition zone between Coorg and WDC. This is interpreted as the suture zone between the two tectonic blocks and provides evidence for the individuality of the two Archean terrains. An anomalous upper mantle conductive zone found beneath the craton nucleus may indicate a modified cratonic lithosphere. This could have been derived due to the collision between Coorg and WDC and possibly survived by the subsequent multiple episodes of melt and fluid infiltration processes experienced in the region. Thick (~190 km) and preserved lithosphere is mapped at the eastern segment of WDC. Resistive lithosphere of ~125 km thickness is imaged for the Coorg block.

  4. Mechanisms of sandstone deposition in a late Proterozoic submarine canyon, Adelaide geosyncline, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    von der Borch, C.C.; Grady, A.E.

    1984-06-01

    Late Proterozoic submarine canyon fills the Adelaide Supergroup (Flinders Range, South Australia) are asymmetrical in terms of their facies. Coarse breccia units, commonly associated with coarse-grained channelized turbidite sandstone units, generally occur adjacent to north walls of all the east-west-trending canyon incisions. In contrast, fine-grained sandstones and mudstones within the canyon fill are generally associated with south walls. In one canyon (Patsy-Springs canyon), an additional element of asymmetry is associated with the prevalence of northward-climbing sets of climbing ripples (southward-dipping stoss sides) within channelized turbidites, in what are interpreted to be major thalweg channels and their associated levees. Flute casts at the bases of individual turbidite sandstones invariably indicate initial turbidity current flow to the west throughout the vertical sequences of the channel fills. Parallel laminations above the flute casts in each flow pass upward into climbing ripples with south-dipping stoss sides, implying southward lateral accretion across the channel of a levee or bar as each turbidity current decelerated. The asymmetries outlined could be explained by: Coriolis force acting on the turbidity currents, or the existence on a steep slope of a meandering canyon gorge, confining a thalweg channel developed within subsequent canyon fill. In such a situation, roller-coastering turbidity currents would seek outer bends of the meandering primary gorge.

  5. Diapirism and structural thickening in an Early Palaeozoic subduction complex, southeastern New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergusson, Christopher L.; Frikken, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A major problem in the study of subduction complexes has been to distinguish between processes of mud diapirism, deformation of unlithified sediments, frontal accretion and underplating. In the Batemans Bay area, Cambro-Ordovician rocks of the south coast of New South Wales (eastern Australia) contain common mud-rich mélanges that occur amongst an imbricated succession of Early to Middle Ordovician quartz turbidites, Late Ordovician black mudstone and chert, Cambrian limestone and mafic volcanics. An early set of fluidal obliquely trending folds are restricted to the Late Ordovician black mudstone and chert and probably formed by gravitational down-slope movement on a lower trench slope. Features indicative of deformation of unlithified sediments are still preserved and include mud injections, delicate small-scale faulting and the absence of grain-scale deformation. Tight to isoclinal north-south folds with axial planar west-dipping cleavage overprint all units and formed during the younger main-phase deformation that post-dated early deformation in the prism. The mélange has been strongly overprinted by this main-phase deformation. Early mélange formation is attributed to mud diapirism involving intrusion along early accretionary faults, bedding planes and in pipe-like features resulting in chaotic outcrop and map patterns.

  6. Sulfur sources of sedimentary "buckshot" pyrite in the Auriferous Conglomerates of the Mesoarchean Witwatersrand and Ventersdorp Supergroups, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, B. M.; Ono, S.; Gutzmer, J.; Lin, Y.; Beukes, N. J.

    2014-08-01

    Large rounded pyrite grains (>1 mm), commonly referred to as "buckshot" pyrite grains, are a characteristic feature of the auriferous conglomerates (reefs) in the Witwatersrand and Ventersdorp supergroups, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. Detailed petrographic analyses of the reefs indicated that the vast majority of the buckshot pyrite grains are of reworked sedimentary origin, i.e., that the pyrite grains originally formed in the sedimentary environment during sedimentation and diagenesis. Forty-one of these reworked sedimentary pyrite grains from the Main, Vaal, Basal, Kalkoenkrans, Beatrix, and Ventersdorp Contact reefs were analyzed for their multiple sulfur isotope compositions (δ34S, Δ33S, and Δ36S) to determine the source of the pyrite sulfur. In addition, five epigenetic pyrite samples (pyrite formed after sedimentation and lithification) from the Middelvlei and the Ventersdorp Contact reefs were measured for comparison. The δ34S, Δ33S, and Δ36S values of all 41 reworked sedimentary pyrite grains indicate clear signatures of mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionation and range from -6.8 to +13.8 ‰, -1.7 to +1.7 ‰, and -3.9 to +0.9 ‰, respectively. In contrast, the five epigenetic pyrite samples display a very limited range of δ34S, Δ33S, and Δ36S values (+0.7 to +4.0 ‰, -0.3 to +0.0 ‰. and -0.3 to +0.1 ‰, respectively). Despite the clear signatures of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation, very few data points plot along the primary Archean photochemical array suggesting a weak photolytic control over the data set. Instead, other factors command a greater degree of influence such as pyrite paragenesis, the prevailing depositional environment, and non-photolytic sulfur sources. In relation to pyrite paragenesis, reworked syngenetic sedimentary pyrite grains (pyrite originally precipitated along the sediment-water interface) are characterized by negative δ34S and Δ33S values, suggesting open system conditions with respect

  7. Unstructured cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention in rural South Australia: does it meet best practice guidelines?

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Tracey; Kucia, Angela; Greenhill, Jennene

    2008-06-01

    Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation programs that address risk factors, psychological problems, and physical activity are essential in optimizing health and reducing the risk of further cardiac events. Behavioural and lifestyle modification support offered through these programs is predicated on initial identification of risk. Many rural populations in Australia do not have access to structured cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs, and the level of support available to them in the form of unstructured CR is unclear. A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients presenting to hospital with myocardial infarction in rural South Australia over a 12 month period was undertaken to identify documented evidence of assessment of and intervention for lifestyle and behavioural risk factors in-hospital and at follow up in general practice (GP) clinics. Of 77 eligible participants, permission was received to access the medical records of 55 patients in the hospital setting, and 34 of these 55 patients in GP clinic follow up. Documented evidence of assessment of modifiable risk factors was inadequate for the majority of participants, with the exception of smoking status, hypertension and diabetes. This suggests that the majority of these participants did not receive lifestyle and behavioural interventions in line with current National Heart Foundation Recommendations for Cardiac Rehabilitation. Barriers to comprehensive CR and secondary prevention services in Australia must be addressed, particularly in high risk rural and remote populations. Future research must focus on the ongoing monitoring and evaluation of rural health care services to analyse existing levels of CR and secondary prevention to ensure current guidelines are being implemented, to support the further development and resourcing of CR services and to evaluate the subsequent impact on patient outcomes.

  8. Suicide and drought in New South Wales, Australia, 1970-2007.

    PubMed

    Hanigan, Ivan C; Butler, Colin D; Kokic, Philip N; Hutchinson, Michael F

    2012-08-28

    There is concern in Australia that droughts substantially increase the incidence of suicide in rural populations, particularly among male farmers and their families. We investigated this possibility for the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia between 1970 and 2007, analyzing data on suicides with a previously established climatic drought index. Using a generalized additive model that controlled for season, region, and long-term suicide trends, we found an increased relative risk of suicide of 15% (95% confidence interval, 8%-22%) for rural males aged 30-49 y when the drought index rose from the first quartile to the third quartile. In contrast, the risk of suicide for rural females aged >30 y declined with increased values of the drought index. We also observed an increased risk of suicide in spring and early summer. In addition there was a smaller association during unusually warm months at any time of year. The spring suicide increase is well documented in nontropical locations, although its cause is unknown. The possible increased risk of suicide during drought in rural Australia warrants public health focus and concern, as does the annual, predictable increase seen each spring and early summer. Suicide is a complex phenomenon with many interacting social, environmental, and biological causal factors. The relationship between drought and suicide is best understood using a holistic framework. Climate change projections suggest increased frequency and severity of droughts in NSW, accompanied and exacerbated by rising temperatures. Elucidating the relationships between drought and mental health will help facilitate adaptation to climate change. PMID:22891347

  9. Learner Diversity: A Successful Blended Professional Learning Approach Promoting Quality Inclusion in the United Kingdom and New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clench, Hugh; King, Brian Smyth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an online training model for teachers and teaching assistants working with students with special educational needs. Originally developed as part of a government funded initiative in the UK, the model has been successfully applied in other contexts, most notably in New South Wales, Australia where it has had…

  10. The Use of Sessional Teachers in Universities: Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues and realities presented by the casualisation of higher education teaching staff. It uses a case study from the University of New South Wales [UNSW] in Sydney Australia. The research presents and analyses perspectives from two key stakeholders in a university [students and academic management] on the use of sessional…

  11. From Vision to Reality: Views of Primary School Principals on Inclusive Education in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Linda J.; Spandagou, Ilektra

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a research study that used semi-structured interviews to explore the views of primary school principals on inclusive education in New South Wales, Australia. Content analysis of the transcript data indicates that principals' attitudes towards inclusive education and their success in engineering inclusive…

  12. A Survey of the Educational and Training Needs of the Pastoral Industry of South Australia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery, John; And Others

    In late 1979 and 1980 a survey was conducted of 207 pastoral lease owners and managers in the north of South Australia to determine their education and training requirements. The pastoral industry grazes sheep and cattle on native pastures and shrubs, is beset by widely fluctuating rainfall and production, sells its products of wool and meat on a…

  13. Enough Bad News! Remote Social Health & Aboriginal Action in a Harsh Environment--Coober Pedy in South Australia's "Outback."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, G.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic problems,…

  14. Testing a Moderated Model of Satisfaction with Urban Living Using Data for Brisbane-South East Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccrea, Rod; Stimson, Robert; Western, John

    2005-01-01

    Using survey data collected from households living in the Brisbane-South East Queensland region, a rapidly growing metropolis in Australia, path analysis is used to test links between urban residents' assessment of various urban attributes and their level of satisfaction in three urban domains--housing, neighbourhood or local area, and the wider…

  15. Seismic reflection profiling of Neoarchean cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velden, Arie Jan

    Deep seismic reflection data from the Superior and Slave cratons in Canada and the Yilgarn craton in Australia are processed with similar processing flows and display parameters to facilitate comparative analysis. The profiles are characterized by subhorizontal to shallowly dipping reflection fabrics in the crust and upper mantle. These reflection fabrics are interpreted as ˜2.8-2.6 Ga ductile structural fabrics associated with peak orogenesis that led to cratonization. A re-evaluation of the seismic data has led to alternative interpretations compared to those published previously. In western Ontario, at Red Lake, divergent reflection patterns are interpreted as products of mainly collisional tectonics rather than extensional tectonics, and at Pickle Lake, mantle reflections connect to a mapped suture and strikeslip fault system. In western Quebec, steep structures are interpreted on the north flank of the Opatica domain. In the Kalgoorlie area of western Australia, subhorizontal upper crustal reflections are interpreted as pre-deformational layers within anticlines. A new tectonic model is presented for the western Slave Province in which divergent reflections at Yellowknife are interpreted to be associated with convergence between the Snare arc and the central Slave basement complex. Reflections that project from the reflection Moho into the upper mantle are observed on all profiles and are interpreted as relict subduction zones and/or major terrane-bounding structures. Listric mid-crustal reflections resembling roofing shingles are interpreted as products of underthrusting and subcretion. Strike-slip faults are manifested as near-vertical zones of reflection truncations. Greenstone belts are often poorly reflective. These reflection patterns are consistent with tectonic models in which greenstone belts form adjacent to protocratons and are thickened by protocontinent-dipping subduction, tectonic underplating, formation of nappes, and thrust-and-fold structures

  16. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasts for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall is important for agriculture management and planning in arid and semi-arid regions. Australia has complex variations in rainfall patterns in time and space, arising from the combination of the geographic structure and the dual effects of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study aims to develop a forecasting model of spatiotemporal monthly rainfall totals using lagged climate indices and historical rainfall data from 1950-2011 for south-eastern and eastern Australia. Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high-quality weather stations. To reduce spatial complexity, climate regionalization was used to divide the stations in homogenous sub-regions based on similarity of rainfall patterns and intensity using principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering. Subsequently, a fuzzy ranking algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. Selected predictors by FRA were found to vary by sub-region. After these two stages of pre-processing, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and optimized separately for each sub-region and the entire area. The results indicate that climate regionalization can improve a monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast model. The location and number of sub-regions were important for ranking predictors and modeling. This further suggests that the impact of climate variables on Australian rainfall is more variable in both time and space than indicated thus far.

  17. Whole Genome Sequencing Demonstrates Limited Transmission within Identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clusters in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gurjav, Ulziijargal; Outhred, Alexander C.; Jelfs, Peter; McCallum, Nadine; Wang, Qinning; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Marais, Ben J.; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a low tuberculosis incidence rate with most cases occurring among recent immigrants. Given suboptimal cluster resolution achieved with 24-locus mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU-24) genotyping, the added value of whole genome sequencing was explored. MIRU-24 profiles of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases diagnosed between 2009 and 2013 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, were examined and clusters identified. The relatedness of cases within the largest MIRU-24 clusters was assessed using whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Of 1841 culture-confirmed TB cases, 91.9% (1692/1841) had complete demographic and genotyping data. East-African Indian (474; 28.0%) and Beijing (470; 27.8%) lineage strains predominated. The overall rate of MIRU-24 clustering was 20.1% (340/1692) and was highest among Beijing lineage strains (35.7%; 168/470). One Beijing and three East-African Indian (EAI) clonal complexes were responsible for the majority of observed clusters. Whole genome sequencing of the 4 largest clusters (30 isolates) demonstrated diverse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within identified clusters. All sequenced EAI strains and 70% of Beijing lineage strains clustered by MIRU-24 typing demonstrated distinct SNP profiles. The superior resolution provided by whole genome sequencing demonstrated limited M. tuberculosis transmission within NSW, even within identified MIRU-24 clusters. Routine whole genome sequencing could provide valuable public health guidance in low burden settings. PMID:27737005

  18. Characterising the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of aboriginal health workers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Maksimovic, Lauren; Paquet, Catherine; Daniel, Mark; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Lekkas, Peter; Cargo, Margaret

    2013-12-13

    The study objectives were to characterise the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) in South Australia (SA), Australia; and identify the psychosocial, socio-demographic, and household smoking characteristics that distinguish smokers from quitters and never smokers. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was completed by AHWs in SA. Non-parametric statistics were used for inferential analyses. Eighty-five AHWs completed surveys representing a response rate of 63.0%. The prevalence of current smokers was 50.6%. Non-smokers (49.5%) included quitters (22.4%) and never smokers (27.1%). Smoking status did not differ by gender or geographic location. Of current smokers, 69.0% demonstrated a readiness to quit and 50.0% had made at least one quit attempt in the last 12 months. Compared to quitters and never smokers, current smokers expressed lower emotional wellbeing, and three times as many resided with another smoker. Quitters had the highest levels of perceived social support and part-time employment. A high proportion of AHWs who smoke desire, and are ready to quit. Individual, social and household factors differentiated smokers from non-smokers and quitters. Social support, and relationships and structures that favour social support, are implicated as necessary to enable AHWs who smoke to act on their desire to quit smoking.

  19. Hepatitis A in New South Wales, Australia from consumption of oysters: the first reported outbreak.

    PubMed Central

    Conaty, S.; Bird, P.; Bell, G.; Kraa, E.; Grohmann, G.; McAnulty, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Between 22 January and 4 April 1997, 467 hepatitis A cases were reported to the New South Wales Health Department, Australia. To identify the cause of the outbreak, we conducted a matched case-control study, and an environmental investigation. Among 66 cases and 66 postcode-matched controls, there was a strong association between illness and consumption of oysters (adjusted odds ratio 42; 95 % confidence interval 5-379). More than two-thirds of cases reported eating oysters, including one third of cases and no controls who reported eating oysters in the Wallis Lake area. A public warning was issued on 14 February, and Wallis Lake oysters were withdrawn from sale. Hepatitis A virus was subsequently identified in oyster samples taken from the lake. Hepatitis A virus poses a special risk to consumers who eat raw oysters because it can survive for long periods in estuaries and cause severe disease. PMID:10722139

  20. Aboriginal Astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 2: Animals in the Ooldean Sky.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.; Carter, Mark T.

    2016-04-01

    Australian Indigenous astronomical traditions demonstrate a relationship between animals in the skyworld and the behaviour patterns of their terrestrial counterparts. In our continued study of Aboriginal astronomical traditions from the Great Victoria Desert, South Australia, we investigate the relationship between animal behaviour and stellar positions when these relationships are not explicitly described in the written records. We develop a methodology to test the hypothesis that the behaviour of these animals is predicted by the positions of their celestial counterparts at particular times of the day. Of the twelve animals identified in the Ooldean sky, the nine stellar (i.e. non-planet or non-galactic) associations were analysed and each demonstrated a close connection between animal behaviour and stellar positions. We suggest that this may be a recurring theme in Aboriginal astronomical traditions, requiring further development of the methodology.

  1. Demographic response to rural restructuring and counterurbanisation in South Australia, 1981-1991.

    PubMed

    Smailes, P J

    1996-09-01

    "Using South Australia as a case study, this paper seeks to trace and demonstrate two processes (counterurbanisation and rural restructuring) whose effects overlap to differentiate and characterise the population geography of...two zones, separated by a transition along the outer fringe of Adelaide's urban field.... In the demographic core zone [rural restructuring] has been partly offset by continued counterurbanisation, resulting in demographic mixing and rural dilution. The 1981-91 population growth in rural communities is shown to be more a function of population density at the outset of the period than of initial population size. Demographic growth...is shown to conform to a simple unidimensional scale, allowing the production of a clear, easily interpretable typology of rural demographic change with few non-conforming statistical areas. At a local level within individual rural communities, demographic decline is shown to be accompanied by increased concentration of the population into small towns, while demographic growth is associated with deconcentration."

  2. Climate change impacts on water yields and demands in south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Don; Stone, Roy; Martens, Sasha; Thomas, Jonathan; Silberstein, Richard; Ali, Riasat; Hodgson, Geoff

    2012-12-01

    SummaryA climate shift in the mid 1970s reduced rainfalls in south-western Australia by 10-15% and inflows into reservoirs that supply the city of Perth (population 1.8 m) by more than half. The region has a Mediterranean climate, similar to other areas in the world experiencing reductions in rainfall and rises in temperatures. Rainfall-runoff modelling has indicated that streamflows may reduce by a further quarter by 2030 or by half if a dry future climate is experienced. Groundwater levels on the coastal plain in south-western Australia have fallen since the mid 1970s where unconfined aquifers are covered with perennial vegetation, including under the main water supply aquifer for Perth. Modelled projections are that groundwater levels in most areas will continue to fall through to 2030 under most future climate scenarios. Projected streamflows and groundwater levels indicate reduced water availability but these need to be converted to projected water yields, i.e. the amount of water that can be diverted for consumptive use. This paper reports how projections of future streamflow and groundwater levels were used to estimate 2030 divertible water yields for a 62,500 km2 area in south-western Australia. These yields were then compared with estimates of water demands in 2030 to identify areas of water surplus and deficit under clearly defined assumptions. The methods used to define future yields are based on sets of rules that could be varied by water managers if desired. Surface water yields are estimated to decrease by about 24% (possible range of -4% to -49%) which is similar to the projected reduction in runoff (-25% with a range of -7% to -42%). Groundwater yields are projected to fall by only about 2% (range of +2% to -7%) because of reductions in evapotranspiration and drainage losses as watertables fall where groundwater levels are close to the surface. In addition, recharge remains relatively high under cleared areas used for non-irrigated agriculture. In

  3. Influence of newly imposed salinity and waterlogging on Eucalyptus gracilis in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Melissa S; Preiss, Katharine A; Sinclair, Russell

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the effects of waterlogging and salinity on the water relations of Eucalyptus gracilis F. Muell. growing within the Stockyard Plain Disposal Basin Reserve, 15 km southwest of Waikerie, South Australia. Presence and depth of the saline groundwater had relatively little effect on the water relations of the trees even when large differences in tree health were visible. Predawn water potential, stomatal conductance, and foliar sodium and potassium concentrations were similar for all individuals independent of the depth and salinity of the groundwater. As expected, the severity of water stress increased over summer when predawn water potentials became progressively more negative and foliar salt concentrations increased. These changes occurred in all plants independent of depth or salinity of the groundwater.

  4. Endemic Q Fever in New South Wales, Australia: A Case Series (2005-2013).

    PubMed

    Graves, Stephen R; Islam, Aminul

    2016-07-01

    Q fever is endemic in Australia, and during the period 2005-2013 our laboratory diagnosed 379 cases in New South Wales. To evaluate clinical symptoms, epidemiology, mode of diagnosis, antibody profiles, and treatment, a subset of 160 (42%) Q fever cases were analyzed in detail following the return of a questionnaire by the patient's doctor and from their laboratory reports. Overall, 82% patients were male and predominantly middle aged. The majority of patients (89%) had animal contact among which 63% were with cattle, 11% with sheep, and 7% with kangaroos. Clinical symptoms were nonspecific: myalgia (94%), fever (91%), headache (80%), acute fatigue (64%), and arthralgia (55%). Most cases (93%) were acute, and serology (immunofluorescence) was the main diagnostic modality. Positive real-time polymerase chain reaction results were useful in the diagnosis of both acute and chronic Q fever, as was the isolation of Coxiella burnetii in cell culture. Doxycycline was the antibiotic most commonly used. PMID:27139451

  5. Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  6. Uranium and Sm isotope studies of the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U-Ag deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchenbaur, Maria; Maas, Roland; Ehrig, Kathy; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Strub, Erik; Ballhaus, Chris; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-Ag deposit in the Archean-Proterozoic Gawler Craton (South Australia) is a type example of the iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) spectrum of deposits and one of the largest Cu-U-Au resources known. Mineralization is hosted in a lithologically and texturally diverse, hematite-rich breccia complex developed within a granite of the 1.59 Ga Gawler Silicic Province. Emerging evidence indicates that both the breccia complex and its metal content developed over ∼1000 Ma, responding to major tectonic events, e.g., at 1300-1100, 825 and 500 Ma. However, metal sources and exact mechanism/s of ore formation remain poorly known. New high-precision 238U/235U data for a set of 40 whole rock samples representing all major lithological facies of the breccia complex show a narrow range (δ238UCRM112a = -0.56‰ to +0.04‰). At the scale of sampling, there is no correlation of δ238U with lithology, degree of alteration or U mineralogy, although ores with U > 5 wt.% have subtly higher δ238U values (-0.20‰ to 0.00) than the majority of samples (<0.7 wt.% U, -0.56‰ to -0.23‰). The new U isotope data are consistent with published data for uraninites from Olympic Dam, and with published results from high-temperature U deposits. They overlap completely with the range of δ238U values in granitoids (including the host granite, -0.18‰ to -0.32‰) and with estimates of the upper continental crust in general. This similarity suggests that Olympic Dam δ238U values reflects the crustal sources of U, which probably include felsic volcanic rocks and granitoids. The isotopic homogeneity suggests depositional mechanisms that involve minimal isotopic fractionation of U; alternatively, primary fractionation signatures may have been erased during the long history of the U mineralization. High-grade U ores may record isotopic neutron-capture effects related to fissionogenic neutrons. High-precision Sm isotope data for five high-U (>5 wt.% U, U/Sm ≫ 500) Olympic Dam

  7. Geographic variation of failure-to-rescue in public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Hillman, Kenneth; Flabouris, Arthas; Hollis, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the wide acceptance of Failure-to-Rescue (FTR) as a patient safety indicator (defined as the deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications), no study has explored the geographic variation of FTR in a large health jurisdiction. Our study aimed to explore the spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across New South Wales (NSW), Australia. We conducted a population-based study using all admitted surgical patients in public acute hospitals during 2002-2009 in NSW, Australia. We developed a spatiotemporal Poisson model using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) methods in a Bayesian framework to obtain area-specific adjusted relative risk. Local Government Area (LGA) was chosen as the areal unit. LGA-aggregated covariates included age, gender, socio-economic and remoteness index scores, distance between patient residential postcode and the treating hospital, and a quadratic time trend. We studied 4,285,494 elective surgical admissions in 82 acute public hospitals over eight years in NSW. Around 14% of patients who developed at least one of the six FTR-related complications (58,590) died during hospitalization. Of 153 LGAs, patients who lived in 31 LGAs, accommodating 48% of NSW patients at risk, were exposed to an excessive adjusted FTR risk (10% to 50%) compared to the state-average. They were mostly located in state's centre and western Sydney. Thirty LGAs with a lower adjusted FTR risk (10% to 30%), accommodating 8% of patients at risk, were mostly found in the southern parts of NSW and Sydney east and south. There were significant spatiotemporal variations of FTR rates across NSW over an eight-year span. Areas identified with significantly high and low FTR risks provide potential opportunities for policy-makers, clinicians and researchers to learn from the success or failure of adopting the best care for surgical patients and build a self-learning organisation and health system. PMID:25310260

  8. Seasonal evolution of the mixed layer in the Subantarctic Zone south of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Trull, Thomas W.

    2001-12-01

    The circumpolar Subantarctic Zone (SAZ) is a globally significant region of water mass formation and carbon dioxide uptake from the atmosphere. Here we synthesize the results of nine voyages over 8 years to describe the seasonal variation in mixed layer properties in the SAZ south of Australia for comparison with biogeochemical process studies carried out in late summer (March 1998) as part of the SAZ Project. Winter mixing extends to depths >400 m, resulting in the formation of Subantarctic Mode Water. In summer the mixed layer shoals to 75-100 m, depths which are still sufficiently deep that phytoplankton growth may be light limited. Nitrate and phosphate concentrations are reduced in summer (e.g., nitrate decreases from >15 to <5 μmol kg-1) but remain well above limiting levels. Silicate, in contrast, is low throughout the year (4 μmol kg-1 in winter and <2 μmol kg-1 in summer). Water mass properties along a north-south hydrographic section in March 1998 suggest that near-surface waters spread from south to north across the Subantarctic Front (SAF), supplying cool, fresh, nutrient-rich water to the SAZ. As a consequence, the properties of the southern SAZ differ from those farther north: the mixed layer in the south is cooler, fresher, deeper, higher in nutrients, and bounded below by a halocline (rather than by a seasonal thermocline, as in the northern SAZ). The contrast between the northern and southern SAZ persists throughout the year, suggesting the cross-front exchange occurs year-round and likely contributes to the differences in seasonal thermal amplitude and algal biomass accumulation seen in satellite images. Density-compensated horizontal gradients of temperature and salinity are common in the mixed layer of the SAZ and the northern SAF, consistent with the hypothesis that the vigor of lateral mixing in the mixed layer is a strong function of the magnitude of the lateral density gradient.

  9. Clinical diagnosis and chemical confirmation of ciguatera fish poisoning in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Hazel; Zammit, Anthony; Manning, Jennifer; Shadbolt, Craig; Szabo, Lisa; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul; Turahui, John A; van den Berg, Debra J

    2016-03-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head). Affected individuals suffered a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms requiring hospital treatment. At least 1 individual was symptomatic up to 7 months later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected the compound Pacific ciguatoxin-1B at levels up to 1.0 µg kg(-1) in fish tissue from both outbreaks. During April 2015, another outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning was reported in 4 individuals. The fish implicated in the outbreak was caught further south than the 2014 outbreaks (South West Rocks). Fish tissue was unavailable for analysis; however, symptoms were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. To our knowledge, these cases are the southernmost confirmed sources of ciguatera fish poisoning in Australia. Educational outreach to the fishing community, in particular recreational fishers was undertaken after the Evans Head outbreak. This highlighted the outbreak, species of fish involved and the range of symptoms associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. Further assessment of the potential for ciguatoxins to occur in previously unaffected locations need to be considered in terms of food safety. PMID:27080020

  10. Clinical diagnosis and chemical confirmation of ciguatera fish poisoning in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Hazel; Zammit, Anthony; Manning, Jennifer; Shadbolt, Craig; Szabo, Lisa; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul; Turahui, John A; van den Berg, Debra J

    2016-03-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head). Affected individuals suffered a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms requiring hospital treatment. At least 1 individual was symptomatic up to 7 months later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected the compound Pacific ciguatoxin-1B at levels up to 1.0 µg kg(-1) in fish tissue from both outbreaks. During April 2015, another outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning was reported in 4 individuals. The fish implicated in the outbreak was caught further south than the 2014 outbreaks (South West Rocks). Fish tissue was unavailable for analysis; however, symptoms were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. To our knowledge, these cases are the southernmost confirmed sources of ciguatera fish poisoning in Australia. Educational outreach to the fishing community, in particular recreational fishers was undertaken after the Evans Head outbreak. This highlighted the outbreak, species of fish involved and the range of symptoms associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. Further assessment of the potential for ciguatoxins to occur in previously unaffected locations need to be considered in terms of food safety.

  11. Evidence of debris flow occurrence after wildfire in upland catchments of south-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary J.; Smith, Hugh G.; Lane, Patrick N. J.

    2011-02-01

    Numerous reports of "flash floods", "mud torrents" and "landslides" in burnt landscapes of south-east Australia were only recently linked to debris flows and recognised as a significant process that warrant more detailed investigation. This paper provides a systematic documentation of high-magnitude erosion events after wildfire in south-east Australia, focusing on small (< 5 km 2), upland catchments in eastern Victoria that were burnt by wildfire between 2003 and 2009. The aims of the study were to i) collect and show evidence of debris flow occurrence after wildfire; ii) quantify erosion rates from debris flows and; iii) identify rainfall thresholds and key hydrological properties. The result showed that 13 out of the 16 recorded high-magnitude erosion events were runoff generated debris flows. These occurred in dry eucalypt forests burnt at high or very high severity in steep headwater catchments throughout the eastern uplands of Victoria. The debris flows were triggered by intense, short duration rainfall events ( I30 35-59 mm h -1) with annual exceedance probability in the order of 20%. This is the first paper to document the occurrence of post-fire runoff generated debris flows in Australia, so the discussion draws on literature from the western USA, where a large body of research has been dedicated to evaluating the risk posed by post-fire debris flows and their role in landscape processes. Typical features common to both systems include low infiltration capacity of burnt catchments; widespread sheet erosion and levee lined rills on steep upper hillslopes; and severe channel erosion initiated in response to convergent flow in previously un-scoured drainage lines. The depth of sheet erosion on surveyed slopes in the upper catchments (4.6 ± 0.96 mm to 18.4 ± 2.7 mm) indicates that hillslope material provides an important source of sediment. The average channel entrainment rate of three debris flows ranged from 0.6 to 1.4 m 3 m -1. Runoff generated debris

  12. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAICc ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R2(m) (76.4) and R2(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km2) of the Adelaide–Mount Lofty Ranges, a density–suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685–199,723; average density = 5.0–35.8 km−2). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  13. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-06-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAIC c ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R (2)(m) (76.4) and R (2)(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km(2)) of the Adelaide-Mount Lofty Ranges, a density-suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685-199,723; average density = 5.0-35.8 km(-2)). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  14. Hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch, on southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Waudby, Helen P; Petit, Sophie; Dixon, Bruce; Andrews, Ross H

    2007-10-01

    Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western Western Australia (including Barrow Island), Queensland (excluding Cape York Peninsula), and New South Wales, south to Dubbo and Barham. The species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. In Queensland, A. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of Q fever. In 2000, the species was detected on southern Yorke Peninsula in South Australia. We aimed to identify A. triguttatum triguttatum's hosts through trapping, sampling of carcasses, and opportunistic capture of vertebrates on Yorke Peninsula. A. triguttatum triguttatum was removed from black rats (Rattus rattus), wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Tammar wallabies (M. eugenii eugenii), domesticated cats and dogs, and humans. Before this study, A. triguttatum triguttatum had not been found on black rats or rabbits in the wild. This research has implications for the management of wildlife, livestock, and visitors on Yorke Peninsula. The potential for A. triguttatum triguttatum to spread to other areas of Yorke Peninsula and South Australia is considerable, as visitors (tourists) to southern Yorke Peninsula report the presence of ticks both on themselves and among camping equipment on arriving home.

  15. Population Accessibility to Radiotherapy Services in New South Wales Region of Australia: a methodological contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Nagesh; Wickramasuriya, Rohan; Miller, Andrew; Perez, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes an integrated modelling process to assess the population accessibility to radiotherapy treatment services in future based on future cancer incidence and road network-based accessibility. Previous research efforts assessed travel distance/time barriers affecting access to cancer treatment services, as well as epidemiological studies that showed that cancer incidence rates vary with population demography. It is established that travel distances to treatment centres and demographic profiles of the accessible regions greatly influence the demand for cancer radiotherapy (RT) services. However, an integrated service planning approach that combines spatially-explicit cancer incidence projections, and the RT services accessibility based on patient road network have never been attempted. This research work presents this novel methodology for the accessibility assessment of RT services and demonstrates its viability by modelling New South Wales (NSW) cancer incidence rates for different age-sex groups based on observed cancer incidence trends; estimating the road network-based access to current NSW treatment centres; and, projecting the demand for RT services in New South Wales, Australia from year 2011 to 2026.

  16. Global Scale Variation in the Salinity Sensitivity of Riverine Macroinvertebrates: Eastern Australia, France, Israel and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kefford, Ben J.; Hickey, Graeme L.; Gasith, Avital; Ben-David, Elad; Dunlop, Jason E.; Palmer, Carolyn G.; Allan, Kaylene; Choy, Satish C.; Piscart, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is a key abiotic property of inland waters; it has a major influence on biotic communities and is affected by many natural and anthropogenic processes. Salinity of inland waters tends to increase with aridity, and biota of inland waters may have evolved greater salt tolerance in more arid regions. Here we compare the sensitivity of stream macroinvertebrate species to salinity from a relatively wet region in France (Lorraine and Brittany) to that in three relatively arid regions eastern Australia (Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania), South Africa (south-east of the Eastern Cape Province) and Israel using the identical experimental method in all locations. The species whose salinity tolerance was tested, were somewhat more salt tolerant in eastern Australia and South Africa than France, with those in Israel being intermediate. However, by far the greatest source of variation in species sensitivity was between taxonomic groups (Order and Class) and not between the regions. We used a Bayesian statistical model to estimate the species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for salinity in eastern Australia and France adjusting for the assemblages of species in these regions. The assemblage in France was slightly more salinity sensitive than that in eastern Australia. We therefore suggest that regional salinity sensitivity is therefore likely to depend most on the taxonomic composition of respective macroinvertebrate assemblages. On this basis it would be possible to screen rivers globally for risk from salinisation. PMID:22567097

  17. Global scale variation in the salinity sensitivity of riverine macroinvertebrates: eastern Australia, France, Israel and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kefford, Ben J; Hickey, Graeme L; Gasith, Avital; Ben-David, Elad; Dunlop, Jason E; Palmer, Carolyn G; Allan, Kaylene; Choy, Satish C; Piscart, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is a key abiotic property of inland waters; it has a major influence on biotic communities and is affected by many natural and anthropogenic processes. Salinity of inland waters tends to increase with aridity, and biota of inland waters may have evolved greater salt tolerance in more arid regions. Here we compare the sensitivity of stream macroinvertebrate species to salinity from a relatively wet region in France (Lorraine and Brittany) to that in three relatively arid regions eastern Australia (Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania), South Africa (south-east of the Eastern Cape Province) and Israel using the identical experimental method in all locations. The species whose salinity tolerance was tested, were somewhat more salt tolerant in eastern Australia and South Africa than France, with those in Israel being intermediate. However, by far the greatest source of variation in species sensitivity was between taxonomic groups (Order and Class) and not between the regions. We used a bayesian statistical model to estimate the species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for salinity in eastern Australia and France adjusting for the assemblages of species in these regions. The assemblage in France was slightly more salinity sensitive than that in eastern Australia. We therefore suggest that regional salinity sensitivity is therefore likely to depend most on the taxonomic composition of respective macroinvertebrate assemblages. On this basis it would be possible to screen rivers globally for risk from salinisation. PMID:22567097

  18. Quantifying climate and pumping contributions to aquifer depletion using a highly parameterised groundwater model: Uley South Basin (South Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowling, Matthew J.; Werner, Adrian D.; Herckenrath, Daan

    2015-04-01

    The relative contributions of climate and human stresses to aquifer depletion in real-world settings are rarely quantified, particularly where complex patterns of depletion arise from the spatial and temporal variability in aquifer stresses. These impacts can be assessed using calibration-constrained model predictions of disturbed (i.e., subject to human activity) and undisturbed (i.e., natural) conditions. Prior investigations that adopt this approach employ lumped-parameter or one-dimensional models. Here, we extend previous studies by using a highly parameterised, spatially distributed groundwater model to investigate the relative impacts of climate variability and pumping on aquifer depletion. The Uley South Basin (USB), South Australia, where there is conjecture surrounding the cause of declining groundwater levels, serves as a case study. The relative contributions of climate variability and pumping to USB depletion are shown to be highly variable in time and space. Temporal trends reflect variability in rainfall and pumping, as expected. Spatial trends are primarily dependent on the proximity to both the coastal boundary and pumping wells, and to the distribution of recharge and hydraulic properties. Results show that pumping impacts exceed those of climate between 1978 and 2012, and over the majority of the spatial extent of USB. The contribution of pumping to aquifer depletion is shown to be 2.9 and 1.4 times that of climate in terms of the time-averaged and maximum-in-time basin-scale water budget, respectively. Confidence in model predictions is enhanced by the outcomes of a linear predictive uncertainty analysis, which indicates that predictive uncertainty is lower than climatic and pumping impacts. This study demonstrates the application of a relatively simple analysis that can be used in combination with highly parameterised, spatially distributed groundwater models to differentiate causal factors of aquifer depletion.

  19. An evaluation of soil water outlooks for winter wheat in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Western, A. W.; Dassanayake, K. B.; Perera, K. C.; Alves, O.; Young, G.; Argent, R.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key limiting resource for rain-fed cropping in Australian broad-acre cropping zones. Seasonal rainfall and temperature outlooks are standard operational services offered by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and are routinely used to support agricultural decisions. This presentation examines the performance of proposed soil water seasonal outlooks in the context of wheat cropping in south-eastern Australia (autumn planting, late spring harvest). We used weather ensembles simulated by the Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), as input to the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) to construct ensemble soil water "outlooks" at twenty sites. Hindcasts were made over a 33 year period using the 33 POAMA ensemble members. The overall modelling flow involved: 1. Downscaling of the daily weather series (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, humidity, radiation) from the ~250km POAMA grid scale to a local weather station using quantile-quantile correction. This was based on a 33 year observation record extracted from the SILO data drill product. 2. Using APSIM to produce soil water ensembles from the downscaled weather ensembles. A warm up period of 5 years of observed weather was followed by a 9 month hindcast period based on each ensemble member. 3. The soil water ensembles were summarized by estimating the proportion of outlook ensembles in each climatological tercile, where the climatology was constructed using APSIM and observed weather from the 33 years of hindcasts at the relevant site. 4. The soil water outlooks were evaluated for different lead times and months using a "truth" run of APSIM based on observed weather. Outlooks generally have useful some forecast skill for lead times of up to two-three months, except late spring; in line with current useful lead times for rainfall outlooks. Better performance was found in summer and autumn when vegetation cover and water use is low.

  20. Occupational differences, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits in South Eastern rural Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In rural and remote Australia, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates are higher than metropolitan rates. This study analysed cardiovascular and other chronic disease risk factors and related health behaviours by occupational status, to determine whether agricultural workers have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than other rural workers. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in three rural regions of South Eastern Australia (2004-2006). A stratified random sample of 1001 men and women aged 25-74 from electoral rolls were categorised by occupation into agricultural workers (men = 214, women = 79), technicians (men = 123), managers (men = 148, women = 272) and ‘home duties’ (women = 165). Data were collected from self-administered questionnaire, physical measurements and laboratory tests. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk were assessed by Framingham 5 years risk calculation. Results Amongst men, agricultural workers had higher occupational physical activity levels, healthier more traditional diet, lower alcohol consumption, lower fasting plasma glucose, the lowest proportion of daily smokers and lower age-adjusted 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores. Amongst women, managers were younger with higher HDL cholesterol, lower systolic blood pressure, less hypertension, lower waist circumference, less self-reported diabetes and better 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores. Agricultural workers did not have higher cardiovascular disease risk than other occupational groups. Conclusions Previous studies have suggested that farmers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease but this is because the risk has been compared with non-rural populations. In this study, the comparison has been made with other rural occupations. Cardiovascular risk reduction programs are justified for all. Programs tailored only for agricultural workers are unwarranted. PMID:24266886

  1. 3D Airborne Electromagnetic Inversion: A case study from the Musgrave Region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, L. H.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Sunwall, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysicists know and accept that geology is inherently 3D, and is resultant from complex, overlapping processes related to genesis, metamorphism, deformation, alteration, weathering, and/or hydrogeology. Yet, the geophysics community has long relied on qualitative analysis, conductivity depth imaging (CDIs), 1D inversion, and/or plate modeling. There are many reasons for this deficiency, not the least of which has been the lack of capacity for historic 3D AEM inversion algorithms to invert entire surveys so as to practically affect exploration decisions. Our recent introduction of a moving sensitivity domain (footprint) methodology has been a paradigm shift in AEM interpretation. The basis of this method is that one needs only to calculate the responses and sensitivities for that part of the 3D earth model that is within the AEM system's sensitivity domain (footprint), and then superimpose all sensitivity domains into a single, sparse sensitivity matrix for the entire 3D earth model which is then updated in a regularized inversion scheme. This has made it practical to rigorously invert entire surveys with thousands of line kilometers of AEM data to mega-cell 3D models in hours using multi-processor workstations. Since 2010, over eighty individual projects have been completed for Aerodat, AEROTEM, DIGHEM, GEOTEM, HELITEM, HoisTEM, MEGATEM, RepTEM, RESOLVE, SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPEST, and VTEM data from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, Ghana, Peru, Tanzania, the US, and Zambia. Examples of 3D AEM inversion have been published for a variety of applications, including mineral exploration, oil sands exploration, salinity, permafrost, and bathymetry mapping. In this paper, we present a comparison of 3D inversions for SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPET and VTEM data acquired over the same area in the Musgrave region of South Australia for exploration under cover.

  2. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  3. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  4. Metasomatic alteration associated with regional metamorphism: an example from the Willyama Supergroup, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, A. J. R.; Ashley, P. M.; Fanning, C. M.

    2000-10-01

    The Olary Domain, part of the Curnamona Province, a major Proterozoic terrane located within eastern South Australia and western New South Wales, Australia, is an excellent example of geological region that has been significantly altered by metasomatic mass-transfer processes associated with regional metamorphism. Examples of metasomatically altered rocks in the Olary Domain are ubiquitous and include garnet-epidote-rich alteration zones, clinopyroxene- and actinolite-matrix breccias, replacement ironstones and albite-rich alteration zones in quartzofeldspathic metasediments and intrusive rocks. Metasomatism is typically associated with formation of calcic, sodic and/or iron-rich alteration zones and development of oxidised mineral assemblages containing one or more of the following: quartz, albite, actinolite-hornblende, andradite-rich garnet, epidote, magnetite, hematite and aegerine-bearing clinopyroxene. Detailed study of one widespread style of metasomatic alteration, garnet-epidote-rich alteration zones in calc-silicate host rocks, provides detailed information on the timing of metasomatism, the conditions under which alteration occurred, and the nature and origin of the metasomatic fluids. Garnet-epidote-bearing zones exhibit features such as breccias, veins, fracture-controlled alteration, open space fillings and massive replacement of pre-existing calc-silicate rock consistent with formation at locally high fluid pressures and fluid/rock ratios. Metasomatism of the host calc-silicate rocks occurred at temperatures between ˜400°C and 650°C, and involved loss of Na, Mg, Rb and Fe 2+, gain of Ca, Mn, Cu and Fe 3+ and mild enrichment of Pb, Zn and U. The hydrothermal fluids responsible for the formation of garnet-epidote-rich assemblages, as well as those involved in the formation of other examples of metasomatic alteration in the Olary Domain, were hypersaline, oxidised, and chemically complex, containing Na, Ca, Fe 3+, Cl, and SO 42-. Sm-Nd geochronology

  5. Paleoproterozoic Cordilleran-style accretion along the south eastern margin of the eastern Dharwar craton: Evidence from the Vinjamuru arc terrane of the Krishna orogen, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Chiranjeeb; Vadlamani, Ravikant; Kaptan, Om Prakash

    2016-10-01

    Accretion along continental or island arcs at cratonic margins was responsible for most Paleoproterozoic crustal growth. For the development of the Krishna orogen, India, at the southeastern margin of the Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC), two contrasting models, one by long-lived accretion between ~ 1.85 Ga and 1.33 Ga terminating in continental collision with the Napier Complex and the other involving continental collision with the Napier Complex at ~ 1.6 Ga have been proposed. Here we report the geology and geochemistry of the granitoid rocks grouping them into the Vinjamuru arc terrane. These comprise biotite ± hornblende high-silica granite which are mostly calc-alkaline, weakly metaluminous to peraluminous with normalized trace and rare earth element plots resembling those derived from arc sources as seen by negative Nb, Ti, Zr anomalies, enriched LREE and moderate Eu anomalies. On (La/Yb)CN vs YbCN and Sr/Y vs Y discrimination diagrams these rocks plot in the field of liquids from mantle-derived melts resembling Cordilleran type granitoids. Petrography, major oxide and trace element concentrations suggest formation in an arc tectonic setting during convergent tectonics at the active continental margin of the EDC with evidence for crustal assimilation. To generate the observed high-silica granite, using selected trace and REE, we modeled 10% aggregate continuous melting of a lower crustal hydrous, high K2O-bearing gabbro yielding a granodiorite magma that underwent fractional crystallization at mid-to lower crust followed by mixing with country rock tonalite and minor assimilation with metasedimentary crustal rocks resulting in the observed heterogeneity in trace elements from the granite. We interpret Paleoproterozoic paleopostions of component Indian cratons leading to their Mesoproterozoic assembly and in that context relate the crustal growth along the southeastern margin of the EDC. In contrast to the existing two models, we propose an alternative

  6. Unpaid Informal Caregivers in South Australia: Population Characteristics, Prevalence and Age-Period-Cohort Effects 1994–2014

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Tiffany K.; Price, Kay; Warmington, Rosemary; Taylor, Anne W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing need for an availability of informal carers is taking on greater relevance as the global burden of disease transitions from acute fatal diseases to long term morbidity. Growing evidence suggests that extra burden on family carers may further impact on their health and ability to provide care. Important as it is to monitor the prevalence of those conditions which influence the burden of disease, it is also important to monitor the prevalence and health profiles of those who provide the informal care. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence and demographics of adult carers aged 15 and over in the state of South Australia over 20 years between 1994 and 2014. Methods Data from nine representative, cross-sectional population surveys, conducted in South Australia, Australia were used, (total N = 26,788 and n = 1,504 carers). The adjusted prevalence estimate of carers and their demographic characteristics were determined. So as to examine whether there were any generational effects on the prevalence of carers, an Age-Period Cohort (APC) analysis was undertaken. Results The prevalence estimates of carers increased during the two decades from 3.7% in 1994 to 6.7% by 2014. Large increases in the proportion of retired carers, those aged 70 years and over, those carers employed, and those with higher educational qualifications were observed. There were also larger proportions of respondents with a country of birth other than Australia, UK, Ireland and European counties. The APC analysis illustrated an increasing prevalence rate over each decade for carers aged 20–80 years, especially for those over the age of 60 years. Conclusions The results illustrate changing carer characteristics and carer prevalence estimates in South Australia as new generations of carers take on the caring role. There is a need to include questions regarding informal carers within ongoing mainstream population surveys, particularly at state levels, so as to plan

  7. A Probabilistic Tsunami Assessment for Western Australia and the South coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, D. R.; Cummins, P. R.; Thio, H. K.

    2006-12-01

    Prior to July 2006, the only known, large megathrust earthquake known to have occurred (Mw=7.6, on 2 June, 1994) south of Java could be argued to be an anomaly in what is essentially aseismic subduction in this part of the Sunda Arc. The occurrence of a second such event (Mw=7.8) on 17 July, however, has demonstrated that they can occur anywhere along the Sunda Arc. These events produced large tsunamis along the coast of Java that killed hundreds (222 and 663, respectively). On the one hand, these earthquakes are much smaller than the Mw=9+ earthquakes known to occur off Sumatra, and the mortality associated with them is much smaller than the staggering human toll of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT), which killed 167,000 on the Sumatran coast. On the other hand, the density of population along the south Java coast is much higher than that along the Sumatran coast, and we do not know how large or how frequent tsunamigenic earthquakes off Java may be. The possibility exists that tsunami risk, as measured in human lives, may be higher for Java than for Sumatra. Furthermore, future events off Sumatra can be expected off its central and perhaps its southern coast, where most of the teletsunami energy will be directed into the open Indian Ocean. Events off Java, however, will direct much more teletsunami energy towards the northwest coast of Australia. Both the 1994 and the 2006 tsunamis originating off south Java caused significant tsunamis at specific locations along the West Australian coast. Here we present a new probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the offshore wave height expected along the south coast of Java and the West Australian coast from earthquakes along the Sunda Arc subduction zone. This assessment is based on a new estimate of the rate of megathrust earthquake occurrence along the Sunda Arc subduction zone based on the global rate of occurrence of giant subduction zone earthquakes, the length of the subduction zone and its rate of convergence

  8. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R

    2014-07-01

    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region.

  9. Paleoseismicity of two historically quiescent faults in Australia: Implications for fault behavior in stable continental regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, A.J.; De Martini, P. M.; Machette, M.M.; Okumura, K.; Prescott, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies of two historically aseismic Quaternary faults in Australia confirm that cratonic faults in stable continental regions (SCR) typically have a long-term behavior characterized by episodes of activity separated by quiescent intervals of at least 10,000 and commonly 100,000 years or more. Studies of the approximately 30-km-long Roopena fault in South Australia and the approximately 30-km-long Hyden fault in Western Australia document multiple Quaternary surface-faulting events that are unevenly spaced in time. The episodic clustering of events on cratonic SCR faults may be related to temporal fluctuations of fault-zone fluid pore pressures in a volume of strained crust. The long-term slip rate on cratonic SCR faults is extremely low, so the geomorphic expression of many cratonic SCR faults is subtle, and scarps may be difficult to detect because they are poorly preserved. Both the Roopena and Hyden faults are in areas of limited or no significant seismicity; these and other faults that we have studied indicate that many potentially hazardous SCR faults cannot be recognized solely on the basis of instrumental data or historical earthquakes. Although cratonic SCR faults may appear to be nonhazardous because they have been historically aseismic, those that are favorably oriented for movement in the current stress field can and have produced unexpected damaging earthquakes. Paleoseismic studies of modern and prehistoric SCR faulting events provide the basis for understanding of the long-term behavior of these faults and ultimately contribute to better seismic-hazard assessments.

  10. Bias-corrected regional climate projections of extreme rainfall in south-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jason P.; Argueso, D.; Olson, R.; Di Luca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents future changes in extreme precipitation as projected within the New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory Regional Climate Modelling (NARCliM) project's regional climate ensemble for south-east Australia. Model performance, independence and projected future changes were considered when designing the ensemble. We applied a quantile mapping bias correction to the climate model outputs based on theoretical distribution functions, and the implications of this for the projected precipitation extremes is investigated. Precipitation extremes are quantified using several indices from the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices set of indices. The bias correction was successful in removing most of the magnitude bias in extreme precipitation but does not correct biases in the length of maximum wet and dry spells. The bias correction also had a relatively small effect on the projected future changes. Across a range of metrics, robust increases in the magnitude of precipitation extreme indices are found. While these increases are often in-line with a continuation of the trends present over the last century, they are not found to be statistically significant within the ensemble as a whole. The length of the maximum consecutive wet spell is projected to remain at present-day levels, while the length of the maximum dry spell is projected to increase into the future. The combination of longer dry spells and increases in extreme precipitation magnitude indicate an important change in the character of the precipitation time series. This could have considerable hydrological implications since changes in the sequencing of events can be just as important as changes in event magnitude for hydrological impacts.

  11. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Garrick, Ryan C.; Rowell, David M.; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes ‘scale-up’ to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five ‘microgeographic regions’ at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection. PMID:26467960

  12. Antibiotic susceptibility of diverse Mycobacterium abscessus complex strains in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kyra Y L; Bustamante, Andrea; Jelfs, Peter; Chen, Sharon C-A; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2015-12-01

    Members of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex are emerging pathogens of increasing importance, causing both respiratory and soft tissue infections, but precise speciation is problematic. This study was performed to examine the subspecies and antibiotic susceptibility of M. abscessus complex isolates collected during 2013 at the statewide New South Wales Mycobacterium Reference Laboratory (NSW MRL), Australia. Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus accounted for more than half of all M. abscessus isolates (n = 24, 57.1%), and M. abscessus subsp. massiliense comprised the remainder of the isolates (n = 18, 42.9%). There were no M. abscessus subsp. bolletii isolates. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance to all antibiotics, apart from amikacin was high, with 26.3% of isolates being reliably susceptible to only amikacin. Most M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates (80%) demonstrated inducible clarithromycin resistance whereas the majority of M. abscessus subsp. massiliense isolates (94.4%) remained susceptible to clarithromycin. There was a good correlation between the erm(41) genotype and clarithromycin susceptibility results after 14 days of incubation for most isolates with only three exceptions. Further studies correlating in vitro susceptibility profiles with clinical outcomes of M. abscessus infections treated with combination antimicrobial therapy are warranted. PMID:26517625

  13. The epidemiology of hospitalised wrist fractures in older people, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Finch, Caroline; Lord, Stephen; Close, Jacqueline; Gothelf, Todd; Walsh, William

    2006-11-01

    The epidemiology and trends in wrist fracture admissions to public and private acute hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between July 1993 and June 2003 were examined using routinely collected hospital separations statistics. During the study period, the number of hospital separations for wrist fractures increased by 71% in men, an average yearly increase of 6.5%, and by 43% in women, an average yearly increase of 3.9%. A modest, but significant, increase in age-specific and age-standardised hospitalisation rates for wrist fractures was also observed. Whilst the majority of wrist fractures were due to falls, the proportion of falls-related wrist fractures decreased significantly over time. This decrease was more pronounced in males and was accompanied by a rise in the proportion of wrist fractures resulting from high energy mechanisms such as transport, violence and machinery-related incidents. The difference in hospitalised wrist fracture rates between men and women could not be explained solely on the basis of the role played by osteoporosis, indicating the need for more research to improve our understanding of the underlying factors of this type of fracture in older people.

  14. Is client-centred care planning for chronic disease sustainable? Experience from rural South Australia.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Harvey, Peter; Misan, Gary

    2004-07-01

    This qualitative evaluation of a chronic disease self-management project in rural South Australia considers the sustainability of client-centred care planning under current organisational and funding arrangements. The study involved consultation with a range of five stakeholder types over two stages (40 in the beginning stage and 39 in the middle stage) about their satisfaction with the care planning and self-management approach used in the project. All stakeholder types valued the client-centred approach because they perceived that clients were better able to accept and deal with the long-term management of their condition. However, this required that care planning should deal with a wider range of issues than just medical management, and so it took longer, which raised its sustainability in general practice under the current funding through the national health insurance programme (Medicare). The study concludes that sustainability may be addressed through further research into the role of and funding for peer-led self-management groups and the employment of care planners in organisational settings that are conducive to a client-centred approach. PMID:15272887

  15. A survey of the characteristics and maintenance of rainwater tanks in urban areas of South Australia.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, S; Sinclair, M; Leder, K

    2010-01-01

    Households resident in metropolitan Adelaide and surrounding areas in South Australia were recruited into a randomised controlled trial. A total of 630 rainwater tanks with a total tank capacity of 14.5 ML were installed at the 325 households surveyed. The majority of the tanks were plumbed into the kitchen (64.6%), over 10 years in age (45.5%), over 15,000 L in capacity (42.5%) and composed of galvanised steel (36.9%). Over 90% of the households undertook one or more prevention and maintenance strategies for reducing contamination of collected rainwater. The use of first flush diverters was reported by 30.8% households, the presence of leaf control devices on the tank by 57.2%, and the presence of leaf control screens on gutters by 25.5% households. Most households reported that the rainwater tank was cleaned at some time, with 50.4% of these households stating that tank cleaning occurred 1 to 5 years previously, and 31.9% more than 5 years prior to enrolment Rainwater from the main drinking tank was sampled from a subset of households for turbidity and metals (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Pb, Zn). This information regarding tank characteristics and degree of adherence to recommended maintenance procedures may assist understanding of variability in rainwater quality data and may help determine whether untreated rainwater can be considered a safe water supply for household purposes including drinking.

  16. Cancer mortality in East and Southeast Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, 1975–1995

    PubMed Central

    McCredie, M; Williams, S; Coates, M

    1999-01-01

    Routinely collected data for New South Wales were used to analyse cancer mortality in migrants born in East or Southeast Asia according to duration of residence in Australia. A case-control approach compared deaths from cancer at particular sites with deaths from all other cancers, adjusting for age, sex and calendar period. Compared with the Australian-born, these Asian migrants had a 30-fold higher risk of dying from nasopharyngeal cancer in the first 2 decades of residence, falling to ninefold after 30 years, and for deaths from liver cancer, a 12-fold risk in the first 2 decades, falling to threefold after 30 years. The initial lower risk from colorectal, breast or prostate cancers later converged towards the Australian-born level, the change being apparent in the third decade after migration. The relative risk of dying from lung cancer among these Asian migrants was above unity for each category of duration of stay for women, but at or below unity for men, with no trend in risk over time. An environmental or lifestyle influence for nasopharyngeal and liver cancers is suggested as well as for cancers of colon/rectum, breast and prostate. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098772

  17. Natural Exposure of Horses to Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in South-East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Tan, Cindy S. E.; Wang, Wenqi; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Kidd, Lisa; Barton, Anita; Wright, John; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2–4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62) of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38) had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV). The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV) complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNVKUN and ALFV (15%) suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic. PMID:24048209

  18. The link between noise perception and quality of life in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Monika; Tucker, Graeme; Simon, David L; Hansen, Alana L; Pisaniello, Dino L

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise is a significant risk factor for a range of short- and long-term adverse health outcomes such as annoyance, cognitive development impairment, sleep disturbance, cardiovascular effects, and psychiatric problems. The aim of this study was to gather standardized quality of life (QOL) data hitherto rarely correlated with noise annoyance by source category. To provide an evidence-base for environmental noise policy development, a representative state-based survey was undertaken in South Australia (SA). A total of 3015 face-to-face interviews were conducted, using a questionnaire addressing noise sources, distances to busy roads and standardized measures of perceived annoyance and QOL. Population weighted descriptive survey and regression analysis. The most common sources of noise annoyances were road transport (27.7%, using a Likert scale, aggregating "little" to "extreme" annoyance), neighbors (22.0%), construction noise (10.0%), air conditioner noise (5.8%), rail transport noise (4.7%), and industry (3.9%). Using the QOL instrument, all eight health dimensions were significantly decreased for those reporting high noise annoyance ("very much" to "extreme") in relation to road transport and neighbors compared to those reporting low annoyance ("none" to "moderate") from these sources. Noise annoyance is common in the SA general population, and the evidence for a strong association with QOL reinforces the need for environmental noise management at a population basis. PMID:24953878

  19. Private Practice Disability Therapy Workforce in Rural New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Gisselle; Chedid, Rebecca; Dew, Angela; Bulkeley, Kim; Lincoln, Michelle; Bundy, Anita; Brentnall, Jennie; Veitch, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing demand for therapy services, there is a shortage of therapists in rural areas. We describe the existing private therapy workforce in rural western New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A cross-sectional design study, using an online survey, was conducted with occupational and physiotherapists, speech pathologists, and psychologists working in private practice in western NSW. Forty-one private therapists completed the survey. The average years of qualification was 19; 51% worked part-time. Two-thirds (68%) indicated they had adequate access to professional development opportunities. Sixty-four percent reported intending to stay in their job for 12 months. Most (95%) reported high levels of job satisfaction. Respondents had worked in western NSW for a median of 17 yrs. Sixty-eight percent described opportunities for social interaction as very good. Sixty-six percent grew up in rural areas. All respondents agreed that they loved the rural lifestyle. The results portray an experienced, stable, flexible, and highly satisfied professional group. With the current changes in policies within the disability sector, it is important to maximise these features of private therapy in order to contribute to the rural workforce and increase access to the range of supports available for people with disability. PMID:27585620

  20. A new pupillarial scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) from Angophora in coastal New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gullan, Penny J; Williams, Douglas J

    2016-05-30

    A new scale insect, Aolacoccus angophorae gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Eriococcidae), is described from the bark of Angophora (Myrtaceae) growing in the Sydney area of New South Wales, Australia. These insects do not produce honeydew, are not ant-tended and probably feed on cortical parenchyma. The adult female is pupillarial as it is retained within the cuticle of the penultimate (second) instar. The crawlers (mobile first-instar nymphs) emerge via a flap or operculum at the posterior end of the abdomen of the second-instar exuviae. The adult and second-instar females, second-instar male and first-instar nymph, as well as salient features of the apterous adult male, are described and illustrated. The adult female of this new taxon has some morphological similarities to females of the non-pupillarial palm scale Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell (Phoenicococcidae), the pupillarial palm scales (Halimococcidae) and some pupillarial genera of armoured scales (Diaspididae), but is related to other Australian Myrtaceae-feeding eriococcids.

  1. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay. PMID:26401452

  2. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Jason E; Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay. PMID:26401452

  3. A new pupillarial scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) from Angophora in coastal New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gullan, Penny J; Williams, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    A new scale insect, Aolacoccus angophorae gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Eriococcidae), is described from the bark of Angophora (Myrtaceae) growing in the Sydney area of New South Wales, Australia. These insects do not produce honeydew, are not ant-tended and probably feed on cortical parenchyma. The adult female is pupillarial as it is retained within the cuticle of the penultimate (second) instar. The crawlers (mobile first-instar nymphs) emerge via a flap or operculum at the posterior end of the abdomen of the second-instar exuviae. The adult and second-instar females, second-instar male and first-instar nymph, as well as salient features of the apterous adult male, are described and illustrated. The adult female of this new taxon has some morphological similarities to females of the non-pupillarial palm scale Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell (Phoenicococcidae), the pupillarial palm scales (Halimococcidae) and some pupillarial genera of armoured scales (Diaspididae), but is related to other Australian Myrtaceae-feeding eriococcids. PMID:27395159

  4. Landscape Preferences, Amenity, and Bushfire Risk in New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Nicholas; Dun, Olivia; Brennan-Horley, Chris; Eriksen, Christine

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines landscape preferences of residents in amenity-rich bushfire-prone landscapes in New South Wales, Australia. Insights are provided into vegetation preferences in areas where properties neighbor large areas of native vegetation, such as national parks, or exist within a matrix of cleared and vegetated private and public land. In such areas, managing fuel loads in the proximity of houses is likely to reduce the risk of house loss and damage. Preferences for vegetation appearance and structure were related to varying fuel loads, particularly the density of understorey vegetation and larger trees. The study adopted a qualitative visual research approach, which used ranking and photo-elicitation as part of a broader interview. A visual approach aids in focusing on outcomes of fuel management interventions, for example, by using the same photo scenes to firstly derive residents' perceptions of amenity and secondly, residents' perceptions of bushfire risk. The results are consistent with existing research on landscape preferences; residents tend to prefer relatively open woodland or forest landscapes with good visual and physical access but with elements that provoke their interest. Overall, residents' landscape preferences were found to be consistent with vegetation management that reduces bushfire risk to houses. The terms in which preferences were expressed provide scope for agency engagement with residents in order to facilitate management that meets amenity and hazard reduction goals on private land.

  5. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives. PMID:25795221

  6. Influence of karst hydrology on water quality management in southeast South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmett, A. J.; Telfer, A. L.

    1994-03-01

    Southeast South Australia has large reserves of potable groundwater, generally close to the surface. European settlement has had a major impact on groundwater quality due to the presence of extensive karst in the unconfined aquifer. Historically, industries such as cheese factories were often sited close to karst features (e.g. caves and sinkholes) because they provided a convenient means of waste disposal. Although most have long since closed, they have left a legacy of pollution plumes of varying sizes. In Mount Gambier, the main regional centre, the presence of both exposed and subterranean karst features provided a “perfect system” for the disposal of stormwater. Prior to the provision of a sewerage system within Mount Gambier, all toilet and household wastewaters were disposed to ground. These activities and the subsequent problems that began emerging in the 1960s have led to a concerted effort over the last 20 years to change the philosophy of waste disposal and to generate an understanding and responsibility by those who live in the region and depend on groundwater for the major part of their water supply. Mount Gambier's water supply comes from the Blue Lake. Groundwater inflow from a highly karstic Tertiary limestone aquifer provides 90% of the recharge to the Blue Lake. The lake is a high-value resource in a high-risk environment and in order to minimize this risk, a water-quality management plan for the lake is currently being developed.

  7. Yield Loss Caused by Pratylenchus thornei on Wheat in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Julie M.; Davies, Kerrie A.; Hancock, Trevor W.; Fisher, John M.

    1999-01-01

    A two-year field trial with 130 plots was conducted at Tanunda, South Australia. Ten cereal cultivars differing in susceptibility to Pratylenchus thornei, two poor host crops (non-leguminous), and a bare fallow treatment were used to manipulate the numbers of nematodes in the plots in the first year. Initial and final densities were determined for each plot and varied from 0 to 9,400 nematodes/200 g oven-dried soil at the beginning of the second year. A highly susceptible wheat cultivar, Warigal, and two wheat lines known to have some resistance to P. thornei, GS50A and AUS4930, were planted in the second year. High densities of P. thornei caused more extensive lesions and severe cortical degradation in roots of Warigal than in GS50A or AUS4930. There was a significant linear relationship between initial density of P. thornei and Warigal grain yield (t/ha), with the estimated regression equation Y = 1.86 - 0.0000557x, where Y is the grain yield in t/ha and x is the number of P. thornei/200 g oven-dried soil. High initial densities (9,000 P. thornei/200 g oven-dried soil) caused up to 27% yield loss of this commercial Australian wheat. In contrast, the yield of the two resistant lines was not affected by initial density, suggesting that both were tolerant as well as resistant in the field. PMID:19270909

  8. Geochronology of Precambrian granites and associated U-Ti-Th mineralization, northern Olary province, South Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Proterozoic granitoids and metamorphic rocks in the Olary province of the Willyama block of South Australia host ore-grade amounts of U-Th-Ti and U-Fe-Ti-Th minerals. U-Pb-Th isotope analyses on zircons from all granitoids associated with the Crocker Well brannerite deposit indicate that these granitoids were intruded within a short time span, close to the 1579.2??1.5 m.y. age of the brannerite-bearing host-rock. Though the early Paleozoic Delamerian orogeny was intense in this region, the zircon isotopic systems remained unaffected; rather, the best-defined zircon chords on concordia plots show a welldefined lower intercept of 43.8??6.5 Ma, which can only be associated with early Tertiary block faulting. Pb-U-Th isotope analyses on brannerite from the Crocker Well deposit and davidite from the Mt. Victoria deposit and the Radium Hill deposit yield badly scattered and discordant apparent ages that suggest a primary age at least as old as the age of the Crocker Well granitoids, followed by a severe disturbance in the early Paleozoic. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  9. The descriptive epidemiology of sports/leisure-related heat illness hospitalisations in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Boufous, Soufiane

    2008-01-01

    Sport-related heat illness has not been commonly studied from an epidemiological perspective. This study presents the descriptive epidemiology of sports/leisure-related heat illness hospitalisations in New South Wales, Australia. All in-patient separations from all acute hospitals in NSW during 2001-2004, with an International Classification of Diseases external cause of injury code indicating "exposure to excessive natural heat (X30)" or any ICD-10 diagnosis code in the range: "effects of heat and light (T67.0-T67.9)", were analysed. The sport/leisure relatedness of cases was defined by ICD-10-AM activity codes indicating involvement in sport/leisure activities. Cases of exposure to heat while engaged in sport/leisure were described by gender, year, age, principal diagnosis, type of activity/sport and length of stay. There were 109 hospital separations for exposure to heat while engaging in sport/leisure activity, with the majority occurring during the hottest months. The number of male cases significantly increased over the 4-year period and 45+ -year olds had the largest number of cases. Heat exhaustion was the leading cause of hospital separation (40% of cases). Marathon running, cricket and golf were the activities most commonly associated with heat-related hospitalisation. Ongoing development and refinement of expert position statements regarding heat illnesses need to draw on both epidemiological and physiological evidence to ensure their relevance to all levels of risk from the real world sport training and competition contexts.

  10. A Hydrogeophysical Conceptual Model of Mount Toondina Impact Crater, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, D. K.; Halihan, T.; Love, A.; Xie, Y.; Simmons, C.

    2011-12-01

    Mount Toondina, located on the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), South Australia, is a meteorite impact crater and a ground water discharge feature with a water hole, a tufa salt flat and several former mapped springs. Aerial photographs and field survey data indicate that water was flowing from springs as recent as twenty years ago. Geophysical site surveys including electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), gravity and seismic data were utilized to constrain a hydrogeologic model for the site. Regional magnetic and gravity surveys were also utilized to evaluate the site boundaries using Oasis Montaj. Fluid chemistry and electrical conductivity from the site was used along with the geophysical data to constrain FEFLOW models to test hydrogeological conceptual models of the permeability structure of Mount Toondina. It is hypothesized that the spring system is controlled by advective flow from the subsurface artesian aquifer to the ring of vegetation around the perimeter of the impact structure. Additionally, it is hypothesized that the central salt flat portion of the impact crater is influenced by free convective processes. The field data and FEFLOW model results will be used to better manage flora and fauna in the Mount Toondina area and to better predict groundwater flow on other impact craters.

  11. A hydrogeophysical conceptual model of Mount Toondina impact crater, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Andrew Kelly

    Mount Toondina, South Australia is an impact crater that currently has groundwater discharging through evapotranspiration, but formerly had eight springs or more flowing around the crater ring. Using field geophysical and geochemical data, a hydrogeophysical conceptual model was developed that suggests that advection of groundwater to the surface through a sandstone layer is the dominant flow mechanism for the system, creating a ring of vegetation at the surface, although faults provide controls over some spring locations. The data also suggest that sufficient fluid density contrast combined with a vertical permeability structure may allow free convection to occur in the impact crater. The conceptual model was tested by developing numerical models to evaluate the permeability structure and the potential for mixed convection in the Mount Toondina system. The FEFLOW models suggest that the Mount Toondina impact crater spring system is controlled by mixed convective flow from the subsurface to the ring of vegetation around the springs which maintains brackish conditions relative to adjacent saline conditions. The models indicated that convective processes result throughout the crater although the character of convection is controlled by the relative permeability of the formations. The results can be applied to better manage flora and fauna in the Mount Toondina area and help to interpret potential for groundwater flow in and around other impact craters.

  12. The climate of the Last Glacial Maximum in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulmeister, J.; Cohen, T.; Kiernan, K.; Woodward, C.; Barrows, T.; Fitzsimmons, K.; Kemp, J.; Haworth, R.; Clark, D. H.; Gontz, A. M.; Chang, J.; Mueller, D.; Slee, A.; Ellerton, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Last Glaciation Maximum (c. 25-18 kyr) in south-eastern Australia has traditionally been regarded as both significantly colder than the present and much more arid. This was based on a variety of evidence including the dramatic reduction in tree pollen and dune activity in currently humid areas such as the Blue Mountains of NSW. Maintaining arid conditions under significantly lower temperatures is quite challenging and not all lines of evidence supported strong aridity. Over the last four years an ARC project has worked to develop new lines of evidence to test these inferences. Outcomes from the project indicate that winter temperatures were significantly colder than at present (an 8-11 C decrease) while summer temperatures were cooler but not as extreme (4-6.5 C). Moisture balances appear to have been more positive than present along the eastern highlands, while areas to the west were comparatively drier. The humid zone along the divide maintained at least seasonally stronger flows in the major rivers, meaning that water was more available in western districts than under modern climates. I will summarise the evidence for this new pattern and highlight the climatological patterns that would be consistent with the reconstruction. I will conclude by speculating on the implications for both human landscape use and what happened to the vegetation.

  13. A windy day in a sheep saleyard: an outbreak of Q fever in rural South Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, B A; Tribe, I G; Givney, R

    2015-01-01

    In December 2004, the Department of Human Services investigated an outbreak of Q fever in South Australia. A case-control study tested an association between attending a local saleyard and human illness. A case was defined as a person with clinical illness and evidence of seroconversion or high phase II IgM. Controls were selected from a database of community controls matched on sex, age group and postcode. Matched analysis of the first 15 cases with 45 controls indicated that contracting Q fever was associated with attending the saleyard on one particular day (adjusted odds ratio 15·3, 95% confidence interval 1·7-undefined, P = 0·014). Saleyard conditions were windy and conducive for airborne dispersal of contaminated particles. In total, 25 cases were detected. Of these, 22 cases had attended a local saleyard on the same day. This outbreak suggests cases were probably infected by a single exposure at a saleyard from infected sheep and dust. The investigation resulted in an increase in the local uptake of Q fever vaccination and extension of the Australian national vaccination programme. PMID:24814266

  14. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Rowell, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes 'scale-up' to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five 'microgeographic regions' at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection. PMID:26467960

  15. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives.

  16. Landscape Preferences, Amenity, and Bushfire Risk in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Nicholas; Dun, Olivia; Brennan-Horley, Chris; Eriksen, Christine

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines landscape preferences of residents in amenity-rich bushfire-prone landscapes in New South Wales, Australia. Insights are provided into vegetation preferences in areas where properties neighbor large areas of native vegetation, such as national parks, or exist within a matrix of cleared and vegetated private and public land. In such areas, managing fuel loads in the proximity of houses is likely to reduce the risk of house loss and damage. Preferences for vegetation appearance and structure were related to varying fuel loads, particularly the density of understorey vegetation and larger trees. The study adopted a qualitative visual research approach, which used ranking and photo-elicitation as part of a broader interview. A visual approach aids in focusing on outcomes of fuel management interventions, for example, by using the same photo scenes to firstly derive residents' perceptions of amenity and secondly, residents' perceptions of bushfire risk. The results are consistent with existing research on landscape preferences; residents tend to prefer relatively open woodland or forest landscapes with good visual and physical access but with elements that provoke their interest. Overall, residents' landscape preferences were found to be consistent with vegetation management that reduces bushfire risk to houses. The terms in which preferences were expressed provide scope for agency engagement with residents in order to facilitate management that meets amenity and hazard reduction goals on private land.

  17. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Belinda; Undery, Rebecca; Ahmed, Humza

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs), brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant's sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual. PMID:24526901

  18. Sedimentary and tectonic history of the Holowilena Ironstone, a Neoproterozoic iron formation in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechte, Maxwell Alexander; Wallace, Malcolm William

    2015-11-01

    The Holowilena Ironstone is a Neoproterozoic iron formation in South Australia associated with glacial deposits of the Sturtian glaciation. Through a comprehensive field study coupled with optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray diffraction, a detailed description of the stratigraphy, sedimentology, mineralogy, and structure of the Holowilena Ironstone was obtained. The Holowilena Ironstone comprises ferruginous shales, siltstones, diamictites, and is largely made up of hematite and jasper, early diagenetic replacement minerals of precursor iron oxyhydroxides, and silica. These chemical precipitates are variably influenced by turbidites and debris flows contributing clastic detritus to the depositional system. Structural and stratigraphic evidence suggests deposition within a synsedimentary half-graben. A model for the Holowilena Ironstone is proposed, in which dense oxic fluids expelled during sea ice formation in the Cryogenian pool in the depression of the half-graben, allowing for long-lived mixing with the ferruginous seawater and the deposition of iron oxides. This combination of glacial dynamics, tectonism, and ocean chemistry may explain the return of iron formations in the Neoproterozoic.

  19. Climate variations and salmonellosis transmission in Adelaide, South Australia: a comparison between regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Hiller, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study to identify appropriate regression models for the association between climate variation and salmonellosis transmission. A comparison between different regression models was conducted using surveillance data in Adelaide, South Australia. By using notified salmonellosis cases and climatic variables from the Adelaide metropolitan area over the period 1990-2003, four regression methods were examined: standard Poisson regression, autoregressive adjusted Poisson regression, multiple linear regression, and a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Notified salmonellosis cases in 2004 were used to test the forecasting ability of the four models. Parameter estimation, goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability of the four regression models were compared. Temperatures occurring 2 weeks prior to cases were positively associated with cases of salmonellosis. Rainfall was also inversely related to the number of cases. The comparison of the goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability suggest that the SARIMA model is better than the other three regression models. Temperature and rainfall may be used as climatic predictors of salmonellosis cases in regions with climatic characteristics similar to those of Adelaide. The SARIMA model could, thus, be adopted to quantify the relationship between climate variations and salmonellosis transmission.

  20. Profenofos residues in wild fish from cotton-growing areas of New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Chapman, J C

    2001-01-01

    The organophosphorus (OP) pesticide profenofos (O-4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate) is used heavily in cotton-growing areas of eastern Australia toward the end of the growing season. European carp (Cyprinus carpio), bony bream (Nematalosa erebi), and mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were collected from the cotton-growing areas around Wee Waa, New South Wales, to determine the relationship between profenofos residues and acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity in wild fish. Profenofos concentrations in water, sediment, and fish tissue reflected its general level of use; levels in March 1994 were significantly higher than in 1993 and generally decreased in May, 6 wk after cessation of spraying. Residues in carp and bony bream generally correlated with concentrations in water and sediment, although residues in fish tend to persist longer at some sites. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was a useful indicator of profenofos exposure within a season, particularly if linked with residue measurements. Bony bream and gravid female mosquitofish recovered AChE levels more slowly than carp or nongravid mosquitofish. Recovery in creeks was generally more rapid than in lagoons. PMID:11401263

  1. Landscape Preferences, Amenity, and Bushfire Risk in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Nicholas; Dun, Olivia; Brennan-Horley, Chris; Eriksen, Christine

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines landscape preferences of residents in amenity-rich bushfire-prone landscapes in New South Wales, Australia. Insights are provided into vegetation preferences in areas where properties neighbor large areas of native vegetation, such as national parks, or exist within a matrix of cleared and vegetated private and public land. In such areas, managing fuel loads in the proximity of houses is likely to reduce the risk of house loss and damage. Preferences for vegetation appearance and structure were related to varying fuel loads, particularly the density of understorey vegetation and larger trees. The study adopted a qualitative visual research approach, which used ranking and photo-elicitation as part of a broader interview. A visual approach aids in focusing on outcomes of fuel management interventions, for example, by using the same photo scenes to firstly derive residents' perceptions of amenity and secondly, residents' perceptions of bushfire risk. The results are consistent with existing research on landscape preferences; residents tend to prefer relatively open woodland or forest landscapes with good visual and physical access but with elements that provoke their interest. Overall, residents' landscape preferences were found to be consistent with vegetation management that reduces bushfire risk to houses. The terms in which preferences were expressed provide scope for agency engagement with residents in order to facilitate management that meets amenity and hazard reduction goals on private land. PMID:25948154

  2. Screening of metal uptake by plant colonizers growing on abandoned copper mine in Kapunda, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nirola, Ramkrishna; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Aryal, Rupak; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Systematic site survey for sample collection and analysis was conducted at a derelict copper (Cu) mine at Kapunda, South Australia. Cu concentrations in the soils at this former mine ranged from 65-10107 mg kg(-1). The pH and EC varied widely in the 3.9-8.4 and 152-7311 µS ranges, respectively. Nine plant species growing over the copper mine site were selected to screen for metal uptake to determine their suitability for phytoremediation. The Australian native tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicated enrichment factor (EF) of 2.17, 1.89, and 1.30 for Cu, Zn, and Pb, respectively, suggesting that this species of tree can accumulate these metals to some degree. The stress-resistant exotic olive, Olea europaea exhibited EF of ≤ 0.01 for Cu, Cd, and Pb, and 0.29 for Zn, which is characteristic of an excluder plant. Acacia pycnantha, the Australian pioneer legume species with EF 0.03, 0.80, 0.32, and 0.01 for Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb, respectively, emerged as another strong metal excluder and consequently as an ideal metal stabilizer. PMID:26552328

  3. Mosquito communities with trap height and urban-rural gradient in Adelaide, South Australia: implications for disease vector surveillance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emily; Weinstein, Phillip; Slaney, David; Flies, Andrew S; Fricker, Stephen; Williams, Craig

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the factors influencing mosquito distribution is important for effective surveillance and control of nuisance and disease vector mosquitoes. The goal of this study was to determine how trap height and distance to the city center influenced the abundance and species of mosquitoes collected in Adelaide, South Australia. Mosquito communities were sampled at two heights (<2 m and ~10 m) along an urban-rural gradient. A total of 5,133 mosquitoes was identified over 176 trap nights. Aedes notoscriptus, Ae. vigilax, and Culex molestus were all more abundant in lower traps while Cx. quinquefasciatus (an ornithophilic species) was found to be more abundant in high traps. Distance to city center correlated strongly with the abundance of Ae. vigilax, Ae. camptorhynchus, Cx. globocoxitus, and Cx. molestus, all of which were most common at the sites farthest from the city and closest to the saltmarsh. Overall, the important disease vectors in South Australia (Ae. vigilax, Ae. camptorhynchus, Ae. notoscriptus, and Cx. annulirostris) were more abundant in low traps farthest from the city and closest to the saltmarsh. The current mosquito surveillance practice of setting traps within two meters of the ground is effective for sampling populations of the important disease vector species in South Australia.

  4. Evolution of the APWP for Gondwana: constraints based on the geology of eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briden, J. C.; McElhinny, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    The many iterations of the APWP for Gondwana over the past 40 years will be reviewed. They involve all the uncertainties that challenge the determination of the correct record: nature of NRM; age and correlation; geography and history of tectonic units etc. Most arguments about the Paleozoic section of this path depend upon the interpretation of results from the various terranes of eastern Australia. The two extreme views are either that none of the results from eastern Australia can be used for APWP definition or that all of them can be used. The terrane geology of eastern Australia is now reasonably well known and the paleomagnetic results can be placed in an appropriate terrane concept. This suggests that the Molong-Monaro terrane, where most results come from, was certainly accreted to the main craton by the Middle Devonian and probably by the Early Devonian. Early Devonian palaemagnetric results from the north and south of eastern Australia confirm this to be the case. However, the often used Late Carboniferous results from glacial horizons in eastern Australia are from the New England Fold Belt, where accretion to the main craton may not have been completed until the Middle Triassic. Results from this region now also confirm this to be the case. Both the geological setting and paleomagnetic results now confirm that the South Pole APWP makes a rapid transition from North Africa to south of South Africa between the Late Ordovician (455 Ma) and the Early Devonian (405 Ma). This places Bolivia and adjacent regions of South America near the south pole in Silurian times, a position supported by sedimentological evidence for glaciation in Bolivia at that time. The pole then loops back across southwest Gondwana to reach central Africa by the Early Carboniferous.

  5. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  6. Long term bicycle related head injury trends for New South Wales, Australia following mandatory helmet legislation.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Jake; Walter, Scott R; Grzebieta, Raphael H

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1991 enactment of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, there has been extensive debate as to its effect on head injury rates at a population level. Many previous studies have focused on the impact of MHL around the time of enactment, while little has been done to examine the ongoing effects. We aimed to extend prior work by investigating long-term trends in cyclist head and arm injuries over the period 1991-2010. The counts of cyclists hospitalised with head or arm injuries were jointly modelled with log-linear regression. The simultaneous modelling of related injury mechanisms avoids the need for actual exposure data and accounts for the effects of changes in the cycling environment, cycling behaviour and general safety improvements. Models were run separately with population counts, bicycle imports, the average weekday counts of cyclists in Sydney CBD and cycling estimates from survey data as proxy exposures. Overall, arm injuries were higher than head injuries throughout the study period, consistent with previous post-MHL observations. The trends in the two injury groups also significantly diverged, such that the gap between rates increased with time. The results suggest that the initial observed benefit of MHL has been maintained over the ensuing decades. There is a notable additional safety benefit after 2006 that is associated with an increase in cycling infrastructure spending. This implies that the effect of MHL is ongoing and progress in cycling safety in NSW has and will continue to benefit from focusing on broader issues such as increasing cycling infrastructure. PMID:23026203

  7. Evaluation of a heat warning system in Adelaide, South Australia, using case-series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Monika; Tucker, Graeme; Hansen, Alana; Williams, Susan; Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Background Heatwave warning systems aim to assist in reducing health effects during extreme heat. Evaluations of such systems have been limited. This study explored the effect of a heatwave warning programme on morbidity and mortality in Adelaide, South Australia, by comparing extreme events in 2009 and 2014, the latter with exposure to the preventive programme. Methods The health outcomes during the two heatwaves were compared using the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of daily ambulance call-outs, emergency presentations and mortality data during the heatwaves compared with non-heatwave periods during the warm seasons. Excess or reduced numbers of cases were calculated and the differences in cases between the two heatwaves were estimated. Results IRRs for total ambulance call-outs and emergency presentations were lower during the 2014 heatwaves compared with the 2009 event. The estimated differences in health-specific outcomes between 2009 and 2014 were statistically significant with 207 (59%) for cardiac-related call-outs, 134 (30%) for renal and 145 (56%) for heat-related emergency presentations. Mortality was not reduced in 2014. There were an estimated 34.5 excess deaths in 2009 and 38.2 in 2014. Conclusions Morbidity outcomes were reduced significantly during the 2014 event. The fact that cardiac, renal and heat-related diagnoses were significantly reduced is likely to be associated with the intervention in 2014, which comprised a public warning through media and intense preventive measures directed to individual populations at risk. Further analysis of risk factors of mortality during heatwaves should be explored. PMID:27436672

  8. Preliminary evidence of toxicity associated with the benthic cyanobacterium Phormidium in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Baker, P D; Steffensen, D A; Humpage, A R; Nicholson, B C; Falconer, I R; Lanthois, B; Fergusson, K M; Saint, C P

    2001-01-01

    In April 2000, the water supply for Yorke Peninsula in South Australia was deemed non-potable when extracts from a proliferation of the benthic cyanobacterium Phormidium aff. formosum in Upper Paskeville Reservoir were found to be lethally toxic by intraperitoneal injection into mice (400 mg kg-1). Routine water quality monitoring had failed to detect the development of the Phormidium until complaints of musty taste and odour, attributable to the production of 2-methyl-isoborneol (MIB), were received from the consumers. The 185 ML open-balancing storage, receiving filtered and chloraminated water from the River Murray, was isolated from the drinking water supply and a health alert was issued to approximately 15,000 consumers. The identity of the toxin(s) is thus far unknown, but clinical symptoms of toxicity in mice and chemical characteristics are distinct from the known major cyanotoxins. Preliminary characterisation of this toxin indicates that it has low solubility in water and organic solvents and is strongly associated with the particulate cellular material of the filaments. Toxicity of extracts was diminished by boiling and by treatment with chlorine, but not by chloramines. Further testing of floating cyanobacterial mats in the Torrens Lake in the city of Adelaide (Phormidium aff. formosum) and Myponga Reservoir (Phormidium aff. amoenum) in 2000/2001 was also found to be toxic by mouse bioassay. Toxicity is yet to be confirmed in monospecific cultured strains and further studies are required to identify the toxin and assess its health significance. Genetic characterisation of isolates has commenced in an attempt to classify their relatedness and to assist in the rapid identification of potentially toxic strains. PMID:11769248

  9. Lack of porphyroblast rotation in noncoaxially deformed schists from Petrel Cove, South Australia, and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhardt, Chris

    1989-02-01

    Inclusion trails representing an S 1 cleavage demonstrate the lack of porphyroblast rotation during subsequent highly non-coaxial deformations. The pelitic schists of the Kanmantoo Group at Petrel Cove, South Australia contain two generations of porphyroblasts. The first one consists of cordierite porphyroblasts that formed early in D 2 and contain straight to slightly sigmoidal inclusion trails of S 1. The second generation consists of andalusite porphyroblasts that overgrew crenulated S 2 late during D 3. Several hundred inclusion trail traces from cordierites measured from oriented specimens taken throughout a strongly folded area show a horizontal great circle distribution when plotted and contoured on a stereographic projection. Hence, S 1 was planar and horizontal prior to D 2. S 1 measurements on limbs and hinges of a mesoscale D 2 foldpair show that folding had little effect on porphyroblast orientation as the S 1 orientation remained constant and subhorizontal around the fold. Hence, porphyroblasts have not rotated during any of the non-coaxial deformations accompanying and following their growth. This is interpreted as a result of the partitioning of the deformation around them. S 1 in the matrix has been totally destroyed by the formation of S 2 as a fully differentiated crenulation cleavage. What has previously been regarded as inconsistent senses of shear recorded by porphyroblasts around folds is resolved by the fact that the matrix foliation rotated rather than the porphyroblasts due to the effects of deformation partitioning. The presence of a subhorizontal S 1 foliation suggests horizontal movements (e.g. thrusting or detachment faulting) during the earliest phase of the Adelaidian orogeny.

  10. The scleritome of Paterimitra: an Early Cambrian stem group brachiopod from South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Skovsted, Christian B.; Holmer, Lars E.; Larsson, Cecilia M.; Högström, Anette E.S.; Brock, Glenn A.; Topper, Timothy P.; Balthasar, Uwe; Stolk, Sandra Petterson; Paterson, John R.

    2009-01-01

    Early Cambrian tommotiids are problematic fossil metazoans with external organophosphatic sclerites that have been considered to be basal members of the lophophorate stem group. Tommotiids are almost exclusively known from isolated or rarely fused individual sclerites, which made previous reconstructions of the actual organism highly conjectural. However, the recent discovery of the first articulated specimens of the tommotiid Eccentrotheca revealed a tubular sclerite arrangement (scleritome) that limited the possible life habit to sessile filter feeding and thus further supported a lophophorate affinity. Here, we report the first articulated specimens of a second tommotiid taxon, Paterimitra from the Early Cambrian of the Arrowie Basin, South Australia. Articulated specimens of Paterimitra are composed of two bilaterally symmetrical sclerite types and an unresolved number of small, asymmetrical and irregular crescent-shaped sclerites that attached to the anterior margin of the symmetrical sclerites. Together, the sclerites form an open cone in which the symmetrical sclerites are joined together and form a small posterior opening near the base of the scleritome, while the irregular crescent-shaped sclerites defined a broad anterior opening. The coniform scleritome of Paterimitra is interpreted to have attached to hard substrates via a pedicle that emerged through the small posterior opening (sometimes forming a tube) and was probably a sessile filter feeder. The scleritome of Paterimitra can be derived from the tubular scleritome of Eccentrotheca by modification of basal sclerites and reduction in tube height, and probably represents a more derived member of the brachiopod stem group with the paired symmetrical sclerites possibly homologous to brachiopod valves. PMID:19203919

  11. Divergent responses of fire to recent warming and drying across south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Bradstock, Ross; Penman, Trent; Boer, Matthias; Price, Owen; Clarke, Hamish

    2014-05-01

    The response of fire to climate change may vary across fuel types characteristic of differing vegetation types (i.e. litter vs. grass). Models of fire under climatic change capture these differing potential responses to varying degrees. Across south-eastern Australia, an elevation in the severity of weather conditions conducive to fire has been measured in recent decades. We examined trends in area burned (1975-2009) to determine if a corresponding increase in fire had occurred across the diverse range of ecosystems found in this part of the continent. We predicted that an increase in fire, due to climatic warming and drying, was more likely to have occurred in moist, temperate forests near the coast than in arid and semiarid woodlands of the interior, due to inherent contrasts in the respective dominant fuel types (woody litter vs. herbaceous fuels). Significant warming (i.e. increased temperature and number of hot days) and drying (i.e. negative precipitation anomaly, number of days with low humidity) occurred across most of the 32 Bioregions examined. The results were mostly consistent with predictions, with an increase in area burned in seven of eight forest Bioregions, whereas area burned either declined (two) or did not change significantly (nine) in drier woodland Bioregions. In 12 woodland Bioregions, data were insufficient for analysis of temporal trends in fire. Increases in fire attributable mostly to warming or drying were confined to three Bioregions. In the remainder, such increases were mostly unrelated to warming or drying trends and therefore may be due to other climate effects not explored (e.g. lightning ignitions) or possible anthropogenic influences. Projections of future fire must therefore not only account for responses of different fuel systems to climatic change but also the wider range of ecological and human effects on interactions between fire and vegetation.

  12. Nineteen-year changes in surface salinity in the Southern Ocean south of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Rosemary; Kestenare, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year time series of underway sea surface salinity (SSS) data from the SURVOSTRAL line between Hobart, Australia and Adelie Land, Antarctica has revealed the distinct patterns of seasonal and interannual variability in two key zones of the Southern Ocean: in the Subantarctic Zone and in the Antarctic Zone. Both regions show a weak seasonal freshening of the surface waters over the summer months, with surface waters becoming shallower, warmer and fresher during the summer heating cycle. In the region north of the Subantarctic Front, interannual variations in the summer SSS signature are linked to the latitudinal movements of the Subtropical Front. When this front shifts southward, more high salinity subtropical waters are brought into the domain. Rather than responding to local wind stress forcing, the interannual SSS variability is strongly linked to southward flow from eastern Tasmania (the Tasman outflow), whose decadal variability responds with a 2-3 year delay to remote wind forcing in the South Pacific (Hill et al., 2008). Over this period, variations in the local surface freshwater forcing make a minor contribution to the SURVOSTRAL SSS signature. There appears to be a regime shift in the surface forcing and the SSS response, before and after the large perturbation in 2001-2002. In the Antarctic Zone, the summer SSS signature shows distinct biannual variations that are correlated with upstream sea-ice coverage in the preceding spring. There is no significant correlation between local precipitation changes and the SURVOSTRAL SSS time series. Rather, the integrated effects of upstream sea-ice melt dominate the interannual variations in SSS at the SURVOSTRAL line. Finally, a simple 2D Lagrangian particle analysis shows that in some years the surface waters circulate for a longer time in the northern part of the domain, where their freshwater content may be reduced by mixing with the surrounding waters.

  13. Divergent responses of fire to recent warming and drying across south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Bradstock, Ross; Penman, Trent; Boer, Matthias; Price, Owen; Clarke, Hamish

    2014-05-01

    The response of fire to climate change may vary across fuel types characteristic of differing vegetation types (i.e. litter vs. grass). Models of fire under climatic change capture these differing potential responses to varying degrees. Across south-eastern Australia, an elevation in the severity of weather conditions conducive to fire has been measured in recent decades. We examined trends in area burned (1975-2009) to determine if a corresponding increase in fire had occurred across the diverse range of ecosystems found in this part of the continent. We predicted that an increase in fire, due to climatic warming and drying, was more likely to have occurred in moist, temperate forests near the coast than in arid and semiarid woodlands of the interior, due to inherent contrasts in the respective dominant fuel types (woody litter vs. herbaceous fuels). Significant warming (i.e. increased temperature and number of hot days) and drying (i.e. negative precipitation anomaly, number of days with low humidity) occurred across most of the 32 Bioregions examined. The results were mostly consistent with predictions, with an increase in area burned in seven of eight forest Bioregions, whereas area burned either declined (two) or did not change significantly (nine) in drier woodland Bioregions. In 12 woodland Bioregions, data were insufficient for analysis of temporal trends in fire. Increases in fire attributable mostly to warming or drying were confined to three Bioregions. In the remainder, such increases were mostly unrelated to warming or drying trends and therefore may be due to other climate effects not explored (e.g. lightning ignitions) or possible anthropogenic influences. Projections of future fire must therefore not only account for responses of different fuel systems to climatic change but also the wider range of ecological and human effects on interactions between fire and vegetation. PMID:24151212

  14. Global change impacts on wheat production along an environmental gradient in south Australia.

    PubMed

    Reyenga, P J; Howden, S M; Meinke, H; Hall, W B

    2001-09-01

    Crop production is likely to change in the future as a result of global changes in CO2 levels in the atmosphere and climate. APSIM, a cropping system model, was used to investigate the potential impact of these changes on the distribution of cropping along an environmental transect in south Australia. The effects of several global change scenarios were studied, including: (1) historical climate and CO2 levels, (2) historic climate with elevated CO2 (700 ppm), (3) warmer climate (+2.4 degrees C) +700 ppm CO2, (4) drier climate (-15% summer, -20% winter rainfall) +2.4 degrees C +700 ppm CO2, (5) wetter climate (+10% summer rainfall) +2.4 degrees C +700 ppm CO2 and (6) most likely climate changes (+1.8 degrees C, -8% annual rainfall) +700 ppm CO2. Based on an analysis of the current cropping boundary, a criterion of 1 t/ha was used to assess potential changes in the boundary under global change. Under most scenarios, the cropping boundary moved northwards with a further 240,000 ha potentially being available for cropping. The exception was the reduced rainfall scenario (4), which resulted in a small retreat of cropping from its current extent. However, the impact of this scenario may only be small (in the order of 10,000-20,000 ha reduction in cropping area). Increases in CO2 levels over the current climate record have resulted in small but significant increases in simulated yields. Model limitations are discussed. PMID:11697669

  15. Punctuated equilibria plate tectonics and exploration strategies: Examples from Australia and South America

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.I.; Abreu, V.; Vail, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Understanding the interplay between plate tectonic events, subsidence, flexure, and depositional systems is critical to successful exploration, play concept development, and maturation modelling in frontier exploration. Conventional exploration techniques (seismic/well log mapping, geohistory, geophysical, and forward modelling) are used to quantitatively describe the stratigraphic packages observed in basins, but the driving force creating and destroying the packages has typically been qualitatively described as subsidence/uplift events. In order to predict depositional systems patterns, the driving force of these events must be more quantitatively understood. We observe that the tectonic history of plates is characterized by long periods of fairly constant motion interrupted by short events of re- organization ({open_quotes}punctuated equilibria{close_quotes}). We also observe that these events are usually regional in nature and cause changes in regional subsidence patterns. Furthermore, these changes cause changes in major depositional system locations and characteristics. Analysis of-the plate tectonic history of motion predicts times of quiescence and times of rapid change in basin stratigraphy and therefore produce more effective exploration strategies. We have performed integrated sequence stratigraphic analysis in three basins (Barrow/Dampier, Otway, Santos-Pelotas), on two widely displaced continents (Australia and South America), spanning the Cretaceous Period. Although the tectonic histories are different, each basin responds to its tectonic history in a similar fashion: slow (or negative) subsidence diminishes volume and recognizability of transgressive and highstand systems tract and increases the volume and recognizability of lowstand systems tracts. The alternate case (rapid subsidence) produces the alternate result.

  16. Punctuated equilibria plate tectonics and exploration strategies: Examples from Australia and South America

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, M.I.; Abreu, V.; Vail, P.R. )

    1996-01-01

    Understanding the interplay between plate tectonic events, subsidence, flexure, and depositional systems is critical to successful exploration, play concept development, and maturation modelling in frontier exploration. Conventional exploration techniques (seismic/well log mapping, geohistory, geophysical, and forward modelling) are used to quantitatively describe the stratigraphic packages observed in basins, but the driving force creating and destroying the packages has typically been qualitatively described as subsidence/uplift events. In order to predict depositional systems patterns, the driving force of these events must be more quantitatively understood. We observe that the tectonic history of plates is characterized by long periods of fairly constant motion interrupted by short events of re- organization ([open quotes]punctuated equilibria[close quotes]). We also observe that these events are usually regional in nature and cause changes in regional subsidence patterns. Furthermore, these changes cause changes in major depositional system locations and characteristics. Analysis of-the plate tectonic history of motion predicts times of quiescence and times of rapid change in basin stratigraphy and therefore produce more effective exploration strategies. We have performed integrated sequence stratigraphic analysis in three basins (Barrow/Dampier, Otway, Santos-Pelotas), on two widely displaced continents (Australia and South America), spanning the Cretaceous Period. Although the tectonic histories are different, each basin responds to its tectonic history in a similar fashion: slow (or negative) subsidence diminishes volume and recognizability of transgressive and highstand systems tract and increases the volume and recognizability of lowstand systems tracts. The alternate case (rapid subsidence) produces the alternate result.

  17. Psychosocial stress and strategies for managing adversity: measuring population resilience in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Populations around the world are facing an increasing number of adversities such as the global financial crisis, terrorism, conflict, and climate change. The aim of this paper was to investigate self-reported strategies and sources of support used to get through "tough times" in an Australian context and to identify patterns of response in the general population and differences in potentially vulnerable subgroups. Methods Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of the New South Wales population in Australia. The final sample consisted of 3,995 New South Wales residents aged 16 years and above who responded to the question: "What are the things that get you through tough times?" Results Respondents provided brief comments that were coded into 14 main subject-area categories. The most frequently reported responses were family and self (52%); friends and neighbors (21%); use of positive emotional and philosophical strategies (17%), such as sense of humor, determination, and the belief that things would get better; and religious beliefs (11%). The responses of four population subgroups were compared, based on gender, household income, level of psychological distress, and whether a language other than English was spoken at home. Women reported greater use of friends and neighbors and religious or spiritual beliefs for support, whereas men reported greater use of drinking/smoking and financial supports. Those with lower incomes reported greater reliance on positive emotional and philosophical strategies and on religious or spiritual beliefs. Those with high levels of psychological distress reported greater use of leisure interests and hobbies, drinking/smoking, and less use of positive lifestyle strategies, such as adequate sleep, relaxation, or work/life balance. Those who spoke a language other than English at home were less likely to report relying on self or others (family/friends) or positive emotional and philosophical strategies to get

  18. Dental caries in 14- and 15-year-olds in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries remains one of the most common chronic diseases of adolescents. In Australia there have been few epidemiological studies of the caries experience of adolescents with most surveys focusing on children. The New South Wales (NSW) Teen Dental Survey 2010 is the second major survey undertaken by the Centre for Oral Health Strategy. The survey is part of a more systematic and efficient approach to support State and Local Health District dental service planning and will also be used for National reporting purposes. Methods Data for the NSW Teen Dental Survey were collected in 2010 from a random sample of Year 9 secondary school students aged 14 to 15 years from metropolitan and non-metropolitan schools under the jurisdiction of the NSW Department of Education and Training, the Catholic Education Commission and Independent Schools in New South Wales. Nineteen calibrated examiners performed 1269 clinical examinations at a total of 84 secondary schools across NSW. The survey was accompanied by a questionnaire looking at oral health related behaviours, risk factors and the usage of the Medicare Teen Dental Plan. Results 175 schools were contacted, with 84 (48%) accepting the invitation to participate in the study. A total of 5,357 student consent forms and parent information packages were sent out and 1,256 students were examined; leading to a student participation rate of 23%. The survey reported a mean DMFT for 14 and 15 year olds of 1.2 and it was identified that 45.4% of students had an experience of dental caries. Major variations in caries experience reported occurred by remoteness, water fluoridation status, socio-economic status and household income levels. Conclusions The NSW Teen Dental Survey provided state-wide data that will contribute to the national picture on adolescent oral health. The mean DMFT score of 1.2 is similar to the national caries experience data for this age group from the Australian Child Dental Health Survey in 2009

  19. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Kaisarun; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses. Extracts of Acacia implexa, Acacia falcata, Cassytha glabella, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smilax glyciphylla, Sterculia quadrifida, and Syncarpia glomulifera were evaluated. All extracts except that of S. quadrifida showed activity against sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.81 to 1000 μg/mL. The sap of E. haemastoma and bark of A. implexa possessed high total phenolic contents (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of S. glomulifera identified known antimicrobial compounds. Together, these results support the traditional uses of the examined plants for the treatment of skin related ailments and infections by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia. PMID:27563335

  20. Extreme Heat and Health: Perspectives from Health Service Providers in Rural and Remote Communities in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Susan; Bi, Peng; Newbury, Jonathan; Robinson, Guy; Pisaniello, Dino; Saniotis, Arthur; Hansen, Alana

    2013-01-01

    Among the challenges for rural communities and health services in Australia, climate change and increasing extreme heat are emerging as additional stressors. Effective public health responses to extreme heat require an understanding of the impact on health and well-being, and the risk or protective factors within communities. This study draws on lived experiences to explore these issues in eleven rural and remote communities across South Australia, framing these within a socio-ecological model. Semi-structured interviews with health service providers (n = 13), and a thematic analysis of these data, has identified particular challenges for rural communities and their health services during extreme heat. The findings draw attention to the social impacts of extreme heat in rural communities, the protective factors (independence, social support, education, community safety), and challenges for adaptation (vulnerabilities, infrastructure, community demographics, housing and local industries). With temperatures increasing across South Australia, there is a need for local planning and low-cost strategies to address heat-exacerbating factors in rural communities, to minimise the impact of extreme heat in the future. PMID:24173140

  1. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Akter, Kaisarun; Barnes, Emma C; Brophy, Joseph J; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R; Jamie, Joanne F

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses. Extracts of Acacia implexa, Acacia falcata, Cassytha glabella, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smilax glyciphylla, Sterculia quadrifida, and Syncarpia glomulifera were evaluated. All extracts except that of S. quadrifida showed activity against sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.81 to 1000 μg/mL. The sap of E. haemastoma and bark of A. implexa possessed high total phenolic contents (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of S. glomulifera identified known antimicrobial compounds. Together, these results support the traditional uses of the examined plants for the treatment of skin related ailments and infections by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia. PMID:27563335

  2. Mesoproterozoic plume-modified orogenesis in eastern Precambrian Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Peter G.; Giles, David; Foden, John; Schaefer, Bruce F.; Mark, Geordie; Pankhurst, Matthew J.; Forbes, Caroline J.; Williams, Helen A.; Chalmers, Neil C.; Hills, Quinton

    2009-06-01

    Tectonic models for the latest Paleoproterozoic to earliest Mesoproterozoic evolution of eastern Australia (circa 1620-1500 Ma) are diverse and either emphasize plume or plate margin activity, neither of which satisfactorily explains all geological observations. The dichotomy is largely attributed to geochemical, spatial and temporal data that suggest voluminous A-type felsic magmas are plume related, whereas distribution of arc-related magmas and intense orogenic overprint suggest plate margin activity. The salient geological events include arc-related magmatism at circa 1620-1610 Ma followed by a magmatic hiatus coincident with north-south crustal shortening (1610-1590 Ma) and a magmatic flare-up of A-type felsic magmas throughout the Gawler Craton (circa 1595-1575 Ma). These magmas form the oldest component of a northward younging hot spot track that extends to the Mount Isa Inlier. At circa 1590-1550 Ma, arc magmatism resumed along the northern margin of the Gawler Craton and the rest of eastern Australia records a 90° shift in the regional shortening direction related to activity along the eastern margin of the Australian continent. A plume-modified orogenic setting satisfies all of the spatial and temporal relationships between magma generation and orogenic activity. In this model, the Gawler Craton and the adjacent subduction zone migrated over a mantle plume (circa 1620-1610 Ma). Resultant flat subduction caused transient orogenesis (1610-1595 Ma) in the overriding plate. Slab delamination and thermal assimilation of the plume and the subducting slab caused a switch to crustal extension in the overriding plate, resulting in extensive mantle-derived and crustal melting in the Gawler Craton (1595-1575 Ma).

  3. Locating South China in Rodinia and Gondwana: A fragment of Greater India Lithosphere? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawood, P. A.; Zhao, G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    From the formation of Rodinia at the end of the Mesoproterozoic through to the breakup of Pangea in the Mesozoic, the South China craton first formed and then occupied a position adjacent to Western Australia and northern India. Early Neoproterozoic supra-subduction zone magmatic arc-back arc assemblages in the craton range in age from ca. 1000 Ma to 820 Ma and display a sequential northwest decrease in age. These relations suggest formation and closure of arc systems through southeast-directed subduction and resulted in progressive northwestward accretion onto the periphery of an already assembled Rodinia. Siliciclastic units within an early Paleozoic succession that transgresses across the craton were derived from the southeast and include detritus from beyond the current limits of the craton. Detrital zircon age spectra require an East Gondwana source and are very similar to the Tethyan Himalaya and younger Paleozoic successions from Western Australia suggesting derivation from a common source and by inference accumulation in linked basins along the northern margin of Gondwana, a situation that continued until rifting and breakup of the craton in the late Paleozoic.

  4. Heat flow anomaly in Lesotho - implications for the southern boundary of the Kaapvaal craton

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.Q.W. )

    1992-10-01

    Heat flow studies in southern Africa reveal a pattern of low heat flow in Archean cratons compared with Proterozoic mobile belts that provides grounds for modeling in which cratons have lower mantle heat flux and greater lithospheric thickness. Measurements at nine locations in a 90-km-long north-south traverse show an increase of heat flow from typically cratonic values of about 45 mW/sq m in the north to about 80 mW/sq m where the craton abuts on the Natal belt in the south. The change occurs within 30 km, suggesting that the anomaly largely reflects an increase in radioactive heat from the upper crust in the orogenic front. The change in mantle heat flux across the boundary is probably considerably smaller. These and other results suggest that the surficial craton boundary is further north than usually depicted. 20 refs.

  5. Combining Indigenous and Maritime Archaeological Approaches: Experiences and Insights from the `(Re)locating Narrunga Project', Yorke Peninsula, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Amy; McKinnon, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Clem; Wanganeen, Klynton; Rigney, Lester-Irabinna; Fowler, Madeline

    2013-06-01

    This paper details the unique pairing of Indigenous and maritime archaeological approaches in the `(Re)locating Narrunga Project'. Narrunga was a ketch built by the Narungga Aboriginal community at Point Pearce Mission (Yorke Peninsula, South Australia) at the turn of the twentieth century and later sunk in the 1940s. It is argued that convergences between the scholarly interests of Indigenous and maritime archaeological approaches have been slow to develop and that maritime archaeology as a sub-discipline has not capitalized on the insights that can be gained from collaborative approaches between communities and practitioners. Similarly, Indigenous communities in Australia have had few opportunities to work with researchers to record their maritime heritage. As is evident in the Narrunga story told in this research, non-Indigenous records have been complicit in underplaying the maritime achievements and skills of Narungga people and collaborative research can work towards decolonizing this past.

  6. Earliest Life on Earth Preserved in Hotspring Deposits: Evidence from the 3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton, Australia, and Implications for the Search for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Djokic, T.; Campbell, K. A.; Walter, M. R.; Oto, T.; Nakamura, E.

    2016-05-01

    A variety of biosignatures preserved in hotspring facies from the c. 3.5 Ga Dresser Formation, Australia, lends support to an origin of life in terrestrial hotsprings, and have profound implications for the search for life on Mars.

  7. Epidemiology and burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Australia, Asia and South America.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Lara Quirino; Macintyre, C Raina; Vujacich, Claudia

    2007-09-01

    Following the development of a herpes zoster vaccine and the successful introduction of widespread varicella vaccination in the USA, many countries are considering similar vaccination programmes. However, before implementing such programmes, it is important to describe the regional baselines of varicella and herpes zoster epidemiology, both to aid the design of vaccination strategies and to observe trends after the introduction of vaccination. In many areas of the world, this information is difficult to gather, and the epidemiology of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in these regions is poorly understood. In Australia, available national data sources of varicella and herpes zoster, including serological data, provide reliable estimates of disease and reveal similar rates of incidence and complications to those in Europe and the USA. However, the average age of infection in Australia is higher than in Europe and in the USA. Epidemiological data from Asia and South America are scarce. Unexpectedly for tropical countries, the incidences of herpes zoster in Asia and South America also appear to be comparable with those in Europe and the USA, despite the delayed acquisition of varicella-zoster virus infection in Asia. In Brazil, there is some evidence for higher than expected incidence rates for herpes zoster in young adults. The epidemiology of herpes zoster in Asia and South America suggests that recommendations on treatment and prevention from Europe and the USA may be relevant to these countries.

  8. European Origin of Bradyrhizobium Populations Infecting Lupins and Serradella in Soils of Western Australia and South Africa† ‡

    PubMed Central

    Stępkowski, Tomasz; Moulin, Lionel; Krzyżańska, Agnieszka; McInnes, Alison; Law, Ian J.; Howieson, John

    2005-01-01

    We applied a multilocus phylogenetic approach to elucidate the origin of serradella and lupin Bradyrhizobium strains that persist in soils of Western Australia and South Africa. The selected strains belonged to different randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR clusters that were distinct from RAPD clusters of applied inoculant strains. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with nodulation genes (nodA, nodZ, nolL, noeI), housekeeping genes (dnaK, recA, glnII, atpD), and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer sequences. Housekeeping gene phylogenies revealed that all serradella and Lupinus cosentinii isolates from Western Australia and three of five South African narrow-leaf lupin strains were intermingled with the strains of Bradyrhizobium canariense, forming a well supported branch on each of the trees. All nodA gene sequences of the lupin and serradella bradyrhizobia formed a single branch, referred to as clade II, together with the sequences of other lupin and serradella strains. Similar patterns were detected in nodZ and nolL trees. In contrast, nodA sequences of the strains isolated from native Australian legumes formed either a new branch called clade IV or belonged to clade I or III, whereas their nonsymbiotic genes grouped outside the B. canariense branch. These data suggest that the lupin and serradella strains, including the strains from uncultivated L. cosentinii plants, are descendants of strains that most likely were brought from Europe accidentally with lupin and serradella seeds. The observed dominance of B. canariense strains may be related to this species' adaptation to acid soils common in Western Australia and South Africa and, presumably, to their intrinsic ability to compete for nodulation of lupins and serradella. PMID:16269740

  9. Age and origin of Terra Rossa soils in the Coonawarra area of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Aija C.; Bestland, Erick A.; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2004-03-01

    The famous Terra Rossa soil in the Coonawarra area, South Australia, is dominated by locally derived aeolian detritus, which probably accumulated over the last 120-130 ka. Four soil profiles and associated limestone and lunette deposits were investigated using the following methods: mass balance geochemistry of bulk soil samples (major and trace elements), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, strontium isotopes (87/86), as well as grain-size analysis and cation exchange capacity. These data show that the Terra Rossa soil from the Coonawarra has a thick, clayey B-horizon which is geochemically homogeneous and dominated by smectite and kaolinite. Mass-balance calculations show unrealistic weathering scenarios when plotted using silicate residuum from the underlying limestone as parent. Realistic weathering scenarios are produced with fine-grained silicate material from local lunette deposits as parent. Strontium isotopes of silicate residuum from Gambier Limestone (0.78) contrast strongly with the clayey B-horizon (0.726). Strontium isotope ratios of silicate material from a local lunette (0.725) are similar to the B-horizon soil values. Strontium isotope ratios from regional geological units indicate that the strontium signature in the lunette and soil B-horizon is dominated by weathering products from the Palaeozoic Kanmantoo shales, extensively exposed upwind to the west on Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. Optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating of 61 individual quartz grains (single aliquot) from three samples in the Coonawarra soil profile (one from the A-horizon and two from the B-horizon) shows that most of the quartz sand grains have been buried for only a few thousand years. Many of the grains, however, have been buried for tens of thousands of years with three grains having exposure ages of between 105 and 109 ka. The large population of young exposure dates represents quartz sands recently exposed in the A-horizon and

  10. Carbonate production and deposition in a warm-temperate macroalgal environment, Investigator Strait, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Noel P.; Bone, Yvonne

    2011-08-01

    The prolific macroalgal forests in shallow (< 20 m), warm-temperate, marine environments off southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia have two carbonate-producing habitats, 1) upward-facing, exposed rock surfaces beneath large phaeophytes, and 2) concealed rock surfaces under overhangs, on rock walls, in crevasses, and indentations that all lie behind a curtain of brown macroalgae. Exposed surfaces have three growth tiers; 1) a basal, cm-high veneer or turf of crustose corallines, geniculate corallines, and short fleshy red algae that are grazed by herbivorous gastropods, 2) an intermediate, 5-20 cm-high community of fleshy red algae, and 3) a 20-100 cm+-high canopy of large phaeophytes (especially Ecklonia, Cystophora and Xiophora) whose blades are locally encrusted with bryozoans, such as Membranipora membranacea, and spirorbids. Concealed surfaces of subvertical rock walls and cryptic habitats behind the macroalgal curtain have two tiers; 1) a cornucopia of encrusting plants and animals, especially crustose and geniculate corallines in shallow water, that give way in water depths > 4 m to numerous bryozoans (especially fenestrates), serpulid worms, numerous and diverse demosponges, ascidians, small solitary corals, epifaunal echinoids, and gastropods, and 2) a veil of macroalgae (mainly Cystophora and Ecklonia) that drapes down and shades the rock walls. Most carbonate sediment production does not come from calcareous epiphytes on the macroalgae but comes from the coralline algae and calcareous invertebrates living on the rock walls and in concealed depressions. Mollusks (gastropods and bivalves) and geniculate coralline algae with numerous lithoclasts, crustose coralline fragments, barnacle plates, serpulid worms, bryozoans, and large benthic foraminifers (especially Amphistegina) dominate the resultant gravels and sands; but there is little or no mud. This is because carbonate sediment is the result of production not only in the macrophyte factory but also in

  11. Microbial profiles of carcasses and minced meat from kangaroos processed in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Holds, Geoff; Pointon, Andrew; Lorimer, Michelle; Kiermeier, Andreas; Raven, Geoff; Sumner, John

    2008-03-31

    The microbiological profiles of kangaroo carcasses and minced meat at game meat processing plants in South Australia were determined in surveys undertaken in 2002 and 2004. In 2002 mean values for log(10) total viable counts (TVC) on carcasses at individual plants ranged from 0.9 to 3.9 log(10) cfu/cm(2), with the mean for all plants being 2.3 log(10) cfu/cm(2). In 2004 the between plant range was narrower, by about 1 log unit, and the mean value for carcasses at all plants was 1.2 log(10) cfu/cm(2). Minced kangaroo meat, was sampled in 2002 only. The overall mean log(10) TVC was 3.9 log(10) cfu/g, with mean counts at individual plants ranging from 3.1 to 4.6 log(10) cfu/g. The overall prevalence of E. coli was 70%, with mean numbers of 2.1 log(10) cfu/g on positive samples. Salmonella was not detected in any of 60 samples from carcasses in 2002. However, in 2004 Salmonella was detected in 4/385 samples (1.04%, 95% CI: 0.28%-2.64%). In minced kangaroo meat, Salmonella was detected in 9/50 (18%, 95% CI: 9%-31%) samples. The abdominal cavity, sampled in 2004, was found to be highly contaminated, with E. coli isolated from 46% of samples and the mean number for positive samples being 2.7 log(10) cfu/cm(2); Salmonella was isolated from 14/120 (12%; 95% CI: 6.52%-18.80%) of abdominal cavities. The practice of collecting carcasses together and pushing grouped carcasses into the chiller likely leads to cross contamination of carcasses from the abdominal cavities of others. To align results of sampling by swabbing for domestic purposes with excision sampling, required for export purposes, both methods were used to sample opposite sides of each of the 50 carcasses sampled in 2004. The results obtained with the two methods of sampling were similar.

  12. Potential climate change impacts on groundwater resources of south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Riasat; McFarlane, Don; Varma, Sunil; Dawes, Warrick; Emelyanova, Irina; Hodgson, Geoff; Charles, Steve

    2012-12-01

    SummaryAbout three - quarters of all water used in the south-western Australia is from groundwater. A decline in rainfall since about 1975 and increased abstraction has resulted in some groundwater levels declining and groundwater dependent ecosystems decreasing in health and extent. Levels are rising under some areas used for dryland (rainfed) agriculture because crops and pastures are shallow rooted. Almost all global climate models (GCMs) project a drier and hotter climate for the region by 2030. In this project, five climate scenarios were applied to groundwater models to estimate groundwater levels in the region in 2030. The climate scenarios were (i) a continuation of the historical climate of 1975-2007; (ii) a continuation of the more recent climate of 1997-2007 until 2030; and (iii-v) three climate scenarios derived by applying the GCM projected climate under three global warming scenarios of 0.7, 1.0 and 1.3 °C by 2030. A sixth scenario considered increasing abstraction levels to maximum allowed levels under a median future climate (1.0 °C warming). Groundwater levels were found to be much less affected than surface water resources by a future drier climate as well as for a continuation of the climate experienced since 1975. For a fixed rainfall, recharge was highest where soils were sandy, there was little or no perennial vegetation and the watertable was neither very shallow nor very deep. A feature of the project area is that about half has a watertable within 10 m of the soil surface, and about a quarter within 3 m. Levels were not as affected by a decline in rainfall when reduced groundwater drainage and evapotranspiration losses offset the reduced rainfall amounts. However once a threshold groundwater level is exceeded, the rainfall fails to refill the available seasonal storage and groundwater levels decline. Projected watertables declined in all areas under a drier climate where perennial vegetation was present and able to intercept recharge or

  13. Landslide tsunami hazard in New South Wales, Australia: novel observations from 3D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Hannah; Clarke, Samantha; Hubble, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the potential of tsunami inundation generated from two case study sites of submarine mass failures on the New South Wales coast of Australia. Two submarine mass failure events are investigated: the Bulli Slide and the Shovel Slide. Both slides are located approximately 65 km southeast of Sydney and 60 km east of the township of Wollongong. The Bulli Slide (~20 km3) and the Shovel Slide (7.97 km3) correspond to the two largest identified erosional surface submarine landslides scars of the NSW continental margin (Glenn et al. 2008; Clarke 2014) and represent examples of large to very large submarine landslide scars. The Shovel Slide is a moderately thick (80-165 m), moderately wide to wide (4.4 km) slide, and is located in 880 m water depth; and the Bulli Slide is an extremely thick (200-425 m), very wide (8.9 km) slide, and is located in 1500 m water depth. Previous work on the east Australian margin (Clarke et al., 2014) and elsewhere (Harbitz et al., 2013) suggests that submarine landslides similar to the Bulli Slide or the Shovel Slide are volumetrically large enough and occur at shallow enough water depths (400-2500 m) to generate substantial tsunamis that could cause widespread damage on the east Australian coast and threaten coastal communities (Burbidge et al. 2008; Clarke 2014; Talukder and Volker 2014). Currently, the tsunamogenic potential of these two slides has only been investigated using 2D modelling (Clarke 2014) and to date it has been difficult to establish the onshore tsunami surge characteristics for the submarine landslides with certainty. To address this knowledge gap, the forecast inundation as a result of these two mass failure events was investigated using a three-dimensional model (ANUGA) that predicts water flow resulting from natural hazard events such as tsunami (Nielsen et al., 2005). The ANUGA model solves the two-dimensional shallow water wave equations and accurately models the process of wetting and drying thus

  14. Pregnant women's use of information and communications technologies to access pregnancy-related health information in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Rodger, D; Skuse, A; Wilmore, M; Humphreys, S; Dalton, J; Flabouris, M; Clifton, V L

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how pregnant women living in South Australia use information and communication technologies (ICTs), principally Internet and mobile phones, to access pregnancy-related information. It draws on 35 semistructured interviews conducted as part of the 'Health-e Baby' project, a qualitative study designed to assess the information needs and ICT preferences of pregnant women cared for at a South Australian metropolitan teaching hospital. Our research shows that although ICTs offer exciting possibilities for health promotion and the potential for new forms of communication, networking and connection, we cannot assume the effectiveness of communicating through such channels, despite near universal levels of ICT access. In turn, this highlights that if e-mediated health promotion is to be effective, health promoters and practitioners need to better understand ICT access, usage and content preferences of their clients.

  15. Antibodies to the Ross River virus in captive marsupials in urban areas of eastern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples collected from 224 tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) in two captive populations in urban areas in eastern New South Wales Australia, between December 1999 and May 2004, were tested for antibodies to Ross River virus (RRV). In one population in northwest Sydney, 21 animals (11%) tested positive, and in another population in Newcastle, New South Wales, thirteen (33%) of the animals were positive. Antibodies were detected in four of 11 wallaroos (Macropus robustus) (36%) but not in parma wallabies (Macropus parma) (n=5), koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) (n=12) and southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) (n=2) from the Sydney area. These data support the possible role of marsupials as urban amplifying hosts for RRV. PMID:16244073

  16. Pregnant women's use of information and communications technologies to access pregnancy-related health information in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Rodger, D; Skuse, A; Wilmore, M; Humphreys, S; Dalton, J; Flabouris, M; Clifton, V L

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how pregnant women living in South Australia use information and communication technologies (ICTs), principally Internet and mobile phones, to access pregnancy-related information. It draws on 35 semistructured interviews conducted as part of the 'Health-e Baby' project, a qualitative study designed to assess the information needs and ICT preferences of pregnant women cared for at a South Australian metropolitan teaching hospital. Our research shows that although ICTs offer exciting possibilities for health promotion and the potential for new forms of communication, networking and connection, we cannot assume the effectiveness of communicating through such channels, despite near universal levels of ICT access. In turn, this highlights that if e-mediated health promotion is to be effective, health promoters and practitioners need to better understand ICT access, usage and content preferences of their clients. PMID:24004661

  17. Antibodies to the Ross River virus in captive marsupials in urban areas of eastern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples collected from 224 tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) in two captive populations in urban areas in eastern New South Wales Australia, between December 1999 and May 2004, were tested for antibodies to Ross River virus (RRV). In one population in northwest Sydney, 21 animals (11%) tested positive, and in another population in Newcastle, New South Wales, thirteen (33%) of the animals were positive. Antibodies were detected in four of 11 wallaroos (Macropus robustus) (36%) but not in parma wallabies (Macropus parma) (n=5), koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) (n=12) and southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) (n=2) from the Sydney area. These data support the possible role of marsupials as urban amplifying hosts for RRV.

  18. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little

  19. Is Drosera meristocaulis a pygmy sundew? Evidence of a long-distance dispersal between Western Australia and northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Rivadavia, F.; de Miranda, V. F. O.; Hoogenstrijd, G.; Pinheiro, F.; Heubl, G.; Fleischmann, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims South America and Oceania possess numerous floristic similarities, often confirmed by morphological and molecular data. The carnivorous Drosera meristocaulis (Droseraceae), endemic to the Neblina highlands of northern South America, was known to share morphological characters with the pygmy sundews of Drosera sect. Bryastrum, which are endemic to Australia and New Zealand. The inclusion of D. meristocaulis in a molecular phylogenetic analysis may clarify its systematic position and offer an opportunity to investigate character evolution in Droseraceae and phylogeographic patterns between South America and Oceania. Methods Drosera meristocaulis was included in a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Droseraceae, using nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid rbcL and rps16 sequence data. Pollen of D. meristocaulis was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques, and the karyotype was inferred from root tip meristem. Key Results The phylogenetic inferences (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches) substantiate with high statistical support the inclusion of sect. Meristocaulis and its single species, D. meristocaulis, within the Australian Drosera clade, sister to a group comprising species of sect. Bryastrum. A chromosome number of 2n = approx. 32–36 supports the phylogenetic position within the Australian clade. The undivided styles, conspicuous large setuous stipules, a cryptocotylar (hypogaeous) germination pattern and pollen tetrads with aperture of intermediate type 7–8 are key morphological traits shared between D. meristocaulis and pygmy sundews of sect. Bryastrum from Australia and New Zealand. Conclusions The multidisciplinary approach adopted in this study (using morphological, palynological, cytotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic data) enabled us to elucidate the relationships of the thus far unplaced taxon D. meristocaulis. Long-distance dispersal between southwestern

  20. Impacts of seawater desalination on the giant Australian cuttlefish Sepia apama in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Dupavillon, Jacqueline L; Gillanders, Bronwyn M

    2009-01-01

    With seawater desalination expanding rapidly, it is important that ecological studies are undertaken to determine the effects of brine discharge on the marine species in the area. The abundance of giant Australian cuttlefish (Sepia apama, Gray 1849) eggs and environmental data were recorded at nine sites near Point Lowly, Spencer Gulf, South Australia, an area where the largest desalination plant in the Southern hemisphere is proposed. In addition, the effects of different concentrations of desalination brine on the growth, survival and condition of cuttlefish embryos were investigated. The primary egg-laying sites for the cuttlefish were in the vicinity of Stony Point (sites 4 and 3) and the area with the least egg abundance was on the eastern and western areas around Point Lowly (sites 9 and 7) where no eggs were found. The survival of embryos decreased with an increase in salinity, with no embryos surviving to full term in salinities greater than 50 per thousand. Mean weight and mantle length also decreased with increasing salinity. Besides elevated salinity, the brine also had increased concentrations of Ba, Ca, K, Sr and Mg relative to water near Point Lowly. Brine discharge from seawater desalination poses a potential threat to the unique spawning aggregation of the giant Australian cuttlefish, in the upper Spencer Gulf, South Australia.

  1. How to make a craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Chin, E. J.; Erdman, M.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Lederer, G. W.; Savage, P. S.; Zhong, S.; Zincone, S.

    2013-12-01

    Most Archean cratons are underlain by long-lived 200-300 km thick thermal boundary layers, significantly thicker than oceanic boundary layers, which eventually subduct. The longevity of cratons is perplexing because cold thermal boundary layers should be gravitationally unstable or should thermally erode with time. However, it is agreed that thermal contraction of the cratonic root is compensated by intrinsic compositional buoyancy due to extreme melt depletion. This melt depletion is also thought to have dehydrated the peridotitic residue, strengthening the cratonic mantle, making it resistant to thermo-mechanical erosion. Exactly how cratonic mantle arrives at this chemically buoyant and dehydrated state is unknown. Possible scenarios include formation by melting within a large plume head, accretion of oceanic lithosphere, and accretion of sub-arc mantle. The high degrees of melting would seem to imply formation in hot plume heads, but low Al and heavy rare earth element contents suggest formation in the spinel stability field, implying formation at shallower depths than their current equilibration pressures. We present a new thermobarometer designed to estimate the average melting pressures and temperatures of residual peridotites using whole rock major element compositions. We find that the average melting pressures and temperatures of cratonic peridotites range between 3-4 GPa and 1600 °C. If cratonic peridotites melted via adiabatic decompression, these average pressures represent maximum bounds on the final pressures of melt extraction. Currently, cratonic peridotites derive from 4-7 GPa, implying that the building blocks of peridotites experienced an increase of 1-3 GPa, equivalent to 30-90 km of overburden. Our results thus imply that cratonic mantle most likely formed by tectonic thickening of oceanic or arc lithospheres. But because both arc and oceanic lithospheres might be expected to be wet due to hydrous flux melting and serpentinization

  2. Cultural Diversity, Racialisation and the Experience of Racism in Rural Australia: The South Australian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, James; Dunn, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Rural spaces in settler nations like Australia are commonly perceived as "white", with low numbers of "non-white" ethnic minorities. Perhaps because of this, although ethnic diversity is a feature of some rural communities, there is a paucity of research into issues of cultural exclusion. This is surprising in view of recent federal government…

  3. Remote Control: A Spatial-History of Correspondence Schooling in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In large continental landmasses such as Australia, forms of education, including correspondence schooling, emerged in the early twentieth century that allowed children in remote regions to access education. To make such schooling possible, other "technologies" of state provision were mobilised such as the postal system, rail network, and radio…

  4. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia.

  5. Drinking & Congenital Birth Defects: Alcohol Awareness in the Northern Rivers Region of New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeigh, Tony; Dip, Grad; Kean, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Guidelines developed to minimise the risk of harm associated with alcohol consumption in Australia focus on promoting population health by changing cultural attitudes. This research study was conducted to uncover attitudes toward maternal drinking and awareness of alcohol-related birth defects within the semi-rural Northern Rivers area of…

  6. Internet Usage in Small Businesses in Regional South Australia: Service Learning Opportunities for a Local University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nina; Sawyer, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The Internet offers opportunities for electronic trading in the global marketplace and as such it can provide substantial benefits to a business. Despite this, the rate of adoption of e-commerce by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Australia has been slower than anticipated and these benefits are not being realised (Pease & Rowe, 2003).…

  7. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia. PMID:22827627

  8. Towards an Integrated Seismic Characterization of the Slave Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rondenay, S.; Snyder, D. B.; Chen, C.; Straub, K. M.; Bank, C.; Bostock, M. G.

    2005-12-01

    Archean cratons form the core of the majority of Earth's continents and offer a unique window into the evolution of continents and plate tectonics over geological time. The dynamics that led to the evolution and stabilization of cratons over one billion years ago, however, remain poorly understood. The Archean Slave province, located in the NW Canadian Shield, is an ideal site to study the formation of cratons due to its high degree of preservation and petrological evidence that its lithosphere possesses a distinct stratification resulting from cratonic assembly. The last decade has witnessed an explosion of seismological work in the region, with more than 45 broadband seismic stations deployed over variable lengths of time by the University of British Columbia, the Geological Survey of Canada, the POLARIS consortium and MIT. These data have been subjected to a wide array of seismic analyses: body- and surface-wave tomographic inversions were applied to the complete dataset, whereas receiver functions and shear-wave splitting were applied to subsets of the data. When considered together, these results yield an unprecedented seismic characterization of the Slave province. The Slave's lithosphere is, on average, 200 km thick and displays seismic velocities that are ~2-3% faster than surrounding Proterozoic orogens and ~2% faster than average cratonic values. At smaller scales, a low velocity anomaly centered to the south of the Lac de Gras kimberlite field is observed between 50-300 km depth. The anomaly has a radius of ~100 km, it exhibits a 2.8% slowness contrast with respect to the surrounding mantle, and may represent post-stabilization alteration of the cratonic lithosphere by processes responsible for kimberlite magmatism. Coherent results from shear-wave splitting and surface-wave analyses show evidence for two layers of anisotropy beneath the Slave craton: one in the uppermost lithosphere that may be associated with crustal structure from the last episode of

  9. A Widening Gap? Changes in Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours by Socioeconomic Status in New South Wales, Australia, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Do, Anna; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes have increased over the past few decades in some countries. However, the trends in inequalities related to multiple health risk behaviours have been infrequently reported. In this study, we examined the trends in individual health risk behaviours and a summary lifestyle risk index in New South Wales, Australia, and whether the absolute and relative inequalities in risk behaviours by socioeconomic positions have changed over time. Methods Using data from the annual New South Wales Adult Population Health Survey during the period of 2002–2012, we examined four individual risk behaviours (smoking, higher than recommended alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, and insufficient physical activity) and a combined lifestyle risk indicator. Socioeconomic inequalities were assessed based on educational attainment and postal area-level index of relative socio-economic disadvantage (IRSD), and were presented as prevalence difference for absolute inequalities and prevalence ratio for relative inequalities. Trend tests and survey logistic regression models examined whether the degree of absolute and relative inequalities between the most and least disadvantaged subgroups have changed over time. Results The prevalence of all individual risk behaviours and the summary lifestyle risk indicator declined from 2002 to 2012. Particularly, the prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking decreased from 52.6% and 22% in 2002 to 43.8% and 17.1% in 2012 (p for trend<0.001). However, a significant trend was observed for increasing absolute and relative inequalities in smoking, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and the summary lifestyle risk indicator. Conclusions The overall improvement in health behaviours in New South Wales, Australia, co-occurred with a widening socioeconomic gap. Implications Governments should address health inequalities through risk factor surveillance and combined

  10. Plume-induced dynamic instabilities near cratonic blocks: Implications for P-T-t paths and metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou-Frottier, L.; Burov, E.; Cloetingh, S.; Le Goff, E.; Deschamps, Y.; Huet, B.; Bouchot, V.

    2012-06-01

    Plume head-lithosphere interactions around cratonic blocks result in thermo-mechanical disturbances that lead to heating and burial phases of crustal rocks. We present results from numerical models of plume head-cratonic blocks interactions where a free upper surface condition and realistic rheologies are accounted for. These models include distinct cratonic blocks embedded within a continental lithosphere and separated by several hundreds of kilometers. Surface topography, thermal field and effective viscosity values are tracked for 20 Myr of interactions. The modeled dynamic interaction of a plume head around cratonic blocks results in two main types of instabilities, each of them resulting in a distinct P-T-t path. The "slab-like" instability, focused on cratonic edges when plume head is away from the craton center, shows a near-isothermal burial phase, while the "drip-like" instability occurring above plume head material results in a near-isobaric heating phase. Consequently, both clockwise and counterclockwise P-T-t paths can be expected around cratons, as actually observed around the Tanzanian craton and other cratonic areas. Metallogenic data from gemstone-bearing rocks in south-east Africa and data from ultrahigh temperature and ultrahigh pressure metamorphism are compatible with our model. It appears that vertical mantle dynamics around cratons may also explain thermobarometric signatures that are often attributed to horizontal tectonics.

  11. Craton stability and continental lithosphere dynamics during plume-plate interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Van Hunen, J.; Pearson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Survival of thick cratonic roots in a vigorously convecting mantle system for billions of years has long been studied by the geodynamical community. A high cratonic root strength is generally considered to be the most important factor. We first perform and discuss new numerical models to investigate craton stability in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian rheology in the stagnant lid regime. The results show that only a modest compositional rheological factor of Δη=10 with non-Newtonian rheology is required for the survival of cratonic roots in a stagnant lid regime. A larger rheological factor (100 or more) is needed to maintain similar craton longevity in a Newtonian rheology environment. Furthermore, chemical buoyancy plays an important role on craton stability and its evolution, but could only work with suitable compositional rheology. During their long lifespan, cratons experienced a suite of dynamic, tectonothermal events, such as nearby subduction and mantle plume activity. Cratonic nuclei are embedded in shorter-lived, more vulnerable continental areas of different thickness, composition and rheology, which would influence the lithosphere dynamic when tectonothermal events happen nearby. South Africa provides a very good example to investigate such dynamic processes as it hosts several cratons and there are many episodic thermal events since the Mesozoic as indicated by a spectrum of magmatic activity. We numerically investigate such an integrated system using the topographic evolution of cratons and surrounding lithosphere as a diagnostic observable. The post-70Ma thinning of pericratonic lithosphere by ~50km around Kaapvaal craton (Mather et al., 2011) is also investigated through our numerical models. The results show that the pericratonic lithosphere cools and grows faster than cratons do, but is also more likely to be effected by episodic thermal events. This leads to surface topography change that is significantly larger around the craton than within

  12. The structure of the Amazonian craton: Available geophysical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, João Willy Corrêa; Rosa, José Wilson Corrêa; Fuck, Reinhardt A.

    2016-10-01

    The Amazonian craton, which covers a large area of South America, and is thought to have been stable since the end of the Mesoproterozoic, has recently benefited from a series of regional geophysical surveys. The Amazonian craton comprises the northern Guyana shield and the southern Central Brazil shield. It has become the main subject of seismological studies aiming to determine crustal thickness. Moho thickness maps that cover a large part of the South American continent summarize these studies. Receiver function studies, aided by surface wave dispersion tomography, were also useful tools applied in the region over the past decade. These have been improved by the addition of temporary and permanent regional seismological arrays and stations. An interesting NNW-SSE Moho depth anomaly, pointing to crustal thickening of up to 60 km in the central Guyana shield and a 50 km thick anomaly of the southern Central Brazil shield were recently identified. Areas with crustal thickening correspond to Paleoproterozoic magmatic arcs. The upper mantle seismic anisotropy in part of the region has been determined from SKS splitting studies. The currently available seismic anisotropy information shows that the orientation of the determined anisotropic axis is related to the frozen in anisotropy hypothesis for the Amazonian craton. The orientation of the anisotropic axis shows no relation to the current South American plate motion in the Amazonian craton. Most recently, detailed information for the two shields has benefited from a series of high-resolution, regional aerogeophysical surveys, made available by CPRM, the Brazilian Geological Survey. In addition to the mentioned contribution from seismology for imaging deeper crustal structures, regional gravity surveys have been expanded, adding to previous Bouguer anomaly maps, and deep drilling information from early exploration efforts have been compiled for the Amazon basin, which covers the Amazonian craton separating the Guyana

  13. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, W.; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; Emelyanova, I.; Hodgson, G.; McFarlane, D.

    2012-05-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15%. There is expected to be a continuing reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia. Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A Vertical Flux Manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland), soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. These recharge estimates were accumulated on a daily basis for both observed and projected climate scenarios and used in a MODFLOW simulation with monthly stress periods. In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In the Dandaragan Plateau to the north-east of Perth there has been groundwater level rise since the 1970s associated with land clearing, and with rainfall projected to reduce the least in this area the groundwater levels are estimated to continue to rise. Along the coastal zone north of Perth there is an interaction between projected rainfall decline and legislated removal to pine forests. This results in areas of increasing

  14. Th-U-total Pb geochronology of authigenic monazite in the Adelaide rift complex, South Australia, and implications for the age of the type Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, K. H.; Wernicke, B. P.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Adelaide rift complex in South Australia contains the type sections for Sturtian and Marinoan glacial deposits. The litho- and chemo-stratigraphy of these deposits play a central role in evaluating global Neoproterozoic ice age hypotheses and Rodinia supercontinent reconstructions, but reliable depositional age constraints have been extremely limited. We report results of in situ Th-U-total Pb (electron microprobe) dating of detrital and authigenic monazite in two samples from the Umberatana Group (Sturtian Holowilena Ironstone and pre-Marinoan Enorama Shale) in the Central Flinders Ranges. Several texturally and chemically distinct detrital and authigenic populations are recognized. Detrital dates range from 1600 Ma to 760 Ma and most relate to well-known orogenic or igneous events in surrounding cratonic regions. Authigenic monazite grew in three or more pulses ranging from 680 Ma to 500 Ma. The date of 680 ± 23 Ma (2 σ) for the earliest generation of authigenic monazite in sandstone from the Enorama Shale (1) provides an estimate for the age of the base of the Trezona carbon isotopic anomaly just beneath the Marinoan glacial deposits, (2) provides an absolute minimum age constraint on the underlying Sturtian glacial deposits, and (3) supports proposed correlations between type Marinoan deposits and precisely dated glacial deposits in Namibia and China, which bracket the presumed Marinoan equivalents between 655 and 635 Ma. This age is inconsistent with a Re-Os isochron age of 643 ± 2.4 Ma (2 σ) on shales near the bottom of the Sturtian-Marinoan interglacial succession, stratigraphically > 3000 m below the Enorama Shale sample, and militate against the hypothesis that the type Marinoan is correlative with the 580 Ma Gaskiers glaciation. Monazite growth near 600 Ma and again at about 500 Ma probably represent hydrothermal fluid-flow events, the latter of which also corresponds to the well-known Delamerian Orogeny during which the Adelaide sediments were

  15. The Changing Nature of Drought Risk in South-east Australia Over the Past Two Millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiem, A.; Ho, M. W.; Verdon-Kidd, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) is one of the most important food and fibre regions in Australia, producing one-third of the national food supply and exporting produce to many other countries. In total, the Basin contains about 40% of Australia's farms and 70% of Australia's irrigated land area. However, the MDB is also one of the most spatially and temporally variable river systems in the world, with severe droughts a regular occurrence over the ~100 years of instrumental record and decadal-scale droughts (e.g. "Federation" (~1895-1902), "World War II" (~1937-1945) and "Millennium" or "Big Dry" (~1997-2010) droughts) matched by flood dominated epochs (e.g. 1950s, 1970s). The accurate estimation of drought risk in the MDB is hampered by relatively short instrumental records and also by the complexity of the region's climate teleconnections with several large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes in the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation, Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation), the Indian (Indian Ocean Dipole) and Southern Oceans (Southern Annular Mode). Climate-sensitive paleoclimate records provide an opportunity to resolve hydroclimatic variability over long time periods prior to the availability of instrumental records and therefore offer the potential for improved quantification of risks associated with hydroclimatic extremes. However, the MDB, as with many regions in Australia, currently lacks suitable in situ proxies necessary to do this. Therefore, remote paleoclimate rainfall proxies in the Australasian region spanning are used to develop new reconstructions of MDB rainfall over the Common Era (CE) (i.e. approximately the past 2000 years). The nature of MDB dry epochs from 749BCE to 1981CE are then compared with the frequency and duration of droughts recorded in instrumental records (i.e. approximately the past 100 years). Importantly, the results show that the probability of decadal scale droughts is three times greater than instrumental records suggest.

  16. Rethinking the Pattern of External Policy Referencing: Media Discourses over the "Asian Tigers" PISA Success in Australia, Germany and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldow, Florian; Takayama, Keita; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    The article compares how the success of the "Asian Tiger" countries in PISA, especially PISA 2009, was depicted in the media discussion in Australia, Germany and South Korea. It argues that even in the times of today's "globalised education policy field", local factors are important in determining whether or not a country…

  17. The Changing Nature of the Role of Principals in Primary and Junior Secondary Schools in South Australia Following the Introduction Local School Management (Partnerships 21)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahid, Abdul

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the changing nature of the role of principals following the introduction of local school management (Partnerships 21) in South Australia. The study reports the series of interviews with primary and junior secondary principals with regard to their roles in several areas namely; instructional leadership, teachers' professional…

  18. Temporal trends over the past two decades in asphyxial deaths in South Australia involving plastic bags or wrapping.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Simpson, Ellie; Gilbert, John D

    2006-01-01

    Asphyxial deaths utilising plastic bags or wrappings occurring over a 20-year period from March 1984 to February 2004 were reviewed at Forensic Science SA, Australia. A total of 45 cases were identified, with three occurring in infants and children (one accidental asphyxia; two homicides). Of the remaining 42 adults the male to female ratio was approximately 1:1 (23 and 19 cases, respectively), with all deaths attributed to suicide. The 42 adult cases represented 1.2% of the 3569 suicides autopsied at the centre over the time period of the study. The age ranges of the adult victims were 19-88 years (mean=47.1 years) for the males, and 32-89 years (mean=60.5 years) for the females. The adult female victims were significantly older than the males (p<0.001). A number of victims had histories of depression and had taken prescription medications. A significant difference was found in the temporal occurrence of the adult deaths, with six cases occurring between 1984 and 1989, nine between 1989 and 1994, 11 between 1994 and 1999, and 16 between 1999 and 2004 (p<0.001). Plastic bag asphyxial deaths were rare and in adults were due to suicide involving either older females or younger males. A significant increase in cases in South Australia in recent years was demonstrated, possibly related to publicity surrounding assisted suicides, and the ready availability of suicide manuals and information on suicide techniques from the internet.

  19. Demographic and socio-cultural correlates of medical mistrust in two Australian States: Victoria and South Australia.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, Andre; Polonsky, Michael; McQuilten, Zoe; Waters, Neil

    2013-11-01

    Studies on medical mistrust have mainly focused on depicting the association between medical mistrust and access/utilization of healthcare services. The effect of broader socio-demographic and psycho-social factors on medical mistrust remains poorly documented. The study examined the effect of broader socio-demographic factors, acculturation, and discrimination on medical mistrust among 425 African migrants living in Victoria and South Australia, Australia. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, low medical mistrust scores (i.e., more trusting of the system) were associated with refugee (β=-4.27, p<0.01) and family reunion (β=-4.01, p<0.01) migration statuses, being Christian (β=-2.21, p<0.001), and living in rural or village areas prior to migration (β=-2.09, p<0.05). Medical mistrust did not vary by the type of acculturation, but was positively related to perceived personal (β=0.43, p<0.001) and societal (β=0.38, p<0.001) discrimination. In order to reduce inequalities in healthcare access and utilisation and health outcomes, programs to enhance trust in the medical system among African migrants and to address discrimination within the community are needed.

  20. Recent mantle degassing recorded by carbonic spring deposits along sinistral strike-slip faults, south-central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Uwe; Tonguç Uysal, I.; Yüce, Galip; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Italiano, Francesco; İmer, Ali; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2016-11-01

    The interior of the Australian continent shows evidence for late Quaternary to Recent fault-controlled mantle 3He and CO2 degassing. A series of interconnected NW-striking sinistral faults, the Norwest fault zone (NFZ), in south-central Australia are associated with travertine mounds, the latter show a regular spacing of 50-70 km. U-series ages on 26 samples range from 354 ± 7 to 1.19 ± 0.02ka (2σ errors) and suggest a clustering every ∼3-4 ka since ∼26 ka. Geochemical data demonstrate a remarkable mantle-to-groundwater connection. Isotopic data indicate that the groundwater is circulating to depths >3 km and interacting with Neoproterozoic/Cambrian basement and mantle volatiles. 3He/4He isotope ratios show that the He comes in part from the mantle. This demonstrates that the NFZ cuts through the entire crust and provides pathways for mantle degassing. Scaling relationships suggest that the series of sinistral faults that make up the NFZ are interconnected at depths and have a significant strike length of 60-70 km or more. The NFZ occurs where a major compositional boundary and a significant heat flow anomaly occurs, and a major step in lithospheric thickness has been mapped. We discuss a tectonic model in which recent stress field, heat flow and lithospheric structure in central Australia reactivated a set of steeply dipping Neoproterozoic faults, which may now be growing into a crustal/lithospheric-scale structure.

  1. Morbillivirus infection in live stranded, injured, trapped, and captive cetaceans in southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brett M; Blyde, David J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Morton, John M

    2012-01-01

    We report serologic evidence of cetacean morbillivirus (CMV) infection in five of eight cetacean species found live stranded, injured, or trapped along the coast of southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia between December 2005 and January 2011. Antibody to CMV was detected in 13 of 27 (48%) wild cetaceans sampled. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in clinically diseased (69%) compared to nondiseased (18%) animals (P=0.018). There was high antibody prevalence (83%, n=6) in melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra). Two of 13 (15%) captive cetaceans sampled between November 2005 and January 2011 had CMV antibodies and, as infection was unlikely to have occurred while in captivity, CMV infection appears to have been present in Australian wild cetaceans since at least 1985. These results indicate that morbillivirus infection is occurring without widespread cetacean mortality in this region. However, as the deaths of two immature Australian offshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were attributed to CMV infection, morbillivirus infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of disease in cetaceans in Australia. Captive cetacean populations may be prone to significant mortality as a result of CMV introduction, so strict quarantine procedures should be enforced when injured or stranded cetaceans are hospitalized and rehabilitated at Australian zoos and marine parks.

  2. Morbillivirus infection in live stranded, injured, trapped, and captive cetaceans in southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brett M; Blyde, David J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Morton, John M

    2012-01-01

    We report serologic evidence of cetacean morbillivirus (CMV) infection in five of eight cetacean species found live stranded, injured, or trapped along the coast of southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia between December 2005 and January 2011. Antibody to CMV was detected in 13 of 27 (48%) wild cetaceans sampled. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in clinically diseased (69%) compared to nondiseased (18%) animals (P=0.018). There was high antibody prevalence (83%, n=6) in melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra). Two of 13 (15%) captive cetaceans sampled between November 2005 and January 2011 had CMV antibodies and, as infection was unlikely to have occurred while in captivity, CMV infection appears to have been present in Australian wild cetaceans since at least 1985. These results indicate that morbillivirus infection is occurring without widespread cetacean mortality in this region. However, as the deaths of two immature Australian offshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were attributed to CMV infection, morbillivirus infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of disease in cetaceans in Australia. Captive cetacean populations may be prone to significant mortality as a result of CMV introduction, so strict quarantine procedures should be enforced when injured or stranded cetaceans are hospitalized and rehabilitated at Australian zoos and marine parks. PMID:22247373

  3. The impact of compulsory helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a response.

    PubMed

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2013-03-01

    This article responds to criticisms made in a rejoinder (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2012, 45: 107-109) questioning the validity of a study on the impact of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales, Australia. We systematically address the criticisms through clarification of our methods, extension of the original analysis and discussion of new evidence on the population-level effects of MHL. Extensions of our analysis confirm the original conclusions that MHL had a beneficial effect on head injury rates over and above background trends and changes in cycling participation. The ongoing debate around MHL draws attention away from important ways in which both safety and participation can be improved through investment in well-connected cycling infrastructure, fostering consideration between road users, and adequate legal protection for vulnerable road users. These are the essential elements for providing a cycling environment that encourages participation, with all its health, economic and environmental benefits, while maximising safety. PMID:23339779

  4. Distribution of the genus Alexandrium (Halim) and paralytic shellfish toxins along the coastline of New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Hazel; Brett, Steve; Ajani, Penelope; Murray, Shauna

    2013-07-15

    Blooms of Alexandrium species, in particular the species Alexandrium catenella, accounted for more than 50% of algal related, shellfish aquaculture harvest zone closures in New South Wales (NSW) Australia since 2005. While there are indications that species of Alexandrium are more abundant than they were formerly, there is little data available on the spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of the genus in NSW. A six and a half year dataset comprising a total of 8649 fortnightly samples from 31 estuaries spread over 2000 km of NSW coastline was analysed. The greatest abundances of Alexandrium spp. were observed during the austral Spring and Summer, in estuaries in the mid and southern latitudes of the state. In identifying these high risk zones, we propose variables such as season, temperature, rainfall and estuarine flushing to be targeted in intensive site specific studies, to support the development of predictive tools for resource managers.

  5. Yardea Dacite -large-volume, high-temperature felsic volcanism from the Middle Proterozoic of South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Creaser, R.A.; White, A.J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The Yardea Dacite is a large-volume felsic volcanic unit from the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range Volcanics of South Australia; it has been previously described as an ignimbrite. However, some samples contain no petrographic evidence for a pyroclastic origin, but have characteristics compatible with final crystallization from a nonfragmented magma. These samples may have erupted as lavas, but others are likely to be extremely densely welded ignimbrites, suggesting a compound nature for the unit. Geothermometry and phase equilibria indicate that the Yardea Dacite originated from a high-temperature ({approximately}1,000{degree}C) felsic magma with a low water content ({le}2%). The Yardea Dacite is not associated with a known caldera of the Valles type, and shares many characteristics of recently described Cenozoic felsic volcanic rocks from the western United States, interpreted as rheoignimbrites or as unusually extensive lavas.

  6. Does using potting mix make you sick? Results from a Legionella longbeachae case-control study in South Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, B A; Carman, J; Eckert, K; Tucker, G; Givney, R; Cameron, S

    2007-01-01

    A case-control study was performed in South Australia to determine if L. longbeachae infection was associated with recent handling of commercial potting mix and to examine possible modes of transmission. Twenty-five laboratory-confirmed cases and 75 matched controls were enrolled between April 1997 and March 1999. Information on underlying illness, smoking, gardening exposures and behaviours was obtained by telephone interviews. Recent use of potting mix was associated with illness (OR 4.74, 95% CI 1.65-13.55, P=0.004) in bivariate analysis only. Better predictors of illness in multivariate analysis included poor hand-washing practices after gardening, long-term smoking and being near dripping hanging flower pots. Awareness of a possible health risk with potting mix protected against illness. Results are consistent with inhalation and ingestion as possible modes of transmission. Exposure to aerosolized organisms and poor gardening hygiene may be important predisposing factors to L. longbeachae infection.

  7. Does using potting mix make you sick? Results from a Legionella longbeachae case-control study in South Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, B A; Carman, J; Eckert, K; Tucker, G; Givney, R; Cameron, S

    2007-01-01

    A case-control study was performed in South Australia to determine if L. longbeachae infection was associated with recent handling of commercial potting mix and to examine possible modes of transmission. Twenty-five laboratory-confirmed cases and 75 matched controls were enrolled between April 1997 and March 1999. Information on underlying illness, smoking, gardening exposures and behaviours was obtained by telephone interviews. Recent use of potting mix was associated with illness (OR 4.74, 95% CI 1.65-13.55, P=0.004) in bivariate analysis only. Better predictors of illness in multivariate analysis included poor hand-washing practices after gardening, long-term smoking and being near dripping hanging flower pots. Awareness of a possible health risk with potting mix protected against illness. Results are consistent with inhalation and ingestion as possible modes of transmission. Exposure to aerosolized organisms and poor gardening hygiene may be important predisposing factors to L. longbeachae infection. PMID:16780608

  8. Metasomatism and metallogeny of A-type granites of the Mt Painter-Mt Babbage Inliers, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elburg, Marlina A.; Andersen, Tom; Bons, Paul D.; Weisheit, Anett; Simonsen, Siri L.; Smet, Ingrid

    2012-10-01

    The Mount Painter and Mount Babbage Inliers (South Australia) are largely composed of Mesoproterozoic A-type granitoids that intruded marginally older metasediments. Metasomatic activity has had a pronounced influence on the granites in the southerly Mt Painter Inlier. U-Pb dating and Hf isotope ratios of zircons from granites and hyperaluminous rocks show the latter to be heavily metasomatised equivalents of the granitoids. Similar metasomatic processes are likely to have been responsible for the formation of Fe-oxide-U-REE ores. These ores formed more than 1100 Ma after intrusion of the Mesoproterozoic A-type granites, and elemental remobilisation may have been associated with a new phase of granitoid magmatism around 455 Ma. The ferroan and incompatible element-rich nature of A-type granites makes them a suitable source for ores that can be tapped whenever thermal and fluid conditions are favourable.

  9. Outbreak of skin nodules associated with Riouxgolvania beveridgei (Nematoda: Muspiceida) in the southern bentwing bat (Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii), South Australia.

    PubMed

    McLelland, David J; Reardon, Terry; Bourne, Steven; Dickason, Celia; Kessell, Allan; Boardman, Wayne

    2013-10-01

    In 2009, an outbreak of white nodular cutaneous lesions was detected in one of only two known breeding colonies of the critically endangered southern bentwing bat (Miniopterus schreibersii bassanii), at Naracoorte, South Australia. Necropsies were conducted on 10 euthanized bats in September 2009. In October 2009, 123 bats were examined under anesthesia, with skin biopsies collected from 18 affected bats. Prevalence of skin lesions was 45.2%. The prevalence among males was three times greater than among females. The majority of lesions examined histologically were granulomas, typically centered on a nematode. A single lesion had epidermal hyperplasia with intracytoplasmic inclusions consistent with a pox virus; pox virions were identified on electron microscopy. Nematodes dissected from frozen lesions were identified morphologically as Riouxgolvania beveridgei, previously described in the eastern bentwing bat (Miniopterus schreibersii oceanensis). The factors contributing to this apparent disease emergence and outbreak remain undetermined. Lesions consistent with white nose syndrome were not identified. PMID:24502731

  10. Trace-elements in sheep grazing near a lead-zinc smelting complex at Port Pirie, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, T.S.; Judson, G.J.

    1986-07-01

    In South Australia, several studies have shown that heavy metal pollution of soils and plants occurs in the vicinity of a lead/zinc smelter at Port Pirie. Data on soil analysis indicates that at least 3400 km/sup 2/ of land near these smelters has been contaminated by the fallout of Pb, Zn and Cd. It is possible that contamination of soil and pasture by heavy metals may adversely affect the health of livestock grazing near the smelters. In sheep, Pb toxicity causes anorexia, abdominal pain and diarrhea while Zn or Cd supplementation reduces the Cu status. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of heavy metals on the trace-element status of sheep grazing at selected distances from the Port Pirie smelters.

  11. Household disaster preparedness and information sources: Rapid cluster survey after a storm in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Cretikos, Michelle; Eastwood, Keith; Dalton, Craig; Merritt, Tony; Tuyl, Frank; Winn, Linda; Durrheim, David

    2008-01-01

    Background A storm-related disaster in New South Wales, Australia in June 2007 caused infrastructure damage, interrupted essential services, and presented major public health risks. We investigated household disaster preparedness and information sources used before and during the disaster. Methods Rapid cluster survey of 320 randomly selected households in Newcastle and Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia. Results 227 households (71%) responded to the survey. By the day before the storm, 48% (95%CI 40–57%) of households were aware of a storm warning, principally through television (67%; 58–75%) and radio (57%; 49–66%) announcements. Storm preparations were made by 42% (28–56%) of these households. Storm information sources included: radio (78%; 68–88%); family, friends, colleagues and neighbours (50%; 40–60%); and television (41%; 30–52%). Radio was considered more useful than television (62%; 51–73% vs. 29%; 18–40%), even in households where electricity supply was uninterrupted (52%; 31–73% vs. 41%; 20–63%). Only 23% (16–30%) of households were aware that the local government-operated radio network has a designated communication role during disasters. A battery-operated household radio and appropriate batteries were available in 42% (34–50%) of households, while only 23% (16–29%) had all of: a torch, battery-operated radio, appropriate batteries, mobile phone, emergency contact list and first aid equipment. Conclusion Broadcast media are important information sources immediately before and during disasters. Health services should promote awareness of broadcast networks' disaster role, especially the role of radio, and encourage general household disaster preparedness. A rapid cluster survey conducted shortly after a natural disaster provided practical, robust information for disaster planning. PMID:18533010

  12. 26Al/10Be dating of an aeolian dust mantle soil in western New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Adrian; Fink, David; Chappell, John; Melville, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Aeolian dust mantle soils are an important element of many landscapes in south-eastern Australia, though the age of these aeolian deposits has not been radiometrically determined. At Fowlers Gap in western New South Wales, surface cobbles of silcrete and quartz overlie a stone-free, aeolian dust mantle soil, which has a thickness of about 1.6 m. The clay-rich aeolian dust deposit in turn lies upon a buried silcrete and quartz stone layer. Modelling in-situ cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be concentrations measured in both the surface quartz stones and in the buried quartz layer of rocks, reveals that each has experienced a complex exposure-burial history. Due to the absence of quartz stones or sand at intermediate depths, our cosmogenic 26Al and 10Be modelling was not able to determine a definitive mechanism of stone pavement formation and stone burial. Various scenarios of stone formation, transport, burial and exhumation were tested that constrain the age of the deposit to range from 0.9 ± 0.2 Ma to 1.8 ± 0.2 Ma, based largely on different assumptions taken for the time-dependency of the net sedimentation rate. This corresponds with the initiation of the Simpson Desert dune fields and the deflation of lakes in central Australia, which probably responded to the shift to longer-wavelength, larger-amplitude Quaternary glacial cycles at around 1 Ma. Sensitivity analyses were carried out to identify those parameters which better constrained model outputs. Within model errors, which largely are the result of analytical errors in measured 26Al and 10Be concentrations, all three competing theories of colluvial wash, upward displacement of stones, and cumulic pedogenesis are possible mechanisms for the formation of the surface stone pavement.

  13. Long-term marine litter monitoring in the remote Great Australian Bight, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edyvane, K S; Dalgetty, A; Hone, P W; Higham, J S; Wace, N M

    2004-06-01

    The Anxious Bay beach litter clearance is the longest running annual survey of ocean-based litter in Australia. It's remoteness from centres of human population and location (with respect to prevailing winds and currents) make it an ideal place for monitoring ocean or ship-based litter in Australia's southern oceans and particularly, the Great Australian Bight. Over the 1991-1999 period, a large but gradual decline in the amount of beach washed litter was recorded (with minor peaks recorded during the 1992 and 1994 surveys). Beach washed litter decreased by approximately 86%, from 344 kg recorded in 1991 (13.2 kg/km) to 49 kg in 1999 (i.e. 1.9 kg/km), reaching a maximum of 390 kg in 1992 (or 15 kg/km of beach). However, a sharp increase in litter was recorded in 2000 (i.e. 252 kg or 9.7 kg/km). This increase in litter yield in 2000 is probably due to stronger than average onshore surface flow (or Ekman Transport) in the western Eyre Peninsula and Bight region. Prior to the survey in 2000, the results appeared to indicate that ocean litter on Anxious Bay beach was beginning to level out at around 50-70 kg/year (i.e. 2-3 kg/km). As the beach surveys involve the assumption that the beach is completely cleared of litter, this may represent a baseline level for ocean-based litter in the region. The yields and type of litter collected from the annual survey indicates that the majority of litter washed ashore originates from commercial fishing activities within the Great Australian Bight. Most of the fishing-related litter was directly sourced to the Southern Rock Lobster Fishery (i.e. bait buckets, baskets, pots), the Great Australian Bight Trawl Fishery (i.e. codends, trawl nets) and the Southern Shark Fishery (i.e. monofilament gillnets and longlines). Between 1994 and 1999, large reductions were observed in the amount of bait straps (77% reduction), lobster bait baskets/buckets (86% reduction), nets/ropes (62% reduction) and floats/buoys (83% reduction). Significantly

  14. Anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetisation of Cryogenian glaciogenic and Ediacaran red beds, South Australia: Neoproterozoic apparent or true polar wander?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Phillip W.; Williams, George E.

    2013-11-01

    Determining the effects of compaction-related inclination shallowing of remanence directions is crucial for ascertaining the validity of low palaeolatitudes for Neoproterozoic red beds in South Australia that are central to the debate concerning low-latitude Proterozoic glaciation. The inclination correction (or flattening) factor, f, is defined as tan(ID)/tan(IF), where ID and IF are the inclinations of the measured detrital remanence and the ancient inducing field, respectively. The anisotropy can be estimated using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and the anisotropy of high-field isothermal remanence (hf-AIR). The elongation-inclination (E-I) method has also been used to infer inclination shallowing. We add the anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetisation (ATR) to these methods. For the late Cryogenian Elatina Formation arenites, which constitute the bulk of the Elatina data set, the inclination correction using f = 0.738 derived from ATR increases the palaeolatitude of the Elatina Formation from 6.5 ± 2.2° to 8.8 ± 3.2°, which confirms that the Elatina glaciation occurred near the palaeoequator. Inclination corrections for the Ediacaran argillaceous Brachina and Wonoka formations, using f = 0.35-0.38 derived from ATR, are significantly greater than for the more arenaceous Elatina Formation, which increases their palaeolatitudes from ~ 12° to ~ 30°. Carbonates from the basal Ediacaran Nuccaleena Formation yielded f = 0.8 from ATR, which represents only a small palaeolatitude correction from 19° to 23°. The anisotropy results imply that the characteristic remanent magnetisations carried by all these units were acquired early as depositional remanent magnetisations, essentially at the time of deposition. The shift of the palaeopoles from argillaceous units indicating significantly higher palaeolatitudes introduces a distinctive loop into the late Cryogenian-Ediacaran-Cambrian pole path for Australia. This loop shows similarities with the North American

  15. Precambrian Cratons and Fold-Belts in Brazil: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuck, R.

    2008-05-01

    the western border of the São Francisco craton and on the northeastern margin of the Paranapanema block. Deep seismic refraction and other geophysical and geological studies were able to discriminate several crust compartments within the Brasília belt, like the juvenile Goiás magmatic arc, the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Goiás massif, and the external belt zone, as distinguished from the São Francisco craton. The Borborema Province in northeast Brazil is a complex array of Neoproterozoic fold belts (Médio Coreaú, Seridó, Sergipana, Riacho do Pontal, Rio Preto) between the São Luiz and São Francisco cratons, partially covering different crustal blocks (NW Ceará, Ceará Central, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco-Alagoas) separated by large crustal-scale, strike-slip lineaments (Transbrasiliano, Senador Pompeu, Orós, Porta Alegre, Patos, Pernambuco, etc.). Basement of the crustal blocks is mainly Paleoproterozoic in age, but may include Archean cores (São José do Campestre, Grangeiro, Troia). South of the Patos lineament, Mesoproterozoic gneiss, granite and supracrustal belts are recorded in the Transversal domain, in the Pernambuco-Alagoas massif and in the Sergipano and Riacho do Pontal fold belts. Geophysical studies (MT sounding, gravity, seismology, deep seismic refraction, etc.) are underway in order to understand crustal structure and evolution of the province.

  16. African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.

    PubMed

    King, S D; Ritsema, J

    2000-11-10

    Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin of South American cratons. Small-scale, edge-driven convection is an alternative to plumes for explaining intraplate African and South American hot spot volcanism, and small-scale convection is consistent with mantle downwellings beneath the African and South American lithosphere. PMID:11073447

  17. A selective review of mental health nursing in New South Wales, Australia, in relation to clinical supervision.

    PubMed

    White, Edward; Roche, Michael

    2006-09-01

    Recent reports have suggested that mental health staff have added stress, which arose from poor working conditions, heavy workloads, and lack of resources, within a culture in which there was a large degree of burnout, low morale, lack of job satisfaction, poor status, insensitivity and indifference. This is particularly so for mental health nurses, who create the ambience in clinical settings. Previous research has shown that the introduction of clinical supervision, as a central plank of clinical governance arrangements, has a positive effect in some of these respects, but remains underdeveloped in Australia. The present scoping study examined the extent to which this was so in mental health nursing services in the state of New South Wales. Individual mental health nurses (n = 601) and Area Health Services (n = 17) provided data about their local circumstances. Findings revealed that mental health nursing in New South Wales was a committed, late middle-aged workforce, working in services about which there was a width of opinion with the prevailing management arrangements, yet to fully exploit their therapeutic potential, or engage the educational opportunities that would assist them in their endeavour. More specifically, it remained a workforce that has yet to engage clinical supervision in a systematically coherent manner. The study concluded, therefore, that clinical supervision offered a possible practical remedy to address the causes and the effects of suboptimal service provision and that the ready availability of dedicated funding and the immediate access to service development and research expertise was a rare and timely confluence. PMID:16916415

  18. Cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine residues in wastewater: Consumption trends (2009-2015) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake W; Thai, Phong K; Hall, Wayne; Chan, Gary; Bruno, Raimondo; Ort, Christoph; Prichard, Jeremy; Carter, Steve; Anuj, Shalona; Kirkbride, K Paul; Gartner, Coral; Humphries, Melissa; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater analysis, or wastewater-based epidemiology, has become a common tool to monitor trends of illicit drug consumption around the world. In this study, we examined trends in cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine consumption by measuring their residues in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Australia (specifically, an urban and a rural catchment, both in South East Queensland) between 2009 and 2015. With direct injection of the samples, target analytes were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cocaine and MDMA residues and metabolites were mainly quantifiable in the urban catchment while methamphetamine residues were consistently detected in both urban and rural catchments. There was no consistent trend in the population normalised mass loads observed for cocaine and MDMA at the urban site between 2009 and 2015. In contrast, there was a five-fold increase in methamphetamine consumption over this period in this catchment. For methamphetamine consumption, the rural area showed a very similar trend as the urban catchment starting at a lower baseline. The observed increase in per capita loads of methamphetamine via wastewater analysis over the past six years in South East Queensland provides objective evidence for increased methamphetamine consumption in the Australian population while the use of other illicit stimulants remained relatively stable.

  19. Cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine residues in wastewater: Consumption trends (2009-2015) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake W; Thai, Phong K; Hall, Wayne; Chan, Gary; Bruno, Raimondo; Ort, Christoph; Prichard, Jeremy; Carter, Steve; Anuj, Shalona; Kirkbride, K Paul; Gartner, Coral; Humphries, Melissa; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater analysis, or wastewater-based epidemiology, has become a common tool to monitor trends of illicit drug consumption around the world. In this study, we examined trends in cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine consumption by measuring their residues in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Australia (specifically, an urban and a rural catchment, both in South East Queensland) between 2009 and 2015. With direct injection of the samples, target analytes were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cocaine and MDMA residues and metabolites were mainly quantifiable in the urban catchment while methamphetamine residues were consistently detected in both urban and rural catchments. There was no consistent trend in the population normalised mass loads observed for cocaine and MDMA at the urban site between 2009 and 2015. In contrast, there was a five-fold increase in methamphetamine consumption over this period in this catchment. For methamphetamine consumption, the rural area showed a very similar trend as the urban catchment starting at a lower baseline. The observed increase in per capita loads of methamphetamine via wastewater analysis over the past six years in South East Queensland provides objective evidence for increased methamphetamine consumption in the Australian population while the use of other illicit stimulants remained relatively stable. PMID:27325011

  20. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period.

  1. The metamorphic evolution from ultrahigh-temperature to amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Odaesan area after the collision between the North and South China Cratons in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Keewook

    2016-07-01

    The Odaesan Gneiss Complex (Odesan Gneiss Complex) is the eastern end of the Hongseong-Odaesan collision belt in the Korean Peninsula, which is an extension of the Dabie-Sulu collision belt between the North and South China cratons. The Odaesan Gneiss Complex mainly consists of banded and migmatitic gneisses with porphyritic granitoids and amphibolites. The garnet-bearing banded gneisses can be subdivided into garnet-biotite and garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses. At the beginning of the post-collision stage, the banded gneisses underwent regional ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism (902-950 °C/8.8-9.4 kbar) at ca. 247-245 Ma due to the heat supplied from underplated basic magma, which was generated by the partial melting of the lithospheric mantle caused by the heat supplied from the asthenospheric mantle. As a result of the continuous extensional force, the study area (lower crust) uplifted onto the middle crust depths, and then the study area underwent prograde granulite facies metamorphism from 660 °C and 8.7 kbar to 750-760 °C and 6.3-6.5 kbar at ca. 227 Ma, causing migmatization, which erased the ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in most of the study area. The ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism was preserved only in the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses due to their very low water contents. During migmatization, the garnet-biotite banded gneisses were retrograded into upper granulite facies due to the relatively abundant water compared with the garnet-orthopyroxene gneisses. Finally, the study area was uplifted to a shallow depth and locally underwent amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism (575-680 °C and 3.1-4.5 kbar). In addition, Paleoproterozoic metamorphic (ca. 1930-1886 Ma) and post-collisional magmatic events (ca. 1847 Ma) are identified based on SHRIMP age dating. These ages agree well with the regional Paleoproterozoic metamorphic and post-collisional magmatic activities reported from other areas of the Gyeonggi Massif.

  2. Volcanic degassing, hydrothermal circulation and the flourishing of early life on Earth: A review of the evidence from c. 3490-3240 Ma rocks of the Pilbara Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2006-02-01

    New data gathered during mapping of c. 3490-3240 Ma rocks of the Pilbara Supergroup in the Pilbara Craton show that most bedded chert units originated as epiclastic and evaporative sedimentary rocks that were silicified by repeated pulses of hydrothermal fluids that circulated through the footwall basalts during hiatuses in volcanism. For most cherts, fossil hydrothermal fluid pathways are preserved as silica ± barite ± Fe-bearing veins that cut through the footwall and up to the level of individual bedded chert units, but not above, indicating the contemporaneity of hydrothermal silica veining and bedded chert deposition at the end of volcanic eruptive events. Silica ± barite ± Fe-bearing vein swarms are accompanied by extensive hydrothermal alteration of the footwall to the bedded chert units, and occurred under alternating high-sulphidation and low-sulphidation conditions. These veins provided pathways to the surface for elements leached from the footwall (e.g., Si, Ba, Fe) and volcanogenic emissions from underlying felsic magma chambers (e.g., CO 2, H 2S/HS -, SO 2). Stratigraphic evidence of shallowing upward and subsequent deepening associated with the deposition of Warrawoona Group cherts is interpreted to relate to the emplacement of subvolcanic laccoliths and subsequent eruption and/or degassing of these magmas. Heat from these intrusions drove episodes of hydrothermal circulation. Listric normal faulting during caldera collapse produced basins with restricted circulation of seawater. Eruption of volcanogenic emissions into these restricted basins formed brine pools with concentration of the volcanogenic components, thereby providing habitats suitable for early life forms. Fossil stromatolites from two distinct stratigraphic units in the North Pole Dome grew in shallow water conditions, but in two very different geological settings with different morphologies. Stratiform and domical stromatolites in the stratigraphically lower, c. 3490 Ma, Dresser

  3. Young Offenders in New South Wales, Australia and the Need for Remedial Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistler, Grant; Kirkwood, Kristie; Potter, Emily; Cashin, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The 2005-2008 Australian National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy identifies young people as a key target group in need of sexual health education, screening and management. For young people who are in contact with the New South Wales (NSW) juvenile justice system, a dire need for remedial sexual health education exists. NSW young…

  4. Heritage Languages at Upper Secondary Level in South Australia: A Struggle for Legitimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Antonio; Scarino, Angela

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how more than 40 languages gained and retained legitimacy as subjects for graduation from upper secondary schooling and for tertiary entrance selection in the South Australian educational system. Essentially the process required conforming with administrative, curriculum and community structures and fitting the mould of…

  5. Remove, Rehabilitate, Return? The Use and Effectiveness of Behaviour Schools in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granite, Elizabeth; Graham, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that enrolments in separate special educational settings for students with disruptive behaviour have increased in a number of educational jurisdictions internationally. Recent analysis of school enrolment data has identified a similar increase in the New South Wales (NSW) government school sector; however, questions have been…

  6. Christian Feminism in Action: Kate Cocks's Social Welfare Work in South Australia, 1900-1950

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trethewey, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Utilizing a biographical approach and network analysis, this article examines one South Australian woman's life of public and Methodist social welfare service in the post-suffrage era. It is argued that although Kate Cocks (1875-1954) viewed her welfare work as "a God-given mission", as "practical Christian service", personal contact with the…

  7. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  8. Schooling Adolescence: The Student Subject of Post-Primary Education in Early Twentieth Century South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormack, Phil

    This paper reports on an aspect of a larger curriculum historical inquiry into the links between adolescence, schooling, and the English/literacy subjects in South Australian government schools. Another interest in the paper is how the "problem" of the care and control of the adolescent could be linked to issues of (il)literacy. The paper focuses…

  9. Compositional variations of dolomite from a chain of ephemeral lakes in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.R.; Miser, D.E.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A chain of four shallow ephemeral lakes (Halite, Dolomite, Pellet, and North Stromatolite Lakes) in the Coorong region (Australia) shows three mineralogically, chemically, and isotopically distinct dolomite units in various stratigraphic positions. Type I, a basal dolomite which forms small centimeter-size concretions and lightly cements a siliciclastic sand, is present in all four lakes in the chain and is chemically similar to the dolomite found in the upper 20 cm of Dolomite Lake. Type 2, a dolomite layer associated with hydromagnesite, is found in the upper 20 to 60 cm of Pellet Lake. Type 3, dolomite found along the margin of Pellet Lake, forms in association with aragonite and magnesium calcite. Detailed x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses of samples containing more than 80% dolomite demonstrate that all dolomite types have ordering reflections, however, the degree of ordering between individual samples is highly variable.

  10. Colon and rectal cancer incidence and water trihalomethane concentrations in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is evidence, although inconsistent, that long term exposure to disinfection by products (DBPs) increases the risk of bowel cancer. No study has been conducted in Australia to examine this association and due to difference in the methods of disinfection the risk can vary across geographical regions and. This study was conducted to analyse the association of trihalomethanes (THMs) in water with colon and rectal cancer in NSW Australia. Methods Average yearly concentrations of total and individual species of THMs were obtained for 50 local government areas (LGAs). Indirectly-standardized incidence rates of colon and rectal cancers in LGAs for the period 1995 to 2001 were regressed against mean THM concentrations lagged five years, adjusting for socioeconomic status, high risk drinking, smoking status, usual source of water and year of diagnosis, including local and global random effects within a Bayesian framework. The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in THMs were estimated. Results Using five year lag of exposure there was a positive association between bromoform concentration and CRC in men (IRR = 1.025, 95% CI 1.010, 1.040) but not in women (IRR = 1.003, 95% CI 0.987, 1.018). The association in men was mainly found in colon cancer with bromoform (IRR = 1.035, 95% CI 1.017, 1.053). There was no appreciable association of colorectal cancer with other species of THMs. Sensitivity analyses did not materially change the associations observed. Conclusion A positive association was observed between colon cancer and water bromoform concentrations in men. Given the potential population impact of such an association, further research into the relationship between THMs, particularly brominated species, and colorectal cancer is warranted. PMID:24938491

  11. Modern cool-water siliciclastic/carbonate sediments, lacepede shelf South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Bone, Y.; Gostin, V. ); James, N.P. ); Von der Borch, C.C. )

    1991-03-01

    The Lacepeded Shelf is a 130 km {times} 100 km open embayment along the southern passive continental margin of Australia. The shelf includes the mouth of the River Murray - Australia's largest drainage system- the extensive arcuate Coorong strand, the 50-70 m deep and flat plateau of the shelf proper, the nonrimmed shelf break, and the upper slope to depths of 200 m. The shelf bathymetry is locally interrupted by seafloor highs, reflecting the underlying rugged terrain of deformed Precambrian and early Paleozoic bedrock in the west and Tertiary limestones and Quaternary dunes in the east. The late Pleistocene/Holocene sediment blanket is formed by discrete sedimentary facies. Quartz sands cover a significant cross-shelf zone opposite the river mouth, with current generated offsets. High-resolution seismic profiles reveal buried lowstand channels. The mid-shelf is an area of conspicuously coarse-grained, mud-free loose sediments composed of variable amounts of bryozoans and bivalves. The shelf break and upper slop bryozoan sands are similar, apart from species differences, from 40 to 100 m, with an increase in mud below 100 m. The seafloor highs are sites of prolific bryozoan, calcareous algae, sponge, and bivalve growth, the skeletons of which are shed onto the shelf. Bryozoan distribution is moderated by water depth and substrate type. Most forms are low-Mg calcite to high-Mg calcite, but two major groups are aragonitic. Distribution of these different mineralogical types is important for later diagenesis. Both terrigenous clastic and carbonate sediments are a mixture of relict and modern components, depending upon location, and reflect Holocene glacio-eustatic sea-level changes.

  12. The crustal thickness of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Modelling the response of surface fuel to climate change across south-eastern Australia: consequences for future fire regimes .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstock, Ross; Matthews, Stuart; Penman, Trent; Price, Owen; Watson, Penny; Williams, Dick

    2014-05-01

    Changes to fire regimes in the future will be determined by a complex range of processes. Vegetation, weather and ignitions may be altered by climate change, elevated CO2 and human activity. In this study, we used an empirically based approach to project future changes in surface litter fuel within major vegetation formations (rainforest, wet sclerophyll forest, dry sclerophyll forest, grassy woodlands) the temperate and subtropical areas of south eastern Australia. Climatic controls of litterfall, decomposition and steady state fuel load within each vegetation formation were examined using metadata derived from field studies. Changes in steady state litter fuel load were then estimated for the current spatial domain of each vegetation formation (1 km grid), using the fuel/climate models, and a range of 2080 climate projections (5 GCMs) selected to encompass both warmer and drier and warmer and wetter future conditions for the region, under the A1b emissions scenario. Steady state surface fine fuel load was generally, negatively related to mean annual temperature but mean annual rainfall had divergent effects dependent on vegetation type. Under all 2080 climate projections, a mean decline in steady state surface litter was predicted in dry sclerophyll forest (-5 to -18%), the most extensive forest type in the region. Similarly a general decline was estimated for rainforest (-5 to -13%). For the other vegetation formations, predicted 2080 responses varied from a small mean increase to a more substantial decline: i.e. + 0.1 to - 24%, grassy woodlands; +3 to -18%, wet sclerophyll forest. The predominant, predicted decline in future surface fine fuel load has the potential to reduce future area burned due to the influence of fuel load on fire behaviour in these ecosystems. Early results from experiments and stand growth models dealing with Eucalyptus species indicate that possible declines in surface fine fuel load induced by a warmer climate may be partially off

  14. Hydrogeophysical Evidence for Groundwater Mixing At Freeling Spring Group, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dailey, M. K.; Halihan, T.; Love, A.; Berens, V.; Wohling, D.; Keppel, M. N.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is an aquifer system that extends across Australia covering over 22% of the continent and is a vital support system for ecosystems in the region. Current research into the Western Margin of the GAB includes investigations of spring discharge and determining aquifer flow paths. Spring water sampling at nine springs that are a part of the Freeling Spring Group were used along with Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) data to evaluate evidence of mixing between the GAB aquifer and groundwaters from the adjacent basement aquifer in the Peake and Dennison Ranges (PD). Additionally, regional water samples of springs were used as end members to evaluate chemical mixing models for waters at the site. ERI data were collected along three orientations over the Freeling Spring site and extend for 550 meters laterally and 110 meters vertically. The ERI data indicate three possible flow lines providing mixing at the spring orifice similar to what would be predicted from traditional conceptual models of porous and fractured media. Water chemistry indicates that water emanating from the Freeling Spring Group is a mixture from both the GAB and the PD, which confirms the ERI evidence for mixing. The data suggest the mixing occurs along a major fault and that the resulting spring waters maintain a strong PD signature down the elevation gradient hundreds of meters into the GAB side of the fault.

  15. Three-Dimensional Forward Modeling of Magnetotelluric Data Over Cratonic Lithosphere and Attendent Geological Structures: Case Study of the Zimbabwe Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miensopust, M. P.; Jones, A. G.; Farquharson, C. G.; MT Team

    2007-12-01

    The Southern African MagnetoTelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) is covering a huge area - containing parts of South Africa, Namibia and nearly the whole of Botswana - with acquisition of magnetotelluric (MT) data. The project's aim is to gain more information on the lithospheric geometries of the geological structures of this region which contains some of the oldest lithospheric pieces on Earth - the cratons (e.g. Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons). Since the standard modeling of MT data is only in two-dimensions and the recently developed three-dimensional inversion programs require a lot of computation time and high speed computers with large memories, 3D forward modeling is a good compromise on the way to full 3D interpretation of MT data. Forward modeling of subsurface structures similar to the cratonic areas of study will give some indication of how the MT responses should look like and if they change significantly when the cratons have a different shape or extent or resistivity. The determined synthetic data then can be compared with the real data collected in the SAMTEX project. The area for the case study is the western edge of the Zimbabwe craton in eastern Botswana. The craton is surrounded by the Damara Mobile Belt and the Magondi Mobile Belt to the north and west and the Limpopo belt to the south. The giant northern Botswana dyke swarm is cross cutting the craton in about WNW to ESE direction. Based on this geological information, a 3D model was created to calculate synthetic MT responses using the forward modeling routine implemented in the 3D inversion program MT3Dinv (developed by the Geophysical Inversion Facility, University of British Columbia). We will show the results of this modeling exercise and compare them with the observations.

  16. Intraspecific variation of Rhizoctonia solani AG 3 isolates recovered from potato fields in Central Iran and South Australia.

    PubMed

    Balali, G R; Neate, S M; Kasalkheh, A M; Stodart, B J; Melanson, D L; Scott, E S

    2007-02-01

    Pectic zymogram, RFLP and PCR analyses were used to characterize Rhizoctonia solani AG 3 isolates collected from diseased potatoes in South Australia. The pectic zymogram data were compared with those obtained for isolates collected from central Iran. Analyses of bands corresponding to pectin esterase and polygalacturonase revealed three zymogram subgroups (ZG) in AG 3. In addition to the previously reported ZG7 (here renamed ZG7-1), two new zymogram subgroups, ZG7-2 and ZG7-3, were identified. Of the 446 isolates tested, 50% of the South Australian and 46% of the Iranian isolates were ZG7-1. The majority of the isolates originating from stem and root cankers were ZG7-1, whereas most of the isolates designated ZG7-2 and ZG7-3 originated from tuber-borne sclerotia. Pathogenicity tests revealed that ZG7-1 generally produced fewer sclerotia and more severe cankers of underground parts of the potato plants than the other two ZGs. Two random DNA clones, one originating from an AG 3 isolate and the other from an AG 4 isolate, were used as probes for RFLP analyses of Australian isolates. The AG 3 probe, previously identified to be specific to this group, detected a high level of genetic diversity, with 11 genotypes identified amongst 50 isolates analysed. The low-copy AG 4 probe resolved three genotypes amongst 24 isolates. For 23 isolates analysed with both markers, the combined data distinguished a total of six genotypes and similarity analysis resolved the isolates into two main groups with 50% homology. PCR, using primers for the plant intron splice junction region (R1), also revealed variation. No obvious relationship among pectic zymogram groups, RFLP and PCR genotypes was observed.

  17. Social determinants of maternal self-rated health in South Western Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background From 2000 a routine survey of mothers with newborn infants was commenced in South Western Sydney. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship of maternal self-rated health, as a measure of well-being, to various socio-demographic factors including measures of social capital, country of birth, financial status and employment. Results The sample consisted of 23,534 mothers who delivered in South Western Sydney between 2004 and 2006. The data were collected as part of a routine post-partum assessment at 2–4 weeks postpartum. We examined the relationship of self-rated health with socio-demographic variables using binary logistic regression. Worse self-rated health was reported in 4% of women. Variables which were found to be significantly associated with worse self-rated health were: poor financial situation, public housing accommodation, fathers employment, no car access, unplanned pregnancy, maternal smoking, poor emotional and social support, and motherhood being more difficult than expected. Conclusion We confirmed the importance of social disadvantage and social isolation as independent risk factors for poor self-reported health. The findings reported here provide further justification for public health interventions which increase support for socially excluded mothers and strengthen their connection to their community. PMID:24447371

  18. Consequences for patients of health care professionals' conscientious actions: the ban on abortions in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Cannold, L

    1994-06-01

    The legitimacy of the refusal of South Australian nurses to care for second trimester abortion patients on grounds of conscience is examined as a test case for a theory of permissible limits on the autonomy of health care professionals. In cases of health care professional (HCP) conscientious refusal, it is argued that a balance be struck between the HCPs' claims to autonomous action and the consequences to them of having their autonomous action restricted, and the entitlement of patients to care and the consequences for them of being refused such care. Conscientious action that results in the disruption or termination of health care services, however, is always impermissible on two grounds. Firstly, because it is at this point that the action '... invades a patient's autonomy, puts a patient at serious risk ... [and] treats a patient unjustly' (1) Secondly, because the consequences of such refusals turn them into political acts--acts of civil disobedience. It is arguable that in order for acts of civil disobedience to be legitimate, certain obligations are required of the dissenter by the community. It is concluded that the actions of the South Australian nurses, which have over the last few years both terminated and disrupted second trimester services, are morally impermissible.

  19. Clothing-related burns in New South Wales, Australia: impact of legislation on a continuing problem.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Lara A; Connolley, Siobhan; Harvey, John G

    2015-02-01

    To combat the risk of nightwear burns a mandatory standard regulating the design, flammability and labelling requirements of children's nightwear was introduced in Australia in 1987. This population-based study examined the trends, characteristics and causes of clothing-related burns to inform a review of the current standard, and to facilitate the development of targeted prevention strategies. Clothing-related burns for 1998-2013 were identified from hospitalisation data for all hospitals in NSW and detailed information regarding circumstance of injury from a burn data registry. To investigate percentage annual change (PAC) in trends negative binomial regression analysis was performed. There were 541 hospitalisations for clothing-related burns, 18% were nightwear-related and 82% were for other clothing. All clothing burns decreased by an estimated 4% per year (95% CI -6.2 to -2.1). Nightwear-related burns decreased by a significantly higher rate (PAC -7.4%; 95% CI -12.5 to -2.1) than other clothing (PAC -2.5%; 95%CI -4.7 to -0.1). Exposure to open heat source (campfire/bonfire) was the most common cause, followed by cooking. Of factors known to be associated with clothing burns, accelerant use was reported in 27% of cases, cigarettes 17%, loose skirt or dress 8%, and angle grinders in 6% of cases. Hospitalisations for clothing burns are relatively uncommon in NSW and rates, particularly of nightwear burns, have decreased over the last 15 years. Strategies for continued reduction of these injuries include increasing the scope of the current clothing standard or developing new standards to include all children's clothing and adult nightwear, and increasing community awareness of the risk associated with open heat sources, accelerant use and loose clothing. PMID:25435488

  20. Comparative analysis of trends in paediatric trauma outcomes in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Curtis, Kate; Chong, Shanley; Holland, Andrew J A; Soundappan, S V S; Wilson, Kellie L; Cass, Daniel T

    2013-01-01

    Paediatric trauma centres seek to optimise the care of injured children. Trends in state-wide paediatric care and outcomes have not been examined in detail in Australia. This study examines temporal trends in paediatric trauma outcomes and factors influencing survival and length of stay. A retrospective review was conducted using data from the NSW Trauma Registry during 2003-2008 for children aged 15 years and younger who were severely injured (injury severity score >15). To examine trauma outcomes descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic and linear regression were conducted. There were 1138 children severely injured. Two-thirds were male. Road trauma and falls were the most common injury mechanisms and over one-third of incidents occurred in the home. Forty-eight percent of violence-related injuries were experienced by infants aged less than 1 year. For the majority of children definitive care was provided at a paediatric trauma centre, but less than one-third of children were taken directly to a paediatric trauma centre post-injury. Children who received definitive treatment at a paediatric trauma centre had between 3 and 6 times higher odds of having a survival advantage than if treated at an adult trauma centre. The number of severe injury presentations to the 14 major trauma centres in NSW remains constant. It is possible that injury prevention measures are having a limited effect on severe injury in NSW. This research provides stimulus for change in the provision and co-ordination in the delivery of trauma care for injured children.

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust from primary schools in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Mazaheri, Mandana; Brommer, Sandra; Clifford, Samuel; Drage, Daniel; Mueller, Jochen F; Thai, Phong; Harrad, Stuart; Morawska, Lidia; Harden, Fiona A

    2015-10-01

    PBDE concentrations are higher in children compared to adults with exposure suggested to include dust ingestion. Besides the home environment, children spend a great deal of time in school classrooms which may be a source of exposure. As part of the "Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children's Health (UPTECH)" project, dust samples (n=28) were obtained in 2011/12 from 10 Brisbane, Australia metropolitan schools and analysed using GC and LC-MS for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) -17, -28, -47, -49, -66, -85, -99, -100, -154, -183, and -209. Σ11PBDEs ranged from 11-2163 ng/g dust; with a mean and median of 600 and 469 ng/g dust, respectively. BDE-209 (range n.d. -2034 ng/g dust; mean (median) 402 (217)ng/g dust) was the dominant congener in most classrooms. Frequencies of detection were 96%, 96%, 39% and 93% for BDE-47, -99, -100 and -209, respectively. No seasonal variations were apparent and from each of the two schools where XRF measurements were carried out, only two classroom items had detectable bromine. PBDE intake for 8-11 year olds can be estimated at 0.094 ng/day BDE-47; 0.187 ng/day BDE-99 and 0.522ng/day BDE-209 as a result of ingestion of classroom dust, based on mean PBDE concentrations. The 97.5% percentile intake is estimated to be 0.62, 1.03 and 2.14 ng/day for BDEs-47, -99 and -209, respectively. These PBDE concentrations in dust from classrooms, which are higher than in Australian homes, may explain some of the higher body burden of PBDEs in children compared to adults when taking into consideration age-dependant behaviours which increase dust ingestion.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust from primary schools in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Mazaheri, Mandana; Brommer, Sandra; Clifford, Samuel; Drage, Daniel; Mueller, Jochen F; Thai, Phong; Harrad, Stuart; Morawska, Lidia; Harden, Fiona A

    2015-10-01

    PBDE concentrations are higher in children compared to adults with exposure suggested to include dust ingestion. Besides the home environment, children spend a great deal of time in school classrooms which may be a source of exposure. As part of the "Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children's Health (UPTECH)" project, dust samples (n=28) were obtained in 2011/12 from 10 Brisbane, Australia metropolitan schools and analysed using GC and LC-MS for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) -17, -28, -47, -49, -66, -85, -99, -100, -154, -183, and -209. Σ11PBDEs ranged from 11-2163 ng/g dust; with a mean and median of 600 and 469 ng/g dust, respectively. BDE-209 (range n.d. -2034 ng/g dust; mean (median) 402 (217)ng/g dust) was the dominant congener in most classrooms. Frequencies of detection were 96%, 96%, 39% and 93% for BDE-47, -99, -100 and -209, respectively. No seasonal variations were apparent and from each of the two schools where XRF measurements were carried out, only two classroom items had detectable bromine. PBDE intake for 8-11 year olds can be estimated at 0.094 ng/day BDE-47; 0.187 ng/day BDE-99 and 0.522ng/day BDE-209 as a result of ingestion of classroom dust, based on mean PBDE concentrations. The 97.5% percentile intake is estimated to be 0.62, 1.03 and 2.14 ng/day for BDEs-47, -99 and -209, respectively. These PBDE concentrations in dust from classrooms, which are higher than in Australian homes, may explain some of the higher body burden of PBDEs in children compared to adults when taking into consideration age-dependant behaviours which increase dust ingestion. PMID:26142718

  3. Hydrogeophysical evidence for ground water mixing at Freeling Spring Group, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, Meghan Kathleen Marie

    2011-12-01

    The Great Artesian Basin (GAB) is an aquifer system that extends across Australia covering over 22% of the continent and is a vital support system for ecosystems in the region. As part of the Australian National Water Commission's (NWC) GAB Project, research is being conducted to understand the aquifer including studying the discharge of springs and determining flow paths of the aquifer. Water sampling at springs that are a part of the Freeling Spring Group were used along with Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) data to evaluate evidence of mixing between the GAB aquifer and waters from the adjacent basement aquifer in the Peake and Dennison Ranges (PD). Nine springs were used to evaluate fluid chemistry of the Freeling Spring Group. ERI data were collected along three orientations over the Freeling Spring site. The ERI data, which extend for 550 meters laterally and 110 meters vertically, indicate three possible flow lines providing mixing at the spring orifice similar to what would be predicted from traditional conceptual models. Regional water samples of springs were used as end members to evaluate chemical mixing models for waters at the site. The chemistry of spring water samples indicates that the water emanating from the Freeling Spring Group is a mixture of waters from both the GAB and the PD, which confirms the ERI evidence for mixing at the site. The data suggest the mixing occurs along a structural feature in the Peake and Dennison Ranges and that the spring water maintains a strong PD signature even well east of the fault zone.

  4. Clothing-related burns in New South Wales, Australia: impact of legislation on a continuing problem.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Lara A; Connolley, Siobhan; Harvey, John G

    2015-02-01

    To combat the risk of nightwear burns a mandatory standard regulating the design, flammability and labelling requirements of children's nightwear was introduced in Australia in 1987. This population-based study examined the trends, characteristics and causes of clothing-related burns to inform a review of the current standard, and to facilitate the development of targeted prevention strategies. Clothing-related burns for 1998-2013 were identified from hospitalisation data for all hospitals in NSW and detailed information regarding circumstance of injury from a burn data registry. To investigate percentage annual change (PAC) in trends negative binomial regression analysis was performed. There were 541 hospitalisations for clothing-related burns, 18% were nightwear-related and 82% were for other clothing. All clothing burns decreased by an estimated 4% per year (95% CI -6.2 to -2.1). Nightwear-related burns decreased by a significantly higher rate (PAC -7.4%; 95% CI -12.5 to -2.1) than other clothing (PAC -2.5%; 95%CI -4.7 to -0.1). Exposure to open heat source (campfire/bonfire) was the most common cause, followed by cooking. Of factors known to be associated with clothing burns, accelerant use was reported in 27% of cases, cigarettes 17%, loose skirt or dress 8%, and angle grinders in 6% of cases. Hospitalisations for clothing burns are relatively uncommon in NSW and rates, particularly of nightwear burns, have decreased over the last 15 years. Strategies for continued reduction of these injuries include increasing the scope of the current clothing standard or developing new standards to include all children's clothing and adult nightwear, and increasing community awareness of the risk associated with open heat sources, accelerant use and loose clothing.

  5. Distribution patterns of three sodium channel mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations from North and South America, South Africa and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lovis, Leonore; Guerrero, Felix D.; Miller, Robert J.; Bodine, Deanna M.; Betschart, Bruno; Sager, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids (SP) in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is widespread throughout its distribution area. Three single nucleotide substitutions identified in Domains II and III of the sodium channel gene of R. (B.) microplus are known to be associated with target site pyrethroid resistance. We developed a multiplex PCR using allele-specific primers to amplify wild type or mutated genotypes of the three mutations simultaneously. This assay was used to screen tick samples originating from Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, South Africa and Australia whose phenotype to flumethrin and cypermethrin had been determined by the use of the Larval Tarsal test (LTT) or the Larval Packet Test (LPT). These mutations were found to have distinct geographical distributions and result in different resistance phenotypes. The L64I Domain II mutation conferring resistance to several SP compounds was found in all the Brazilian, Argentinean and Australian populations and in one South African population, with frequencies between 38% and 100% in flumethrin and cypermethrin resistant populations. In contrast, this mutation was not found in samples from Mexico, while the Domain III mutation was found exclusively in this country. The G72V Domain II flumethrin-specific mutation was found in a single Australian population, with a very low resistant allele frequency (3%). The homozygous resistant RR genotype of the L64I Domain II mutation correlated significantly with the survival rates at the discriminating doses of flumethrin and cypermethrin. This survey shows the widespread distribution of the L64I Domain II mutation and provides evidence of its geographic separation from the Domain III mutation. PMID:24533283

  6. Models of reforestation productivity and carbon sequestration for land use and climate change adaptation planning in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Trevor J; Neumann, Craig R; Meyer, Wayne S; Moon, Travis; Bryan, Brett A

    2016-10-01

    Environmental management and regional land use planning has become more complex in recent years as growing world population, climate change, carbon markets and government policies for sustainability have emerged. Reforestation and agroforestry options for environmental benefits, carbon sequestration, economic development and biodiversity conservation are now important considerations of land use planners. New information has been collected and regionally-calibrated models have been developed to facilitate better regional land use planning decisions and counter the limitations of currently available models of reforestation productivity and carbon sequestration. Surveys of above-ground biomass of 264 reforestation sites (132 woodlots, 132 environmental plantings) within the agricultural regions of South Australia were conducted, and combined with spatial information on climate and soils, to develop new spatial and temporal models of plant density and above-ground biomass productivity from reforestation. The models can be used to estimate productivity and total carbon sequestration (i.e. above-ground + below-ground biomass) under a continuous range of planting designs (e.g. variable proportions of trees and shrubs or plant densities), timeframes and future climate scenarios. Representative spatial models (1 ha resolution) for 3 reforestation designs (i.e. woodlots, typical environmental planting, biodiverse environmental plantings) × 3 timeframes (i.e. 25, 45, 65 years) × 4 possible climates (i.e. no change, mild, moderate, severe warming and drying) were generated (i.e. 36 scenarios) for use within land use planning tools. PMID:27372250

  7. Atypical residency of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) to a shallow, urbanized embayment in south-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Salgado Kent, Chandra; Donnelly, David; Weir, Jeffrey; Bilgmann, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) are typically considered highly mobile, offshore delphinids. This study assessed the residency of a small community of short-beaked common dolphins in the shallow, urbanized Port Phillip Bay, south-eastern Australia. The ability to identify common dolphins by their dorsal fin markings and coloration using photo-identification was also investigated. Systematic and non-systematic boat surveys were undertaken between 2007 and 2014. Results showed that 13 adult common dolphins and their offspring inhabit Port Phillip Bay, of which 10 adults exhibit residency to the bay. The majority of these adults are reproductively active females, suggesting that female philopatry may occur in the community. Systematic surveys conducted between 2012 and 2014 revealed that the dolphins were found in a median water depth of 16 m and median distance of 2.2 km from the coast. The shallow, urbanized habitat of this resident common dolphin community is atypical for this species. As a result, these common dolphins face threats usually associated with inshore bottlenose dolphin communities. We suggest that the Port Phillip Bay common dolphin community is considered and managed separate to those outside the embayment and offshore to ensure the community's long-term viability and residency in the bay. PMID:27703709

  8. A comparison of regression and Bayesian change point analysis for extreme 24hours rainfall in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Beecham, S.; Metcalfe, A.

    2013-12-01

    We consider monthly extremes rainfall, aggregated over 24 hours, at 24 rainfall station in South Australia (SA). A self-organizing map (SOM) technique is used to draw contours of extreme for this area for each month. The possibility of change in extreme rainfall is investigated in two ways. The first is a multiple regression with time, month, station and their interaction as predictor variables. A confidence interval and for the linear and quadratic effects of time series are given. We have developed a strategy to possible improve prediction of extreme rainfall as a linear combination of original prediction. The dramatic improvement is a consequence of introducing squares and cross product of predictor variables is given in calibration, validation and re-calibration model. The similarity between fitted to the calibration and validation periods suggests that the hydrological process have been relatively stable over the period. The modeling strategy is empirical and will valid for different time period; although, in general, estimated coefficients could change substantially. The second analysis is a Bayesian change's point (BCP) analysis based on deseasonalised extreme data. A univariate BCP is applied in the data averaged over stations and compared with a multivariate BCP applied to the individual station records. The BCP is applied to investigate the possibility of sudden change rather than a smooth trend.

  9. Growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae from fluctuating brackish and sea water locations in South East Queensland—Australia

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Van Thang; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2015-01-01

    One challenge constraining the use of microalgae in the food and biofuels industry is growth and lipid accumulation. Microalgae with high growth characteristics are more likely to originate from the local environment. However, to be commercially effective, in addition to high growth microalgae must also have high lipid productivities and contain the desired fatty acids for their intended use. We isolated microalgae from intertidal locations in South East Queensland, Australia with adverse or fluctuating conditions, as these may harbor more opportunistic strains with high lipid accumulation potential. Screening was based on a standard protocol using growth rate and lipid accumulation as well as prioritizing fatty acid profiles suitable for biodiesel or nutraceuticals. Using these criteria, an initial selection of over 50 local microalgae strains from brackish and sea water was reduced to 16 strains considered suitable for further investigation. Among these 16 strains, the ones most likely to be effective for biodiesel feedstock were Nitzschia sp. CP3a, Tetraselmis sp. M8, Cymbella sp. CP2b, and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c, reaching growth rates of up to 0.53 day−1 and lipid productivities of 5.62 μg mL−1day−1. Omega-3 fatty acids were found in some strains such as Nitzschia sp. CP2a, Nitzschia sp. CP3a and Cylindrotheca closterium SI1c. These strains have potential for further research as commercial food supplements. PMID:26042142

  10. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-04-28

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  11. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics. PMID:26901786

  12. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Phoebe A.; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J.; Cribb, Thomas H.; Mills, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species—one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics. PMID:26901786

  13. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics.

  14. Understanding groundwater processes by representing aquifer heterogeneity in the Maules Creek Catchment, Namoi Valley (New South Wales, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambastiani, B. M. S.; McCallum, A. M.; Andersen, M. S.; Kelly, B. F. J.; Acworth, R. I.

    2012-09-01

    A FEFLOW three-dimensional (3D) groundwater model is developed to enhance the understanding of groundwater processes in the complex alluvial stratigraphy of Maules Creek Catchment (New South Wales, Australia). The aquifer vertical heterogeneity is replicated by indexing 204 lithological logs into units of high or low hydraulic conductivity, and by developing a 3D geological conceptual model with a vertical resolution based on the average lithological unit thickness for the region. The model mesh is populated with the indexed geology using nearest neighbour gridding. The calibrated model is successful in simulating the observed flow dynamics and in quantifying the important water-budget components. This indicates that the lateral groundwater flow from the mountainous region is the main inflow component of the system. Under natural conditions, the Namoi River acts as a sink of water, but groundwater abstraction increasingly removes a large amount of water each year causing dewatering of the system. The pumping condition affects the river-aquifer interaction by reversing the flow, from gaining to losing river conditions during the simulation period. The procedure is relevant for the development of groundwater models of heterogeneous systems in order to improve the understanding of the interplay between aquifer architecture and groundwater processes.

  15. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective. PMID:27121212

  16. Effect of temperature and precipitation on salmonellosis cases in South-East Queensland, Australia: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Adrian Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Foodborne illnesses in Australia, including salmonellosis, are estimated to cost over $A1.25 billion annually. The weather has been identified as being influential on salmonellosis incidence, as cases increase during summer, however time series modelling of salmonellosis is challenging because outbreaks cause strong autocorrelation. This study assesses whether switching models is an improved method of estimating weather–salmonellosis associations. Design We analysed weather and salmonellosis in South-East Queensland between 2004 and 2013 using 2 common regression models and a switching model, each with 21-day lags for temperature and precipitation. Results The switching model best fit the data, as judged by its substantial improvement in deviance information criterion over the regression models, less autocorrelated residuals and control of seasonality. The switching model estimated a 5°C increase in mean temperature and 10 mm precipitation were associated with increases in salmonellosis cases of 45.4% (95% CrI 40.4%, 50.5%) and 24.1% (95% CrI 17.0%, 31.6%), respectively. Conclusions Switching models improve on traditional time series models in quantifying weather–salmonellosis associations. A better understanding of how temperature and precipitation influence salmonellosis may identify where interventions can be made to lower the health and economic costs of salmonellosis. PMID:26916693

  17. Why Do Some Water Utilities Recycle More than Others? A Qualitative Comparative Analysis in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Nadja C; Fischer, Manuel; Ingold, Karin; Hering, Janet G

    2015-07-21

    Although the recycling of municipal wastewater can play an important role in water supply security and ecosystem protection, the percentage of wastewater recycled is generally low and strikingly variable. Previous research has employed detailed case studies to examine the factors that contribute to recycling success but usually lacks a comparative perspective across cases. In this study, 25 water utilities in New South Wales, Australia, were compared using fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). This research method applies binary logic and set theory to identify the minimal combinations of conditions that are necessary and/or sufficient for an outcome to occur within the set of cases analyzed. The influence of six factors (rainfall, population density, coastal or inland location, proximity to users; cost recovery and revenue for water supply services) was examined for two outcomes, agricultural use and "heavy" (i.e., commercial/municipal/industrial) use. Each outcome was explained by two different pathways, illustrating that different combinations of conditions are associated with the same outcome. Generally, while economic factors are crucial for heavy use, factors relating to water stress and geographical proximity matter most for agricultural reuse. These results suggest that policies to promote wastewater reuse may be most effective if they target uses that are most feasible for utilities and correspond to the local context. This work also makes a methodological contribution through illustrating the potential utility of fsQCA for understanding the complex drivers of performance in water recycling.

  18. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C.; Stewart, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective. PMID:27121212

  19. Models of reforestation productivity and carbon sequestration for land use and climate change adaptation planning in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Trevor J; Neumann, Craig R; Meyer, Wayne S; Moon, Travis; Bryan, Brett A

    2016-10-01

    Environmental management and regional land use planning has become more complex in recent years as growing world population, climate change, carbon markets and government policies for sustainability have emerged. Reforestation and agroforestry options for environmental benefits, carbon sequestration, economic development and biodiversity conservation are now important considerations of land use planners. New information has been collected and regionally-calibrated models have been developed to facilitate better regional land use planning decisions and counter the limitations of currently available models of reforestation productivity and carbon sequestration. Surveys of above-ground biomass of 264 reforestation sites (132 woodlots, 132 environmental plantings) within the agricultural regions of South Australia were conducted, and combined with spatial information on climate and soils, to develop new spatial and temporal models of plant density and above-ground biomass productivity from reforestation. The models can be used to estimate productivity and total carbon sequestration (i.e. above-ground + below-ground biomass) under a continuous range of planting designs (e.g. variable proportions of trees and shrubs or plant densities), timeframes and future climate scenarios. Representative spatial models (1 ha resolution) for 3 reforestation designs (i.e. woodlots, typical environmental planting, biodiverse environmental plantings) × 3 timeframes (i.e. 25, 45, 65 years) × 4 possible climates (i.e. no change, mild, moderate, severe warming and drying) were generated (i.e. 36 scenarios) for use within land use planning tools.

  20. Macrofaunal Patterns in and around du Couedic and Bonney Submarine Canyons, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Kathleen E; Currie, David R; Dittmann, Sabine; Sorokin, Shirley J; Hendrycks, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Two South Australian canyons, one shelf-incising (du Couedic) and one slope-limited (Bonney) were compared for macrofaunal patterns on the shelf and slope that spanned three water masses. It was hypothesized that community structure would (H1) significantly differ by water mass, (H2) show significant regional differences and (H3) differ significantly between interior and exterior of each canyon. Five hundred and thirty-one species of macrofauna ≥ 1 mm were captured at 27 stations situated in depth stratified transects inside and outside the canyons from 100 to 1500 m depth. The macrofauna showed a positive relationship to depth in abundance, biomass, species richness and community composition while taxonomic distinctness and evenness remained high at all depths. Biotic variation on the shelf was best defined by variation in bottom water primary production while sediment characteristics and bottom water oxygen, temperature and nutrients defined biotic variation at greater depth. Community structure differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three water masses (shelf-flowing South Australian current, upper slope Flinders current and lower slope Antarctic Intermediate Water) (H1). Although community differences between the du Couedic and Bonney regions were marginally above significance at p = 0.05 (H2), over half of the species captured were unique to each region. This supports the evidence from fish and megafaunal distributions that the du Couedic and Bonney areas are in different bioregions. Overall, the canyon interiors were not significantly different in community composition from the exterior (H3). However, both canyons had higher abundance and/or biomass, increased species dominance, different species composition and coarser sediments near the canyon heads compared to outside the canyons at the same depth (500 m), suggestive of heightened currents within the canyons that influence community composition there. At 1000-1500 m, the canyon interiors were

  1. Macrofaunal Patterns in and around du Couedic and Bonney Submarine Canyons, South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dittmann, Sabine; Sorokin, Shirley J.; Hendrycks, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Two South Australian canyons, one shelf-incising (du Couedic) and one slope-limited (Bonney) were compared for macrofaunal patterns on the shelf and slope that spanned three water masses. It was hypothesized that community structure would (H1) significantly differ by water mass, (H2) show significant regional differences and (H3) differ significantly between interior and exterior of each canyon. Five hundred and thirty-one species of macrofauna ≥1 mm were captured at 27 stations situated in depth stratified transects inside and outside the canyons from 100 to1500 m depth. The macrofauna showed a positive relationship to depth in abundance, biomass, species richness and community composition while taxonomic distinctness and evenness remained high at all depths. Biotic variation on the shelf was best defined by variation in bottom water primary production while sediment characteristics and bottom water oxygen, temperature and nutrients defined biotic variation at greater depth. Community structure differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three water masses (shelf-flowing South Australian current, upper slope Flinders current and lower slope Antarctic Intermediate Water) (H1). Although community differences between the du Couedic and Bonney regions were marginally above significance at p = 0.05 (H2), over half of the species captured were unique to each region. This supports the evidence from fish and megafaunal distributions that the du Couedic and Bonney areas are in different bioregions. Overall, the canyon interiors were not significantly different in community composition from the exterior (H3). However, both canyons had higher abundance and/or biomass, increased species dominance, different species composition and coarser sediments near the canyon heads compared to outside the canyons at the same depth (500 m), suggestive of heightened currents within the canyons that influence community composition there. At 1000–1500 m, the canyon interiors were

  2. Macrofaunal Patterns in and around du Couedic and Bonney Submarine Canyons, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Conlan, Kathleen E; Currie, David R; Dittmann, Sabine; Sorokin, Shirley J; Hendrycks, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Two South Australian canyons, one shelf-incising (du Couedic) and one slope-limited (Bonney) were compared for macrofaunal patterns on the shelf and slope that spanned three water masses. It was hypothesized that community structure would (H1) significantly differ by water mass, (H2) show significant regional differences and (H3) differ significantly between interior and exterior of each canyon. Five hundred and thirty-one species of macrofauna ≥ 1 mm were captured at 27 stations situated in depth stratified transects inside and outside the canyons from 100 to 1500 m depth. The macrofauna showed a positive relationship to depth in abundance, biomass, species richness and community composition while taxonomic distinctness and evenness remained high at all depths. Biotic variation on the shelf was best defined by variation in bottom water primary production while sediment characteristics and bottom water oxygen, temperature and nutrients defined biotic variation at greater depth. Community structure differed significantly (p<0.01) among the three water masses (shelf-flowing South Australian current, upper slope Flinders current and lower slope Antarctic Intermediate Water) (H1). Although community differences between the du Couedic and Bonney regions were marginally above significance at p = 0.05 (H2), over half of the species captured were unique to each region. This supports the evidence from fish and megafaunal distributions that the du Couedic and Bonney areas are in different bioregions. Overall, the canyon interiors were not significantly different in community composition from the exterior (H3). However, both canyons had higher abundance and/or biomass, increased species dominance, different species composition and coarser sediments near the canyon heads compared to outside the canyons at the same depth (500 m), suggestive of heightened currents within the canyons that influence community composition there. At 1000-1500 m, the canyon interiors were

  3. DRG production costs: one more dimension in management information for South Australia hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hindle, D; Scutery, J

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarises and discusses a report of a recent study undertaken by the South Australian Health Commission (SAHC) aimed at the measurement of the production costs of diagnosis related groups. Data were generated on an experimental basis for the seven major public hospitals in the State. The methodology was judged to be feasible, and data outputs of great potential value. It has therefore been decided that the costing process should become a routine component of the hospital management information system. Work is proceeding to extend the process to other sites. It is anticipated that production costs data of these types will make significant contributions to clinical program management, facilities planning, and hospital budgeting decisions in the future.

  4. The Way Forward: Women in Higher Education Management in Australia. Report of a National Conference (Armidale, New South Wales, Australia, July 18-20, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell, Shirley, Ed.

    Issues concerning the participation of women in college administration in Australia are presented in this conference report. Of concern were structural and attitudinal barriers to greater participation of women in educational management and the role of government in fostering equal opportunity. Included are an overview of the conference,…

  5. Hydrological challenges to groundwater trading: Lessons from south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skurray, James H.; Roberts, E. J.; Pannell, David J.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryPerth, Western Australia (pop. 1.6 m) derives 60% of its public water supply from the Gnangara groundwater system (GGS). Horticulture, domestic self-supply, and municipal parks are other major consumers of GGS groundwater. The system supports important wetlands and groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Underlying approximately 2200 km 2 of the Swan Coastal Plain, the GGS comprises several aquifer levels with partial interconnectivity. Supplies of GGS groundwater are under unprecedented stress, due to reduced recharge and increases in extraction. Stored reserves in the superficial aquifer fell by 700 GL between 1979 and 2008. Over a similar period, annual extraction for public supply increased by more than 350% from the system overall. Some management areas are over-allocated by as much as 69%. One potential policy response is a trading scheme for groundwater use. There has been only limited trading between GGS irrigators. Design and implementation of a robust groundwater trading scheme faces hydrological and/or hydro-economic challenges, among others. Groundwater trading involves transfers of the right to extract water. The resulting potential for spatial (and temporal) redistribution of the impacts of extraction requires management. Impacts at the respective selling and buying locations may differ in scale and nature. Negative externalities from groundwater trading may be uncertain as well as not monetarily compensable. An ideal groundwater trading scheme would ensure that marginal costs from trades do not exceed marginal benefits, incorporating future effects and impacts on third-parties. If this condition could be met, all transactions would result in constant or improved overall welfare. This paper examines issues that could reduce public welfare if groundwater trading is not subject to well-designed governance arrangements that are appropriate to meeting the above condition. It also outlines some opportunities to address key risks within the design of a

  6. The formation of saline mantle fluids by open-system crystallization of hydrous silicate-rich vein assemblages - Evidence from fluid inclusions and their host phases in MARID xenoliths from the central Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konzett, Jürgen; Krenn, Kurt; Rubatto, Daniela; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Stalder, Roland

    2014-12-01

    The composition of texturally primary fluid inclusions and their host phases clinopyroxene, K-richterite, and zircon were investigated in two MARID-type (mica-amphibole-rutile-ilmenite-diopside) mantle xenoliths sampled by the Kimberley cluster of Cretaceous kimberlites erupted in the central Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. P-T conditions of crystallization for the MARID assemblages of 4.2 GPa and 960 °C were estimated based on Ca-in-opx thermometry and the assumption of a 40 mW/m2 geotherm applied to two orthopyroxene-bearing MARIDs collected from the same locality. Cooling/heating stage measurements and Raman spectroscopy indicate a fluid system dominated by H2O-NaCl-MgCl2 with variable total salinities in the range ⩽6.4-32.4 mass% and minor amounts of MgCl2, the latter inferred from the crystallization of MgCl2 × 12H2O during cooling of the inclusions. In addition to liquid and vapour, enstatite, baddeleyite, barite, calcite and a K-Ba-Fe-Cr-titanate were identified as solid phases in opened fluid inclusions, indicating high LIL-(HFS) element concentrations in the saline hydrous fluids prior to solid phase precipitation. The Cl contents of apatite (⩽0.35 wt.%), phlogopite (⩽0.09 wt.%) and K-richterite (⩽0.025 wt.%) follow the enrichment pattern Clap ≫ Clphl > ClKr which is typical for upper mantle rocks. Fluid inclusion-bearing clinopyroxenes show very low H2O contents of ∼45 μg/g which is consistent with a reduced aH2O of the fluids due to the presence of NaCl-MgCl2-SiO2-LILE combined with high fO2 and very low Al3+ contents of the clinopyoxenes. The zircons show a complex compositional zoning with variable and positively correlated Y (⩽1260 μg/g), P (⩽1870 μg/g) and Sc (⩽1373 μg/g) contents, indicating a pretulite-type substitution Si4+ + Zr4+ = P5+ + (Sc, Y, REE)3+. The Sc contents of the zircons are amongst the highest Sc concentrations reported so far for upper mantle silicates. Oxygen isotope analyses of selected zircons yields δ18O

  7. Using Chironomid-Based Transfer Function and Stable Isotopes for Reconstructing Past Climate in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, J.; Shulmeister, J.; Woodward, C.

    2014-12-01

    A transfer-function based on chironomids was created to reconstruct past summer temperatures from a training set comprised of 33 south eastern Australian lakes. Statistical analyses show that mean February temperature (MFT) is the most robust and independent variable explaining chironomid species variability. The best MFT transfer function was a partial least squares (PLS) model with a coefficient of determination (r2Jackknifed) of 0.69, a root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.33˚C, and maximum bias of 2.15°C. The transfer function was tested by applying it to a Late Glacial to Holocene record from Blue Lake, New South Wales using published data. The reconstruction displays an overall pattern very similar to the Milankovitch driven summer insolation curve for 30°S and to the chironomid based summer temperature reconstruction from Eagle Tarn, Tasmania (Rees and Cwynar 2010) suggesting that the model is robust. The transfer function was also applied to reconstruct the Last Glacial Maxium (LGM) summer temperature from Welsby Lagoon, North Stradbroke Island (Queensland). Preliminary results show a c. 4.2~8.6˚C of cooling in summer temperatures during the LGM from south east Australia. Stable oxygen and deuterium isotope composition (δ18O and δD) of the chitnous subfossil head capsules from Australian chironomids were also measured to explore the opportunity developing them as an independent temperature proxy. This is the first application of this technique in the Southern Hemisphere. The modern range of chironomid δ18O values were measured based on the same 33 lakes sampled for the transfer function. For these lakes, head capsules of single genera were picked to avoid complications from 'vital effects'. The relationship of chironomid δ18O to modern lake temperatures has been investigated. Deuterium (δD) on the head capsules has been measured concurrently and the relationship to climate and environment will be explored based on the latest available

  8. Evidence of climatic effects on soil, vegetation and landform in temperate forests of south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Assaf; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick; Sheridan, Gary

    2016-04-01

    Water and radiation are unevenly distributed across the landscape due to variations in topography, which in turn causes water availability differences on the terrain according to elevation and aspect orientation. These differences in water availability can cause differential distribution of vegetation types and indirectly influence the development of soil and even landform, as expressed in hillslope asymmetry. While most of the research on the effects of climate on the vegetation and soil development and landscape evolution has been concentrated in drier semi-arid areas, temperate forested areas has been poorly studied, particularly in South Eastern Australia. This study uses soil profile descriptions and data on soil depth and landform across climatic gradients to explore the degrees to which coevolution of vegetation, soils and landform are controlled by radiative forcing and rainfall. Soil depth measurements were made on polar and equatorial facing hillslopes located at 3 sites along a climatic gradient (mean annual rainfall between 700 - 1800 mm yr-1) in the Victorian Highlands, where forest types range from dry open woodland to closed temperate rainforest. Profile descriptions were taken from soil pits dag on planar hillslopes (50 m from ridge), and samples were taken from each horizon for physical and chemical properties analysis. Hillslope asymmetry in different precipitation regimes of the study region was quantified from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Significant vegetation differences between aspects were noted in lower and intermediate rainfall sites, where polar facing aspects expressed higher overall biomass than the drier equatorial slope. Within the study domain, soil depth was strongly correlated with forest type and above ground biomass. Soil depths and chemical properties varied between topographic aspects and along the precipitation gradient, where wetter conditions facilitate deeper and more weathered soils. Furthermore, soil depths showed

  9. Surveillance of hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Celia; Ochota, Meredith A

    2003-01-01

    In September 2001, the South Australian state-wide methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance system was expanded to include three surveillance indicators namely: estimated MRSA burden, MRSA morbidity and estimated MRSA acquisition. The last two indicator rates have been stratified into intensive care unit (ICU) versus non-ICU. Between September 2001 and March 2002, state-wide MRSA burden rates (prevalence) ranged from 27.5 to 39.8 per 10,000 occupied bed days (OBDs). Acquisition rates ranged from 28.2 to 69.0 per 10,000 OBDs (ICU) and 6.3 to 10.1 per 10,000 OBDs (non-ICU). Morbidity rates ranged from 12.9 to 43.1 per 10,000 OBDs (ICU) and 3.0 to 5.0 per 10,000 OBDs (non-ICU). In association with the changes to surveillance indicators, a new monthly surveillance report was developed. Assuring confidentiality to individual contributing hospitals has been a major consideration in the development of the data collection system. Individual contributors have access only to their own indicator rates and pooled state-wide indicator rates. Contributing institutions are urged to use great caution if wishing to compare their own rates with state-wide rates. In particular, contributors are asked to take inter-institutional differences in MRSA burden and casemix complexity into account when making such comparisons.

  10. Selenium in soils, spermatophytes and bryophytes around a Zn-Pb smelter, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi Jian; Gulson, Brian L

    2002-07-01

    Selenium concentrations and its spatial distribution in soils, spermatophytes and bryophytes (mosses) around the Cockle Creek Zn-Pb smelter, New South Wales were studied from May to November 2000. Selenium was determined by ICP-MS on soils digested in nitric and hydrochloric acid (HNO3:HCl = 3:1), and plant samples digested in distilled concentrated nitric acid. At distances greater than 3 km, selenium in soils, spermatophytes and bryophytes converge to uniform values, which are considered to represent the background value. Mean selenium in soils around the smelter is two times higher than the background value. Mean concentration of selenium in plants around the smelter is three times greater than that for background plants. Selenium from 'in site' bryophyte is twice that found in the background bryophyte. The transfer coefficients of selenium between plants and soils are low, especially at a distance less than 1 km from the smelter. However, mosses show the reverse trend. This study indicates that the Zn-Pb smelter is one of the anthropogenic point sources of selenium pollution in the Lake Macquarie district.

  11. Coal dust exposures in the longwall mines of New South Wales, Australia: a respiratory risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kizil, G V; Donoghue, A M

    2002-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of personal respirable coal dust measurements recorded by the Joint Coal Board in the underground longwall mines of New South Wales from 1985 to 1999. A description of the longwall mining process is given. In the study, 11 829 measurements from 33 mines were analysed and the results given for each occupation, for seven occupational groups, for individual de-identified mines and for each year of study. The mean respirable coal dust concentration for all jobs was 1.51 mg/m(3) (SD 1.08 mg/m(3)). Only 6.9% of the measurements exceeded the Australian exposure standard of 3 mg/m(3). Published exposure-response relationships were used to predict the prevalence of progressive massive fibrosis and the mean loss of FEV(1), after a working lifetime (40 years) of exposure to the mean observed concentration of 1.5 mg/m(3). Prevalences of 1.3 and 2.9% were predicted, based on data from the UK and the USA, respectively. The mean loss of FEV(1) was estimated to be 73.7 ml.

  12. Psychiatric hospital treatment of children and adolescents in New South Wales, Australia: 12-year trends

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Titia; Sharpe, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Background It is preferable that children and adolescents requiring in-patient care for mental health problems are managed in age-appropriate facilities. To achieve this, nine specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in-patient units have been commissioned in New South Wales (NSW) since 2002. Aims To examine trends in child and adolescent in-patient admissions since the opening of these CAMHS units. Method Analysis of separation data for under 18-year-olds to CAMHS, adult mental health and paediatric units for the period 2002 to 2013 in NSW, comparing districts with and without specialist CAMHS units. Results Separations from CAMHS, adult and paediatric units rose with time, but there was no interaction between time and health district type (with/without CAMHS unit). Five of eight health districts experienced increased separations of under 18-year-olds from adult units in the year of opening a CAMHS unit. Separations from related paediatric units increased in three of seven health districts. Conclusions Opening CAMHS units may be followed by a temporary increase in separations of young people from adult units, but it does not influence the flow of patients to non-CAMHS facilities in the longer term. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703746

  13. Metasomatism and the Weakening of Cratons: A Mechanism to Rift Cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenker, Stefanie; Beaumont, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The preservation of cratons is a demonstration of their strength and resistance to deformation. However, several cratons are rifting now (e.g. Tanzania and North China Craton) or have rifted in the past (e.g. North Atlantic Craton). To explain this paradox, we suggest that widespread metasomatism of the originally cold depleted dehydrated craton mantle lithosphere root can act as a potential weakening mechanism. This process, particularly melt metasomatism, increases root density through a melt-peridotite reaction, and reduces root viscosity by increasing the temperature and rehydrating the cratonic mantle lithosphere. Using 2D numerical models, we model silicate-melt metasomatism and rehydration of cold cratonic mantle lithosphere that is positioned beside standard Phanerozoic lithosphere. The models are designed to investigate when a craton is sufficiently weakened to undergo rifting and is no longer protected by the initially weaker adjacent standard Phanerozoic lithosphere. Melt is added to specified layers in the cratonic mantle lithosphere at a uniform volumetric rate determined by the duration of metasomatism (3 Myr, 10 Myr or 30 Myr), until a total of ~30% by volume of melt has been added. During melt addition heat and mass are properly conserved and the density and volume increase by the respective amounts required by the reaction with the peridotite. No extensional boundary conditions are applied to the models during the metasomatism process. As expected, significant refertilization leads to removal and thinning of progressively more gravitationally unstable cratonic mantle lithosphere. We show that the duration of metasomatism dictates the final temperature in the cratonic upper mantle lithosphere. Consequently, when extensional boundary conditions are applied in our rifting tests in most cases the Phanerozoic lithosphere rifts. The craton rifts only in the models with the hottest cratonic upper mantle lithosphere. Our results indicate rifting of cratons

  14. Predictors of fixed orthodontic treatment in 15-year-old adolescents in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A J; Allister, J H; Brennan, D S

    1995-12-01

    An understanding of the determinants of the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment would be beneficial in the planning of any system aimed at rationalising supply. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine those factors which were predictive of the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment in adolescents. Baseline data, at age 13 years, on oral health, the history of orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care, a dental appearance score (DAI), socio-demographic characteristics and self and parental perceptions of both dental appearance and need for fixed orthodontic treatment were obtained from 2793 adolescents under the care of the South Australian School Dental Service who had not undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Data on the orthodontic care provided to these adolescents in the ensuing 2 years were collected. At the end of the 24-month period 433 adolescents (15.5%) had undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Significant bivariate associations were found between the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment and the DAI score, sex of the adolescent, familial history of fixed orthodontic treatment, income, private insurance, orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care before the age of 13 years and self and parental perceptions of both dental appearance and the need for fixed orthodontic treatment. Logistic regression was used to produce a predictive model of fixed orthodontic treatment. The model explained 30.2% of the variance, with a specificity of 0.94, a sensitivity of 0.49 and a hit rate of 0.84%. Odds ratios greater than one were found for the DAI score, private insurance, females, self and parental perception of need, higher incomes and orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care before the age of 13 years. PMID:8681517

  15. Petrology and geochemistry of differentiated teschenite intrusions from the Hunter Valley, New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, J. A.

    1984-11-01

    In the upper Hunter Valley of New South Wales a high level teschenitic sill complex emplaced into Permian coal measures derives from parent magmas which were themselves crystal fractionation products of alkali basaltic melts. The sills crystallised in situ and produced a spectrum of rock types ranging from olivine teschenite to teschenite, syenoteschenite and, ultimately, syenite. The olivine teschenites are also enriched in biotite and are crudely interlayered with teschenite and syenoteschenite. The lineage from olivine teschenite to syenoteschenite is characterised by a progressive decrease in olivine and a build-up of alkaline mesostasis which is accompanied by strong chemical zonation in abutting silicate minerals. The alkaline mesostasis and syenites are identical mineralogically. Primary crystallisation of olivine in the olivine teschenite-teschenite-syenoteschenite continuum and data from coexisting iron-titanium oxide pairs suggest that oxygen fugacity was constrained to a path parallel to the QFM buffer curve. Absence of olivine from the alkaline mesostasis and syenite veins, together with the appearance of sphene, indicates buffering of oxygen fugacity by other assemblages (probably annite-alkali feldspar-magnetite) and generally higher f O 2 in the residual liquids. Here, a build-up of CO2, F and Cl, in addition to H2O, influenced the relative stabilities of the pyroxene and amphibole minerals. Major and trace element data support an in situ, progressive congelation model for crystallisation. Mass balance solutions require participation of all phases to produce acceptable residuals. Simple mixing calculations suggest that syenoteschenite consists of teschenite plus approximately 40% syenite, in close agreement with the observed modal mineralogy. Segregation of syenite from syenoteschenite probably occurred when the residual liquid, as represented by mesostasis, reached a critical volume of around 40%.

  16. The impact of heatwaves on workers' health and safety in Adelaide, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Jianjun; Bi, Peng Pisaniello, Dino; Hansen, Alana

    2014-08-15

    This study aims to investigate the impact of heatwaves on worker's health and safety; to identify workers at higher risk of prevalent illnesses and injuries due to heatwaves; and to provide evidence for policy-makers and service providers. South Australian workers' compensation claims data for 2001–2010 were transformed into time series format, merged with meteorological data and analysed using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. For total injury claims there was no significant difference detected between heatwave and non-heatwave periods. However, for outdoor industries, daily claims increased significantly by 6.2% during heatwaves. Over-represented in hot weather were male labourers and tradespersons aged ≥55 years, and those employed in ‘agriculture, forestry and fishing’ and ‘electricity, gas and water’. Occupational burns, wounds, lacerations, and amputations as well as heat illnesses were significantly associated with heatwaves. Similarly, moving objects, contact with chemicals, and injuries related to environmental factors increased significantly during heatwaves, especially among middle-aged and older male workers. With the predicted increase of extremely hot weather, there is a need for relevant adaptation and prevention measures at both practice and policy levels for vulnerable work groups. - Highlights: • We investigate the impacts of heatwaves on workers' health and safety. • We identify workers at higher risk of illnesses and injuries during heatwaves. • The differences between two heatwave definitions on effect estimates are compared. • Daily injury claims for outdoor industries increased by 6.2% during heatwaves. • Relevant heat prevention measures are required for vulnerable workers.

  17. Confronting hysteresis: Wood based river rehabilitation in highly altered riverine landscapes of south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Andrew P.; Howell, Timothy; Abbe, Tim B.; Arthington, Angela H.

    2006-09-01

    values in the control were around 1.5% and 1%, respectively. Two indices of morphologic diversity were measured for each bed survey: the standard deviation of 3D residuals of change compared with the baseline survey (SD iΔ3D); and the standard deviation of thalweg residuals from the line of best fit (SD iTR). The SD iΔ3D index shows both reaches increased in complexity through the study with the treatment increasing more than the control (0.37 and 0.29, respectively). The SD iTR index does not detect clear changes because of the low signal to noise ratio, however, it does suggest the test reach was more complex than the control at the outset. The observed increase in fish abundance after the first 12 months of monitoring, reported previously, is now far less distinct 4 years on — a pattern seemingly reflecting the relatively minor increases in critical pool habitat and habitat diversity over the same period. Although no significant differences were detectable in fish species richness or total abundance from the reach aggregate data after 4 years, analysis of individual structures show them to be high quality habitat for native fish compared to the rest of the reach and the upstream control. These results highlight the challenges river managers face in achieving measurable improvements in the health of aquatic ecosystems in highly altered rivers. Managers must confront hysteresis in a biophysical and institutional sense when attempting to reverse the degradation of rivers. The scale of treatment implemented in this experiment was at the upper end of the spectrum of rehabilitation efforts currently being undertaken in Australia, suggesting that far greater resources and longer timescales are required to achieve the levels of improvement in the diversity of stream habitat expected by the community. The study also highlights problems with the strategy of attempting to meet multiple objectives within a reach scale rehabilitation project. While this treatment successfully

  18. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  19. A Gigantic Sarcopterygian (Tetrapodomorph Lobe-Finned Fish) from the Upper Devonian of Gondwana (Eden, New South Wales, Australia)

    PubMed Central

    Young, Ben; Dunstone, Robert L.; Senden, Timothy J.; Young, Gavin C.

    2013-01-01

    Edenopteron keithcrooki gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Famennian Worange Point Formation; the holotype is amongst the largest tristichopterids and sarcopterygians documented by semi-articulated remains from the Devonian Period. The new taxon has dentary fangs and premaxillary tusks, features assumed to be derived for large Northern Hemisphere tristichopterids (Eusthenodon, Hyneria, Langlieria). It resembles Eusthenodon in ornament, but is distinguished by longer proportions of the parietal compared to the post-parietal shield, and numerous differences in shape and proportions of other bones. Several characters (accessory vomers in the palate, submandibulars overlapping ventral jaw margin, scales ornamented with widely-spaced deep grooves) are recorded only in tristichopterids from East Gondwana (Australia-Antarctica). On this evidence Edenopteron gen. nov. is placed in an endemic Gondwanan subfamily Mandageriinae within the Tristichopteridae; it differs from the nominal genotype Mandageria in its larger size, less pointed skull, shape of the orbits and other skull characters. The hypothesis that tristichopterids evolved in Laurussia and later dispersed into Gondwana, and a derived subgroup of large Late Devonian genera dispersed from Gondwana, is inconsistent with the evidence of the new taxon. Using oldest fossil and most primitive clade criteria the most recent phylogeny resolves South China and Gondwana as areas of origin for all tetrapodomorphs. The immediate outgroup to tristichopterids remains unresolved – either Spodichthys from Greenland as recently proposed, or Marsdenichthys from Gondwana, earlier suggested to be the sister group to all tristichopterids. Both taxa combine two characters that do not co-occur in other tetrapodomorphs (extratemporal bone in the skull; non-cosmoid round scales with an internal boss). Recently both ‘primitive’ and ‘derived’ tristichopterids have been discovered in the late Middle Devonian of both hemispheres

  20. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters. PMID:25090250

  1. Evidence that creation of a Pinus radiata plantation in south-eastern Australia has reduced habitat for frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parris, Kirsten M.; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2004-03-01

    Loss and fragmentation of habitat resulting from the clearing of forests for agriculture and urban development threaten the persistence of thousands of species worldwide. The clearing of native forest to plant a monoculture of exotic trees may also reduce and fragment the habitat available for indigenous plants and animals. Metacommunity theory suggests that the species richness of a community in a patch of habitat will increase with patch size but decrease with patch isolation. We investigated whether replacement of native Eucalyptus forest with a plantation of Pinus radiata has reduced and fragmented habitat for frogs, leading to a lower species richness of frog communities in the pine plantation and in small and/or isolated remnant patches of native forest. We surveyed frogs at 60 sites at streams and wetlands in the pine plantation, remnant patches of native forest surrounded by pines, and adjacent areas of contiguous native forest near Tumut in New South Wales, Australia. Only two of eight species of frogs were recorded in the pine plantation, and regression modelling indicated that streams and wetlands in the pines supported fewer frog species than those in remnant patches or the intact native forest. In addition, species richness tended to be higher at wide, shallow swamps and marshes near the headwaters of streams, with herbs, grasses, shrubs, reeds, sedges and rushes in the emergent and fringing vegetation. There was little evidence to suggest that larger eucalypt remnants supported more species of frogs, or that remnants isolated by greater expanses of pines supported fewer species, but we had low power to detect these effects with our data set. Our results support the preservation of all remnants of native forest along drainage lines and around swamps, soaks and bogs, regardless of size. Where new pine plantations are established, for example, on cleared agricultural land, care should be taken to maintain the structural and vegetative characteristics of

  2. Bent-tailed Radio Sources in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey of the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 1022 <= P 1.4 GHz <= 1026 W Hz-1, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P 1.4 GHz = 9 × 1022 W Hz-1. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ~10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  3. Political dynamics promoting the incremental regulation of secondhand smoke: a case study of New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bryan-Jones, Katherine; Chapman, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Background The history of governmental responses to the accumulation of scientific evidence about the harms of secondhand smoke (SHS) presents an intriguing case study of incremental public health policy development. Australia has long been considered a world-leader in progressive tobacco control policies, but in the last decade has fallen behind other jurisdictions in introducing SHS legislation that protects all workers. Bars, clubs and pubs remain the only public indoor spaces where smoking is legally permitted, despite SHS exposure in the hospitality industry being higher and affecting more people than in any other setting after domestic exposure. This paper examines the political dynamics that have shaped this incremental approach to SHS. Methods In-depth interviews with 21 key stakeholders in the state of New South Wales (NSW), including politicians, their advisors, health officials and tobacco control advocates, were conducted and subjected to thematic content analysis. Interviewees' comments provided insights into the dynamics surrounding the debates and outcomes of SHS legislative attempts and the current political environment, and about how to progress SHS legislation. Results SHS restrictions have been delayed by several broad factors: the influence of industry groups successfully opposing regulation; issue wear-out; and political perceptions that there is not a salient constituency demanding that smoking be banned in bars and clubs. Interviewees also provided suggestions of strategies that advocates might utilise to best overcome the current political inertia of incremental compromises and achieve timely comprehensive smoking bans. Conclusion Advocates concerned to shorten the duration of incremental endgames must continue to insist that governments address SHS fundamentally as a health issue rather than making political concessions to industry groups, and should broaden and amplify community voices calling on governments to finish the job. Publicity to

  4. Modeling food web structure and selenium biomagnification in Lake Macquarie, New South Wales, Australia, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Larissa; Maher, William A; Potts, Jaimie; Taylor, Anne M; Batley, Graeme E; Krikowa, Frank; Chariton, Anthony A; Gruber, Bernd

    2015-03-01

    As a consequence of coal-fired power station operations, elevated selenium concentrations have been reported in the sediments and biota of Lake Macquarie (New South Wales, Australia). In the present study, an ecosystem-scale model has been applied to determine how selenium in a seagrass food web is processed from sediments and water through diet to predators, using stable isotopes (δ(13) C and δ(15) N) to establish the trophic position of organisms. Trophic position, habitat, and feeding zone were examined as possible factors influencing selenium bioaccumulation. Selenium concentrations ranged from 0.2 μg/g dry weight in macroalgae species to 12.9 μg/g in the carnivorous fish Gerres subfasciatus. A mean magnification factor of 1.39 per trophic level showed that selenium is biomagnifying in the seagrass food web. Habitat and feeding zone influenced selenium concentrations in invertebrates, whereas feeding zone was the only significant factor influencing selenium concentrations in fish. The sediment-water partitioning coefficient (Kd ) of 4180 showed that partitioning of selenium entering the lake to particulate organic material (POM) is occurring, and consequently availability to food webs from POM is high. Trophic transfer factors (invertebrate = 1.9; fish = 1.2) were similar to those reported for other water bodies, showing that input source is not the main determinant of the magnitude of selenium bioaccumulation in a food web, but rather the initial partitioning of selenium into bioavailable POM. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:608-617. © 2014 SETAC.

  5. Meiobenthic communities of seagrass beds ( Zostera capricorni) and unvegetated sediments along the coast of New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, Gustavo; Hutchings, Pat; Gallucci, Fabiane

    2011-01-01

    Seagrass beds have higher biomass, abundance, diversity and productivity of benthic organisms than unvegetated sediments. However, to date most studies have analysed only the macrofaunal component and ignored the abundant meiofauna present in seagrass meadows. This study was designed to test if meiobenthic communities, especially the free-living nematodes, differed between seagrass beds and unvegetated sediments. Sediment samples from beds of the eelgrass Zostera capricorni and nearby unvegetated sediments were collected in three estuaries along the coast of New South Wales, Australia. Results showed that sediments below the seagrass were finer, with a higher content of organic material and were less oxygenated than sediments without seagrass. Univariate measures of the fauna (i.e. abundance, diversity and taxa richness of total meiofauna and nematode assemblages) did not differ between vegetated and unvegetated sediments. However multivariate analysis of meiofaunal higher taxa showed significant differences between the two habitats, largely due to the presence and absence of certain taxa. Amphipods, tanaidacea, ostracods, hydrozoans and isopods occurred mainly in unvegetated sediments, while kinorhyncs, polychaetes, gastrotrichs and turbellarians were more abundant in vegetated sediments. Regarding the nematode assemblages, 32.4% of the species were restricted to Z. capricorni and 25% only occurred in unvegetated sediments, this suggests that each habitat is characterized by a particular suite of species. Epistrate feeding nematodes were more abundant in seagrass beds, and it is suggested that they graze on the microphytobenthos which accumulates underneath the seagrass. Most of the genera that characterized these estuarine unvegetated sediments are also commonly found on exposed sandy beaches. This may be explained by the fact that Australian estuaries have very little input of freshwater and experience marine conditions for most of the year. This study

  6. Germination of seven exotic weeds and seven native speciesin south-western Australia under steady and fluctuating water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Fernández, María A.; Lamont, Byron B.; Marwick, Anjanette L.; Lamont, Wesley G.

    2000-12-01

    The germination of seven common weeds and seven species native to south-western Australia was studied at three sites where they co-occur and in the laboratory. Under field conditions, final germination of the exotic species was much higher than that of the native species, and the number of days to reach 50 % final germination was lower. For some of the germination period, soil moisture was lower than expected after 48 h without rain, with one dry period lasting 10 d. Overall, germination rose with increasing wetness of the three sites, especially among the weeds. Most exotic species germinated under laboratory conditions needed less than 10 d to reach 50 % of final germination which was further delayed by 2 d when seeds were removed from their moist substrate and allowed to dry out (air-drying) for 48 h. Most native species took 10-35 d, with a mean delay of 7 d after 48 h of air-drying. Total germination of the weeds was close to 100 % and was little affected by periods of air-drying. Germination of the native species was more variable and greatly reduced by air-drying in two species. We conclude that water availability as it varies through time and space is significant in controlling germination even during the wet season. The quicker and greater responses of weed seeds to moisture may contribute toward the superior ability of weeds to colonise disturbed habitats. Differences in life form, seed size, flatness, presence of appendages, and ability to absorb or retain water only partially explain these results.

  7. Body Size, Growth and Life Span: Implications for the Polewards Range Shift of Octopus tetricus in South-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Jorge E.; Pecl, Gretta T.; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A.; Strugnell, Jan M.; León, Rafael I.; Semmens, Jayson M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters. PMID:25090250

  8. A gigantic sarcopterygian (tetrapodomorph lobe-finned fish) from the upper Devonian of Gondwana (Eden, New South Wales, Australia).

    PubMed

    Young, Ben; Dunstone, Robert L; Senden, Timothy J; Young, Gavin C

    2013-01-01

    Edenopteron keithcrooki gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Famennian Worange Point Formation; the holotype is amongst the largest tristichopterids and sarcopterygians documented by semi-articulated remains from the Devonian Period. The new taxon has dentary fangs and premaxillary tusks, features assumed to be derived for large Northern Hemisphere tristichopterids (Eusthenodon, Hyneria, Langlieria). It resembles Eusthenodon in ornament, but is distinguished by longer proportions of the parietal compared to the post-parietal shield, and numerous differences in shape and proportions of other bones. Several characters (accessory vomers in the palate, submandibulars overlapping ventral jaw margin, scales ornamented with widely-spaced deep grooves) are recorded only in tristichopterids from East Gondwana (Australia-Antarctica). On this evidence Edenopteron gen. nov. is placed in an endemic Gondwanan subfamily Mandageriinae within the Tristichopteridae; it differs from the nominal genotype Mandageria in its larger size, less pointed skull, shape of the orbits and other skull characters. The hypothesis that tristichopterids evolved in Laurussia and later dispersed into Gondwana, and a derived subgroup of large Late Devonian genera dispersed from Gondwana, is inconsistent with the evidence of the new taxon. Using oldest fossil and most primitive clade criteria the most recent phylogeny resolves South China and Gondwana as areas of origin for all tetrapodomorphs. The immediate outgroup to tristichopterids remains unresolved - either Spodichthys from Greenland as recently proposed, or Marsdenichthys from Gondwana, earlier suggested to be the sister group to all tristichopterids. Both taxa combine two characters that do not co-occur in other tetrapodomorphs (extratemporal bone in the skull; non-cosmoid round scales with an internal boss). Recently both 'primitive' and 'derived' tristichopterids have been discovered in the late Middle Devonian of both hemispheres, implying

  9. Potential wildlife sentinels for monitoring the endemic spread of human buruli ulcer in South-East australia.

    PubMed

    Carson, Connor; Lavender, Caroline J; Handasyde, Kathrine A; O'Brien, Carolyn R; Hewitt, Nick; Johnson, Paul D R; Fyfe, Janet A M

    2014-01-01

    The last 20 years has seen a significant series of outbreaks of Buruli/Bairnsdale Ulcer (BU), caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, in temperate south-eastern Australia (state of Victoria). Here, the prevailing view of M. ulcerans as an aquatic pathogen has been questioned by recent research identifying native wildlife as potential terrestrial reservoirs of infection; specifically, tree-dwelling common ringtail and brushtail possums. In that previous work, sampling of environmental possum faeces detected a high prevalence of M. ulcerans DNA in established endemic areas for human BU on the Bellarine Peninsula, compared with non-endemic areas. Here, we report research from an emergent BU focus recently identified on the Mornington Peninsula, confirming associations between human BU and the presence of the aetiological agent in possum faeces, detected by real-time PCR targeting M. ulcerans IS2404, IS2606 and KR. Mycobacterium ulcerans DNA was detected in 20/216 (9.3%) ground collected ringtail possum faecal samples and 4/6 (66.6%) brushtail possum faecal samples. The distribution of the PCR positive possum faecal samples and human BU cases was highly focal: there was a significant non-random cluster of 16 M. ulcerans positive possum faecal sample points detected by spatial scan statistics (P<0.0001) within a circle of radius 0.42 km, within which were located the addresses of 6/12 human cases reported from the area to date; moreover, the highest sample PCR signal strength (equivalent to ≥10(6) organisms per gram of faeces) was found in a sample point located within this cluster radius. Corresponding faecal samples collected from closely adjacent BU-free areas were predominantly negative. Possums may be useful sentinels to predict endemic spread of human BU in Victoria, for public health planning. Further research is needed to establish whether spatial associations represent evidence of direct or indirect transmission between possums and humans, and the mechanism by

  10. Bent-tailed radio sources in the australia telescope large area survey of the Chandra deep field south

    SciTech Connect

    Dehghan, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Norris, R. P.; Miller, N. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using the 1.4 GHz Australia Telescope Large Area Survey, supplemented by the 1.4 GHz Very Large Array images, we undertook a search for bent-tailed (BT) radio galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South. Here we present a catalog of 56 detections, which include 45 BT sources, 4 diffuse low-surface-brightness objects (1 relic, 2 halos, and 1 unclassified object), and a further 7 complex, multi-component sources. We report BT sources with rest-frame powers in the range 10{sup 22} ≤ P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} ≤ 10{sup 26} W Hz{sup –1}, with redshifts up to 2 and linear extents from tens of kiloparsecs up to about 1 Mpc. This is the first systematic study of such sources down to such low powers and high redshifts and demonstrates the complementary nature of searches in deep, limited area surveys as compared to shallower, large surveys. Of the sources presented here, one is the most distant BT source yet detected at a redshift of 2.1688. Two of the sources are found to be associated with known clusters: a wide-angle tail source in A3141 and a putative radio relic which appears at the infall region between the galaxy group MZ 00108 and the galaxy cluster AMPCC 40. Further observations are required to confirm the relic detection, which, if successful, would demonstrate this to be the least powerful relic yet seen with P {sub 1.4} {sub GHz} = 9 × 10{sup 22} W Hz{sup –1}. Using these data, we predict future 1.4 GHz all-sky surveys with a resolution of ∼10 arcsec and a sensitivity of 10 μJy will detect of the order of 560,000 extended low-surface-brightness radio sources of which 440,000 will have a BT morphology.

  11. Origin and evolution of the Amazonian craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, A. K.; Wirth, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Amazonian craton appears to be formed and modifed by processes much like those of the better-known Precambrian cratons, but the major events did not always follow conventional sequences nor did they occur synchronously with those of other cratons. Much of the craton's Archean style continental crust formation, recorded in granite-greenstone and high-grade terranes, occurred in the Early Proterozoic: a period of relative quiescence in many other Precambrian regions. The common Archean to Proterozoic transition in geological style did not occur here, but an analogous change from abundant marine volcanism to dominantly continental sedimentary and eruptive styles occurred later. Amazonian geology is summarized, explaining the evolution of the craton.

  12. Remobilization in the cratonic lithosphere recorded in polycrystalline diamond

    PubMed

    Jacob; Viljoen; Grassineau; Jagoutz

    2000-08-18

    Polycrystalline diamonds (framesites) from the Venetia kimberlite in South Africa contain silicate minerals whose isotopic and trace element characteristics document remobilization of older carbon and silicate components to form the framesites shortly before kimberlite eruption. Chemical variations within the garnets correlate with carbon isotopes in the diamonds, indicating contemporaneous formation. Trace element, radiogenic, and stable isotope variations can be explained by the interaction of eclogites with a carbonatitic melt, derived by remobilization of material that had been stored for a considerable time in the lithosphere. These results indicate more recent formation of diamonds from older materials within the cratonic lithosphere.

  13. Remobilization in the cratonic lithosphere recorded in polycrystalline diamond

    PubMed

    Jacob; Viljoen; Grassineau; Jagoutz

    2000-08-18

    Polycrystalline diamonds (framesites) from the Venetia kimberlite in South Africa contain silicate minerals whose isotopic and trace element characteristics document remobilization of older carbon and silicate components to form the framesites shortly before kimberlite eruption. Chemical variations within the garnets correlate with carbon isotopes in the diamonds, indicating contemporaneous formation. Trace element, radiogenic, and stable isotope variations can be explained by the interaction of eclogites with a carbonatitic melt, derived by remobilization of material that had been stored for a considerable time in the lithosphere. These results indicate more recent formation of diamonds from older materials within the cratonic lithosphere. PMID:10947983

  14. Geomorphic and hydrogeologic controls on wetland distribution in the New South Wales Southern Highlands, south east Australia: prioritising natural resource management investment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowood, Alie; Moore, Leah

    2014-05-01

    Strategic investment of public funds in wetland conservation on the New South Wales (NSW) Southern Tablelands, in south east Australia, is impeded by poor understanding of the distribution of wetlands and their geomorphic and hydrogeologic setting. Appropriate investment and management is also unclear in the face of climate change. This research detailed: the spatial configuration, the hydrogeological setting, and intrinsic ecological value of the wetlands. Using this modelling, potential impact of climate change on wetlands was examined. Previous work developed a draft typology for Southern Tablelands wetlands, expanded techniques for representing spatial variability in wetland biodiversity (using generalised dissimilarity models) and explored methods of modelling wetland location through integration of hydrology, terrain and geological features. This new work integrated the mapping of the spatial distribution of a range of wetland types with a hydrogeological landscape (HGL) framework in order to better understand the movement of water through wetland landscapes. The process of HGL determination relies on the integration of a number of factors including: geology, soils, slope, regolith thickness, vegetation and climate. If the distribution of regolith materials, fractured rock and barriers to flow are characterised, an understanding of surface and sub-surface fluid pathways can be established. Contextualising a study of wetlands in an HGL framework is useful because it provides information about the biophysical controls that influence why wetlands occur in some parts of the landscape and not others. Each HGL unit spatially defines areas with similar controls on movement of water and hence similar patterns of surface and groundwater connectivity. The NSW Southern Highland landscape was divided into 34 HGL units, based on derived spatial information and field observations. Each HGL unit had an associated conceptual model, identifying potential surface water and

  15. Cyanobacteria and prawn farming in northern New South Wales, Australia--a case study on cyanobacteria diversity and hepatotoxin bioaccumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kankaanpaeae, Harri T.; Holliday, Jon; Schroeder, Helge; Goddard, Timothy J.; Fister, Richard von; Carmichael, Wayne W

    2005-03-15

    Harmful cyanobacteria pose a hazard to aquatic ecosystems due to toxins (hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin) they produce. The microcystins and nodularins are potent toxins, which are also tumor promoters. The microcystins and nodularins may accumulate into aquatic organisms and be transferred to higher trophic levels, and eventually affect vector animals and consumers. Prawn farming is a rapidly growing industry in Australia. Because information regarding effects of cyanobacteria at prawn farms was lacking, we examined diversity of cyanobacteria and toxin production plus bioaccumulation into black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) under both field (northern New South Wales, Australia, December 2001-April 2002) and laboratory conditions. Samples were analyzed for hepatotoxins using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The maximum density of cyanobacteria (1 x 10{sup 6} to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l) was reached in April. Cyanobacteria encountered were Oscillatoria sp. (up to 4 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Pseudanabaena sp. (up to 1.8 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), Microcystis sp. (up to 3.5 x 10{sup 4} cells/l), and Aphanocapsa sp. (up to 2 x 10{sup 4} cells/l). An uncommon cyanobacterium, Romeria sp. (up to 2.2 x 10{sup 6} cells/l), was also observed. Contrasting earlier indications, toxic Nodularia spumigena was absent. Despite that both Oscillatoria sp. and Microcystis sp. are potentially hepatotoxic, hepatotoxin levels in phytoplankton samples remained low (up to 0.5-1.2 mg/kg dw; ELISA) in 2001-2002. ELISA was found suitable not only for phytoplankton but prawn tissues as well. Enzymatic pretreatment improved extractability of hepatotoxin from cyanobacteria (nodularin from N. spumigena as an example), but did not generally increase toxin recovery from prawn hepatopancreas. There were slightly increasing hepatotoxin concentrations in prawn hepatopancreas (from 6-20 to 20-80 {mu}g/kg dw; ELISA) during the

  16. The eastern swamp crayfish Gramastacus lacus sp. n. (Decapoda, Parastacidae) a new species of freshwater crayfish from coastal New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Gramastacus lacus sp. n., is described from coastal lowlands of the Central and Mid North Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. Gramastacus lacus has a restricted distribution in ephemeral habitats, being dependent on regular natural flooding and drying cycles, and burrows for survival during temporary dry cycles. Documented are population distributions in lowland habitats (3–48 m, a.s.l.) from Wamberal Lagoon, north along the coastal strip to Wallis Lake. The species is small, reaching a maximum weight of 7 grams and 21.3 mm OCL, and distinguished by a large male genital papilla, large raised post orbital ridges, laterally compressed carapace and elongated chelae. PMID:24715801

  17. Rare earths and other trace elements in minerals from skarn assemblages, Hillside iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Roniza; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Teale, Graham S.; Giles, David; Mumm, Andreas Schmidt; Wade, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The Hillside Cu-(Au) deposit, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia, is a recently-discovered ore system within the 1.6 Ga World-class Olympic iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) Province. The deposit is characterized by a skarn-style alteration zone. Analyses of feldspar, calcite, skarn minerals (garnet, pyroxene, clinozoisite and actinolite) and accessories (titanite, apatite and allanite), and grain-scale element mapping by laser-ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry are used to assess the distributions of rare earth element (REE), incompatible and ore-forming elements in host rocks, prograde and retrograde skarn.

  18. Some factors affecting water yield from mountain ash ( Eucalyptus regnans) dominated forests in south-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasuriya, M. D. A.; Dunn, G.; Benyon, R.; O'Shaughnessy, P. J.

    1993-10-01

    An experiment in mountain ash forests in Melbourne's water supply catchments in south-east Australia investigated the impact on long-term water yield of reducing forest density. Fifty-four per cent of basal area was removed from a 17 ha catchment (Black Spur 1) by patch cutting, and the patches were regenerated with mountain ash. A 50% reduction was implemented in Black Spur 3, an 8 ha catchment, through uniform thinning. Uniform thinning was shown to be more effective in enhancing streamflow than patch cutting. A streamflow increase of 25-30% (130-150 mm year -1) was observed after treatment in both catchments. Eleven years later, a treatment effect of 15% was still evident in the selectively thinned catchment (Black Spur 3), but the effect had completely decayed in the patch cut catchment (Black Spur 1). Research by Melbourne Water has established that streamflow is significantly influenced by forest age. It is hypothesised that this relationship, and the observed decay after patch cutting in Black Spur 1, is largely the result of variation in transpiration. To study the relationship between forest age and transpiration in detail, sap velocity was measured over two summers in four mountain ash plots using the heat-pulse method. The trees on these plots were 50, 90, 150 and 230 years old. On days when measurements were made, the mean sap velocity was not significantly different in the 50-, 90- 230-year-old stands, but was significantly smaller by 14% in the 150-year-old stand. Overstorey sapwood area gradually decreased with plot age, and was 57% lower in the 230-year-old plot than in the 50-year-old plot. When combined with the sap velocity measurements, these data indicated that over the six warmest months of the year, transpiration in the 50-year-old plot was 190 mm more than in the 230-year-old plot. These results support a hypothesis that differences in streamflow between 50-year-old and 230-year-old mountain ash forest can largely be accounted for by

  19. A combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural study of pyrite from roll-front uranium deposits, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingham, Edwina S.; Cook, Nigel J.; Cliff, John; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Huddleston, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The common sulfide mineral pyrite is abundant throughout sedimentary uranium systems at Pepegoona, Pepegoona West and Pannikan, Lake Eyre Basin, South Australia. Combined chemical, isotopic and microstructural analysis of pyrite indicates variation in fluid composition, sulfur source and precipitation conditions during a protracted mineralization event. The results show the significant role played by pyrite as a metal scavenger and monitor of fluid changes in low-temperature hydrothermal systems. In-situ micrometer-scale sulfur isotope analyses of pyrite demonstrated broad-scale isotopic heterogeneity (δ34S = -43.9 to +32.4‰VCDT), indicative of complex, multi-faceted pyrite evolution, and sulfur derived from more than a single source. Preserved textures support this assertion and indicate a genetic model involving more than one phase of pyrite formation. Authigenic pyrite underwent prolonged evolution and recrystallization, evidenced by a genetic relationship between archetypal framboidal aggregates and pyrite euhedra. Secondary hydrothermal pyrite commonly displays hyper-enrichment of several trace elements (Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Mo, Sb, W and Tl) in ore-bearing horizons. Hydrothermal fluids of magmatic and meteoric origins supplied metals to the system but the geochemical signature of pyrite suggests a dominantly granitic source and also the influence of mafic rock types. Irregular variation in δ34S, coupled with oscillatory trace element zonation in secondary pyrite, is interpreted in terms of continuous variations in fluid composition and cycles of diagenetic recrystallization. A late-stage oxidizing fluid may have mobilized selenium from pre-existing pyrite. Subsequent restoration of reduced conditions within the aquifer caused ongoing pyrite re-crystallization and precipitation of selenium as native selenium. These results provide the first qualitative constraints on the formation mechanisms of the uranium deposits at Beverley North. Insights into

  20. Geophysical anomalies and quartz microstructures, Eastern Warburton Basin, North-east South Australia: Tectonic or impact shock metamorphic origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew Y.; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Fitz Gerald, John D.; Saygin, Erdinc

    2013-03-01

    The Eastern Warburton Basin, Northeast South Australia, features major geophysical anomalies, including a magnetic high of near-200 nT centred on a 25 km-wide magnetic low (< 100 nT), interpreted in terms of a magmatic body below 6 km depth. A distinct seismic tomographic low velocity anomaly may reflect its thick (9.5 km) sedimentary section, high temperatures and possible deep fracturing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses of granites resolves microbreccia veins consisting of micron-scale particles injected into resorbed quartz grains. Planar and sub-planar elements in quartz grains (Qz/PE) occur in granites, volcanics and sediments of the > 30,000 km-large Eastern Warburton Basin. The Qz/PE include multiple intersecting planar to curved sub-planar elements with relic lamellae less than 2 μm wide with spacing of 4-5 μm. Qz/PE are commonly re-deformed, displaying bent and wavy patterns accompanied with fluid inclusions. U-stage measurements of a total of 243 planar sets in 157 quartz grains indicate dominance of ∏{10-12}, ω{10-13} and subsidiary §{11-22}, {22-41}, m{10-11} and x{51-61} planes. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis displays relic narrow ≤ 1 μm-wide lamellae and relic non-sub grain boundaries where crystal segments maintain optical continuity. Extensive sericite alteration of feldspar suggests hydrothermal alteration to a depth of 500 m below the unconformity which overlies the Qz/PE-bearing Warburton Basin terrain. The data are discussed in terms of (A) Tectonic-metamorphic deformation and (B) impact shock metamorphism producing planar deformation features (Qz/PDF). Deformed Qz/PE are compared to re-deformed Qz/PDFs in the Sudbury, Vredefort, Manicouagan and Charlevoix impact structures. A 4-5 km uplift of the Big Lake Granite Suite during 298-295 Ma is consistent with missing of upper Ordovician to Devonian strata and possible impact rebound. The occurrence of circular seismic tomography anomalies below the east

  1. Mantle Discontinuities and the Origins of the U.S. Cratonic Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, K. M.; Hopper, E.

    2014-12-01

    The goals of this work are to probe how mantle lithosphere discontinuity structure varies beneath the cratonic terranes of the northern U.S. and to relate this structure to the processes that created and modified the cratonic mantle. Our region samples the Archean Wyoming, Medicine Hat and Superior cratons, and the Proterozoic terranes that lie between them. We imaged the mantle using Sp phases recorded by permanent and temporary seismic networks, including EarthScope's Transportable Array. Sp receiver functions for individual waveforms were obtained by extended time multi-taper deconvolution, and migrated into a 3D volume using common conversion point stacking, a spline representation of phase Fresnel zones, and 3D models for crust and mantle structure. The stack was bootstrapped. In the cratonic mantle, we observe multiple mid-lithospheric discontinuities (MLDs) that are characterized by three types of structures: a relatively continuous negative discontinuity (velocity decrease with depth) that lies in the 65-100 km depth range; deeper negative MLDs (80-145 km) that are more discontinuous and intermittent; and occasional positive MLDs at the greatest depths (>125 km). In contrast to the tectonically active western U.S., beneath cratonic regions we typically do not observe a strong negative discontinuty at the base of the tomographically-defined lithosphere, indicating that the transition to asthenospheric properties is gradual. The MLDs indicate strong layering in the cratonic mantle lithosphere. In multiple cases, one negative discontinuity dips below another, consistent with a slab of lithosphere imbricated beneath pre-existing cratonic mantle. One of the clearest examples is a north-dipping phase at depths of 80-130 km beneath the Cheyenne Belt, the suture between the Wyoming Craton and the accreted Proterozoic terranes to its south. In Sept. 2013, an unusual earthquake occurred within the high velocity mantle of the Wyoming craton at ~76 km, a depth that

  2. Teleseismic receiver functions modeling of the eastern Indian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prantik; Biswas, Koushik

    2016-09-01

    We estimate receiver functions (RFs) through the time-domain deconvolution using three-component broadband data of 100 teleseismic events (30° ⩽ ∧ ⩽ 90°) from 15 seismographs in the eastern Indian craton. Estimated radial RFs show a positive phase at 4.6-5.8 s delay time corresponding to the crustal thicknesses of 37-46 km. Through the differential evolution (DE) waveform inversion modeling of radial receiver functions, we delineate the crustal structure at 15 broadband stations. On an average, the Archean Singhbhum Odisha Craton (SOC) is characterized by a thick crust of 43 ± 3 km in comparison to a relatively thin crust of 41 ± 1 km underlying the Proterozoic Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic terrain (CGGT). While, a thin crust of 38 ± 1 km characterizes the younger Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB). The main results of our modeling reveal a 46 km thick Archean crust underlying the Singhbhum granite (SG) of 3.6 Ga, which is characterized by a 3 km crustal thickening probably resulted from the Archean subduction process. Our modeling also detects a 2-3 km crustal thinning with the thinnest crust of 37 km below the region near South Singhbhum Shear Zone, which could be attributed to the 1.6 Ga plume activity associated with Dalma volcanic. Our modeling also led to the delineation of a crustal thinning of 2-3 km underlying the region in EGMB, which was influenced by a much younger (∼117 Ma) Rajmahal magmatism associated with the Gondwana break-up episode. However, our study could not detect any age-dependent variation of crustal thicknesses in the eastern Indian craton. The main result of our modeling suggests a two-phase crustal evolution process for the SOC viz. older E-W crustal thickening due to E-W plate compression and later crustal thinning episodes associated with the Dalma volcanism in the north and the Rajmahal volcanism in the South.

  3. Determination of acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) field populations of Argentina, South Africa, and Australia with the Larval Tarsal Test.

    PubMed

    Lovis, L; Reggi, J; Berggoetz, M; Betschart, B; Sager, H

    2013-03-01

    Infestations with ticks have an important economic impact on the cattle industry worldwide and resistance to acaricides has become a widespread phenomenon. To optimize their treatment strategy, farmers need to know if and against which classes potential acaricide-resistance does occur. Bioassays are used to assess the resistance level and pattern of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations. The objective of the current study was to assess the susceptibility of field populations originating from Argentina (8), South Africa (3), and Australia (2) using the Larval Tarsal Test. Nine acaricidal compounds from five major classes were tested: organosphosphates, synthetic pyrethroids (SP), macrocyclic lactones, phenylpyrazols, and amidines. The resistance ratios at concentrations inducing 50 and 90% mortality were used to detect established and emerging resistance. This study confirmed the newly reported presence of amitraz resistance in populations from Argentina In addition, resistance to SP appeared to be widespread (88%) in the Argentinean farms, which had been selected based on the observation of lack of treatment efficacy by farmers. In South Africa one of the three populations was found to be resistant to SP and to a phenylpyrazol compound (pyriprol). Furthermore, resistance to organosphosphates and SP was observed in Australia. Finally, the Larval Tarsal Test proved to be a suitable test to evaluate the susceptibility of R. microplus field populations to the most relevant acaricidal classes. PMID:23540121

  4. Passive margin asymmetry and its polarity in the presence of a craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres-Martinez, Miguel; Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Neto-Araujo, Mario; Morgan, Jason

    2016-04-01

    When continental lithosphere is extended to break-up it forms two conjugate passive margins. In many instances these margins are asymmetric: while one is wide and extensively faulted, the conjugate thins more abruptly and exhibits little faulting. Recent observational studies have suggested that this asymmetry results from the formation of an oceanward-younging sequential normal fault array on the future wide margin. Numerical models have shown that fault sequentiality arises as a result of asymmetric uplift of the hot mantle towards the hanging wall of the active fault, which weakens this area and promotes the formation of a new oceanward fault. In numerical models the polarity of the asymmetry is random. It results from spontaneous preferential localization of strain in a given fault, a process reinforced by strain weakening effects. Slight changes in the experiments initial grid result in an opposite polarity of the asymmetry. However, along a long stretch of the South Atlantic margins, from the Camamu-Gabon to the North Santos-South Kwanza conjugates, the polarity is not random and is very well correlated with the distance of the rift to nearby cratons. Here, we use numerical experiments to show that the presence of a thick cratonic root inhibits asthenospheric flow from underneath the craton towards the adjacent fold belt, while flow from underneath the fold belt towards the craton is favoured. This enhances and promotes sequential faulting towards the craton and results in a wide faulted margin located in the fold belt and a narrow conjugate margin in the craton side, thereby determining the polarity of the asymmetry, as observed in nature.

  5. Climate variability in south-eastern Australia over the last 1500 years inferred from the high-resolution diatom records of two crater lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Cameron; Tibby, John; Gell, Peter; Tyler, Jonathan; Zawadzki, Atun; Jacobsen, Geraldine E.

    2014-07-01

    Climates of the last two millennia have been the focus of numerous studies due to the availability of high-resolution palaeoclimate records and the occurrence of divergent periods of climate, commonly referred to as the ‘Medieval Climatic Anomaly' and ‘The Little Ice Age'. The majority of these studies are centred in the Northern Hemisphere and, in comparison, the Southern Hemisphere is relatively under-studied. In Australia, there are few high-resolution, palaeoclimate studies spanning a millennium or more and, consequently, knowledge of long-term natural climate variability is limited for much of the continent. South-eastern Australia, which recently experienced a severe, decade-long drought, is one such region. Results are presented of investigations from two crater lakes in the south-east of mainland Australia. Fluctuations in lake-water conductivity, a proxy for effective moisture, are reconstructed at sub-decadal resolution over the past 1500 years using a statistically robust, diatom-conductivity transfer function. These data are interpreted in conjunction with diatom autecology. The records display coherent patterns of change at centennial scale, signifying that both lakes responded to regional-scale climate forcing, though the nature of that response varied between sites due to differing lake morphometry. Both sites provide evidence for a multi-decadal drought, commencing ca 650 AD, and a period of variable climate between ca 850 and 1400 AD. From ca 1400-1880 AD, coincident with the timing of the ‘Little Ice Age', climates of the region are characterised by high effective moisture and a marked reduction in inter-decadal variability. The records provide context for climates of the historical period and reveal the potential for more extreme droughts and more variable climate than that experienced since European settlement of the region ca 170 years ago.

  6. Ambient Noise Imaging of Craton Modification: Examples from the Kaapvaal craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. C.; Shirey, S. B.; Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping of crustal and upper-mantle seismic velocities can give important insight into the geologic evolution of cratonic regions. In order to better understand the formation and evolution of the Kaapvaal craton and surrounding regions, we use ambient noise tomography to produce a new crustal and upper-mantle 3D shear-velocity model for southeastern Africa using data collected during the (1995-1999) Kaapvaal Seismic Experiment. Ambient noise tomography enables imaging of shear-velocity variations at smaller scales (10s of km) and shallower depths (< 10 km) than previously determined using natural-source body- and surface-wave techniques within the region. The goal of this work is to image geological features of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton such as kimberlite pipe density, flood basalt feeder dike systems, granite-greenstone belts, layered mafic intrusions and craton assembly/collision patterns at mid- lower crustal levels where information is typically lacking. Our results provide important constraints on the evolution of the Kaapvaal craton, including the collision with the Zimbabwe craton and the formation of the Bushveld Complex and Witwatersrand basin, and the impact of these events on lithospheric structure. Preliminary images exhibit key first-order features of the craton. At depth ranges of 4-12 km, reduced shear velocities correlate with the Bushveld-Malopo Farms complexes. At a depth interval of 10-18 km, lower velocities are associated with the Witwatersrand sedimentary basin, and higher velocities may be attributed to unroofed mid-crustal rocks of high metamorphic grade formed during the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton collision. At depths of 36-46 km, velocity patterns reflect Moho topography, with thinner crust associated with the undisturbed regions of the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons and thicker crust associated with the Limpopo Belt and Namaqua-Natal Mobile Belt. At greater depths, higher upper-mantle velocities are observed in the southern Kaapvaal

  7. The nature of cratonic lithosphere: Combining constraints from seismology, mineral physics, and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Colleen; Faul, Ulrich; Hirsch, Aaron

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the prevailing notion of Precambrian continental lithosphere as a thick boundary layer (~200-300 km) with a very depleted composition and temperature structure controlled by steady-state conductive cooling has been challenged by several lines of seismological evidence. One, profiles of shear velocity with depth beneath cratons exhibit lower wave speed at shallow depths and higher wave speed at greater depths than can be explained by temperature alone. These profiles are also characterized by positive or flat velocity gradients with depth in the uppermost mantle and anomalously high attenuation, both of which are difficult to reconcile with the low temperatures and large thermal gradient expected in the thermal boundary layer. Two, body-wave receiver-function studies have detected a mid-lithospheric discontinuity that requires a large and abrupt velocity decrease with depth in cratonic regions that cannot be achieved by thermal gradients alone. We have used a forward-modeling approach to identify the suite of shear-velocity profiles that are consistent with phase-velocity observations made for Rayleigh waves traversing cratons in North America, Africa, and Australia. We have also calculated the range of lithospheric temperatures and compositions that are consistent with the elastic and anelastic seismological models, using laboratory measurements on the sensitivity of velocity and attenuation to temperature, major-element composition, and mineralogy. Finally, we consider the implications of the models for the long-term stability of cratons.

  8. Modelling subsurface flow conditions in a salinized catchment in south-western Australia, with a view to improving management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, W. J.; George, R. J.; McFarlane, D. J.

    1999-12-01

    Finite element modelling of the saturated-unsaturated surface-subsurface flow mechanisms operative in a small salinized catchment in south-western Australia was used to help define the flow system and explain the causes of waterlogging and salinization there. Data available at the site from a previous study were used to obtain a first approximation to the flow system. Altering the properties of some of the strata gave a closer calibration. It was found that the modelled saturated hydraulic conductivity of the B horizon in the duplex soil zone needed to be at least an order of magnitude lower than that measured in order to reproduce the perching conditions observed in the field. Also, the model indicated the influence of a doleritic dyke, whose presence was confirmed by field measurement.Our analysis showed that there were two main flow systems operating in the hillslope. The first, and most dominant, was the recharge occurring through the upslope gradational soil zone and percolating down to both the deeply weathered regolith and the basal aquifer. The second flow system is an unsaturated flow system operating in the high permeability A horizon in the downslope duplex soil zone. The first system is primarily responsible for the saline seepage zone in the valley bottom. The second contributes to the waterlogging and perching occurring upslope of the seepage zone.Vertical flow through the higher permeability B horizon in the gradational soil zone in the upper slopes is a major contributor of recharge. Recharge by flow through macropores occurs where, but only where, perched aquifers develop and allow the macropores to be activated. Areas with perched aquifers occurred in downslope locations and near a doleritic dyke located upslope. Thus, the area where macropore recharge occurred was not large.The recharge rate required to maintain the piezometric levels at present values is only about 30 mm/yr (about 5% of the annual rainfall). The piezometric levels under the

  9. Impact of the New South Wales fires during October 2013 on regional air quality in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Géraldine; Paton-Walsh, Clare; Turquety, Solène; Cope, Martin; Griffith, David

    2016-04-01

    Smoke plumes from fires contain atmospheric pollutants that can be transported to populated areas and effect regional air quality. In this paper, the characteristics and impact of the fire plumes from a major fire event that occurred in October 2013 (17-26) in the New South Wales (NSW) in Australia, near the populated areas of Sydney and Wollongong, are studied. Measurements from the Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer located at the University of Wollongong allowed a calculation of specific emission factors (EFs) in terms of grams per kilogram of dry fuel burned: 1640 g kg-1 of carbon dioxide; 107 g kg-1 of carbon monoxide; 7.8 g kg-1 of methane; and 0.16 g kg-1 of nitrous oxide. These EFs have then been used to calculate daily fire emissions for the NSW fire event using the APIFLAME emissions' model, leading to an increase of 54% of CO emitted compared to calculations with EFs from Akagi et al. (2011), widely used in the literature. Simulations have been conducted for this event using the regional chemistry-transport model (CTM) CHIMERE, allowing the first evaluation of its regional impact. Fire emissions are assumed well mixed into the boundary layer. The model simulations have been evaluated compared to measurements at the NSW air quality stations. The mean correlation coefficients (R) are 0.44 for PM10, 0.60 for PM2.5 and 0.79 for CO, with a negative bias for CO (-14%) and a positive bias for PM2.5 (64%). The model shows higher performance for lower boundary layer heights and wind speeds. According to the observations, 7 days show concentrations exceeding the air quality Australian national standards for PM10, 8 days for PM2.5. In the simulations, 5 days are correctly simulated for PM10, 8 days for PM2.5. For PM10, the model predicts 1 additional day of exceedance (one false detection). During this fire episode, inner Sydney is affected during 5 days by PM exceedances, that are mainly attributed to organic carbon in the model simulations. To

  10. Albitization and redistribution of REE and Y in IOCG systems: Insights from Moonta-Wallaroo, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontonikas-Charos, Alkis; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.

    2014-11-01

    Trace element concentrations, particularly rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) in feldspars and accessory minerals, have been determined in a suite of albitized igneous, metasedimentary and metasomatite rocks from the Moonta-Wallaroo district, Olympic Cu-Au Province, South Australia. Results show that changes in REY-fractionation trends and concentrations in feldspars and common accessories are associated with key textures in albite-bearing associations from different lithologies. In granitic rocks, pseudomorphic replacement of pre-existing feldspars is typified by porous albite with cleavage-oriented intergrowths of sericite and pore-attached hematite. These observations are comparable with albitization features of granitic terranes elsewhere. A mineral association (albite-sericite ± chlorite), similar to that from granitoids, is observed as pervasive spots in limestone, inferring prograde skarnoid reactions at low fluid/rock ratio in an impure carbonate. In metasedimentary and metasomatite rocks with comparable Na2O content (~ 5-6 wt.%), fine-grained granoblastic albite suggests growth under high fluid/rock ratios irrespective of lithology. In such cases, albite with the highest REY content (ΣREY ~ 200 ppm) accounts for the entire REY budget, e.g., in albite-biotite-schist with the lowest abundance of accessory minerals. Nanoscale investigation confirms this albite to be a REY carrier (elements incorporated within the crystal lattice); no pore-attached inclusions are observed. In contrast, albite with the lowest REY-concentration (~ 14 ppm) is encountered in the metasomatite. In such rocks, recording the highest ΣREY (~ 1000 ppm) in whole-rock, partitioning of REY is favoured among the abundant accessories (titanite, apatite) and calc-silicates (actinolite, clinozoisite) rather than albite. Comparable low-REY albite is also found in granitoid-derived albitite (Na2O ~ 5 wt.%), in which abundant accessories and discrete REY-minerals formed during albitization

  11. Cratonic lithosphere: an electrifying view (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Deep-probing electromagnetic studies reveal the vertical and lateral electrical conductivity structure of cratonic lithosphere. At lithospheric temperatures and for silicate mantle minerals, semi-conduction is from small polaron hopping and, in the presence of water, proton conduction, both of which is thermally-driven and can be described by an Arrhenius equation. There is little compositional sensitivity, save for the far higher water contents prevalent in pyroxenes (typically 200-400 wt ppm) compared to olivine (typically 10-100 wt ppm), with the latter exhibiting a depth dependence and the former none. Seismological methods are sensitive to temperature and composition, and virtually insensitive to low amounts of water. Taken together, the two are highly complementary. Seismological and magnetotelluric studies across Southern Africa can be employed together to constraint temperature and water content, where there is a significant difference at 100 km depth between the Kaapvaal Craton compared to the Angola (Congo) Craton compared to the Zimbabwe Craton. The Congo Craton is driest but hottest, the Kaapvaal Craton exhibits laterally-varying water content and is coldest, and the Zimbabwe Craton is the wettest and intermediate in temperature. Such thermal and water content variation results in lateral rheological variation, with the wettest and warmest being more deformable. For the Canadian Shield, there is again significant lateral variation at 100 km, with the Superior Province being mostly dry, and the Slave Craton and Rae/Hearne Provinces being far wetter. By 200 km however, all of the Canadian Shield is dry, consistent with the xenolith-based observations from the Kaapvaal Craton of far higher water contents in olivine at 100 km (50-100 wt ppm) decreasing with depth to around 10 wt ppm at 200 km. The lithosphere beneath the Kimberley area of the Kaapvaal Craton has been forward modeled in a manner that is self-consistent not only with the seismological and

  12. Finland Has it All? Examining the Media Accentuation of "Finnish Education" in Australia, Germany and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takayama, Keita; Waldow, Florian; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the conceptual work of externalisation in comparative education and multi-accentual signs in cultural studies, this article examines how the print news media accentuate "Finnish education" in the process of inserting this external reference into the domestic political discourses around education reform in Australia, Germany…

  13. Latest Jurassic-early Cretaceous regressive facies, northeast Africa craton

    SciTech Connect

    van Houten, F.B.

    1980-06-01

    Nonmarine to paralic detrital deposits accumulated in six large basins between Algeria and the Arabo-Nubian shield during major regression in latest Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time. The Ghadames Sirte (north-central Libya), and Northern (Egypt) basins lay along the cratonic margin of northeastern Africa. The Murzuk, Kufra, and Southern (Egypt) basins lay in the south within the craton. Data for reconstructing distribution, facies, and thickness of relevant sequences are adequate for the three northern basins only. High detrital influx near the end of Jurassic time and in mid-Cretaceous time produced regressive nubian facies composed largely of low-sinuosity stream and fahdelta deposits. In the west and southwest the Ghadames, Murzuk, and Kufra basins were filled with a few hundred meters of detritus after long-continued earlier Mesozoic aggradation. In northern Egypt the regressive sequence succeeded earlier Mesozoic marine sedimentation; in the Sirte and Southern basins correlative deposits accumulated on Precambrian and Variscan terranes after earlier Mesozoic uplift and erosion. Waning of detrital influx into southern Tunisia and adjacent Libya in the west and into Israel in the east initiated an Albian to early Cenomanian transgression of Tethys. By late Cenomanian time it had flooded the entire cratonic margin, and spread southward into the Murzuk and Southern basins, as well as onto the Arabo-Nubian shield. Latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, mid-Cretaceous, and Late Cretaceous transgressions across northeastern Africa recorded in these sequences may reflect worldwide eustatic sea-level rises. In contrast, renewed large supply of detritus during each regression and a comparable subsidence history of intracratonic and marginal basins imply regional tectonic control. 6 figures.

  14. Water in the Cratonic Mantle Lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The fact that Archean and Proterozoic cratons are underlain by the thickest (>200 km) lithosphere on Earth has always puzzled scientists because the dynamic convection of the surrounding asthenosphere would be expected to delaminate and erode these mantle lithospheric "keels" over time. Although density and temperature of the cratonic lithosphere certainly play a role in its strength and longevity, the role of water has only been recently addressed with data on actual mantle samples. Water in mantle lithologies (primarily peridotites and pyroxenites) is mainly stored in nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxene, garnet) where it is incorporated as hydrogen bonded to structural oxygen in lattice defects. The property of hydrolytic weakening of olivine [4] has generated the hypothesis that olivine, the main mineral of the upper mantle, may be dehydrated in cratonic mantle lithospheres, contributing to its strength. This presentation will review the distribution of water concentrations in four cratonic lithospheres. The distribution of water contents in olivine from peridotite xenoliths found in kimberlites is different in each craton (Figure 1). The range of water contents of olivine, pyroxene and garnet at each xenolith location appears linked to local metasomatic events, some of which occurred later then the Archean and Proterozoic when these peridotites initially formed via melting. Although the low olivine water contents (<10 ppm wt H2O) at > 6 GPa at the base of the Kaapvaal cratonic lithosphere may contribute to its strength, and prevent its delamination, the wide range of those from Siberian xenoliths is not compatible with providing a high enough viscosity contrast with the asthenophere. The water content in olivine inclusions from Siberian diamonds, on the other hand, have systematically low water contents (<20 ppm wt H2O). The xenoliths may represent a biased sample of the cratonic lithosphere with an over-­abundance of metasomatized peridotites with

  15. Zonal structure of zooplankton communities in the Southern Ocean South of Australia: results from a 2150 km continuous plankton recorder transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Brian P. V.; Hosie, Graham W.

    2005-07-01

    The Southern Ocean south of Australia is oceanographically complex, being characterized by double branches of the Sub-Antarctic Front (SAF), Polar Front (PF) and Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SACCF), in addition to the Southern Boundary (SB) of the ACC. From 25 February to 3 March 2002 a 2150-km Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) transect was conducted along 140 °E, between 47.02 °S and 66.36 °S, crossing each of these frontal zones. Surface temperature, salinity, and fluorescence were measured at 1-min intervals in conjunction with CPR samples. Additional physical data for the region south of 61 oS was provided by nine CTD stations. Multivariate and Indicator Species analysis of the high resolution (˜9.2 km) zooplankton samples identified six distinct assemblages which were strongly correlated with frontal/oceanographic zones. These assemblages appeared to be structured by a combination of zonal differences in water mass structure, phytoplankton regimes, and small scale intra-zonal features (e.g. eddies). The northern branch of the SAF was the strongest biogeographic boundary, separating a high proportion of sub-tropical and temperate species from the waters to its south. The study area differed from other sectors of the Southern Ocean in that the northern PF, equivalent to the PF in other sectors, was not a zone of distinct ecological transition. Two of the identified assemblages were located with the seasonal ice zone, south of the northern SACCF. Although Euphausia superba larvae were a component of both of these assemblages, this species, together with appendicularia, was most abundant south of the SB. The seasonal ice zone north of the SB was dominated by small copepods ( Oithona similis and Ctenocalanus citer), appendicularia and foraminifera. Although the physical characteristics of the frontal zones can be subtle, the demarcation between zooplankton assemblages was clear. Cross-frontal changes in zooplankton assemblages highlight their role

  16. Impact of deprivation on breast cancer survival among women eligible for mammographic screening in the West Midlands (UK) and New South Wales (Australia): Women diagnosed 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Woods, Laura M; Rachet, Bernard; O'Connell, Dianne; Lawrence, Gill; Coleman, Michel P

    2016-05-15

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer in the UK display marked differences in survival between categories defined by socio-economic deprivation. Timeliness of diagnosis is one of the possible explanations for these patterns. Women whose cancer is screen-detected are more likely to be diagnosed at an earlier stage. We examined deprivation and screening-specific survival in order to evaluate the role of early diagnosis upon deprivation-specific survival differences in the West Midlands (UK) and New South Wales (Australia). We estimated net survival for women aged 50-65 years at diagnosis and whom had been continuously eligible for screening from the age of 50. Records for 5,628 women in West Midlands (98.5% of those eligible, mean age at diagnosis 53.7 years) and 6,396 women in New South Wales (99.9% of those eligible, mean age at diagnosis 53.8 years). In New South Wales, survival was similar amongst affluent and deprived women, regardless of whether their cancer was screen-detected or not. In the West Midlands, there were large and persistent differences in survival between affluent and deprived women. Deprivation differences were similar between the screen-detected and non-screen detected groups. These differences are unlikely to be solely explained by artefact, or by patient or tumour factors. Further investigations into the timeliness and appropriateness of the treatments received by women with breast cancer across the social spectrum in the UK are warranted.

  17. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  18. Someone To Talk to and Someone To Listen. The Development of a Support and Learning Network for Palliative Care Workers in the Country Area of the Barossa Valley in South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry

    A palliative care support and training network was developed in a relatively isolated country area of the Barossa Valley in South Australia. The project was intended to help palliative care workers, volunteers, home carers, and others work collaboratively as a team (holistic model) for the purposes of mutually supporting, sharing information and…

  19. Multisystemic toxoplasmosis associated with a type II-like Toxoplasma gondii strain in a New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) from New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Slapeta, Jan

    2014-09-15

    We report the first confirmed case of toxoplasmosis in an Australian pinniped. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the brain of a free-ranging subadult New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hypophysitis, posterior uveitis, retrobulbar cellulitis, and myocarditis associated with protozoan cysts and tachyzoites. The emaciated seal stranded moribund on a beach in northern Sydney in New South Wales. Histopathology coupled with specific immunohistochemistry and PCR assays confirmed the presence of T. gondii. The T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified in this study has an identical genotype as the type II (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) based on the direct sequencing and virtual RFLP of multilocus DNA markers including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Direct sequencing of T. gondii B1 DNA marker from the T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified a type II-like strain, based on presence of non-archetypal B1 gene polymorphisms previously reported as unique to Australia. This study suggests that T. gondii oocysts originating from mainland Australia, which has a large population of feral cats, may act as a disease threat to native marine fauna. Therefore, emerging toxoplasmosis in the Arctic has a relevant parallel in the Southern Ocean within Australian waters with yet unknown relevance to Antarctica. PMID:25123611

  20. Multisystemic toxoplasmosis associated with a type II-like Toxoplasma gondii strain in a New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) from New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Donahoe, Shannon L; Rose, Karrie; Slapeta, Jan

    2014-09-15

    We report the first confirmed case of toxoplasmosis in an Australian pinniped. Presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the brain of a free-ranging subadult New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hypophysitis, posterior uveitis, retrobulbar cellulitis, and myocarditis associated with protozoan cysts and tachyzoites. The emaciated seal stranded moribund on a beach in northern Sydney in New South Wales. Histopathology coupled with specific immunohistochemistry and PCR assays confirmed the presence of T. gondii. The T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified in this study has an identical genotype as the type II (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #1) based on the direct sequencing and virtual RFLP of multilocus DNA markers including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico. Direct sequencing of T. gondii B1 DNA marker from the T. gondii sample (NZfs8825) identified a type II-like strain, based on presence of non-archetypal B1 gene polymorphisms previously reported as unique to Australia. This study suggests that T. gondii oocysts originating from mainland Australia, which has a large population of feral cats, may act as a disease threat to native marine fauna. Therefore, emerging toxoplasmosis in the Arctic has a relevant parallel in the Southern Ocean within Australian waters with yet unknown relevance to Antarctica.

  1. Drought to flood: a comparative assessment of four parallel surface water treatments during the 2010-2012 inflows to the Murray-Darling Basin, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kalan; Fabris, Rolando; Morran, Jim; Ho, Lionel; Drikas, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Four treatment processes; conventional coagulation, magnetic ion exchange (MIEX)/coagulation, with and without granular activated carbon (GAC), and membrane treatment combining microfiltration (MF) and nanofiltration (NF), were operated in parallel using the same source water from the Murray-Darling basin in South Australia. During the two year study, high levels of natural organic matter and turbidity arising from floods affecting the Murray-Darling basin in 2010-2012 challenged the four processes. The comparative study indicated that all four processes could effectively meet basic water quality guidelines of turbidity and colour despite challenging source water quality but that the more advanced treatments improved overall organic and bacterial removal. Interestingly, the high organics and turbidity arising from the floods resulted in improved treatment efficiency for all treatments incorporating coagulation to the extent that, despite flood conditions, treated water quality could remain comparatively constant provided that the process was operated and optimised effectively.

  2. Physical modeling of sedimentation adjacent to diapirs and comparison with late precambrian Oratunga Breccia body in central Flinders Ranges, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, N.M.

    1985-09-01

    The interaction of sedimentation with the change in shape of a developing diapir is modeled in a series of simple sandbox experiments. This model replicates the pillow, diapir, and postdiapir stages of salt movement. Modeling produced rim synclines, crestal unconformities, and turtle-structure anticlines-all features known to be associated with diapirs. By changing experimental parameters such as diapir shape, sedimentation was simulated around various diapiric situations. One experiment closely matches the sediment distribution around the Oratunga diapir one of the controversial breccia bodies in the late Precambrian-Cambrian Adelaide geosyncline exposed in the Flinders Ranges of South Australia. Rim synclines, unconformities, and bedding attitude around Oratunga resemble those described around salt domes. In addition, the distribution, size, orientation, and lithology of breccia within the Oratunga diapir resemble breccia associated with active salt diapirs in Iran. These data suggest the breccia was emplaced as a salt diapir.

  3. A Battle Lost? Report on Two Centuries of Invasion and Management of Lantana camara L. in Australia, India and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Shonil A.; Breman, Elinor; Thekaekara, Tarsh; Thornton, Thomas F.; Willis, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discussion on invasive species has invigorated the debate on strategies to manage these species. Lantana camara L., a shrub native to the American tropics, has become one of the worst weeds in recorded history. In Australia, India and South Africa, Lantana has become very widespread occupying millions of hectares of land. Here, we examine historical records to reconstruct invasion and management of Lantana over two centuries and ask: Can we fight the spread of invasive species or do we need to develop strategies for their adaptive management? We carried out extensive research of historical records constituting over 75% of records on invasion and management of this species in the three countries. The records indicate that governments in Australia, India and South Africa have taken aggressive measures to eradicate Lantana over the last two centuries, but these efforts have been largely unsuccessful. We found that despite control measures, the invasion trajectory of Lantana has continued upwards and that post-war land-use change might have been a possible trigger for this spread. A large majority of studies on invasive species address timescales of less than one year; and even fewer address timescales of >10 years. An understanding of species invasions over long time-scales is of paramount importance. While archival records may give only a partial picture of the spread and management of invasive species, in the absence of any other long-term dataset on the ecology of Lantana, our study provides an important insight into its invasion, spread and management over two centuries and across three continents. While the established paradigm is to expend available resources on attempting to eradicate invasive species, our findings suggest that in the future, conservationists will need to develop strategies for their adaptive management rather than fighting a losing battle. PMID:22403653

  4. Avian influenza infection dynamics under variable climatic conditions, viral prevalence is rainfall driven in waterfowl from temperate, south-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferenczi, Marta; Beckmann, Christa; Warner, Simone; Loyn, Richard; O'Riley, Kim; Wang, Xinlong; Klaassen, Marcel

    2016-02-06

    Understanding Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) infection dynamics in wildlife is crucial because of possible virus spill over to livestock and humans. Studies from the northern hemisphere have suggested several ecological and environmental drivers of AIV prevalence in wild birds. To determine if the same drivers apply in the southern hemisphere, where more irregular environmental conditions prevail, we investigated AIV prevalence in ducks in relation to biotic and abiotic factors in south-eastern Australia. We sampled duck faeces for AIV and tested for an effect of bird numbers, rainfall anomaly, temperature anomaly and long-term ENSO (El-Niño Southern Oscillation) patterns on AIV prevalence. We demonstrate a positive long term effect of ENSO-related rainfall on AIV prevalence. We also found a more immediate response to rainfall where AIV prevalence was positively related to rainfall in the preceding 3-7 months. Additionally, for one duck species we found a positive relationship between their numbers and AIV prevalence, while prevalence was negatively or not affected by duck numbers in the remaining four species studied. In Australia largely non-seasonal rainfall patterns determine breeding opportunities and thereby influence bird numbers. Based on our findings we suggest that rainfall influences age structures within populations, producing an influx of immunologically naïve juveniles within the population, which may subsequently affect AIV infection dynamics. Our study suggests that drivers of AIV dynamics in the northern hemisphere do not have the same influence at our south-east Australian field site in the southern hemisphere due to more erratic climatological conditions.

  5. Multiscale finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography of the Kaapvaal craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrot, S.; Zhao, L.

    2007-04-01

    We have measured phase delays of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves for 12 events recorded by the Southern Africa Seismic Experiment at frequencies between 0.005 and 0.035 Hz. A novel multiscale finite-frequency tomographic method based on wavelet decomposition of 3-D sensitivity kernels for the phase of Rayleigh waves is used to map the shear velocities in the upper mantle beneath southern Africa. The kernels are computed by summing coupled normal modes over a very fine grid surrounding the seismic array. To estimate and minimize the biases in the model resulting from structures outside the tomographic grid, a jackknife inversion method is implemented. The contribution of heterogeneities outside the target volume is significant, but produces artefacts in the tomographic model that are easily identified and discarded before interpretation. With structures on length scales as short as 100 km retrieved beneath the array, the deep structure of the Kaapvaal craton is revealed with unprecedented detail. Outside the array, the corresponding resolution is 200 km. High velocity cratonic roots are confined to the Archean craton, and extend to depths of at least 250 km. Confirming earlier surface structural studies, we recognize two distinct units in the Kaapvaal craton. The eastern Witwatersrand block and the western Kimberley block are separated by a major near-vertical translithospheric boundary which coincides with the Colesberg Lineament. Lower than average velocities south and east of the Kaapvaal craton reveal extensive metasomatism and heating of the lithosphere, probably related to the Karoo magmatic event and to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Bone fluoride concentrations of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) resident near an aluminium smelter in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hufschmid, J; Beveridge, I; Coulson, G; Gould, J

    2011-08-01

    Lesions of skeletal and dental fluorosis have been described recently in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus). The present study further examined the epidemiology of skeletal fluorosis in this species. Bone fluoride concentrations were obtained from a range of skeletal sites of animals from a high (Portland Aluminium) and a low (Cape Bridgewater) fluoride environment in Victoria, Australia. Age, but not sex, affected the mean bone fluoride concentration of kangaroos. For a given age, bone fluoride concentrations were significantly higher in kangaroos from Portland than Cape Bridgewater. Concentrations varied between skeletal sites examined, with samples containing cancellous bone having higher fluoride concentrations than those containing only cortical bone.

  7. The Andrelándia depositional cycle (Minas Gerais/Brazil), a post-transamazonic sequence south of the São Francisco Craton: Evidence from U-Pb dating on zircons of a metasediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söllner, F.; Trouw, R. A. J.

    1997-01-01

    U-Pb age determinations were carried out on zircons from a quartz-rich micaschist of the Andrelândia depositional cycle, part of a mobile belt adjacent to the southern border of the São Francisco Craton. The metamorphism suffered by the sampled unit is characterized by the mineral assemblage: almandine + kyanite + rutile + muscovite + quartz. Zircons separated from the sample are globular (95%), transparent to translucent and slightly yellow coloured. Three grain size fractions and an abraded fraction of this zircon type yield discordia intersection ages with the Concordia at 1872 ± 11 Ma and 567 ± 11 Ma. Three grain size fractions with increasing amount of a third, slightly older inherited lead component were omitted from discordia calculation. The 1872 Ma-age, representing a minimum age for the main phase of zircon growth in the source area, limits the maximum age for the onset of sedimentation. According to U and Th contents, the U/ Th ratio and the limited amount of inherited lead of pre-Transamazonic age the detritus is mainly derived from magmatic rocks of the Transamazonic basement, predominantly crystallized within a time span of at most 130 Ma. No indication of a significant thermal event during the subsequent long lasting interval of calm and sedimentation (about 1.3 Ga) was found. The end of sedimentation is still under debate. Because of the large discordance of the data points to the lower intercept in the Concordia diagram (Brasiliano thermo-tectonic event), newgrowth of zircon and/or a distinct loss of radiogenic lead during this phase of thermal overprint can be considered as low. An early high pressure-stage of metamorphism was dated at about 600 Ma by Sm-Nd in garnets versus whole rock (Trouw & Pankhurst, 1993). Because of the difference of about 40 Ma between this age and the age presented above it seems probable that the new- and/or overgrowth of zircon happened predominantly during a second lower pressure and higher temperature stage of the

  8. Comparative contributions of solution geochemistry, microbial metabolism and aquatic photosynthesis to the development of high pH in ephemeral wetlands in South East Australia.

    PubMed

    Reid, R J; Mosley, L M

    2016-01-15

    The development of alkaline conditions in lakes and wetlands is common but the process of alkalinisation is not well elaborated. In this study we investigated causes of the seasonal alkalinisation of ephemeral wetlands in the South East of South Australia where pH values above 10 are frequently observed. This research combined field observations, geochemical analysis of wetland sediment and surface water, with mesocosm studies under controlled conditions. The results revealed a complex interplay between a number of different processes. A primary cause was attributed to sequestration of CO2 from the water column by plant photosynthesis, coupled with slow diffusion of CO2 from the air which led to its depletion in the water. Abundant plant growth also modified the water chemistry via uptake of nutrient elements, in particular calcium and magnesium and increased carbonate alkalinity in the water. Assessment of field results and geochemical modeling showed that low Ca/(HCO3(-) and CO3(-2)) ratios in the water, coupled with carbonate mineral (calcite, Mg substituted calcite, dolomite) precipitation and evapoconcentration, create a high alkalinity and pH (>9) baseline in many wetlands. The high baseline pH is then further increased by CO2 depletion due to photosynthesis. We could find no evidence that reduction of sulfate to sulfides by sulfur-reducing bacteria significantly contributed to the very high pH conditions.

  9. Comparative contributions of solution geochemistry, microbial metabolism and aquatic photosynthesis to the development of high pH in ephemeral wetlands in South East Australia.

    PubMed

    Reid, R J; Mosley, L M

    2016-01-15

    The development of alkaline conditions in lakes and wetlands is common but the process of alkalinisation is not well elaborated. In this study we investigated causes of the seasonal alkalinisation of ephemeral wetlands in the South East of South Australia where pH values above 10 are frequently observed. This research combined field observations, geochemical analysis of wetland sediment and surface water, with mesocosm studies under controlled conditions. The results revealed a complex interplay between a number of different processes. A primary cause was attributed to sequestration of CO2 from the water column by plant photosynthesis, coupled with slow diffusion of CO2 from the air which led to its depletion in the water. Abundant plant growth also modified the water chemistry via uptake of nutrient elements, in particular calcium and magnesium and increased carbonate alkalinity in the water. Assessment of field results and geochemical modeling showed that low Ca/(HCO3(-) and CO3(-2)) ratios in the water, coupled with carbonate mineral (calcite, Mg substituted calcite, dolomite) precipitation and evapoconcentration, create a high alkalinity and pH (>9) baseline in many wetlands. The high baseline pH is then further increased by CO2 depletion due to photosynthesis. We could find no evidence that reduction of sulfate to sulfides by sulfur-reducing bacteria significantly contributed to the very high pH conditions. PMID:26519593

  10. Cyclic Cratonic Carbonates and Phanerozoic Calcite Seas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Bruce H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses causes of cyclicity in cratonic carbonate sequences and evidence for and potential significance of postulated primary calcite sediment components in past Paleozoic seas, outlining problems, focusing on models explaining existing data, and identifying background. Future sedimentary geologists will need to address these and related areas…

  11. Organochlorine pesticides in soil under irrigated cotton farming systems in Vertisols of the Namoi Valley, north-western New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Timothy B; Ghadiri, Hossein; Hulugalle, Nilantha R; Harden, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as DDT and DDE have been detected in the surface 0.2m of Vertisols in the lower Namoi Valley of north western New South Wales, Australia even though they have not been applied to crops since 1982. However, their presence in the deeper soil horizons has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine if OCPs were present to a depth of 1.2m in Vertisols under irrigated cotton farming systems in the lower Namoi Valley of New South Wales. Soil was sampled from the 0-1.2m depths in three sites, viz. the Australian Cotton Research Institute, ACRI, near Narrabri (149°36'E, 30°12'S), and two cotton farms near Wee Waa (149°27'E, 30°13'S) and Merah North (149°18'E, 30°12'S) in northern New South Wales, Australia. The OCPs detected and their metabolites were α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate, DDD, DDE, DDT and endrin. The metabolite DDE, a breakdown product of DDT, was the most persistent OCP in all depths analysed. Endosulfan sulphate was the second most persistent followed by endrin>α-endosulfan>β-endosulfan>DDT and DDD. DDT was sprayed extensively in the lower Namoi Valley up to the early 1980s and may explain the persistence of DDE in the majority of soil samples. Dicofol and Dieldrin, two OCPs previously undocumented in Vertisols were also detected. The movement of OCPs into the subsoil of Vertisols may occur when irrigation or rain transports soil colloids and organic matter via preferential flow systems into the deeper layers of a soil profile. Persistence of OCPs was closely correlated to soil organic carbon concentrations. The persistence in soil of OCP's applied to cotton crops grown more than two decades ago suggests that they could enter the food chain. Their presence at depths of 1.2m suggests that they could move into groundwater that may eventually be used for domestic and stock consumption. PMID:22464189

  12. Structural framework across the Bastar craton - the Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt interface: Implications for making of eastern Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patole, Vishal; Nasipuri, Pritam

    2015-04-01

    The transformation of palaeo-continents involve breakup, dispersal and reassembly of cratonic blocks by collisional suturing that develop a network of orogenic (mobile) belts around the periphery of the stable cratons. During the collision, partial melting of the different crustal blocks produces migmatites at the craton-mobile belt interface. Thus, migmatites at the craton-mobile belt contact can provide valuable information regarding the pressure-temperature conditions of the melting of lower crust during supercontinent building processes. In this contribution, we document the structural framework across the Bastar craton- Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt (EGGB) interface that developed during the accretion of EGGB over Bastar craton. Near Bhawanipatna, Orissa, Eastern India, the granulites of the mobile belt are juxtaposed against the granitic rocks of the Bastar craton. Away from the contact domain, the cratonic granite is non-migmatitic and blasto-porphyritic in nature that gradually transforms to migmatitic variety towards the contact domain. In the non-migmatitic variety, the E-W trending stromatic leucozomes and biotite-hornblende rich fabric (S1) wraps around recrystallized K-feldspar augens. In the migmatitic variety towards the contact domain, NNE-SSW trending diatexite leucozomes (S2) are prominent and the intensity of melting and tightness of folding increases towards the contact domain. Structural measurements indicate that the S1 fabric is folded with the development of NNE-SSW axial plane with easterly plunging fold axis (50 -> 050N). To correlate the geological history of EGGB in the context of supercontinent reconstruction, the existence of a cratonic block consisting of India - Madagascar - Sri Lanka - Enderby Land-Kalahari ("IMSLEK") from 3000 Ma upto 750 Ma has been invoked by several authors. The apparent continuity of the Grenvillian metamorphic orogen along the East Antarctica-Australia-India margin has been taken as conclusive evidence for the

  13. "Ars Poetica," Romanticism and English Education: Poetic Inheritances in the Senior Secondary English Curriculum in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Don

    2013-01-01

    Poetry, as a textual form for critical study and composition, continues to occupy a significant place in Australian senior secondary English syllabus documents and classrooms (cf. Carter, 2012). Indeed, within the senior secondary English syllabus in New South Wales (NSW), poetry remains one of the core mandatory types of texts for study by the…

  14. The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia: a rejoinder.

    PubMed

    Rissel, Chris

    2012-03-01

    This paper challenges the conclusion of a recent paper by Walter et al. (Accident Analysis and Prevention 2011, doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.05.029) reporting that despite numerous data limitations repealing the helmet legislation in Australia could not be justified. This conclusion is not warranted because of the limited time period used in their analysis and the lack of data beyond a few years before the introduction of legislation, the failure to adequately account for the effect of the phasing in of the legislation, the effect of the marked reduction in child cyclists, and the non-comparability of the pedestrian and cycling injuries and related lack of consideration of the severity of head injuries. The extent to which helmet legislation deters people from cycling is discussed. PMID:22269491

  15. Skeletal Pathology of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Fluoride Levels in South-Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hufschmid, J; Beveridge, I; Coulson, G; Walker, G; Shen, P; Reynolds, E; Charles, J

    2015-01-01

    Significantly elevated bone fluoride concentrations have been reported in a population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) resident near a fluoride-emitting aluminum smelter in southeastern Australia. This paper describes the skeletal and synovial joint lesions observed post mortem in the same sample of kangaroos (n = 76). The prevalence and severity of skeletal lesions, specifically the formation of multiple, large, smooth exostoses over the diaphysis of long bones (especially, but not exclusively, on the tibia, fibula and metatarsi), were positively associated with bone fluoride concentration. So too were lesions of degenerative joint disease, including periarticular osteophytosis, articular cartilage erosion/ulceration, synovial hyperplasia and joint capsular fibrosis. Joint lesions were most commonly seen in the knee, hock and metatarsophalangeal joints. This is the first study to describe in detail the full range of lesions induced by chronic fluorosis in a marsupial species. PMID:26186808

  16. Skeletal Pathology of Eastern Grey Kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) Exposed to High Environmental Fluoride Levels in South-Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hufschmid, J; Beveridge, I; Coulson, G; Walker, G; Shen, P; Reynolds, E; Charles, J

    2015-01-01

    Significantly elevated bone fluoride concentrations have been reported in a population of eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) resident near a fluoride-emitting aluminum smelter in southeastern Australia. This paper describes the skeletal and synovial joint lesions observed post mortem in the same sample of kangaroos (n = 76). The prevalence and severity of skeletal lesions, specifically the formation of multiple, large, smooth exostoses over the diaphysis of long bones (especially, but not exclusively, on the tibia, fibula and metatarsi), were positively associated with bone fluoride concentration. So too were lesions of degenerative joint disease, including periarticular osteophytosis, articular cartilage erosion/ulceration, synovial hyperplasia and joint capsular fibrosis. Joint lesions were most commonly seen in the knee, hock and metatarsophalangeal joints. This is the first study to describe in detail the full range of lesions induced by chronic fluorosis in a marsupial species.

  17. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day-visible and day-IR imagery of northwest Queensland show that large scale geological features like the Mitakoodi anticlinorium, which involves rocks of contrasting lithological type, can be delineated. North of Cloncurry, the contrasting lithological units of the Knapdale quartzite and bedded argillaceous limestones within the Proterozoic Corella sequence are clearly delineated in the area of the Dugald River Lode. Major structural features in the Mount Isa area are revealed on the day-visible cover. Which provides similar but less detailed information than the LANDSAT imagery. The day-IR cover provides less additional information for areas of outcropping bedrock than had been expected. Initial studies of the day-IR and night-IR cover for parts of South Australia suggest that they contain additional information on geology compared with day-visible cover.

  18. Properties of light absorption in a highly coloured estuarine system in south-east Australia which is prone to blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementson, Lesley A.; Parslow, John S.; Turnbull, Alison R.; Bonham, Pru I.

    2004-05-01

    The Huon Estuary in south-east Tasmania is an important site in Australia's aquaculture and finfish industries. Atlantic salmon and shellfish are farmed in the Huon River Estuary, which drains a catchment that includes both areas of pristine wilderness and agriculture. The estuary experiences algal blooms, including blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, which can cause considerable problems for the aquaculture industry. The freshwater input is highly coloured due to high levels of humic material and this combined with intrusions of clearer oceanic water and the occurrence of algal blooms makes this estuary optically complex. Between November 1996 and September 1998 samples for pigment and optical analyses were collected weekly from five sites within the mid to lower regions of the estuary. In addition, every three months (beginning July 1996), samples were collected from 30 sites within the full river/estuary system. Early in December 1997 a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum occurred throughout the estuary and persisted until June 1998. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was found to dominate the total absorption of the water throughout the entire estuary and over the two-year duration of the study. The occurrence of algal blooms showed no correlation with the optical characteristics of the estuary, suggesting that optical parameters cannot be used to predict the occurrence of algal blooms in this estuary. Blooms of different algal species, such as diatoms and dinoflagellates, may be able to be distinguished by their absorption spectra in the UV region rather than the visible region. To date, this study is the most detailed spatial and temporal study of the characteristics of light absorption in an estuarine system within Australia.

  19. Socio-demographic and spatial aspects of male mortality from HIV-AIDS related diseases in New South Wales, Australia, 1990-1994.

    PubMed

    Burnley, I H

    1999-09-01

    During 1990-1994, a very high proportion of males aged under 40 who died from HIV-AIDs related diseases in New South Wales were never married. However, a significant minority of men aged 40-64 who died had been married at some stage in their lives and in the cities of Newcastle, Wollongong and in higher income areas of Sydney this proportion approached 40%. AIDS related mortality was over-represented in professional, managerial, paraprofessional and service occupations even though educational levels were higher in these groups and, thus, presumably knowledge about risk behaviour and preventative behaviour. AIDS related mortality was also elevated among men with no stated occupation. Thus, with males, AIDS was in part a disease of affluence, even though the highest proportions of those dying resided in lower income areas, where marginalised persons may also be at risk. The proportion of deaths to men over age 40 was markedly higher than that in Australia in the 1980s. Elevated mortality with the New Zealand and the Americas birthplace groups may reflect overseas travel and exposure to risk in overseas countries, of persons domiciled in Australia. There was a very strong spatial pattern of AIDS-related mortality in the inner and eastern suburbs in Sydney and there is limited evidence of persons having migrated back to places of origin to be cared for by families. The impact on total mortality under age 65 in these localised areas was considerable. Prevention strategies should include the sensitive targeting of bisexual men, men generally having sex with men and those who are both gay and members of the drug sub-culture.

  20. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi E; Forsyth, David M; Triggs, Barbara; Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G; Nimmo, Dale G; Lumsden, Lindy F

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  1. Segregation or aggregation? Sex-specific patterns in the seasonal occurrence of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at the Neptune Islands, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, B; Bradford, R

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal patterns of occurrence of male and female white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at the Neptune Islands in South Australia were reviewed. Analyses of a 14 year data series indicate that females seasonally aggregate in late autumn and winter coinciding with the maximum in-water availability of lactating female long-nose fur seals and seal pups. During this period, observed male:female sex ratios were similar; whereas during late spring and summer, males continued to visit, but females were rarely recorded. There was no evidence for segregation by sex or size at the Neptunes, but the highly focused seasonal pattern of occurrence of females compared with the year-round records of males suggests that there are likely to be differences between the sexes in overall distribution and movement patterns across southern Australia. It is suggested that foraging strategies and prey selection differ between sexes in C. carcharias across the life-history stages represented and that sex-specific foraging strategies may play an important role in structuring movement patterns and the sex ratios observed at such aggregation sites. Differences between sexes in distribution, movement patterns and foraging strategies are likely to have implications for modelling the consequences of fisheries by-catch between regions or jurisdictions and other spatially or temporally discrete anthropogenic effects on C. carcharias populations. Such differences urge for caution when estimating the size of C. carcharias populations based on observations at pinniped colonies due to the likelihood of sex-specific differences in movements and patterns of residency. These differences also suggest a need to account for sex-specific movement patterns and distribution in population and movement models as well as under conservation actions.

  2. Moving from local to State water governance to resolve a local conflict between irrigated agriculture and commercial forestry in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillet, Virginie; McKay, Jennifer; Keremane, Ganesh

    2014-11-01

    In the Lower Limestone Coast, South Australia, a unique water allocation plan has been under consideration for several years. This plan is the first in Australia to consider forestry as a water affecting activity. Indeed, forestry plantations have a twofold impact on water-rainfall or aquifer recharge interception and direct extraction of groundwater in shallow water table areas-and alter the available water for irrigation as a result of the previous water budget. This paper examines how water is allocated across the competing requirements for water but also across the competing legal, economic and administrative scales embodied by the competing water users; and thus it also details the pre-judicial mechanism used to resolve the conflict over these competing scales. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis in Nvivo was applied to: (i) 180 local newspaper articles on the planning process, (ii) 65 submission forms filled in by the community during a public consultation on the draft water plan and (iii) 20 face-to-face interviews of keys stakeholders involved in the planning process. The social sustainability perspective taken in this study establishes the legal, economic and administrative competitive scales at stake in the conflict regarding water between forestry and irrigation. It also evidences the special feature of this paper, which is that to overcome these competitions and resolve the local conflict before judicial process, the water governance moved up in the administrative scale, from local/regional to State level. Initiated and initially prepared at regional level through the local Natural Resources Management Board, the water planning process was taken up to State level through the formation of an Interdepartmental Committee and the establishment of a Taskforce in charge of developing a policy. These were supported by an amendment of a State legislation on Natural Resources Management to manage the water impacts of forestry plantations.

  3. Interspecific and Geographic Variation in the Diets of Sympatric Carnivores: Dingoes/Wild Dogs and Red Foxes in South-Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G.; Nimmo, Dale G.; Lumsden, Lindy F.

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  4. Segregation or aggregation? Sex-specific patterns in the seasonal occurrence of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at the Neptune Islands, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, B; Bradford, R

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal patterns of occurrence of male and female white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at the Neptune Islands in South Australia were reviewed. Analyses of a 14 year data series indicate that females seasonally aggregate in late autumn and winter coinciding with the maximum in-water availability of lactating female long-nose fur seals and seal pups. During this period, observed male:female sex ratios were similar; whereas during late spring and summer, males continued to visit, but females were rarely recorded. There was no evidence for segregation by sex or size at the Neptunes, but the highly focused seasonal pattern of occurrence of females compared with the year-round records of males suggests that there are likely to be differences between the sexes in overall distribution and movement patterns across southern Australia. It is suggested that foraging strategies and prey selection differ between sexes in C. carcharias across the life-history stages represented and that sex-specific foraging strategies may play an important role in structuring movement patterns and the sex ratios observed at such aggregation sites. Differences between sexes in distribution, movement patterns and foraging strategies are likely to have implications for modelling the consequences of fisheries by-catch between regions or jurisdictions and other spatially or temporally discrete anthropogenic effects on C. carcharias populations. Such differences urge for caution when estimating the size of C. carcharias populations based on observations at pinniped colonies due to the likelihood of sex-specific differences in movements and patterns of residency. These differences also suggest a need to account for sex-specific movement patterns and distribution in population and movement models as well as under conservation actions. PMID:26709211

  5. Interspecific and geographic variation in the diets of sympatric carnivores: dingoes/wild dogs and red foxes in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Davis, Naomi E; Forsyth, David M; Triggs, Barbara; Pascoe, Charlie; Benshemesh, Joe; Robley, Alan; Lawrence, Jenny; Ritchie, Euan G; Nimmo, Dale G; Lumsden, Lindy F

    2015-01-01

    Dingoes/wild dogs (Canis dingo/familiaris) and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are widespread carnivores in southern Australia and are controlled to reduce predation on domestic livestock and native fauna. We used the occurrence of food items in 5875 dingo/wild dog scats and 11,569 fox scats to evaluate interspecific and geographic differences in the diets of these species within nine regions of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. The nine regions encompass a wide variety of ecosystems. Diet overlap between dingoes/wild dogs and foxes varied among regions, from low to near complete overlap. The diet of foxes was broader than dingoes/wild dogs in all but three regions, with the former usually containing more insects, reptiles and plant material. By contrast, dingoes/wild dogs more regularly consumed larger mammals, supporting the hypothesis that niche partitioning occurs on the basis of mammalian prey size. The key mammalian food items for dingoes/wild dogs across all regions were black wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), brushtail possum species (Trichosurus spp.), common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), cattle (Bos taurus) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The key mammalian food items for foxes across all regions were European rabbit, sheep (Ovis aries) and house mouse (Mus musculus). Foxes consumed 6.1 times the number of individuals of threatened Critical Weight Range native mammal species than did dingoes/wild dogs. The occurrence of intraguild predation was asymmetrical; dingoes/wild dogs consumed greater biomass of the smaller fox. The substantial geographic variation in diet indicates that dingoes/wild dogs and foxes alter their diet in accordance with changing food availability. We provide checklists of taxa recorded in the diets of dingoes/wild dogs and foxes as a resource for managers and researchers wishing to understand the potential impacts of policy and management decisions on dingoes/wild dogs, foxes and the food resources they

  6. Crustal and mantle structure beneath the Terre Adélie Craton, East Antarctica: insights from receiver function and seismic anisotropy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarque, Gaëlle; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Bascou, Jérôme; Ménot, René-Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The Terre Adélie and George V Land (East Antarctica) represent key areas for understanding tectonic relationships between terranes forming the Neoarchean-Palaeoproterozoic Terre Adélie Craton (TAC) and the neighbouring lithospheric blocks, together with the nature of its boundary. This region that represents the eastern border of the TAC is limited on its eastern side by the Mertz shear zone (MSZ) separating more recent Palaeozoic units from the craton. The MSZ, that recorded dextral strike-slip movement at 1.7 and 1.5 Ga, is likely correlated with the Kalinjala or Coorong shear zone in South Australia, east of the Gawler Craton and may therefore represent a frozen lithospheric-scale structure. In order to investigate the lithospheric structure of the TAC and the MSZ, we deployed from 2009 October to 2011 October four temporary seismic stations, which sampled the various lithospheric units of the TAC and of the neighbouring Palaeozoic block, together with the MSZ. We used receiver function method to deduce Moho depths and seismic anisotropy technique to infer the upper mantle deformation. Results from receiver functions analysis reveal Moho at 40-44 km depth beneath the TAC, at 36 km under the MSZ and at 28 km beneath the eastern Palaeozoic domain. The MSZ therefore delimits two crustal blocks of different thicknesses with a vertical offset of the Moho of 12 km. Seismic anisotropy deduced from SKS splitting at stations on the TAC shows fast polarisation directions (Φ) trending E-W, that is, parallel to the continental margin, and delay times (δt) ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 s. These results are similar to the splitting parameters observed at the permanent GEOSCOPE Dumont D'Urville station (DRV: Φ 95°N, δt 1.1 s) located in the Palaeoproterozoic domain of TAC. On the MSZ, the small number of good quality measurements limits the investigation of the deep signature of the shear zone. However, the station in the Palaeozoic domain shows Φ trending N60°E, which is

  7. Influence of cratonic lithosphere on slab geometry and mantle flow: insights from 3D time-dependent modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramón, Jorge M.; Rodríguez-González, Juan; Negredo, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show a clear correlation between the occurrence of flat subduction and the proximity of areas of high elastic/thermal thickness in the overriding plate. A plausible explanation is that cold overriding plates lead to colder mantle wedge, increasing the hydrodynamic suction and decreasing the slab dip. In particular, recent numerical modeling has shown that the presence of cratonic lithosphere in the overriding plate has a significant effect on subducting slabs. In this study we quantify the influence of cratonic areas in the overriding plate on subduction dynamics. We present 3D thermo-mechanical and time-dependent numerical models of buoyancy-driven subduction processes. A non-Newtonian pseudo-plastic rheology is assumed. Different simulations have been performed to quantify the effect of different factors, such as the craton width, thermal thickness and distante to the trench. Modelling results indicate that presence of cratonic lithosphere in the overriding plate produces strong along-trench variations of the slab geometry. These variations are maintained and propagated at great depths as the slab sinks deeper into the mantle. Significant trench-parallel flow in the mantle wedge is generated by time-dependent changes in slab dip. For cases of reduced slab pull, the slab and the base of the craton become coupled, which causes a dramatic reduction of subduction velocity and the formation of a slab gap. The presence of cratons may have an important role on subduction episodicity and provide a new mechanism to explain slab gaps in areas where cratons have been located close to trenches, as is the case of South America and the Cenozoic subduction of North America. We further emphasize that the lithospheric structure of the overriding plate should be taken into account in analysis and modelling studies of subduction zones.

  8. Elimination of the Mound-Building Termite, Nasutitermes exitiosus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in South-Eastern Australia Using Bistrifluron Bait.

    PubMed

    Webb, Garry A; Mcclintock, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Bistrifluron, a benzoylphenylurea compound, was evaluated for efficacy against Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill), a mound-building species in southern Australia. Bistrifluron bait (trade name Xterm) was delivered as containerized pellets inserted into plastic feeding stations implanted in the sides of mounds-60 g for bistrifluron bait-treated mounds and 120 g of blank bait for untreated mounds. Termites actively tunneled in the gaps between pellets and removed bait from the canisters. All five treated mounds were eventually eliminated, and all five untreated mounds remained active at the end of the trial. Four of the five treated mounds were considered dead and excavated after 26 wk, but there were earlier signs of mound distress-reduced repair of experimental casement damage and reduced activity in bait canisters by 22 wk and reduced internal mound temperature after 11 wk. One treated mound showed activity in the bait station right through until almost the end of the trial (47 wk), but excavation at 49 wk showed no further activity in the mound. The five untreated colonies removed on average 97% of blank bait offered, while the five treated colonies removed on average 39.1% of bait offered. There was a wide variation in temperature profiles of mounds (up to 15°C for both minimum and maximum internal temperatures), from the beginning of the trial and even before the effects of baiting were evident.

  9. Analysis of subsurface mound spring connectivity in shale of the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halihan, Todd; Love, Andrew; Keppel, Mark; Berens, Volmer

    2013-11-01

    Mound springs provide the primary discharge mechanism for waters of the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia. Though these springs are an important resource in an arid environment, their hydraulics as they discharge from shale are poorly defined. The springs can include extensive spring tails (groundwater-dependent wetlands) and hundreds of springs in a given spring complex. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) was used to evaluate spring subsurface hydraulic-connectivity characteristics at three spring complexes discharging through the Bulldog Shale. The results demonstrate that fresher GAB water appears as resistors in the subsurface at these sites, which are characterized by high-salinity conditions in the shallow subsurface. Using an empirical method developed for this work, the ERI data indicate that the spring complexes have multiple subsurface connections that are not always easily observed at the surface. The connections are focused along structural deformation in the shale allowing fluids to migrate through the confining unit. The ERI data suggest the carbonate deposits that the springs generate are deposited on top of the confining unit, not precipitated in the conduit. The data also suggest that spring-tail ecosystems are not the result of a single discharge point, but include secondary discharge points along the tail.

  10. Radiocarbon dating and the 36Cl/Cl evolution of three Great Artesian Basin wells at Dalhousie, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Risha, Usama A.

    2016-06-01

    The use of 14C (half-life = 5,730 years) in modeling the evolution of the 36Cl/Cl ratios in groundwater is reported for the first time. The complexity of the Cl-36Cl system due to the occurrence of different Cl and 36Cl sources and the difficulty of the determination of the initial groundwater 36Cl/Cl ratios have raised concerns about the reliability of using 36Cl (half-life = 301 thousand years, a) as a groundwater-dating tool. This work uses groundwater 14C age as a calibrating parameter of the Cl-36Cl/Cl decay-mixing models of three wells from the southwestern Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia. It aims to allow for the different sources of Cl and 36Cl in the southwestern GAB aquifer. The results show that the initial Cl concentrations range from 245 to 320 mg/l and stable Cl is added to groundwater along flowpaths at rates ranging from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/l/ka. The 36Cl content of the groundwater is assumed to be completely of atmospheric origin. The samples have different Cl-36Cl/Cl mixing-decay models reflecting recharge under different conditions as well as the heterogeneity of the aquifer.

  11. Elimination of the Mound-Building Termite, Nasutitermes exitiosus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in South-Eastern Australia Using Bistrifluron Bait.

    PubMed

    Webb, Garry A; Mcclintock, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Bistrifluron, a benzoylphenylurea compound, was evaluated for efficacy against Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill), a mound-building species in southern Australia. Bistrifluron bait (trade name Xterm) was delivered as containerized pellets inserted into plastic feeding stations implanted in the sides of mounds-60 g for bistrifluron bait-treated mounds and 120 g of blank bait for untreated mounds. Termites actively tunneled in the gaps between pellets and removed bait from the canisters. All five treated mounds were eventually eliminated, and all five untreated mounds remained active at the end of the trial. Four of the five treated mounds were considered dead and excavated after 26 wk, but there were earlier signs of mound distress-reduced repair of experimental casement damage and reduced activity in bait canisters by 22 wk and reduced internal mound temperature after 11 wk. One treated mound showed activity in the bait station right through until almost the end of the trial (47 wk), but excavation at 49 wk showed no further activity in the mound. The five untreated colonies removed on average 97% of blank bait offered, while the five treated colonies removed on average 39.1% of bait offered. There was a wide variation in temperature profiles of mounds (up to 15°C for both minimum and maximum internal temperatures), from the beginning of the trial and even before the effects of baiting were evident. PMID:26470378

  12. Climate change vulnerability assessments as catalysts for social learning: four case studies in south-eastern Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2012-01-01

    Technical assessments of vulnerability and/or risk are increasingly being undertaken to assess the impacts of climate change. Underlying this is the belief that they will bring clarity to questions regarding the scale of institutional investments required, plausible adaptation policies and measures, and the timing of their implementation. Despite the perceived importance of technical assessments in 'evidence-based' decision environments, assessments cannot be undertaken independent of values and politics, nor are they capable of eliminating the uncertainty that clouds decision-making on climate adaptation As such, assessments can trigger as many questions as they answer, leaving practitioners and stakeholders to question their value. This paper explores the value of vulnerability/risk assessments in climate change adaptation planning processes as a catalyst for learning in four case studies in Southeastern Australia. Data were collected using qualitative interviews with stakeholders involved in the assessments and analysed using a social learning framework. This analysis revealed that detailed and tangible strategies or actions often do not emerge directly from technical assessments. However, it also revealed that the assessments became important platforms for social learning. In providing these platforms, assessments present opportunities to question initial assumptions, explore multiple framings of an issue, generate new information, and galvanise support for collective actions. This study highlights the need for more explicit recognition and understanding of the important role social learning plays in climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning more broadly.

  13. Thunderstorm-associated asthma in an inland town in south-eastern Australia. Who is at risk?

    PubMed

    Girgis, S T; Marks, G B; Downs, S H; Kolbe, A; Car, G N; Paton, R

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize patients at risk of asthma exacerbation during spring thunderstorms and identify potential measures to ameliorate the impact of those events. A case-control study was conducted among patients aged 7-60 yrs, who attended Wagga Hospital (NSW, Australia) for asthma during the period of 1 June 1997 to 31 October 1997. One hundred and eighty-three patients who attended on 30 and 31 October 1997 were the cases and the remaining 121 patients were the controls. Questionnaire data were obtained from 148 (81%) cases and 91 (75%) controls. One hundred and thirty-eight (95%) cases who attended during the thunderstorm gave a history of hayfever prior to the event compared to 66 (74%) controls who attended at other times (odds ratio (OR) 6.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.55-14.15); 111 (96%) cases were allergic to rye grass pollen compared to 47 (64%) controls (OR 23.6, 95% CI 6.6-84.3). Among subjects with a prior diagnosis of asthma (64% cases and 82% controls), controls (56%) were more likely to be taking inhaled steroids at time of the thunderstorm than cases (27%, OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.16-0.57). History of hayfever and allergy to rye grass are strong predictors for asthma exacerbation during thunderstorms in spring. The lower rate of inhaled steroid use in thunderstorm cases suggests that this treatment may be effective in preventing severe attacks during thunderstorms. PMID:10933077

  14. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships. PMID:23656732

  15. Health promotion in Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care services: case studies from South Australia and the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Baum, Fran; Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Lawless, Angela; Bentley, Michael; Värttö, Kaisu; Boffa, John; Labonte, Ronald; Sanders, David

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports on the health promotion and disease prevention conducted at Australian multi-disciplinary primary health care (PHC) services and considers the ways in which the organizational environment affects the extent and type of health promotion and disease prevention activity. The study involves five PHC services in Adelaide and one in Alice Springs. Four are managed by a state health department and two by boards of governance. The study is based on an audit of activities and on 68 interviews conducted with staff. All the sites undertake health promotion and recognize its importance but all report that this activity is under constant pressure resulting from the need to provide services to people who have health problems. We also found an increased focus on chronic disease management and prevention which prioritized individuals and behavioural change strategies rather than addressing social determinants affecting whole communities. There was little health promotion work that reflected a salutogenic approach to the creation of health. Most activity falls under three types: parenting and child development, chronic disease prevention and mental health. Only the non-government organizations reported advocacy on broader policy issues. Health reform and consequent reorganizations were seen to reduce the ability of some services to undertake health promotion. The paper concludes that PHC in Australia plays an important role in disease prevention, but that there is considerable scope to increase the amount of community-based health promotion which focuses on a salutogenic view of health and which engages in community partnerships.

  16. Thunderstorm-associated asthma in an inland town in south-eastern Australia. Who is at risk?

    PubMed

    Girgis, S T; Marks, G B; Downs, S H; Kolbe, A; Car, G N; Paton, R

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize patients at risk of asthma exacerbation during spring thunderstorms and identify potential measures to ameliorate the impact of those events. A case-control study was conducted among patients aged 7-60 yrs, who attended Wagga Hospital (NSW, Australia) for asthma during the period of 1 June 1997 to 31 October 1997. One hundred and eighty-three patients who attended on 30 and 31 October 1997 were the cases and the remaining 121 patients were the controls. Questionnaire data were obtained from 148 (81%) cases and 91 (75%) controls. One hundred and thirty-eight (95%) cases who attended during the thunderstorm gave a history of hayfever prior to the event compared to 66 (74%) controls who attended at other times (odds ratio (OR) 6.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.55-14.15); 111 (96%) cases were allergic to rye grass pollen compared to 47 (64%) controls (OR 23.6, 95% CI 6.6-84.3). Among subjects with a prior diagnosis of asthma (64% cases and 82% controls), controls (56%) were more likely to be taking inhaled steroids at time of the thunderstorm than cases (27%, OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.16-0.57). History of hayfever and allergy to rye grass are strong predictors for asthma exacerbation during thunderstorms in spring. The lower rate of inhaled steroid use in thunderstorm cases suggests that this treatment may be effective in preventing severe attacks during thunderstorms.

  17. Environmental Legionella spp. collected in urban test sites of South East Queensland, Australia, are virulent to human macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Amba; Eglezos, Sofroni; Huston, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course. This suggests that the spectrum of urban environmentally associated Legionella with potential to cause human disease might be greater than currently considered.

  18. Cold cratonic roots and thermal blankets: How continents affect mantle convection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trubitsyn, V.P.; Mooney, W.D.; Abbott, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional convection models with moving continents show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. If the continents are wider than the wavelength of the convection cells (???3000 km, the thickness of the mantle), they cause neighboring deep mantle thermal upwellings to coalesce into a single focused upwelling. This focused upwelling zone will have a potential temperature anomaly of about 200??C, much higher than the 100??C temperature anomaly of upwelling zones generated beneath typical oceanic lithosphere. Extensive high-temperature melts (including flood basalts and late potassic granites) will be produced, and the excess temperature anomaly will induce continental uplift (as revealed in sea level changes) and the eventual breakup of the supercontinent. The mantle thermal anomaly will persist for several hundred million years after such a breakup. In contrast, small continental blocks (<1000 km diameter) do not induce focused mantle upwelling zones. Instead, small continental blocks are dragged to mantle downwelling zones, where they spend most of their time, and will migrate laterally with the downwelling. As a result of sitting over relatively cold mantle (downwellings), small continental blocks are favored to keep their cratonic roots. This may explain the long-term survival of small cratonic blocks (e.g., the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons of western Australia, and the West African craton). The optimum size for long-term stability of a continental block is <3000 km. These results show that continents profoundly affect the pattern of mantle convection. These effects are illustrated in terms of the timing and history of supercontinent breakup, the production of high-temperature melts, and sea level changes. Such two-dimensional calculations can be further refined and tested by three-dimensional numerical simulations of mantle convection with moving continental and oceanic plates.

  19. 'Just a quack who can cure cancer': John Braund, and regulating cancer treatment in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Laura L

    2013-04-01

    In 1948 the New South Wales government instituted an inquiry into the claims of John Braund – a 78-year-old self-described ‘quack’ – that his secret treatment had cured 317 cancer sufferers. The ‘Braund controversy’, as it became known, was one of Australia’s most prominent cases of medical fraud. This paper examines that controversy and its effects on cancer philanthropy, medical research, and especially on legislation regulating treatment providers up to the present. With the Braund controversy in mind, the New South Wales (NSW) parliament struggled to develop legislation that would protect patients and punish quacks but also allow for serendipitous, unorthodox discoveries. Recent decades saw new elements added to this calculus – allowing a wide-ranging health marketplace, and allowing patients to choose their therapies. This paper argues that the particular body of law legislatures used in regulating cancer treatment and how regulations were framed reflected the changing context of healthcare and illustrates the calculus legislatures have undertaken in regulating the health marketplace, variously factoring in public safety, serendipitous discovery, the authority of orthodox medicine, patient choice, and economic opportunity. PMID:24070346

  20. 'Just a quack who can cure cancer': John Braund, and regulating cancer treatment in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Laura L

    2013-04-01

    In 1948 the New South Wales government instituted an inquiry into the claims of John Braund – a 78-year-old self-described ‘quack’ – that his secret treatment had cured 317 cancer sufferers. The ‘Braund controversy’, as it became known, was one of Australia’s most prominent cases of medical fraud. This paper examines that controversy and its effects on cancer philanthropy, medical research, and especially on legislation regulating treatment providers up to the present. With the Braund controversy in mind, the New South Wales (NSW) parliament struggled to develop legislation that would protect patients and punish quacks but also allow for serendipitous, unorthodox discoveries. Recent decades saw new elements added to this calculus – allowing a wide-ranging health marketplace, and allowing patients to choose their therapies. This paper argues that the particular body of law legislatures used in regulating cancer treatment and how regulations were framed reflected the changing context of healthcare and illustrates the calculus legislatures have undertaken in regulating the health marketplace, variously factoring in public safety, serendipitous discovery, the authority of orthodox medicine, patient choice, and economic opportunity.