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Sample records for craton south australia

  1. Geochemical signatures of copper redistribution in IOCG-type mineralisation, Gawler Craton, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarova, Yulia A.; Pearce, Mark A.; Liu, Weihua; Cleverley, James S.; Hough, Robert M.

    2017-07-01

    The Emmie Bluff iron oxide, copper, gold (IOCG) prospect is located in the Olympic Dam district, South Australia, and hosts sub-economic 150-m-thick Cu-Au mineralisation associated with the hematite-chlorite-sericite alteration with chalcopyrite commonly replacing pre-existing pyrite at a depth of 800 m. With the use of cutting-edge synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy and field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy, it is shown for the first time that sub-economic IOCG mineralisation in the Olympic Dam district was affected by a late fluid event, which resulted in partial dissolution of Cu mineralisation and transport of Cu in the form of chloride complexes. The porous chlorite-sericite matrix associated with the late alteration of chalcopyrite hosts a Cu-Cl-OH phase previously undescribed in IOCG rocks, which was identified as one of the polymorphs of the atacamite group of minerals, Cu2Cl(OH)3. Thermodynamic modelling shows that "atacamite" is produced during dissolution of chalcopyrite by an oxidised, Cl-bearing fluid. An acidic environment is produced within millimetres of the chalcopyrite grains during oxidation. This process drives chlorite recrystallisation that is recorded by compositional variation of chlorite proximal to chalcopyrite. The existence of the atacamite is discussed in the context of fluid evolution and interaction with IOCG-type mineralisation and its implications to ore preservation versus destruction and remobilisation.

  2. Refined Proterozoic evolution of the Gawler Craton, South Australia, through U-Pb zircon geochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fanning, C.M.; Flint, R.B.; Parker, A.J.; Ludwig, K. R.; Blissett, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Through the application of both conventional U-Pb zircon analyses and small-sample U-Pb isotopic analyses, the nature and timing of tectonic events leading to the formation of the Gawler Craton have been defined more precisely. Constraints on deposition of Early Proterozoic iron formation-bearing sediments have been narrowed down to the period 1960-1847 Ma. Deformed acid volcanics, including the economically important Moonta Porphyry, have zircon ages of ??? 1790 and 1740 Ma. The voluminous acid Gawler Range Volcanics and correlatives to the east were erupted over a short interval at 1592 ?? 2 Ma, and were intruded by anorogenic granites at ??? 1575 Ma. Small-sample zircon analyses proved to be an extremely valuable adjunct to conventional analyses, generally yielding more-concordant data which forced a curved discordia through an upper intercept slightly younger than from a conventional straight-line discordia. ?? 1988.

  3. Dating brittle deformation in the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebaud, N.; Zwingmann, H.

    2012-12-01

    ). Blewett, R., and Czarnota, K., 2007, A new integrated tectonic framework of the Eastern Goldfields superterrane, Kalgoorlie '07, Volume Record 2007/14, p. 33-38. Evins, P., Smithies, R., Howard, H., Kirkland, C., Wingate, M., and Bodorkos, S., 2010, Redefining the Giles event within the setting of the 1120-1020 Ma Ngaanyatjarra rift, West Musgrave province, central Australia THE Record 2010/6: Perth, Geological Survey of Western Australia. Spaggiari, C.V., Wartho, J.-A., and Wilde, S.A., 2008, Proterozoic deformation in the northwest of the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: Precambrian Research, v. 162, p. 354-384. Zwingmann, H., Mancktelow, N., Antognini, M. and Lucchini, R., Dating of shallow faults - new constraints from the AlpTransit tunnel site (Switzerland). Geology, 2010. 38 (6) p. 487-490; doi10.1130/G30785.1

  4. Potential field analysis images Paleoproterozoic terrane boundaries in the unexposed Northern Gawler Craton, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, G.; Giles, D.; Betts, P.; Backé, G.

    2008-12-01

    In areas of limited or zero basement exposure, potential field analysis provides an invaluable tool for determining the architecture continental cratons. We present an example from the Northern Gawler Craton, Australia. Here, the basement rocks are almost completely covered by Neoproterozoic and younger sedimentary rocks (with <<1% basement outcrop), so are amongst the least studied on the Australian continent. However, these rocks should preserve the best record of the Gawler Craton's interactions with neighbouring cratons during the amalgamation of Proterozoic Australia. We focus on the basement architecture in the Marla region of the northernmost Gawler Craton. We use geophysical techniques and apply a top-down approach to penetrate the significant thickness of cover and determine the structure of the unexposed northern Gawler Craton. The architecture, density and magnetic susceptibility of the overlying cover sequences are constrained from the surficial geology, borehole data and seismic reflection profiles. The effect of these cover sequences is then removed from gravity and magnetic data highlighting the basement structure. We then determine the architecture of the basement with depth from the potential field data by combining depth-to-source analyses, with forward and inverse modelling techniques constrained by petrophysical data from drill-holes. Results of this analysis include the observation of a major crustal boundary at the NE-SW trending Middle Bore Fault. To the NW of this boundary, crustal scale sources produce large gravity and magnetic anomalies. Whereas to the SE anomalies are sourced in the upper crust and overlie uniform middle to lower crust. We suggest that the Middle Bore Fault represents a boundary between allochthonous terranes that may have accreted to the Gawler craton during the Kimban Orogeny (~1.7 Ga) and the Archaean Gawler Craton that is overlain by Paleoproterozoic metasediments. The basement structure revealed by this approach

  5. Magnetotelluric characterization of the northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña-Varas, Perla; Dentith, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia) was deformed during the convergence and collision with the Pilbara Craton and the intervening Glenburgh Terrain that created the Capricorn Orogen. The Yilgarn Craton is one of the most intensively mineralised areas of continental crust with world class deposits of gold and nickel. However, the region to its north has surprisingly few deposits. Cratonic margins are considered to be key indicators of prospectivity at a regional scale. The northern limit of the Yilgarn Craton within the Capricorn Orogen is not well resolved at date because of overlying Proterozoic sedimentary basins. We present here some of the results of an extensive magnetotelluric (MT) study that is being performed in the area. This study is a component of large multi-disciplinary geoscience project on the 'Distal Footprints of Giant Ore Systems' in the Capricorn Orogen. The MT dataset consists of a total of 240 broadband magnetotelluric stations (BBMT) and 84 long period stations (LMT). Analysis of the dataset reveals a clear 3-D geoelectrical behaviour and extreme complexity for most of the sites, including an extremely high number of sites with phases out-of-quadrant at long periods. 3-D inverse modelling of the MT data shows high resistivity Archean units and low resistivity Paleoproterozoic basins, including very low resistivity structures at depth. These strong resistivity contrasts allow us to successfully map northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton beneath basin cover, as well as identifying major lateral conductivity changes in the deep crust suggestive of different tectonic blocks. Upper crustal conductive zones can be correlated with faults on seismic reflection data. Our results suggest MT surveys are a useful tool for regional-scale exploration in the study area and in area of thick cover in general.

  6. Paleomagnetism of the early Paleoproterozoic, volcanic Hekpoort Formation (Transvaal Supergroup) of the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, F.; Sonnette, L.; de Kock, M. O.; Robion, P.; Horng, C. S.; Cousture, A.; Wabo, H.

    2017-02-01

    The Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) was the host of several major magmatic events during the Paleoproterozoic, including the volcanic Hekpoort and Ongeluk formations. Their possible comagmatic origin is the subject of a long debate. We performed a paleomagnetic study of the Hekpoort Formation to get a primary pole can be compared with the available paleopole of the Ongeluk Formation, but also to contribute to the apparent pole wander path of the Kaapvaal craton. Characterization of magnetic mineralogy by 3-axis thermal demagnetization of IRM and magnetic susceptibility vs temperature points out magnetite as the main remanence carrier in most samples.

  7. Palaeomagnetism of the early Palaeoproterozoic, volcanic Hekpoort Formation (Transvaal Supergroup) of the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humbert, F.; Sonnette, L.; de Kock, M. O.; Robion, P.; Horng, C. S.; Cousture, A.; Wabo, H.

    2017-05-01

    The Kaapvaal craton (South Africa) was the host of several major magmatic events during the Palaeoproterozoic, including the volcanic Hekpoort and Ongeluk Formations. Their possible comagmatic origin is the subject of a long debate. We performed a palaeomagnetic study of the Hekpoort Formation to be compared with the available palaeopole of the Ongeluk Formation, but also to contribute to the apparent polar wander path of the Kaapvaal craton. Characterization of magnetic mineralogy by three-axis thermal demagnetization of isothermal remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility versus temperature points out magnetite as the main remanence carrier in most samples.

  8. Lake Eyre, Simpson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-12-10

    STS035-501-007 (2-10 Dec. 1990) --- The STS-35 crewmembers aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia photographed this view of the Arid Simpson Desert of Australia with a handheld Rolleiflex camera. Lake Eyre is normally dry; however, the STS-35 crew was able to recognize water in the lowest parts of the lake (dark pink area) and possibly in Lake Blanche east of Lake Eyre. Lake Frome lies in the distance separated from Lake Torrens (top right) by dark hills of Flinders Range. The Finke River (bottom left to middle) flows into the Eyre basin from the northwest. Although it is the largest river entering the basin, Finke's floods seldom reach Lake Eyre. The dark brown patch in the foreground is an area of ancient, brown lateritic soils partly covered by dunes.

  9. Intraplate deformation on north-dipping basement structures in the Northern Gawler Craton, Australia: reactivation of original terrane boundaries or later intra-cratonic thrusts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, G.; Giles, D.; Betts, P. G.; Backé, G.

    2007-12-01

    Multiple intraplate orogenic events have deformed Neoproterozoic to Carboniferous sedimentary sequences that cover the Archean to Mesoproterozoic basement of the northern Gawler Craton, Australia. These intraplate orogenies reactivated north-dipping basement penetrating faults that are imaged on seismic reflection profiles. These north-dipping structures pre-date Neoproterozoic deposition but their relationships to significant linear magnetic and gravity anomalies that delineate unexposed Archean to Early Mesoproterozoic basement terranes are unclear. The north-dipping structures are either terrane boundaries that formed during continental amalgamation or later faults, which formed during a mid- to late-Mesoproterozoic transpressional orogeny and cross-cut the original lithological terrane boundaries. We model magnetic and gravity data to determine the 3D structure of the unexposed basement of the northern Gawler Craton. These models are constrained by drill hole and surface observations, seismic reflection profiles and petrophysical data, such that geologically reasonable models that can satisfy the data are limited. The basement structures revealed by this modelling approach constrain the origin and significance of the north-dipping structures that were active during the later intraplate Petermann, Delamerian and Alice Springs Orogenies. These results have bearing on which structures are likely to be active during present-day intraplate deformation in other areas, including, for example, current seismic activity along similar basement structures in the Adelaide "Geosyncline".

  10. Smoke Blankets New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-09

    Australia largest city of Sydney was clouded with smoke when more than 70 wildfires raged across the state of New South Wales when NASA Terra satellite captured this image the morning of December 30, 2001.

  11. Three-dimensional crustal structure of a craton rim: Preliminary results from passive seismic imaging of the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Spaggiari, Catherine V.; Gessner, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Western Australia consists of two Archaean cratons (Yilgarn and Pilbara) and a number of Proterozoic orogens surrounding them that attest to past continental collisions. While the former feature seismically fast crust of average thickness (around 35 km) and a usually well defined Moho overlying a thick mantle lithospheric keel, the latter have been significantly less well studied and appear to be less uniform in terms of their crustal architecture. Thicker crust and a more fuzzy Moho are two common characteristics of these belts. The Albany-Fraser orogen, situated at the south-eastern margin of the Yilgarn craton, has been interpreted as an old suture zone from the collision of the West Australian craton (Yilgarn and Pilbara already welded together) with the Mawson craton (southern Australia and part of Antarctica today). Newer evidence, however, might point at an original rift or backarc setting of the units. It is a complex amalgam of different structures that vary significantly along its strike, featuring heavily reworked parts of the outermost Yilgarn craton as well as younger units accreted or intruded significantly later. Two major deformation stages at 1345-1260 Ma and 1214-1140 Ma have been deduced for these, the first of which has been associated with the aforementioned collision/backarc rifting itself, while the second phase is commonly interpreted as intracratonic reworking due to a major thermal event. No large-scale tectonic overprint has occurred in the region since the second deformation phase, which means that the originally emplaced units have been unusually well preserved until the present day. However, surface outcrops of rocks are very rare, so that most knowledge about extent and geometric configuration of different rock suites comes from the interpretation of magnetic and gravity data. The eastern end of the Albany-Fraser orogen, in all likelihood corresponding to the Mawson craton's westernmost edge, is hidden beneath the limestones of the

  12. Hf Isotope Systematics of Archean Anorthosites: Manfred Complex, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souders, K.; Sylvester, P.

    2016-12-01

    Archean anorthosite complexes represent a minor, yet distinct rock type found within many Archean terranes. These mantle-derived melts are commonly found in layers withassociated leucogabbro, gabbro, and ultramafic units of similar origin. Most Archean anorthosites are intensely deformed and metamorphosed yet preserved igneous minerals have been identified within several complexes. It has become obvious that Archean anorthosites contain zircon crystals, which can be used to establish robust crystallization ages for anorthosite complexes. These minerals are also ideal targets for in situ Lu-Hf isotopic analysis to further characterize the source of Archean anorthosites and provide insight into the formation and evolution of the continental crust during the Archean. The ca. 3.7 Ga Manfred Complex is exposed northeast of Mount Narryer within the Narryer Gneiss Terrane, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. The layered anorthosite gabbro-ultramafic intrusion outcrops in pods and lenses, engulfed by granitic gneisses [1, 2, 3]. We have sampled anorthosites, leucogabbros and gabbros from the Manfred Complex and determined their age by LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon geochronology. Zircons separated from these rocks give ages of 3.63 Ga to 3.73 Ga. LA-MC-ICPMS Lu-Hf isotope analyses were performed by focusing the laser spot directly on top of the U-Pb analysis location for each zircon grain. Initial Hf isotope compositions of zircon grains from the Manfred complex range from ca. ɛHf +2 to -3. This range suggests contributions from both depleted mantle and more ancient crustal sources to the parent magma of the Manfred Complex. [1] Kinny et al. (1988) Prec. Res. 38, 325-341. [2] Myers (1988) Prec. Res. 38, 309-323. [3] Williams & Myers (1987) WA Geol. Surv. Rpt. 22, 32 pp.

  13. Crustal velocity structure of western Dharwar Craton, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, D.; Chandrakala, K.; Padmavathi Devi, P.; Sridhar, A. R.; Sain, K.; Reddy, P. R.

    2001-03-01

    A deep seismic sounding (DSS) experiment was carried out across the Indian shield in 1972-1975. Kaila et al. (Kaila, K.L., Roy Chowdhury, K., Reddy, P.R., Krishna, V.G., Hari Narain, Subbotin, S.I., Sollogub, V.B., Chekunov, A.V., Kharetchko, G.E., Lazarenko, M.A., Ilchenko T.V., 1979. Crustal structure along Kavali-Udipi profile in the Indian peninsular shield from deep seismic sounding. J. Geol. Soc. of Ind., 20, 307-333) presented a crustal depth section based on the interpretation of the analog seismic data. In this paper, we re-examine the crustal structure of the Western Dharwar Craton (WDC) by reprocessing the data of three major shot points. Kinematic 1-D inversion, followed by 2-D forward modeling of the first arrival refraction and a few persistent wide-angle reflection phases, was carried out to build, a first order two-dimensional velocity model of this segment of the profile. This model brings out a simple crustal velocity structure consisting of an upper and lower crust. The upper crust (velocity 6.0-6.2 km/s) is on average 23 km thick, which is underlain by a lower crust of velocity 6.8-7.0 km/s. The average Moho depth in this part is about 37-40 km, with higher-than-normal P n velocity of 8.4 km/s. A relatively deep Moho in this part of the Archean peninsular shield is associated with relatively low velocities in the lower crust, perhaps indicating absence of underplating in this region. Present results bring out the fact that the crust of WDC is not so typical as many other Archean crusts, in terms of both thickness and velocities.

  14. The 3.26-3.24 Ga Barberton asteroid impact cluster: Tests of tectonic and magmatic consequences, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew; Vickers, John

    2006-01-01

    The location in the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Kaapvaal Craton) of ∼3.26-3.24 Ga asteroid impact ejecta units at, and immediately above, a sharp break between a > 12 km-thick mafic-ultramafic volcanic crust (Onverwacht Group ∼3.55-3.26 Ga, including the ∼3.298 > 3.258 Ga Mendon Formation) and a turbidite-felsic volcanic rift-facies association (Fig Tree Group ∼3.258-3.225 Ga), potentially represents the first documented example of cause-effect relations between extraterrestrial bombardment and major tectonic and igneous events [D.R. Lowe, G.R. Byerly, F. Asaro, F.T. Kyte, Geological and geochemical record of 3400 Ma old terrestrial meteorite impacts, Science 245 (1989) 959-962; D.R. Lowe, G.R. Byerly, F.T. Kyte, A. Shukolyukov, F. Asaro, A. Krull, Spherule beds 3.47-3.34 Ga-old in the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa: a record of large meteorite impacts and their influence on early crustal and biological evolution, Astrobiology 3 (2003) 7-48; A.Y. Glikson, The astronomical connection of terrestrial evolution: crustal effects of post-3.8 Ga mega-impact clusters and evidence for major 3.2 ± 0.1 Ga bombardment of the Earth-Moon system, J. Geodyn. 32 (2001) 205-229]. Here we correlate this boundary with a contemporaneous break and peak magmatic and faulting events in the Pilbara Craton, represented by the truncation of a 3.255-3.235 Ga-old volcanic sequence (Sulphur Springs Group-SSG) by a turbidite-banded iron formation-felsic volcanic association (Pincunah Hill Formation, basal Gorge Creek Group). These events are accompanied by ∼3.252-3.235 Ga granitoids (Cleland plutonic suite). The top of the komatiite-tholeiite-rhyolite sequence of the SSG is associated with a marker chert defined at 3.238 ± 3-3.235 ± 3 Ga, abruptly overlain by an olistostrome consisting of mega-clasts of felsic volcanics, chert and siltstone up to 250 × 150 m-large, intercalated with siliciclastic sedimentary rocks and felsic volcanics (Pincunah Hill Formation-basal Gorge

  15. Multifractal spatial organisation in hydrothermal gold systems of the Archaean Yilgarn craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Mark; Ord, Alison; Hobbs, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A range of factors controls the location of hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralisation in the Earth's crust. These include the broad-scale lithospheric architecture, availability of fluid sources, fluid composition and pH, pressure-temperature conditions, microscopic to macroscopic structural development, the distribution of primary lithologies, and the extent of fluid-rock interactions. Consequently, the spatial distribution of alteration and mineralization in hydrothermal systems is complex and often considered highly irregular. However, despite this, do they organize themselves in a configuration that can be documented and quantified? Wavelets, mathematical functions representing wave-like oscillations, are commonly used in digital signals analysis. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis involves incrementally scanning a wavelet across the dataset multiple times (varying its scale) and recording its degree of fit to the signal at each interval. This approach (the wavelet transform modulus maxima method) highlights patterns of self-similarity present in the dataset and addresses the range of scales over which these patterns replicate themselves (expressed by their range in 'fractal dimension'). Focusing on seven gold ore bodies in the Archaean Yilgarn craton of Western Australia, this study investigates whether different aspects of hydrothermal gold systems evolve to organize themselves spatially as multifractals. Four ore bodies were selected from the Sunrise Dam deposit (situated in the Laverton tectonic zone of the Kurnalpi terrane) in addition to the Imperial, Majestic and Salt Creek gold prospects, situated in the Yindarlgooda dome of the Mount Monger goldfield (approximately 40km due east of Kalgoorlie). The Vogue, GQ, Cosmo East and Astro ore bodies at Sunrise Dam were chosen because they exhibit different structural geometries and relationships between gold and associated host-rock alteration styles. Wavelet-based analysis was conducted on 0.5m and 1m

  16. Multiple 3.47-Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, A. Y.; Allen, C.; Vickers, J.

    2004-04-01

    A new microkrystite spherule-bearing diamictite is reported from below the impact spherule-bearing 3.47 Ga Antarctic Chert Member (ACM) at the base of the Apex Basalt, central Pilbara Craton, Western Australia [1,5]. The diamictite, defined as ACM-S2, consists of 0.6-0.8-m-thick spherule-bearing pebble to cobble-size chert-intraclast conglomerate separated from the main ACM-S3 by a ˜200-m-thick dolerite and ˜30-m-thick felsic hypabyssals. The microkrystite spherules are discriminated from angular to subangular detrital volcanic fragments by their high sphericities, inward-radiating fans of sericite pseudomorphs after K-feldspar, relic quench textures and Ni-Cr-Co relations. Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with E-probe (EDS) and laser ICPMS analysis indicate high Ni and Cr in sericite-dominated spherules, suggesting mafic composition of source crust. Ni/Cr and Ni/Co ratios of the spherules are higher than in associated Archaean tholeiitic basalts and high-Mg basalts, rendering possible contamination by high Ni/Cr and Ni/Co chondritic components. The presence of multiple bands and lenses of spherules within chert and scattered spherules in arenite bands within S3 may signify redeposition of a single impact fallout unit or, alternatively, multiple impacts. Controlling parameters include: (1) spherule atmospheric residence time; (2) precipitation rates of colloidal silica; (3) solidification rates of colloidal silica; (4) arenite and spherule redeposition rates, and (5) arrival of the tsunami. The presence of spherule-bearing chert fragments in S3 may hint at an older spherule-bearing chert (?S1). Only a minor proportion of spherules is broken and the near-perfect sphericities of chert-hosted spherules and arenite-hosted spherules constrain the extent of shallow water winnowing of the originally delicate glass spherules. It is suggested that the spherules were either protected by rapid burial or, alternatively, disturbance was limited to a short term high energy

  17. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  18. Sex Education in South Australia: The Past and the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talukdar, Joy; Aspland, Tania; Datta, Poulomee

    2013-01-01

    In South Australia, sex education has been controversial since its inception. The Australasian White Cross league and the Family Planning Association of South Australia were the pioneers of sex education in South Australia. The framing of a national framework and the implementation of the SHARE (Sexual Health and Relationships Education) project…

  19. Aeromagnetic interpretation in the south-central Zimbabwe Craton: (reappraisal of) crustal structure and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranganai, Rubeni T.; Whaler, Kathryn A.; Ebinger, Cynthia J.

    2016-11-01

    Regional aeromagnetic data from the south-central Zimbabwe Craton have been digitally processed and enhanced for geological and structural mapping and tectonic interpretation integrated with gravity data, to constrain previous interpretations based on tentative geologic maps and provide new information to link these structural features to known tectonic events. The derived maps show excellent correlation between magnetic anomalies and the known geology, and extend lithological and structural mapping to the shallow/near subsurface. In particular, they reveal the presence of discrete crustal domains and several previously unrecognised dykes, faults, and ultramafic intrusions, as well as extensions to others. Five regional structural directions (ENE, NNE, NNW, NW, and WNW) are identified and associated with trends of geological units and cross-cutting structures. The magnetic lineament patterns cut across the >2.7 Ga greenstone belts, which are shown by gravity data to be restricted to the uppermost 10 km of the crust. Therefore, the greenstone belts were an integral part of the lithosphere before much of the upper crustal (brittle) deformation occurred. Significantly, the observed magnetic trends have representatives craton-wide, implying that our interpretation and inferences can be applied to the rest of the craton with confidence. Geological-tectonic correlation suggests that the interpreted regional trends are mainly 2.5 Ga (Great Dyke age) and younger, and relate to tectonic events including the reactivation of the Limpopo Belt at 2.0 Ga and the major regional igneous/dyking events at 1.8-2.0 Ga (Mashonaland), 1.1 Ga (Umkondo), and 180 Ma (Karoo). Thus, their origin is here inferred to be inter- and intra-cratonic collisions and block movements involving the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal Cratons and the Limpopo Belt, and later lithospheric heating and extension associated with the break-up of Gondwana. The movements produced structures, or reactivated older fractures

  20. Biogenicity of morphologically diverse carbonaceous microstructures from the ca. 3400 Ma Strelley pool formation, in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, Kenichiro; Lepot, Kevin; Nagaoka, Tsutomu; Mimura, Koichi; Van Kranendonk, Martin; Oehler, Dorothy Z; Walter, Malcolm R

    2010-11-01

    Morphologically diverse structures that may constitute organic microfossils are reported from three remote and widely separated localities assigned to the ca. 3400 Ma Strelley Pool Formation in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. These localities include the Panorama, Warralong, and Goldsworthy greenstone belts. From the Panorama greenstone belt, large (> 40 μm) lenticular to spindle-like structures, spheroidal structures, and mat-forming thread-like structures are found. Similar assemblages of carbonaceous structures have been identified from the Warralong and Goldsworthy greenstone belts, though these assemblages lack the thread-like structures but contain film-like structures. All structures are syngenetic with their host sedimentary black chert, which is associated with stromatolites and evaporites. The host chert is considered to have been deposited in a shallow water environment. Rigorous assessment of biogenicity (considering composition, size range, abundance, taphonomic features, and spatial distributions) suggests that cluster-forming small (<15 μm) spheroids, lenticular to spindle-like structures, and film-like structures with small spheroids are probable microfossils. Thread-like structures are more likely fossilized fibrils of biofilm, rather than microfossils. The biogenicity of solitary large (>15 μm) spheroids and simple film-like structures is less certain. Although further investigations are required to confirm the biogenicity of carbonaceous structures from the Strelley Pool Formation, this study presents evidence for the existence of morphologically complex and large microfossils at 3400 Ma in the Pilbara Craton, which can be correlated to the contemporaneous, possible microfossils reported from South Africa. Although there is still much to be learned, they should provide us with new insights into the early evolution of life and shallow water ecosystems.

  1. Evolution of the Mount Woods Inlier, northern Gawler Craton, Southern Australia: an integrated structural and aeromagnetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Peter G.; Valenta, Rick K.; Finlay, Jim

    2003-05-01

    Structural mapping integrated with interpretation and forward modelling of aeromagnetic data form complimentary and powerful tools for regional structural analysis because both techniques focus on architecture and overprinting relationships. This approach is used to constrain the geometry and evolution of the sparsely exposed Mount Woods Inlier in the northern Gawler Craton. The Mount Woods Inlier records a history of poly-phase deformation, high-temperature metamorphism, and syn- and post-orogenic magmatism between ca. 1736 and 1584 Ma. The earliest deformation involved isoclinal folding, and the development of bedding parallel and axial planar gneissic foliation (S 1). This was accompanied by high-temperature, upper amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism at ca. 1736 Ma. During subsequent north-south shortening (D 2), open to isoclinal south-southeast-oriented F 2 folds developed as the Palaeoproterozoic successions of the inlier were thrust over the Archaean nuclei of the Gawler Craton. The syn-D 2 Engenina Adamellite was emplaced at ca. 1692 Ma. The post-D 2 history involved shear zone development and localised folding, exhumation of metamorphic rocks, and deposition of clastic sediments prior to the emplacement of the ca. 1584 Ma Granite Balta Suite. The Mount Woods Inlier is interpreted as the northern continuation of the Kimban Orogen.

  2. Crustal and uppermost mantle structure of the eastern margin of the Yilgarn Craton (Australia) from passive seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Tkalčić, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian; Spaggiari, Catherine; Gessner, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    The Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia is one of the largest units of Archean lithosphere on earth. Along its southern and southeastern margin, it is bounded by the Albany-Fraser Orogen (AFO), a Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic extensioal-accretionary orogen. In this contribution, we investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure of the AFO and adjacent regions using passive seismic data collected during the recent ALFREX experiment. Since the entire region has not been significantly reactivated since the Mesoproterozoic, the old signature of craton edge modification should have been well preserved until today. From November 2013 until January 2016, we operated a temporary passive seismic network consisting of 70 stations in the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen. The array had an average station spacing of about 40 km and was designed to fill the gap between recently acquired active seismic profiles. We present results from the analysis of P receiver functions and ambient noise tomography using the ALFREX data. Receiver functions were used to derive a Moho depth map via H-K stacking, for direct imaging (common conversion point stacking) as well as joint inversion with surface wave dispersion data to derive 1D S-velocity profiles beneath the stations. The obtained receiver functions show a marked change of character from west to east across the array. Whereas they feature clear and sharp Moho phases for stations on the Yilgarn Craton, significantly more crustal complexity and fainter Moho phases are seen throughout the AFO. Crustal thickness increases from 36-39 km for the Yilgarn Craton to values between 42 and 48 km across the AFO, decreasing to around 40 km in the east. Ambient noise cross-correlations were used to derive maps of phase and group velocities of Rayleigh waves at periods between 1 and 30 seconds. A three-dimensional model of S wavespeeds throughout the area was then computed by pixelwise inversion of dispersion curves. Obtained S wavespeeds are generally

  3. Cryogenian rift-related magmatism and sedimentation: South-western Congo Craton, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Ben; Halverson, Galen P.; Collins, Alan S.

    2012-11-01

    We present LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon ages and field data from the rift-related, Cryogenian-aged Toekems Sub-basin in the south-western Welwitschia Inlier on the southern margin of the Congo Craton in the Damara Belt (Northern Margin Zone), Namibia. The Toekems Sub-basin comprises a wedge up to 730 m-thick of dominantly clastic sediments between Palaeoproterozoic basement and the Cryogenian Abenab Subgroup. The base of the succession is a distinct coarsening upward breccia that contains entirely basement clasts. The overlying strata consist of mixed polymictic conglomerates, debris flow diamictites, tuffs, volcaniclastic sandstone, siltstone, and minor carbonates. A pegmatite cross-cutting the basal breccia has yielded a mean weighted average 206Pb/238U age of 763 ± 5 Ma. This age statistically overlaps the nearby 756 ± 2 Ma Oas Syenite and 760 ± 1 Ma ash bed in the Ombombo Subgroup to the north and is somewhat older than the ca. 746 Ma Naauwpoort Volcanics, which underlie the glacigenic Chuos Formation in the Summas Mountains to the south. This indicates that initial sedimentation in the Toekems Sub-basin began prior to 763 Ma. However, the presence of laminae-deforming lonestones, iron-formation and the stratigraphic position relative to the overlying Rasthof cap carbonate suggest that most of the succession is glacially-influenced, and hence correlates with the Chuos Formation. These results imply a significant disconformity beneath the Naauwpoort Volcanics and suggest multi-phase rifting during the breakup of south-western Congo Craton from Rodinia.

  4. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  5. Phytoplankton bloom in Spencer Gulf, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer in southern Australia is the dry season, and in this true-color MODIS image of South Australia and the Spencer Gulf from October 20,2001, the area's vegetation is losing much of the lushness it possessed in the winter rainy season (See image from September 19, 2001). In southern hemisphere summer, the high pressure systems that dominate the continent's weather move south, and block the rain-bearing westerly winds. The resulting changes in seasonal rainfall are extreme. Many of the rivers are impermanent, and flow into dry or impermanent salt lakes, such as Lake Torrens (long, thin lake bed, roughly in the center of the image), and Lake Eyre (pink and white lake bed to the northwest of Torrens). Between the Eyre Peninsula (lower left) and the Yorke Peninsula further east lies the Spencer Gulf, showing the blue-green swirls that indicate a phytoplankton bloom. Australia gets less rainfall than any continent except Antarctica, and the low and seasonal flows contribute to problems with salinity and algal blooms in the continent's surface waters.

  6. Recoupling the Nd-Hf isotope record of the early Earth? Evidence from the Pilbara craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, T.; Vervoort, J. D.; Smithies, H.; Hickman, A.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Geochemical evidence has long been used to argue for mass exchange between the earliest terrestrial crust and mantle, yet the apparently decoupled Nd-Hf isotope record preserved by the oldest rocks implicates differentiation processes unlike those associated with modern plate tectonics. This debate has, however, been staged in areas of great geological complexity, where the veracity of whole rock radiogenic isotope data is questionable, or involved inferences from ancient detrital zircons whose provenance is enigmatic. Here, we report the Nd and Hf isotope compositions of samples from the Paleoarchaean to Neoarchaean Pilbara craton, a superbly preserved, archetypal granite-greenstone belt in Western Australia. We have analyzed Nd-Hf isotopes in mafic rocks and Hf isotopes in zircons of interleaved felsic units to monitor the effects of whole-rock isotope disturbance and to track the evolution of crust and mantle reservoirs. Mafic samples range from ~3.52 Ga komatiites and basalts of the Warrawoona Group, whose eruption is attributed to mantle plume activity, through to younger (3.12-2.95 Ga) basalts, calc-alkaline basalts and boninites similar to those of intra-oceanic volcanic arcs. Felsic rocks (3.48-2.85 Ga) include dacite and rhyolite units from the greenstone belts and their coeval plutonic counterparts in the granitic complexes. Additionally, the Hf isotope composition of the oldest (3.65-3.73 Ga) detrital zircons from intra-cratonic basins were measured to explore the pre-3.5 Ga history of the craton and to test whether this developed on an older, but unexposed, continental substrate. Results are summarized as follows. Collectively, the Pilbara samples exhibit greater variability in initial 143Nd/144Nd than in 176Hf/177Hf, as has been observed in other ancient Archaean terranes (J. Vervoort et al. Nature 379,1996). Epsilon Hf values of the mafic samples increase from +1.1 at 3.53 Ga to +3.0 at 3.2 Ga, before falling sharply to -3.3 by 2.95 Ga. Epsilon Nd

  7. A major Archean, gold- and crust-forming event in the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Jason; Ruiz, Joaquin; Chesley, John; Walshe, John; England, Gavin

    2002-09-13

    The 2.89- to 2.76-gigayear-old conglomerates of the Central Rand Group of South Africa host an immense concentration of gold. The gold and rounded pyrites from the conglomerates yield a rhenium-osmium isochron age of 3.03 +/- 0.02 gigayears and an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.1079 +/- 0.0001. This age is older than that of the conglomerates. Thus, the gold is detrital and was not deposited by later hydrothermal fluids. This Middle Archean gold mineralization event corresponds to a period of rapid crustal growth in which much of the Kaapvaal craton was formed and is evidence for a significant noble metal flux from the mantle.

  8. Relative Motion of Africa Plate with Respect to South African Kalahari Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoroge, Mary; Malservisi, Rocco; Hugentobler, Urs; Voytenko, Denis

    2014-05-01

    The presence of the Rift Valley within the African continent and its eventual propagation southward in the Okavango rift zone (ORZ) strongly affects the regional seismic hazard evaluation. Here we use a comparison of the motion inferred from the South African GPS network TrigNet with the motion of instruments with the rest of the African continent to evaluate the propagation of the Rift Valley to Botswana. We use data from all the available GPS stations located in the Nubian plate to develop two reference frames north and south of the ORZ. The data was processed using two major codes (Bernese and Gipsy-oasis) to evaluate effects on the references due to processing assumptions. Given the importance of uncertainties in understanding the significance of small signals, a full analysis of the Allan Variance of the velocity has been performed. Preliminary results suggest that although still within the limits of the uncertainties, the data are compatible with relative motion between the TrigNet network and the rest of Nubia, and does not exclude a possible counter clockwise rotation of the South African Kalahari craton with respect to the Nubian plate, and thus a southward propagation of the Rift Valley.

  9. A modern analogue for tectonic, eustatic, and climatic processes in cratonic basins: Gulf of Carpentaria, northern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine; Mattick, R.E.; de Deckker, Patrick; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S.

    2003-01-01

    The Gulf of Carpentaria is a tropical, silled epicontinental sea and may be a modern analogue for ancient cratonic basins. For the purpose of this study, the Gulf of Carpentaria is compared to Pennsylvanian cratonic basins of the United States. During the Pennsylvanian, the North American continent moved from the Southern Hemisphere, through the Equator, into the Northern Hemisphere. Today, the Gulf of Carpentaria–New Guinea region is a few degrees south of the Equator and is moving towards it. During the Pennsylvanian, the world was subjected to major glaciations and associated sea-level changes. The island of New Guinea and the Gulf of Carpentaria have undergone similar processes during the Quaternary. A reconnaissance seismic survey of the gulf conducted by the USGS and the Australian National University (ANU), combined with oil-exploration well data, provided the first step in a systematic evaluation of a modern tropical epicontinental system. During the Cenozoic, the region was dominated by terrestrial sedimentation in a temperate climate. At the same time, carbonates were being deposited on the northern shelf edge of the Australian Plate. During the Miocene, carbonate deposition expanded southward into the gulf region. Then in the Late Miocene, carbonate sedimentation was replaced by terrigenous clastics derived from the developing Central Range of the island of New Guinea, which developed a wetter climate while moving northwards into the tropics. At least 14 basin-wide transgressive–regressive cycles are identified by channels that were eroded under subaerial conditions since about the Miocene. Comparison of the modern Gulf of Carpentaria sequences with those of the Pennsylvanian reveals many similarities.

  10. Education and Change in South Australia. First Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia, Adelaide.

    This publication contains the first report of the Committee of Enquiry into Education in South Australia, the major task of which is to examine and make recommendations to the Minister of Education on the educational system of South Australia. The committee emphasized that there was no need for radical changes in the educational system at this…

  11. Heat flow, heat generation and crustal thermal structure of the northern block of the South Indian Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Mohan L.; Sharma, S. R.; Sundar, A.

    1988-01-01

    Heat flow values and heat generation data calculated from the concentration of heat producing radioactive elements, U, Th and K in surface rocks were analyzed. The South Indian Craton according to Drury et al., can be divided into various blocks, separated by late Proterozoic shear belts. The northern block comprises Eastern and Western Dharwar Cratons of Rogers (1986), Naqvi and Rogers (1987) and a part of the South Indian granulite terrain up to a shear system occupying the Palghat-Cauvery low lands. The geothermal data analysis clearly demonstrates that the present thermal characteristics of the above two Archaean terrains of the Indian and Australian Shields are quite similar. Their crustal thermal structures are likely to be similar also.

  12. 3D modelling of the Leonora district, Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia) Implication for the tectonostratigraphic evolution and Au - mineralisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thebaud, Nicolas; Miller, John; McCuaig, Campbell; Mudrovska, Inna; Love, Bob; McArthur, Adrian; Gallardo, Luis

    2010-05-01

    We present the results of a recent investigation of the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Leonora gold district in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. Our approach relies on a combination of field based structural investigation, the compilation of existing and recently acquired U-Pb SHRIMP data and digital 3D modelling. Our research strategy rigorously tests the geological model(s) generated through the field based study and lithostratigraphic correlation by using 3DGeoModeller geological modelling software. 3DGeoModeller implicitly models the geometry of rock units in 3D constrain by the geological and potential field (gravity and magnetic) data. The results of our research indicate a structural evolution for the Leonora district that can be divided in 3 principal stages. The first stage is associated with the deposition of mafic/ultramafic sequence prior to ca. ca. 2751Ma. Lateral thickness variation of the lithostratigraphic units bounded by cross-structure delineated on potential field images are interpreted as remains of an early basin architecture active prior to or during the time of the greenstone deposition. This early architecture was then affected by at least two major penetrative ductile deformations. D1 is associated with a phase of regional granitic doming dated at ca. 2751 Ma generated through a combination of gravitational tectonic and far-field extension. During this deformation stage the early basin architecture defined during the deposition of the supracrustal cover may have controlled the dome geometry and early fault may have been reactivated to accommodate the deformation. Followed by the deposition of felsic volcanics and metasediments in the greenstone belts, D1 structures are overprinted by a second ductile deformation event D2. D2 is characterized by steep NW-SE- to N-S trending foliations and upright folds. D2 strain is strongly partitioned over the area with granitoid plutons emplaced during D1 acting as rigid block and

  13. A Sm-Nd and Pb isotope study of Archaean greenstone belts in the southern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    An Sm-Nd and Pb study on a wide variety of lithologies in Archaean greenstone belt fragments in the southern Kaapvaal Craton reveals a complex petrogenetic history. The fragments are important because they represent a 350 km transect through the craton south of Barberton to its southern margin. The Commondale greenstone belt yields a precise Sm-Nd age of 3334 + or - 18 Ma on an exceptionally well preserved peridotite suite of komatiitic affinity. The wide range of Sm/Nd from 0.6 to 1.0 is attributed to the unusual occurrence of orthopyroxene in the spinifex-bearing rocks. A considerably younger age of about 3.2 Ga is suggested for the Nondweni greenstone belt close to the southern margin of the craton on the basis of separate Sm-Nd isochrons on individual lithologies ranging from komatiite, through komatiitic basalt and basalt to felsic volcanic rocks. On the basis of the present study the greenstone belts appear to have been emplaced at progressively younger ages toward the southern margin of the craton.

  14. 2.6-2.7 Ga continental crust growth in Yangtze craton, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Gao, S.; Wu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A combined study of zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes and whole rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes has been conducted for 10 granitic and tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses from the Kongling terrain, the only known Archean microcontinent in the Yangtze craton, South China. The results reveal a significant magmatic event at ~2.6-2.7 Ga (Fig. 1), in addition to the previously reported ~2.9 Ga and ~3.2-3.3 Ga magmatism (Zhang et al., 2006; Jiao et al., 2009; Gao et al., 2011). The ~2.6-2.7 Ga rocks show relatively high REE (530-1074 ppm), apparently negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.22-0.35), low #Mg (19.51-22.63) and low LaN/YbN (10.3-24.2). Besides, they have high K-feldspar proportion and relatively evaluated (K2O+Na2O)/CaO, TFeO/MgO, Zr, Nb, Ce and Y contents. Their 10000 × Ga/Al ratios range between 3.00 and 3.54. All these features suggest that the protoliths of these gneisses are A-type granites. Most of the ~2.6-2.7 Ga zircon grains have ɛHf(t) values >0 (up to 7.93, close to the depleted mantle value). This clearly indicates a considerably higher proportion of new crustal components in the ~2.6-2.7 Ga granitoids compared to the ~3.2-3.3 Ga and ~2.9 Ga TTGs. Our results support the conclusion of worldwide studies of igneous and detrital zircons that age peaks at 2.65-2.76 Ga represent increases in the volume of juvenile continental crust. The present study also confirms the existence of the two older magmatic events in the Kongling terrain. Both whole rock ɛNd(t) values (-3.74 to 1.59) and the zircon ɛHf(t) values (-11.18 to 3.55) for the ~2.9 Ga TTG and the Hf isotopes of ~3.2-3.3 Ga igneous zircons (-7.37 to 3.12) are chondritic or subchondritic, suggesting that they were mainly generated by reworking of older rocks with a small amount of new crustal additions. References Gao, S., Yang, J., Zhou, L., Li, M., Hu, Z.C., Guo, J.L., Yuan, H.L., Gong, H.J., Xiao, G.Q., Wei, J.Q., 2011. Age and growth of the Archean Kongling terrain

  15. Magnetic Properties through the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Transition from the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Bio-environmental Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isambert, A.; Carlut, J. H.; Bouquerel, H.; Pecoits, E.; Philippot, P.; Vennin, E.; Ader, M.; Thomazo, C.; Buoncristiani, J. F.; Baton, F.; Le Huen, A. L.; Muller, E.; Deldicque, D.; Sforna, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The origin of iron oxides in Archean and Paleoproterozoic Banded Iron Formations is still a matter of debate. We report here low and high temperature magnetic properties, susceptibility and saturation magnetization results coupled with scanning microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Raman observations and microprobe analyses along a 60 meters section, which encompasses the uppermost Archean Boolgeeda Iron Formation and its transition into the lower Paleoproterozoic Kungarra Formation in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. With the exception of two volcanoclastic intervals characterized by low susceptibility and magnetization, nearly pure magnetite is identified as the main magnetic carrier in all iron-rich layers including hematite-bearing jasper beds. The relative magnetic contribution of magnetite and hematite throughout the section is evidenced by IRM acquisition curves. We observed a sharp decrease in magnetization at the Archean-Proterozoic transition and a general trend in the Verwey temperature. Two populations of magnetically distinct magnetites are reported from a 2 meter-thick interval lying within the late Archean section of the core. Each population shows a specific Verwey transition temperature: one around 120-124K and the other in the range of 105-110K. The two Verwey transitions are interpreted to reflect two distinct stoichiometry and likely two stages of magnetite crystallization. The 120-124K transition is attributed to nearly pure stoichiometric magnetite, whereas SEM, TEM and microprobe observations suggest that the lower temperature transition is related to chemically impure silician magnetite. Microbial-induced partial substitution of iron by silicon is suggested here. This is supported by an increase in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in the same interval and Raman spectroscopy data showing a close association of organic carbon with magnetite.

  16. Seismic signatures of complex geological structures in the Cue-Weld Range area, Murchison domain, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Omid; Koyi, Hemin; Juhlin, Christopher; Gessner, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    The Murchison domain forms the northwest part of the Youanmi Terrane, a tectonic unit within the Neoarchean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. In the Cue-Weld Range area the Murchison domain has experienced a complex magmatic and deformation history that resulted in a transposed array of greenstone belts that host significant iron, gold, and base metal deposits. In this study, we interpret the upper 2 s (about 6 km) of a deep crustal seismic profile 10GA-YU1, near the town of Cue, and correlate rock units and structures in outcrop with corresponding reflections. We performed 3D constant velocity ray-tracing and calculate the corresponding travel times for the reflections for time domain pre-stack and post-stack seismic data. This allows us to link shallow reflections with mafic volcanic rocks of the Glen Group and basaltic rocks of the Polelle Group in outcrop. Based on our interpretation and published geological maps and data, we propose a model in which the local stratigraphy represents a refolded thrust system. To test our hypothesis, we applied 2D acoustic finite difference forward modeling. The corresponding synthetic data were processed in the same way as the acquired data. Comparisons between the acquired and the synthetic data show that the model is consistent with observations. We propose a new model for the subsurface of the Cue-Weld Range area and argue that some of the lithologies in the area are repeated structurally at different levels. Our approach highlights the benefit of imaging and modeling of deep seismic transects to resolve local structural complexity in Archean granite-greenstone terrains.

  17. A Paleoarchean coastal hydrothermal field inhabited by diverse microbial communities: the Strelley Pool Formation, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Sugitani, K; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Suzuki, K; Senda, R; Asahara, Y; Wallis, S; Van Kranendonk, M J

    2015-11-01

    The 3.4-Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) at the informally named 'Waterfall Locality' in the Goldsworthy greenstone belt of the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, provides deeper insights into ancient, shallow subaqueous to possibly subaerial ecosystems. Outcrops at this locality contain a thin (<3 m) unit of carbonaceous and non-carbonaceous cherts and silicified sandstones that were deposited in a shallow-water coastal environment, with hydrothermal activities, consistent with the previous studies. Carbonaceous, sulfide-rich massive black cherts with coniform structures up to 3 cm high are characterized by diverse rare earth elements (REE) signatures including enrichment of light [light rare earth elements (LREE)] or middle rare earth elements and by enrichment of heavy metals represented by Zn. The massive black cherts were likely deposited by mixing of hydrothermal and non-hydrothermal fluids. Coniform structures in the cherts are characterized by diffuse laminae composed of sulfide particles, suggesting that unlike stromatolites, they were formed dominantly through physico-chemical processes related to hydrothermal activity. The cherts yield microfossils identical to previously described carbonaceous films, small and large spheres, and lenticular microfossils. In addition, new morphological types such as clusters composed of large carbonaceous spheroids (20-40 μm across each) with fluffy or foam-like envelope are identified. Finely laminated carbonaceous cherts are devoid of heavy metals and characterized by the enrichment of LREE. This chert locally contains conical to domal structures characterized by truncation of laminae and trapping of detrital grains and is interpreted as siliceous stromatolite formed by very early or contemporaneous silicification of biomats with the contribution of silica-rich hydrothermal fluids. Biological affinities of described microfossils and microbes constructing siliceous stromatolites are under investigation. However, this

  18. An integrated petrological, geochemical and Re-Os isotope study of peridotite xenoliths from the Argyle lamproite, Western Australia and implications for cratonic diamond occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luguet, A.; Jaques, A. L.; Pearson, D. G.; Smith, C. B.; Bulanova, G. P.; Roffey, S. L.; Rayner, M. J.; Lorand, J.-P.

    2009-11-01

    An integrated study of the petrology and Re-Os geochemistry of a suite of peridotite xenoliths, some carrying abundant diamonds, from the richly diamondiferous Argyle AK1 lamproite pipe provides definitive evidence for a depleted lithospheric root of Neoarchean age (T RD eruption ˜ 2.2-3.1 Ga) beneath the Proterozoic Halls Creek Orogen at the margin of the Kimberley Craton, Western Australia. The microdiamonds from the peridotitic xenoliths are similar in their properties to the minor population of small, commercial sized, peridotitic diamonds from Argyle, both formed in the Archean from isotopically mantle-like carbon. The major element bulk chemistry and mineral chemistry of the Argyle peridotites are slightly less depleted than Archean cratonic peridotites as a whole but similar to those reported from Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic cratonic provinces. The Argyle peridotite xenoliths were derived from within the diamond stability field (1050-1300 °C and 4.9-5.9 GPa) near the base of the lithosphere (typically 160-200 km depth) with a geothermal gradient of 41.5 mW/m 2. This thick diamondiferous lithosphere, estimated at up to 225 km thick from present day seismic S-wave tomography, appears to have persisted since the time of eruption of the Argyle lamproite (˜ 1180 Ma). The existence of late Archean age lithosphere beneath the Argyle diamond pipe, in a region where no crustal rocks of Archean age are known, suggests a decoupling of the crust and mantle in the region of the Halls Creek Orogen, perhaps as a consequence of Paleoproterozoic (˜ 1.85 Ga) reworking and/or subduction at the margin of the Kimberley Craton. The confirmation of an Archean lithospheric root beneath the Argyle pipe at the margin of the Kimberley Craton seemingly conforms with "Clifford's Rule", regarding the restriction of economic diamond deposits to those underlain by Archean cratons. However, Argyle owes its rich diamond grades not to its Neoarchean mantle roots but to the presence of

  19. 2004 NAI-ADP Deep Diamond Drill Cores: Transects Through Archean Time in the Pilbara Craton, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Bonser, L. C.

    2004-12-01

    In July-August 2004, the NASA Astrobiology Drilling Program sponsored the coring of 3 deep diamond-drill holes in the Pilbara Craton of northwest Australia. The holes targeted the lowest grade and least deformed sedimentary sections of 4 stratigraphic units: the 2.4-2.6 Ga Hamersley Group, the 2.7 Ga Tumbiana Formation of the Fortescue Group, the 3.4 Ga Warrawoona Group, and the 3.5 Ga Coonterunah Group. ABDP 8 cored the unconformity between the Warrawoona and Coonterunah Groups to a depth of 330 metres, intersecting it at 155 metres. Because of syn-depositional erosion, the Strelley Pool Chert was attenuated and the alteration zone beneath the unconformity was scoured and filled to a depth of 10 metres by quartz arenite. As a result, no definitive lithological determination on its status as a potential paleosol could be made. Secondary oxidative alteration was present in Coonterunah cherts to depths of at least 220 metres down-hole. ABDP 9 cored 984 metres of the lower Hamersley Group, from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation into the Paraburdoo Member of the Wittenoom Formation. Though the hole was intended to penetrate the uppermost Fortescue Group, drilling was terminated early because of equipment damage by fractured rock, loss of water circulation clogging the hole with cuttings and unanticipated thickening of the Paraburdoo Member by dilational fracturing, expansive brecciation and cavity formation. 79 samples for organic geochemical analysis of biomarker syngenesis were collected under clean conditions immediately the core surfaced. A horizon of impact spherules was intersected in the Bee Gorge Member of the Wittenoom Formation; unlike surface exposures, it was markedly silicified and chloritized in drill-core. ABDP 10 cored 210 metres of the Tumbiana Formation, intersecting the entire Meentheena Carbonate Member, the upper Mingah Tuff Member and terminating just below 4 scoriaceous basalt flows. Large and complex calcareous stromatolites

  20. Asymmetry of Non-Volcanic Passive Margins Induced by the Proximity of a Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres-Martinez, M.; Perez-Gussinye, M.; Morgan, J. P.; Araujo, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Symmetry of conjugated rifted margins is controlled by the rheology of the crust and the mantle, extension velocities and heterogeneities in the lithosphere. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how the feedbacks between these initial conditions influence the final architecture of passive margins and the polarity of the asymmetry. Here we focus on cratons as stiff heterogeneities which potentially induce asymmetry. For simplicity, we choose to address only non-volcanic rifted margins developed next to cratons, such as the Brazil-Congo and Australia-Antarctica margin pairs. In the South Atlantic case, where cratons are closer to the margins (north of Sao Francisco craton and north and south of Congo craton) the margins are narrow, while wide margins develop far away from cratons. Extreme asymmetry occurs where rifting takes place close to a craton in one margin (narrow) and a fold belt in the conjugate (wide). The same is observed for the Australia-Antarctic pair in the sector of Recherche basin, where the Australian margin is narrow next to the Yilgarn craton and widens towards the east as it lays further from the craton. We use numerical models in order to study how cratons induce asymmetry of conjugated rifted margins and affect the polarity of the asymmetry. We ran experiments with different lower crustal rheologies for a fold belt lithosphere in order to understand which rheologies 'naturally' result in asymmetric margins. We also ran experiments where a cratonic lithosphere is placed next to a fold belt lithosphere, and where rifting is initiated by a weak seed in the fold belt at different distances from the craton. We found that where some fold belt experiments result in symmetric margins, their equivalent experiments with craton result in asymmetric margins. Furthermore, strong- and intermediate-rheology experiments with cratons showcase narrow margins in the craton side and wide margins on the fold belt side. We also observe that the distance from the

  1. Fluctuations of Lake Eyre, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Eyre is a large salt lake situated between two deserts in one of Australia's driest regions. However, this low-lying lake attracts run-off from one of the largest inland drainage systems in the world. The drainage basin is very responsive to rainfall variations, and changes dramatically with Australia's inter-annual weather fluctuations. When Lake Eyre fills,as it did in 1989, it is temporarily Australia's largest lake, and becomes dense with birds, frogs and colorful plant life. The Lake responds to extended dry periods (often associated with El Nino events) by drying completely.

    These four images from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer contrast the lake area at the start of the austral summers of 2000 and 2002. The top two panels portray the region as it appeared on December 9, 2000. Heavy rains in the first part of 2000 caused both the north and south sections of the lake to fill partially and the northern part of the lake still contained significant standing water by the time these data were acquired. The bottom panels were captured on November 29, 2002. Rainfall during 2002 was significantly below average ( http://www.bom.gov.au/ ), although showers occurring in the week before the image was acquired helped alleviate this condition slightly.

    The left-hand panels portray the area as it appeared to MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and are false-color views comprised of data from the near-infrared, green and blue channels. Here, wet and/or moist surfaces appear blue-green, since water selectively absorbs longer wavelengths such as near-infrared. The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree forward, nadir and 60-degree backward-viewing cameras, displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. In these multi-angle composites, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and indicate textural properties of the surface related to roughness and/or moisture

  2. Cancer incidence in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    McCredie, M; Coates, M; Churches, T; Taylor, R

    1991-01-01

    In 1972, cancer registration began in New South Wales (NSW), the most populous state in Australia. The operations of the Registry are described. By 1990, approximately 316,000 new cases of cancer had been notified from a population that had increased from 4.6 to 5.8 million. In 1981-1984, the most common sites in men were lung, prostate, colon, melanoma and bladder, and in women, breast, melanoma, colon, lung and unknown primary site. Cancers which, between 1973-1976 and 1981-1984, had increased in reported incidence by more than 25% were pharynx and kidney in both sexes, rectum, testis and melanoma in men, and lung and bladder in women; those decreasing by more than 10% were stomach in both sexes, oesophagus in men and cervix in women. Age-standardised incidence rates for melanoma (27.4 [m] and 23.8 [f] per 100,000 in 1987) and cancer of the renal pelvis in women (1.7 per 100,000 in 1989) are among the highest in the world.

  3. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes, it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake.

  4. Dolomite occurrence in Coorong region, south Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, M.; Warren, J.K. )

    1988-02-01

    Lakes in the Coorong region are filled with a diverse suite of Holocene carbonates; mineralogies include aragonite, calcite, magnesium-calcite, magnesite, hydromagnesite, and dolomite. Dolomite is the main mineral of concern in this paper, yet it makes up no more than 5% of the carbonate minerals forming surficial deposits in the coastal plain of southeast South Australia. Coorong dolomite occurs as three stratigraphically and mineralogically distinct forms. Volumetrically, the most important type of dolomite is an evaporative dolomite laid down as the last episode of sedimentation in those Coorong Lakes that contain dolomite. In most lakes, dolomite is a capstone unit no more than a meter thick, although in a few lakes it has infilled the lakes to form dolomitic units up to 4-5 m thick. Evaporative dolomite is usually magnesian-rich. In some lakes, a calcian-rich dolomite occurs along the edges of the lake. Like the evaporative upper dolomite, this dolomite is not intergrown with other carbonate phases and appears to define areas where continental ground waters first enter the lake. A third type of dolomite occurs in some Coorong lakes. A basal dolomite, which is more crystalline than the other two forms of dolomite, appears to have formed some 6000 years ago when the rising Pleistocene water table (driven by a transgressing sea) first caused continental ground waters to outcrop and evaporate at the surface.

  5. Moho geometry along a north-south passive seismic transect through Central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Receiver functions from a temporary deployment of 25 broadband stations along a north-south transect through Central Australia are used to retrieve crustal and uppermost mantle structural constraints from a combination of different methods. Using H-K stacking as well as receiver function inversion, overall thick crust with significant thickness variation along the profile (40 to ≥ 55 km) is found. Bulk crustal vp/vs values are largely in the felsic to intermediate range, with the southernmost stations on the Gawler Craton exhibiting higher values in excess of 1.8. A common conversion point (CCP) stacking profile shows three major discontinuities of the crust-mantle boundary: (1) a two-sided Moho downwarp beneath the Musgrave Province, which has previously been associated with the Neoproterozoic to early Cambrian Petermann Orogeny, (2) a Moho offset along the Redbank Shear Zone further north attributed to the Middle to Late Paleozoic Alice Springs Orogeny, and (3) another Moho offset further north, located at the boundary between the Davenport and Warramunga Provinces, which has not been imaged before. In all cases, the difference in crustal thickness between the two sides of the offset is > 8-10 km. Unlike the two southern Moho offsets, the northernmost one does not coincide with a prominent gravity anomaly. Its location and the absence of known reactivation events in the region make it likely that it belongs to a Proterozoic suture zone that marks a previously unknown block boundary within the North Australian Craton.

  6. Integrated water resource assessment for the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, James W.; Akeroyd, Michele; Oliver, Danielle P.

    2016-10-01

    South Australia is the driest state in the driest inhabited country in the world, Australia. Consequently, water is one of South Australia's highest priorities. Focus on water research and sources of water in the state became more critical during the Millenium drought that occurred between 1997 and 2011. In response to increased concern about water sources the South Australian government established The Goyder Institute for Water Research - a partnership between the South Australian State Government, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Flinders University, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. The Goyder Institute undertakes cutting-edge science to inform the development of innovative integrated water management strategies to ensure South Australia's ongoing water security and enhance the South Australian Government's capacity to develop and deliver science-based policy solutions in water management. This paper focuses on the integrated water resource assessment of the northern Adelaide region, including the key research investments in water and climate, and how this information is being utilised by decision makers in the region.

  7. Provenances of the Mesozoic sediments in the Ordos Basin and implications for collision between the North China Craton (NCC) and the South China Craton (SCC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Bao; Yuelong, Chen; Dapeng, Li; Shanhui, Wang

    2014-12-01

    To constrain the provenance of the Ordos Basin and the evolution history of the Qinling Orogen Belt from the Triassic to the Jurassic, 10 samples from the Dongsheng area and 28 samples from the Yan'an area were analyzed for U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions. The results indicate that Middle Jurassic sediments in the Dongsheng area were derived from the Khondalite Belt, Langshan Mountain and the Yinshan Terrane. Mesozoic sediments in the Yan'an area consist of two parts. One part is derived from the North China Craton (NCC), which has U-Pb age groups of ∼1.8 Ga and ∼2.5 Ga, and Hf model ages of ∼2.8 Ga. The other part is derived from the Qilian-Qinling Orogenic Belt, which has U-Pb age groups of 600-1500 Ma and 100-500 Ma, and Nd and Hf isotopic model ages of less than 2.2 Ga. Combining the U-Pb ages with the Hf and Nd isotopic model ages, Mesozoic detrital zircons with U-Pb age groups of ∼1.8 Ga and ∼2.5 Ga in the Yan'an area are found to also be derived from the Khondalite Belt, Langshan Mountain and the Yinshan Terrane, not from the Trans-China Orogen Belt. From the late-Late Triassic sediments of the Yan'an area, the low average values of the Hf (2.03 Ga) and Nd (2.03 Ga) model ages and the characteristic age population of 600-1500 Ma reveal that the main collision or continental subduction between the NCC and the South China Craton (SCC) occurred in the late-Late Triassic. After the main collision or continental subduction, the proportion of sediments from the Qinling-Qilian Orogenic Belt began to decrease (recorded in the early Jurassic samples), which may be in response to the gradual slowing of the uplift speed of the Qinling Orogenic Belt. In the early-middle Jurassic, the sediments have a main U-Pb age population of 100-500 Ma, low detrital zircon Hf model ages (average value is 1.17 Ga) and low whole rock Nd model ages (average value is 1.13 Ga), which suggests that the Qilian-Qinling Orogenic Belt may have a fast uplift

  8. Linear Dunes and Playas, Simson Desert, South Australia, Australia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-12-01

    This image of abstract shapes is comprised numerous subparallel, very long, orange colored linear dunes and patchy grey dry lakes (playas). The dunes are aligned north to south in the great central basin of Astralia (27.0S, 138.0E). The regularity of the dunes is created by the winds blowing from the south. As the dunes advance, jaged edges on the south side of each dry lake are formed while the north side is eroded smooth by the wind and water.

  9. Multidisciplinary Study of the Precambrian Biosphere and Surficial Oxygenation, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa: The Agouron Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Beukes, N. J.; Evans, D. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Knoll, A. H.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2004-12-01

    The Campbellrand-Kuruman carbonate-iron formation stratigraphic succession, which drapes the Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, provides a unique opportunity to study the latest Archean/Earliest Proterozoic time interval in a multidisciplinary fashion, for four principal reasons: 1) The >1 km-thick succession of carbonates, cherts, shales, and associated iron formations is a storehouse of various geochemical and paleoclimatic proxy records, 2) the carbonate platform has never been significantly buried and contains abundant limestone, thus offering strong potential for preservation of organic biomarkers, 3) the occurrence of early chert and abundant early sea-floor carbonate crusts provide good potential for the preservation of microfossils and magnetofossils, and 4) much of the stratigraphic succession has not been significantly deformed and we have estabilshed a chronostratigraphic framework in which shallow water facies can be traced down the ancient paleoslope into facies deposited at water depths > 250 meters within a sequence stratigraphic context, supplemented with correlation of three impact spherule layers. The geologic framework provided by this sequence of rock offers an unparalleled opportunity to study the structure and composition of the Archean ocean and to merge this information with co-existing paleontological and geochemical records. With support from the Agouron Institute, two separate cores, each ~ 1.5 km in length, were drilled through the margin of the carbonate platform, spaced so as to intercept the transitional facies at two paleodepths. The holes were deviated slightly from vertical so that a ball-mark system could be used to obtain absolute orientation. To enhance the utility for paleomagnetic investigations, core barrels and bits were demagnetized routinely with a portable mu-metal shielded coil assembly to reduce remagnetization problems, and all core slicing was done with non-magnetic blades. To minimize contamination problems for

  10. Isolation and Education: Educational Aspirations and Achievements in South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, R. McL.; And Others

    Focusing on two isolated rural communities in South Australia which have experienced a sense of isolation for a long time (The South-East and Eyre Peninsula), the paper presents an examination of the pattern of educational needs and interest of residents in isolated rural communities, and their relation to the changing social and educational…

  11. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  12. Research Ready Program: A First in Regional South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penman, Joy; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    In response to the South Australian Certificate of Education (SACE) Board's introduction in 2010 of the new Research Project subject, the University of South Australia's Centre for Participation and Community Engagement took the opportunity to engage further with school students by organising the Research Ready Program. The adoption of the program…

  13. 2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean

  14. Genesis of superimposed hypogene and supergene Fe orebodies in BIF at the Madoonga deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duuring, Paul; Hagemann, Steffen

    2013-03-01

    The Madoonga iron ore body hosted by banded iron formation (BIF) in the Weld Range greenstone belt of Western Australia is a blend of four genetically and compositionally distinct types of high-grade (>55 wt% Fe) iron ore that includes: (1) hypogene magnetite-talc veins, (2) hypogene specular hematite-quartz veins, (3) supergene goethite-hematite, and (4) supergene-modified, goethite-hematite-rich detrital ores. The spatial coincidence of these different ore types is a major factor controlling the overall size of the Madoonga ore body, but results in a compositionally heterogeneous ore deposit. Hypogene magnetite-talc veins that are up to 3 m thick and 50 m long formed within mylonite and shear zones located along the limbs of isoclinal, recumbent F1 folds. Relative to least-altered BIF, the magnetite-talc veins are enriched in Fe2O3(total), P2O5, MgO, Sc, Ga, Al2O3, Cl, and Zr; and depleted in SiO2 and MnO2. Mafic igneous countryrocks located within 10 m of the northern contact of the mineralised BIF display the replacement of primary igneous amphibole and plagioclase, and metamorphic chlorite by hypogene ferroan chlorite, talc, and magnetite. Later-forming, hypogene specular hematite-quartz veins and their associated alteration halos partly replace magnetite-talc veins in BIF and formed during, to shortly after, the F2-folding and tilting of the Weld Range tectono-stratigraphy. Supergene goethite-hematite ore zones that are up to 150 m wide, 400 m long, and extend to depths of 300 m replace least-altered BIF and existing hypogene alteration zones. The supergene ore zones formed as a result of the circulation of surface oxidised fluids through late NNW- to NNE-trending, subvertical brittle faults. Flat-lying, supergene goethite-hematite-altered, detrital sediments are concentrated in a paleo-topographic depression along the southern side of the main ENE-trending ridge at Madoonga. Iron ore deposits of the Weld Range greenstone belt record remarkably similar

  15. The Thermal Structure and Strength of Cratons and their Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C. P.; Mareschal, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The large cratons of today are made of younger terranes that wrap around older cores. Deformation due to accretion did not proceed in homogeneous fashion and was concentrated in the younger belts. This is illustrated clearly in the Archean Superior Province, Canada. In this area, one observes little imbrication of accreted crust and craton core, in contrast to the laterally extensive thrusting that has affected the younger terranes to the South. The boundary between the craton core and accreted belts is a nearly vertical interface delineated by steeply dipping electrical and seismic anomalies extending to the base of the lithosphere. These steeply dipping structures have been interpreted as relicts of the subduction that drove accretion. By contrast, the sub-crustal subduction remnant that is imaged beneath younger terranes to the south shows up as a moderately dipping (≈30°) structure. These observations suggest a stiff craton surrounded by weaker belts. This strength contrast may have affected later events, such as the Keweenawan rifing, which propagated northward through the accreted terranes but stopped short of impinging the craton core. In the Superior Province, crustal heat production is much higher in the accreted terranes than in the craton core, implying higher temperatures and lower mechanical strength. Such a remarkable dichotomy also exists in South Africa, where the Limpopo and Namaqua belts are characterized by higher heat flux and crustal heat production than the adjacent Archean Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe cratons. The generality of this cannot be assessed on the basis of heat flow and heat production data which are scarce in most other cratons. These cratons, however, are characterized by post-orogenic high temperature metamorphism which is best explained by high crustal heat production. This is true, for example, for the Jimperding metamorphic belt at the edge of the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. Thus, cratons appear to be surrounded, and

  16. Evolution of South African Cratonic Peridotites Based on Micro-XRF Mapping and Reconstruction of Bulk Rock Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerenday, S. P.; Costin, G.; Jiang, H.; Lee, C. T.

    2016-12-01

    The bulk composition of cratonic peridotites can reveal useful information about the igneous protolith. However, many peridotites are coarse-grained, making it challenging to obtain representative sampling on the thin section scale. Destructive bulk rock analysis would require sacrificing too much of the sample. Here, we examine samples from eight coarse-grained peridotite xenoliths from the Bultfontein kimberlite pipe in the Kaapvaal craton. The samples were mapped by micro-XRF over areas ranging from approximately 25-70 cm2; clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, olivine, garnet, and spinel were identified based on major element compositions and comparison with hand samples. Mineral modes were calculated based on area percentages, and bulk rock compositions were reconstructed by combining these with elemental abundances in major minerals, measured by electron microprobe. Most of the samples in this study display a harzburgitic composition, with oxide weight percentages and Mg# which appear consistent with measurements in the literature for Archean cratonic peridotites from South Africa, particularly those formed in the garnet facies. Bulk FeO and MgO contents suggests that the peridotite protoliths examined here formed by melt extraction at temperatures ranging from 1600-1700°C with melt fractions up to 40%. This study will seek to further reconstruct the P-T history of the peridotites by examining subsolidus equilibration temperatures and pressures. The temperature and pressure at which the igneous protoliths formed is derived from the bulk rock composition. Thermobarometry on minerals, combined with consideration of diffusion kinetics, will be used to determine rates of sub-solidus P-T change.

  17. Crustal imaging of a mobile belt using magnetotellurics: An example of the Fowler Domain in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Stephan; Heinson, Graham

    2010-06-01

    A long-period magnetotelluric data set was obtained in 2005 along a two-dimensional profile across the western part of the late Archaean-early Proterozoic Gawler Craton, South Australia. The study is aimed at delineating the electrical conductivity structure of the crust and upper mantle underneath an east-west trending profile extending from the Gawler Range Volcanics in the east, crossing the Nuyts Domain and the highly prospective Meso-Proterozoic Fowler Domain, and terminating in the Eucla Basin to the west. The resistivity model shows a very electrically resistive crust and upper mantle underneath the Nuyts and Fowler Domain, possibly representing the cratonic root of the Gawler Craton extending to depths of ˜160 km. The resistive cratonic root is closer to the surface underneath the Fowler Domain compared to the Nuyts Domain which supports findings from outcrops of metasediments of higher metamorphic grade in the Fowler Domain. A subvertical conductor marks the western terminus of the Fowler Domain and is imaged to upper mantle depths. On the eastern side of the Fowler Domain, another subvertical conductor extends to similar depths. These features spatially coincide with the Tallacootra and Coorabie shear zone at the surface, respectively, and their higher conductivity is likely due to a reduction in grain size of olivine associated with an increase in influence of grain boundary diffusion and thus enhanced conductivity. A comparison of the results with other surveys across mobile belts worldwide shows a more resistive response of the interpreted mobile belt of the Fowler Domain raising questions as to the nature of the domain.

  18. South Pacific: Australia comes back strong

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Exploration and production action experienced mixed fortunes last year. Exploration improved markedly with increased Australian activity. Liquids output declined, but gas production was up overall. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, development, and production in Australia, the Zone of Cooperation, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea.

  19. Deciphering relative timing of fabric development in granitoids with similar absolute ages based on AMS study (Dharwar Craton, South India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Sandeep; Rana, Virendra; Mamtani, Manish A.

    2017-01-01

    Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) data are presented from the Koppal Granitoid (Dharwar Craton, South India) that has U-Pb zircon age of 2528 ± 9 Ma. The magnetic fabric is oriented in NNE-SSW direction. This is parallel to the planar structures that developed during regional D3 deformation, but oblique to the NNW-SSE oriented magnetic foliation as well as field foliation (D1/D2 deformation) recorded in the country rock Peninsular Gneiss. Variation in the intensity of fabric within the granitoid is mapped. It is inferred that the emplacement of Koppal Granitoid took place by ballooning and fabric development within the pluton was syntectonic with regional D3. These results are compared with the time-relationship between emplacement/fabric development and regional deformation reported from the Mulgund Granite (2555 ± 6 Ma; U-Pb zircon), which is also located in the Dharwar Craton and is equivalent to the Koppal Granitoid in age. This granite is known to have emplaced syntectonically with regional D1/D2 deformation, and is thus not related to the same deformation event as the Koppal Granitoid, despite their similar absolute ages. It is argued that in the study area, D3 is ≤2537 Ma, while D1/D2 is ≥2549 Ma in age. Thus, this study highlights the use of AMS in (a) deciphering the relative timing of regional deformation and emplacement of granitoids of equivalent age and (b) constraining the timing of regional superposed deformation events.

  20. Petrogenesis and Tectonic Implications of Paleoproterozoic Metapelitic Rocks in the Archean Kongling Complex from the Northern Yangtze Craton, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, W.; Xiong, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The Archean Kongling Complex in the northern Yangtze Craton is an ideal target to investigate the Precambrian accretion and evolution of continental crust in South China. This study aims to unravel the crustal evolution and tectonic setting of the Yangtze Craton during the Paleoproterozoic time, using integrated studies of petrography, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopes and whole-rock geochemistry of Paleoproterozoic metapelitic rocks in the Kongling Complex. These rocks contain garnet, sillimanite, biotite, plagioclase, minor graphite and ilmenite. Zircons from the samples show nebulous sector-zoning and rim-core structure, suggesting both metamorphic origin and detrital origin with metamorphic overprints. The metamorphic zircons and metamorphic overprints have concordant 207Pb/206Pb age at ~2.0 Ga, while detrital grains yield three distinct concordant-age populations of >2.5 Ga, 2.4-2.2 Ga and 2.2-2.1 Ga. The age patterns indicate that the depositional age of the metasedimentary rocks was 2.1-2.0 Ga. Those 2.2-2.1 Ga detrital zircons with variable ɛHf(t) values (-7.28 to 2.97) suggest the addition of juvenile materials from depleted mantle to the crust during 2.2-2.1 Ga. The 2.4-2.2 Ga zircons have Hf model ages (TDM2) of ~2.6-3.5 Ga and >2.5 Ga zircons have TDM2 ages varying from 2.9 Ga to 3.3 Ga. The new data suggest that the Kongling Complex was originally a Paleoarchean (old up to 3.5 Ga) continental nucleus, which experienced multiple episodes of growth and reworking events at 3.3-3.2 Ga, 2.9 Ga, 2.7-2.6 Ga, 2.4-2.2 Ga and 2.2-2.1 Ga. In combination with available data, the new results in this study suggest a continent-arc-continent evolution model to explain the tectonic evolution of the Yangtze Craton during the Paleoproterozoic time: the western margin of Yangtze Craton was originally an individual continent, which underwent a reworking event during 2.4-2.2 Ga and a crust growth event caused by continent-arc collision during 2.2-2.1 Ga; it subsequently collided

  1. Apatite at Olympic Dam, South Australia: A petrogenetic tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krneta, Sasha; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ehrig, Kathy; Kontonikas-Charos, Alkis

    2016-10-01

    The > 10,000 million tonne Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U-Ag deposit, (eastern Gawler Craton, South Australia) is one of the largest orebodies in the World. The deposit is hosted within the Olympic Dam Breccia Complex, placed at the centre of, and resulting from multiple brecciation and Fe-metasomatism of the Roxby Downs Granite (RDG). The latter is part of a larger batholith emplaced at 1.6 Ga. Apatite petrography and chemistry were studied in non-mineralised RDG and coeval granitoids and dolerites, as well as in mineralised RDG from deep (> 2 km) and distal (2.7 km to NE) locations. In both latter cases, although the mineralisation corresponds to the same, early chalcopyrite-pyrite-magnetite ± hematite stage identified in the outer and deeper zones of the deposit itself, the character of granite alteration differs: sericite-chlorite alteration with all feldspar replaced in the deep location; and red-stained K-feldspar on top of prevailing albitization in the distal location. Close-to end-member fluorapatite is a key accessory mineral in all igneous rocks and a common product of early hydrothermal alteration within mineralised granite. Variations in habit, morphology and textures correlate with chemical trends expressed as evolving Cl/F ratios, and concentrations of REE + Y (hereafter REY), Sr, Mn, S, Si and Na. Magmatic apatite is unzoned in the dolerite but features core to REY-enriched rim zonation in the granitoids. Increases in Cl- and Sr-contents correlate with rock basicity. Calculation of Cl in the vapour phase relative to melt at the apatite saturation temperature for zoned apatite in the RDG shows higher values for grains with inclusion-rich cores associated with mafic enclaves, concordant with assimilation of exotic material during magma crystallisation. Hydrothermal alteration of magmatic apatite is most varied in the dolerite where interaction with fluids is expressed as subtle changes in Cl- versus F- and REY-enrichment, and most importantly, S-enrichment in

  2. Gravity Survey of the Mt. Toondina Impact Structure South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J.; Shoemaker, E.; Shoemaker, C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents data to support the conclusion that gravity data combined with seismic reflection data and surface stuctural geologic mapping for the Mt. Toondina structure in South Australia reveal that the central uplift is surrounded by a ring structural depression.

  3. Late Cambrian palaeomagnetic data from the Cupala Creek Formation, western New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vérard, Christian

    2012-08-01

    The Tasmanides of south-eastern Australia comprises the Delamerian Orogen, considered to be stable relative to the craton of Gondwana since the mid Cambrian, despite the presence of the Grasmere Knee Zone, a change of structural trends in the Broken Hill area. A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out on the Late Cambrian red sandstones of the Cupala Creek Formation, a post-Delamerian formation gently folded in the latest Ordovician-Early Silurian and/or Early Devonian. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements show that internal strain is negligible and low Königsberger ratios indicate that lightning effects can be discarded. The magnetisation observed is complex with four components, which are sometimes difficult to isolate clearly. The orientation of the first component corresponds to the present-day field and appears to be associated with weathering effects. The second component (~185°-350°C) is of reverse polarity relative to the third (350°-575°C). These two components are interpreted to represent a chemical remagnetisation, which lasted long enough to record a reversal as the reversal test is positive and classified C. The overprint must be Early Palaeozoic in age. The last component is carried by haematite and/or maghaemite and is believed to be primary, which is supported by the positive `pseudo-unconformity' test with the underlying Early-Middle Cambrian Teltawongee beds, and by the good correspondence of the pole [PLong. 351.3°/PLat.+33.9° (dp=3.6° dm=6.0°) African coordinates] with other poles of the same age for Gondwana. Despite the presence of the Grasmere Knee Zone, these results imply that this area of the Delamerian Orogen did not record any movement or rotation since the Late Cambrian and can be considered as part of the craton of Gondwana.

  4. (Im)moral Education in South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    Moral relativism, spearheaded by values clarification techniques, has transformed the ethos of South Australian schools. The theory and practice of innovative pedagogy in the realm of moral values is critiqued. Suggestions as to how a secular system of education can avoid moral anarchy without relapsing into ideological indoctrination are made.…

  5. Applicability of aeromagnetics for kimberlite exploration in the hard rock terrain of the Eastern Dharwar Craton, south India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, P.; Ram Babu, H. V.

    2011-12-01

    In south India, the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC) is one of the most promising geological entities for Kimberlite exploration. World famous diamonds like Kohinoor were discovered in this region that is known as "Home of Diamonds" since ages. The eastern most part of this craton is occupied by the mid-upper proterozoic rocks of the Cuddapah basin and the western part is the archean terrain intruded by a number of kimberilte pipes. In recent times, atleast 60 kimberlite pipes are discovered by various geological and geophysical methods and the search continues further. As the area is extremely large, airborne geophysical survey is considered to be the best option to scan large areas in a limited time frame. Since 1980's aeromagnetic surveys have been conducted on various scales in EDC for kimberlite exploration with the available technology at that point of time. These aeromagnetic data sets helped in narrowing down the prospective zones through identifying favourable geological environments, though, highly variable physical property contrast made direct detection of kimberlite pipes in this region a challenging task. More recently, in the year 2004, about 5000 square kilometers have been covered by high resolution aeromagnetic survey with a sensor height of 40 m at 200m line spacing. This area in the EDC, specifically known as Kalyandurg area is traversed by many doleritic and amphibole dykes in ENE, WNW directions with a number of shear zones in ENE and N-S directions. The dikes and the host rock produces large amplitude high frequency magnetic anomalies that are much similar to those of kimberlites. Detailed interpretation of aeromagnetic data could lead to reveal a large number of anomalies that could be attributed to kimberlites. The success of the aeromagnetic method in a highly noisy environment such as this depends only on the interpretation skills and the data processing tools that are discussed in this paper

  6. High-quality heat flow determination from the crystalline basement of the south-east margin of North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guangzheng; Tang, Xiaoyin; Rao, Song; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Linyou; Zhao, Ping; Hu, Shengbiao

    2016-03-01

    Very few of heat flow data have come from the crystalline basement in the North China Craton but rather from boreholes in the sedimentary cover of oil-gas basins. Explorations for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources and porphyry gold deposits in eastern China offer now valuable opportunities to study the terrestrial heat flow in the crystalline basement. In this study, we obtained continuous temperature logs from two boreholes (the LZ borehole with a depth of 3471 m and the DR borehole with a depth of 2179 m) located in the south-east margin of the North China Craton. The boreholes have experienced long shut-in times (442 days and 261 days for the LZ borehole and DR borehole, respectively); thus, it can be expected that the temperature conditions have re-equilibrated after drilling and drill-mud circulation. Rock thermal conductivity and radiogenic heat production were measured for 68 crystalline rock samples from these two boreholes. The measured heat-flow density was determined to be 71.8 ± 2.3 mW m-2 (for the LZ borehole) and 91.5 ± 1.2 mW m-2 (for the DR borehole). The heat flow for the LZ borehole is close to the value of 75 mW m-2 determined in the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling main hole (CCSD MH), both being in the Sulu-Dabie orogenic belt and thus able to verify each other. The value for the DR borehole is higher than the above two values, which supports former high heat-flow values determined in the Bohai Bay Basin.

  7. Identifying Centres of Plant Biodiversity in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Greg R.; Biffin, Ed; Baruch, Zdravko; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify regional centres of plant biodiversity in South Australia, a sub-continental land area of 983,482 km2, by mapping a suite of metrics. Broad-brush conservation issues associated with the centres were mapped, specifically climate sensitivity, exposure to habitat fragmentation, introduced species and altered fire regimes. We compiled 727,417 plant species records from plot-based field surveys and herbarium records and mapped the following: species richness (all species; South Australian endemics; conservation-dependent species; introduced species); georeferenced weighted endemism, phylogenetic diversity, georeferenced phylogenetic endemism; and measures of beta diversity at local and state-wide scales. Associated conservation issues mapped were: climate sensitivity measured via ordination and non-linear modelling; habitat fragmentation represented by the proportion of remnant vegetation within a moving window; fire prone landscapes assessed using fire history records; invasive species assessed through diversity metrics, species distribution and literature. Compared to plots, herbarium data had higher spatial and taxonomic coverage but records were more biased towards major transport corridors. Beta diversity was influenced by sampling intensity and scale of comparison. We identified six centres of high plant biodiversity for South Australia: Western Kangaroo Island; Southern Mount Lofty Ranges; Anangu Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara lands; Southern Flinders Ranges; Southern Eyre Peninsula; Lower South East. Species composition in the arid-mediterranean ecotone was the most climate sensitive. Fragmentation mapping highlighted the dichotomy between extensive land-use and high remnancy in the north and intensive land-use and low remnancy in the south. Invasive species were most species rich in agricultural areas close to population centres. Fire mapping revealed large variation in frequency across the state. Biodiversity scores were not always

  8. Melting of a subduction-modified mantle source: A case study from the Archean Marda Volcanic Complex, central Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. A.; Kirkland, C. L.

    2014-03-01

    Subduction processes on early earth are controversial, with some suggestions that tectonics did not operate until the earth cooled to a sufficient point around the Archean-Proterozoic boundary. One way of addressing this issue is to examine well-preserved successions of Archean supracrustal rocks. Here we discuss petrography, whole-rock chemical and isotopic data combined with zircon Hf isotopes from andesites, high-magnesium andesites (HMA), dacites, high-magnesium dacites (HMD), rhyolites and coeval felsic intrusive rocks of the c. 2730 Ma Marda Volcanic Complex (MVC) in the central Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. We demonstrate that these rocks result from melting of a metasomatized mantle source, followed by fractional crystallization in a crustal magma chamber. Contamination of komatiite by Archean crust, to produce the Marda Volcanic Complex andesites, is not feasible, as most of these crustal sources are too radiogenic to act as viable contaminants. The ɛNd(2730) of MVC andesites can be produced by mixing 10% Narryer semi-pelite with komatiite, consistent with modelling using Hf isotopes, but to achieve the required trace element concentrations, the mixture needs to be melted by about 25%. The most likely scenario is the modification of a mantle wedge above a subducting plate, coeval with partial melting, producing volcanic rocks with subduction signatures and variable Mg, Cr and Ni contents. Subsequent fractionation of cognate phases can account for the chemistry of dacites and rhyolites.

  9. Palaeointensity and palaeodirection determinations of Paleoproterozoic dykes in the Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Lubnina, N. V.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2012-04-01

    A combined palaeodirectional and palaeointensity study of a representative collection from the Bushveld Igneous Complex from 27 dolerite dykes from the 2.9, 2.7, and 1.8 Ga age swarms radiating SE, E and NE, respectively [Olsson et al., 2010] was carried out. Conventional progressive thermal or AF demagnetization was applied to all specimens. The palaeomagnetic directions have been calculated after thermal demagnetization. The ChRMs were isolated over the temperature interval 440-590 C and their intensities amount to 95% of total NRMs. Paleopole calculate from the primary high-temperature component, separated in the 2.9 Ga SE-dykes, is close to the paleopoles, obtained by Wingate (1998) and Strik et al. (2007) for 2.78 Ga volcanics. The paleopole calculated for the 2.7 Ga age E-trending dykes of the eastern region does not correspond to any of the previously obtained Archean-Paleoproterozoic paleopoles for the Kaapvaal Craton. The paleopole calculated for some NE-trending dykes of the Black Ridge swarm in the NE region is close to the 1.87 Ga pole of the Kaapvaal Craton obtained by Hanson et al. (2004). Palaeointensity determinations were carried out on rocks from ten dykes of different ages using Thellier-Coe method with the "check-points" procedure on specimens of 1 cm in edge length cut from either drilled cores or hand samples. Rock magnetic measurements were made on sister specimens. Curie temperatures and the thermal stability of magnetic minerals were estimated from thermomagnetic heating-cooling cycles to incrementally higher temperatures Ti with a Curie balance in an external magnetic field H = 0.45 T. To assess the magnetic hardness and mineralogy of samples, measurements of magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis loop parameters were performed. The domain structure (DS) was estimated also from the thermomagnetic criterion by evaluating the tails of pTRMs. Wilson's method of palaeointensity determination based on comparison of thermodemagnetization curves

  10. Geology of the Early Archean Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal System in the North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, K.; Maruyama, S.

    2007-12-01

    An Archean hydrothermal system in the North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton is associated with extensive fluid circulation driven by numerous extensional fracture systems and the underlying heat source. The fracture system is now occupied by abundant fine-grained quartz aggregate, hence we call this as silica dikes. Some of the fracture system extends deeper structural levels as listric normal faults down to 1000 m depth in the MORB crust. Barite-bearing fine-grained quartz predominant mineralogy indicates the extensive development of fracturing and quenching in a short time. Accompanying the fluid circulation, the extensive metasomatism proceeded to form the four different chemical courses, (1) silicification, (2) carbonation, (3) potassium-enrichment, and (4) Fe- enrichment. Silicification occurs along the silica dikes, carbonated greenstones are distributed relatively shallower level. Potassium-enriched (mica-rich) greenstones occur at the top of the greenstone sequence, and Fe-enriched (chlorite-rich) greenstones are distributed at lower part of the basaltic greenstones. The down going fluid precipitated carbonate-rich layer at shallow levels, whereas depleted in SiO2. Then, the fluid went down to more deeper level, and was dissolved SiO2 at high temperature (~350°C) and chlorite-rich greenstone was formed by water-rock interaction. The upwelling fluid precipitated dominantly SiO2 and formed silica dikes. Silica dikes cement the fractures formed by extensional faulting at earliest stage of development of oceanic crust. Therefore, the hydrothermal system must have related to normal fault system simultaneously with MORB volcanism. Particularly the greenish breccia with cherty matrix (oregano chert) was formed at positions by upwelling near ridge axis. After the horizontal removal of MORB crust from the ridge-axis with time, the propagating fracture into deeper levels, transports hydrothermal fluids into 500-1000 m depth range where metasomatic element exchange between

  11. Triassic mafic and intermediate magmatism associated with continental collision between the North and South China Cratons in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Sang-Bong; Oh, Chang Whan; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Choi, Seon-Gyu; Kim, Taesung; Yi, Keewook

    2016-03-01

    Triassic coeval mafic and intermediate magmatism occurred in the area suggested to be the southern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Gyeonggi Massif (GM) of the Korean Peninsula. This study investigates aspects of the mafic and intermediate magmatism using SHRIMP zircon ages and whole-rock chemical and isotopic Sr-Nd data. The mafic and intermediate rocks intruded into a basement paragneiss in three areas (Yangpyeong, Odesan and Yangyang) within the GM at ca. 230 Ma. The paragneiss was metamorphosed in both the Paleoproterozoic and Triassic. Gabbros (hornblende gabbro and pyroxene-mica gabbro) from the study areas exhibit strong light REE (LREE) enrichment relative to chondrite (LaN/YbN = 11.1-30.6) and a high LILE/HFSE pattern, Ta-Nb-P-Ti troughs and positive Ba-K-Pb-Sr spikes on the N-MORB-normalized multi-element variation diagram. These features are typical characteristics of arc-related gabbros. The gabbros also show strongly enriched initial isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7100-0.7137; εNd(t) = - 13.1 to - 19.7). The coeval intermediate intrusive rocks also exhibit whole-rock chemical and isotopic features (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7099-0.7143; εNd(t) = - 10.8 to - 18.6) similar to those of the gabbros. The mafic and intermediate intrusive rocks plot in the within-plate and/or post-collisional fields on tectonic discrimination diagrams. These data indicate that the mafic and intermediate magmatism in the study areas occurred during the Triassic post-collisional relaxation period via partial melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) that was enriched in a subduction environment prior to (or during) the Permo-Triassic continental collision between the NCC and the South China Craton (SCC). The highly enriched mantle signatures revealed by the gabbros from the study areas are matched to the enriched features identified in Cretaceous mafic igneous rocks (ca. 130 Ma) on the southern margin of the NCC. Thus, this study suggests that the

  12. Induced abortion trends in South Australia, 1970-84.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, G; Macharper, T

    1987-01-01

    Following legislative amendments extending the grounds for abortion in South Australia the abortion rate rose from 6.0/1000 in 1970, to 9.9/1000 in 1971, to 13.2/1000 in 1984. However, rates differ widely by marital status among young women, the age pattern varies markedly for different marital status groups, and trends over time differ for different age/marital status groups. Collection of detailed age and marital status data on every live birth and abortion is recommended in order to provide the most informative analysis of abortion trends. PMID:3799861

  13. Gravity survey of the Mt. Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Mt. Toondina impact structure is located in northern South Australia, about 45 km south of the town of Oodnadatta. Only the central uplift is exposed. The outcrops at Mt. Toondina reveal a remarkable structural anomaly surrounded by a broad expanse of nearly flat-lying beds of the Bulldog Shale of Early Cretaceous age. A gravity survey was undertaken in 1989 to determine the diameter of the impact structure, define the form of the central uplift, and understand the local crustal structure. Data were collected along two orthogonal lines across the structure. In addition to the profiles, a significant number of measurements were made on and around the central uplift. The 1989 gravity data combined with 1963 gravity data and the seismic reflection data provide an excellent data base to interpret the subsurface structure of the Mt. Toondina feature.

  14. Age constraints on the hydrothermal history of the Prominent Hill iron oxide copper-gold deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Bryan; Fraser, Geoff; Davidson, Garry J.; Meffre, Sebastien; Skirrow, Roger; Bull, Stuart; Thompson, Jay

    2016-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Prominent Hill iron-oxide copper-gold deposit lies on the fault-bound southern edge of the Mt Woods Domain, Gawler Craton, South Australia. Chalcocite-bornite-chalcopyrite ores occur in a hematitic breccia complex that has similarities to the Olympic Dam deposit, but were emplaced in a shallow water clastic-carbonate package overlying a thick andesite-dacite pile. The sequence has been overturned against the major, steep, east-west, Hangingwall Fault, beyond which lies the clastic to potentially evaporitic Blue Duck Metasediments. Immediately north of the deposit, these metasediments have been intruded by dacite porphyry and granitoid and metasomatised to form magnetite-calc-silicate skarn ± pyrite-chalcopyrite. The hematitic breccia complex is strongly sericitised and silicified, has a large sericite ± chlorite halo, and was intruded by dykes during and after sericitisation. This paper evaluates the age of sericite formation in the mineralised breccias and provides constraints on the timing of granitoid intrusion and skarn formation in the terrain adjoining the mineralisation. The breccia complex contains fragments of granitoid and porphyry that are found here to be part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event at 1600-1570 Ma. This indicates that some breccia formation post-dated granitoid intrusion. Monazite and apatite in Fe-P-REE-albite metasomatised granitoid, paragenetically linked with magnetite skarn formation north of the Hangingwall Fault, grew soon after granitoid intrusion, although the apatite experienced U-Pb-LREE loss during later fluid-mineral interaction; this accounts for its calculated age of 1544 ± 39 Ma. To the south of the fault, within the breccia, 40Ar-39Ar ages yield a minimum age of sericitisation (+Cu+Fe+REE) of dykes and volcanics of ˜1575 Ma, firmly placing Prominent Hill ore formation as part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event within the Olympic Cu-Au province of the

  15. Age constraints on the hydrothermal history of the Prominent Hill iron oxide copper-gold deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Bryan; Fraser, Geoff; Davidson, Garry J.; Meffre, Sebastien; Skirrow, Roger; Bull, Stuart; Thompson, Jay

    2017-08-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Prominent Hill iron-oxide copper-gold deposit lies on the fault-bound southern edge of the Mt Woods Domain, Gawler Craton, South Australia. Chalcocite-bornite-chalcopyrite ores occur in a hematitic breccia complex that has similarities to the Olympic Dam deposit, but were emplaced in a shallow water clastic-carbonate package overlying a thick andesite-dacite pile. The sequence has been overturned against the major, steep, east-west, Hangingwall Fault, beyond which lies the clastic to potentially evaporitic Blue Duck Metasediments. Immediately north of the deposit, these metasediments have been intruded by dacite porphyry and granitoid and metasomatised to form magnetite-calc-silicate skarn ± pyrite-chalcopyrite. The hematitic breccia complex is strongly sericitised and silicified, has a large sericite ± chlorite halo, and was intruded by dykes during and after sericitisation. This paper evaluates the age of sericite formation in the mineralised breccias and provides constraints on the timing of granitoid intrusion and skarn formation in the terrain adjoining the mineralisation. The breccia complex contains fragments of granitoid and porphyry that are found here to be part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event at 1600-1570 Ma. This indicates that some breccia formation post-dated granitoid intrusion. Monazite and apatite in Fe-P-REE-albite metasomatised granitoid, paragenetically linked with magnetite skarn formation north of the Hangingwall Fault, grew soon after granitoid intrusion, although the apatite experienced U-Pb-LREE loss during later fluid-mineral interaction; this accounts for its calculated age of 1544 ± 39 Ma. To the south of the fault, within the breccia, 40Ar-39Ar ages yield a minimum age of sericitisation (+Cu+Fe+REE) of dykes and volcanics of ˜1575 Ma, firmly placing Prominent Hill ore formation as part of the Gawler Range Volcanics/Hiltaba Suite magmatic event within the Olympic Cu-Au province of the

  16. The Acraman impact and its widespread ejecta, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gostin, V. A.; Keays, R. R.; Wallace, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    Discovery of a widespread horizon of shock-deformed volcaniclastic ejecta preserved in Late Proterozoic (approx. 600 Ma) shales in South Australia and its probable link to the Acraman impact structure in the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range. Volcanics provide a rare opportunity to study the effects of a major terrestrial impact, including the sedimentology and distribution of an ejecta blanket and its precious-metal signature. The ejecta horizon occurs in the Bunyeroo Formation at many localities within the Adelaide Geosyncline, including the Wearing Hills, which are approx. 350 km northeast of the Acraman impact site. Following a search at the same stratigraphic level in other basins in South Australia, the ejecta has been located within the Lower Rodda beds of the Officer Basin, extending the limits of the ejecta to approx. 470 km northwest of the Acraman impact structure. The ejecta is therefore widely dispersed, and provides an important chronostratigraphic marker enabling precise correlation of Late Proterozoic sequences in southern Australia. In summary, the Bunyeroo ejecta is unique as the only known example of a widely dispersed, coarse-grained ejecta blanket that is, moreover, strongly linked to a known major impact structure. The marked Ir-PGE anomalies in the ejecta horizon provide support for the hypothesis that meteorite impact events can produce Ir anomalies interrestrial sediments. The findings also indicate that Ir can be mobilized and concentrated in sediments by low-temperature diagenetic processes. The identification of ejecta horizons in sedimentary rocks therefore should be based on the coincidence of shock-metamorphic features in the detritus and clear Ir anomalies.

  17. Bayesian Source Attribution of Salmonellosis in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Glass, K; Fearnley, E; Hocking, H; Raupach, J; Veitch, M; Ford, L; Kirk, M D

    2016-03-01

    Salmonellosis is a significant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia, and rates of illness have increased over recent years. We adopt a Bayesian source attribution model to estimate the contribution of different animal reservoirs to illness due to Salmonella spp. in South Australia between 2000 and 2010, together with 95% credible intervals (CrI). We excluded known travel associated cases and those of rare subtypes (fewer than 20 human cases or fewer than 10 isolates from included sources over the 11-year period), and the remaining 76% of cases were classified as sporadic or outbreak associated. Source-related parameters were included to allow for different handling and consumption practices. We attributed 35% (95% CrI: 20-49) of sporadic cases to chicken meat and 37% (95% CrI: 23-53) of sporadic cases to eggs. Of outbreak-related cases, 33% (95% CrI: 20-62) were attributed to chicken meat and 59% (95% CrI: 29-75) to eggs. A comparison of alternative model assumptions indicated that biases due to possible clustering of samples from sources had relatively minor effects on these estimates. Analysis of source-related parameters showed higher risk of illness from contaminated eggs than from contaminated chicken meat, suggesting that consumption and handling practices potentially play a bigger role in illness due to eggs, considering low Salmonella prevalence on eggs. Our results strengthen the evidence that eggs and chicken meat are important vehicles for salmonellosis in South Australia. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Hydrocarbons preserved in a ~2.7 Ga outcrop sample from the Fortescue Group, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Y; Flannery, D T; Walter, M R; George, S C

    2015-03-01

    The hydrocarbons preserved in an Archean rock were extracted, and their composition and distribution in consecutive slices from the outside to the inside of the rock were examined. The 2.7 Ga rock was collected from the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and bitumen II (solvent-extracted hydrochloric acid-treated rock) fractions have different hydrocarbon compositions. Bitumen I contains only trace amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and virtually no aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, bitumen II contains abundant aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference seems to reflect the weathering history and preservational environment of the investigated rock. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I are considered to be mainly from later hydrocarbon inputs, after initial deposition and burial, and are therefore not indigenous. The lack of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I suggests a severe weathering environment since uplift and exposure of the rock at the Earth's surface in the Cenozoic. On the other hand, the high abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen II suggests that bitumen II hydrocarbons have been physically isolated from removal by their encapsulation within carbonate minerals. The richness of aromatic hydrocarbons and the relative scarcity of aliphatic hydrocarbons may reflect the original compositions of organic materials biosynthesised in ancient organisms in the Archean era, or the high thermal maturity of the rock. Cyanobacterial biomarkers were observed in the surficial slices of the rock, which may indicate that endolithic cyanobacteria inhabited the surface outcrop. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons implies a high thermal maturity, which is consistent with the lack of any specific biomarkers, such as hopanes and steranes, and the prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphic grade. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Remelting and Remobilization in a Magmatic Arc: the St Peter Suite, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symington, N.; Weinberg, R. F.; Hasalova, P.

    2013-12-01

    Thermo-mechanical models of magmatic arcs suggest that intermittent intrusion of magma batches should lead to remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks as a result of fluctuations in temperature and water content. However, examples of remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks, formed during arc-building, are surprisingly rare. We investigate the evolution of magmatic rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic St Peter Suite, in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. This suite records multiple intrusions, magma hybridization, and the remelting and remobilization of these intrusions to form migmatites and newly-formed leucocratic magmas. In this paper we detail first how multiple magma batches interact with one another as liquids and mushes during syn-magmatic deformation phases, and then detail the nature of migmatites resulting from anatexis of these same magmatic rocks and the resulting channel ways that allowed for magma remobilization. LA-ICP/MS U/Pb zircon dating yielded crystallization ages of 1647×12 Ma for an early dioritic-to-granitic suite, and 1604×12 Ma for a later magmatic suite of broadly similar composition. Both these suites underwent anatectic events. Titanite from late-formed leucosomes found within D2 shear zones in the older suite, yielded SHRIMP U/Pb age of 1605×7 Ma, within error of the age of the younger suite. We therefore infer that intrusion, crystallization and remelting/remobilization of this younger suite of rocks occurred within 10-15 M.yr. We propose that the St Peter Suite exposures represent a frozen-in record of a continuous, multi-stage, repetitive process, common to the core of arcs where multiple magma intrusions drive multiple hybridization events and fluctuations in temperature and water-content trigger remelting and remobilization of the more fractionated sectors of earlier intrusive. Thus, the St Peter Suite record many of the key processes expected in arcs, including the prediction that early intrusive arc

  20. Remelting and Remobilization in a Magmatic Arc: the St Peter Suite, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symington, Neil; Weinberg, Roberto; Hasalová, Pavlina

    2014-05-01

    Thermo-mechanical models of magmatic arcs suggest that intermittent intrusion of magma batches should lead to remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks as a result of fluctuations in temperature and water content. However, examples of remelting and remobilization of earlier intrusive rocks, formed during arc-building, are surprisingly rare. We investigate the evolution of magmatic rocks of the Palaeoproterozoic St Peter Suite, in the Gawler Craton, South Australia. This suite records multiple intrusions, magma hybridization, and the remelting and remobilization of these intrusions to form migmatites and newly-formed leucocratic magmas. In this paper we detail first how multiple magma batches interact with one another as liquids and mushes during syn-magmatic deformation phases, and then detail the nature of migmatites resulting from anatexis of these same magmatic rocks and the resulting channel ways that allowed for magma remobilization. LA-ICP/MS U/Pb zircon dating yielded crystallization ages of 1647±12 Ma for an early diorite-to-granite suite, and 1604±12 Ma for a later magmatic suite of broadly similar composition. Both these suites underwent anatectic events. Titanite from late-formed leucosomes found within D2 shear zones in the older suite, yielded SHRIMP U/Pb age of 1605±7 Ma, within error of the age of the younger suite. We therefore infer that intrusion, crystallization and remelting/remobilization of this younger suite of rocks occurred within 10-15 M.yr. Thus, the St Peter Suite exposures record many of the key processes expected in arcs, including the prediction that early intrusive arc rocks remelt to form younger more fractionated magmas.

  1. The Kimberlites and related rocks of the Kuruman Kimberlite Province, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Cara L.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman J.; Shee, Simon R.

    2011-03-01

    The Kuruman Kimberlite Province is comprised of 16 small pipes and dikes and contains some of the oldest known kimberlites (>1.6 Ga). In this study, 12 intrusions are subdivided into three groups with distinct petrology, age, and geochemical and isotopic compositions: (1) kimberlites with groundmass perovskites defining a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1787 ± 69 Ma, (2) orangeite with a U-Pb perovskite age of 124 ± 16 Ma, and (3) ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikite and mela-aillikite) with a zircon U-Pb age of 1642 ± 46 Ma. The magma type varies across the Province, with kimberlites in the east, lamprophyres in the west and orangeite and ultramafic lamprophyres to the south. Differences in the age and petrogenesis of the X007 orangeite and Clarksdale and Aalwynkop aillikites suggest that these intrusions are probably unrelated to the Kuruman Province. Kimberlite and orangeite whole-rock major and trace element compositions are similar to other South African localities. Compositionally, the aillikites typically lie off kimberlite and orangeite trends. Groundmass mineral chemistry of the kimberlites has some features more typical of orangeites. Kimberlite whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopes show zoning across the Province. When the kimberlites erupted at ~1.8 Ga, they sampled a core volume (ca 50 km across) of relatively depleted SCLM that was partially surrounded by a rim of more metasomatized mantle. This zonation may have been related to the development of the adjacent Kheis Belt (oldest rocks ~2.0 Ga), as weaker zones surrounding the more resistant core section of SCLM were more extensively metasomatized.

  2. Multi-proxy monitoring approaches at Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Bronwyn; Drysdale, Russell; Tyler, Jonathan; Goodwin, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Interpretations of geochemical signals preserved in young speleothems are greatly enhanced by comprehensive cave-site monitoring. In the light of this, a cave monitoring project is being conducted concurrently with the development of a new palaeoclimate record from Kelly Hill Cave (Kangaroo Island, South Australia). The site is strategically located because it is situated between longer-lived monitoring sites in southeastern and southwestern Australia, as well as being climatically 'upstream' from major population and agricultural centres. This study aims to understand possible controls on speleothem δ18O in Kelly Hill Cave through i. identification of local and regional δ18O drivers in precipitation; and ii. preservation and modification of climatic signals within the epikarst as indicated by dripwater δ18O. These aims are achieved through analysis of a five-year daily rainfall (amount and δ18O) dataset in conjunction with in-cave drip monitoring. Drivers of precipitation δ18O were identified through linear regression between δ18O values and local meteorological variables, air-parcel back trajectories, and synoptic-typing. Synoptically driven moisture sources were identified through the use of NCEP/NCAR climate reanalysis sea-level pressure, precipitable moisture, and outgoing longwave radiation data in order to trace moisture sources and travel mechanisms from surrounding ocean basins. Local controls on δ18O at Kelly Hill Cave are consistent with published interpretations of southern Australia sites, with oxygen isotopes primarily controlled by rainfall amount on both daily and monthly time scales. Back-trajectory analysis also supports previous observations that the Southern Ocean is the major source for moisture-bearing cold-front systems. However, synoptic typing of daily rainfall δ18O and amount extremes reveals a previously unreported tropical connection and moisture source. This tropical connection appears to be strongest in summer and autumn, but

  3. Mid-Cryogenian Stromatolite Reefs of Central and South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdel, C.; Campbell, M.

    2016-12-01

    Neoproterozoic strata are largely correlative between the Adelaide Rift Complex (ARC) of South Australia and the Amadeus Basin of central Australia. In both regions, basal- and terminal-Cryogenian glacigenic rocks are separated by intervening shallow-marine and carbonate-rich strata. In the northern part of the ARC, these stratigraphic records of the Cryogenian "non-glacial interlude" include a stromatolite reef complex in the Balcanoona Fm. that is disconformably overlain by the Amberoona and Yankaninna Fms. The stratigraphic equivalent of the Balcanoona Fm. in the Amadeus Basin is within the Ringwood Mbr. of the Aralka Fm., which also contains abundant stromatolites. Based largely on stromatolite occurrence, we informally divide the Ringwood Mbr. into four sub-members (from oldest to youngest, sub-members A through D), and we present new carbon isotope data from carbonate (δ13Ccarb) illustrating a negative excursion in sub-member C, which is bracketed above and below by stromatolitic intervals. Comparison with previous δ13Ccarb results from the northern ARC suggests that the excursion is omitted there along the unconformity at the top of the Balcanoona Fm. This unconformity is widespread in the ARC and, in fact, is the boundary between the "Sturtian" and "Marinoan" stratigraphic series. We suggest that the same unconformity separates the Ringwood Mbr. from the overlying Limbla Mbr. in the Amadeus Basin. These observations and correlations suggest widespread stromatolite reef development in both central Australia and the ARC during a portion of the Cryogenian non-glacial interlude. This phase of stromatolite reef expansion includes a negative δ13Ccarb excursion that may be correlative with Cryogenian stratigraphic successions in other parts of the world, and it seems to have been terminated, in both regions, by a fall in sea-level.

  4. Managing health impacts of heat in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schuch, Gemma; Serrao-Neumann, Silvia; Choy, Darryl Low

    2014-01-01

    Heatwaves kill more people than any other natural hazard in Australia. Current literature on managing health risks of heatwaves highlights the importance of implementing urban planning measures, and engaging with vulnerable groups on a local level to better understand perceptions of risk and tailor health protection measures. This paper reviews arrangements to reduce heatwave health risks in South East Queensland in response to these themes. A literature search and document analysis, stakeholder interviews, and multi-stakeholder cross-sectoral workshops revealed that although heatwave management is not always considered by local government and disaster management stakeholders, many urban planning measures to minimize urban heat have been pursued. However, greater information from vulnerable groups is still needed to better inform heatwave management measures. PMID:28229002

  5. Managing health impacts of heat in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Gemma; Serrao-Neumann, Silvia; Choy, Darryl Low

    2014-01-01

    Heatwaves kill more people than any other natural hazard in Australia. Current literature on managing health risks of heatwaves highlights the importance of implementing urban planning measures, and engaging with vulnerable groups on a local level to better understand perceptions of risk and tailor health protection measures. This paper reviews arrangements to reduce heatwave health risks in South East Queensland in response to these themes. A literature search and document analysis, stakeholder interviews, and multi-stakeholder cross-sectoral workshops revealed that although heatwave management is not always considered by local government and disaster management stakeholders, many urban planning measures to minimize urban heat have been pursued. However, greater information from vulnerable groups is still needed to better inform heatwave management measures.

  6. Petrochemical evolution of the White Mfolozi Granite pluton: Evidence for a late Palaeoarchaean A-type granite from the SE Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Saumitra; Reinhardt, Jürgen; Wilson, Allan H.

    2017-08-01

    One of the major limitations in understanding the geochemical evolution of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa, is the scarcity of whole rock trace element data of the granitoid and other rocks compared to the vastness of this cratonic block. Here we present new XRF major oxide and ICP-MS trace element analyses of the White Mfolozi Granitoid (WMG) pluton, SE Kaapvaal Craton, which suggest that the 3.25 Ga (U-Pb zircon age) old WMG pluton is a peraluminous A-type granite and could be equivalent to the intrusive potassic granite phase of the Anhalt Granitoid suite, occurring to the North of the WMG pluton. The pluton was generated by batch partial melting of a pre-existing TTG source in two major phases under relatively anhydrous conditions, and the heat of partial melting could have been provided by a voluminous mantle-derived mafic magma, which intruded into mid-crustal levels (c. 17 km), perhaps during a period of crustal extension. The estimated pressure and temperature of generation of the WMG parent magma with average molar [or/(or + ab)] 0.48 could be 500 MPa and close to 1000 °C, respectively, when compared with the results of experimental petrology. Interstitial occurrence of relatively iron-rich biotite [Mg/(Mg + Fe) 0.41-0.45] suggests that the final temperature of crystallization of the pluton was close to 800 °C. An important magmatic event following the main phase of partial melting was limited mixing between the intrusive mafic magma and co-existing newly generated granitic melt. This magma mixing resulted in distinct variations in SiO2 and a low initial Sr isotopic ratio (0.7013) of the WMG pluton. Although both the models of partial melting of quartzo-feldspathic sources and fractional crystallization of basaltic magmas with or without crustal assimilation have been proposed for the origin of A-type granites, the model of magmatic evolution of the WMG pluton presented here can also be an alternative model for the generation of A-type granites. In

  7. Composition and syngeneity of molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocks, Jochen J.; Buick, Roger; Logan, Graham A.; Summons, Roger E.

    2003-11-01

    Shales of very low metamorphic grade from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old (Ga) Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, were analyzed for solvent extractable hydrocarbons. Samples were collected from ten drill cores and two mines in a sampling area centered in the Hamersley Basin near Wittenoom and ranging 200 km to the southeast, 100 km to the southwest and 70 km to the northwest. Almost all analyzed kerogenous sedimentary rocks yielded solvent extractable organic matter. Concentrations of total saturated hydrocarbons were commonly in the range of 1 to 20 ppm (μg/g rock) but reached maximum values of 1000 ppm. The abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons was ˜1 to 30 ppm. Analysis of the extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-MS metastable reaction monitoring (MRM) revealed the presence of n-alkanes, mid- and end-branched monomethylalkanes, ω-cyclohexylalkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, diamondoids, tri- to pentacyclic terpanes, steranes, aromatic steroids and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Neither plant biomarkers nor hydrocarbon distributions indicative of Phanerozoic contamination were detected. The host kerogens of the hydrocarbons were depleted in 13C by 2 to 21‰ relative to n-alkanes, a pattern typical of, although more extreme than, other Precambrian samples. Acyclic isoprenoids showed carbon isotopic depletion relative to n-alkanes and concentrations of 2α-methylhopanes were relatively high, features rarely observed in the Phanerozoic but characteristic of many other Precambrian bitumens. Molecular parameters, including sterane and hopane ratios at their apparent thermal maxima, condensate-like alkane profiles, high mono- and triaromatic steroid maturity parameters, high methyladamantane and methyldiamantane indices and high methylphenanthrene maturity ratios, indicate thermal maturities in the wet-gas generation zone. Additionally, extracts from shales associated with iron ore deposits at Tom Price and Newman have

  8. A whole rock absolute paleointensity determination of dacites from the Duffer Formation (ca. 3.467 Ga) of the Pilbara Craton, Australia: An impossible task?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Krasa, David; Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2016-09-01

    We have conducted a whole-rock type magnetic and absolute paleointensity determination of the red dacite of the Duffer Formation from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. The age of the dated rock unit is 3467 ± 5 Ma (95% confidence). Vector analyses results of the step-wise alternating field demagnetization (NRM up to 100 mT) and thermal demagnetization (from NRM up to 650 °C) yield three components of magnetization. Curie point determinations indicate three characteristic temperatures, one at 150-200 °C, a second one at ∼450 °C and a third one at ∼580 °C. Magnetic grain-size experiments were performed on small specimens with a variable field translation balance (VFTB). The coercivity of remanence (Hcr) suggests that the NRM is carried by low-coercivity grains that are associated with a magnetite fraction as is shown by the high-temperature component with blocking temperatures above 450 °C and up to at least 580 °C. The ratios of the hysteresis parameters plotted as a modified Day diagram show that most grain sizes are scattered within the Single Domain (SD) and the Superparamagnetic and Single Domain SP-SD domain ranges. In addition to the rock magnetic experiments we have performed absolute paleointensity experiments on the samples using the modified Thellier-Coe double heating method to determine the paleointensities. Partial-TRM (p-TRM) checks were performed systematically to document magnetomineralogical changes during heating. The temperature was incremented by steps of 50 °C between room temperature and 590 °C. The paleointensity determinations were obtained from the slope of Arai diagrams. Our paleointensity results indicate that the paleofield obtained was ∼6.4 ± 0.68 (N = 11) micro-Teslas with a Virtual Dipole Moment (VDM) of 1.51 ± 0.81 × 1022 Am2, from a medium-to high-temperature component ranging from 300 to 590 °C that has been interpreted to be the oldest magnetization yet recorded in paleomagnetic studies of the Duffer Formation. The

  9. Aboriginal pregnancies and births in South Australia, 1981-1982.

    PubMed

    Hart, G; MacHarper, T; Moore, D; Roder, D

    1985-10-28

    Information on 555 Aboriginal births which occurred during 1981 and 1982 was forwarded by midwives to the South Australian perinatal statistics unit. Corresponding information was also supplied for all other births in the state. This information showed that Aboriginal women appear to have a higher fertility rate than do other women, particularly in the teenage years. Aboriginal mothers are very young and have a high parity. They appear to receive little antenatal care and there is a greater tendency for their pregnancies to be complicated by medical conditions, such as anaemia, urinary tract infections, cardiac disorders and diabetes. Post-partum haemorrhages and retained placentas are relatively common, as are genital tract infections after delivery. Aboriginal babies are characterized by low birthweights, low Apgar scores, and prematurity. There is an indication that Aboriginal babies may have a high perinatal mortality rate in the country areas of South Australia. It is intended that this information be used as a baseline for evaluating trends in the health status of Aborigines.

  10. Sexual Difficulties for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redelman, Margaret Juliet

    2009-01-01

    This 1992 study was conducted to ascertain the incidence of sexual difficulties in individuals diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in New South Wales, Australia. New South Wales is a state lying roughly 29-36 [degrees] south of the equator. This is currently the largest study conducted. The anonymous questionnaire completed by 283…

  11. Sexual Difficulties for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redelman, Margaret Juliet

    2009-01-01

    This 1992 study was conducted to ascertain the incidence of sexual difficulties in individuals diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) living in New South Wales, Australia. New South Wales is a state lying roughly 29-36 [degrees] south of the equator. This is currently the largest study conducted. The anonymous questionnaire completed by 283…

  12. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  13. Provenance and reconnaissance study of detrital zircons of the Palaeozoic Cape Supergroup in South Africa: revealing the interaction of the Kalahari and Río de la Plata cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourie, Pieter H.; Zimmermann, Udo; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Naidoo, Thanusha; Kobayashi, Katsuro; Kosler, Jan; Nakamura, Eizo; Tait, Jenny; Theron, Johannes N.

    2011-04-01

    In order to facilitate the understanding of the geological evolution of the Kalahari Craton and its relation to South America, the provenance of the first large-scale cratonic cover sequence of the craton, namely the Ordovician to Carboniferous Cape Supergroup was studied through geochemical analyses of the siliciclastics, and age determinations of detrital zircon. The Cape Supergroup comprises mainly quartz-arenites and a Hirnantian tillite in the basal Table Mountain Group, subgreywackes and mudrocks in the overlying Bokkeveld Group, while siltstones, interbedded shales and quartz-arenites are typical for the Witteberg Group at the top of the Cape Supergroup. Palaeocurrent analyses indicate transport of sediment mainly from northerly directions, off the interior of the Kalahari Craton with subordinate transport from a westerly source in the southwestern part of the basin near Cape Town. Geochemical provenance data suggest mainly sources from passive to active continental margin settings. The reconnaissance study of detrital zircons reveals a major contribution of Mesoproterozoic sources throughout the basin, reflecting the dominance of the Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Belt, situated immediately north of the preserved strata of Cape Supergroup, as a source with Archaean-aged zircons being extremely rare. We interpret the Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Belt to have been a large morphological divide at the time of deposition of the Cape Supergroup that prevented input of detrital zircons from the interior early Archaean Kaapvaal cratonic block of the Kalahari Craton. Neoproterozoic and Cambrian zircons are abundant and reflect the basement geology of the outcrops of Cape strata. Exposures close to Cape Town must have received sediment from a cratonic fragment that was situated off the Kalahari Craton to the west and that has subsequently drifted away. This cratonic fragment predominantly supplied Meso- to Neoproterozoic, and Cambrian-aged zircon grains in addition to minor

  14. Metasedimentary rocks of the Angara-Kan granulite-gneiss block (Yenisey Ridge, south-western margin of the Siberian Craton): Provenance characteristics, deposition and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urmantseva, L. N.; Turkina, O. M.; Larionov, A. N.

    2012-04-01

    The Angara-Kan granulite-gneiss block (Yenisey Ridge) is one of the main basements uplift within the south-western margin of the Siberian Craton. The major part of the Angara-Kan block is composed of Early Precambrian high-grade metamorphic rocks. Metasedimentary association of the Kan granulitic complex is composed of garnet-bearing, garnet-orthopyroxene and orthopyroxene-bearing gneisses, garnet- and orthopyroxene-bearing gneisses with cordierite and sillimanite. Studied paragneisses were formed at the expense of granulite metamorphism of terrigenous rocks, ranging from graywacke to pelitic rock or mudstone. To estimate the time of sedimentation and metamorphism of the terrigenous deposits, the U-Pb zircon dating has been performed using the SHRIMP II ion microprobe. Detrital zircon cores from the biotite-orthopyroxene and high-alumina gneisses yield ages of 2.6-1.94 and 2.4-1.94 Ga, respectively. Together with the age of the magmatic zircons formed during high-grade metamorphism and partial melting (˜1.89 Ga) and metamorphic rims (˜1.87 Ga) it defines the time of sedimentation between 2.0-1.94 and 1.89-1.87 Ga. Detrital zircon ages indicate both Archean and Paleoproterozioc rocks in provenance source, that agrees with the Nd model ages of metasediments ranging in interval 2.4-2.8 Ga. Potential source of the Archean detrital zircons was the exposed basement of the southwestern Siberian Craton, whereas the Paleoproterozoic juvenile crustal source seems to be buried basement of the Tungus province of the Siberian Craton. Deposition of the Kan terrigeneous rocks was coeval with sedimentation in the southeastern part of the Sharyzhalgay uplift, where ages of detrital zircon cores and metamorphic rims from paragneisses bracket sediment deposition between 1.95 and 1.85 Ga.

  15. Rheotaxis in the Ediacaran epibenthic organism Parvancorina from South Australia.

    PubMed

    Paterson, John R; Gehling, James G; Droser, Mary L; Bicknell, Russell D C

    2017-03-30

    Diverse interpretations of Ediacaran organisms arise not only from their enigmatic body plans, but also from confusion surrounding the sedimentary environments they inhabited and the processes responsible for their preservation. Excavation of Ediacaran bedding surfaces of the Rawnsley Quartzite in South Australia has provided the opportunity to study the community structure of the Ediacara biota, as well as the autecology of individual organisms. Analysis of two bedding surfaces preserving large numbers of Parvancorina illustrates that individuals display a preferred, unidirectional orientation aligned with current, as indicated by the identified current proxies: tool marks, overfolded edges of Dickinsonia, felled fronds and drag structures generated by uprooted frond holdfasts. Taphonomic and morphological evidence suggests that the preferred orientations of Parvancorina individuals are not the result of passive current alignment, but represent a rheotactic response at some stage during their life cycle. These results illustrate a previously unrecognized life mode for an Ediacaran organism and arguably the oldest known example of rheotaxis in the fossil record. The morphology and previously suggested phylogenetic affinities of Parvancorina are also re-evaluated. Apart from possessing a bilaterally symmetrical body, there are no unequivocal morphological characters to support placement of Parvancorina within the Euarthropoda or even the Bilateria.

  16. Gravity Survey of the Mt. Toondina Impact Structure South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity and seismic reflection data, together with geologic mapping, indicate that the Mt. Toondina feature in South Australia is best interpreted as an eroded 4-km-diameter impact structure consisting of a ring structural depression surrounding a pronounced central uplift. Beds at the center of the structure within the central uplift have been raised as much as 200 m from depth and deformed by convergent flow. Seismic reflection data indicate that deformation extends to depths of only about 800 m; at greater depths the reflectors are nearly flat lying indicating little or no deformation. Gravity data show residual anomalies of +1.0 mGal coincident with the central uplift and a -0.5 mGal low associated with the ring structural depression. Modeling of the gravity data indicates that relatively high-density material occurs within the central uplift, whereas the ring depression is filled with low-density material. The deformation at Mt. Toondina is typical of a complex impact crater; the 4-km diameter is consistent with the expected threshold size for complex craters formed in weak to moderate strength sedimentary rocks.

  17. Gravity survey of the Mount Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity and seismic reflection data, together with geologic mapping, indicate that the Mount Toondina feature in South Australia is best interpreted as an eroded 4-km-diameter impact structure consisting of a ring structural depression surrounding a pronounced central uplift. Beds at the center of the structure within the central uplift have been raised as much as 200 m from depth and deformed by convergent flow. Seismic reflection data indicate that deformation extends to depths of only approximately = 800 m; at greater depths the reflectors are nearly flat lying, indicating little or no deformation. Gravity data show residual anomalies of +1.0 mGal coincident with the central uplift and a -0.5 Mgal low associated with the ring structural depression. Modeling of the gravity data indicates that relatively high-density material occurs within the central uplift, whereas the ring depression is filled with low-density material. The deformation at Mount Toondina is typical of a complex impact crater; the 4-km diameter is consistent with the expected threshold size for complex craters formed in weak to moderate strength sedimentary rocks.

  18. Gravity survey of the Mount Toondina impact structure, South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity and seismic reflection data, together with geologic mapping, indicate that the Mount Toondina feature in South Australia is best interpreted as an eroded 4-km-diameter impact structure consisting of a ring structural depression surrounding a pronounced central uplift. Beds at the center of the structure within the central uplift have been raised as much as 200 m from depth and deformed by convergent flow. Seismic reflection data indicate that deformation extends to depths of only approximately = 800 m; at greater depths the reflectors are nearly flat lying, indicating little or no deformation. Gravity data show residual anomalies of +1.0 mGal coincident with the central uplift and a -0.5 Mgal low associated with the ring structural depression. Modeling of the gravity data indicates that relatively high-density material occurs within the central uplift, whereas the ring depression is filled with low-density material. The deformation at Mount Toondina is typical of a complex impact crater; the 4-km diameter is consistent with the expected threshold size for complex craters formed in weak to moderate strength sedimentary rocks.

  19. Gravity Survey of the Mt. Toondina Impact Structure South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity and seismic reflection data, together with geologic mapping, indicate that the Mt. Toondina feature in South Australia is best interpreted as an eroded 4-km-diameter impact structure consisting of a ring structural depression surrounding a pronounced central uplift. Beds at the center of the structure within the central uplift have been raised as much as 200 m from depth and deformed by convergent flow. Seismic reflection data indicate that deformation extends to depths of only about 800 m; at greater depths the reflectors are nearly flat lying indicating little or no deformation. Gravity data show residual anomalies of +1.0 mGal coincident with the central uplift and a -0.5 mGal low associated with the ring structural depression. Modeling of the gravity data indicates that relatively high-density material occurs within the central uplift, whereas the ring depression is filled with low-density material. The deformation at Mt. Toondina is typical of a complex impact crater; the 4-km diameter is consistent with the expected threshold size for complex craters formed in weak to moderate strength sedimentary rocks.

  20. Survey of land degradation in New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Owen P.

    1992-03-01

    A survey of land degradation was undertaken in New South Wales, Australia during 1987 1988. The aims of the survey were to assess the location, extent, and severity of ten forms of degradation and to present the data in map and statistical form. Sample points were located on a regular grid. The method was designed so that data could be acquired from aerial photographs, expert local knowledge, and limited field checking. Individual statewide maps were prepared for each form of degradation. Map data were shown in pixel form. Sheet and rill erosion and soil structure decline were confined mostly to lands used for cropping. Gully erosion was commonly found across the state, while mass movement was confined to steeper lands. There were three severe areas of dryland salinity; irrigation salinity was mapped in parts of the southern irrigation lands. Induced soil acidity was severe in some cropping and pasture lands. Absence of tree regrowth was a noticeable feature of lands used for cropping. The survey enabled community awareness of the problems of land degradation to be increased, in addition to assisting regional land managers in resource allocation. The survey also provided the basis for the future location of sites that could be used to monitor the trends in the status of land degradation.

  1. Vertical integration of medical education: Riverland experience, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, D R; Worley, P S; Mugford, B; Stagg, P

    2004-01-01

    Vertical integration of medical education is currently a prominent international topic, resulting from recent strategic initiatives to improve medical education and service delivery in areas of poorly met medical need. In this article, vertical integration of medical education is defined as 'a grouping of curricular content and delivery mechanisms, traversing the traditional boundaries of undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education, with the intent of enhancing the transfer of knowledge and skills between those involved in the learning-teaching process'. Educators closely involved with vertically integrated teaching in the Riverland of South Australia present an analytical description of the educational dynamics of this system. From this analysis, five elements are identified which underpin the process of successful vertical integration: (1) raised educational stakes; (2) local ownership; (3) broad university role; (4) longer attachments; and (5) shared workforce vision. Given the benefits to the Riverland medical education programs described in this paper, it is not surprising that vertical integration of medical education is a popular goal in many rural regions throughout the world. Although different contexts will result in different functional arrangements, it could be argued that the five principles outlined in this article can be applied in any region.

  2. Changing patterns in rainfall extremes in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammad; Beecham, Simon; Metcalfe, Andrew V.

    2017-02-01

    Daily rainfall records from seven stations in South Australia, with record lengths from 50 to 137 years and a common period of 36 years, are investigated for evidence of changes in the statistical distribution of annual total and annual average of monthly daily maxima. In addition, the monthly time series of monthly totals and monthly daily maxima are analysed for three stations for which records exceed 100 years. The monthly series show seasonality and provide evidence of a reduction in rainfall when the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) is negative, which is modulated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). However, the monthly series do not provide any evidence of a consistent trend or of any changes in the seasonal pattern. Multivariate analyses, typically used in statistical quality control (SQC), are applied to time series of yearly totals and of averages of the 12 monthly daily maxima, during the common 36-year period. Although there are some outlying points in the charts, there is no evidence of any trend or step changes. However, some supplementary permutation tests do provide weak evidence of an increase of variability of rainfall measures. Furthermore, a factor analysis does provide some evidence of a change in the spatial structure of extremes. The variability of a factor which represents the difference between extremes in the Adelaide Hills and the plains increases in the second 18 years relative to the first 18 years. There is also some evidence that the mean of this factor has increased in absolute magnitude.

  3. Rheotaxis in the Ediacaran epibenthic organism Parvancorina from South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, John R.; Gehling, James G.; Droser, Mary L.; Bicknell, Russell D. C.

    2017-01-01

    Diverse interpretations of Ediacaran organisms arise not only from their enigmatic body plans, but also from confusion surrounding the sedimentary environments they inhabited and the processes responsible for their preservation. Excavation of Ediacaran bedding surfaces of the Rawnsley Quartzite in South Australia has provided the opportunity to study the community structure of the Ediacara biota, as well as the autecology of individual organisms. Analysis of two bedding surfaces preserving large numbers of Parvancorina illustrates that individuals display a preferred, unidirectional orientation aligned with current, as indicated by the identified current proxies: tool marks, overfolded edges of Dickinsonia, felled fronds and drag structures generated by uprooted frond holdfasts. Taphonomic and morphological evidence suggests that the preferred orientations of Parvancorina individuals are not the result of passive current alignment, but represent a rheotactic response at some stage during their life cycle. These results illustrate a previously unrecognized life mode for an Ediacaran organism and arguably the oldest known example of rheotaxis in the fossil record. The morphology and previously suggested phylogenetic affinities of Parvancorina are also re-evaluated. Apart from possessing a bilaterally symmetrical body, there are no unequivocal morphological characters to support placement of Parvancorina within the Euarthropoda or even the Bilateria. PMID:28358056

  4. Rheotaxis in the Ediacaran epibenthic organism Parvancorina from South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, John R.; Gehling, James G.; Droser, Mary L.; Bicknell, Russell D. C.

    2017-03-01

    Diverse interpretations of Ediacaran organisms arise not only from their enigmatic body plans, but also from confusion surrounding the sedimentary environments they inhabited and the processes responsible for their preservation. Excavation of Ediacaran bedding surfaces of the Rawnsley Quartzite in South Australia has provided the opportunity to study the community structure of the Ediacara biota, as well as the autecology of individual organisms. Analysis of two bedding surfaces preserving large numbers of Parvancorina illustrates that individuals display a preferred, unidirectional orientation aligned with current, as indicated by the identified current proxies: tool marks, overfolded edges of Dickinsonia, felled fronds and drag structures generated by uprooted frond holdfasts. Taphonomic and morphological evidence suggests that the preferred orientations of Parvancorina individuals are not the result of passive current alignment, but represent a rheotactic response at some stage during their life cycle. These results illustrate a previously unrecognized life mode for an Ediacaran organism and arguably the oldest known example of rheotaxis in the fossil record. The morphology and previously suggested phylogenetic affinities of Parvancorina are also re-evaluated. Apart from possessing a bilaterally symmetrical body, there are no unequivocal morphological characters to support placement of Parvancorina within the Euarthropoda or even the Bilateria.

  5. An aerial radiological survey of Maralinga and EMU, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Tipton, W J; Berry, H A; Fritzsche, A E

    1988-10-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former British nuclear test ranges at Maralinga and Emu in South Australia from May through July 1987. The survey covered an area of approximately 1,550 square kilometers which included the nine major trial sites, where a nuclear yield occurred, and all the minor trial sites, where physics experiments were conducted. Flight lines were flown at an altitude of 30 meters with line spacings of 50, 100, and 200 meters depending on the area and whether man-made contamination was present. Results of the aerial survey were processed for americium-241 (used to determine plutonium contamination), cesium-137, cobalt-60, and uranium-238. The aerial survey also detected the presence of europium-152, a soil activation product, in the immediate vicinity of the major trial ground zeros. Ground measurements were also made at approximately 120 locations using a high-resolution germanium detector to provide supplemental data for the aerial survey. This survey was conducted as part of a series of studies being conducted over a two to three-year timeframe to obtain information from which options and associated costs can be formulated about the decontamination and possible rehabilitation of the former nuclear test sites.

  6. Conjunctivitis associated with Chlamydia pecorum in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Funnell, Oliver; Johnson, Lynley; Woolford, Lucy; Boardman, Wayne; Polkinghorne, Adam; McLelland, David

    2013-10-01

    Chlamydiosis is a significant factor contributing to the decline of koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in Australia but has not previously been reported in South Australia. We describe conjunctivitis in three wild koalas from South Australia, with Chlamydia pecorum identified by quantitative PCR.

  7. Hypothesis of homeothermy evolution on isolated South China Craton that moved from equator to cold north latitudes 250-200Myr ago.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-01-07

    Based on avian and mammalian fossils found in the northeastern Chinese province of Liaoning and physiological traits linked to homeothermy, a hypothesis of evolution of homeothermic animals is proposed. It is based on the importance of muscle function in cold environment, as a strong selection pressure that favors endothermic metabolism during periods of cold climates. The presented hypothesis postulates that in progressively cooling environment, animals will develop thermal insulation, increased basal metabolism if food is available, and torpor when food is scarce. Since late Permian, Triassic and Cretaceous global temperatures were high, an exceptional place that gradually became cold was needed for the homeothermy evolution. South China Craton is here proposed as a plausible candidate for that role since it drifted across the Paleo-Tethys ocean, from equator to high northern latitudes in a journey that lasted from 250 to 200Myr ago. After this small continent collided with North China Craton some 200Myr ago, the already cold-adapted animals had spread to large, mostly empty spaces on the North China Craton, due to their evolutionary advantage of making active living in the cold environment. The most advantageous early homeothermic animals went further north to the cold Liaoning to start an oasis that delivered modern birds during next 50Myr. Modern mammals possibly evolved somewhere in the cold vicinity. This made Liaoning and similarly cold places the cradles of early birds and early mammals since for the following millions of years these places remained too cold for poikilotherms to enter and warm enough for homeotherms to dwell, until the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event and subsequent global cooling that diminished poikilotherms. Homeothermy was probably even more important as a survival advantage in cooler climates of Paleogene, when mammals and birds became dominant animals. This interpretation is probably supported by a recent report that a small

  8. Leaching of silica bands and concentration of magnetite in Archean BIF by hypogene fluids: Beebyn Fe ore deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duuring, Paul; Hagemann, Steffen

    2013-03-01

    The ~2,752-Ma Weld Range greenstone belt in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia hosts several Fe ore deposits that provide insights into the role of early hypogene fluids in the formation of high-grade (>55 wt% Fe) magnetite-rich ore in banded iron formation (BIF). The 1.5-km-long Beebyn orebody comprises a series of steeply dipping, discontinuous, <50-m-thick lenses of magnetite-(martite)-rich ore zones in BIF that extend from surface to vertical depths of at least 250 m. The ore zones are enveloped by a 3-km-long, 150-m-wide outer halo of hypogene siderite and ferroan dolomite in BIF and mafic igneous country rocks. Ferroan chlorite characterises 20-m-wide proximal alteration zones in mafic country rocks. The magnetite-rich Beebyn orebody is primarily the product of hypogene fluids that circulated through reverse shear zones during the formation of an Archean isoclinal fold-and-thrust belt. Two discrete stages of hypogene fluid flow caused the pseudomorphic replacement of silica-rich bands in BIF by Stage 1 siderite and magnetite and later by Stage 2 ferroan dolomite. The resulting carbonate-altered BIF is markedly depleted in SiO2 and enriched in CaO, MgO, LOI, P2O5 and Fe2O3(total) compared with the least-altered BIF. Subsequent reactivation of these shear zones and circulation of hypogene fluids resulted in the leaching of existing hypogene carbonate minerals and the concentration of residual magnetite-rich bands. These Stage 3 magnetite-rich ore zones are depleted in SiO2 and enriched in K2O, CaO, MgO, P2O5 and Fe2O3(total) relative to the least-altered BIF. Proximal wall rock hypogene alteration zones in mafic igneous country rocks (up to 20 m from the BIF contact) are depleted in SiO2, CaO, Na2O, and K2O and are enriched in Fe2O3(total), MgO and P2O5 compared with distal zones. Recent supergene alteration affects all rocks within about 100 m below the present surface, disturbing hypogene mineral and the geochemical zonation patterns associated with

  9. Destroying a Craton by Plate Subduction, Small-scale Convection, and Mantle Plume: Comparison of the Wyoming Craton and the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.; Dave, R.

    2016-12-01

    A typical craton has a thick, strong, and neutrally buoyant lithosphere that protects it from being destructed by mantle convection. The Wyoming craton and the North China craton are two rare representatives, where the thick Archean lithosphere has been significantly thinned and partially removed as revealed in seismic tomography models. The Wyoming craton in the west-central US experienced pervasive deformation 80-55 Ma during the Laramide orogeny. It has been subsequently encroached upon by the Yellowstone hotspot since 2.0 Ma. Recent seismic models agree that the northern cratonic root in eastern Montana has been broadly removed while the thick root is still present in Wyoming. Our radial anisotropy model images a VSV>VSH anomaly associated with the deep fast anomaly in central Wyoming, indicating mantle downwelling. Continuous low velocities are observed beneath the Yellowstone hotspot and the Cheyenne belt at the craton's southern margin, suggesting mantle upwelling in the sub-lithosphere mantle. These observations evidence for small-scale mantle convection beneath the south-central Wyoming craton, which probably has been actively eroding the cratonic lithosphere. The small-scale mantle convection is probably also responsible for the observed, localized lithosphere delamination beneath the eastern North China craton. In addition, a plume-like, low-velocity feature is imaged beneath the central block of the North China craton and is suggested as the driving force for destructing the cratonic root. Like the Wyoming craton that was subducted by the Farallon plate during the Laramide orogeny, the North China craton was underlined by the ancient Pacific plate before the root destruction in Late Jurassic. In both cases, the subducted slab helped to hydrate and weaken the cratonic lithosphere above it, initiate local metasomatism and partial melting, and promote small-scale convection. The craton's interaction with a mantle plume could further strengthen the small

  10. Microbial contamination on beef and sheep carcases in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Sumner, John; Petrenas, Elena; Dean, Peter; Dowsett, Paul; West, Geoff; Wiering, Rinie; Raven, Geoff

    2003-03-25

    A total of 523 chilled beef and lamb carcases were sampled from four abattoirs and 13 very small plants (VSPs) in South Australia during March 2002 in order to develop a microbiological profile of meat produced for domestic consumption within the State. Aerobic viable counts (AVCs) and Escherichia coli counts were obtained from samples taken by sponge-sampling the muscle-adipose tissue at sites designated for each species in the Microbiological Guidelines to the Australian Standard for Hygienic Production of Meat for Human Consumption (identical with those of the USA Pathogen Reduction: hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems: final rule). On beef carcases (n=159) mean log AVC/cm(2) was 1.82 and E. coli was detected on 18.8% of carcases (area sampled 200 cm(2)) for which the mean log of the positives was -0.34; for lamb carcases, on which 75 cm(2) was sampled (n=364), corresponding values were 2.59, 36.2% and log(10) 0.27, respectively. There was little difference in mean log AVC/cm(2) of carcases produced at abattoirs and VSPs, 1.72 versus 1.81, respectively, for beef, and 2.80 versus 2.44, respectively, for sheep. Prevalence of E. coli was lower at VSPs, however, with abattoirs having 28.4% for beef and 61.5% for sheep, compared with corresponding values of 4.7% and 18.5% at VSPs. In VSPs, the range of mean log AVC/cm(2) was 0.47-3.16 for beef and 1.63-3.65 for sheep carcases, data which will allow the Controlling Authority to assist plants to improve performance of slaughter and dressing techniques. The present survey is part of an assessment by the State meat authority of the effectiveness of co-regulation of meat hygiene between government and industry.

  11. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  12. Applying Health in All Policies to obesity in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lareen; Ludford, Isobel; Williams, Carmel; Herriot, Michele

    2016-03-01

    Public policy strategies impact on population health by acting on the effectiveness, availability and distribution of the social determinants of health. Reducing obesity and promoting healthy weight is a key focus of governments, health promoters and researchers, and can benefit from a systems approach with 'upstream' policy action beyond the health sector. Although the literature identifies many areas for hypothetical non-health policy action, and in particular relating to food and activity environments, few have identified practical, politically viable and relatively cost-free processes by which non-health sectors would want to commit to such action. This article details how the Government of South Australia used the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach in the SA HiAP Healthy Weight Project. It mapped the core business and policy directions of 44 state departments against research on 'what works' to address obesity. Negotiations then developed high-level policy commitments to address factors promoting healthy weight which predominantly changed ways of working rather than requiring new expenditure and also assisted departments in meeting their own goals; departmental chief executives endorsed the commitments. By starting from departmental documents, and not restricting the project to departments with more 'obvious' obesity prevention potential, we gained commitment to a broader range of policy actions than identified elsewhere; for example, for prisons, environment and botanic gardens, housing and vocational education. The SA HiAP Healthy Weight Project provides one example of a workable, evidence-based systems approach to increase commitment to practical and politically viable opportunities across government to address the non-health environments supporting healthy weight.

  13. Clastic metasediments of the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group, New South Wales, Australia: Geochemistry, provenance, and metallogenic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Stevens, B.P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Whole-rock analyses of samples of pelite, psammite, and psammopelite from the Early Proterozoic Broken Hill Group (Willyama Supergroup) in the Broken Hill Block, New South Wales, Australia, reveal distinctive geochemical signatures. Major-element data show high Al2O3 and K2O, low MgO and Na2O, and relatively high Fe2O3T MgO ratios, compared to average Early Proterozoic clastic metasediments. High field strength elements (HFSE) are especially abundant, including Nb (most 15-27 ppm), Ta (most 1.0-2.2 ppm), Th (17-36 ppm), Hf (4-15 ppm), and Zr (most 170-400 ppm); Y (33-74 ppm) is also high. Concentrations of ferromagnesian elements are generally low (Sc = < 20 ppm, Ni = ??? 62 ppm, Co = <26 ppm; Cr = most < 100 ppm). Data for rare earth elements (REEs) show high abundances of light REEs (LaCN = 116-250 ?? chondrite; LaCN = 437 in one sample), high LaCN YbCN ratios (5.6-13.9), and large negative Eu anomalies ( Eu Eu* = 0.32-0.57). The geochemical data indicate derivation of the metasedimentary rocks of the Broken Hill Group by the erosion mainly of felsic igneous (or meta-igneous) rocks. High concentrations of HFSE, Y, and REEs in the metasediments suggest a provenance dominanted by anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites, including those with A-type chemistry. Likely sources of the metasediments were the rhyolitic to rhyodacitic protoliths of local quartz + feldspar ?? biotite ?? garnet gneisses (e.g., Potosi-type gneiss) that occur within the lower part of the Willyama Supergroup, or chemically similar basement rocks in the region; alternative sources may have included Early Proterozoic anorogenic granites and(or) rhyolites in the Mount Isa and(or) Pine Creek Blocks of northern Australia, or in the Gawler craton of South Australia. Metallogenic considerations suggest that the metasediments of the Broken Hill Block formed enriched source rocks during the generation of pegmatite-hosted deposits and concentrations of La, Ce, Nb, Ta, Th, and Sn in the region. Li, Be, B, W

  14. A Study on Problem and Pathological Gambling among University Students in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, A. R.; Blanksby, P.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlates of problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Convenience sampling method was used to select participants ("n" = 163; 55.2 per cent women, 44.8 per cent men; age range 17-57 years) from two faculties in a South Australian university. A…

  15. A Study on Problem and Pathological Gambling among University Students in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubarak, A. R.; Blanksby, P.

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the correlates of problem and pathological gambling among university students in South Australia. Convenience sampling method was used to select participants ("n" = 163; 55.2 per cent women, 44.8 per cent men; age range 17-57 years) from two faculties in a South Australian university. A…

  16. Phase relationships of a lherzolite from the Roberts Victor Mine, South Africa: A study of chemical and physical parameters in the Kaapvaal Craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globig, J.; Sommer, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Roberts Victor kimberlite pipe-dike system is well known as type locality for intensively studied eclogitic xenoliths. Since more than 95% of the Roberts Victor xenoliths are rather of eclogitic than of peridotitic type, mineralogical data of lherzolitic peridotites from the mine is extremely rare. In fact, there is no detailed petrological study of peridotitic mantle xenoliths from the Roberts Victor Mine up to the present day. As the lherzolitic xenolith nodules from the Roberts Victor Mine are strongly altered, due to contact with the aqueous fluid of the ascending kimberlitic melt bulk chemistry analyses result in too low SiO2 and too high MgO concentrations. Thus, Roberts Victor lherzolites provide a distorted image of the sampled mantle regions. To avoid inaccuracies in composition, we used mineral analyses of the rock forming minerals from lherzolithes from the Roberts Victor Mine and implemented a planimetric method to recalculate a proper bulk rock composition that is free of volatiles and representative of a garnet lherzolite from the Kaapvaal Craton. The recalculated bulk chemistry for the four-phase lherzolite composition Ol-Opx-Cpx-Gt is; SiO2≈45.83 wt.%, TiO2≈0.04 wt.%, Cr2O3≈0.51 wt.%, Al2O3≈1.84 wt.%, FeO≈6.27 wt.%, MnO≈0.07 wt.%, MgO≈43.51 wt.%, CaO≈0.53 wt.%, Na2O≈0.10 wt.%. As our bulk composition fits accurately the composition range of lherzolites from the Kaapvaal Craton, analysed by Carswell and Dawson (1970), it is seen to represent the chemistry of the upper mantle beneath South Africa. By the use of the Gibbs minimization software PerpleX (Connolly, 2005) we created a petrological p-T phase diagram for a water saturated lherzolite from 473-2073 K and 10-100 kbar, based on the recalculated bulk composition, to estimate the proportion of lherzolite in the lithospheric-asthenospheric mantle of the Kaapvaal Craton. Furthermore and more importantly, we used PerpleX to model the modal distribution of the phases Atg, Br, Chl

  17. An infrared investigation of inclusion-bearing diamonds from the Venetia kimberlite, Northern Province, South Africa : implications for diamonds from craton-margin settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljoen, (Fanus)

    2002-08-01

    The Venetia kimberlites in the Northern Province of South Africa sampled diamonds from the lithosphere underlying the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt. Given the general correlation of diamond-bearing kimberlites with old stable cratons, this tectonic setting is somewhat anomalous and, therefore, it is desirable to characterise the diamonds in terms of their infrared characteristics. A suite of diamonds of known paragenesis from the Venetia mine spans a large range of nitrogen concentrations from less than the detection limit to 1,355 ppm. Diamond nitrogen contents are, on average, higher in the eclogitic diamond population relative to the websteritic and peridotitic diamonds. Nitrogen aggregation states are variable, ranging from almost pure type IaA diamond (poorly aggregated nitrogen) to pure type IaB diamond (highly aggregated nitrogen). On a nitrogen aggregation diagram two distinct groups can be identified based on nitrogen content and nitrogen aggregation state. These are a minor population of diamonds with nitrogen contents generally higher than 500 ppm and nitrogen aggregation states of less than 40% IaB, and another, dominant population that is characterised by higher and more variable nitrogen aggregation. The unusually aggregated nature of the majority of the diamonds analysed is unique to Venetia relative to other intrusives on the Kaapvaal-Kalahari craton, but is similar to aggregation states observed for diamonds from other craton margin or adjacent mobile belt settings such as the Argyle lamproite and the George Creek kimberlite. This could be a consequence of diamond mantle residence at mantle temperatures higher than the norm for other kimberlites from the interior of cratons. Deformation of the mantle, associated with dynamic processes such as orogenesis or subduction, might also be responsible for accelerating the rate of nitrogen aggregation in these diamonds. Low numbers of diamonds with degradation of platelets at the Venetia kimberlite

  18. Asteroid mega-impacts and Precambrian banded iron formations: 2.63 Ga and 2.56 Ga impact ejecta/fallout at the base of BIF/argillite units, Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glikson, Andrew; Vickers, John

    2007-02-01

    The temporal association between late Archaean to earliest Proterozoic asteroid impact ejecta/fallout units and overlying banded iron formations suggests that, in some instances, these impacts were closely followed by significant transformation in the nature of source terrains of the sediments. The Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL) [B.M. Simonson, D. Davies, S.W. Hassler, Discovery of a layer of probable impact melt spherules in the late Archean Jeerinah Formation, Fortescue Group, Western Australia. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 47 (2000) 315-325; B.M. Simonson, S.W. Hassler, Revised correlations in the early Precambrian Hamersley Basin based on a horizon of resedimented impact spherules. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 44 (1997) 37-48; B.M. Simonson, B.P. Glass, Spherule layers - records of ancient impacts. Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 32 (2004) 329-361; A.Y. Glikson, Early Precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Astrobiology 4 (2001) 19-50; S.W. Hassler, B.M. Simonson, D.Y. Sumner, D. Murphy, Neoarchaean impact spherule layers in the Fortescue and Hamersley Groups, Western Australia: stratigraphic and depositional implications of re-correlation. Aust. J. Earth Sci. 52 (2005) 759-772; B. Rasmussen, C. Koeberl, Iridium anomalies and shocked quartz in a late Archean spherule layer from the Pilbara Craton: new evidence for a major asteroid impact at 2.63 Ga. Geology 32 (2004) 1029-1032; B. Rasmussen, T.S. Blake, I.R. Fletcher, U-Pb zircon age constraints on the Hamersley spherule beds: Evidence for a single 2.63 Ga Jeerinah-Carawine impact ejecta layer. Geology, 33 (2005) 725-728.] overlies an argillite-dominated unit (Jeerinah Formation, 2684 ± 6 Ma [A.F. Trendall, W. Compston, D.R. Nelson, J.R. deLaeter, V.C. Bennett, SHRIMP zircon ages constraining the depositional chronology of the Hamersley Group, Western

  19. Diatexite Deformation and Magma Extraction on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasalova, Pavlina; Weinberg, Roberto; Ward, Lindsay; Fanning, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Migmatite terranes are structurally complex because of strong rheological contrast between layers with different melt contents and because of magma migration leading to volume changes. Migmatite deformation is intimately linked with magma extraction and the origin of granitoids. We investigate here the relationships between an evolving deformation and magma extraction in migmatites formed during the ca. 500Ma Delamerian orogeny, exposed on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Here, several phases of deformation occurred in the presence of melt. During an early upright, non-cylindrical folding event, magma was channeled towards the hinge zones of antiforms. Funnel-shaped networks of leucosomes form a root zone that link up towards a central axial planar channel, forming the main magma extraction paths during folding. Extraction was associated with fold limb collapse, and antiformal hinge disruption by magma accumulation and transfer. During a later deformation phase, melt-rich diatexites were deformed, and schollen were disaggregated into smaller blocks and schlieren, and deformed into asymmetric, sigmoidal shapes indicative of dextral shearing flow. During flow, magma accumulated preferentially along shear planes, indicating a dilatational component during shearing (transtension) and in strain shadows of schollen. As deformation waned, magma extraction from these diatexites gave rise to N-trending, steeply dipping, funnel-shaped channels not associated to any deformational feature. The funnel-shape of these structures indicates the direction of magma flow. Structures developed during this phase are comparable with those formed during dewatering of soft sediments. Despite a high degree of complexity, magma migration and extraction features record distinct responses to the evolving deformation which can be used to understand deformation, and nature and direction of melt extraction. The oldest and youngest magmatic rocks from migmatites were dated (U-Pb monazite, SHRIMP

  20. Tectonic evolution of greenstone-Gneiss association in Dharwar Craton, South India: Problems and perspectives for future research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Y. J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The two fold stratigraphic subdivision of the Archean-Proterozoic greenstone-gneiss association of Dharwar craton into an older Sargur group (older than 2.9 Ga.) and a younger Dharwar Supergroup serves as an a priori stratigraphic model. The concordant greenstone (schist)-gneiss (Peninsular gneiss) relationships, ambiguities in stratigraphic correlations of the schist belts assigned to Sargur group and difficulties in deciphering the older gneiss units can be best appreciated if the Sargur group be regarded as a trimodal association of: (1) ultrabasic-mafic metavolcanics (including komatiites), (2) clastic and nonclastic metasediments and paragneisses and (3) mainly tonalite/trondhemite gneisses and migmatites of diverse ages which could be as old as c. 3.4 ga. or even older. The extensive occurrence of this greenstone-gneiss complex is evident from recent mapping in many areas of central and southern Karnataka State.

  1. Adult and Community Education: A Snapshot of the Conditions and Circumstances of Being a Community-Based Adult Community Education (ACE) Provider in South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales and Victoria from September to December 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwencke, Helen

    This report compiles information from a study tour to identify the current status, development, and issues of nonprofit organizations with voluntary boards of management that provide adult and community-based education (ACE) in Australia. An overview of the community-based ACE sector covers organizations in South Australia, Western Australia,…

  2. Contrasting Mesozoic evolution across the boundary between on and off craton regions of the South African plateau inferred from apatite fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, Mark; Brown, Roderick; Persano, Cristina; Beucher, Romain; Stuart, Finlay M.; Mackintosh, Vhairi; Gallagher, Kerry; Schwanethal, James; Carter, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    The timing and mechanisms involved in creating the elevated, low-relief topography of the South African plateau remain unresolved. Here we constrain the thermal history of the Southwest African plateau since 300 Ma by using apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) thermochronology. Archean rocks from the center of the Kaapvaal Craton yield AFT ages of 331.0 ± 11.0 and 379.0 ± 23.0 Ma and mean track lengths (MTLs) of 11.9 ± 0.2 and 12.5 ± 0.3 µm. Toward the southwest margin of the craton and in the adjacent Paleozoic mobile belt, AFT ages are significantly younger and range from 58.9 ± 5.9 to 128.7 ± 6.3 Ma and have longer MTLs (>13 µm). The range of sample AHe ages complements the AFT ages, and single-grain AHe ages for most samples are highly dispersed. Results from joint inverse modeling of these data reveal that the center of the craton has resided at near-surface temperatures (<60°C) since 300 Ma, whereas the margins of the craton and the off-craton mobile belt experienced two discrete episodes of cooling during the Cretaceous. An Early Cretaceous cooling episode is ascribed to regional denudation following continental breakup. Late Cretaceous cooling occurs regionally but is locally variable and may be a result of a complex interaction between mantle-driven uplift and the tectonic setting of the craton margin. Across the entire plateau, samples are predicted to have remained at near-surface temperatures throughout the Cenozoic, suggesting minimal denudation (<1 km) and relative tectonic stability of the plateau.

  3. Groundwater recharge to a sedimentary aquifer in the topographically closed Uley South Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordens, Carlos M.; Werner, Adrian D.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Hutson, John L.; Simmons, Craig T.; Irvine, Benjamin M.

    2012-02-01

    The chloride mass balance (CMB) and water-table fluctuation (WTF) analysis methods were used to estimate recharge rates in the Uley South Basin, South Australia. Groundwater hydrochemistry and isotope data were used to infer the nature of recharge pathways and evapotranspiration processes. These data indicate that some combination of two plausible processes is occurring: (1) complete evaporation of rainfall occurs, and the precipitated salts are washed down and redissolved when recharge occurs, and (2) transpiration dominates over evaporation. It is surmised that sinkholes predominantly serve to by-pass the shallow soil zone and redistribute infiltration into the deeper unsaturated zone, rather than transferring rainfall directly to the water table. Chlorofluorocarbon measurements were used in approximating recharge origins to account for coastal proximity effects in the CMB method and pumping seasonality was accounted for in the WTF-based recharge estimates. Best estimates of spatially and temporally averaged recharge rates for the basin are 52-63 and 47-129 mm/year from the CMB and WTF analyses, respectively. Adaptations of both the CMB and WTF analyses to account for nuances of the system were necessary, demonstrating the need for careful application of these methods.

  4. Early precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Glikson, Andrew Y

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering studies of Precambrian impact fallout units and associated tsunami deposits in the Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, by B.M. Simonson and S.W. Hassler, document a range of tsunami deposits associated with impact fallout units whose impact connection is identified by associated microtektites and microkrystites (condensation spherules). The impact connection of these particles is demonstrated by iridium anomalies, unique platinum group elements patterns, and Ni-rich mineral phases. Densely packed tsunami-transported fragments and boulders overlie microkrystite units of the >2629 +/- 5 Ma top Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL). Tsunami events closely follow spherule settling associated with the 2561 +/- 8 Ma Spherule Marker Bed SMB-1 and SMB-2 impact events, Bee Gorge Member, Wittenoom Formation. The two impact cycles are separated by a stratigraphically consistent silicified black siltstone, representing a "Quiet Interval." The SMB turbidites display turbulence eddies, climbing ripples, conglomerate pockets, slumps, and waterlogged sediment deformation features. Consequences of tsunami in the probably contemporaneous Carawine Dolomite (Pb-Pb carbonate ages of approximately 2.56-2.54 Ga), eastern Hamersley Basin, include sub-autochthonous below-wave base excavation and megabrecciation of sea floor substrata, resulting in a unique 10-30-m-thick spherule-bearing megabreccia marker mapped over a nearly 100-km north-south strike distance in the east Hamersley Basin. The field relations suggest a pretsunami settling of the bulk of the spherules. Tsunami wave effects include: (1). dispersal of the spherule-rich soft upper sea floor sediments as a subaqueous mud cloud and (2). excavation of consolidated substrata below the soft sediment zone. Excavation and megabrecciation included injection of liquefied spherule-bearing microbreccia into dilated fractures in the disrupted underlying carbonates. Near-perfect preservation of the spherules within the

  5. Geochemistry and mineralogy of sediments from the Ventersdorp and Transvaal Supergroups, South Africa: Cratonic evolution during the early Proterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronkiewicz, David J.; Condie, Kent C.

    1990-02-01

    Approximately 100 pelite and 12 quartzite samples from the Ventersdorp (~2.7 Ga) and Transvaal Supergroups (~2.6-2.1 Ga) have been analyzed to monitor the early Proterozoic evolution of the Kaapvaal Craton, southern Africa. From oldest to youngest, pelites were sampled from the Ventersdorp-Bothaville (BOT), Transvaal-Selati (SEL), Black Reef (BR), Timeball Hill (TH), Strubenkop (STR), and Silverton (SIL) Formations. Paleocurrent measurements in Transvaal quartzites indicate sources lying predominantly to the north and east. Relative to the BOT-SEL-BR, pelites from the TH-STR-SIL are enriched in heavy-REE, LILE, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta, depleted in K 2O, MgO, Ni, and Cr, and have lower Cr/Zr, Sc/Th, K 2O/Na 2O, and K/ Rb ratios. Compared to SEL-BR, BOT-TH-STR-SIL pelites have higher light-REE contents and La/Yb ratios, and lower Eu/Eu∗ ratios (0.61-0.66). Relative to NASC (North American Shale Composite), THSTR-SIL pelites are enriched in light-REE, Th, U, Ta, Nb, Sc, Cs, have higher La/Yb ratios, and are depleted in K 2O and MgO. BOT-SEL-BR pelites are enriched in K 2O, MgO, Cr, and Ni, have higher K 2O/Na 2O, Sc/Th, and Eu/Eu∗ ratios, and are depleted in Th, U, heavy-REE, and High Field Strength Elements (HFSE) relative to NASC. Compositions of TH-STR-SIL pelites suggest a provenance similar to average Phanerozoic uppercontinental crust. This source is more evolved than that of BOT-SEL-BR pelites, indicating a transformation from primitive (mafic-rich) to evolved (felsic-rich) upper-crust at 2.2 Ga. This transition follows earlier primitive to evolved trends in Moodies-Pongola (3.3-3.0 Ga) and Witwatersrand (~2.8 Ga) successions. These data suggest that several cycles of changing upper-continental crust occurred in the Kaapvaal craton between 3.3-2.1 Ga.

  6. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  7. An Investigation into Why Students from Regional South Australia Choose to Study Business Programs in the Capital City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Janet; Ellis, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Although Business undergraduate studies are available at the University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE), both at the Whyalla Campus and the Mount Gambier Regional Centre (MGRC), many students from regional South Australia choose to undertake Business degrees in Adelaide, the state capital, rather than locally.…

  8. Geology of the Terre Adélie Craton (135 – 146˚ E)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ménot, R.P.; Duclaux, G.; Peucat, J.J.; Rolland, Y.; Guillot, S.; Fanning, M.; Bascou, J.; Gapais, D.; Pêcher, A.

    2007-01-01

    More than 15 years of field and laboratory investigations on samples from Terre Adélie to the western part of George Vth Land (135 to 146°E) during the GEOLETA program allow a reassessment of the Terre Adélie Craton (TAC) geology. The TAC represents the largest exposed fragment of the East Antarctic Shield preserved from both Grenville and Ross tectono-metamorphic events. Therefore it corresponds to a well-preserved continental segment that developed from the Neoarchean to the Paleoproterozoic. Together with the Gawler Craton in South Australia, the TAC is considered as part of the Mawson continent, i.e. a striking piece of the Rodinia Supercontinent. However, this craton represents one of the less studied parts of the East Antarctic Shield. The three maps presented here clearly point out the extent of two distinct domains within the Terre Adélie Craton and suggest that the TAC was built up through a polyphased evolution during the Neoarchean-Siderian (c.a. 2.5Ga) and the Statherian (c.a. 1.7Ga) periods. These data support a complete re-assessment of the TAC geology and represent a valuable base for the understanding of global geodynamics changes during Paleoproterozoic times.

  9. Accessibility to general practitioners in rural South Australia. A case study using geographic information system technology.

    PubMed

    Bamford, E J; Dunne, L; Taylor, D S; Symon, B G; Hugo, G J; Wilkinson, D

    To demonstrate the potential of GIS (geographic information system) technology and ARIA (Accessibility/Remoteness Index for Australia) as tools for medical workforce and health service planning in Australia. ARIA is an index of remoteness derived by measuring road distance between populated localities and service centres. A continuous variable of remoteness from 0 to 12 is generated for any location in Australia. We created a GIS, with data on location of general practitioner services in non-metropolitan South Australia derived from the database of RUMPS (Rural Undergraduate Medical Placement System), and estimated, for the 1170 populated localities in South Australia, the accessibility/inaccessibility of the 109 identified GP services. Distance from populated locality to GP services. Distance from populated locality to GP service ranged from 0 to 677 km (mean, 58 km). In all, 513 localities (43%) had a GP service within 20 km (for the majority this meant located within the town). However, for 173 populated localities (15%), the nearest GP service was more than 80 km away. There was a strong correlation between distance to GP service and ARIA value for each locality (0.69; P < 0.05). GP services are relatively inaccessible to many rural South Australian communities. There is potential for GIS and for ARIA to contribute to rational medical workforce and health service planning. Adding measures of health need and more detailed data on types and extent of GP services provided will allow more sophisticated planning.

  10. Widespread refertilization of cratonic and circum-cratonic lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Ying, Ji-Feng; Su, Ben-Xun

    2013-03-01

    Studies of mantle xenoliths have confirmed that Archean subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) is highly depleted in basaltic components (such as Al, Ca and Na) due to high-degree extraction of mafic and ultramafic melts and thus is refractory and buoyant, which made it chronically stable as tectonically independent units. However, increasing studies show that ancient SCLM can be refertilized by episodic rejuvenation events like infiltration of upwelling fertile material. The North China Craton is one of the most typical cases for relatively complete destruction of its Archean keel since the eruption of Paleozoic kimberlites, as is evidenced by a dramatic change in the compositions of mantle xenoliths sampled by Paleozoic to Cenozoic magmas, reflecting significant lithospheric thinning and the change in the character of the SCLM. The compositional change has been interpreted as the result of refertilization of Archean SCLM via multiple-stage peridotite-melt reactions, suggested by linear correlations between MgO and indices of fertility, covariations of Al2O3 with CaO, La/Yb, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 187Os/188Os and Re-depletion ages (TRD), high Re abundances, scatter in Re-Os isotopic plot, variable in situ TRD ages of sulfides, and correlation between TRD ages and olivine Fo of peridotite xenoliths in Paleozoic kimberlites and Cenozoic basalts on the craton. By integrating major and trace element, Sr, Nd and Os isotopic compositions of peridotite xenoliths and orogenic massif peridotites from the continents of Europe, Asia, America, Africa and Australia, together with previous studies of petrology and geochemistry of global peridotites, we suggest that (1) refertilization of cratonic and circum-cratonic lithospheric mantle is widespread; (2) Archean SCLM worldwide has experienced a multi-stage history of melt depletion and refertilization since segregation from the convecting mantle; (3) cratonic SCLM may be more susceptible to compositional change caused by

  11. Formation and temporal evolution of the Kalahari sub-cratonic lithospheric mantle: Constraints from Venetia xenoliths, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hin, R. C.; Morel, M. L. A.; Nebel, O.; Mason, P. R. D.; van Westrenen, W.; Davies, G. R.

    2009-11-01

    The ~533 Ma Venetia Diamond Mine is located between the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons and the study of selected xenoliths provides the opportunity to investigate the temporal evolution of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) underneath southern Africa, as well as the extent and potentially the timing and nature of the Si-enrichment that characterizes the Kaapvaal SCLM. Most peridotite xenoliths contain 15-25% orthopyroxene, confirming Si-enrichment of the Venetian SCLM. Mineral major element compositions for 36 peridotitic mantle xenoliths record less melt depletion than inclusions in Venetian diamonds (e.g., olivine Mg# 88.7-93.4; mode 92.5). Olivine Mg# suggest on average ~40% melt extraction and reconstructed whole rock HREE concentrations can be modelled by 20% fractional melting in the garnet stability field followed by ~10 to 13% in the spinel stability field. Calculated Nb/Sr and Ce/Yb ratios for melts in equilibrium with garnet and clinopyroxene suggest that the xenolith suite underwent metasomatism by both hydrous fluids and kimberlite/carbonatite-type melts. Garnet Nd ( TCHUR(Nd) = 2.1 Ga) and Hf ( TCHUR(Hf) = 1.8 Ga) model ages for one sample with an exclusively hydrous metasomatic character are indistinguishable from previously reported Re-Os ages of Venetian peridotitic and eclogitic diamond inclusions. Based on a geochemical and isotopic approach, we propose that the Venetian SCLM formed by shallow melting in the Archaean followed by lateral accretion. Hydrous fluids, either associated with remobilisation due to regional heating or subduction, led to metasomatism and possibly to Si-enrichment at ~2.0 Ga before a final stage of metasomatism associated with kimberlite magmatism.

  12. The Trajectory of Language Policy: The First Language Maintenance and Development Program in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.; Curnow, Timothy Jowan; Scarino, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the development of the First Language Maintenance and Development (FLMD) program in South Australia. This program is the main language policy activity that specifically focuses on language maintenance in government primary schools and has existed since 1986. During this time, the program has evolved largely as the result of ad…

  13. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  14. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  15. Mortality among a Cohort of Persons with an Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florio, Tony; Trollor, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the study was to compare mortality for people with an intellectual disability (ID) to the general population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A second objective was to provide mortality data for people with an intellectual disability from NSW in a standardized format, which allows for international comparisons…

  16. Rickettsia Detected in the Reptile Tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri from the Lizard Tiliqua rugosa in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, Harriet; Custance, Georgie; Graves, Stephen; Stenos, John; Taylor, Michael; Ross, Kirstin; Gardner, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiosis is a potentially fatal tick borne disease. It is caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia, which is transferred to humans through salivary excretions of ticks during the biting process. Globally, the incidence of tick-borne diseases is increasing; as such, there is a need for a greater understanding of tick–host interactions to create more informed risk management strategies. Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses has been identified throughout Australia (Tasmania, South Australia, Queensland and Torres Strait Islands) with possible identifications in Thailand, Sri Lanka and Italy. Flinders Island spotted fever is thought to be spread through tick bites and the reptile tick Bothriocroton hydrosauri has been implicated as a vector in this transmission. This study used qPCR to assay Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts on mainland South Australia near where spotted fever cases have been identified. We report that, although we discovered Rickettsia in all tick samples, it was not Rickettsia honei. This study is the first to use PCR to positively identify Rickettsia from South Australian Bothriocroton hydrosauri ticks collected from Tiliqua rugosa (sleepy lizard) hosts. These findings suggest that B. hydrosauri may be a vector of multiple Rickettsia spp. Also as all 41 tested B. hydrosauri ticks were positive for Rickettsia this indicates an extremely high prevalence within the studied area in South Australia. PMID:27338482

  17. The Gendered Shaping of University Leadership in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…

  18. Engagement with Empires: Irish Catholic Female Religious Teachers in Colonial South Australia 1868-1901

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the roles of Irish Catholic female religious institutes for teachers in the context of the recent debates about education and empire. Nineteenth century colonial South Australia provides an opportunity to examine such institutes, for example the Irish Dominicans from Cabra Dublin, the Irish Mercy Institute from Baggot Street,…

  19. Is Isolation a Problem? Issues Faced by Rural Libraries and Rural Library Staff in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Rebecca; Calvert, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate current issues faced by public library staff in rural South Australia and to examine some of the reasons why people choose to work in rural libraries. The study took a mixed methods approach, combining interviews and questionnaires to gain a fuller understanding of the issues and experiences of rural…

  20. Tertiary Educators' Voices in Australia and South Africa: Experiencing and Engaging in African Music and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Music tertiary educators can foster positive experiences that promote diversity, enhance intercultural and cross-cultural understanding through our teaching. Through findings of interview data of tertiary music educators' understandings of multicultural music practice at two South African universities and at an Australia university, I used…

  1. The South Australia Health Chronic Disease Self-Management Internet Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L.; Plant, Kathryn; Laurent, Diana D.; Kelly, Pauline; Rowe, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an online chronic disease self-management program for South Australia residents. Method: Data were collected online at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The intervention was an asynchronous 6-week chronic disease self-management program offered online. The authors measured eight health status measures,…

  2. Tertiary Educators' Voices in Australia and South Africa: Experiencing and Engaging in African Music and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Music tertiary educators can foster positive experiences that promote diversity, enhance intercultural and cross-cultural understanding through our teaching. Through findings of interview data of tertiary music educators' understandings of multicultural music practice at two South African universities and at an Australia university, I used…

  3. Mortality among a Cohort of Persons with an Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florio, Tony; Trollor, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the study was to compare mortality for people with an intellectual disability (ID) to the general population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A second objective was to provide mortality data for people with an intellectual disability from NSW in a standardized format, which allows for international comparisons…

  4. Counter-Geographies: The Campaign against Rationalisation of Agricultural Research Stations in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris; Dufty, Rae; Phillips, Samantha; Smith, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses an example of community action mounted in a rural region of New South Wales, Australia, in response to proposals by the State Government to rationalise agricultural research stations operated by the Department of Primary Industries. Informed by a Foucaultian understanding of power and the concept of governmentality,…

  5. Counter-Geographies: The Campaign against Rationalisation of Agricultural Research Stations in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chris; Dufty, Rae; Phillips, Samantha; Smith, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses an example of community action mounted in a rural region of New South Wales, Australia, in response to proposals by the State Government to rationalise agricultural research stations operated by the Department of Primary Industries. Informed by a Foucaultian understanding of power and the concept of governmentality,…

  6. The South Australia Health Chronic Disease Self-Management Internet Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L.; Plant, Kathryn; Laurent, Diana D.; Kelly, Pauline; Rowe, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an online chronic disease self-management program for South Australia residents. Method: Data were collected online at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. The intervention was an asynchronous 6-week chronic disease self-management program offered online. The authors measured eight health status measures,…

  7. The Gendered Shaping of University Leadership in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…

  8. Sunny Prospects: The Non-School-Leaver Segment in South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clermont, Roslyn

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of demand-driven funding following the Bradley Review has seen the progressive removal of constraints on the number of undergraduate places that universities can offer, therefore allowing universities to set their own growth levels. In South Australia, there is little unmet demand for university places. Traditionally, universities…

  9. The basement of the Punta del Este Terrane (Uruguay): an African Mesoproterozoic fragment at the eastern border of the South American Río de La Plata craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basei, Miguel A. S.; Peel, Elena; Sánchez Bettucci, Leda; Preciozzi, Fernando; Nutman, Allen P.

    2011-04-01

    The Punta del Este Terrane (eastern Uruguay) lies in a complex Neoproterozoic (Brasiliano/Pan-African) orogenic zone considered to contain a suture between South American terranes to the west of Major Gercino-Sierra Ballena Suture Zone and eastern African affinities terranes. Zircon cores from Punta del Este Terrane basement orthogneisses have U-Pb ages of ca. 1,000 Ma, which indicate an lineage with the Namaqua Belt in Southwestern Africa. U-Pb zircon ages also provide the following information on the Punta del Este terrane: the orthogneisses containing the ca. 1,000 Ma inheritance formed at ca. 750 Ma; in contrast to the related terranes now in Africa, reworking of the Punta del Este Terrane during Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenesis was very intense, reaching granulite facies at ca. 640 Ma. The termination of the Brasiliano/Pan-African orogeny is marked by formation of acid volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks at ca. 570 Ma (Sierra de Aguirre Formation), formation of late sedimentary basins (San Carlos Formation) and then intrusion at ca. 535 Ma of post-tectonic granitoids (Santa Teresa and José Ignacio batholiths). The Punta del Este Terrane and unrelated western terranes represented by the Dom Feliciano Belt and the Río de La Plata Craton were in their present positions by ca. 535 Ma.

  10. Bi-directional subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean during the Late Silurian: Magmatic records from both the southern Central Tianshan Block and northern Tarim Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meng; Zhang, Jinjiang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Ge, Maohui

    2016-10-01

    The subduction polarity of the South Tianshan Ocean (STO) is a matter of debate, primarily in that the Paleozoic structures of Tianshan orogenic belt have been strongly overprinted by the Cenozoic intra-continental deformation. Indentifying the arc-related magmatic rocks may provide a convincible clue for understanding the closure process of the STO. In this study, whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotope were presented on the andesite and monzonite from the Bayanbulak area of the southern Central Tianshan Block (CTB) and on the quartz diorite from the Ouxidaban area of the northern Tarim Craton. Geochemically, all the samples are Na-rich, enriched in light rare earth elements and large ion lithophile elements (Rb, Ba, U, K and Pb), and depleted in high strength field elements (Nb, Ta and Ti), like most arc-type igneous rocks. The Bayanbulak andesite samples display high MgO, Fe2O3T, TiO2 and Mg# values, and positive εHf(t) values, indicating magma source from the wedge mantle. But the existence of xenocrystic zircons implies that continental crust material were involved during magma ascend, suggesting a continental arc setting for the Bayanbulak andesite. The Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite samples display relatively higher SiO2 contents, and lower MgO, Fe2O3T and TiO2 concentrations, indicating crustal sources. But the Mg# values of the Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite are 48.76-51.85 and 50.31-53.73, and the εHf(t) values are -2.5 to 8.7 and -1.7 to 4.1, indicating that their magma sources were also mixed by mantle-derived components. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that the Bayanbulak andesite, the Bayanbulak monzonite and the Ouxidaban quartz diorite were formed at 423, 424 Ma, and 421 Ma, respectively. The age and geochemical data indicate that both the southern CTB and northern Tarim Craton were active continental margins during the Late Silurian, favoring a bi-directional subduction

  11. Stable isotope study of the Archaean rocks of the Vredefort impact structure, central Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, Åke; Harris, Chris; La Grange, Mandy; Stevens, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The Vredefort dome in the Kaapvaal Craton was formed as a result of the impact of a large meteorite at 2.02 Ga. The central core of Archaean granitic basement rocks is surrounded by a collar of uplifted and overturned strata of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, exposing a substantial depth section of the Archaean crust. Orthogneisses of the core show little variation in whole-rock δ 18O value, with the majority being between 8 and 10‰, with a mean of 9.2‰ ( n = 35). Quartz and feldspar have per mil differences that are consistent with O-isotope equilibrium at high temperatures, suggesting minimal interaction with fluids during subsequent cooling. These data refute previous suggestions that the Outer Granite Gneiss (OGG) and Inlandsee Leucogranofels (ILG) of the core represent middle and lower crust, respectively. Granulite-facies greenstone remnants from the ILG have δ 18O values that are on average 1.5‰ higher than the ILG host rocks and are unlikely, therefore, to represent the residuum from the partial melting event that formed the host rock. Witwatersrand Supergroup sedimentary rocks of the collar, which were metamorphosed at greenschist-to amphibolite-facies conditions, generally have lower δ 18O values than the core rocks with a mean value for metapelites of 7.7‰ ( n = 45). Overall, through an ˜20 km thick section of crust, there is a general increase in whole-rock δ 18O value with increasing depth. This is the reverse of what is normal in the crust, largely because the collar rocks have δ 18O values that are unusually low in comparison with metamorphosed sedimentary rocks worldwide. The collar rocks have δD values ranging from -35 to -115‰ (average -62‰, n = 29), which are consistent with interaction with water of meteoric origin, having a δD of about -25 to -45‰. We suggest that fluid movement through the collar rocks was enhanced by impact-induced secondary permeability in the dome structure.

  12. Forum: Geography and Geographical Education in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliss, Susan

    2006-01-01

    In New South Wales Geography is frequently perceived in an outdated and inaccurate fashion. Geographers' perceptions of their discipline usually contrasts with those of fellow educators, parents, employers, politicians and even their own students. It is suggested that for the public and students to better understand what is required to become a…

  13. NatureLinks: Protected areas, wilderness, and landscape connectivity in South Australia, Australia

    Treesearch

    Adrian Stokes; Greg Leaman

    2007-01-01

    The South Australian Government has recognized that, despite an extensive protected area system (26 percent of the State), Statewide ecological goals will not be achieved on protected areas alone. The NatureLinks model promotes protected areas acting as “ecological cores” in landscapes managed with conservation objectives. To implement this model, partnerships with...

  14. The acraman impact structure: source of ejecta in late precambrian shales, South australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, G E

    1986-07-11

    A major probable impact structure occurs in middle Proterozoic dacitic volcanics in the Gawler Ranges, central South Australia. The structure has an inner depressed area about 30 kilometers in diameter that contains the Lake Acraman salina, an intermediate depression or ring about 90 kilometers in diameter, and a possible outer ring approximately 160 kilometers in diameter. Outcrops of dacite in Lake Acraman are intensely shattered and contain shatter cones and multiple sets of shock lamellac in quartz grains. The Acraman structure is the largest probable impact structure known in Australia and is the likely source of dacitic ejecta found in late Precambrian marine shales some 300 kilometers to the east.

  15. Rural rotations for interns: a demonstration programme in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Mugford, B; Martin, A

    2001-12-01

    The Commonwealth Government of Australia, through policy initiatives and increased funding, has placed significant emphasis on increasing undergraduate rural experiences for medical students. However, in the immediate postgraduate years, rural community based rotations are uncommon, with the vast majority of intern experiences remaining hospital based. Since 1997, Flinders Medical Centre, Flinders University and the rural communities of Cleve and Jamestown have run a preregistration rural intern-training position based in rural general practice. The present article describes the programme, its evolution and the problems that have been overcome. The term provides a blend of hospital and community based experiences appropriate for junior doctors not yet familiar with ambulatory care. At the same time, the junior doctors have consistently reported a high-quality learning experience, with ready access to patients and procedural work. We describe the qualitative and quantitative methods we have recently introduced for evaluation of the programme.

  16. Seismic hazard analysis of the Adelaide region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, Bambang

    2017-07-01

    Seismic activity in Australia is categorised as low to moderate. However, the rate of the deformation of the Australian continent is faster than other stable intraplate regions, such as Eastern North America and Africa. Adelaide region is the most seismically active zone in the Australian continent. Therefore, seismic hazard analysis of the Adelaide region is needed to improve the accuracy of seismic hazard predictions. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) incorporating Monte Carlo simulation is selected in the present paper. This method has several advantages i.e. simple, fast, flexible, and robust. Results of the analysis suggest comparable results with previous studies. Furthermore, two main threats are identified in the de-aggregation for the Adelaide city. Due to the limitation of strong magnitude event and the scarcity of the seismic event, further work is suggested for improving the estimates by extending the seismic catalogue i.e. incorporating neo-tectonic and paleo-seismic studies.

  17. The Giles Complex, South Australia: mantle plume or SCLM source?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, B. F.; Wade, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Giles Complex of the Musgrave Block, Central Australia comprise a number of discrete layered ultramafic-mafic intrusions of Neoproterozoic age. These intrusives are considered to represent the remnants of a far more extensive Large Igneous Province (LIP), the ~1.08Ga Warakurna Province, which once covered much of central and western Australia[1]. Here we present 187Re-187Os isotopic data for transects across two of the larger cumulate bodies within the province, the Kalka and Gosse Pile intrusions. These bodies are dominantly comprised of pyroxenites and gabbros, with local picrites, websterites and anorthosites. Initial γOs values are typically close to chondritic, but do range to significantly subchondritic (γOs(i) = -13) with the most evolved being a websterite with (γOs(i) = +8.5). These data contrast with the relatively evolved lithophile isotope signatures recoded in the intrusions (ɛNd(i) ~ -1 to ~-5), which suggests that either the plume source contained a depleted component which was contaminated by continental crust,. Such a component could incorporate a significant SCLM contribution, however mixing models present non-unique solutions for primary vs SCLM Os. Alternatively, Nd and Os isotopes may be decoupled; or a third, highly speculative option, is that the Giles Complex is much younger than previously considered, resulting in higher γOs(i) values, which would suggest a greater crustal input, more in line with Nd isotope constraints. [1] Wingate, MTD, Pirajno, F and Morris, PA. 2004 Geology 32(2) 105-10

  18. Australia.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  19. The problem of the Culex pipiens complex in the South Pacific (including Australia)*

    PubMed Central

    Dobrotworsky, N. V.

    1967-01-01

    There are three representatives of the Culex pipiens complex in the South Pacific. C. p. fatigans is the most common and most widely distributed subspecies; it is closely associated with man. The males can be readily distinguished by the structure of the phallosome of the terminalia. C. p. molestus is spread over the southern part of Australia and in Tasmania; it also is a domestic mosquito. Throughout its extensive range in Australia, it exhibits all the biological traits that distinguish it from C. p. pipiens. C. p. australicus is widely distributed over the mainland of Australia and in Tasmania. It is superficially similar to C. p. fatigans but can be distinguished from C. p. pallens by the structure of the phallosome. It is primarily a rural non-man-biting mosquito. C. p. australicus is probably a relatively ancient member of the Australian fauna that may have evolved in the southern temperate zone. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 2 PMID:5300062

  20. The dehydration, rehydration and tectonic setting of greenstone belts in a portion of the northern Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanreenen, D. D.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Roering, C.; Vanschalkwyk, J. C.; Smit, C. A.; Debeer, J. D.; Stettler, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    High-grade gneiss terranes and low-grade granite-greenstone terranes are well known in several Archaean domains. The geological relationship between these different crustal regions, however, is still controversial. One school of thought favors fundamental genetic differences between high-grade and low-grade terranes while others argue for a depth-controlled crustal evolution. The detailed examination of well-exposed Archaean terranes at different metamorphic grades, therefore, is not only an important source of information about the crustal levels exposed, but also is critical to the understanding of the possible tectonic and metamorphic evolution of greenstone belts with time. Three South African greenstone belts are compared.

  1. Large vertical δ13CDIC gradients in Early Triassic seas of the South China craton: Implications for oceanographic changes related to Siberian Traps volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Huyue; Tong, Jinnan; Algeo, Thomas J.; Horacek, Micha; Qiu, Haiou; Song, Haijun; Tian, Li; Chen, Zhong-Qiang

    2013-06-01

    Vertical gradients in the δ13C of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon (Δδ13CDIC) can be estimated for paleomarine systems based on δ13Ccarb data from sections representing a range of depositional water depths. An analysis of eight Lower Triassic sections from the northern Yangtze Platform and Nanpanjiang Basin, representing water depths of ~ 50 to 500 m, allowed reconstruction of Δδ13CDIC in Early Triassic seas of the South China craton for seven time slices representing four negative (N) and three positive (P) carbon-isotope excursions: 8.5‰ (N1), 5.8‰ (P1), 3.5‰ (N2), 6.5‰ (P2), 7.8‰ (N3), - 1.9‰ (P3), and 2.2‰ (N4). These values are much larger than vertical δ13CDIC gradients in the modern ocean (~ 1-3‰) due to intensified stratification and reduced vertical mixing in Early Triassic seas. Peaks in Δδ13CDIC around the PTB (N1) and in the early to mid-Smithian (P2-N3) coincided with episodes of strong climatic warming, reduced marine productivity, and expanded ocean anoxia. The Dienerian-Smithian boundary marks the onset of a major mid-Early Triassic disturbance, commencing ~ 1 Myr after the latest Permian mass extinction, that we link to a second eruptive stage of the Siberian Traps. Inhospitable oceanic conditions generally persisted until the early Spathian, when strong climatic cooling caused re-invigoration of global-ocean circulation, leading to an interval of negative Δδ13CDIC values and a sharp increase in δ13Ccarb driven by upwelling of nutrient-rich deepwaters. These developments marked the end of the main eruptive stage of the Siberian Traps.

  2. Dental wear and age grading at Roonka, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Judith

    2017-07-01

    In many hunter-gatherer populations, the teeth are used as a third hand or a tool. Much attention has been paid to wear and its relationship to gendered division of labor, but age is also a significant organizing factor in many societies. In this article, I analyze whether the pattern of wear at Roonka, Australia, reflects the age-graded acquisition of tasks. The remains analyzed come from Roonka and date from c6000 BP to 150 BP. In total 126 adults and juveniles were analyzed. Wear gradients were calculated for each tooth relative to wear on the first molar. Data were compared using nonparametric statistics and cluster analysis to assess the degree of patterning within the sample. Dental wear proceeded rapidly. There is no evidence of sex differences in the pattern of wear. Age differences do occur. While disproportionate anterior wear occurs among juveniles and young adults, by middle adulthood the pattern is less variable and involves the premolars. Old adults have a much flatter pattern of wear. The pattern of wear is consistent with ethnographic observations, which suggest a degree of latitude in the activities of juveniles and young adults. By middle age variability between individuals declines reflecting shared tasks and more intensive use of the teeth. The pattern of wear amongst old adults, however, is much flatter presumably due to changes in occlusion. While dental wear is informative about the organization of labor there is a need to take into account both patterns of activity and occlusion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Metasomatic enrichment of Proterozoic mantle south of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa: origin of sinusoidal REE patterns in clinopyroxene and garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roex, Anton; Class, Cornelia

    2016-02-01

    Xenoliths of mantle peridotite have been sampled from four kimberlite intrusions, Melton Wold, Hebron, Uintjiesberg and Markt, emplaced through the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Belt, along the southern border of the Kaapvaal Craton. Although many of the xenoliths are heavily altered, constituent clinopyroxene, garnet and phlogopite are fresh and have been analysed by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation ICP-MS for trace elements. Primitive mantle-normalised REE abundances in clinopyroxene are all strongly LREE enriched and show a range of patterns including uniformly MREE-HREE sloped (referred to here as `normal'), sinusoidal and humped sinusoidal patterns. HREE abundances are extremely low (Yb = 0.3-0.06 × PM). REEN patterns in coexisting garnets show a similar range of patterns. When normalised to primitive mantle values, trace element patterns in some clinopyroxenes show strong relative depletion in Rb-Ba, Ta-Nb and Ti, with some samples also being relatively depleted in Zr-Hf. These trace element characteristics are indistinguishable from those found in clinopyroxene and garnet from peridotites from the adjacent cratonic mantle. Numerical modelling of reactive porous flow of an enriched metasomatic melt through a geochemically depleted peridotite matrix can account for the full range in observed REEN patterns. The relative depletion in Rb-Ba, Ta-Nb and Ti can be accounted for by an early crystallisation of phlogopite from the percolating melt. The relative depletion in Zr-Hf in some clinopyroxenes requires either zircon to crystallise in the proximal metasomatic assemblage, or metasomatism by a carbonatitic melt. Modelling results, together with the absence of clinopyroxene with depleted or even partially enriched REEN patterns, suggest that all clinopyroxene has been modally introduced through metasomatism into an initially highly depleted harzburgitic protolith. The range in Sr and Pb isotopic composition of the clinopyroxenes

  4. Breakup of pangaea and isolation of relict mammals in australia, South america, and madagascar.

    PubMed

    Fooden, J

    1972-02-25

    The composition of aboriginal land mammal faunas in Australia and New Guinea (prototherians and metatherians), South America (metatherians and eutherians) and Madagascar (eutherians only) is reconsidered in light of continental drift reconstructions of Mesozoic-Tertiary world paleogeography It is proposed that these three faunas represent successively detached samples of the evolving world mammal fauna as it existed when each of these land masses became faunally isolated from the rest of the world as a result of the progressive fragmentation of Pangaea. Isolation of aboriginal prototherians and metatherians in Australia and New Guinea may date from the Upper JurassicLower Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal metatherians and eutherians in South America may date from the Middle Cretaceous-Upper Cretaceous; isolation of aboriginal eutherians in Madagascar may date from the Paleocene-Eocene.

  5. Temperature and compositional variations in the Australian cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesauro, Magdala; Kaban, Mikhail; Aitken, Alan; Kennett, Brian

    2017-04-01

    The upper mantle of the Australian continent has been deeply investigated in the last two decades using a variety of geophysical methods. The resulting models have revealed the robust large-scale features of the continental lithosphere of Australia, i.e., faster seismic velocities in the Archean and Proterozoic cratons in the West, North and South Australia and slower velocities in the eastern Phanerozoic margin. Furthermore, it has been identified a layered velocity structure in central Australia. The zone of low seismic velocities in the uppermost mantle is underlain by the high-velocity zone. This layered structure may have a thermal origin, due to a redistribution of high heat producing elements within the crust or reflect compositional changes, e.g. a presence of amphibole. To discern temperature and compositional variations in the Australian upper mantle, we apply an iterative technique, which employs a joint inversion of the seismic tomography and gravity data. This technique consists in removing the effect of the crust from the observed gravity field and topography. In the second step, the residual mantle gravity field and residual topography are inverted to obtain a 3-D density model of the upper mantle. The inversion technique accounts for the notion that these fields are controlled by the same factors but in a different way (e.g., depending on depth and horizontal dimension of the heterogeneity.) This enables us to locate the position of principal density anomalies in the upper mantle. Afterwards, the thermal contribution to the density structure is estimated by inverting the seismic tomography model AusREM (http://rses.anu.edu.au/seismology/AuSREM/index.php). Based on the residual fields, we construct an initial compositional model of the upper mantle. In particular, a negative residual density anomaly is interpreted as the material having a larger Mg# and depleted in garnet and CPX Then, the initial thermal model is re-estimated with the new

  6. Anthropogenic aerosol emissions and rainfall decline in South-West Australia: coincidence or causality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzeller, Dominikus; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    It is commonly understood that the observed decline in precipitation in South-West Australia during the 20th century is caused by anthropogenic factors. Candidates therefore are changes to large-scale atmospheric circulations due to global warming, extensive deforestation and anthropogenic aerosol emissions - all of which are effective on different spatial and temporal scales. This presentation focusses on the role of rapidly rising aerosol emissions from anthropogenic sources in South-West Australia around 1970. An analysis of historical longterm rainfall data of the Bureau of Meteorology shows that South-West Australia as a whole experienced a gradual decline in precipitation over the 20th century. However, on smaller scales and for the particular example of the Perth catchment area, a sudden drop in precipitation around 1970 is apparent. Modelling experiments at a convection-resolving resolution of 3.3km using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.6.1 with the aerosol-aware Thompson-Eidhammer microphysics scheme are conducted for the period 1970-1974. A comparison of four runs with different prescribed aerosol emissions and without aerosol effects demonstrates that tripling the pre-1960s atmospheric CCN and IN concentrations can suppress precipitation by 2-9%, depending on the area and the season. This suggests that a combination of all three processes is required to account for the gradual decline in rainfall seen for greater South-West Australia and for the sudden drop observed in areas along the West Coast in the 1970s: changing atmospheric circulations, deforestation and anthropogenic aerosol emissions.

  7. A new species of Bothriembryon (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Bothriembryontidae) from south-eastern Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Whisson, Corey S.; Breure, Abraham S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bothriembryon sophiarum sp. n. is described, based on shell and anatomical morphology, from the coastal area of south-easternmost Western Australia. This is the first description of a new extant Australian bothriembryontid in 33 years. The shell of Bothriembryon sophiarum is slender with a unique teleoconch sculpture. It is found in low coastal scrub on cliff edges and escarpments and because of its restricted distribution, qualifies as a short range endemic. PMID:27199583

  8. Downscaling an Eddy-Resolving Global Model for the Continental Shelf off South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roughan, M.; Baird, M.; MacDonald, H.; Oke, P.

    2008-12-01

    The Australian Bluelink collaboration between CSIRO, the Bureau of Meteorology and the Royal Australian Navy has made available to the research community the output of BODAS (Bluelink ocean data assimilation system), an ensemble optimal interpolation reanalysis system with ~10 km resolution around Australia. Within the Bluelink project, BODAS fields are assimilated into a dynamic ocean model of the same resolution to produce BRAN (BlueLink ReANalysis, a hindcast of water properties around Australia from 1992 to 2004). In this study, BODAS hydrographic fields are assimilated into a ~ 3 km resolution Princeton Ocean Model (POM) configuration of the coastal ocean off SE Australia. Experiments were undertaken to establish the optimal strength and duration of the assimilation of BODAS fields into the 3 km resolution POM configuration for the purpose of producing hindcasts of ocean state. It is shown that the resultant downscaling of Bluelink products is better able to reproduce coastal features, particularly velocities and hydrography over the continental shelf off south eastern Australia. The BODAS-POM modelling system is used to provide a high-resolution simulation of the East Australian Current over the period 1992 to 2004. One of the applications that we will present is an investigation of the seasonal and inter-annual variability in the dispersion of passive particles in the East Australian Current. The practical outcome is an estimate of the connectivity of estuaries along the coast of southeast Australia, which is relevant for the dispersion of marine pests.

  9. Tracing origins of cratonic eclogites by magnesium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Teng, F. Z.; Rudnick, R. L.; Li, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Cratonic eclogites are samples of lithospheric mantle preserved beneath ancient continental cratons. Hence, the origin of cratonic eclogites is closely related to the formation and evolution of cratonic mantle. Here we report Mg isotopic compositions for 27 cratonic eclogites and 52 garnet and clinopyroxene mineral separates from Koidu, Bellsbank and Kaalvallei kimberlite pipes in South and West Africa. Whole-rock Mg isotopic compositions vary widely, with δ26Mg ranging from -1.60 to +0.17, significantly different from the value (δ26Mg = -0.25 ± 0.07) of peridotite xenoliths. Garnet and clinopyroxene in these cratonic eclogites record equilibrium inter-mineral Mg isotope partitioning at mantle temperatures, with Δ26MgCpx-Grt (= δ26MgCpx - δ26MgGrt) in the range of 0.43 - 0.85 ‰. The constructed bulk δ26Mg values based on mineral compositions are identical to the measured whole-rock values, indicating limited influence of kimberlite infiltration on Mg isotopic compositions of cratonic eclogites. As significant Mg isotope fractionation can only occur during low-temperature surface processes, the large Mg isotopic variations of cratonic eclogites suggest the incorporation of subducted materials in their protoliths. Therefore, our Mg isotopic data suggest the cratonic eclogites are the remnants of subducted oceanic crust within the lithospheric mantle. Collectively, Mg isotopes are potentially excellent tracers of the formation and evolution of sub-continental lithospheric mantle.

  10. Smoking and mental illness: a population study in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Jacqueline A; Miller, Caroline L; Hiller, Janet E

    2011-04-01

    To examine smoking prevalence and smoking behaviour among South Australians with a mental illness and compare findings to those with no mental illness. Data were collected in three cross-sectional representative population surveys of South Australians aged ≥15 years from 2005 to 2007. Merged data yielded a total sample size of 8417. The main outcome measures were: smoking prevalence, measures of tobacco dependence, awareness of the health effects of active and passive smoking, smoke-free homes and cars, awareness of health warnings, and use of cessation aids by two measures of mental illness status. Overall 26.4% of the population with a general mental illness and 51.2% of the population with a severe mental illness smoked, compared to 18.7% of the population without a mental illness. People with a mental illness, particularly severe mental illness displayed higher measures of tobacco dependence. Smokers with a severe mental illness were less likely to have smoke-free homes (OR = 0.29, 95%CI 0.16-0.55). Television was an effective medium to present the health effects of smoking to all groups. Those with a general mental illness were more likely than those with no mental illness to have asked a general practitioner for advice to help them quit in the past year (OR = 2.02, 95%CI 1.07-3.84). Whilst smokers with a mental illness are more dependent on their smoking; they are interested in quitting. There are a number of mainstream tobacco control strategies that could be further utilized (e.g. mass media and health professional referrals to the Quitline) to increase cessation among this disadvantaged group.

  11. Management of death, dying and euthanasia: attitudes and practices of medical practitioners in South Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, C A; Hassan, R

    1994-01-01

    This article presents the first results of a study of the decisions made by health professionals in South Australia concerning the management of death, dying, and euthanasia, and focuses on the findings concerning the attitudes and practices of medical practitioners. Mail-back, self-administered questionnaires were posted in August 1991 to a ten per cent sample of 494 medical practitioners in South Australia randomly selected from the list published by the Medical Board of South Australia. A total response rate of 68 per cent was obtained, 60 per cent of which (298) were usable returns. It was found that forty-seven per cent had received requests from patients to hasten their deaths. Nineteen per cent had taken active steps which had brought about the death of a patient. Sixty-eight per cent thought that guidelines for withholding and withdrawal of treatment should be established. Forty-five per cent were in favour of legalisation of active euthanasia under certain circumstances. PMID:8035439

  12. Management of death, dying and euthanasia: attitudes and practices of medical practitioners in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Stevens, C A; Hassan, R

    1994-03-01

    This article presents the first results of a study of the decisions made by health professionals in South Australia concerning the management of death, dying, and euthanasia, and focuses on the findings concerning the attitudes and practices of medical practitioners. Mail-back, self-administered questionnaires were posted in August 1991 to a ten per cent sample of 494 medical practitioners in South Australia randomly selected from the list published by the Medical Board of South Australia. A total response rate of 68 per cent was obtained, 60 per cent of which (298) were usable returns. It was found that forty-seven per cent had received requests from patients to hasten their deaths. Nineteen per cent had taken active steps which had brought about the death of a patient. Sixty-eight per cent thought that guidelines for withholding and withdrawal of treatment should be established. Forty-five per cent were in favour of legalisation of active euthanasia under certain circumstances.

  13. Mineral thermobarometry and fluid inclusion studies on the Closepet granite, Eastern Dharwar Craton, south India: Implications to emplacement and evolution of late-stage fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Sourabh; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.; Jayananda, M.

    2014-09-01

    The Closepet granite (CPG), a spectacularly exposed magmatic body along with other intrusive bodies (to the east of it) typifies the late Archean granitic activity in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC), south India. In the present study, the P-T-fO2 conditions of emplacement and physico-chemical environment of the associated magmatic-hydrothermal regime of CPG have been retrieved on the basis of mineral chemical and fluid inclusion studies. Amphibole-plagioclase Ti-in-amphibole and Ti-in-biotite geothermometers along with Al-in-amphibole geobarometer have been used to reconstruct the emplacement temperature and pressure conditions in the majority of the pluton. Estimated temperatures of emplacement of CPG vary from to 740 to 540 °C. A variation of pressure from 4.8 to 4.1 kilo bars corresponding to this temperature range was obtained. While there is a faint south to north negative gradient in temperature, the variation of pressure does not seem to follow this trend and indicates more or less same crustal level of emplacement for the body between Ramanagaram-Kalyandurga segment extending for about 230 km. Mineral chemistry of biotite indicates crystallization of CPG under high oxygen fugacity conditions (mostly above QFM buffer) with no clear spatial variation in the fugacity of halogen species in the late-stage magmatic fluid. It may be surmised that barring the southernmost part of CPG, there is no perceptible variation in the physicochemical environment of emplacement. Fluid Inclusion studies in the granitic matrix quartz and pegmatite/vein quartz show dominance of H2O and H2O-CO2 fluids respectively in them. The difference in the fluid characteristics is interpreted in terms of the initial loss of CO2 rich fluid from granitic magma and aqueous-rich nature during the later stages of crystallization of quartz. The exsolved CO2-rich fluid was responsible in formation of the later quartz and pegmatitic veins at different crustal levels and also possibly was

  14. An ecological analysis of factors associated with food insecurity in South Australia, 2002-7.

    PubMed

    Foley, Wendy; Ward, Paul; Carter, Patricia; Coveney, John; Tsourtos, George; Taylor, Anne

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the extent of food insecurity in South Australia and its relationship with a variety of socio-economic variables. Data collected routinely from 2002 to 2007 by SA Health were analysed to explore food security in the State's population. An ecological analysis of data collected by the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS) that collects data on key health indicators. Questions on food security are asked periodically from July 2002 to December 2007. South Australia. Over 37,000 interviewees took part in SAMSS surveys. Questions about food security were asked of 19,037 subjects. The sample was weighted by area, age and gender so that the results were representative of the South Australian population. Seven per cent (1342/19,037) of subjects reported running out of food during the previous year and not having enough money to buy food (food insecurity). Logistic regression analysis found food insecurity to be highest in households with low levels of education, limited capacity to save money, Aboriginal households, and households with three or more children. The study confirms that food insecurity is strongly linked to economic disadvantage. Increasing cost of food is likely to exacerbate food insecurity. This is of concern given that food insecurity is associated with poor health, especially obesity and chronic disease. Comprehensive action at all levels is required to address root causes of food insecurity. Regular surveillance is required to continue to monitor levels of food security, but more in-depth understandings, via qualitative research, would be useful.

  15. New SHRIMP U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the crustal stabilization of southern South America, from the margin of the Rio de Plata (Sierra de Ventana) craton to northern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, E.; Cawood, P. A.; Rossello, E.; Lopez de Luchi, M. G.; Rapalini, A.; Jourdan, F.

    2008-12-01

    Two models exist to explain the late Paleozoic tectonic history for southern South America: an accretionary model of crustal growth through magmatism and a collisional model involving pre-existing continental elements, namely, the Rio de Plata craton and the possibly allochthonous terrane(s) of Patagonia, the Northern Patagonia Massif and the Deseado Massif. We report new U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar results from rocks within a posited collision zone between the SW edge of the Rio de Plata craton and the northern margin of the Northern Patagonia Massif. Igneous basement samples from the Sierra de Ventana region, Buenos Aires province, were dated by ion microprobe (SHRIMP) analysis of zircon. A previously unrecognized occurrence of Paleoproterozoic basement indicates that the Rio de Plata craton extends ca.250 km farther west than considered. The majority of the basement rocks are shallow mid-Cambrian granitoids and rhyolites, including the rocks of the Cerro Colorado granite, which is intrusive into the sediments of the Curamalal Gp, signifying that these mature quartzites and conglomerates are older than early Cambrian in age, possibly correlated with the low-grade sedimentary rocks of the Tandilia Range that includes the La Tinta Fm. The 40Ar/39Ar ages from biotite, muscovite, and sericite from three different sheared basement localities demonstrates deformation in the latest Permian (265-260 Ma), ca. 20 Ma after the foreland deposition of the synorogenic Tunas Fm. in the upper Pilahuinco Gp, constrained by 282.4 ± 2.8 Ma zircon ages in volcanic ashbeds. Farther south, along the northern margin of the Northern Patagonian Massif, late Ordovician 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of granites intrusive into the Cambro-Ordovician Nahuel Niyeu Fm. are consistent with the presence of Ordovician magmatism along the W edge of the Rio de Plata craton. These ages alternate with late Permian 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from undeformed granites and pegmatites, as well as early Jurassic cross

  16. Applications of Mobile GIS in Forestry South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battad, D. T.; Mackenzie, P.

    2012-07-01

    South Australian Forestry Corporation (ForestrySA) had been actively investigating the applications of mobile GIS in forestry for the past few years. The main objective is to develop an integrated mobile GIS capability that allows staff to collect new spatial information, verify existing data, and remotely access and post data from the field. Two (2) prototype mobile GIS applications have been developed already using the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ARCGISR technology as the main spatial component. These prototype systems are the Forest Health Surveillance System and the Mobile GIS for Wetlands System. The Forest Health Surveillance System prototype is used primarily for aerial forest health surveillance. It was developed using a tablet PC with ArcMapR GIS. A customised toolbar was developed using ArcObjectsR in the Visual Basic 6 Integrated Development Environment (IDE). The resulting dynamic linked library provides a suite of custom tools which enables the following: - quickly create spatial features and attribute the data - full utilisation of global positioning system (GPS) technology - excellent screen display navigation tools, i.e. pan, rotate map, capture of flight path - seamless integration of data into GIS as geodatabase (GDB) feature classes - screen entry of text and conversion to annotation feature classes The Mobile GIS for Wetlands System prototype was developed for verifying existing wetland areas within ForestrySA's plantation estate, collect new wetland data, and record wetland conditions. Mapping of actual wetlands within ForestrySA's plantation estate is very critical because of the need to establish protection buffers around these features during the implementation of plantation operations. System development has been focussed on a mobile phone platform (HTC HD2R ) with WindowsR Mobile 6, ESRI's ArcGISR Mobile software development kit (SDK) employing ArcObjectsR written on C#.NET IDE, and ArcGIS ServerR technology. The system

  17. Parechovirus Genotype 3 Outbreak among Infants, New South Wales, Australia, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Ameneh; McMullan, Brendan J.; Musto, Jennie; Leung, Kit; Nguyen, Oanh; Ferson, Mark J.; Papadakis, Georgina; Sheppeard, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    From October 2013 through February 2014, human parechovirus genotype 3 infection was identified in 183 infants in New South Wales, Australia. Of those infants, 57% were male and 95% required hospitalization. Common signs and symptoms were fever >38°C (86%), irritability (80%), tachycardia (68%), and rash (62%). Compared with affected infants in the Northern Hemisphere, infants in New South Wales were slightly older, both sexes were affected more equally, and rash occurred with considerably higher frequency. The New South Wales syndromic surveillance system, which uses near real-time emergency department and ambulance data, was useful for monitoring the outbreak. An alert distributed to clinicians reduced unnecessary hospitalization for patients with suspected sepsis. PMID:26082289

  18. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: rising rates with obesity and aboriginality in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, A R; Ling, J; Gomes, B; Antoniou, G; Sutherland, L M; Cundy, P J

    2011-10-01

    We analysed the incidence of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) in South Australia, investigating possible associations between an increased incidence of SCFE, the local indigenous population and the Australian obesity epidemic during the last 20 years. Data including race, age and gender were collected to obtain a profile of the South Australian SCFE patient, and were then compared with epidemiological data for South Australian adolescents. We concluded that the incidence of both obesity and SCFE is increasing. We also noted that the median weight of SCFE patients has increased and the mean age at diagnosis has decreased. Despite weight profiles comparable with those of the general population, we noted that an indigenous child was three times more likely to develop SCFE than a non-indigenous child. As far as we know there is no published literature on the predisposition of Aboriginal Australians to SCFE.

  19. Field occurrence, geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Archean Mid-Oceanic Ridge Basalts (AMORBs) of the Cleaverville area, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, H.; Maruyama, S.; Takahashi, E.; Watanabe, Y.; Kato, Y.

    1996-04-01

    A 3.1-3.3 Ga Mid-Archean accretionary complex has been identified in the Cleaverville area, Pilbara granite-greenstone terrain, Western Australia, by using a well-defined duplex structure and by reconstructing the oceanic plate stratigraphy. Archean mid-oceanic ridge basalts (AMORBs) which are part of this sequence were selected for detailed petrochemical analysis to infer Archean divergent plate tectonic process. The Cleaverville AMORBs are low-K tholeiites which tend to be richer in FeO ∗ than modern MORBs. Abundance ratios of most incompatible elements such as REE, Ti, Y and Zr are chondritic. Neither Nb/Zr nor P/Zr suggest partitioning into the metallic core before the middle Archean. Estimated Mg ∗ values of the mantle source is about 85, and is lower than that of 89-92 modern MORBs. The Cleaverville AMORBs are considered to have been produced by partial melting at a pressure and temperature of 2.5 GPa and 1425 °C of a Fe-rich mantle peridotite (Mg ∗ value = 85.0). Potential mantle temperature (PMT) of the Earth of the mid-oceanic ridge at this time 3.1-3.3 Ga was estimated from the above constraints on the Cleaverville AMORBs to be 1400 °C. If the Cleaverville example is representative of Archean plate boundary processes at spreading ridges, the PMT was about 120 °C higher than today and extensive partial melting of adiabatically rising mantle material would have been initiated at 90 km depth. Net production of partial melt at the AMOR axis was equivalent to 15-20 km thickness of oceanic crust (roughly 2-3 times thicker than today).

  20. Hydrothermal remobilisation around a deformed and remobilised komatiite-hosted Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit, Sarah's Find, Agnew Wiluna greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vaillant, Margaux; Saleem, Ahmad; Barnes, Stephen J.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Miller, John; Beresford, Steve; Perring, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    The Sarah's Find nickel deposit, located 4.5 km north of the Mount Keith nickel mine, Western Australia, was chosen as a case study to investigate the nature and three-dimensional geometry of a geochemical halo created by the hydrothermal remobilisation of base metals and platinum group elements into the country rock surrounding a small massive Ni sulphide orebody. Portable and laboratory-based XRF analyses were carried out on samples from a shear zone localised along the basal komatiite-dacite contact that hosts the orebody. A geochemical halo was identified that extends along the shear zone up to 1780 m away from the massive sulphides, parallel to a prominent stretching lineation. Elevated Ni and Pd are associated with high As, Co, Cu and S. Palladium and Pt concentrations increase with proximity to massive sulphides (from 6 to 1190 ppb Pd). These anomalous concentrations reflect the presence of sulfarsenides and sulphides, either physically remobilised and forming veinlets close to the massive sulphides, or hydrothermally transported and redeposited within the foliation. In situ laser ablation ICP-MS indicates that Pd and Pt are hosted within these nickel sulfarsenides. This Ni-Co-As-Pd geochemical halo, observed around the Sarah's Find ore body, is interpreted as forming syn deformation, by the circulation of As-rich hydrothermal fluids dissolving base metals, Pd and Pt from the orebody and redepositing them along the sheared footwall contact. Similar Ni-Co-Pd-Pt-As geochemical haloes could potentially exist around any magmatic nickel sulphide mineral system that has undergone a phase of arsenic metasomatism and may be a generally applicable proximity indicator for nickel sulphides in hydrothermally altered terranes.

  1. Terminations of pregnancy for exposure to oral retinoids in South Australia, 1985-1993.

    PubMed

    Chan, A; Keane, R J; Hanna, M; Abbott, M

    1995-11-01

    The oral retinoids, isotretinoin and etretinate, are highly teratogenic drugs which have been available in Australia since 1985 because of their unique effectiveness in severe cystic acne, psoriasis and other keratinization disorders. Only dermatologists can prescribe them, but in spite of strict guidelines by the manufacturers and the College of Dermatologists, exposed pregnancies have occurred. We attempted to determine the circumstances of exposure to these drugs for the 18 pregnancies terminated in South Australia in 1985-1993, using questionnaires to medical practitioners who notified the terminations under legislation. The main reason for their occurrence was the lack of compliance with the use of effective contraception by the women. In South Australia, some prescriptions of oral retinoids by unauthorized doctors have been dispensed during this period. Using statistics on prescriptions dispensed, an estimate was made of 1 termination of pregnancy for 319 courses of treatment for women with isotretinoin. Extension of guidelines for prescription and more detailed counselling in relation to the use of contraception are recommended. It is also suggested that doctors intending to recommend terminations obtain consent to discuss exposure with the dermatologists concerned, who may not be aware of the exposed pregnancy.

  2. Stalled Orogen Linked to East Antarctic Craton Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos, Y. M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, C.; Bell, R. E.; Jordan, T. A.; Damaske, D.

    2015-12-01

    The interior of East Antarctica is often regarded as a coherent Archean craton surrounded by Paleo to Neoproterozoic orogenic belts. Here we use recent aerogeophysical, satellite magnetic, satellite gravity and passive seismic results in central East Antarctica to challenge this view. Firstly, anomalously thick crust (compared to most other cratons) has been imaged in East Antarctica by both passive seismic and gravity modelling with values up to 60 km (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature; An et al., 2015, JGR). The thick crust underlies both the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and an elevated region between Lake Vostok and Dronning Maud Land, referred to as the East Antarctic Mountain Ranges plateau (An et al., 2015). Second, satellite magnetic data reveal that the Gamburtev Province lies in between the Ruker/Princess Elizabeth Land, Vostok, Nimrod/South Pole and Recovery provinces. The Nimrod/ South Pole province is a Paleo to Meso Proterozoic igneous province formed along the edges of the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Mawson continent (e.g. Goodge and Fanning, 2010 JGR). Our aerogeophysical and sediment provenance data interpretations suggest that the Gamburtsev Province represents a distinct Grenvillian-age orogenic belt. A stalled orogen with thick crust (i.e. an orogen where widespread orogenic collapse and root delamination has not occurred)- is preserved in the interior of East Antarctica resembling e.g. the Paleoproterozoic Trans Hudson Orogen and segments of Grenvillian orogens in Laurentia. The stalled orogen may relate to widespread accretionary and collisional events within Rodinia. However, passive seismic interpretations (An et al., 2015) favour linking crustal thickening to the Pan-African age assembly of Greater India, East Antarctica and Australia within Gondwana (e.g. Aitken et al., 2014 GRL). Further aerogeophysical observations over Princess Elizabeth Land are timely to enable more robust correlations with geological observations and to help dating the

  3. Building a Nation: Religion and Values in the Public Schools of the USA, Australia, and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, Jacqueline Joy; de Waal, Elda

    2008-01-01

    Although the systems of public schools differ among Australia, South Africa and the USA, all three countries recognize that religion plays a significant role in determining values. All three countries have written constitutions but only South Africa and the USA have a Bill of Rights that protects persons' exercise of religious beliefs. In…

  4. Building a Nation: Religion and Values in the Public Schools of the USA, Australia, and South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, Jacqueline Joy; de Waal, Elda

    2008-01-01

    Although the systems of public schools differ among Australia, South Africa and the USA, all three countries recognize that religion plays a significant role in determining values. All three countries have written constitutions but only South Africa and the USA have a Bill of Rights that protects persons' exercise of religious beliefs. In…

  5. The influence of gaming expenditure on crime rates in South Australia: a local area empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah Ann; Round, David K; Sarre, Rick; O'Neil, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Although there has been much speculation about the possible links between gambling and crime rates, relevant quantitative evidence has been practically non-existent in Australia to date. This paper reports the results of research that utilised a model designed to investigate the potential relationship between electronic gaming machine expenditures and property (income-generating) crime rates reported to police in local areas in South Australia in 2002-2003. The research found that the higher the expenditures on gaming machines in a particular local area per adult, the higher the income-generating crime rate in that area. No such relationship was found between gaming machine expenditure and non-income-generating crime rates. However, further research is required before any policy-relevant conclusions can be drawn.

  6. The geochemical environment of the Wilcherry Hill base metal mineralisation, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeson, R.

    1990-07-01

    High grade lead-zinc-silver mineralisation occurs in metamorphosed carbonate and calc-silicate sequences at Wilcherry Hill, South Australia. Whole rock lithogeochemistry indicates that the host sequence of the mineralisation can be defined and contrasted from others at both prospect and exploration licence scales. Geochemical haloes are identified on the basis of Pb, Zn and Mn variations. A saline and possibly evaporitic environment of deposition distal from basin margins is proposed for the host sequence on the basis of alkali element compositions, iron formation facies, carbonate compositions, and comparisons with geochemically similar, less metamorphosed sequences with base metal mineralisation in the Middle Proterozoic of northern Australia. The combination of geochemical haloes and definition of the depositional environment provide additional criteria for the exploration geologist, even in metamorphosed and deformed terrains.

  7. The effect of a smoke-free law on restaurant business in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Melanie; Siahpush, Mohammad; Scollo, Michelle; Lal, Anita; Hyland, Andrew; McCaul, Kieran; Miller, Caroline

    2002-08-01

    Despite evidence to the contrary from overseas research, the introduction of smoke-free legislation in South Australia (SA), which required all restaurants to go smoke-free in January 1999, sparked concerns among the hospitality industry about loss of restaurant business. This study aimed to determine whether the law had a detrimental impact on restaurant business in SA. Using time series analysis, we compared the ratio of monthly restaurant turnover from restaurants and cafés in SA to (a) total retail tumover in SA (minus restaurants) for the years 1991 to 2001 and (b) Australian restaurant tumover (minus SA, Westem Australia and the Australian Capital Territory) for the years 1991-2000. There was no decline in the ratio of (a) SA restaurant turnover to SA retail turnover or (b) SA restaurant tumover to Australian restaurant turnover. The introduction of a smoke-free law applying to restaurants in SA did not adversely affect restaurant business in SA.

  8. Climate variability and Ross River virus infections in Riverland, South Australia, 1992-2004.

    PubMed

    Bi, P; Hiller, J E; Cameron, A S; Zhang, Y; Givney, R

    2009-10-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is the most common notifiable vector-borne disease in Australia, with around 6000 cases annually. This study aimed to examine the relationship between climate variability and notified RRV infections in the Riverland region of South Australia in order to set up an early warning system for the disease in temperate-climate regions. Notified data of RRV infections were collected by the South Australian Department of Health. Climatic variables and monthly river flow were provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and South Australian Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity Conservation over the period 1992-2004. Spearman correlation and time-series-adjusted Poisson regression analysis were performed. The results indicate that increases in monthly mean minimum and maximum temperatures, monthly total rainfall, monthly mean Southern Oscillation Index and monthly flow in the Murray River increase the likelihood, but an increase in monthly mean relative humidity decreases the likelihood, of disease transmission in the region, with different time-lag effects. This study demonstrates that a useful early warning system can be developed for local regions based on the statistical analysis of readily available climate data. These early warning systems can be utilized by local public health authorities to develop disease prevention and control activities.

  9. Farmers' perceptions of health in the Riverland region of South Australia: 'If it's broke, fix it'.

    PubMed

    Rawolle, Tessa A; Sadauskas, David; van Kessel, Gisela; Dollman, James

    2016-10-01

    To explore perceptions of health among South Australian farmers. Descriptive qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews. Two rural towns in the Riverland region of South Australia. Fifteen adults involved in farming within the Riverland region of South Australia, from a variety of farming industries; age range 23-70 years old; 53% male, 47% female. Perceptions and definitions of health. Participants described an ecological understanding of health across individual, farm, and community domains. Participants perceived health as being able to function and complete farm work. Participants reported that farm work helped to maintain fitness, but the multiple stress and hazards associated with farming had a significant influence on health. Participants described how health was influenced by community activities and social support from friends and families. Women were reported to take a lead role in health. Health providers can frame interventions to resonate with the perceptions of health held by people, shaped and formed by the context of farming. Further research is needed to explore farmers' perceptions of health in different locations, from different industries and from a range of age groups. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  10. Extreme heat arrangements in South Australia: an assessment of trigger temperatures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan; Nitschke, Monika; Tucker, Graeme; Bi, Peng

    2011-12-01

    The high mortality and morbidity associated with the 2009 heat wave across South Eastern Australia highlighted the need for effective heat-related health promotion and preventive strategies. The adverse health effects of extreme heat are largely preventable, and heat-related health promotion can advise the public about the dangers of hot weather and how to reduce health risks. The South Australian State Emergency Service has outlined a co-ordinated response system in their Extreme Heat Arrangements for South Australia. This paper evaluates the health impacts at the temperature trigger levels incorporated in this plan. Heat events in Adelaide between 1994 and 2009 were compared in terms of heat duration, heat intensity and their impact on mortality and ambulance call-outs.The health impacts for events meeting specific temperature triggers were estimated. Individual heat events varied in terms of estimated excess mortality and ambulance call-outs. Increased mortality was associated with heat events of 3 or more consecutive days with maximum temperature (T(max)) > or = 43 degrees C or average daily temperature (ADT) > or = 34 degrees C, while ambulance call-outs increased significantly at lower T(max) levels.The two events reaching the temperature triggers for an extreme heat warning were associated with a 44% (95% CI 26-63%) increase in mortality. The results support the temperature trigger for an extreme heat warning within the Extreme Heat Arrangements for Adelaide, and indicate a limited health impact at lower temperature triggers.

  11. Culture care of Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia: sharing transcultural nursing knowledge.

    PubMed

    Omeri, A

    1997-01-01

    Discovery and analysis of care meanings, expressions, and practices of Iranian Immigrants in New South Wales, Australia was the focus of this ethnonursing qualitative research. The purpose of the study was to systematically discover, describe and analyse the values, beliefs, and practices of Iranian immigrants in New South Wales, Australia. The aim of the investigation was to discover transcultural nursing knowledge to guide nurses and health professionals to provide culturally congruent nursing and health care to Iranians. Leininger's theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality (Leininger, 1991) was used as the conceptual framework for the study. It was predicted that care meanings and expressions of Iranian immigrants would be influenced by their worldview, social structure features, language, and cultural values rooted in their long ethnohistorical past and reflected in their lifeways in Australia. Using the ethnonursing qualitative research method, key and general informants were purposefully selected among Iranian immigrants residing in New South Wales. Three care themes supported by a number of universal and some diverse patterns were identified for Iranian immigrants. The three themes were: (1) Care meant family and kinship ties (hambastegie) as expressed in daily lifeways and interactions with family, friends, and community; (2) Care as expressed in carrying out traditional urban gender roles (role-zan-o-mard) (Azadie zan) as well as in fulfilling emerging new role responsibilities related to equality for female Iranian immigrants; and (3) Care as preservation of Iranian identity (inhamoni, hamonandi) as expressed in traditional cultural events and health care practices. Leininger's (1991) three modes of actions and decisions were used to develop appropriate and culturally meaningful nursing care actions and decisions which were in harmony with the cultural beliefs of Iranian immigrants.

  12. Evidence-based rural general practice: barriers and solutions in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Wilkinson, D; Blue, I A; Dollard, J T

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on research to ascertain the views of general practitioners (GPs) practising in rural and remote areas of South Australia, on evidence-based medicine (EBM). It follows our previous paper that identified, through a literature search, the key issues in moving towards EBM in general practice in these areas1. The objective of the paper was to identify perceived barriers and potential solutions to evidence-based general practice in rural and remote South Australia. An interview survey was conducted in the year 2000 at 89 of 104 GPs' (86%) surgeries in three rural Divisions of General Practice in South Australia. EBM was viewed positively by 85%, and 94% reported practising EBM. However, barriers to EBM were identified by 84% and four key themes were identified. GP-related barriers identified by 60% included difficulty finding, appraising and applying evidence and lack of time to read, reflect and update practice. Patient related barriers (23%) included an apparent conflict between some patients' expectations and evidence. Environmental barriers (43%) related to remoteness included high workload, limited information and poor resources for continued medical education. Resource related barriers included a lack of computer hardware and software and slow, unreliable and expensive Internet access (14%). Potential solutions were suggested by 82%. The most frequent was improved hardware, software and Internet access (41%). Only 19% suggested formal training for GPs, while 26% suggested improved clinical practice guidelines and 23% suggested non-Internet based dissemination of information including a service to provide evidence-based answers to clinical problems. EBM was viewed positively by the surveyed GPs and many believed they already practised it. Most identified barriers to full and effective use of EBM but also suggested solutions.

  13. Inter-annual rainfall variations and suicide in New South Wales, Australia, 1964-2001.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Neville; Butler, Colin D; Hanigan, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in New South Wales is shown to be related to annual precipitation, supporting a widespread and long-held assumption that drought in Australia increases the likelihood of suicide. The relationship, although statistically significant, is not especially strong and is confounded by strong, long-term variations in the suicide rate not related to precipitation variations. A decrease in precipitation of about 300 mm would lead to an increase in the suicide rate of approximately 8% of the long-term mean suicide rate.

  14. Trematodes of marine fishes from South Australia. I. Paraneocreadium australiense gen. et sp. n. (Lepocreadiidae).

    PubMed

    Kruse, G O

    1978-06-01

    Paraneocreadium australiense gen. et sp. n. (Lepocreadiidae) is described from Psilocranium nigricans (Richardson) from the Aldinga Reef of South Australia. Paraneocreadium is most similar to Neocreadium Howell 1966 from Geniagnus in New Zealand and Neolepocreadium Thomas 1960 from Trachinotus in Ghana. It differs from both genera in being ovoid rather than elongate, in having a coiled rather than saccate internal seminal vesicle, and having no viteline follicles between the gonads. It differs further from Neocreadium in lacking lymphatic vessels and in the position of the genital pore.

  15. Inter-annual rainfall variations and suicide in New South Wales, Australia, 1964-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Neville; Butler, Colin D.; Hanigan, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    The suicide rate in New South Wales is shown to be related to annual precipitation, supporting a widespread and long-held assumption that drought in Australia increases the likelihood of suicide. The relationship, although statistically significant, is not especially strong and is confounded by strong, long-term variations in the suicide rate not related to precipitation variations. A decrease in precipitation of about 300 mm would lead to an increase in the suicide rate of approximately 8% of the long-term mean suicide rate.

  16. Immigration and slow-growth economies: the experience of South Australia and Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Beer, A

    1998-01-01

    "This paper examines national immigration processes and demographic change in South Australia and Tasmania over the last four decades. Particular attention is paid to the inter-censal period 1986-1991.... The paper investigates the impact of the historic make-up of immigrant flows on settlement patterns, and examines the impact on policies intended to increase immigrant settlement in these states. It argues that the policies being pursued by state and federal governments are unlikely to add to the numbers settling in these states, because they pay too little attention to migration processes, and especially the attraction of others from the source country." excerpt

  17. Impact ejecta horizon within late precambrian shales, adelaide geosyncline, South australia.

    PubMed

    Gostin, V A; Haines, P W; Jenkins, R J; Compston, W; Williams, I S

    1986-07-11

    A solitary layer of shattered crustal rock fragments has been traced over a distance of 260 kilometers within folded 600-million-year-old Precambrian marine shales of the Adelaide Geosyncline, South Australia. The fragments consist entirely of acid to intermediate volcanics (approximately 1575 million years old) displaying shattered mineral grains, shock lamellae in quartz, and small shatter cones. Fragments reach 30 centimeters in diameter and show evidence of vertical fall emplacement. Available evidence points to derivation of the rock fragments from a distant hypervelocity impact into the Gawler Range Volcanics at Lake Acraman, approximately 300 kilometers west of the Adelaide Geosyncline.

  18. Kimberlites of the Man craton, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, E. M. W.; Apter, D. B.; Morelli, C.; Smithson, N. K.

    2004-09-01

    The Man craton in West Africa is an Archaean craton formerly joined to the Guyana craton (South America) that was rifted apart in the Mesozoic. Kimberlites of the Man craton include three Jurassic-aged clusters in Guinea, two Jurassic-aged clusters in Sierra Leone, and in Liberia two clusters of unknown age and one Neoproterozoic cluster recently dated at ˜800 Ma. All of the kimberlites irrespective of age occur as small pipes and prolific dykes. Some of the Banankoro cluster pipes in Guinea, the Koidu pipes in Sierra Leone and small pipes in the Weasua cluster in Liberia contain hypabyssal-facies kimberlite and remnants of the so-called transitional-facies and diatreme-facies kimberlite. Most of the Man craton kimberlites are mineralogically classified as phlogopite kimberlites, although potassium contents are relatively low. They are chemically similar to mica-poor Group 1A Southern African examples. The Jurassic kimberlites are considered to represent one province of kimberlites that track from older bodies in Guinea (Droujba 153 Ma) to progressively younger kimberlites in Sierra Leone (Koidu, 146 Ma and Tongo, 140 Ma). The scarcity of diatreme-facies kimberlites relative to hypabyssal-facies kimberlites and the presence of the so-called transitional-facies indicate that the pipes have been eroded down to the interface between the root and diatreme zones. From this observation, it is concluded that extensive erosion (1-2 km) has occurred since the Jurassic. In addition to erosion, the presence of abundant early crystallizing phlogopite is considered to have had an effect on the relatively small sizes of the Man craton kimberlites.

  19. Unequal staffing: A snapshot of nurse staffing in critical care units in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harding, Thomas; Wright, Michael

    2014-02-03

    Abstract A growing body of research provides evidence of the link between nurse-to-patient ratios and skill mix with adverse patient outcomes. This paper reports an investigation into nurse staffing patterns, skill mix and patient movement in critical care units in New South Wales, Australia. A 'snapshot' of staffing patterns and patient movement over one week in October 2012 was obtained by use of a cross-sectional design using retrospective survey and administrative data. A wide variation was found in nurse-to-patient ratios, skill mix and the number of nursing staff vacancies in coronary care and high dependency units. These variations suggest that the quality of patient care may vary between facilities in New South Wales.

  20. Causes of death of British emigrants on voyages to South Australia, 1848-1885.

    PubMed

    Haines, Robin; Shlomowitz, Ralph

    2003-08-01

    During recent decades, great advances have been made in measuring death rates on a number of transoceanic routes over several centuries. This article builds on measurements of mortality on voyages to Australia in the nineteenth century. These have shown that it was on Australia-bound convict and government-assisted vessels, which operated under the auspices of government agencies, that the maritime adult death rate was first brought into line with that on land. The novelty of this article lies in its analysis of a new body of evidence on causes of death on 323 vessels arriving in South Australia between 1848 and 1885. Surgeon-superintendents, working under strict regulations, recorded the cause, age, sex, and date of death of every patient whom they had attended for days or weeks. This is, perhaps, an extraordinary situation that mimics, as it were, the records of a medical practice in a working-class area, over a thirty-seven year period. Surgeons faced intensive scrutiny upon arrival, and were fined if their records, or supervision of the voyage, were considered to be faulty. Hence, severe penalties for inaccurate reportage ensured a high degree of accuracy. Their records allow an assessment of the impact of seasonality on the outcome of the voyage and raise questions about why and how the pattern of deaths over the voyage leaves us with a hump-shaped curve when one might have expected the opposite.

  1. An arid-adapted middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from south-central Australia.

    PubMed

    Prideaux, Gavin J; Long, John A; Ayliffe, Linda K; Hellstrom, John C; Pillans, Brad; Boles, Walter E; Hutchinson, Mark N; Roberts, Richard G; Cupper, Matthew L; Arnold, Lee J; Devine, Paul D; Warburton, Natalie M

    2007-01-25

    How well the ecology, zoogeography and evolution of modern biotas is understood depends substantially on knowledge of the Pleistocene. Australia has one of the most distinctive, but least understood, Pleistocene faunas. Records from the western half of the continent are especially rare. Here we report on a diverse and exceptionally well preserved middle Pleistocene vertebrate assemblage from caves beneath the arid, treeless Nullarbor plain of south-central Australia. Many taxa are represented by whole skeletons, which together serve as a template for identifying fragmentary, hitherto indeterminate, remains collected previously from Pleistocene sites across southern Australia. A remarkable eight of the 23 Nullarbor kangaroos are new, including two tree-kangaroos. The diverse herbivore assemblage implies substantially greater floristic diversity than that of the modern shrub steppe, but all other faunal and stable-isotope data indicate that the climate was very similar to today. Because the 21 Nullarbor species that did not survive the Pleistocene were well adapted to dry conditions, climate change (specifically, increased aridity) is unlikely to have been significant in their extinction.

  2. Limited opportunities for management-induced soil carbon storage in New South Wales, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brian; Lonergan, Vanessa

    2013-04-01

    Soil management has been promoted internationally and in Australia as a means of storing additional soil carbon to offset greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) elsewhere. Despite considerable investment in research in Australia, difficulties with reliable detection and estimation of soil carbon change remain as significant barriers to soil carbon accounting and trading. Here we present examples from an extensive dataset across the diverse production landscapes of New South Wales, Australia generated from both the NSW Statewide Soil Monitoring Program and the National Soil Carbon Research Program. Issues relating to climate, spatial variability, historical and contemporary land-management are highlighted to illustrate the challenges of detecting and estimating management-induced soil carbon change. We further demonstrate that, where it is possible to detect soil carbon change resulting from agricultural management, the quantities stored are unlikely to make a significant contribution to reductions in net greenhouse gas emissions. Historical factors and non-agricultural land-use options are likely to provide more significant potential for long-term soil carbon storage in this environment.

  3. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall would significantly benefit land, water resources and agriculture management, as this assists with planning and management decisions. Forecasting spatiotemporal monthly rainfall is difficult, especially in Australia where there is a complex interaction between topography and the effect of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study describes a method for spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasting in south-eastern and eastern part of Australia using climatic and non-climatic variables. Rainfall data were obtained from Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high quality weather stations from the south-eastern and eastern part of Australia with monthly rainfall records from 1879 to 2012. To reduce spatial complexity of the area and improve model accuracy, spatial classification (regionalization) was considered as first step. Significant predictors for each sub-region among lagged climatic input variables were selected using Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA). Climate classification: 1) discovered homogenous sub-regions with a similar rainfall patterns and investigated spatiotemporal rainfall variations in the area, 2) allowed selection of significant predictors with a fine resolution for each area, 3) improved the prediction model and increased model accuracy. PCA was used to reduce the dimensions of the dataset and to remove the rainfall time series correlation. K-means clustering was used on the loadings of PCs describing 93% of long-term monthly rainfall variations. The analysis was repeated for different numbers of sub-regions (3 - 8) to identify the best number of clusters to improve the forecast model performance. Subsequently, a Fuzzy Ranking Algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. After these two stages of pre-processing, a Neural Network model was developed and optimized for each of the sub-regions as well as for the entire area. It is concluded

  4. Sustained outbreak of measles in New South Wales, 2012: risks for measles elimination in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Kirsty; Clark, Penelope; Nguyen, Oanh; Rosewell, Alexander; Conaty, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Objective On 7 April 2012, a recently returned traveller from Thailand to Australia was confirmed to have measles. An outbreak of measles subsequently occurred in the state of New South Wales, prompting a sustained and coordinated response by public health authorities. The last confirmed case presented on 29 November 2012. This report describes the outbreak and its characteristics. Methods Cases were investigated following Australian protocols, including case interviews and assessment of contacts for post-exposure prophylaxis. Results Of the 168 cases identified, most occurred in south-western and western Sydney (92.9%, n = 156). Notable features of this outbreak were the disproportionately high number of cases in the 10–19-year-old age group (29.2%, n = 49), the overrepresentation among people of Pacific Islander descent (21.4%, n = 36) and acquisition in health-care facilities (21.4%, n = 36). There were no reported cases of encephalitis and no deaths. Discussion: This was the largest outbreak of measles in Australia since 1997. Its occurrence highlights the need to maintain vigilant surveillance systems for early detection and containment of measles cases and to maintain high population immunity to measles through routine childhood immunization. Vaccination campaigns targeting susceptible groups may also be necessary to sustain Australia’s measles elimination status. PMID:25635228

  5. Have purpose-built vaccine refrigerators reduced the cost of vaccine losses in South Australia?

    PubMed

    D'Onise, Katina; Almond, Sara; MacDonald, Breda; Watson, Maureen; Scrimgeour, Sophie

    2012-12-01

    There is limited epidemiological data on the performance of different refrigerator types for vaccine storage in the real world. This study aims to measure if the introduction of purpose-built vaccine refrigerators has reduced the cost of vaccine losses in South Australia. Data were taken from a register for all recorded vaccine storage cold chain events in South Australia from 2008 to 2009 and a survey of vaccine providers conducted in 2009. There were 531 respondents to the survey (51% response rate). A greater proportion of cold chain breaches in purpose-built vaccine refrigerators did not lead to a loss of vaccine (10.3%) compared with the other refrigerator types. Purpose-built vaccine refrigerators had a relative risk of 3.31 (95% CI, 2.15-5.11) of a heat event (as opposed to cold event) and were more likely to have a cold chain breach from electrical failure (relative risk ratio 15.05, 95% CI 4.04-56.05) than bar refrigerators. The average cost of loss of vaccine for purpose-built vaccine refrigerators was $2,321.20, which was greater than the cost of vaccine loss from a bar refrigerator of $1,339.06 (95% CI $61.47-1,902.82). Although purpose-built vaccine refrigerators were less likely to lead to vaccine loss per cold chain breach, they had a greater average cost of vaccine loss per cold chain event because they held a greater volume of vaccine. There is a need for development of Standards to guide purpose-built vaccine refrigerators manufacturing and a review of the National Vaccine Storage Guidelines to place a greater emphasis on the need for back up plans in the event of electrical failure. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  6. Sulfur sources of sedimentary "buckshot" pyrite in the Auriferous Conglomerates of the Mesoarchean Witwatersrand and Ventersdorp Supergroups, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, B. M.; Ono, S.; Gutzmer, J.; Lin, Y.; Beukes, N. J.

    2014-08-01

    Large rounded pyrite grains (>1 mm), commonly referred to as "buckshot" pyrite grains, are a characteristic feature of the auriferous conglomerates (reefs) in the Witwatersrand and Ventersdorp supergroups, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. Detailed petrographic analyses of the reefs indicated that the vast majority of the buckshot pyrite grains are of reworked sedimentary origin, i.e., that the pyrite grains originally formed in the sedimentary environment during sedimentation and diagenesis. Forty-one of these reworked sedimentary pyrite grains from the Main, Vaal, Basal, Kalkoenkrans, Beatrix, and Ventersdorp Contact reefs were analyzed for their multiple sulfur isotope compositions (δ34S, Δ33S, and Δ36S) to determine the source of the pyrite sulfur. In addition, five epigenetic pyrite samples (pyrite formed after sedimentation and lithification) from the Middelvlei and the Ventersdorp Contact reefs were measured for comparison. The δ34S, Δ33S, and Δ36S values of all 41 reworked sedimentary pyrite grains indicate clear signatures of mass-dependent and mass-independent fractionation and range from -6.8 to +13.8 ‰, -1.7 to +1.7 ‰, and -3.9 to +0.9 ‰, respectively. In contrast, the five epigenetic pyrite samples display a very limited range of δ34S, Δ33S, and Δ36S values (+0.7 to +4.0 ‰, -0.3 to +0.0 ‰. and -0.3 to +0.1 ‰, respectively). Despite the clear signatures of mass-independent sulfur isotope fractionation, very few data points plot along the primary Archean photochemical array suggesting a weak photolytic control over the data set. Instead, other factors command a greater degree of influence such as pyrite paragenesis, the prevailing depositional environment, and non-photolytic sulfur sources. In relation to pyrite paragenesis, reworked syngenetic sedimentary pyrite grains (pyrite originally precipitated along the sediment-water interface) are characterized by negative δ34S and Δ33S values, suggesting open system conditions with respect

  7. Crust Formation and Stabilization of the Western Archean Kaapvaal Craton: Evidence from U-Pb Geochronology of Basement Blocks and Deep Crustal Xenoliths from the Kimberley Region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M. D.; Bowring, S. A.

    2001-05-01

    The kimberlites of the Kimberley region of South Africa have yielded one of the most abundantly sampled and studied suites of lithospheric mantle xenoliths in the world, providing a detailed picture of the composition and thermal evolution of the continental mantle beneath the western Kaapvaal craton. Surprisingly however, little published data exist regarding the nature of the basement and deeper crustal rocks in the western craton, with which to contrast the evolution of the crustal and mantle portions of this Archean cratonic region. Crustal xenoliths collected in the various mine dumps around Kimberley are predominantly large blocks of near-surface basement lithologies, including deformed granitic to tonalitic gneisses and amphibolites, weakly deformed pegmatoids, and non-deformed biotite granite. U-Pb zircon geochronological data for a number of xenoliths have been used to develop a preliminary framework for the age and evolution of the Archean crust of the Kimberley region. The youngest component of the Kimberley basement is a non-deformed sample of biotite granite with an age of 2724+/-2 Ma. A major episode of metamorphism and crustal anatexis is recorded by 2928+/-2 Ga metamorphic zircon growth in amphibolitic and tonalitic components of banded gneisses, and igneous zircons of identical age in weakly deformed cross-cutting pegmatoids. Zircons from these same pegmatoids also have inherited cores which yield 207Pb/206Pb dates as old as 3265 Ma. These inherited zircons, as well as cores of zircons from a foliated granodioritic xenolith with 207Pb/206Pb dates as old as 3184 Ma, indicate the antiquity of the oldest crustal components of the Kimberley basement. These data are consistent with cursory SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronological information reported for lithologies collected in situ in the diamond mine walls of Kimberley. Two important implications of this data are considered: first, we interpret the major metamorphism and crustal anatexis at 2.93 Ga as

  8. Scleroderma in South Australia: further epidemiological observations supporting a stochastic explanation.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Walker, J G; Lu, T Y-T; Esterman, A; Hakendorf, P; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, prevalence, survival and selective demographic characteristics of scleroderma occurring in South Australia over the 10-year period 1993-2002. Analysis of the database of the South Australian Scleroderma Register: a population-based register established in 1993. Patients with scleroderma resident in South Australia (n = 353 at 2002) were ascertained from multiple sources and clinical and demographic data were obtained from mailed questionnaire and from review of computerized hospital databases, case notes or referring letters. Time-space cluster analysis was carried out according to the Knox method. Control data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics census. The mean prevalence was 21.4 per 10(5) (95% confidence interval 20.2-22.6) and the mean cumulative incidence of 1.5 per 10(5) (95% confidence interval 1.32-1.73) with no significant change in incidence over the study period (P = 0.13). Cumulative survival improved over the study period, with patients with diffuse disease having significantly reduced survival (as compared with limited disease, P < 0.001). The proportion with diffuse disease ( approximately 22%) remained steady. There was a small but significant predisposition in patients with a continental European birthplace (P < 0.001). A family history of scleroderma was noted in 1.6% with lambda1 (familial risk) of 14.3 (95% confidence interval 5.9-34.5). However, a family history of systemic autoimmunity (especially rheumatoid arthritis) was more common (6%). No socioeconomic stratification, temporal clustering nor spatio-temporal clustering was observed either at time of initial symptom or at 10 years before disease onset. Scleroderma occurs relatively infrequently in South Australia with no significant change in incidence observed over the 10-year study period. However, cumulative survival has improved. Identified risk factors include family history of scleroderma (risk approximately 14

  9. Decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and southeast Australia surface air temperature in austral summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jiaqing; Li, Jianping; Sun, Cheng; Zhao, Sen; Mao, Jiangyu; Dong, Di; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Juan

    2017-06-01

    Austral summer (December-February) surface air temperature over southeast Australia (SEA) is found to be remotely influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) in the South Atlantic at decadal time scales. In austral summer, warm SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic induce concurrent above-normal surface air temperature over SEA. This decadal-scale teleconnection occurs through the eastward propagating South Atlantic-Australia (SAA) wave train triggered by SST anomalies in the southwest South Atlantic. The excitation of the SAA wave train is verified by forcing experiments based on both linear barotropic and baroclinic models, propagation pathway and spatial scale of the observed SAA wave train are further explained by the Rossby wave ray tracing analysis in non-uniform basic flow. The SAA wave train forced by southwest South Atlantic warming is characterized by an anomalous anticyclone off the eastern coast of the Australia. Temperature diagnostic analyses based on the thermodynamic equation suggest anomalous northerly flows on western flank of this anticyclone can induce low-level warm advection anomaly over SEA, which thus lead to the warming of surface air temperature there. Finally, SST-forced atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments also demonstrate that SST forcing in the South Atlantic is associated with the SAA teleconnection wave train in austral summer, this wave train then modulate surface air temperature over SEA on decadal timescales. Hence, observations combined with numerical simulations consistently demonstrate the decadal-scale teleconnection between South Atlantic SST and summertime surface air temperature over SEA.

  10. DDT and dieldrin: effects on resident Peregrine Falcon populations in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Olsen, P; Emison, B; Mooney, N; Brothers, N

    1992-12-01

    Organochlorine residues in eggs and prey species of the Peregrine Falcon,Falco peregrinus, were determined in parts of three south-eastern Australian States: Tasmania (1975-91), Victoria (1975-83) and South Australia (1977-1981). Relationships between residues detected and eggshell thickness, nest site occupancy and productivity were examined. Temporal changes and, in particular, the relative effects of DDE and dieldrin were also investigated. DDE was detected in all 137 eggs analysed. The concentration of DDE residues in eggs peaked in the late 1970s to early 1980s in Victoria, but peaked earlier and had declined to low concentrations by the 1980s in Tasmania. Maximum concentrations reached 82 ppm, in Victoria. The geometric means were: Victoria 12.4 ppm; Tasmania 1970s 10.1 ppm, 1980s 1.5 ppm; and South Australia 1.95 ppm. Dieldrin was detected in approximately half the eggs, but all except one egg (1.5 ppm) contained concentrations considered noncritical (<1 ppm). The degree of shell-thinning and reproductive success were related to DDE content, but not to that of dieldrin.Organochlorine concentrations in prey reflected general concentrations in eggs and, with a few exceptions, were low. In Tasmania, reproductive success increased as DDE contamination declined. In Victoria, despite mean concentrations of DDE well above that considered to be critical for successful reproduction (>15-20 ppm) for at least seven years, the breeding population declined by <2% a year. We interpret this result as evidence that DDE causes a slow decline in population and that the dramatic declines observed in some other parts of the world were mainly attributable to contamination by dieldrin or to other confounding factors.

  11. New quartz SAR-OSL ages from the stranded beach dune sequence in south-east South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D.; Hildebrand, A. N.; Murray-Wallace, C. V.; Bourman, R. P.; Brooke, B. P.; Blair, M.

    2003-05-01

    A sequence of stranded coastal barriers in south-east South Australia preserves a record of sea-level variations over the past 800 ka. Huntley et al. (Quat. Sci. Rev. 12 (1993a) 1; Quat. Sci. Rev. 13 (1994a) 201) attempted to test thermoluminescence (TL) dating methods and found good agreement between quartz TL ages with independent ages for these dunes. We investigate the accuracy of the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure (Radiat. Meas. 32 (2000) 57) over an extended age range of 0-250 ka, by comparing SAR-OSL ages determined on quartz extracts from these dunes with the existing chronology. We show that Robe II range is ˜60 ka, and that Robe III is 100 ka old. Not surprisingly, the OSL ages increase monotonically from the Robe II range to the West Naracoorte range. For the younger dunes (<240 ka), the SAR-OSL ages agree with the expected ages within 1 σ errors, whereas for the older dunes the SAR ages are consistent with independent ages within 2 σ error limits. We consider these results to be very promising, and lend support to the large number of quartz SAR-OSL ages being presented in the literature, where such comparisons with independent chronology are not usually possible.

  12. Uranium and Sm isotope studies of the supergiant Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U-Ag deposit, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchenbaur, Maria; Maas, Roland; Ehrig, Kathy; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Strub, Erik; Ballhaus, Chris; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Olympic Dam Cu-U-Au-Ag deposit in the Archean-Proterozoic Gawler Craton (South Australia) is a type example of the iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) spectrum of deposits and one of the largest Cu-U-Au resources known. Mineralization is hosted in a lithologically and texturally diverse, hematite-rich breccia complex developed within a granite of the 1.59 Ga Gawler Silicic Province. Emerging evidence indicates that both the breccia complex and its metal content developed over ∼1000 Ma, responding to major tectonic events, e.g., at 1300-1100, 825 and 500 Ma. However, metal sources and exact mechanism/s of ore formation remain poorly known. New high-precision 238U/235U data for a set of 40 whole rock samples representing all major lithological facies of the breccia complex show a narrow range (δ238UCRM112a = -0.56‰ to +0.04‰). At the scale of sampling, there is no correlation of δ238U with lithology, degree of alteration or U mineralogy, although ores with U > 5 wt.% have subtly higher δ238U values (-0.20‰ to 0.00) than the majority of samples (<0.7 wt.% U, -0.56‰ to -0.23‰). The new U isotope data are consistent with published data for uraninites from Olympic Dam, and with published results from high-temperature U deposits. They overlap completely with the range of δ238U values in granitoids (including the host granite, -0.18‰ to -0.32‰) and with estimates of the upper continental crust in general. This similarity suggests that Olympic Dam δ238U values reflects the crustal sources of U, which probably include felsic volcanic rocks and granitoids. The isotopic homogeneity suggests depositional mechanisms that involve minimal isotopic fractionation of U; alternatively, primary fractionation signatures may have been erased during the long history of the U mineralization. High-grade U ores may record isotopic neutron-capture effects related to fissionogenic neutrons. High-precision Sm isotope data for five high-U (>5 wt.% U, U/Sm ≫ 500) Olympic Dam

  13. Les granitoïdes de la couverture protérozoïque de la bordure nord du craton du Congo (Sud-Est du Cameroun et Sud-Ouest de la République centrafricaine), témoins d'une activité magmatique post-kibarienne à pré-panafricaineGranitoids of the Proterozoic cover of the Congo craton northern edge (South-East of Cameroon and South-West of the Central African Republic), witnesses of a post-Kibarian to pre-Pan-African magmatic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicat, Jean-Paul; Moloto-A-Kenguemba, Gaétan; Pouclet, André

    2001-02-01

    Granitoid bodies dated from the Late Mesoproterozoic intrude the Palaeoproterozoic cover of the northern edge of the Congo craton. They line up a north-south left-lateral shear zone related to the Late Kibaran tectonics. They originated from crustal melting, may be due to the thermal anomalies, that were responsible of the large basaltic production during the pre-Pan-African extension of the Central Africa rift system.

  14. Pathogen Presence in European Starlings Inhabiting Commercial Piggeries in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Hayley E; Lapidge, Steven J; Hernández-Jover, Marta; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-06-01

    The majority of bacterial diarrhea-causing illnesses in domestic pigs result from infection with Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., or Campylobacter spp. These bacterial enteropathogens also correspond with the most-common bacteria isolated from wild birds. Additionally, viral pathogens such as avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV, including Kunjin disease), and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) may also be carried and transmitted by birds in Australia. Introduced European starlings (Sturnus vulgarus) are one of the most-frequently reported birds on piggeries in Australia. The presence of the three bacterial pathogens, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Escherichia coli , as well as the three viral pathogens AIV, WNV, and NDV, were evaluated in starlings captured on four commercial piggeries in South Australia. A total of 473 starlings were captured on the four piggeries in 2008 and 2009. A cloacal swab was taken from each bird and cultured for bacterial identification, with follow-up serotyping of any positives, whilst fifty samples were analyzed by PCR for the three target viral pathogens. There was no AIV, WNV, or NDV detected in the 50 starlings sampled. Escherichia coli was found to be present in the starling populations on all four piggeries whilst Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter jejuni were found to be present only in the starling population sampled on one piggery. Serotyping identified pig-pathogenic strains of the bacteria. The prevalence of these production-limiting bacterial pathogens in starlings, coupled with the large starling populations often found inside piggeries during daylight hours in the summer months, presents a disease transmission risk and jeopardizes piggery disease management. Removal of starlings from agricultural enterprises (as shown by international studies), or prevention of starling access to animal feed and water, could substantially reduce the risk of transmission of enterobacterial pathogens from starlings to

  15. Suicide and drought in New South Wales, Australia, 1970–2007

    PubMed Central

    Hanigan, Ivan C.; Butler, Colin D.; Kokic, Philip N.; Hutchinson, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    There is concern in Australia that droughts substantially increase the incidence of suicide in rural populations, particularly among male farmers and their families. We investigated this possibility for the state of New South Wales (NSW), Australia between 1970 and 2007, analyzing data on suicides with a previously established climatic drought index. Using a generalized additive model that controlled for season, region, and long-term suicide trends, we found an increased relative risk of suicide of 15% (95% confidence interval, 8%–22%) for rural males aged 30–49 y when the drought index rose from the first quartile to the third quartile. In contrast, the risk of suicide for rural females aged >30 y declined with increased values of the drought index. We also observed an increased risk of suicide in spring and early summer. In addition there was a smaller association during unusually warm months at any time of year. The spring suicide increase is well documented in nontropical locations, although its cause is unknown. The possible increased risk of suicide during drought in rural Australia warrants public health focus and concern, as does the annual, predictable increase seen each spring and early summer. Suicide is a complex phenomenon with many interacting social, environmental, and biological causal factors. The relationship between drought and suicide is best understood using a holistic framework. Climate change projections suggest increased frequency and severity of droughts in NSW, accompanied and exacerbated by rising temperatures. Elucidating the relationships between drought and mental health will help facilitate adaptation to climate change. PMID:22891347

  16. Association of climate drivers with rainfall in New South Wales, Australia, using Bayesian Model Averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Hiep Nguyen; Rivett, Kelly; MacSween, Katrina; Le-Anh, Linh

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall in New South Wales (NSW), located in the southeast of the Australian continent, is known to be influenced by four major climate drivers: the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). Many studies have shown the influences of ENSO, IPO modulation, SAM and IOD on rainfall in Australia and on southeast Australia in particular. However, only limited work has been undertaken using a multiple regression framework to examine the extent of the combined effect of these climate drivers on rainfall. This paper analysed the role of these combined climate drivers and their interaction on the rainfall in NSW using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) to account for model uncertainty by considering each of the linear models across the whole model space which is equal to the set of all possible combinations of predictors to find the model posterior probabilities and their expected predictor coefficients. Using BMA for linear regression models, we are able to corroborate and confirm the results from many previous studies. In addition, the method gives the ranking order of importance and the probability of the association of each of the climate drivers and their interaction on the rainfall at a site. The ability to quantify the relative contribution of the climate drivers offers the key to understand the complex interaction of drivers on rainfall, or lack of rainfall in a region, such as the three big droughts in southeastern Australia which have been the subject of discussion and debate recently on their causes.

  17. Testing a Moderated Model of Satisfaction with Urban Living Using Data for Brisbane-South East Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccrea, Rod; Stimson, Robert; Western, John

    2005-01-01

    Using survey data collected from households living in the Brisbane-South East Queensland region, a rapidly growing metropolis in Australia, path analysis is used to test links between urban residents' assessment of various urban attributes and their level of satisfaction in three urban domains--housing, neighbourhood or local area, and the wider…

  18. Enough Bad News! Remote Social Health & Aboriginal Action in a Harsh Environment--Coober Pedy in South Australia's "Outback."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brice, G.; And Others

    This paper focuses on the complexities of health care in Coober Pedy (South Australia) and the nearby Umoona Aboriginal community, and highlights the vital role of Aboriginal health workers in the implementation of primary health care principles. The Aboriginal population in this "outback" area is characterized by considerable economic…

  19. Learner Diversity: A Successful Blended Professional Learning Approach Promoting Quality Inclusion in the United Kingdom and New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clench, Hugh; King, Brian Smyth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an online training model for teachers and teaching assistants working with students with special educational needs. Originally developed as part of a government funded initiative in the UK, the model has been successfully applied in other contexts, most notably in New South Wales, Australia where it has had…

  20. A Survey of the Educational and Training Needs of the Pastoral Industry of South Australia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery, John; And Others

    In late 1979 and 1980 a survey was conducted of 207 pastoral lease owners and managers in the north of South Australia to determine their education and training requirements. The pastoral industry grazes sheep and cattle on native pastures and shrubs, is beset by widely fluctuating rainfall and production, sells its products of wool and meat on a…

  1. Testing a Moderated Model of Satisfaction with Urban Living Using Data for Brisbane-South East Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccrea, Rod; Stimson, Robert; Western, John

    2005-01-01

    Using survey data collected from households living in the Brisbane-South East Queensland region, a rapidly growing metropolis in Australia, path analysis is used to test links between urban residents' assessment of various urban attributes and their level of satisfaction in three urban domains--housing, neighbourhood or local area, and the wider…

  2. Learner Diversity: A Successful Blended Professional Learning Approach Promoting Quality Inclusion in the United Kingdom and New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clench, Hugh; King, Brian Smyth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an online training model for teachers and teaching assistants working with students with special educational needs. Originally developed as part of a government funded initiative in the UK, the model has been successfully applied in other contexts, most notably in New South Wales, Australia where it has had…

  3. A Survey of the Educational and Training Needs of the Pastoral Industry of South Australia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery, John; And Others

    In late 1979 and 1980 a survey was conducted of 207 pastoral lease owners and managers in the north of South Australia to determine their education and training requirements. The pastoral industry grazes sheep and cattle on native pastures and shrubs, is beset by widely fluctuating rainfall and production, sells its products of wool and meat on a…

  4. The Use of Sessional Teachers in Universities: Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues and realities presented by the casualisation of higher education teaching staff. It uses a case study from the University of New South Wales [UNSW] in Sydney Australia. The research presents and analyses perspectives from two key stakeholders in a university [students and academic management] on the use of sessional…

  5. The Position of Women in Production in the Process Manufacturing Industry in South Australia: Implications for VET.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Meredith

    The position of women in South Australia's process manufacturing industry was examined, and the implications of the study findings for the vocational education and training (VET) sector were discussed. Of the 393 companies to which surveys were sent, 136 (35.8%) returned valid responses. Of the 8,000 people employed in the industry, only 26.1%…

  6. Evaluating the Health "Hubs and Spokes" interprofessional placements in rural New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Craig, Pippa L; Barnard, Amanda; Glasgow, Nicholas; May, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Australia has been relatively slow in adopting interprofessional learning (IPL) to prepare health professional students for future collaborative professional practice. A collaborative project between two universities placed senior health professional students in IPL teams in rural southeast New South Wales, Australia, to work on small, locally relevant projects with guidance from locally appointed IPL facilitators. This paper reports on the initial stages of an evaluation of this rural-based IPL intervention using the modified Freeth/Kirkpatrick's 4-level evaluation model. Students' responses were collected using a debriefing questionnaire, the Interprofessional Education Perception (IEPS) and Team Performance (TPS) scales. An audience feedback questionnaire was structured around project objectives. Seventy-nine students participated in 33 IPL teams during the evaluation period included in this study. IEPS scores increased with participation (t=2.803; p=0.007). The TPS showed a statistically significant difference between teams (ANOVA, F(31,45) = 1.982, p=0.018( and a trend toward agreement with audience perceptions of team performance. The evaluation demonstrated positive short-term outcomes suggesting benefits of this applied approach in preparing students to work interprofessionally.

  7. Spatiotemporal monthly rainfall forecasts for south-eastern and eastern Australia using climatic indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Vervoort, Willem; Minasny, Budiman; McBratney, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge about future rainfall is important for agriculture management and planning in arid and semi-arid regions. Australia has complex variations in rainfall patterns in time and space, arising from the combination of the geographic structure and the dual effects of Indian and Pacific Ocean. This study aims to develop a forecasting model of spatiotemporal monthly rainfall totals using lagged climate indices and historical rainfall data from 1950-2011 for south-eastern and eastern Australia. Data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) from 136 high-quality weather stations. To reduce spatial complexity, climate regionalization was used to divide the stations in homogenous sub-regions based on similarity of rainfall patterns and intensity using principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means clustering. Subsequently, a fuzzy ranking algorithm (FRA) was applied to the lagged climatic predictors and monthly rainfall in each sub-region to identify the best predictors. Selected predictors by FRA were found to vary by sub-region. After these two stages of pre-processing, an artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and optimized separately for each sub-region and the entire area. The results indicate that climate regionalization can improve a monthly spatiotemporal rainfall forecast model. The location and number of sub-regions were important for ranking predictors and modeling. This further suggests that the impact of climate variables on Australian rainfall is more variable in both time and space than indicated thus far.

  8. Whole Genome Sequencing Demonstrates Limited Transmission within Identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clusters in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Gurjav, Ulziijargal; Outhred, Alexander C.; Jelfs, Peter; McCallum, Nadine; Wang, Qinning; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A.; Marais, Ben J.; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2016-01-01

    Australia has a low tuberculosis incidence rate with most cases occurring among recent immigrants. Given suboptimal cluster resolution achieved with 24-locus mycobacterium interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU-24) genotyping, the added value of whole genome sequencing was explored. MIRU-24 profiles of all Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-confirmed tuberculosis cases diagnosed between 2009 and 2013 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, were examined and clusters identified. The relatedness of cases within the largest MIRU-24 clusters was assessed using whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Of 1841 culture-confirmed TB cases, 91.9% (1692/1841) had complete demographic and genotyping data. East-African Indian (474; 28.0%) and Beijing (470; 27.8%) lineage strains predominated. The overall rate of MIRU-24 clustering was 20.1% (340/1692) and was highest among Beijing lineage strains (35.7%; 168/470). One Beijing and three East-African Indian (EAI) clonal complexes were responsible for the majority of observed clusters. Whole genome sequencing of the 4 largest clusters (30 isolates) demonstrated diverse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within identified clusters. All sequenced EAI strains and 70% of Beijing lineage strains clustered by MIRU-24 typing demonstrated distinct SNP profiles. The superior resolution provided by whole genome sequencing demonstrated limited M. tuberculosis transmission within NSW, even within identified MIRU-24 clusters. Routine whole genome sequencing could provide valuable public health guidance in low burden settings. PMID:27737005

  9. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in newly arrived refugees attending the Migrant Health Service, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahim, Nur R; Benson, Jill; Grocke, Kathryn; Vather, Deeva; Zimmerman, Jessica; Moody, Tessa; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the refugee population attending the Migrant Health Service, South Australia, identify demographic factors associated with infection and compare prevalence of infection in refugees with that of the nonrefugee population in Australia. Cross-sectional study conducted between October 2010 and August 2013. Monoclonal stool antigen testing for H. pylori infection is performed as part of a comprehensive health assessment for newly arrived refugees. The sample population included 922 adults and children. Outcome measures were (i) prevalence of H. pylori infection (ii) association between demographic factors such as sex, ethnicity and age, and H. pylori infection. H. pylori infection was detected in 198 (21.5%) participants (95% CI 18.9%-24.3%). The odds of infection were lower in females OR 0.71 (95% CI 0.51-0.98) compared to males. Compared to Middle Eastern participants, the odds of infection were 1.75 (95% CI 1.17-2.62) times higher in African and 1.90 (95% CI 1.10-3.26) times higher in Burmese participants. Infection was not associated with age. H. pylori infection is common among newly arrived refugees. The long latency of infection to development of complications and the availability of testing and relatively effective eradication regimens all add weight to a decision to screen in this population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Implementation of mandatory immunisation of healthcare workers: observations from New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Helms, Charles; Leask, Julie; Robbins, Spring Cooper; Chow, Maria Yui Kwan; McIntyre, Peter

    2011-04-05

    To identify factors influencing implementation of a state-wide mandatory immunisation policy for healthcare workers (HCWs) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2007. Vaccines included were measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, but not influenza. We evaluated the first 2 years of this policy directive in 2009. A qualitative study was conducted among 4 stakeholder groups (the central health department, hospitals, health professional associations, and universities). 58 participants were identified using maximum variation sampling and data were analysed using a hierarchical thematic framework. Quantitative data on policy compliance were reviewed at the regional level. Success in policy implementation was associated with effective communication, including support of clinical leaders, provision of free vaccine, access to occupational health services which included immunisation, and appropriate data collection and reporting systems. Achieving high vaccine uptake was more challenging with existing employees and with smaller institutions. These findings may apply to other jurisdictions in Australia or internationally considering mandatory approaches to HCW vaccination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterising the Smoking Status and Quit Smoking Behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Maksimovic, Lauren; Paquet, Catherine; Daniel, Mark; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Lekkas, Peter; Cargo, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The study objectives were to characterise the smoking status and quit smoking behaviour of Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) in South Australia (SA), Australia; and identify the psychosocial, socio-demographic, and household smoking characteristics that distinguish smokers from quitters and never smokers. A self-reported cross-sectional survey was completed by AHWs in SA. Non-parametric statistics were used for inferential analyses. Eighty-five AHWs completed surveys representing a response rate of 63.0%. The prevalence of current smokers was 50.6%. Non-smokers (49.5%) included quitters (22.4%) and never smokers (27.1%). Smoking status did not differ by gender or geographic location. Of current smokers, 69.0% demonstrated a readiness to quit and 50.0% had made at least one quit attempt in the last 12 months. Compared to quitters and never smokers, current smokers expressed lower emotional wellbeing, and three times as many resided with another smoker. Quitters had the highest levels of perceived social support and part-time employment. A high proportion of AHWs who smoke desire, and are ready to quit. Individual, social and household factors differentiated smokers from non-smokers and quitters. Social support, and relationships and structures that favour social support, are implicated as necessary to enable AHWs who smoke to act on their desire to quit smoking. PMID:24351741

  12. Innovative zoning to support equine influenza eradication from New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Scott-Orr, H

    2011-07-01

    Following detection of equine influenza (EI) in New South Wales, a complete standstill was imposed the next morning on the movement of all horses and donkeys within the state. Premises' biosecurity guidelines became progressively more stringent with time in an effort to stop local spread. The standstill was highly effective as a primary response to stop EI becoming widespread across Australia, but did not prevent spread to properties contiguous to infected premises in areas of high horse density and small property size, nor transmission by fomites nor possible local airborne transmission. Within 2 weeks of the start of the outbreak, a zoning system of Purple (Special Restricted), Red (Restricted), Amber (Control), and Green (Protected) Zones was implemented, and progressively modified as disease distribution changed. The colour coding system proved to be an easy way to communicate zone changes, the approximate level of disease risk and the stringency of movement restrictions to the general public and should be adopted more generally in AUSVETPLAN.

  13. Aboriginal Astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia, Part 2: Animals in the Ooldean Sky.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.; Carter, Mark T.

    2016-04-01

    Australian Indigenous astronomical traditions demonstrate a relationship between animals in the skyworld and the behaviour patterns of their terrestrial counterparts. In our continued study of Aboriginal astronomical traditions from the Great Victoria Desert, South Australia, we investigate the relationship between animal behaviour and stellar positions when these relationships are not explicitly described in the written records. We develop a methodology to test the hypothesis that the behaviour of these animals is predicted by the positions of their celestial counterparts at particular times of the day. Of the twelve animals identified in the Ooldean sky, the nine stellar (i.e. non-planet or non-galactic) associations were analysed and each demonstrated a close connection between animal behaviour and stellar positions. We suggest that this may be a recurring theme in Aboriginal astronomical traditions, requiring further development of the methodology.

  14. Coronary events in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia: 1984-1986.

    PubMed

    Dobson, A J; Alexander, H M; Al-Roomi, K; Gibberd, R W; Heller, R F; Leeder, S R; Lloyd, D M; Malcolm, J A; Steele, P L

    1988-01-01

    The results of coronary event registration using the protocol of the World Health Organization MONICA Project are reported for two years for the Hunter Region, the area in and around Newcastle in New South Wales, Australia. The Newcastle MONICA Project monitors all suspected cases of heart attack by identifying patients from hospital admissions and obtaining information while they are still in hospital. For people who die out of hospital, the initial source of information is usually the death certificate. Rates for the most robust MONICA diagnostic categories, non-fatal definite myocardial infarction and all coronary deaths, differed for the two years reported here. Monthly rates suggested possible seasonal effects, and the possible influence of lower respiratory infections including an epidemic of influenza A. The results demonstrate that consistent monitoring over several years will be necessary to establish clear trends in coronary heart disease.

  15. Unequal staffing: A snapshot of nurse staffing in critical care units in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harding, Thomas; Wright, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A growing body of research provides evidence of the link between nurse-to-patient ratios (NTPRs) and skill mix with adverse patient outcomes. This paper reports an investigation into nurse staffing patterns, skill mix and patient movement in critical care units in NSW, Australia. A 'snapshot' of staffing patterns and patient movement over 1 week in October 2012 was obtained by use of a cross-sectional design using retrospective survey and administrative data. A wide variation was found in NTPRs, skill mix and the number of nursing staff vacancies in coronary care and high dependency units. These variations suggest that the quality of patient care may vary between facilities in New South Wales.

  16. Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  17. Upper mantle heterogeneity: Comparisons of regions south of Australia with Philippine Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The nature of mass anomalies that occur beneath the regions of negative residual depth anomalies were identified. Residual geoid anomalies with negative residual depth anomalies are identified in the Philippine Basin (negative) and in the region south of Australia (positive and negative). In the latter region the geoid anomalies are eastward and the depth anomaly is northeast. It is suggested that the negative depth anomaly and the compensating mass excess in the uppermost mantle developed in the Eocene as the lithosphere of the west Philippine basin formed. Heating of the deeper upper mantle which causes slow surface wave velocities and negative gravity and geoid anomalies may be a younger phenomenon which is still in progress.

  18. An Overview of Seafood Supply, Food Safety and Regulation in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Malik A.; Saputra, Themy; Szabo, Elizabeth A.; Nelan, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Seafood consumption is increasing in Australia, especially in New South Wales (NSW). Average per capita seafood consumption in NSW is higher than the national average. Seafood supply in NSW comes from domestic (wild catch and aquaculture) and overseas (seafood imports) sources. The contribution of wild catch and aquaculture in domestic seafood production (2012–2013) was 73.42% and 26.52%, respectively. Seafood-associated foodborne illness outbreaks are not common and on an average four outbreaks occur each year in NSW. Most of the outbreaks in 2015 and 2016 were related to ciguatera poisoning. The regulation of the seafood industry and the management of food safety is an example of the coordinated work of multiple government agencies and organizations in which NSW Food Authority is responsible for managing the overall risks through the Seafood Safety Scheme. Overall, seafood supply in NSW is of high quality and poses low food safety risk to consumers. PMID:28753923

  19. Climate change impacts on water yields and demands in south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Don; Stone, Roy; Martens, Sasha; Thomas, Jonathan; Silberstein, Richard; Ali, Riasat; Hodgson, Geoff

    2012-12-01

    SummaryA climate shift in the mid 1970s reduced rainfalls in south-western Australia by 10-15% and inflows into reservoirs that supply the city of Perth (population 1.8 m) by more than half. The region has a Mediterranean climate, similar to other areas in the world experiencing reductions in rainfall and rises in temperatures. Rainfall-runoff modelling has indicated that streamflows may reduce by a further quarter by 2030 or by half if a dry future climate is experienced. Groundwater levels on the coastal plain in south-western Australia have fallen since the mid 1970s where unconfined aquifers are covered with perennial vegetation, including under the main water supply aquifer for Perth. Modelled projections are that groundwater levels in most areas will continue to fall through to 2030 under most future climate scenarios. Projected streamflows and groundwater levels indicate reduced water availability but these need to be converted to projected water yields, i.e. the amount of water that can be diverted for consumptive use. This paper reports how projections of future streamflow and groundwater levels were used to estimate 2030 divertible water yields for a 62,500 km2 area in south-western Australia. These yields were then compared with estimates of water demands in 2030 to identify areas of water surplus and deficit under clearly defined assumptions. The methods used to define future yields are based on sets of rules that could be varied by water managers if desired. Surface water yields are estimated to decrease by about 24% (possible range of -4% to -49%) which is similar to the projected reduction in runoff (-25% with a range of -7% to -42%). Groundwater yields are projected to fall by only about 2% (range of +2% to -7%) because of reductions in evapotranspiration and drainage losses as watertables fall where groundwater levels are close to the surface. In addition, recharge remains relatively high under cleared areas used for non-irrigated agriculture. In

  20. A new blind snake (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) from an endangered habitat in south-eastern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Venchi, Alberto; Wilson, Steve K; Borsboom, Adrian C

    2015-07-24

    A new species of blind snake is described from south-eastern Queensland, eastern Australia. Anilios insperatus sp. nov. differs from all of its congeners in having:16 scales around the body; 442 paravertebral scales; snout slightly trilobed from above and bluntly angular in profile; small, inconspicuous eyes, located within the ocular scale at its junction with the preocular and the supraocular scales; and uniform light colouration. The unique specimen was collected from pasture that was formally Queensland regional ecosystem 12.8.24, a eucalypt dominated ecosystem currently listed as endangered. The site is less than 100 km from Queensland's capital, Brisbane. Given the locality, habitat and absence of additional specimens, the species is probably of conservation concern.

  1. Analysis of intraspecific variation in venoms of Acanthophis antarcticus death adders from South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Herzig, Volker; Kohler, Maxie; Grund, Kai F; Reeve, Shane; Smith, A Ian; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2013-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in venom composition and activity has been reported from a wide range of snakes. Geographical origin can be one cause for this variation and has recently been documented from Acanthophis antarcticus death adders sampled across four different Australian states. The present study examined whether a narrower sampling range of A. antarcticus from four collection sites within one Australian state (i.e., South Australia) would also exhibit variation in venom composition and/or activity. The present LC-MS results reveal marked differences in the venom composition from different collection sites. The most striking difference was the reduced venom complexity found in the only venom originating from a mallee scrub habitat in comparison to the venoms from coastal heath scrub habitats. Interestingly, the pharmacological activity of all venoms was found to be the same, independent of the collection site. PMID:24163732

  2. Drought conditions and recovery in the Coorong wetland, south Australia in 1997-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leterme, Sophie C.; Allais, Laetitia; Jendyk, Jan; Hemraj, Deevesh A.; Newton, Kelly; Mitchell, Jim; Shanafield, Margaret

    2015-09-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, South Australia suffered its longest period of below average annual rainfall. This impacted riverine ecosystems and particularly the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), the largest river system in Australia. The MDB combines 30,000 wetlands of which the Coorong wetland is of significant importance for the reproduction of bird and fish species, and is listed under the Ramsar Convention. We sampled water in the Coorong wetland between 2011 and 2013 and compiled additional data from 1997 to 2013 to assess the impact of the drought and subsequent recovery of the environment. The salinity levels of the Coorong wetland increased dramatically during the drought because of the lack of freshwater inflow from the Murray River. The changes in water flow observed from 2002 to 2009 had an impact on the number of habitats present along the Coorong wetland. In addition, a shift in community composition was observed between the freshwater habitat (<5) dominated by chlorophytes to the hypersaline habitat (>85) dominated by diatoms. It is evident that during the drought, the Coorong wetland was dominated by diatoms and dinoflagellates. After the drought, the North Lagoon was dominated by chlorophytes up to a salinity level of 20. However, over 20 and in the South Lagoon, diatoms dominated the community. This study highlights how salinity levels drive the phytoplankton community. Based on the complementary data obtained for salinity between 1997 and 2010, there is a significant difference between the salinity levels observed during the drought and those observed before and after the drought. It appears that salinity levels are now recovered to what they were in the late 1990s.

  3. Central corneal thickness among Aboriginal people attending eye clinics in remote South Australia.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Shane R; Tan, Edwin W H; Casson, Robert J; Selva, Dinesh; Newland, Henry S

    2007-11-01

    To determine the central corneal thickness (CCT) and its demographic associations among Aboriginal people attending eye clinics in remote South Australia. A clinic-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving opportunistic sampling of patients. Eligible participants underwent measurement of CCT by ultrasound pachymetry. The results were compared with a group of Caucasian control patients. All patients (189) who were invited to participate in the study had their CCT measured. The mean age was 44.8 +/- 14.5 years, and women comprised 57.7% of the sample. The control group consisted of 115 Caucasian participants. The mean age was 47.1 +/- 14.8 years, and women accounted for 55.7% of the sample. Mean CCT for Aboriginal participants was 514.9 +/- 30.5 microm in the right eye and 515.6 +/- 30.5 microm in the left eye (t = 1.1, P = 0.3). Mean right CCT for Caucasian participants was 544.6 +/- 31.9 microm and mean left CCT in this group was 547.1 +/- 32.2 microm (t = 4.6, P < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the right (t = 8.4, P < 0.001) and left (t = 8.8, P < 0.001) CCT of Aboriginal and Caucasian participants. The CCT among Aboriginal patients attending eye clinic in remote South Australia was significantly thinner than that of a Caucasian control group. Thinner corneas among this group of Aboriginal patients may indicate a need to adjust intraocular pressure according to CCT and to be more vigilant for glaucoma.

  4. Extreme heat and occupational heat illnesses in South Australia, 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jianjun; Hansen, Alana; Pisaniello, Dino; Bi, Peng

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to examine the epidemiological characteristics of occupational heat illnesses in South Australia, to quantify the association between ambient temperature and occupational heat illnesses, and to investigate the impact of heatwaves on occupational heat illnesses. Workers' compensation claims data and weather data were obtained from SafeWork South Australia and the Bureau of Meteorology, respectively, for 2001-2010. Time series analysis with generalised estimation equation models and linear spline functions was used to quantify the temperature-heat illness claims association. A case-crossover design was applied to investigate the impact of heatwaves on occupational heat illnesses. There were 306 heat illness claims during the study period, with an incidence rate of 4.5 per 100,000 employees. The overall risk of occupational heat illness was positively associated with maximum temperature (Tmax), especially when Tmax was over the threshold of 35.5 °C. One degree increase of Tmax was associated with a 12.7% (incidence rate ratio 1.127, 95% CI 1.067 to 1.190) increase of occupational heat illness claims. During heatwave periods, the risk of occupational heat illness was about 4-7 times higher than that of non-heatwave periods. There is a need to develop or refine current heat-related regulations and guidelines to minimise the risk of occupational heat illnesses in vulnerable workers in a warming climate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Disparities in cataract surgery between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Randall, Deborah A; Reinten, Tracie; Maher, Louise; Lujic, Sanja; Stewart, Jessica; Keay, Lisa; Leyland, Alastair H; Jorm, Louisa R

    2014-01-01

    To investigate variation in rates of cataract surgery in New South Wales, Australia by area of residence for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal adults. Observational data linkage study of hospital admissions. Two hundred eighty-nine thousand six hundred forty-six New South Wales residents aged 30 years and over admitted to New South Wales hospitals for 444,551 cataract surgery procedures between 2001 and 2008. Analysis of linked routinely collected hospital data using direct standardization and multilevel negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering of individuals within Statistical Local Areas. Age-standardized cataract surgery rates and adjusted rate ratios. Aboriginal people had lower rates of cataract procedures than non-Aboriginal people of the same age and sex, living in the same Statistical Local Area (adjusted rate ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.75). There was significant variation in cataract surgery rates across Statistical Local Areas for both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people, with the disparity greater in major cities and less disadvantaged areas. Rates of surgery were lower for Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal people in most Statistical Local Areas, but in a few, the rates were similar or higher for Aboriginal people. Aboriginal people in New South Wales received less cataract surgery than non-Aboriginal people, despite evidence of higher cataract rates. This disparity was greatest in urban and wealthier areas. Higher rates of surgery for Aboriginal people observed in some specific locations are likely to reflect the availability of public ophthalmology services, targeted services for Aboriginal people and higher demand for surgery in these populations. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  6. Clinical diagnosis and chemical confirmation of ciguatera fish poisoning in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Hazel; Zammit, Anthony; Manning, Jennifer; Shadbolt, Craig; Szabo, Lisa; Harwood, D Tim; McNabb, Paul; Turahui, John A; van den Berg, Debra J

    2016-03-31

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is common in tropical and sub-tropical areas and larger fish (> 10 kg) are more susceptible to toxin accumulation with age. Although the coastal climate of northern New South Wales is considered sub-tropical, prior to 2014 there has only been 1 documented outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning from fish caught in the region. During February and March 2014, 2 outbreaks of ciguatera fish poisoning involved 4 and 9 individuals, respectively, both following consumption of Spanish mackerel from northern New South Wales coastal waters (Evans Head and Scotts Head). Affected individuals suffered a combination of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms requiring hospital treatment. At least 1 individual was symptomatic up to 7 months later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detected the compound Pacific ciguatoxin-1B at levels up to 1.0 µg kg(-1) in fish tissue from both outbreaks. During April 2015, another outbreak of ciguatera fish poisoning was reported in 4 individuals. The fish implicated in the outbreak was caught further south than the 2014 outbreaks (South West Rocks). Fish tissue was unavailable for analysis; however, symptoms were consistent with ciguatera fish poisoning. To our knowledge, these cases are the southernmost confirmed sources of ciguatera fish poisoning in Australia. Educational outreach to the fishing community, in particular recreational fishers was undertaken after the Evans Head outbreak. This highlighted the outbreak, species of fish involved and the range of symptoms associated with ciguatera fish poisoning. Further assessment of the potential for ciguatoxins to occur in previously unaffected locations need to be considered in terms of food safety.

  7. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-06-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAIC c ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R (2)(m) (76.4) and R (2)(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km(2)) of the Adelaide-Mount Lofty Ranges, a density-suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685-199,723; average density = 5.0-35.8 km(-2)). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  8. Water yield issues in the jarrah forest of south-western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruprecht, J. K.; Stoneman, G. L.

    1993-10-01

    The jarrah forest of south-western Australia produces little streamflow from moderate rainfall. Water yield from water supply catchments for Perth, Western Australia, are low, averaging 71 mm (7% of annual rainfall). The low water yields are attributed to the large soil water storage available for continuous use by the forest vegetation. A number of water yield studies in south-western Australia have examined the impact on water yield of land use practices including clearing for agricultural development, forest harvesting and regeneration, forest thinning and bauxite mining. A permanent reduction in forest cover by clearing for agriculture led to permanent increases of water yield of approximately 28% of annual rainfall in a high rainfall catchment. Thinning of a high rainfall catchment led to an increase in water yield of 20% of annual rainfall. However, it is not clear for how long the increased water yield will persist. Forest harvesting and regeneration have led to water yield increases of 16% of annual rainfall. The subsequent recovery of vegetation cover has led to water yields returning to pre-disturbance levels after an estimated 12-15 years. Bauxite mining of a high rainfall catchment led to a water yield increase of 8% of annual rainfall, followed by a return to pre-disturbance water yield after 12 years. The magnitude of specific streamflow generation mechanisms in small catchments subject to forest disturbance vary considerably, typically in a number of distinct stages. The presence of a permanent groundwater discharge area was shown to be instrumental in determining the magnitude of the streamflow response after forest disturbance. The long-term prognosis for water yield from areas subject to forest thinning, harvesting and regeneration, and bauxite mining are uncertain, owing to the complex interrelationship between vegetation cover, tree height and age, and catchment evapotranspiration. Management of the forest for water yield needs to acknowledge

  9. Distribution models for koalas in South Australia using citizen science-collected data

    PubMed Central

    Sequeira, Ana M M; Roetman, Philip E J; Daniels, Christopher B; Baker, Andrew K; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2014-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) occurs in the eucalypt forests of eastern and southern Australia and is currently threatened by habitat fragmentation, climate change, sexually transmitted diseases, and low genetic variability throughout most of its range. Using data collected during the Great Koala Count (a 1-day citizen science project in the state of South Australia), we developed generalized linear mixed-effects models to predict habitat suitability across South Australia accounting for potential errors associated with the dataset. We derived spatial environmental predictors for vegetation (based on dominant species of Eucalyptus or other vegetation), topographic water features, rain, elevation, and temperature range. We also included predictors accounting for human disturbance based on transport infrastructure (sealed and unsealed roads). We generated random pseudo-absences to account for the high prevalence bias typical of citizen-collected data. We accounted for biased sampling effort along sealed and unsealed roads by including an offset for distance to transport infrastructures. The model with the highest statistical support (wAICc ∼ 1) included all variables except rain, which was highly correlated with elevation. The same model also explained the highest deviance (61.6%), resulted in high R2(m) (76.4) and R2(c) (81.0), and had a good performance according to Cohen's κ (0.46). Cross-validation error was low (∼ 0.1). Temperature range, elevation, and rain were the best predictors of koala occurrence. Our models predict high habitat suitability in Kangaroo Island, along the Mount Lofty Ranges, and at the tips of the Eyre, Yorke and Fleurieu Peninsulas. In the highest-density region (5576 km2) of the Adelaide–Mount Lofty Ranges, a density–suitability relationship predicts a population of 113,704 (95% confidence interval: 27,685–199,723; average density = 5.0–35.8 km−2). We demonstrate the power of citizen science data for predicting species

  10. Salmonella in chicken meat, eggs and humans; Adelaide, South Australia, 2008.

    PubMed

    Fearnley, Emily; Raupach, Jane; Lagala, Fil; Cameron, Scott

    2011-04-29

    Varieties of Salmonella enterica are the second most commonly notified causes of gastroenteritis in Australia. Outbreaks of Salmonella infection are commonly linked to food, particularly foods containing chicken meat and eggs. A number of European countries have introduced interventions based on Salmonella surveillance systems in the food industry and these have led to subsequent decreases in notification rates in humans. A descriptive case-series of human Salmonella infections notified in metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia, was conducted in 2008. Human Salmonella serotypes identified were then compared to serotypes identified from a retail chicken and egg survey conducted over the same time period in Adelaide. Ninety-four human cases of salmonellosis were included in the study. Thirty-one serotypes were identified and 61.7% of these were Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). In the week prior to illness, 62.8% of participants reported eating chicken and 47.9% reported eating eggs. Salmonella was identified in 38.8% of retail chicken samples; S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium phage type 135a were most commonly identified. No egg contents were found to contain Salmonella, but the pathogen was isolated on 3.5% of egg external surface samples. Eleven serotypes were common to both chicken and human samples, two serotypes were common to eggs and humans, and one serotype (S. Infantis) was common to all three sources. Serotypes of Salmonella isolated from chicken and egg samples included serotypes that were also isolated from humans, in cases included in this study, and in outbreaks previously investigated within Australia. Poultry meat and eggs are potential sources of introducing a defined range of human pathogens into South Australian kitchens. Ongoing systematic surveillance of animals and their food products, at farm and retail level for Salmonella could provide more definitive evidence of links between food sources and human infections; and also

  11. Paleoproterozoic Cordilleran-style accretion along the south eastern margin of the eastern Dharwar craton: Evidence from the Vinjamuru arc terrane of the Krishna orogen, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Chiranjeeb; Vadlamani, Ravikant; Kaptan, Om Prakash

    2016-10-01

    Accretion along continental or island arcs at cratonic margins was responsible for most Paleoproterozoic crustal growth. For the development of the Krishna orogen, India, at the southeastern margin of the Eastern Dharwar craton (EDC), two contrasting models, one by long-lived accretion between ~ 1.85 Ga and 1.33 Ga terminating in continental collision with the Napier Complex and the other involving continental collision with the Napier Complex at ~ 1.6 Ga have been proposed. Here we report the geology and geochemistry of the granitoid rocks grouping them into the Vinjamuru arc terrane. These comprise biotite ± hornblende high-silica granite which are mostly calc-alkaline, weakly metaluminous to peraluminous with normalized trace and rare earth element plots resembling those derived from arc sources as seen by negative Nb, Ti, Zr anomalies, enriched LREE and moderate Eu anomalies. On (La/Yb)CN vs YbCN and Sr/Y vs Y discrimination diagrams these rocks plot in the field of liquids from mantle-derived melts resembling Cordilleran type granitoids. Petrography, major oxide and trace element concentrations suggest formation in an arc tectonic setting during convergent tectonics at the active continental margin of the EDC with evidence for crustal assimilation. To generate the observed high-silica granite, using selected trace and REE, we modeled 10% aggregate continuous melting of a lower crustal hydrous, high K2O-bearing gabbro yielding a granodiorite magma that underwent fractional crystallization at mid-to lower crust followed by mixing with country rock tonalite and minor assimilation with metasedimentary crustal rocks resulting in the observed heterogeneity in trace elements from the granite. We interpret Paleoproterozoic paleopostions of component Indian cratons leading to their Mesoproterozoic assembly and in that context relate the crustal growth along the southeastern margin of the EDC. In contrast to the existing two models, we propose an alternative

  12. Hosts of the exotic ornate kangaroo tick, Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum Koch, on southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Waudby, Helen P; Petit, Sophie; Dixon, Bruce; Andrews, Ross H

    2007-10-01

    Amblyomma triguttatum triguttatum is assumed to be endemic to south-western Western Australia (including Barrow Island), Queensland (excluding Cape York Peninsula), and New South Wales, south to Dubbo and Barham. The species has been recorded on a range of mammalian hosts including macropods and domestic animals. In Queensland, A. triguttatum triguttatum is implicated in the epidemiology of Q fever. In 2000, the species was detected on southern Yorke Peninsula in South Australia. We aimed to identify A. triguttatum triguttatum's hosts through trapping, sampling of carcasses, and opportunistic capture of vertebrates on Yorke Peninsula. A. triguttatum triguttatum was removed from black rats (Rattus rattus), wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus), Tammar wallabies (M. eugenii eugenii), domesticated cats and dogs, and humans. Before this study, A. triguttatum triguttatum had not been found on black rats or rabbits in the wild. This research has implications for the management of wildlife, livestock, and visitors on Yorke Peninsula. The potential for A. triguttatum triguttatum to spread to other areas of Yorke Peninsula and South Australia is considerable, as visitors (tourists) to southern Yorke Peninsula report the presence of ticks both on themselves and among camping equipment on arriving home.

  13. Oiling a neglected wheel: an investigation of adolescent internalising problems in rural South Australia.

    PubMed

    Papandrea, Kate; Winefield, Helen; Livingstone, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Despite a paucity of research, adolescents living in rural areas appear to have a heightened risk for developing a mental health problem compared with their urban counterparts. The main objectives of this study were to contribute to building an evidence base of prevalence rates and determinants of internalising problems of adolescents in rural South Australia. A multidimensional Process Model was used as theoretical framework to enable an investigation of the various determinants from individual, family and community domains; specifically, the contribution of self-esteem, parental acceptance and elements of social capital at an individual level (ie participation in the local community and proactivity in a social context represented structural social capital, and feelings of trust and safety, and neighbourhood connections represented cognitive social capital). In this cross-sectional prospective study, a total of 388 Year 9 (2nd year of secondary school) students (208 females, 180 males) aged 13-15 years (mean age = 14.2 years) participated from 11 high schools within the Country Health South Australian area. These adolescents completed a battery of self-reported measures online at school. The results demonstrated that the adolescents experienced a 'normal' level of self-esteem and a 'moderate' level of perceived parental acceptance. The level of social capital was considered 'low' and the adolescents experienced a 'moderate' level of internalising symptoms. Based on the mean score of the Revised Child Anxiety & Depression Scales (RCADS), 25% of the adolescents experienced internalising symptoms ranging in severity from mild to severe, with no significant differences between males and females. Approximately 13% were considered above the clinical threshold, with 4% reporting experiencing severe symptoms. Relationships between all measures were investigated using Pearson product-moment correlations coefficients and associations between self-esteem, parental acceptance

  14. The 2012-2013 Montes Claros earthquake series in the São Francisco Craton, Brazil: new evidence for non-uniform intraplate stresses in mid-plate South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto-Detzel, Hans; Assumpção, Marcelo; Ciardelli, Caio; Albuquerque, Diogo Farrapo; Barros, Lucas V.; França, George S. L.

    2015-01-01

    On 2012 May 19, an mb = 4 earthquake shook the town of Montes Claros, Brazil in the middle of the São Francisco Craton. Because of the scarce seismicity in the area, an event like this could provide valuable information to characterize the governing seismotectonics and stress field for the region. Here, we present the results of more than 1 yr of local seismic monitoring after the main shock. We found that the seismicity originated at approximately 1-km depth in an NNW-oriented blind reverse fault, dipping to the E. The magnitude of the main shock was 4mb, with aftershocks reaching up to 3.6mb. Focal mechanisms from first motion polarities and waveform moment tensor inversions indicate a reverse faulting in agreement with the orientation of the aftershock locations. In addition, we derived a new 1-D local velocity model using a simultaneous inversion of hypocentres and velocity layers. The results indicate P-wave velocities of 4.5 km s-1 for the upper layer of carbonate rocks and 5.23 and 5.69 km s-1 for the lower fractured and compact crystalline basement layers, respectively. Higher Vp/Vs ratios were obtained for the upper two layers compared to the lowermost layer, possibly indicating presence of rock fracturing and percolated water. The calculated stress drop for the main event is 0.33 MPa, which is a relatively low value for an intraplate earthquake but still within the observed range. The inversion of the main shock focal mechanism and previously published focal mechanisms suggests a compressional stress regime in the central part of the São Francisco Craton, which is different from the strike-slip regime in the southern part, although both have an EW-oriented σ1. On the other hand, focal mechanisms of events located to the west of the craton indicate an NW-SE oriented σ1 for central Brazil. This variability highlights the importance of local sources of stresses (e.g. flexural stresses) in mid-plate South America, unlike other mid-plate areas of the world

  15. Global Scale Variation in the Salinity Sensitivity of Riverine Macroinvertebrates: Eastern Australia, France, Israel and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kefford, Ben J.; Hickey, Graeme L.; Gasith, Avital; Ben-David, Elad; Dunlop, Jason E.; Palmer, Carolyn G.; Allan, Kaylene; Choy, Satish C.; Piscart, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is a key abiotic property of inland waters; it has a major influence on biotic communities and is affected by many natural and anthropogenic processes. Salinity of inland waters tends to increase with aridity, and biota of inland waters may have evolved greater salt tolerance in more arid regions. Here we compare the sensitivity of stream macroinvertebrate species to salinity from a relatively wet region in France (Lorraine and Brittany) to that in three relatively arid regions eastern Australia (Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania), South Africa (south-east of the Eastern Cape Province) and Israel using the identical experimental method in all locations. The species whose salinity tolerance was tested, were somewhat more salt tolerant in eastern Australia and South Africa than France, with those in Israel being intermediate. However, by far the greatest source of variation in species sensitivity was between taxonomic groups (Order and Class) and not between the regions. We used a Bayesian statistical model to estimate the species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) for salinity in eastern Australia and France adjusting for the assemblages of species in these regions. The assemblage in France was slightly more salinity sensitive than that in eastern Australia. We therefore suggest that regional salinity sensitivity is therefore likely to depend most on the taxonomic composition of respective macroinvertebrate assemblages. On this basis it would be possible to screen rivers globally for risk from salinisation. PMID:22567097

  16. Quantifying climate and pumping contributions to aquifer depletion using a highly parameterised groundwater model: Uley South Basin (South Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowling, Matthew J.; Werner, Adrian D.; Herckenrath, Daan

    2015-04-01

    The relative contributions of climate and human stresses to aquifer depletion in real-world settings are rarely quantified, particularly where complex patterns of depletion arise from the spatial and temporal variability in aquifer stresses. These impacts can be assessed using calibration-constrained model predictions of disturbed (i.e., subject to human activity) and undisturbed (i.e., natural) conditions. Prior investigations that adopt this approach employ lumped-parameter or one-dimensional models. Here, we extend previous studies by using a highly parameterised, spatially distributed groundwater model to investigate the relative impacts of climate variability and pumping on aquifer depletion. The Uley South Basin (USB), South Australia, where there is conjecture surrounding the cause of declining groundwater levels, serves as a case study. The relative contributions of climate variability and pumping to USB depletion are shown to be highly variable in time and space. Temporal trends reflect variability in rainfall and pumping, as expected. Spatial trends are primarily dependent on the proximity to both the coastal boundary and pumping wells, and to the distribution of recharge and hydraulic properties. Results show that pumping impacts exceed those of climate between 1978 and 2012, and over the majority of the spatial extent of USB. The contribution of pumping to aquifer depletion is shown to be 2.9 and 1.4 times that of climate in terms of the time-averaged and maximum-in-time basin-scale water budget, respectively. Confidence in model predictions is enhanced by the outcomes of a linear predictive uncertainty analysis, which indicates that predictive uncertainty is lower than climatic and pumping impacts. This study demonstrates the application of a relatively simple analysis that can be used in combination with highly parameterised, spatially distributed groundwater models to differentiate causal factors of aquifer depletion.

  17. Shear wave velocity and radial anisotropy beneath the Wyoming craton: craton destruction and lithospheric layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, R.; Li, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Wyoming craton has evolved under an intriguing geological history with suture zones, accreted margins, flat-slab subduction, orogeny and an encroaching hotspot. Whether and how the cratonic root has been widely destroyed by the series of tectonic events remain controversial. Aiming to address these questions using a craton-wide model, we have analyzed Rayleigh and Love wave data from 75 earthquakes recorded by 103 USArray TA stations in the Wyoming craton. 2-D phase velocity maps are constructed for 18 periods from 20 s to 166 s using the two-plane-wave tomography. The Yellowstone hotspot and the Cheyenne belt are characterized by low velocity anomalies at all periods in both Rayleigh and Love wave models. The northern craton in Montana is broadly fast at periods < 70 s and is relatively slow at longer periods, suggesting a shallower lithosphere. The fast anomaly in Wyoming has a NE-SW trend and extends to more than 200 km in the VSV model. However, such a fast anomaly is largely absent in the Love wave images at long periods. The association of VSV>VSH with this deep fast anomaly indicates mantle downwelling beneath south-central Wyoming. Mantle upwelling likely happens in slow regions at the hotspot, the Cheyenne belt, and the northeastern craton. The overall pattern of velocity anomaly and radial anisotropy suggests that small-scale mantle convection is vigorously acting beneath the Wyoming craton and continuously destructing the cratonic lithosphere. In addition, the average VSV and VSH models show a strong positive radial anisotropy of 5% (VSH>VSV) above 100 km and a weak negative anisotropy (VSV>VSH) below 120 km. Such a significant change in radial anisotropy could contribute to the observed mid-lithosphere discontinuity (MLD) from receiver functions. Both VSV and VSH reveal a fast lid above 100 km and a large velocity reduction at the depths of 115-190 km, corresponding with a lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) at 150 km. These observations

  18. Paleoseismicity of two historically quiescent faults in Australia: Implications for fault behavior in stable continental regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crone, A.J.; De Martini, P. M.; Machette, M.M.; Okumura, K.; Prescott, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Paleoseismic studies of two historically aseismic Quaternary faults in Australia confirm that cratonic faults in stable continental regions (SCR) typically have a long-term behavior characterized by episodes of activity separated by quiescent intervals of at least 10,000 and commonly 100,000 years or more. Studies of the approximately 30-km-long Roopena fault in South Australia and the approximately 30-km-long Hyden fault in Western Australia document multiple Quaternary surface-faulting events that are unevenly spaced in time. The episodic clustering of events on cratonic SCR faults may be related to temporal fluctuations of fault-zone fluid pore pressures in a volume of strained crust. The long-term slip rate on cratonic SCR faults is extremely low, so the geomorphic expression of many cratonic SCR faults is subtle, and scarps may be difficult to detect because they are poorly preserved. Both the Roopena and Hyden faults are in areas of limited or no significant seismicity; these and other faults that we have studied indicate that many potentially hazardous SCR faults cannot be recognized solely on the basis of instrumental data or historical earthquakes. Although cratonic SCR faults may appear to be nonhazardous because they have been historically aseismic, those that are favorably oriented for movement in the current stress field can and have produced unexpected damaging earthquakes. Paleoseismic studies of modern and prehistoric SCR faulting events provide the basis for understanding of the long-term behavior of these faults and ultimately contribute to better seismic-hazard assessments.

  19. An evaluation of soil water outlooks for winter wheat in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Western, A. W.; Dassanayake, K. B.; Perera, K. C.; Alves, O.; Young, G.; Argent, R.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key limiting resource for rain-fed cropping in Australian broad-acre cropping zones. Seasonal rainfall and temperature outlooks are standard operational services offered by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and are routinely used to support agricultural decisions. This presentation examines the performance of proposed soil water seasonal outlooks in the context of wheat cropping in south-eastern Australia (autumn planting, late spring harvest). We used weather ensembles simulated by the Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA), as input to the Agricultural Production Simulator (APSIM) to construct ensemble soil water "outlooks" at twenty sites. Hindcasts were made over a 33 year period using the 33 POAMA ensemble members. The overall modelling flow involved: 1. Downscaling of the daily weather series (rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature, humidity, radiation) from the ~250km POAMA grid scale to a local weather station using quantile-quantile correction. This was based on a 33 year observation record extracted from the SILO data drill product. 2. Using APSIM to produce soil water ensembles from the downscaled weather ensembles. A warm up period of 5 years of observed weather was followed by a 9 month hindcast period based on each ensemble member. 3. The soil water ensembles were summarized by estimating the proportion of outlook ensembles in each climatological tercile, where the climatology was constructed using APSIM and observed weather from the 33 years of hindcasts at the relevant site. 4. The soil water outlooks were evaluated for different lead times and months using a "truth" run of APSIM based on observed weather. Outlooks generally have useful some forecast skill for lead times of up to two-three months, except late spring; in line with current useful lead times for rainfall outlooks. Better performance was found in summer and autumn when vegetation cover and water use is low.

  20. 3D Airborne Electromagnetic Inversion: A case study from the Musgrave Region, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, L. H.; Wilson, G. A.; Zhdanov, M. S.; Sunwall, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysicists know and accept that geology is inherently 3D, and is resultant from complex, overlapping processes related to genesis, metamorphism, deformation, alteration, weathering, and/or hydrogeology. Yet, the geophysics community has long relied on qualitative analysis, conductivity depth imaging (CDIs), 1D inversion, and/or plate modeling. There are many reasons for this deficiency, not the least of which has been the lack of capacity for historic 3D AEM inversion algorithms to invert entire surveys so as to practically affect exploration decisions. Our recent introduction of a moving sensitivity domain (footprint) methodology has been a paradigm shift in AEM interpretation. The basis of this method is that one needs only to calculate the responses and sensitivities for that part of the 3D earth model that is within the AEM system's sensitivity domain (footprint), and then superimpose all sensitivity domains into a single, sparse sensitivity matrix for the entire 3D earth model which is then updated in a regularized inversion scheme. This has made it practical to rigorously invert entire surveys with thousands of line kilometers of AEM data to mega-cell 3D models in hours using multi-processor workstations. Since 2010, over eighty individual projects have been completed for Aerodat, AEROTEM, DIGHEM, GEOTEM, HELITEM, HoisTEM, MEGATEM, RepTEM, RESOLVE, SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPEST, and VTEM data from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Finland, Ghana, Peru, Tanzania, the US, and Zambia. Examples of 3D AEM inversion have been published for a variety of applications, including mineral exploration, oil sands exploration, salinity, permafrost, and bathymetry mapping. In this paper, we present a comparison of 3D inversions for SkyTEM, SPECTREM, TEMPET and VTEM data acquired over the same area in the Musgrave region of South Australia for exploration under cover.

  1. Regional Comparison of Mosquito Bloodmeals in South Australia: Implications for Ross River Virus Ecology.

    PubMed

    Flies, Emily J; Flies, Andrew S; Fricker, Stephen R; Weinstein, Philip; Williams, Craig R

    2016-07-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) is responsible for the most notifications of human arboviral infection in Australia. Seroprevalence and experimental infection studies have implicated macropods (e.g., kangaroos) as the major reservoir hosts. However, transmission ecology varies spatially, and infections in urban areas have prompted the question of what animals serve as reservoirs in regions where macropods are scarce. In South Australia (SA), human infection rates for RRV vary greatly by region as do vector and reservoir abundance. We hypothesized that mosquito abundance and feeding patterns would vary among ecoregions of SA and could help explain divergent human case rates. To test our hypothesis, we amplified and sequenced a 457 base pair region of the cytochrome B segment of mitochondrial DNA from blood fed mosquitoes collected in three main ecoregions of SA and identified sequences using a BLAST search in NCBI. Domestic livestock made up the vast majority of bloodmeals from the region with the highest human infection rate. Livestock are generally not considered to be important reservoir hosts for RRV, but our results suggest they may have a role in transmission ecology in some places. Surprisingly, none of the 199 bloodmeal samples were identified as macropod in origin. In the context of these findings, we consider the possible RRV vectors and reservoir hosts in these regions and propose that diverse spatial and temporal transmission ecologies occur in SA, depending on vector and reservoir availability. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Prostate cancer prevalence in New South Wales Australia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue Qin; Luo, Qingwei; Smith, David P; Clements, Mark S; O'Connell, Dianne L

    2015-02-01

    Information on the current and future numbers of Australian men living with prostate cancer is limited. We describe a method for estimating complete prevalence of prostate cancer to provide a measure of the burden of prostate cancer in Australia. Prostate cancer data from the New South Wales (NSW) Central Cancer Registry were used with PIAMOD (Prevalence and Incidence Analysis MODel) software to estimate future prostate cancer prevalence in NSW. We first fitted parametric incidence and survival models then used the modelled incidence and survival estimates to calculate complete prevalence. The estimated and projected prevalence incorporate past observed trends and take into account different assumptions about future survival trends. These models were validated against observed prevalence from the counting method. Based on data for 1996-2007, the number of men living with prostate cancer in NSW was estimated to rise by 59% to 73%, from 38,322 in 2007 to 60,910-66,160 in 2017. The increasing incidence rates and the ageing population were the major contributors to this estimated increase. Validation suggested that these projections were reasonable, as the estimated prevalence in 1996-2007 was in good agreement with the corresponding prevalence calculated using the direct counting method, and the incidence models were supported by the recent data on prostate-specific antigen testing. As the number of men living with prostate cancer is expected to increase dramatically in the next decade in Australia, representing a significant challenge to the health system, careful planning and development of a healthcare system able to respond to this increased demand is required. These projections are useful for addressing the challenge in meeting the cancer care needs of men with prostate cancer. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. GP surgeons: what are they? An audit of GP surgeons in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Abbot, Ben; Laurence, Caroline O; Elliott, Taryn

    2014-01-01

    In many parts of Australia where there is no access to local specialist services, procedural services are provided by local GPs. Within the range of procedural skills offered, a small group of GPs is able to provide surgery. Unlike other procedural areas, there remains no defined training or assessment pathway for GP surgeons. Support from specialist colleagues is variable and continuing education arbitrary. The result is a somewhat ill-defined group that is poorly understood by credentialing bodies, government, medical defence organisations and training colleges. This study aims to describe the scope of practice, initial training and ongoing support and education for GP surgeons currently practising in South Australia. Seventeen semistructured interviews were undertaken with self-identified GP surgeons (74% response rate). Areas explored included demographics, scope of practice, initial training and ongoing support and education. Content and thematic analysis was used to identify common responses and themes. The amount of initial training varied among participants, with a mean duration of training of 20 months. Initial assessment of competency for the majority of participants was assessment by a supervisor (10/17). The most common procedures undertaken were caesarean sections (94% of participants) and grafts and flaps (94%). The most common continuing professional development was clinical attachments (27%) and assisting visiting specialists or colleagues (17%). This study demonstrates a wide variation in training, scope of practice and continuing education for GPs performing surgery, highlighting the effects of a self-regulated system. There is a trend towards an increased level of training; however, engagement in continuing education remains low. Further work is needed to define this group, to enable successful planning of future training and education to support this group in rural areas.

  4. The impact of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Walter, Scott R; Olivier, Jake; Churches, Tim; Grzebieta, Raphael

    2011-11-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries given the ongoing debate in Australia as to the efficacy of this measure at a population level. We used hospital admissions data from New South Wales, Australia, from a 36 month period centred at the time legislation came into effect. Negative binomial regression of hospital admission counts of head and limb injuries to cyclists were performed to identify differential changes in head and limb injury rates at the time of legislation. Interaction terms were included to allow different trends between injury types and pre- and post-law time periods. To avoid the issue of lack of cyclist exposure data, we assumed equal exposures between head and limb injuries which allowed an arbitrary proxy exposure to be used in the model. As a comparison, analyses were also performed for pedestrian data to identify which of the observed effects were specific to cyclists. In general, the models identified a decreasing trend in injury rates prior to legislation, an increasing trend thereafter and a drop in rates at the time legislation was enacted, all of which were thought to represent background effects in transport safety. Head injury rates decreased significantly more than limb injury rates at the time of legislation among cyclists but not among pedestrians. This additional benefit was attributed to compulsory helmet legislation. Despite numerous data limitations, we identified evidence of a positive effect of compulsory cycle helmet legislation on cyclist head injuries at a population level such that repealing the law cannot be justified. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occupational differences, cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle habits in South Eastern rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie; Philpot, Benjamin; Janus, Edward D; Versace, Vincent L; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki A; Dunbar, James A

    2013-11-23

    In rural and remote Australia, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates are higher than metropolitan rates.This study analysed cardiovascular and other chronic disease risk factors and related health behaviours by occupational status, to determine whether agricultural workers have higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than other rural workers. Cross-sectional surveys in three rural regions of South Eastern Australia (2004-2006). A stratified random sample of 1001 men and women aged 25-74 from electoral rolls were categorised by occupation into agricultural workers (men = 214, women = 79), technicians (men = 123), managers (men = 148, women = 272) and 'home duties' (women = 165). Data were collected from self-administered questionnaire, physical measurements and laboratory tests. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk were assessed by Framingham 5 years risk calculation. Amongst men, agricultural workers had higher occupational physical activity levels, healthier more traditional diet, lower alcohol consumption, lower fasting plasma glucose, the lowest proportion of daily smokers and lower age-adjusted 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores.Amongst women, managers were younger with higher HDL cholesterol, lower systolic blood pressure, less hypertension, lower waist circumference, less self-reported diabetes and better 5 year CVD and CHD risk scores.Agricultural workers did not have higher cardiovascular disease risk than other occupational groups. Previous studies have suggested that farmers have higher risks of cardiovascular disease but this is because the risk has been compared with non-rural populations. In this study, the comparison has been made with other rural occupations. Cardiovascular risk reduction programs are justified for all. Programs tailored only for agricultural workers are unwarranted.

  6. Early palaeozoic palaeomagnetism in Australia I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia III. Middle to early-Late Cambrian results from the Amadeus Basin, Northern Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klootwijk, C. T.

    1980-04-01

    I. Cambrian results from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia A total of 460 samples from six sequences spanning the Cambrian succession of the Flinders Ranges (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analyzed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples showed a recent field component, generally constituting more than 50% of the initial intensity, which in most cases was removed by 200-400°C. Two characteristic magnetic components have been identified: (A) A secondary magnetic component of Cambro-Ordovician age (S-pole at 75.3°E 26.0°N, α95 = 7.4°, N = 5 localities) interpreted as having been induced by thermochemical activity during a period of enhanced heat flux prior to the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician diastrophistic phases of the Delamarian Orogeny. (B) A primary magnetic component, which indicates rapid polar motion during the Early Cambrian and a much reduced polar motion during the Middle Cambrian. Representative palaeomagnetic pole positions for the primary component are: (1) Basal Hawker Group (earliest Cambrian): S-pole at 2.3°E 26.7°S, d p = 8.1°, d m = 14.3°, N = 10 (sites). (2) Billy Creek Formation— Wirrealpa Limestone— Aroona Creek Limestone (late Early Cambrian to early Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 20.1°E 37.4°S, d p = 7.2°, dm = 14.4°, N = 11(sites). (3) Basal Lake Frame Group (Middle Cambrian): S-pole at 26.1°E 29.3°S, d p = 6.6°, d m = 13.1°, N =10 (sites). (4) Pantapinna Formation (late Middle Cambrian?): S-pole at 29.2°E 36.4°S, d p = 8.4°, dm = 16.7°, N = 4 (sites). Available data suggest that deposition of the Lake Frome Group beds probably did not continue into the Late Cambrian. II. Late Early Cambrian results from Kangaroo Island, South Australia A total of 108 block samples from a late Early Cambrian red-bed sequence on Kangaroo Island (Adelaide "Geosyncline", South Australia) has been analysed through thermal demagnetization studies. All samples contained a recent field component of

  7. Healthy life gains in South Australia 1999-2008: analysis of a local Burden of Disease series

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The analysis describes trends in the levels and social distribution of total life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in South Australia from 1999 to 2008. Methods South Australian Burden of Disease series for the period 1999-2001 to 2006-2008 and across statistical local areas according to relative socioeconomic disadvantage were analyzed for changes in total life expectancy and healthy life expectancy by sex and area level disadvantage, with further decomposition of healthy life expectancy change by age, cause of death, and illness. Results Total life expectancy at birth increased in South Australia for both sexes (2.0 years [2.6%] among males; 1.5 years [1.8%] among females). Healthy life expectancy also increased (1.4 years [2.1%] among males; 1.2 years [1.5%] among females). Total life and healthy life expectancy gains were apparent in all socioeconomic groups, with the largest increases in areas of most and least disadvantage. While the least disadvantaged areas consistently had the best health outcomes, they also experienced the largest increase in the amount of life expectancy lived with disease and injury-related illness. Conclusions While overall gains in both total life and healthy life expectancy were apparent in South Australia, gains were greater for total life expectancy. Additionally, the proportion of expected life lived with disease and injury-related illness increased as disadvantage decreased. This expansion of morbidity occurred in both sexes and across all socio-economic groups. This analysis outlines the continuing improvements to population health outcomes within South Australia. It also highlights the challenge of reducing population morbidity so that gains to healthy life match those of total life expectancy. PMID:21575171

  8. Acute costs and predictors of higher treatment costs of trauma in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Kate; Lam, Mary; Mitchell, Rebecca; Black, Deborah; Taylor, Colman; Dickson, Cara; Jan, Stephen; Palmer, Cameron S; Langcake, Mary; Myburgh, John

    2014-01-01

    Accurate economic data are fundamental for improving current funding models and ultimately in promoting the efficient delivery of services. The financial burden of a high trauma casemix to designated trauma centres in Australia has not been previously determined, and there is some evidence that the episode funding model used in Australia results in the underfunding of trauma. To describe the costs of acute trauma admissions in trauma centres, identify predictors of higher treatment costs and cost variance in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Data linkage of admitted trauma patient and financial data provided by 12 Level 1 NSW trauma centres for the 08/09 financial year was performed. Demographic, injury details and injury scores were obtained from trauma registries. Individual patient general ledger costs (actual trauma patient costs), Australian Refined Diagnostic Related Groups (AR-DRG) and state-wide average costs (which form the basis of funding) were obtained. The actual costs incurred by the hospital were then compared with the state-wide AR-DRG average costs. Multivariable multiple linear regression was used for identifying predictors of costs. There were 17,522 patients, the average per patient cost was $10,603 and the median was $4628 (interquartile range: $2179-10,148). The actual costs incurred by trauma centres were on average $134 per bed day above AR-DRG costs-determined costs. Falls, road trauma and violence were the highest causes of total cost. Motor cyclists and pedestrians had higher median costs than motor vehicle occupants. As a result of greater numbers, patients with minor injury had comparable total costs with those generated by patients with severe injury. However the median cost of severely injured patients was nearly four times greater. The count of body regions injured, sex, length of stay, serious traumatic brain injury and admission to the Intensive Care Unit were significantly associated with increased costs (p<0.001). This

  9. The electrical structure of the Slave craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.; Lezaeta, Pamela; Ferguson, Ian J.; Chave, Alan D.; Evans, Rob L.; Garcia, Xavier; Spratt, Jessica

    2003-12-01

    Proceeding, J.B. Dawson Volume, 1, 307-313] on the basis of garnet geochemistry (G10 vs. G9) populations. Deep-probing MT data from the lake bottom instruments infer that the conductor has a total depth-integrated conductivity (conductance) of the order of 2000 Siemens, which, given an internal resistivity of 10-15 Ω m, implies a thickness of 20-30 km. Below the CSMC the electrical resistivity of the lithosphere increases by a factor of 3-5 to values of around 50 Ω m. This change occurs at depths consistent with the graphite-diamond transition, which is taken as consistent with a carbon interpretation for the CSMC. Preliminary three-dimensional MT modelling supports the NE-SW striking geometry for the conductor, and also suggests a NW dip. This geometry is taken as implying that the tectonic processes that emplaced this geophysical-geochemical body are likely related to the subduction of a craton of unknown provenance from the SE (present-day coordinates) during 2630-2620 Ma. It suggests that the lithospheric stacking model of Helmstaedt and Schulze [Helmstaedt, H.H., Schulze, D.J., 1989. Southern African kimberlites and their mantle sample: implications for Archean tectonics and lithosphere evolution. In Ross, J. (Ed.), Kimberlites and Related Rocks, Vol. 1: Their Composition, Occurrence, Origin, and Emplacement. Geological Society of Australia Special Publication, vol. 14, 358-368] is likely correct for the formation of the Slave's current SCLM.

  10. Understanding cratonic flood basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Paul G.; Behn, Mark D.; Kelley, Katherine; Schmitz, Mark; Savage, Brian

    2006-05-01

    The origin of continental flood basalts has been debated for decades. These eruptions often produce millions of cubic kilometers of basalt on timescales of only a million years. Although flood basalts are found in a variety of settings, no locale is more puzzling than cratonic areas such as southern Africa or the Siberian craton, where strong, thick lithosphere is breached by these large basaltic outpourings. Conventionally, flood basalts have been interpreted as melting events produced by one of two processes: 1) elevated temperatures associated with mantle plumes and/or 2) adiabatic-decompression melting associated with lithospheric thinning. In southern Africa, however, there are severe problems with both of these mechanisms. First, the rifting circumstances of several well-known basaltic outpourings clearly reflect lithospheric control rather than the influence of a deep-seated plume. Specifically, rift timing and magmatism are correlated with stress perturbations to the lithosphere associated with the formation of collisional rifts. Second, the substantial lithospheric thinning required for adiabatic decompression melting is inconsistent with xenolith evidence for the continued survival of thick lithosphere beneath flood basalt domains. As an alternative to these models, we propose a new two-stage model that interprets cratonic flood basalts not as melting events, but as short-duration drainage events that tap previously created sublithospheric reservoirs of molten basalt formed over a longer time scale. Reservoir creation/existence (Stage I) requires long-term (e.g. ≫ 1 Ma) supersolidus conditions in the sublithospheric mantle that could be maintained by an elevated equilibrium geotherm (appropriate for the Archean), a slow thermal perturbation (e.g. thermal blanketing or large-scale mantle upwelling), or a subduction-related increase in volatile content. The drainage event (Stage II) occurs in response to an abrupt stress change in the lithosphere, which

  11. A Probabilistic Tsunami Assessment for Western Australia and the South coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burbidge, D. R.; Cummins, P. R.; Thio, H. K.

    2006-12-01

    Prior to July 2006, the only known, large megathrust earthquake known to have occurred (Mw=7.6, on 2 June, 1994) south of Java could be argued to be an anomaly in what is essentially aseismic subduction in this part of the Sunda Arc. The occurrence of a second such event (Mw=7.8) on 17 July, however, has demonstrated that they can occur anywhere along the Sunda Arc. These events produced large tsunamis along the coast of Java that killed hundreds (222 and 663, respectively). On the one hand, these earthquakes are much smaller than the Mw=9+ earthquakes known to occur off Sumatra, and the mortality associated with them is much smaller than the staggering human toll of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT), which killed 167,000 on the Sumatran coast. On the other hand, the density of population along the south Java coast is much higher than that along the Sumatran coast, and we do not know how large or how frequent tsunamigenic earthquakes off Java may be. The possibility exists that tsunami risk, as measured in human lives, may be higher for Java than for Sumatra. Furthermore, future events off Sumatra can be expected off its central and perhaps its southern coast, where most of the teletsunami energy will be directed into the open Indian Ocean. Events off Java, however, will direct much more teletsunami energy towards the northwest coast of Australia. Both the 1994 and the 2006 tsunamis originating off south Java caused significant tsunamis at specific locations along the West Australian coast. Here we present a new probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the offshore wave height expected along the south coast of Java and the West Australian coast from earthquakes along the Sunda Arc subduction zone. This assessment is based on a new estimate of the rate of megathrust earthquake occurrence along the Sunda Arc subduction zone based on the global rate of occurrence of giant subduction zone earthquakes, the length of the subduction zone and its rate of convergence

  12. Unpaid Informal Caregivers in South Australia: Population Characteristics, Prevalence and Age-Period-Cohort Effects 1994–2014

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Tiffany K.; Price, Kay; Warmington, Rosemary; Taylor, Anne W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing need for an availability of informal carers is taking on greater relevance as the global burden of disease transitions from acute fatal diseases to long term morbidity. Growing evidence suggests that extra burden on family carers may further impact on their health and ability to provide care. Important as it is to monitor the prevalence of those conditions which influence the burden of disease, it is also important to monitor the prevalence and health profiles of those who provide the informal care. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the prevalence and demographics of adult carers aged 15 and over in the state of South Australia over 20 years between 1994 and 2014. Methods Data from nine representative, cross-sectional population surveys, conducted in South Australia, Australia were used, (total N = 26,788 and n = 1,504 carers). The adjusted prevalence estimate of carers and their demographic characteristics were determined. So as to examine whether there were any generational effects on the prevalence of carers, an Age-Period Cohort (APC) analysis was undertaken. Results The prevalence estimates of carers increased during the two decades from 3.7% in 1994 to 6.7% by 2014. Large increases in the proportion of retired carers, those aged 70 years and over, those carers employed, and those with higher educational qualifications were observed. There were also larger proportions of respondents with a country of birth other than Australia, UK, Ireland and European counties. The APC analysis illustrated an increasing prevalence rate over each decade for carers aged 20–80 years, especially for those over the age of 60 years. Conclusions The results illustrate changing carer characteristics and carer prevalence estimates in South Australia as new generations of carers take on the caring role. There is a need to include questions regarding informal carers within ongoing mainstream population surveys, particularly at state levels, so as to plan

  13. Staphylococcus aureus 'Down Under': contemporary epidemiology of S. aureus in Australia, New Zealand, and the South West Pacific.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D A; Coombs, G W; Nimmo, G R

    2014-07-01

    The clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus disease has changed considerably over the past two decades, particularly with the emergence and spread of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) clones. Indeed, some of the first global descriptions of CA-MRSA were from remote indigenous communities in Western Australia, and from Pacific Peoples in New Zealand. The epidemiology of S. aureus infections in the South West Pacific has several unique features, largely because of the relative geographical isolation and unique indigenous communities residing in this region. In particular, a number of distinct CA-MRSA clones circulate in Australia and New Zealand, such as sequence type (ST) 93 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (Queensland clone) and clonal complex 75 S. aureus (Staphylococcus argenteus) in Australia, and ST30 MRSA (Southwest Pacific clone) in New Zealand. In addition, there is a disproportionate burden of S. aureus disease in indigenous paediatric populations, particularly in remote Aboriginal communities in Australia, and in Pacific Peoples and Maori in New Zealand. In this review, we provide a contemporary overview of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of S. aureus disease in the South West Pacific region, with a particular focus on features distinct to this region.

  14. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging koala populations in Victoria and South Australia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Speight, K N; Whiteley, P L; Woolford, L; Duignan, P J; Bacci, B; Lathe, S; Boardman, W; Scheelings, T F; Funnell, O; Underwood, G; Stevenson, M A

    2017-07-01

    To describe outbreaks of sarcoptic mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei in free-ranging koalas in Victoria (December 2008 to November 2015) and South Australia (October 2011 to September 2014). Koalas affected by mange-like lesions were reported by wildlife carers, veterinary practitioners or State Government personnel to the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences at The University of Melbourne and the School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences at The University of Adelaide. Skin scrapings were taken from live and dead koalas and S. scabiei mites were identified. Tissues from necropsied koalas were examined histologically. Outbreaks of sarcoptic mange were found to occur in koalas from both Victoria (n = 29) and South Australia (n = 29) for the first time. The gross pathological and histopathological changes are described. We present the first reported cases of sarcoptic mange outbreaks in free-ranging koalas. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  15. Craton destruction and related resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rixiang; Zhang, Hongfu; Zhu, Guang; Meng, Qingren; Fan, Hongrui; Yang, Jinhui; Wu, Fuyuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zheng, Tianyu

    2017-02-01

    Craton destruction is a dynamic event that plays an important role in Earth's evolution. Based on comprehensive observations of many studies on the North China Craton (NCC) and correlations with the evolution histories of other cratons around the world, craton destruction has be defined as a geological process that results in the total loss of craton stability due to changes in the physical and chemical properties of the involved craton. The mechanisms responsible for craton destruction would be as the follows: (1) oceanic plate subduction; (2) rollback and retreat of a subducting oceanic plate; (3) stagnation and dehydration of a subducting plate in the mantle transition zone; (4) melting of the mantle above the mantle transition zone caused by dehydration of a stagnant slab; (5) non-steady flow in the upper mantle induced by melting, and/or (6) changes in the nature of the lithospheric mantle and consequent craton destruction caused by non-steady flow. Oceanic plate subduction itself does not result in craton destruction. For the NCC, it is documented that westward subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate should have initiated at the transition from the Middle-to-Late Jurassic, and resulted in the change of tectonic regime of eastern China. We propose that subduction, rollback and retreat of oceanic plates and dehydration of stagnant slabs are the main dynamic factors responsible for both craton destruction and concentration of mineral deposits, such as gold, in the overriding continental plate. Based on global distribution of gold deposits, we suggest that convergent plate margins are the most important setting for large gold concentrations. Therefore, decratonic gold deposits appear to occur preferentially in regions with oceanic subduction and overlying continental lithospheric destruction/modification/growth.

  16. Social capital and health in rural and urban communities in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Ziersch, Anna M; Baum, Fran; Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah; Kavanagh, Anne M; Bentley, Rebecca J

    2009-02-01

    This paper seeks to compare the relationships between social capital and health for rural and urban residents of South Australia. Using data from a South Australian telephone survey of 2,013 respondents (1,402 urban and 611 rural), separate path analyses for the rural and urban samples were used to compare the relationships between six social capital measures, six demographic variables, and mental and physical health (measured by the SF-12). Higher levels of networks, civic participation and cohesion were reported in rural areas. Education and income were consistently linked with social capital variables for both rural and urban participants, with those on higher incomes and with higher educational achievement having higher levels of social capital. However, there were also differences between the rural and urban groups in some of the other predictors of social capital variables. Mental health was better among rural participants, but there was no significant difference for physical health. Social capital was associated with good mental health for both urban and rural participants, but with physical health only for urban participants. Higher levels of social capital were significantly associated with better mental health for both urban and rural participants, but with better physical health only for urban participants. The study found that social capital and its relationship to health differed for participants in rural and urban areas, and that there were also differences between the areas in associations with socioeconomic variables. Policies aiming to strengthen social capital in order to promote health need to be designed for specific settings and particular communities within these.

  17. Bias-corrected regional climate projections of extreme rainfall in south-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jason P.; Argueso, D.; Olson, R.; Di Luca, A.

    2016-09-01

    This study presents future changes in extreme precipitation as projected within the New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory Regional Climate Modelling (NARCliM) project's regional climate ensemble for south-east Australia. Model performance, independence and projected future changes were considered when designing the ensemble. We applied a quantile mapping bias correction to the climate model outputs based on theoretical distribution functions, and the implications of this for the projected precipitation extremes is investigated. Precipitation extremes are quantified using several indices from the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices set of indices. The bias correction was successful in removing most of the magnitude bias in extreme precipitation but does not correct biases in the length of maximum wet and dry spells. The bias correction also had a relatively small effect on the projected future changes. Across a range of metrics, robust increases in the magnitude of precipitation extreme indices are found. While these increases are often in-line with a continuation of the trends present over the last century, they are not found to be statistically significant within the ensemble as a whole. The length of the maximum consecutive wet spell is projected to remain at present-day levels, while the length of the maximum dry spell is projected to increase into the future. The combination of longer dry spells and increases in extreme precipitation magnitude indicate an important change in the character of the precipitation time series. This could have considerable hydrological implications since changes in the sequencing of events can be just as important as changes in event magnitude for hydrological impacts.

  18. Ground truthing groundwater-recharge estimates derived from remotely sensed evapotranspiration: a case in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosbie, Russell S.; Davies, Phil; Harrington, Nikki; Lamontagne, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    Using a water balance to estimate groundwater recharge through the use of remotely sensed evapotranspiration offers a spatial and temporal density of data that other techniques cannot match. However, the estimates are uncertain and therefore ground truthing of the recharge estimates is necessary. This study, conducted in the south-east of South Australia, demonstrated that the raw water-balance estimates of recharge had a negative bias of 45 mm/yr when compared to 190 recharge estimates using the water-table fluctuation method over a 10-year period (2001-2010). As this bias was not related to the magnitude of the recharge estimated using the water-table fluctuation method, a simple offset was used to bias-correct the water-balance recharge estimates. The bias-corrected recharge estimates had a mean residual that was not significantly different from an independent set of 99 historical recharge estimates but did have a large mean absolute residual indicating a lack of precision. The value in this technique is the density of the data (250-m grid over 29,000 km2). The relationship between the water-table depth and net recharge under different vegetation types was investigated. Under pastures, there was no relationship with water-table depth, as the shallow roots do not intercept groundwater. However, under plantation forestry, there was a relationship between net recharge and water-table depth. Net recharge under plantation forestry growing on sandy soils was independent of the water table at around 6 m depth but, under heavier textured soils, the trees were using groundwater from depths of more than 20 m.

  19. Sedimentary and tectonic history of the Holowilena Ironstone, a Neoproterozoic iron formation in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechte, Maxwell Alexander; Wallace, Malcolm William

    2015-11-01

    The Holowilena Ironstone is a Neoproterozoic iron formation in South Australia associated with glacial deposits of the Sturtian glaciation. Through a comprehensive field study coupled with optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and X-ray diffraction, a detailed description of the stratigraphy, sedimentology, mineralogy, and structure of the Holowilena Ironstone was obtained. The Holowilena Ironstone comprises ferruginous shales, siltstones, diamictites, and is largely made up of hematite and jasper, early diagenetic replacement minerals of precursor iron oxyhydroxides, and silica. These chemical precipitates are variably influenced by turbidites and debris flows contributing clastic detritus to the depositional system. Structural and stratigraphic evidence suggests deposition within a synsedimentary half-graben. A model for the Holowilena Ironstone is proposed, in which dense oxic fluids expelled during sea ice formation in the Cryogenian pool in the depression of the half-graben, allowing for long-lived mixing with the ferruginous seawater and the deposition of iron oxides. This combination of glacial dynamics, tectonism, and ocean chemistry may explain the return of iron formations in the Neoproterozoic.

  20. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Belinda; Undery, Rebecca; Ahmed, Humza

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs), brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant's sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual. PMID:24526901

  1. Dental fluorosis in the Blue Mountains and Hawkesbury, New South Wales, Australia: policy implications.

    PubMed

    Bal, Ikreet S; Dennison, Peter J; Evans, R Wendell

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the adjustment of the fluoride concentration to 1 ppm in the drinking water supplied to the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia in 1993 was associated with fluorosis incidence. In 2003, children attending schools in the Blue Mountains and a control region (fluoridated in 1967) that had been randomly selected at baseline in 1992 were examined for dental fluorosis (maxillary central incisors only) using Dean's index. A fluoride history for each child was obtained by questionnaire. Associations between fluorosis and 58 potential explanatory variables were explored. The response rate was 63%. A total of 1138 children aged from 7 to 11 years with erupted permanent central incisors were examined for dental fluorosis. Fluorosis prevalence was the same in both regions. The Community Index of Dental Fluorosis values were slightly different, but were both above 0.6, indicative of public health concern. For the group as a whole, we concluded that: (a) fluorosis prevalence (0.39) in both regions was similar; and (b) the higher-than-expected prevalence and severity of fluorosis was due mainly to two factors: (a) the higher-than-optimal fluoride level in drinking water; and (b) swallowing of fluoride toothpaste in early childhood. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. The epidemiology of hospitalised wrist fractures in older people, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Finch, Caroline; Lord, Stephen; Close, Jacqueline; Gothelf, Todd; Walsh, William

    2006-11-01

    The epidemiology and trends in wrist fracture admissions to public and private acute hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, between July 1993 and June 2003 were examined using routinely collected hospital separations statistics. During the study period, the number of hospital separations for wrist fractures increased by 71% in men, an average yearly increase of 6.5%, and by 43% in women, an average yearly increase of 3.9%. A modest, but significant, increase in age-specific and age-standardised hospitalisation rates for wrist fractures was also observed. Whilst the majority of wrist fractures were due to falls, the proportion of falls-related wrist fractures decreased significantly over time. This decrease was more pronounced in males and was accompanied by a rise in the proportion of wrist fractures resulting from high energy mechanisms such as transport, violence and machinery-related incidents. The difference in hospitalised wrist fracture rates between men and women could not be explained solely on the basis of the role played by osteoporosis, indicating the need for more research to improve our understanding of the underlying factors of this type of fracture in older people.

  3. The descriptive epidemiology of sports/leisure-related heat illness hospitalisations in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Finch, Caroline F; Boufous, Soufiane

    2008-01-01

    Sport-related heat illness has not been commonly studied from an epidemiological perspective. This study presents the descriptive epidemiology of sports/leisure-related heat illness hospitalisations in New South Wales, Australia. All in-patient separations from all acute hospitals in NSW during 2001-2004, with an International Classification of Diseases external cause of injury code indicating "exposure to excessive natural heat (X30)" or any ICD-10 diagnosis code in the range: "effects of heat and light (T67.0-T67.9)", were analysed. The sport/leisure relatedness of cases was defined by ICD-10-AM activity codes indicating involvement in sport/leisure activities. Cases of exposure to heat while engaged in sport/leisure were described by gender, year, age, principal diagnosis, type of activity/sport and length of stay. There were 109 hospital separations for exposure to heat while engaging in sport/leisure activity, with the majority occurring during the hottest months. The number of male cases significantly increased over the 4-year period and 45+ -year olds had the largest number of cases. Heat exhaustion was the leading cause of hospital separation (40% of cases). Marathon running, cricket and golf were the activities most commonly associated with heat-related hospitalisation. Ongoing development and refinement of expert position statements regarding heat illnesses need to draw on both epidemiological and physiological evidence to ensure their relevance to all levels of risk from the real world sport training and competition contexts.

  4. The increasing burden of pelvic fractures in older people, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Finch, Caroline; Lord, Stephen; Close, Jacqueline

    2005-11-01

    Despite their significant health burden, epidemiological information regarding pelvic fractures is scarce. In this study, we examine trends in admission for pelvic fractures to acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, between July 1988 and June 2000, using routinely collected hospital separations statistics. Over this period, the number of admissions for pelvic fractures among those aged 50 years and over increased by 58.4% in men and 110.8% in women. Age-specific rates of admissions per 100,000 population for pelvic fracture also rose significantly, particularly for those aged at least 75 years. The number and proportion of transport related pelvic fractures fell significantly for both men (chi(2)=23.82, d.f.=1, p<0.001) and women (chi(2)=49.26, d.f.=1, p<0.001) while those resulting from falls increased significantly over the 12-year-period. Falls are increasingly becoming the single most important cause of pelvic injuries in older people, suggesting that preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of falls need to be pursued. Factors contributing to the rise of fall-related pelvic fractures need to be investigated to inform strategies aimed at reversing the observed increase in the number and age-specific rates of pelvic fractures in older people.

  5. Widespread copper and lead contamination of household drinking water, New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P J; Handley, H K; Taylor, M P

    2016-11-01

    This study examines arsenic, copper, lead and manganese drinking water contamination at the domestic consumer's kitchen tap in homes of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of 212 first draw drinking water samples shows that almost 100% and 56% of samples contain detectable concentrations of copper and lead, respectively. Of these detectable concentrations, copper exceeds Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) in 5% of samples and lead in 8%. By contrast, no samples contained arsenic and manganese water concentrations in excess of the ADWG. Analysis of household plumbing fittings (taps and connecting pipework) show that these are a significant source of drinking water lead contamination. Water lead concentrations derived for plumbing components range from 108µg/L to 1440µg/L (n=28, mean - 328µg/L, median - 225µg/L). Analysis of kitchen tap fittings demonstrates these are a primary source of drinking water lead contamination (n=9, mean - 63.4µg/L, median - 59.0µg/L). The results of this study demonstrate that along with other potential sources of contamination in households, plumbing products that contain detectable lead up to 2.84% are contributing to contamination of household drinking water. Given that both copper and lead are known to cause significant health detriments, products for use in contact with drinking water should be manufactured free from copper and lead.

  6. How Local Landholder Groups Collectively Manage Weeds in South-Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Graham, Sonia; Rogers, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    For two decades researchers and policy makers have been arguing that community-based collective action is needed to effectively control weeds. Yet there has been little social research into the ways that collective weed control emerges at local scales. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms through which three local landholder groups in south-eastern Australia collectively manage weeds and the measures they use to evaluate success. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of three Landcare groups-Jerrawa Creek/Upper Lachlan, MacLaughlin River and Towamba Valley-as well as government staff external to the groups. The results reveal that for all three groups collective weed control is about supporting individual weed control efforts as well as proactively engaging landholders with the worst infestations. The groups were seen to be successful because they focused on the common challenge that weeds pose to all landholders, thereby removing the shame associated with having weeds, and because they organised community events that were as much about building and maintaining social relationships as improving weed control. Groups were positive about what they had achieved as collectives of landholders, but also saw an important role for government in providing funding, engaging with landholders who were unwilling to engage directly with the group, and controlling weeds on public lands.

  7. Landscape Preferences, Amenity, and Bushfire Risk in New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Nicholas; Dun, Olivia; Brennan-Horley, Chris; Eriksen, Christine

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines landscape preferences of residents in amenity-rich bushfire-prone landscapes in New South Wales, Australia. Insights are provided into vegetation preferences in areas where properties neighbor large areas of native vegetation, such as national parks, or exist within a matrix of cleared and vegetated private and public land. In such areas, managing fuel loads in the proximity of houses is likely to reduce the risk of house loss and damage. Preferences for vegetation appearance and structure were related to varying fuel loads, particularly the density of understorey vegetation and larger trees. The study adopted a qualitative visual research approach, which used ranking and photo-elicitation as part of a broader interview. A visual approach aids in focusing on outcomes of fuel management interventions, for example, by using the same photo scenes to firstly derive residents' perceptions of amenity and secondly, residents' perceptions of bushfire risk. The results are consistent with existing research on landscape preferences; residents tend to prefer relatively open woodland or forest landscapes with good visual and physical access but with elements that provoke their interest. Overall, residents' landscape preferences were found to be consistent with vegetation management that reduces bushfire risk to houses. The terms in which preferences were expressed provide scope for agency engagement with residents in order to facilitate management that meets amenity and hazard reduction goals on private land.

  8. Vicarious resilience and vicarious traumatisation: Experiences of working with refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Puvimanasinghe, Teresa; Denson, Linley A; Augoustinos, Martha; Somasundaram, Daya

    2015-12-01

    The negative psychological impacts of working with traumatised people are well documented and include vicarious traumatisation (VT): the cumulative effect of identifying with clients' trauma stories that negatively impacts on service providers' memory, emotions, thoughts, and worldviews. More recently, the concept of vicarious resilience (VR) has been also identified: the strength, growth, and empowerment experienced by trauma workers as a consequence of their work. VR includes service providers' awareness and appreciation of their clients' capacity to grow, maintaining hope for change, as well as learning from and reassessing personal problems in the light of clients' stories of perseverance, strength, and growth. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of mental health, physical healthcare, and settlement workers caring for refugees and asylum seekers in South Australia. Using a qualitative method (data-based thematic analysis) to collect and analyse 26 semi-structured face-to-face interviews, we identified four prominent and recurring themes emanating from the data: VT, VR, work satisfaction, and cultural flexibility. These findings-among the first to describe both VT and VR in Australians working with refugee people-have important implications for policy, service quality, service providers' wellbeing, and refugee clients' lives.

  9. Isotopic composition of throughfall in pine plantation and native eucalyptus forest in South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiang; Guan, Huade; Deng, Zijuan

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the isotopic composition in precipitation is of importance for studies using isotopic composition as hydrological tracers to investigate recharge sources of groundwater, hydrograph separation, and paleoclimate reconstruction. In catchments with vegetation cover, major water isotope inputs are throughfall instead of precipitation. Thus, it is necessary to know how much precipitation isotopic composition is altered by vegetation canopy, and how this alteration varies with different vegetation covers. However, few studies have examined these issues with continuous monitoring and for typical vegetation covers in South Australia. In this study, we investigate the stable isotopic composition of throughfall over two vegetation surfaces (pine plantation and native eucalyptus forest), with bulk precipitation and throughfall samples collected from September, 2009 to October, 2010 with an average 18-day interval, together with intra-event precipitation samples collected at a nearby location, from September, 2009 to February, 2013. We synthesized a conceptual framework for throughfall isotopic composition including the effects of intra-event selection and inter-event selection, and partial evaporation using δ18O and d-excess. The results indicate that the selection processes, either within individual events, or between events, or both, contribute to throughfall isotopic composition over the two vegetation covers, with less important but observed effects from partial evaporation. Pine plantation site with a denser vegetation cover has experienced larger alteration in throughfall isotopic composition. The significance of the difference between throughfall and precipitation isotopic compositions for groundwater sources, hydrograph separation and paleoclimate reconstruction studies are also discussed.

  10. Collaboration and local networks for rural and remote primary mental healthcare in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Edwards, Jane; Martinez, Lee; Edwards, Bruce; Reid, Karyn

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws on a consultation with 200 stakeholders about a mental health plan in the most remote region of South Australia to discuss primary mental healthcare improvement strategies. In rural and remote environments, a lack of services means that it is more difficult to deal with a mental illness or provide assistance for circumstantial life problems. The authors' consultations revealed difficulties with service access, acceptability and teamwork. They also found that the availability of local human service workers leads to their use as first-level mental health contacts, but these workers are neither skilled nor supported for this. These difficulties will require attention to the boundaries between different service providers which can otherwise create inflexibility and service gaps. The regional mental health plan that is being rolled out will develop collaboration through regional interagency task groups, networking groups for local human service workers and the position of a regional mental health coordinator in order to overcome these difficulties and to operationalise service partnerships.

  11. A new pupillarial scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) from Angophora in coastal New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gullan, Penny J; Williams, Douglas J

    2016-05-30

    A new scale insect, Aolacoccus angophorae gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Eriococcidae), is described from the bark of Angophora (Myrtaceae) growing in the Sydney area of New South Wales, Australia. These insects do not produce honeydew, are not ant-tended and probably feed on cortical parenchyma. The adult female is pupillarial as it is retained within the cuticle of the penultimate (second) instar. The crawlers (mobile first-instar nymphs) emerge via a flap or operculum at the posterior end of the abdomen of the second-instar exuviae. The adult and second-instar females, second-instar male and first-instar nymph, as well as salient features of the apterous adult male, are described and illustrated. The adult female of this new taxon has some morphological similarities to females of the non-pupillarial palm scale Phoenicococcus marlatti Cockerell (Phoenicococcidae), the pupillarial palm scales (Halimococcidae) and some pupillarial genera of armoured scales (Diaspididae), but is related to other Australian Myrtaceae-feeding eriococcids.

  12. Reducing the marine debris of recreational hoop nets in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, Matt K; Millar, Russell B

    2017-06-15

    Alternative configurations of Australian recreational portunid hoop nets were investigated to address debris and selectivity issues. Four treatment nets (all comprising 152-mm polyamide-PA mesh) were assessed that differed in their twine (conventional multifilament vs new multi-monofilament) and fishing configuration (conventional conical vs inverted shapes). The conical multifilament design lost means (±SEs) of 130.6±23.1 and 5.3±1.2mm of twine 3-h soak(-1) when used to target Scylla serrata and Portunus pelagicus. Inverting this hoop net significantly reduced legal-sized catches (by up to 70%) and with greater twine loss (×5) when targeting P. pelagicus. Conversely, both multi-monofilament configurations maintained legal catches of S. serrata and P. pelagicus, but lost 78 and 95% less twine than the conical multifilament design. Using multi-monofilament hoop nets could reduce PA debris by thousands of m p.a. in south-eastern Australia, without affecting targeted catches. Further, a lower fishing height of inverted multi-monofilament nets might reduce non-portunid bycatch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Garrick, Ryan C.; Rowell, David M.; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes ‘scale-up’ to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five ‘microgeographic regions’ at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection. PMID:26467960

  14. Phylogeography of Saproxylic and Forest Floor Invertebrates from Tallaganda, South-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Rowell, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

    2012-02-29

    The interaction between physiogeographic landscape context and certain life history characteristics, particularly dispersal ability, can generate predictable outcomes for how species responded to Pleistocene (and earlier) climatic changes. Furthermore, the extent to which impacts of past landscape-level changes 'scale-up' to whole communities has begun to be addressed via comparative phylogeographic analyses of co-distributed species. Here we present an overview of a body of research on flightless low-mobility forest invertebrates, focusing on two springtails and two terrestrial flatworms, from Tallaganda on the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia. These species are distantly-related, and represent contrasting trophic levels (i.e., slime-mold-grazers vs. higher-level predators). However, they share an association with the dead wood (saproxylic) habitat. Spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic diversity partly conform to topography-based divisions that circumscribe five 'microgeographic regions' at Tallaganda. In synthesizing population processes and past events that generated contemporary spatial patterns of genetic diversity in these forest floor invertebrates, we highlight cases of phylogeographic congruence, pseudo-congruence, and incongruence. Finally, we propose conservation-oriented recommendations for the prioritisation of areas for protection.

  15. An extended outbreak of congenital chondrodysplasia in calves in South East Australia.

    PubMed

    Cave, J G; McLaren, P J; Whittaker, S J; Rast, L; Stephens, A; Parker, E M

    2008-04-01

    To report an outbreak of congenital chondrodystrophy in calves in South East Australia. District veterinarians investigated reported cases of calf deformities. Owners of affected herds were interviewed using a standard questionnaire to identify potential risk factors. Dams of several affected calves were serologically tested for Akabane virus, Aino virus, pestivirus and bluetongue, and affected calves were tested for pestivirus antigen and serum immunoglobulin concentrations. Gross and histopathological examinations of numerous calves were performed, concentrating on the musculoskeletal system. A case definition of distinctive skeletal deformities was established, and 89 property owners reported calves with chondrodystrophy in Spring 2003, 2004 or 2005. Some 14 property owners reported affected calves in more than one year. Prevalence and severity of deformity varied greatly between and within properties. None of breed, sex, age of dam, lineage, pasture type, supplementary feeding, fertiliser use or toxic plants was consistently associated with the disease. All dams experienced hot, dry conditions during the first trimester of pregnancy and were exposed to adverse conditions thereafter. Consistently dams were reported to have been grazing undulating to hilly terrain during early pregnancy. All serological tests were negative for Akabane virus, Aino virus, pestivirus and bluetongue. Histopathology of affected skeletal samples showed chondrodysplasia. The outbreak had similarities with previous outbreaks reported in the region. No specific aetiology could be determined. There is some evidence that the cause of the deformities could be a manganese deficiency during foetal development. Ongoing work to test this hypothesis is therefore warranted.

  16. Land surface albedo and vegetation feedbacks enhanced the millennium drought in south-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jason P.; Meng, Xianhong; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the ability of a regional climate model (RCM) to simulate the extended drought that occurred throughout the period of 2002 through 2007 in south-east Australia. In particular, the ability to reproduce the two drought peaks in 2002 and 2006 was investigated. Overall, the RCM was found to reproduce both the temporal and the spatial structure of the drought-related precipitation anomalies quite well, despite using climatological seasonal surface characteristics such as vegetation fraction and albedo. This result concurs with previous studies that found that about two-thirds of the precipitation decline can be attributed to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Simulation experiments that allowed the vegetation fraction and albedo to vary as observed illustrated that the intensity of the drought was underestimated by about 10 % when using climatological surface characteristics. These results suggest that in terms of drought development, capturing the feedbacks related to vegetation and albedo changes may be as important as capturing the soil moisture-precipitation feedback. In order to improve our modelling of multi-year droughts, the challenge is to capture all these related surface changes simultaneously, and provide a comprehensive description of land surface-precipitation feedback during the droughts development.

  17. Factors influencing arsenic concentrations and species in mangrove surface sediments from south-east NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, S R; Maher, W A; Krikowa, F; Ubrihien, R

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic concentrations and speciation of 55 mangrove surface sediment samples from the south-eastern coast of NSW, Australia, have been measured. Arsenic concentrations were in the range 1.6-8.6 μg/g dry mass. All arsenic concentration values were well below 20 μg/g, the ANZEC/ARMCANZ interim sediment quality guideline-low trigger value. The bulk sediment pH was 6.0-7.3 and Eh -80 to -260 mV. The sediments contained variable silt-clay (2-30 % w/w), iron (668-12721 μg/g), manganese (1-115 μg/g), sulphur (70-18400 μg/g) and carbon (5-90 mg/g) concentrations. Arsenic concentrations correlated with silt and clay content, iron and manganese concentrations, indicating silt-clay particles covered and coated with iron and manganese (oxy) hydroxides scavenged arsenic. Arsenic extracted with 0.5 M phosphoric acid (68-95 %) was present only as inorganic arsenic (55-91 %), indicating that other arsenic species such as arsenobetaine derived from marine animal tissues rapidly degrade in sediments. The unextractable arsenic was correlated with increases in organic carbon, iron and manganese content. In conclusion, the cycling of arsenic in mangrove sediments is essentially the cycling of inorganic arsenic and primarily controlled by the redox cycling of carbon, sulphur, iron and manganese.

  18. A survey of the characteristics and maintenance of rainwater tanks in urban areas of South Australia.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, S; Sinclair, M; Leder, K

    2010-01-01

    Households resident in metropolitan Adelaide and surrounding areas in South Australia were recruited into a randomised controlled trial. A total of 630 rainwater tanks with a total tank capacity of 14.5 ML were installed at the 325 households surveyed. The majority of the tanks were plumbed into the kitchen (64.6%), over 10 years in age (45.5%), over 15,000 L in capacity (42.5%) and composed of galvanised steel (36.9%). Over 90% of the households undertook one or more prevention and maintenance strategies for reducing contamination of collected rainwater. The use of first flush diverters was reported by 30.8% households, the presence of leaf control devices on the tank by 57.2%, and the presence of leaf control screens on gutters by 25.5% households. Most households reported that the rainwater tank was cleaned at some time, with 50.4% of these households stating that tank cleaning occurred 1 to 5 years previously, and 31.9% more than 5 years prior to enrolment Rainwater from the main drinking tank was sampled from a subset of households for turbidity and metals (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Pb, Zn). This information regarding tank characteristics and degree of adherence to recommended maintenance procedures may assist understanding of variability in rainwater quality data and may help determine whether untreated rainwater can be considered a safe water supply for household purposes including drinking.

  19. Suicide and political regime in New South Wales and Australia during the 20th century

    PubMed Central

    Page, A; Morrell, S; Taylor, R

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: Australia has had a two party parliamentary political system for most of the period since its Federation in 1901, dominated either by a social democratic (Labor) or a conservative ideological perspective. This paper investigates whether such political differences at Federal and State levels have influenced suicide rates in the state of New South Wales (NSW) for the period 1901–1998. Design: Federal government type, NSW State government type, and combinations of both Federal and NSW State government type were examined. Poisson regression models were stratified by sex and controlled for the effects of age, annual change in gross domestic product, sedative availability, drought, and both world wars. Results: When both Federal and NSW State governments were conservative the relative risk of suicide for NSW men was 1.17 (p<0.001) and for women 1.40 (p<0.001) compared with both governments being Labor (1.00). A statistically significant linear trend (p<0.001) in suicide risk was evident across the continuum of Federal/State government combinations, from both Labor (lowest), to mixed (intermediate), to both conservative (highest). Conclusion: Significantly higher suicide risk was associated with conservative government tenures compared with social democratic incumbents. Results are discussed in terms of the differences underpinning conservative and social democratic government programme ideology, and their relevance to Durkheim's theories of suicide, social regulation, and integration. PMID:12239203

  20. How Local Landholder Groups Collectively Manage Weeds in South-Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Sonia; Rogers, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    For two decades researchers and policy makers have been arguing that community-based collective action is needed to effectively control weeds. Yet there has been little social research into the ways that collective weed control emerges at local scales. The aim of this paper is to investigate the mechanisms through which three local landholder groups in south-eastern Australia collectively manage weeds and the measures they use to evaluate success. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of three Landcare groups—Jerrawa Creek/Upper Lachlan, MacLaughlin River and Towamba Valley—as well as government staff external to the groups. The results reveal that for all three groups collective weed control is about supporting individual weed control efforts as well as proactively engaging landholders with the worst infestations. The groups were seen to be successful because they focused on the common challenge that weeds pose to all landholders, thereby removing the shame associated with having weeds, and because they organised community events that were as much about building and maintaining social relationships as improving weed control. Groups were positive about what they had achieved as collectives of landholders, but also saw an important role for government in providing funding, engaging with landholders who were unwilling to engage directly with the group, and controlling weeds on public lands.

  1. Electromagnetic monitoring of stimulated hot dry rock systems - modelling and examples from South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, S.; Peacock, J.; Heinson, G. S.; Reid, P.

    2011-12-01

    Realization of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) prescribes the need for novel technology to monitor the created reservoir. Conventionally, micro-earthquake arrays are used to monitor seismic events associated with the postulated pressure front of the injected fluid. We propose the additional use of the magnetotelluric (MT) technique which is directly sensitive to elevated electrical conductivity allowing mapping the conductive injected fluid in the subsurface. MT is a passive electromagnetic method that characterizes geoelectric structure by measuring the Earth's response to natural magnetic fields. Measuring the MT response before, during and after fluids are injected into the reservoir provides a tool to delineate reservoir boundaries at depth. This is important as electrical conductivity can change by a few orders of magnitude making a conductive fluid in resistive host rock a viable MT target at depth. Three-dimensional MT forward modelling illustrates the dependence of reservoir size and depth as well as the dampening effect of a conductive overburden, such as a sedimentary basin. Forward modelling suggests changes in the MT response of a proposed reservoir at 3.5km depth will be on the order of a few percent, advising an accurate and precise prior data set is collected. A test case from Paralana, South Australia will be presented illustrating results of MT responses before and after fluids are injected as well as time-lapse transfer function variability during the injection.

  2. Climate variations and salmonellosis transmission in Adelaide, South Australia: a comparison between regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Hiller, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study to identify appropriate regression models for the association between climate variation and salmonellosis transmission. A comparison between different regression models was conducted using surveillance data in Adelaide, South Australia. By using notified salmonellosis cases and climatic variables from the Adelaide metropolitan area over the period 1990-2003, four regression methods were examined: standard Poisson regression, autoregressive adjusted Poisson regression, multiple linear regression, and a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Notified salmonellosis cases in 2004 were used to test the forecasting ability of the four models. Parameter estimation, goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability of the four regression models were compared. Temperatures occurring 2 weeks prior to cases were positively associated with cases of salmonellosis. Rainfall was also inversely related to the number of cases. The comparison of the goodness-of-fit and forecasting ability suggest that the SARIMA model is better than the other three regression models. Temperature and rainfall may be used as climatic predictors of salmonellosis cases in regions with climatic characteristics similar to those of Adelaide. The SARIMA model could, thus, be adopted to quantify the relationship between climate variations and salmonellosis transmission.

  3. Landscape Preferences, Amenity, and Bushfire Risk in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Nicholas; Dun, Olivia; Brennan-Horley, Chris; Eriksen, Christine

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines landscape preferences of residents in amenity-rich bushfire-prone landscapes in New South Wales, Australia. Insights are provided into vegetation preferences in areas where properties neighbor large areas of native vegetation, such as national parks, or exist within a matrix of cleared and vegetated private and public land. In such areas, managing fuel loads in the proximity of houses is likely to reduce the risk of house loss and damage. Preferences for vegetation appearance and structure were related to varying fuel loads, particularly the density of understorey vegetation and larger trees. The study adopted a qualitative visual research approach, which used ranking and photo-elicitation as part of a broader interview. A visual approach aids in focusing on outcomes of fuel management interventions, for example, by using the same photo scenes to firstly derive residents' perceptions of amenity and secondly, residents' perceptions of bushfire risk. The results are consistent with existing research on landscape preferences; residents tend to prefer relatively open woodland or forest landscapes with good visual and physical access but with elements that provoke their interest. Overall, residents' landscape preferences were found to be consistent with vegetation management that reduces bushfire risk to houses. The terms in which preferences were expressed provide scope for agency engagement with residents in order to facilitate management that meets amenity and hazard reduction goals on private land.

  4. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay. PMID:26401452

  5. Influence of karst hydrology on water quality management in southeast South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmett, A. J.; Telfer, A. L.

    1994-03-01

    Southeast South Australia has large reserves of potable groundwater, generally close to the surface. European settlement has had a major impact on groundwater quality due to the presence of extensive karst in the unconfined aquifer. Historically, industries such as cheese factories were often sited close to karst features (e.g. caves and sinkholes) because they provided a convenient means of waste disposal. Although most have long since closed, they have left a legacy of pollution plumes of varying sizes. In Mount Gambier, the main regional centre, the presence of both exposed and subterranean karst features provided a “perfect system” for the disposal of stormwater. Prior to the provision of a sewerage system within Mount Gambier, all toilet and household wastewaters were disposed to ground. These activities and the subsequent problems that began emerging in the 1960s have led to a concerted effort over the last 20 years to change the philosophy of waste disposal and to generate an understanding and responsibility by those who live in the region and depend on groundwater for the major part of their water supply. Mount Gambier's water supply comes from the Blue Lake. Groundwater inflow from a highly karstic Tertiary limestone aquifer provides 90% of the recharge to the Blue Lake. The lake is a high-value resource in a high-risk environment and in order to minimize this risk, a water-quality management plan for the lake is currently being developed.

  6. Epidemiology of ambulance responses to older people who have fallen in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Paul M; Bendall, Jason C; Patterson, Jillian; Tiedemann, Anne; Middleton, Paul M; Close, Jacqueline Ct

    2013-09-01

    To quantify the size and scope of the operational burden for a large ambulance service arising from older people who have fallen and to describe this population. Retrospective analysis of ambulance records from New South Wales, Australia for emergency calls classified as 'falls' in the period 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2009. There were 42 331 responses to people aged 65 years or older, constituting 5.1% of total emergency workload. The median age of patients was 83 (interquartile range 76-87) and 62% were women. The transport rate was 76%. Transport to hospital was more likely during the day (odds ratio (OR) 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-1.9) and on weekends (OR 1.06, 95%CI 1.0-1.1). Falls by older people constitute approximately 5% of all emergency responses, of which one quarter are not transported to emergency department (ED) after paramedic assessment. Increasing the sophistication of ambulance dispatch processes to older people who have fallen, and continuing with the development of new models of care aimed at decreasing unnecessary transports to the EDs, should be a priority when planning ambulance service delivery for older people who have fallen. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.

  7. The climate of the Last Glacial Maximum in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulmeister, J.; Cohen, T.; Kiernan, K.; Woodward, C.; Barrows, T.; Fitzsimmons, K.; Kemp, J.; Haworth, R.; Clark, D. H.; Gontz, A. M.; Chang, J.; Mueller, D.; Slee, A.; Ellerton, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Last Glaciation Maximum (c. 25-18 kyr) in south-eastern Australia has traditionally been regarded as both significantly colder than the present and much more arid. This was based on a variety of evidence including the dramatic reduction in tree pollen and dune activity in currently humid areas such as the Blue Mountains of NSW. Maintaining arid conditions under significantly lower temperatures is quite challenging and not all lines of evidence supported strong aridity. Over the last four years an ARC project has worked to develop new lines of evidence to test these inferences. Outcomes from the project indicate that winter temperatures were significantly colder than at present (an 8-11 C decrease) while summer temperatures were cooler but not as extreme (4-6.5 C). Moisture balances appear to have been more positive than present along the eastern highlands, while areas to the west were comparatively drier. The humid zone along the divide maintained at least seasonally stronger flows in the major rivers, meaning that water was more available in western districts than under modern climates. I will summarise the evidence for this new pattern and highlight the climatological patterns that would be consistent with the reconstruction. I will conclude by speculating on the implications for both human landscape use and what happened to the vegetation.

  8. A characterisation of the coastal tufa deposits of south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Matt; Vogwill, Ryan; Onton, Kimberly

    2010-12-01

    Located in the south-west coastal zone of Western Australia are numerous tufa deposits, which are registered as Threatened Ecological Communities (TEC). The tufas occur in near-shore shallow bedrock settings and are associated with local groundwater discharge. Depositional facies, mineralogy, elemental chemistry and water quality were investigated for five key deposits. Two conceptual environmental models are identified. The first, the cascade to barrage pool model is associated with coastal waterfall zones, the second, a perched spring-line and barrage pool model is located predominantly in the supratidal zone. Tufa morphology, texture, mineral composition and elemental chemistry vary within and between sites. Both phytoclast and lithoclast (allochthonous), and phytoherm forms of tufa are identified depending on location within the facies. Calcite, and to a lesser extent, aragonite and Mg-calcite dominate tufa mineralogy, with diagenetic modifications apparent. Tufa water chemistry is generally Na-Cl-HCO 3 dominated; however, Na-Cl concentrations increase at sites situated within the supratidal zone. Currently the most likely potential threat posed to these deposits is increasing nutrient levels in spring waters from agricultural land use within the catchments. This could in the future impact on tufa development.

  9. Does dog or cat ownership lead to increased gastroenteritis in young children in South Australia?

    PubMed

    Heyworth, J S; Cutt, H; Glonek, G

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dog and cat ownership and gastroenteritis in young children. A diary study of 965 children aged 4-6 years living in rural or semi-rural South Australia was undertaken. Data were collected on pet ownership, drinking water and other risk factors for gastroenteritis. Overall 89% of households had pets and dog ownership was more common than cat ownership. The multivariable models for gastroenteritis and pet ownership indicated that living in a household with a dog or cat was associated with a reduced risk of gastroenteritis (adj. OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.92; OR 0.70, % CI 0.51-0.97 respectively). This paper adds to the evidence that pets are not a major source of gastroenteritis in the home and lends support to the health benefits of pet ownership. However, this must be weighed against the potential negative consequences, such as dog bites, particularly for this age group.

  10. Pathological features of oxalate nephrosis in a population of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Speight, K N; Boardman, W; Breed, W G; Taggart, D A; Woolford, L; Haynes, J I

    2013-03-01

    The wild and captive koala population of the Mt Lofty Ranges in South Australia has a high level of renal dysfunction in which crystals consistent with calcium oxalate have been observed in the kidneys. This study aimed to describe the pathological features of the renal disease in this population, confirm the composition of renal crystals as calcium oxalate, and determine whether any age or sex predispositions exist for this disease. A total of 51 koalas (28 wild rescues, 23 captive) were examined at necropsy, of which 28 (55%) were found to have gross and/or histological evidence of oxalate nephrosis. Histopathological features included intratubular and interstitial inflammation, tubule dilation, glomerular atrophy, tubule loss, and cortical fibrosis. Calcium oxalate crystals were demonstrated using a combination of polarization microscopy, alizarin red S staining, infrared spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis with scanning electron microscopy. Uric acid and phosphate deposits were also shown to be present but were associated with minimal histopathological changes. No significant differences were found between the numbers of affected captive and wild rescued koalas; also, there were no sex or age predispositions identified, but it was found that oxalate nephrosis may affect koalas <2 years of age. The findings of this study suggest that oxalate nephrosis is a leading disease in this koala population. Possible causes of this disease are currently under investigation.

  11. Screening of metal uptake by plant colonizers growing on abandoned copper mine in Kapunda, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Nirola, Ramkrishna; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Aryal, Rupak; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Systematic site survey for sample collection and analysis was conducted at a derelict copper (Cu) mine at Kapunda, South Australia. Cu concentrations in the soils at this former mine ranged from 65-10107 mg kg(-1). The pH and EC varied widely in the 3.9-8.4 and 152-7311 µS ranges, respectively. Nine plant species growing over the copper mine site were selected to screen for metal uptake to determine their suitability for phytoremediation. The Australian native tree species Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicated enrichment factor (EF) of 2.17, 1.89, and 1.30 for Cu, Zn, and Pb, respectively, suggesting that this species of tree can accumulate these metals to some degree. The stress-resistant exotic olive, Olea europaea exhibited EF of ≤ 0.01 for Cu, Cd, and Pb, and 0.29 for Zn, which is characteristic of an excluder plant. Acacia pycnantha, the Australian pioneer legume species with EF 0.03, 0.80, 0.32, and 0.01 for Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb, respectively, emerged as another strong metal excluder and consequently as an ideal metal stabilizer.

  12. Yield Loss Caused by Pratylenchus thornei on Wheat in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Julie M.; Davies, Kerrie A.; Hancock, Trevor W.; Fisher, John M.

    1999-01-01

    A two-year field trial with 130 plots was conducted at Tanunda, South Australia. Ten cereal cultivars differing in susceptibility to Pratylenchus thornei, two poor host crops (non-leguminous), and a bare fallow treatment were used to manipulate the numbers of nematodes in the plots in the first year. Initial and final densities were determined for each plot and varied from 0 to 9,400 nematodes/200 g oven-dried soil at the beginning of the second year. A highly susceptible wheat cultivar, Warigal, and two wheat lines known to have some resistance to P. thornei, GS50A and AUS4930, were planted in the second year. High densities of P. thornei caused more extensive lesions and severe cortical degradation in roots of Warigal than in GS50A or AUS4930. There was a significant linear relationship between initial density of P. thornei and Warigal grain yield (t/ha), with the estimated regression equation Y = 1.86 - 0.0000557x, where Y is the grain yield in t/ha and x is the number of P. thornei/200 g oven-dried soil. High initial densities (9,000 P. thornei/200 g oven-dried soil) caused up to 27% yield loss of this commercial Australian wheat. In contrast, the yield of the two resistant lines was not affected by initial density, suggesting that both were tolerant as well as resistant in the field. PMID:19270909

  13. Profenofos residues in wild fish from cotton-growing areas of New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Chapman, J C

    2001-01-01

    The organophosphorus (OP) pesticide profenofos (O-4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl O-ethyl S-propyl phosphorothioate) is used heavily in cotton-growing areas of eastern Australia toward the end of the growing season. European carp (Cyprinus carpio), bony bream (Nematalosa erebi), and mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were collected from the cotton-growing areas around Wee Waa, New South Wales, to determine the relationship between profenofos residues and acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) activity in wild fish. Profenofos concentrations in water, sediment, and fish tissue reflected its general level of use; levels in March 1994 were significantly higher than in 1993 and generally decreased in May, 6 wk after cessation of spraying. Residues in carp and bony bream generally correlated with concentrations in water and sediment, although residues in fish tend to persist longer at some sites. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition was a useful indicator of profenofos exposure within a season, particularly if linked with residue measurements. Bony bream and gravid female mosquitofish recovered AChE levels more slowly than carp or nongravid mosquitofish. Recovery in creeks was generally more rapid than in lagoons.

  14. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Jason E; Williams, Kane

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans) surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study). Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay.

  15. Headwater peatland channels in south-eastern Australia; the attainment of equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanson, R. A.; Cohen, T. J.

    2014-05-01

    Many small headwater catchments (< 50 km2) in temperate south-eastern Australia store sediment in valley fills. While accumulation in some of these systems commenced up to 30,000 years ago, most did not commence filling with peat or clastic material until at least the mid Holocene. In such headwater settings, many clastic valley fills develop cut-and-fill channels, which contrast to some peatland settings where sinuous equilibrium channels have evolved. Four peatland systems within this dataset demonstrate stable channel systems which span nearly the full spectrum of observed valley-floor slopes. We assess new and published longitudinal data from these four channels and demonstrate that each of these channels has achieved equilibrium profiles. New and published flow and survey data are synthesised to demonstrate how these peatland systems have attained equilibrium. Low rates of sediment supply and exceptionally high bank strengths have resulted in low width to depth ratios which accommodate rapid changes in flow velocity and depth with changes in discharge. In small peatland channels, planform adjustments have been sufficient to counter the energy provided by these hydraulically efficient cross-sections and have enabled the achievement of regime energy-slopes. In larger and higher energy peatland channels, large, armoured, stable, bedforms have developed. These bedforms integrate with planform adjustments to maintain a condition of minimum variance in energy losses as represented by the slope profiles and, therefore, a uniform increase in downstream entropy.

  16. Measurement of personal exposure to outdoor aeromycota in northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, Brett James; O'Meara, Timothy; Sercombe, Jason; Tovey, Euan

    2006-01-01

    Aerobiological sampling traditionally uses a volumetric spore trap located in a fixed position to estimate personal exposure to airborne fungi. In this study, the number and identity of fungi inhaled by human subjects (n=34), wearing Intra-nasal air samplers (INASs), was measured over 2-hour periods in an outdoor community setting, and compared to fungal counts made with a Burkard spore trap and Institute of Occupational Medicine personal filter air samplers (IOMs). All sampling devices were in close proximity and located in an outdoor environment in Casino, northern New South Wales, Australia. Using INASs, the most prevalent fungi inhaled belonged to soil or vegetation borne spores of Alternaria, Arthrinium, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicoccum, Exserohilum, Fusarium, Pithomyces, Spegazzinia and Tetraploa species, Xylariaceae ascospores, in addition to hyphal fragments. These results showed that inhaled fungal exposure in most people varied in a 2-fold range with 10-fold outliers. In addition, the INASs and personal air filters agreed more with each other than with Burkard spore trap counts (r=0.74, p < 0.0001). These findings further support a new paradigm of personal fungal exposure, which implicates the inhalation of a spectrum of fungi more closely associated with soil or vegetation borne mycoflora and hyphal fragments than what is collected by stationary spore traps in the same geographic region.

  17. Sedimentology and C-isotope geochemistry of the ‘Sturtian’ cap carbonate, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giddings, Jonathan A.; Wallace, Malcolm W.

    2009-04-01

    A combined sedimentary and isotopic analysis of the Sturtian-aged Tindelpina cap carbonate in South Australia has revealed a strong relationship between sedimentary facies and δ 13C carb. Depositional water depths for the cap carbonate are difficult to constrain, however, a lack of diagnostic shallow water structures and the inferred magnitude of post-glacial transgression (several 100 m) indicates a relatively deep-water environment for each key facies. The shallowest facies (peloidal dolomite) has δ 13C values ranging between - 3.6‰ and - 0.3‰, in comparison to deeper water laminated limestones, which have lighter values ranging between - 5.5‰ and - 3.5‰. Equivalent calcareous shales deposited at basinal depths show even more 13C depletion, with values ranging between - 6.7‰ and - 3.7‰. The average difference in δ 13C between the shallowest and deepest cap facies is up to 3.6‰ and may be an approximation of the seawater δ 13C-depth gradient at the time of deposition. We interpret this high δ 13C-depth gradient as the result of prolonged physical ocean stratification, both during and after deglaciation. Variations in the rates of upwelling/mixing under this stratified regime may have significantly influenced the climate, as well as controlling the precipitation and isotopic composition of the cap carbonate.

  18. Paleoproterozoic (2050-1680 Ma) Divergent and Convergent Sedimentary Basins of the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapez, B.

    2009-05-01

    The Capricorn Orogen is a 300-400 km-wide belt of Palaeoproterozoic basin formation, plutonic magmatism and deformation in Western Australia that, in part, records Late Palaeoproterozoic collision between the Archaean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. Sequence-stratigraphic analyses indicate that supracrustal sequences of the Ashburton Province on the Pilbara Carton (to the north) and of the Nabberu Province on the Yilgarn Craton (to the south) evolved on separate continents until united during collision. The traditional perspective of the Capricorn Orogen is that it records north-south orthogonal collision between the cratons, but basin studies that indicate that the Pilbara-Yilgarn suture, and the fold belts of the Capricorn Orogen, was an ESE-trending transcurrent megashear, such that the Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons were involved in east-west transcurrent collision. The age of collision is poorly constrained, but estimated to have been at about 1770 Ma. The Ashburton Province comprises an older (2050-1865 Ma) divergent margin megasequence corresponding to the opening of an ocean basin to the northwest, and not to the south as most previous reconstructions maintain. The younger (1865-1680 Ma) megasequence records ocean closure and transcurrent convergence. The basal rift sequence of the divergent margin times the end of the Carbon-Isotope excursion, at 2035 Ma, whereas both megasequences contain oxide-facies banded iron formations that were deposited during the time in Earth history when oxidation of the atmosphere appears to contraindicate their deposition.

  19. Changes in monthly unemployment rates may predict changes in the number of psychiatric presentations to emergency services in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Bidargaddi, Niranjan; Bastiampillai, Tarun; Schrader, Geoffrey; Adams, Robert; Piantadosi, Cynthia; Strobel, Jörg; Tucker, Graeme; Allison, Stephen

    2015-07-24

    To determine the extent to which variations in monthly Mental Health Emergency Department (MHED) presentations in South Australian Public Hospitals are associated with the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) monthly unemployment rates. Times series modelling of relationships between monthly MHED presentations to South Australian Public Hospitals derived from the Integrated South Australian Activity Collection (ISAAC) data base and the ABS monthly unemployment rates in South Australia between January 2004-June 2011. Time series modelling using monthly unemployment rates from ABS as a predictor variable explains 69% of the variation in monthly MHED presentations across public hospitals in South Australia. Thirty-two percent of the variation in current month's male MHED presentations can be predicted by using the 2 months' prior male unemployment rate. Over 63% of the variation in monthly female MHED presentations can be predicted by either male or female prior monthly unemployment rates. The findings of this study highlight that even with the relatively favourable economic conditions, small shifts in monthly unemployment rates can predict variations in monthly MHED presentations, particularly for women. Monthly ABS unemployment rates may be a useful metric for predicting demand for emergency mental health services.

  20. Mosquito communities with trap height and urban-rural gradient in Adelaide, South Australia: implications for disease vector surveillance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emily; Weinstein, Phillip; Slaney, David; Flies, Andrew S; Fricker, Stephen; Williams, Craig

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the factors influencing mosquito distribution is important for effective surveillance and control of nuisance and disease vector mosquitoes. The goal of this study was to determine how trap height and distance to the city center influenced the abundance and species of mosquitoes collected in Adelaide, South Australia. Mosquito communities were sampled at two heights (<2 m and ~10 m) along an urban-rural gradient. A total of 5,133 mosquitoes was identified over 176 trap nights. Aedes notoscriptus, Ae. vigilax, and Culex molestus were all more abundant in lower traps while Cx. quinquefasciatus (an ornithophilic species) was found to be more abundant in high traps. Distance to city center correlated strongly with the abundance of Ae. vigilax, Ae. camptorhynchus, Cx. globocoxitus, and Cx. molestus, all of which were most common at the sites farthest from the city and closest to the saltmarsh. Overall, the important disease vectors in South Australia (Ae. vigilax, Ae. camptorhynchus, Ae. notoscriptus, and Cx. annulirostris) were more abundant in low traps farthest from the city and closest to the saltmarsh. The current mosquito surveillance practice of setting traps within two meters of the ground is effective for sampling populations of the important disease vector species in South Australia.

  1. Synchroneity of cratonic burial phases and gaps in the kimberlite record: Episodic magmatism or preservational bias?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, Alexis K.; Flowers, Rebecca M.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of models are used to explain an apparent episodicity in kimberlite emplacement. Implicit in these models is the assumption that the preserved kimberlite record is largely complete. However, some cratons now mostly devoid of Phanerozoic cover underwent substantial Phanerozoic burial and erosion episodes that should be considered when evaluating models for global kimberlite distributions. Here we show a broad temporal coincidence between regional burial phases inferred from thermochronology and gaps in the kimberlite record in the Slave craton, Superior craton, and cratonic western Australia. A similar pattern exists in the Kaapvaal craton, although its magmatic, deposition, and erosion history differs in key ways from the other localities. One explanation for these observations is that there is a common cause of cratonic subsidence and suppression of kimberlite magmatism. Another possibility is that some apparent gaps in kimberlite magmatism are preservational artifacts. Even if kimberlites occurred during cratonic burial phases, the largest uppermost portions of the pipes would have been subsequently eroded along with the sedimentary rocks into which they were emplaced. In this model, kimberlite magmatism was more continuous than the preserved record suggests, implying that evidence for episodicity in kimberlite genesis should be carefully evaluated in light of potential preservational bias effects. Either way, the correlation between burial and kimberlite gaps suggests that cratonic surface histories are important for understanding global kimberlite patterns.

  2. Mesoproterozoic plume-modified orogenesis in eastern Precambrian Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Peter G.; Giles, David; Foden, John; Schaefer, Bruce F.; Mark, Geordie; Pankhurst, Matthew J.; Forbes, Caroline J.; Williams, Helen A.; Chalmers, Neil C.; Hills, Quinton

    2009-06-01

    Tectonic models for the latest Paleoproterozoic to earliest Mesoproterozoic evolution of eastern Australia (circa 1620-1500 Ma) are diverse and either emphasize plume or plate margin activity, neither of which satisfactorily explains all geological observations. The dichotomy is largely attributed to geochemical, spatial and temporal data that suggest voluminous A-type felsic magmas are plume related, whereas distribution of arc-related magmas and intense orogenic overprint suggest plate margin activity. The salient geological events include arc-related magmatism at circa 1620-1610 Ma followed by a magmatic hiatus coincident with north-south crustal shortening (1610-1590 Ma) and a magmatic flare-up of A-type felsic magmas throughout the Gawler Craton (circa 1595-1575 Ma). These magmas form the oldest component of a northward younging hot spot track that extends to the Mount Isa Inlier. At circa 1590-1550 Ma, arc magmatism resumed along the northern margin of the Gawler Craton and the rest of eastern Australia records a 90° shift in the regional shortening direction related to activity along the eastern margin of the Australian continent. A plume-modified orogenic setting satisfies all of the spatial and temporal relationships between magma generation and orogenic activity. In this model, the Gawler Craton and the adjacent subduction zone migrated over a mantle plume (circa 1620-1610 Ma). Resultant flat subduction caused transient orogenesis (1610-1595 Ma) in the overriding plate. Slab delamination and thermal assimilation of the plume and the subducting slab caused a switch to crustal extension in the overriding plate, resulting in extensive mantle-derived and crustal melting in the Gawler Craton (1595-1575 Ma).

  3. Drivers of Wildfire Occurrence Patterns in Wetlands of Riverine Bioregion in New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Lim, Samsung; Sharples, Jason

    2017-04-01

    In inland wetlands in Australia, wildfires not only threaten human lives and cause economic loss as in other landscapes but also injure or kill fire-sensitive wetland species such as river red gums. Therefore, understanding of the drivers regulating wetland wildfire occurrence patterns is vital from the perspectives of fire risk reduction and ecosystem management. There are currently very few published quantitative studies characterising wildfire occurrence in inland wetland areas in Australia. This study aims to address the following questions in a quantitative way: What determines the occurrence of inland wetland wildfires, and are these factors different compared with those in other ecosystems? Which factors play more important roles than the others? In this study, historical wildfire records over the period of 1970-2016 and across the Riverina bioregion of New South Wales (NSW) are sourced from a number of fire management agencies, with lightning- and human-caused fires being analysed separately. Bivariate and multivariate Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) are developed to understand top-down (weather) and bottom-up (vegetation and ignition source) factors acting on the patterns of wetland wildfire occurrence. The relative importance of these factors is evaluated based on their contribution to the final model. Fires are expected to be less likely to start from wetlands than other landscapes since the fine fuel loads are generally low and fuels are usually too moist to burn. However, prolonged drought can increase the probability of wetland wildfire occurrence due to the drying out of the understory fuels. Fires are intuitively less likely to occur at the inundation area or during flooding periods. The relationship between fire occurrence probability and flood frequency is expected to be non-linear, with fire probability being the highest at intermediate flooding frequencies because flooding of different frequency regulates biomass accumulation and fuel moisture

  4. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  5. Pampia: A large cratonic block missing in the Rodinia supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Victor A.; Vujovich, Graciela; Martino, Roberto; Otamendi, Juan

    2010-09-01

    The large cratonic block of Pampia, at present in southern South America, is commonly missing in recent comprehensive reconstructions of Rodinia. This block was the conjugate margin of the Amazonia craton that corresponds to the W-NW-trending segment of the Sunsás orogen. This segment developed between Sucre in Bolivia and Corumbá in Brazil as a result of a Mesoproterozoic collision. The western margin of Pampia partially coincides with the southern part of the Arequipa-Antofalla terrane that was also amalgamated during the Mesoproterozoic. The Cuyania terrane, a Laurentian rifted continental block, was accreted to the southern sector of this margin of Pampia in middle Ordovician times. The northern sector of the eastern margin of Pampia is the lower plate of the Brasiliano belt developed along the Paranapanema craton during the early Cambrian collision associated with the closure of the Clymene Ocean. The southern sector of the eastern margin partially coincides with the southern extension of the Transbrasiliano lineament, which juxtaposed the Rio de La Plata Craton with the Pampia cratonic block. Along this eastern margin the Pampean-Paraguay orogen was formed during the late Brasiliano cycle in latest Proterozoic-Early Cambrian time. The southern margin was generated by the collision of Patagonia during late Paleozoic times. This cratonic block of Pampia, so defined, has western and northern sectors formed by Mesoproterozoic orogens, while the eastern sector is partially formed by juvenile Neoproterozoic crust, although older rocks cannot be ruled out. The Pampia cratonic block was the locus of several magmatic belts associated with important metamorphism during the Paleozoic and preserved in the central part at lower crustal levels.

  6. Midwives and oral health care during pregnancy: perceptions of pregnant women in south-western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    George, Ajesh; Johnson, Maree; Duff, Margaret; Ajwani, Shilpi; Bhole, Sameer; Blinkhorn, Anthony; Ellis, Sharon

    2012-04-01

    This study sought to explore the perceptions of pregnant women in Australia towards oral health care during pregnancy and their views regarding midwives providing oral health education, assessment and referrals as part of antenatal care. Maintaining oral health during pregnancy is important. Yet, many pregnant women do not access dental services during this time. Antenatal care providers are now recommended to promote maternal oral health, and various countries have adopted this strategy. However, in Australia, a lack of emphasis is placed on maternal oral health especially by antenatal care providers. Currently, a preventive programme is being developed to promote maternal oral health with the help of midwives in Australia. Very little is known about the perceptions of such an approach from pregnant women. Qualitative approach. Data were collected via semi-structured telephone interviews with 10 pregnant women residing in south-western Sydney. Thematic analyses of the data suggest a high prevalence of poor oral health among pregnant women, especially those socioeconomically disadvantaged. The findings also highlight various barriers deterring these women from seeking dental care the most significant being lack of dental awareness, high treatment costs and misconceptions about dental treatment during pregnancy. The absence of affordable dental care remains a major barrier in Australia. The proposed preventive programme was well received by women although issues such as education for midwives and referral pathways were highlighted. The findings suggest that a tailored midwifery-initiated oral health programme has potential in Australia, especially for low-income families as it addresses many existing barriers to dental care. Antenatal care providers in Australia should provide more information about oral health. These health professionals should be adequately educated to promote oral health. Health services should also consider offering pregnant women affordable and

  7. Deep structure of the east Terre Adélie Craton boundary (East Antarctica): Seismic investigation of the Mertz shear zone area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarque, Gaelle; Barruol, Guilhem; Fontaine, Fabrice; Bascou, Jérôme; Cottin, Jean-Yves; Ménot, René-Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Mertz shear zone (MSZ) located in George Vth Land (67°S, 145°E) is a key area to understand tectonic relationships between the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic Terre Adélie Craton (TAC) and the Early Paleozoic units of Cape Webb and Penguin Point. The MSZ is therefore a major structure that represents the eastern boundary of the East Antartica Shield. In addition, the MSZ that recorded dextral strike-slip movement estimated at 1.7Ga could be correlated to the Kalinjila shear zone a large scale mylonitic structure outcropping at the east of the Gawler Craton (South Australia). In order to better understand the MSZ dynamics, we developed a multi-disciplinary approach with the French polar institute (IPEV) through the Arlita program (Architecture de la Lithosphere de Terre Adélie). Four temporary seismic stations were deployed on both sides and above the MSZ from October 2009 to October 2011 to map the deep tectonic structures. We analysed receiver functions to evaluate Moho depth and seismic anisotropy through the splitting of SKS waves to analyze the prolongation of the MSZ structures into the mantle. Results from receiver functions reveal Moho depths of 40-44km for the TAC, about 36 km under the MSZ and 28km for the Paleozoic domain. These results show that the MSZ delimit two crustal blocks with different thicknesses. Our study is consistent with crustal thicknesses estimated by Fontaine et al. (2012) in South Australia in the Gawler craton (>40km) and in the Delamerian orogen terrains (31km). However, the transition between the thick craton and the Paleozoic crust is sharper at the MSZ than in south Australia. Seismic anisotropy in the MSZ area was studied from events of magnitudes ranging from 5.9 to 7.0. In addition, petrological and crystallographic fabrics of the crust were carry out in order to better constrain the observed SKS delay times. The measurements of the splitting parameters show a fast polarisation direction (Φ) parallel to the E-W coast and

  8. Health behaviour and the school environment in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    McLellan, L; Rissel, C; Donnelly, N; Bauman, A

    1999-09-01

    The relationship between the school environment and health has infrequently been examined. This study sought to examine the association between school students' perceptions of their school environment, teachers' and peers' support and their health behaviours. A cross sectional descriptive survey by supervised self-administration was conducted in 1996 based on the international WHO collaborative survey of school children's health and lifestyle (the HBSC Study) and extended in an Australian setting. Randomly sampled primary and secondary schools from Catholic, Independent and Government education sectors throughout New South Wales (NSW), Australia, were invited to participate. The final sample included 3918 school students attending Year 6 (primary school), Year 8 and Year 10 (high school) from 115 schools. The main outcome measures were self-reported health status and 7 health behaviours (tobacco use, alcohol use, physical activity, dental hygiene, nutritional intake, seat belt and bicycle helmet use). Independent variables included student perceptions of the school environment, perceptions of teachers' and peers' support. Girls, Year 6 students and students who have less than $19 a week to spend were significantly more likely to have positive perceptions towards their school environment, teacher(s) and peers. Students who had positive perceptions regarding their school environment and perceived their teachers as supportive were significantly more likely to engage in health promoting behaviours adjusting for age, sex and average weekly pocket money. A supportive peer environment was not associated with positive health behaviour. Health promotion practitioners need to consider the impact of the school environment on health behaviours of school students. In particular, practitioners should consider intervention models that improve the school environment as a key strategy within a health promoting school.

  9. Clinical supervision of allied health professionals in country South Australia: A mixed methods pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saravana; Osborne, Kate; Lehmann, Tanya

    2015-10-01

    Recent times have witnessed dramatic changes in health care with overt recognition for quality and safety to underpin health care service delivery. In addition to systems-wide focus, the importance of supporting and mentoring people delivering the care has also been recognised. This can be achieved through quality clinical supervision. In 2010, Country Health South Australia Local Health Network developed a holistic allied health clinical governance structure, which was implemented in 2011. This research reports on emergent findings from the evaluation of the clinical governance structure, which included mandating clinical supervision for all allied health staff. A mixed method approach was chosen with evaluation of the impact of clinical supervision undertaken by a psychometrically sound instrument (Manchester Clinical Supervision Scale 26-item version), collected through an anonymous online survey and qualitative data collected through semistructured interviews and focus groups. Overall, 189 allied health professionals responded to the survey. Survey responses indicated allied health professionals recognised the importance of and valued receiving clinical supervision (normative domain), had levels of trust and rapport with, and were supported by supervisors (restorative domain) and positively affected their delivery of care and improvement in skills (formative domain). Qualitative data identified enablers such as profession specific gains, improved opportunities and consistency for clinical supervision and barriers such as persistent organisational issues, lack of clarity (delineation of roles) and communication issues. The findings from this research highlight that while clinical supervision has an important role to play, it is not a panacea for all the ills of the health care system. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  10. Carbonate organo-mineral micro- and ultrastructures in sub-fossil stromatolites: Marion lake, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Perri, E; Tucker, M E; Spadafora, A

    2012-03-01

    Sub-fossil stromatolites (5000-3000 years old) occur on the marginal flat surrounding Marion Lake (South Australia). A micrite/microsparite crystal fabric characterises these fine-grained, well-laminated stromatolites, which lack trapped grains. The internal lamination is characterised by a sub-millimetric alternation of porous and dense laminae. The microfabric of the laminae is ubiquitously composed of a fine (10-20 μm) peloidal texture, with many thinner aphanitic layers. Aggregates of very fine, low-Mg calcite and aragonite constitute both peloidal and aphanitic micrite, which is coated, respectively, by spherulitic and fringing acicular microspar. Micrite, with a high organic matter content, is formed of coalescing nanospheres grading into small polyhedrons, probably composed mainly of aragonite, with less calcite enriched in Mg, Sr, Na and S. Bacteria-like microfossils and relics of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) occur abundantly within this micritic framework. The former consist of empty moulds and mineralised bodies of coccoid forms, whereas EPS relics consist of sheet-like or filamentous structures that appear both mineralised and more often still preserved as a C-enriched dehydrated substance that represents the main organic matter component of the deposit. Acicular crystals, which show a prismatic elongate shape, are composed of Mg-depleted aragonite that lacks fossils or organic relicts. Degrading EPS and micro-organisms appear gradually to be replaced and entombed by the nanospherical precipitates, implying the existence of processes of organo-mineralisation within an original syn-sedimentary microbial community. Succeeding micron-scale crystals merge to form isolated or connected micritic aggregates (the peloids), followed by the gradual formation of the acicular crystals as purely inorganic precipitates.

  11. Long term bicycle related head injury trends for New South Wales, Australia following mandatory helmet legislation.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Jake; Walter, Scott R; Grzebieta, Raphael H

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1991 enactment of mandatory helmet legislation (MHL) for cyclists in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, there has been extensive debate as to its effect on head injury rates at a population level. Many previous studies have focused on the impact of MHL around the time of enactment, while little has been done to examine the ongoing effects. We aimed to extend prior work by investigating long-term trends in cyclist head and arm injuries over the period 1991-2010. The counts of cyclists hospitalised with head or arm injuries were jointly modelled with log-linear regression. The simultaneous modelling of related injury mechanisms avoids the need for actual exposure data and accounts for the effects of changes in the cycling environment, cycling behaviour and general safety improvements. Models were run separately with population counts, bicycle imports, the average weekday counts of cyclists in Sydney CBD and cycling estimates from survey data as proxy exposures. Overall, arm injuries were higher than head injuries throughout the study period, consistent with previous post-MHL observations. The trends in the two injury groups also significantly diverged, such that the gap between rates increased with time. The results suggest that the initial observed benefit of MHL has been maintained over the ensuing decades. There is a notable additional safety benefit after 2006 that is associated with an increase in cycling infrastructure spending. This implies that the effect of MHL is ongoing and progress in cycling safety in NSW has and will continue to benefit from focusing on broader issues such as increasing cycling infrastructure. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A catchment study of sources and sinks of nutrients and sediments in south-east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, R.; Arafat, Y.; Eate, V.; Grace, M. R.; Saffarpour, Sh.; Weatherley, A. J.; Western, A. W.

    2014-07-01

    A study of nutrient and sediment generation was carried out on a dairy farm in south eastern Australia over a period of two years. The study collected nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and total suspended sediment (TSS) samples from three headwater subcatchments totalling 4.4 km2 in area, which had streamflow measurement sites located at their outlets. In addition to these three sites, samples were collected from farm tracks, the discharge from a farm dam (water storage pond) and a rainfall sampler. Over 20 runoff events were monitored in addition to background flows in the catchment. The data enabled nutrient exports to be estimated from the total catchment and two of the three subcatchments. The atmospheric nutrient loads were also estimated and found to be similar to other studies in the region, and were low compared with the nutrient export. The nutrient load estimates indicated that a large proportion of the catchment Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) loads originated from critical source areas on the farm associated with dairy operations, and that the catchment TN and TP export rates were high compared to other studies. The sediment data also indicated that TP concentrations were closely related to TSS in samples collected from surface runoff. Catchment TN loads in baseflow were high relative to the total load, probably due to indirect effluent and direct groundwater discharges into watercourses, with high concentrations of soluble N (nitrate plus nitrite and ammonium). The farm dam was found to trap a high percentage (>60%) of the influent TP load; however, the retention of TN by the dam was seasonally varying and close to net neutral.

  13. Preventive health care of Pony Club horses in rural New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Buckley, P; Buckley, D; Coleman, G T; Morton, J M

    2016-08-01

    To describe preventive health care provided to a cohort of Pony Club horses in rural New South Wales, Australia, and the associated veterinary involvement. Prospective longitudinal study Observational data collected for 48 Pony Club horses using daily owner-kept diaries and monthly veterinary visits for 9-12 months. Frequency of healthcare events varied markedly between the horses; 54% of horses received 5 or more foot-care treatments, 69% received 1-3 anthelmintic treatments, 40% received dental care, 21% received chiropractic care; only 8% were vaccinated. Farriers and owners administered most of the health care. Veterinarians were infrequently involved, administering 2 of the 111 anthelmintic administrations and 2 of the 244 foot-care treatments. No annual health checks or prepurchase examinations were recorded. All dental care was provided by non-veterinary dentists. Horse turnover appeared quick, with 54% of horses acquired within the previous 12 months. The majority of preventive health care was provided by farriers and the owners themselves. The type and frequency of healthcare events varied markedly and most commonly involved foot care and anthelmintic administration. The reasons for the lack of veterinary involvement are unclear. Veterinarians engaging with Pony Club families in a preventive context would likely bring health benefits to this population of horses. This may require adaptation of existing veterinary services to meet the demands of this unique population of horses and young riders. Furthermore, epidemiological studies are required to describe the effects of various preventive healthcare interventions on subsequent and long-term horse health. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Testing-adjusted chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales, Australia, 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Cretikos, Michelle; Mayne, Darren; Reynolds, Roderick; Spokes, Paula; Madeddu, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2010, Australian notification rates for chlamydia infection increased by 64% from 203 to 333 per 100 000 population. Interpreting this trend is difficult without examining rates and local patterns of testing. We examined the effect of adjusting for local testing rates on chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2000 to 2010. We used testing data for NSW residents for Medicare Benefits Schedule items for chlamydia from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2005 and 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2010. This data set excluded testing by public sector laboratories. We also obtained laboratory-confirmed genital chlamydia notifications in NSW residents for 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2010 and excluded notifications from public laboratories. We used negative binomial regression to assess trends in chlamydia notification rates by age and sex after adjusting for local government area (LGA)-level Medicare-funded testing rates, socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Medicare provider density. Testing-adjusted rates of chlamydia notifications declined by 5.2% per annum (rate ratio [RR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.96) for women overall, and 2.3% (RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.00) and 5.0% per annum (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.93-0.98) for men in LGAs with moderate and high densities of Medicare providers, respectively. Notification rates remained stable for men in low Medicare provider density LGAs (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.96-1.07). It is likely that increased testing for chlamydia has driven increases in chlamydia notification in NSW over the last decade. Notification data provide no evidence for a general increase in the prevalence of chlamydia in the NSW community for this period. Notification-based chlamydia surveillance should be routinely adjusted for local testing rates.

  15. The impact of bushfires on water yield from south-east Australia's ash forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookhouse, Matthew T.; Farquhar, Graham D.; Roderick, Michael L.

    2013-07-01

    Widespread disturbance within forested catchments typically increases runoff. However, following widespread fire in 1939 throughout south-east Australia, Kuczera (1987) reported persistent reductions in runoff that were attributed to increased evapotranspiration from regenerating "ash" forests. Kuczera projected ongoing reductions of water yield for ˜150 years. In 2003, widespread fire in the headwaters of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) again stimulated extensive regeneration of ash forests, raising the prospect of subsequent water yield reductions. To understand the potential impact of the 2003 bushfires, we re-evaluated yield reductions from three of the catchments originally studied by Kuczera using the same calibration period. We also used an expanded prefire calibration period (1908-1938) based on data not originally available to Kuczera. The trend of postfire water yield that we observed in 1939-affected catchments is qualitatively consistent with Kuczera's projections, but the quantitative details were, as expected, sensitive to the prefire calibration period used. We then used a simplified method to examine a further five ash-dominated catchments affected by the 2003 fires. We report relative reductions in mean annual stream flow in all five catchments and a statistically significant (α = 0.05) postfire reduction in one of five catchments. Postfire yield reductions during the austral summer (October to April) were greater in relative magnitude in all five catchments and were statistically significant (α = 0.05) in three of five catchments. We conclude that a postbushfire Kuczera-type response may be widespread in regenerating ash forests. On that basis, we anticipate postfire yield reductions in ash forests elsewhere and conclude that further reductions in stream flow are likely in the MDB for at least another decade.

  16. Lack of porphyroblast rotation in noncoaxially deformed schists from Petrel Cove, South Australia, and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhardt, Chris

    1989-02-01

    Inclusion trails representing an S 1 cleavage demonstrate the lack of porphyroblast rotation during subsequent highly non-coaxial deformations. The pelitic schists of the Kanmantoo Group at Petrel Cove, South Australia contain two generations of porphyroblasts. The first one consists of cordierite porphyroblasts that formed early in D 2 and contain straight to slightly sigmoidal inclusion trails of S 1. The second generation consists of andalusite porphyroblasts that overgrew crenulated S 2 late during D 3. Several hundred inclusion trail traces from cordierites measured from oriented specimens taken throughout a strongly folded area show a horizontal great circle distribution when plotted and contoured on a stereographic projection. Hence, S 1 was planar and horizontal prior to D 2. S 1 measurements on limbs and hinges of a mesoscale D 2 foldpair show that folding had little effect on porphyroblast orientation as the S 1 orientation remained constant and subhorizontal around the fold. Hence, porphyroblasts have not rotated during any of the non-coaxial deformations accompanying and following their growth. This is interpreted as a result of the partitioning of the deformation around them. S 1 in the matrix has been totally destroyed by the formation of S 2 as a fully differentiated crenulation cleavage. What has previously been regarded as inconsistent senses of shear recorded by porphyroblasts around folds is resolved by the fact that the matrix foliation rotated rather than the porphyroblasts due to the effects of deformation partitioning. The presence of a subhorizontal S 1 foliation suggests horizontal movements (e.g. thrusting or detachment faulting) during the earliest phase of the Adelaidian orogeny.

  17. Nineteen-year changes in surface salinity in the Southern Ocean south of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Rosemary; Kestenare, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year time series of underway sea surface salinity (SSS) data from the SURVOSTRAL line between Hobart, Australia and Adelie Land, Antarctica has revealed the distinct patterns of seasonal and interannual variability in two key zones of the Southern Ocean: in the Subantarctic Zone and in the Antarctic Zone. Both regions show a weak seasonal freshening of the surface waters over the summer months, with surface waters becoming shallower, warmer and fresher during the summer heating cycle. In the region north of the Subantarctic Front, interannual variations in the summer SSS signature are linked to the latitudinal movements of the Subtropical Front. When this front shifts southward, more high salinity subtropical waters are brought into the domain. Rather than responding to local wind stress forcing, the interannual SSS variability is strongly linked to southward flow from eastern Tasmania (the Tasman outflow), whose decadal variability responds with a 2-3 year delay to remote wind forcing in the South Pacific (Hill et al., 2008). Over this period, variations in the local surface freshwater forcing make a minor contribution to the SURVOSTRAL SSS signature. There appears to be a regime shift in the surface forcing and the SSS response, before and after the large perturbation in 2001-2002. In the Antarctic Zone, the summer SSS signature shows distinct biannual variations that are correlated with upstream sea-ice coverage in the preceding spring. There is no significant correlation between local precipitation changes and the SURVOSTRAL SSS time series. Rather, the integrated effects of upstream sea-ice melt dominate the interannual variations in SSS at the SURVOSTRAL line. Finally, a simple 2D Lagrangian particle analysis shows that in some years the surface waters circulate for a longer time in the northern part of the domain, where their freshwater content may be reduced by mixing with the surrounding waters.

  18. Impact of an invasive weed, Parthenium hysterophorus, on a pasture community in south east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Belgeri, Amalia; Navie, Sheldon; O'Donnell, Chris; Adkins, Steve

    2017-09-30

    Parthenium weed is a highly invasive alien species in more than 40 countries around the world. Along with severe negative effects on human and animal health and crop production, it also causes harm to ecosystem functioning by reducing the native plant species biodiversity. However, its impacts on native plant species, especially in pasture communities, are less known. Given parthenium weed causes substantial losses to Australian pastures' productivity, it is crucial to estimate its impact on pasture communities. This study evaluates the impact of parthenium weed upon species diversity in a pasture community at Kilcoy, south east Queensland, Australia. Sub-sites containing three levels of parthenium weed density (i.e. high, low and zero) were chosen to quantify the above- and below-ground plant community structure. Species richness, diversity and evenness were all found to be significantly reduced as the density of parthenium weed increased; an effect was evident even when parthenium weed was present at relatively low densities (i.e. two plants m(-2)). This trend was observed in the summer season as well as in winter season when this annual weed was absent from the above-ground plant community. This demonstrates the strong impact that parthenium weed has upon the community composition and functioning throughout the year. It also shows the long-term impact of parthenium weed on the soil seed bank where it had displaced several native species. So, management options used for parthenium weed should also consider the reduction of parthenium weed seed bank along with controlling its above-ground populations.

  19. Divergent responses of fire to recent warming and drying across south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Bradstock, Ross; Penman, Trent; Boer, Matthias; Price, Owen; Clarke, Hamish

    2014-05-01

    The response of fire to climate change may vary across fuel types characteristic of differing vegetation types (i.e. litter vs. grass). Models of fire under climatic change capture these differing potential responses to varying degrees. Across south-eastern Australia, an elevation in the severity of weather conditions conducive to fire has been measured in recent decades. We examined trends in area burned (1975-2009) to determine if a corresponding increase in fire had occurred across the diverse range of ecosystems found in this part of the continent. We predicted that an increase in fire, due to climatic warming and drying, was more likely to have occurred in moist, temperate forests near the coast than in arid and semiarid woodlands of the interior, due to inherent contrasts in the respective dominant fuel types (woody litter vs. herbaceous fuels). Significant warming (i.e. increased temperature and number of hot days) and drying (i.e. negative precipitation anomaly, number of days with low humidity) occurred across most of the 32 Bioregions examined. The results were mostly consistent with predictions, with an increase in area burned in seven of eight forest Bioregions, whereas area burned either declined (two) or did not change significantly (nine) in drier woodland Bioregions. In 12 woodland Bioregions, data were insufficient for analysis of temporal trends in fire. Increases in fire attributable mostly to warming or drying were confined to three Bioregions. In the remainder, such increases were mostly unrelated to warming or drying trends and therefore may be due to other climate effects not explored (e.g. lightning ignitions) or possible anthropogenic influences. Projections of future fire must therefore not only account for responses of different fuel systems to climatic change but also the wider range of ecological and human effects on interactions between fire and vegetation.

  20. Healthy food and beverages in senior community football club canteens in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Young, Kylie; Kennedy, Vanessa; Kingsland, Melanie; Sawyer, Amy; Rowland, Bosco; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2012-08-01

    Little is known of the extent to which senior sports clubs support the consumption of healthy food and beverages. This study of senior community football clubs aimed to describe: i) the food and beverages available in club canteens; ii) the perceived acceptability of club representatives (e.g. club president or secretary) to selling healthy food and beverages in club canteens; iii) the perceived barriers of club representatives to providing healthy food and beverage options in their club canteen; iv) the associations between the availability of healthy options in canteens, perceived barriers to healthy food and drink availability, and club characteristics; and (v) the food and beverages usually purchased from canteens by club members. The study involved 70 senior community football clubs (Australian Rules Football, Soccer, Rugby League and Rugby Union) across New South Wales, Australia. Club representatives and club members took part in cross-sectional telephone surveys. The most frequently available items at club canteens were regular soft drinks and potato chips or other salty snacks (available at 99% of clubs). Approximately two-thirds (66%) of club representatives agreed or strongly agreed that clubs should provide a greater variety of healthy food options. Perishability and lack of demand were the most frequently cited barriers to healthy food provision. Healthy food options were more available at AFL clubs compared with other football codes. Overall, 6% of club members reported purchasing a healthy food option. Senior community football clubs primarily stock and sell unhealthy food and beverage items. There is support within clubs for providing more healthy options; however, clubs face a number of barriers to the inclusion of healthy foods in club canteens.

  1. Over-the-counter analgesic use by urban Aboriginal people in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Lynette; de Crespigny, Charlotte; Wilson, Coral

    2013-07-01

    Despite recent health gains for Australian Aboriginal people their significantly poorer health status compared with that of non-Aboriginal Australians remains significant. Within the context of high levels of mortality and morbidity, research highlights significant barriers to timely health-care, access and safe use of prescribed and over-the-counter medicines. The risks to Aboriginal people's health due to unsafe medication use are preventable. The purpose of this article is to present the findings from qualitative research focused on Aboriginal people's knowledge, use and experience of over-the-counter analgesics. The study was conducted in the north-western metropolitan area of Adelaide, which has the largest urban Aboriginal population in South Australia. The employment of an Aboriginal Elder as Cultural Advisor enabled engagement with Aboriginal participants. Purposive 'snow ball' sampling was used to recruit participants for four focus groups [n = 30] and one participant opting for a personal semi-structured interview. Participants worked with the researchers to develop the findings and formulate recommendations. The 25 women and 6 men, aged 20-80 years reported various chronic medical conditions. Focus groups/interview elicited accounts of critical issues concerning safe selection and use of over-the-counter analgesics. Serious health risks were evident due to limited knowledge about safe analgesic use and over-reliance on information from family, friends and advertising. Extremely poor access was reported by participants to culturally and linguistically appropriate information, education and advice from a range of doctors and other health professionals including Aboriginal health workers. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. The prevalence of lice on sheep and control practices in South Australia.

    PubMed

    James, P J; Riley, M J

    2004-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of infestations of lice in sheep flocks and to survey control practices for lice in South Australia A total of 201 managers of sheep flocks, 75 chosen randomly from the high rainfall zone (HR), 76 from the cereal sheep zone (CS) and 50 from the pastoral zone (PA), were surveyed by telephone interview. Interviews were conducted between May 19 and May 25, 1999, according to a set questionnaire. Information was collected on presence of lice at last shearing, control practices for lice, factors important for gaining good effect from chemical treatments, sources of information on control practices and property details. Survey results were analysed by agricultural region. The apparent state prevalence of flocks infested with lice was 21%, with 13% infested in the HR, 21% in the CS and 25% in the PA. Ninety one percent of managers claimed to take precautions to prevent the introduction of lice and 91% routinely checked their flocks for lice. Seventy eight percent treated their sheep for lice annually and 85% had treated within the last 12 months. Of those treating in the last year, 69% had used a backline application, 16% had used a shower dip and 17% had used plunge dipping. Only 4% of producers used a long wool treatment. Synthetic pyrethroid (SP) based products were used by 50% of producers who used backline treatments in the preceding 12 months, compared to 42% and 8% for insect growth regulator and organophosphorous (OP) based products, respectively. Only 34% of managers identified SP-based products as having potential resistance problems. Of those producers who used shower or plunge dips in the last 12 months, 75% used an OP based product. Rural newspapers and magazines were by far the most commonly noted source of information for the control of lice on sheep.

  3. Legislating thresholds for drug trafficking: a policy development case study from New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Caitlin Elizabeth; Ritter, Alison; Cowdery, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    Legal thresholds are used in many parts of the world to define the quantity of illicit drugs over which possession is deemed "trafficking" as opposed to "possession for personal use". There is limited knowledge about why or how such laws were developed. In this study we analyse the policy processes underpinning the introduction and expansion of the drug trafficking legal threshold system in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A critical legal and historical analysis was undertaken sourcing data from legislation, Parliamentary Hansard debates, government inquiries, police reports and research. A timeline of policy developments was constructed from 1970 until 2013 outlining key steps including threshold introduction (1970), expansion (1985), and wholesale revision (1988). We then critically analysed the drivers of each step and the roles played by formal policy actors, public opinion, research/data and the drug trafficking problem. We find evidence that while justified as a necessary tool for effective law enforcement of drug trafficking, their introduction largely preceded overt police calls for reform or actual increases in drug trafficking. Moreover, while the expansion from one to four thresholds had the intent of differentiating small from large scale traffickers, the quantities employed were based on government assumptions which led to "manifest problems" and the revision in 1988 of over 100 different quantities. Despite the revisions, there has remained no further formal review and new quantities for "legal highs" continue to be added based on assumption and an uncertain evidence-base. The development of legal thresholds for drug trafficking in NSW has been arbitrary and messy. That the arbitrariness persists from 1970 until the present day makes it hard to conclude the thresholds have been well designed. Our narrative provides a platform for future policy reform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Area socioeconomic status and childhood injury morbidity in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Roslyn; Hayen, Andrew; Finch, Caroline; Zwi, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between child injury morbidity and socioeconomic status. Design A cross‐sectional analysis of routinely collected hospital separation data for unintentional injury for the period 1999/2000–2004/2005. Setting All statistical local areas of New South Wales (NSW), Australia Subjects 110 549 unintentional injury‐related hospital separations for NSW children aged 0–14 years. Main outcome measure Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for hospital separations for unintentional injury (for all injury and by individual injury mechanisms) by quintile of socioeconomic disadvantage for children aged 0–14 years. Results There was no clear relationship between socioeconomic status and injury when all injury mechanisms were combined. However, children in the more disadvantaged quintiles were more likely to be hospitalized than children in the least disadvantaged quintile for the following injury mechanisms: motor cycle (point estimates for IRRs across the socioeconomic status quintiles ranged from 2.95 to 4.02 relative to the least disadvantaged quintile), motor‐vehicle occupant (IRR range 1.33–2.27), pedestrian (IRR range 1.43–2.54 for ages 0–4 years), pedal cyclist (IRR range 1.30–1.50), fire and burns (IRR range 1.37–2.00), and poisoning (IRR range 1.32–1.91). Similarly, hospital separation rates for foreign body, other transport, and pedestrian (aged 5–9 years) injuries were also greater, but the differences were not statistically significant across all quintiles. These injury mechanisms accounted for about 25% of the hospital separations. Conclusions The relationship between relative socioeconomic disadvantage and injury risk in NSW children is strongest for transport‐related injuries, fires and burns, and poisoning. Interventions that address these specific injury mechanisms may help to reduce the disparity between high and lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:17916889

  5. Testing models for post-glacial ‘cap dolostone’ deposition: Nuccaleena Formation, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Catherine V.; Maloof, Adam C.

    2010-08-01

    Sedimentologically and geochemically distinctive carbonate sequences consistently drape the glacial deposits associated with the younger Cryogenian ice age. The presence of ice-rafted debris in the basal dolostone implies that at least the lower portion of the cap sequence records deglaciation. An isochronous model proposes that cap dolostones were deposited synchronously around the world regardless of water depth, whilst a diachronous model proposes that deposition tracked glacioeustatic flooding during deglaciation. The Nuccaleena Formation of the Adelaide Rift Complex (ARC), South Australia, exhibits many of the unique sedimentary features observed in other younger Cryogenian cap dolostones around the world. Some bedforms are the product of wind-driven oscillatory flow, thus constraining post-glacial dolostone deposition to < 400 m. These sedimentary features are absent in the deepest basinal facies in the northern ARC, suggesting that this region was below storm wave base even at the glacial sea level lowstand. In the north Flinders Ranges, there is a distinct relationship between lateral facies variability in the pre-, syn- and post-glacial sediments and the axes of 50 km scale structural folds. The northern fold limbs are characterised by basinal facies, whilst the southern limbs are associated with upper-slope facies. We interpret the abrupt facies transitions to reflect lower slope to upper slope/shelf breaks across a series of linked, south-facing half-grabens. The majority of cap dolostone carbon isotope records show monotonic declines in δ13C of < 2‰, with starting points between - 0.5 and - 3.5‰. An isochronous model implies a ˜ 3.0‰ lateral gradient from platform to lower slope that varies dramatically on a short spatial scale and non-systematically with palaeobathymetry. If pre- and syn-glacial facies are used to infer palaeobathymetry, and cap dolostones are deposited diachronously as sea level rises during deglaciation, then δ13C values

  6. Extreme Heat and Health: Perspectives from Health Service Providers in Rural and Remote Communities in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Susan; Bi, Peng; Newbury, Jonathan; Robinson, Guy; Pisaniello, Dino; Saniotis, Arthur; Hansen, Alana

    2013-01-01

    Among the challenges for rural communities and health services in Australia, climate change and increasing extreme heat are emerging as additional stressors. Effective public health responses to extreme heat require an understanding of the impact on health and well-being, and the risk or protective factors within communities. This study draws on lived experiences to explore these issues in eleven rural and remote communities across South Australia, framing these within a socio-ecological model. Semi-structured interviews with health service providers (n = 13), and a thematic analysis of these data, has identified particular challenges for rural communities and their health services during extreme heat. The findings draw attention to the social impacts of extreme heat in rural communities, the protective factors (independence, social support, education, community safety), and challenges for adaptation (vulnerabilities, infrastructure, community demographics, housing and local industries). With temperatures increasing across South Australia, there is a need for local planning and low-cost strategies to address heat-exacerbating factors in rural communities, to minimise the impact of extreme heat in the future. PMID:24173140

  7. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Akter, Kaisarun; Barnes, Emma C; Brophy, Joseph J; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R; Jamie, Joanne F

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses. Extracts of Acacia implexa, Acacia falcata, Cassytha glabella, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smilax glyciphylla, Sterculia quadrifida, and Syncarpia glomulifera were evaluated. All extracts except that of S. quadrifida showed activity against sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.81 to 1000 μg/mL. The sap of E. haemastoma and bark of A. implexa possessed high total phenolic contents (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of S. glomulifera identified known antimicrobial compounds. Together, these results support the traditional uses of the examined plants for the treatment of skin related ailments and infections by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia.

  8. Phytochemical Profile and Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Medicinal Plants Used by Aboriginal People of New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Kaisarun; Harrington, David; Community Elders, Yaegl

    2016-01-01

    Aboriginal people of Australia possess a rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of sores, wounds, and skin infections, ailments which impose a high global disease burden and require effective treatments. The antibacterial and antioxidant activities and phytochemical contents of extracts, obtained from eight medicinal plants used by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia, for the treatment of skin related ailments, were assessed to add value to and provide an evidence-base for their traditional uses. Extracts of Acacia implexa, Acacia falcata, Cassytha glabella, Eucalyptus haemastoma, Smilax glyciphylla, Sterculia quadrifida, and Syncarpia glomulifera were evaluated. All extracts except that of S. quadrifida showed activity against sensitive and multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 7.81 to 1000 μg/mL. The sap of E. haemastoma and bark of A. implexa possessed high total phenolic contents (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging abilities. A positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract of S. glomulifera identified known antimicrobial compounds. Together, these results support the traditional uses of the examined plants for the treatment of skin related ailments and infections by Aboriginal people of New South Wales, Australia. PMID:27563335

  9. Impacts of American Agricultural Education Student Teachers on Eleven Community Members in a New South Wales, Australia Community: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Tera; Stephens, Carrie; Hart, William

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influences of American agricultural education student teachers on a rural community in New South Wales, Australia. The study analyzed interviews with eleven participants of the American student teacher program in a rural New South Wales community. Results of the study were formulated by two…

  10. Modelling the ecology of the coastal mosquitoes Aedes vigilax and Aedes camptorhynchus at Port Pirie, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Kokkinn, M J; Duval, D J; Williams, C R

    2009-03-01

    Two mosquito species, Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson) and Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) are responsible for significant nuisance biting and disease transmission in southern coastal Australia. Mosquito abundance, tide height, temperature and rainfall data were collected over three summer seasons (2002, 2003, 2004) at Port Pirie, South Australia and subjected to statistical analysis to develop ecological models for predicting problem mosquito outbreaks. A logistic regression model for Ae. camptorhynchus gave a predictive R(2) of 0.30 using mean air temperature, whereas, for Ae. vigilax, tide height, mean air temperature and day length yielded a regression with an R(2) of 0.68. These models identify significant environmental drivers for both species and may be useful in the prediction of future outbreaks, particularly of Ae. vigilax.

  11. Exploration of the perceptions, barriers and drivers of pharmacogenomics practice among hospital pharmacists in Adelaide, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Dias, M M; Ward, H M; Sorich, M J; McKinnon, R A

    2014-06-01

    There is little literature regarding the barriers to the uptake of pharmacogenomics (PG) in pharmacy practice, especially with respect to Australia. To date, pharmacists have seldom been engaged in discussions of these issues. This study aimed to obtain an in-depth understanding of these barriers by interviewing pharmacists in Adelaide, South Australia. Ethics approved semistructured interviews were carried out with 21 public hospital pharmacists. Analysis of the data identified themes including: confidence to engage in PG, clinician acceptance of a pharmacist PG role, and the importance of timely and relevant PG education. Interviewees thought that pharmacists could have a greater participation in PG in the future, but they questioned whether this would be possible at the moment given, among other factors, existing time and work constraints.

  12. Combining Indigenous and Maritime Archaeological Approaches: Experiences and Insights from the `(Re)locating Narrunga Project', Yorke Peninsula, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Amy; McKinnon, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Clem; Wanganeen, Klynton; Rigney, Lester-Irabinna; Fowler, Madeline

    2013-06-01

    This paper details the unique pairing of Indigenous and maritime archaeological approaches in the `(Re)locating Narrunga Project'. Narrunga was a ketch built by the Narungga Aboriginal community at Point Pearce Mission (Yorke Peninsula, South Australia) at the turn of the twentieth century and later sunk in the 1940s. It is argued that convergences between the scholarly interests of Indigenous and maritime archaeological approaches have been slow to develop and that maritime archaeology as a sub-discipline has not capitalized on the insights that can be gained from collaborative approaches between communities and practitioners. Similarly, Indigenous communities in Australia have had few opportunities to work with researchers to record their maritime heritage. As is evident in the Narrunga story told in this research, non-Indigenous records have been complicit in underplaying the maritime achievements and skills of Narungga people and collaborative research can work towards decolonizing this past.

  13. Epidemiology and burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Australia, Asia and South America.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Lara Quirino; Macintyre, C Raina; Vujacich, Claudia

    2007-09-01

    Following the development of a herpes zoster vaccine and the successful introduction of widespread varicella vaccination in the USA, many countries are considering similar vaccination programmes. However, before implementing such programmes, it is important to describe the regional baselines of varicella and herpes zoster epidemiology, both to aid the design of vaccination strategies and to observe trends after the introduction of vaccination. In many areas of the world, this information is difficult to gather, and the epidemiology of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in these regions is poorly understood. In Australia, available national data sources of varicella and herpes zoster, including serological data, provide reliable estimates of disease and reveal similar rates of incidence and complications to those in Europe and the USA. However, the average age of infection in Australia is higher than in Europe and in the USA. Epidemiological data from Asia and South America are scarce. Unexpectedly for tropical countries, the incidences of herpes zoster in Asia and South America also appear to be comparable with those in Europe and the USA, despite the delayed acquisition of varicella-zoster virus infection in Asia. In Brazil, there is some evidence for higher than expected incidence rates for herpes zoster in young adults. The epidemiology of herpes zoster in Asia and South America suggests that recommendations on treatment and prevention from Europe and the USA may be relevant to these countries.

  14. Radiogenic heat generation in the Darling Range, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Mike F.

    2013-07-01

    New heat generation measurements for radiogenic granites were made for thirteen localities in the Darling Range, Western Australia. These are integrated with published data to estimate temperatures at depth within radiogenic-granite bodies for this region of the south-western Yilgarn Craton. The heat generation in the radiogenic granites is calculated from the concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium measured in the field. A reliable relationship between total counts from a commercial portable spectrometer and Geiger Müller counter was found for the various granites measured. The relationship Ao = 0.34 + 2.16 CU, with a correlation coefficient of 0.98, was found between uranium (CU in ppm) content and heat generation (Ao in units of µW/m3) for those radiogenic granites measured in the Darling Range, and also for two granites in the Pilbara Craton. Measured heat generation in the Darling Range was found to vary between 4 and 10μW/m3, the maximum of which is higher than previously known heat generation in granites for the Yilgarn Craton. Based on these new data, temperatures between depths of 3000 and 4000 m are modelled to fall between 60 and 110°C, depending on the thickness of the granitic bodies. These results are encouraging for potential low-temperature geothermal developments in this region, which is adjacent to the Perth metropolitan area.

  15. Plume-induced dynamic instabilities near cratonic blocks: Implications for P-T-t paths and metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou-Frottier, L.; Burov, E.; Cloetingh, S.; Le Goff, E.; Deschamps, Y.; Huet, B.; Bouchot, V.

    2012-06-01

    Plume head-lithosphere interactions around cratonic blocks result in thermo-mechanical disturbances that lead to heating and burial phases of crustal rocks. We present results from numerical models of plume head-cratonic blocks interactions where a free upper surface condition and realistic rheologies are accounted for. These models include distinct cratonic blocks embedded within a continental lithosphere and separated by several hundreds of kilometers. Surface topography, thermal field and effective viscosity values are tracked for 20 Myr of interactions. The modeled dynamic interaction of a plume head around cratonic blocks results in two main types of instabilities, each of them resulting in a distinct P-T-t path. The "slab-like" instability, focused on cratonic edges when plume head is away from the craton center, shows a near-isothermal burial phase, while the "drip-like" instability occurring above plume head material results in a near-isobaric heating phase. Consequently, both clockwise and counterclockwise P-T-t paths can be expected around cratons, as actually observed around the Tanzanian craton and other cratonic areas. Metallogenic data from gemstone-bearing rocks in south-east Africa and data from ultrahigh temperature and ultrahigh pressure metamorphism are compatible with our model. It appears that vertical mantle dynamics around cratons may also explain thermobarometric signatures that are often attributed to horizontal tectonics.

  16. Craton stability and continental lithosphere dynamics during plume-plate interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Van Hunen, J.; Pearson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Survival of thick cratonic roots in a vigorously convecting mantle system for billions of years has long been studied by the geodynamical community. A high cratonic root strength is generally considered to be the most important factor. We first perform and discuss new numerical models to investigate craton stability in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian rheology in the stagnant lid regime. The results show that only a modest compositional rheological factor of Δη=10 with non-Newtonian rheology is required for the survival of cratonic roots in a stagnant lid regime. A larger rheological factor (100 or more) is needed to maintain similar craton longevity in a Newtonian rheology environment. Furthermore, chemical buoyancy plays an important role on craton stability and its evolution, but could only work with suitable compositional rheology. During their long lifespan, cratons experienced a suite of dynamic, tectonothermal events, such as nearby subduction and mantle plume activity. Cratonic nuclei are embedded in shorter-lived, more vulnerable continental areas of different thickness, composition and rheology, which would influence the lithosphere dynamic when tectonothermal events happen nearby. South Africa provides a very good example to investigate such dynamic processes as it hosts several cratons and there are many episodic thermal events since the Mesozoic as indicated by a spectrum of magmatic activity. We numerically investigate such an integrated system using the topographic evolution of cratons and surrounding lithosphere as a diagnostic observable. The post-70Ma thinning of pericratonic lithosphere by ~50km around Kaapvaal craton (Mather et al., 2011) is also investigated through our numerical models. The results show that the pericratonic lithosphere cools and grows faster than cratons do, but is also more likely to be effected by episodic thermal events. This leads to surface topography change that is significantly larger around the craton than within

  17. Long-term trends of terrestrial water storage in south-east Australia revealed by GRACE and superconducting gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Fukuda, Yoichi; Yamamoto, Keiko; Nakaegawa, Toshiyuki; Tamura, Yoshiaki; McQueen, Herbert

    2010-05-01

    South-east Australia is experiencing a severe multi-year drought in this decade. In particular, historic drought struck this area in 2006. Australian Bureau of Meteorology reported that the year 2006 was one of the driest years and agriculture suffered extensive damage from the drought. To understand the severity of current water crisis in south-east Australia, monitoring terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes is demanded. For this purpose, we investigated gravity changes associated with the drought in south-east Australia using data from GRACE satellite gravimeter and superconducting gravimeter (SG) at Mt. Stromlo, Canberra, over the period from 2003 to 2008. In 2006 and 2007, GRACE gravity solutions released from CNES/GRGS showed significant TWS decreases at south-east Australia. Areal extent of the TWS decreases showed good consistence with that of rainfall deficiencies. Therefore, it is clear that the TWS decreases estimated from GRACE data are attributed to the 2006 drought. SG data from Canberra also indicated gravity decreases during the 2006 drought period, after correcting for effects of atmosphere, tides, height variations and instrumental drift and steps. Comparison of GRACE and SG data showed good agreements in interannual variations, although some differences were found in seasonal components. Furthermore, both GRACE and SG data indicated that TWS in 2008 still remained at low levels, although annual precipitation returned to average before the drought. It implies TWS is possibly decreasing with longer time scale due to recent climate changes. Finally, the results from GRACE and SG observations were compared with TWS estimates from Noah land surface model, forced by output from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) developed by NASA. The model TWS estimates were the sum of soil moisture (2m column depth) and snow water equivalent. The comparison showed that the model underestimated the TWS decreases due to the 2006 drought. The differences

  18. Cost comparison of selected coal mines from Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Special pub

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The report presents production and delivered costs for coal exports from the five major Western coal-exporting countries: Australia, Canada, Colombia, South Africa, and the United States. Cost data were compiled from visits to 43 mines by U.S. Bureau of Mines engineers between 1985 and 1990. All report costs are in January 1989 U.S. dollars per short ton. In the report, the Bureau updates and combines information from four earlier reports. These studies provide basic insights into the competitiveness of the U.S. coal industry with those of major coal-exporting countries.

  19. Primary scene responses by Helicopter Emergency Medical Services in New South Wales Australia 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite numerous studies evaluating the benefits of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) in primary scene responses, little information exists on the scope of HEMS activities in Australia. We describe HEMS primary scene responses with respect to the time taken, the distances travelled relative to the closest designated trauma hospital and the receiving hospital; as well as the clinical characteristics of patients attended. Methods Clinical service data were retrospectively obtained from three HEMS in New South Wales between July 2008 and June 2009. All available primary scene response data were extracted and examined. Geographic Information System (GIS) based network analysis was used to estimate hypothetical ground transport distances from the locality of each primary scene response to firstly the closest designated trauma hospital and secondly the receiving hospital. Predictors of bypassing the closest designated trauma hospital were analysed using logistic regression. Results Analyses included 596 primary missions. Overall the HEMS had a median return trip time of 94min including a median of 9min for activation, 34min travelling to the scene, 30min on-scene and 25min transporting patients to the receiving hospital. 72% of missions were within 100km of the receiving hospital and 87% of missions were in areas classified as ‘major cities’ or ‘inner regional’. The majority of incidents attended by HEMS were trauma-related, with road trauma the predominant cause (44%). The majority of trauma patients (81%) had normal physiology at HEMS arrival (RTS = 7.84). We found 62% of missions bypassed the closest designated trauma hospital. Multivariate predictors of bypass included: age; presence of spinal or burns trauma; the level of the closest designated trauma hospital; the transporting HEMS. Conclusion Our results document the large distances travelled by HEMS in NSW, especially in rural areas. The high proportion of HEMS missions that bypass

  20. ENSO-cave drip water hydrochemical relationship: a 7-year dataset from south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadros, Carol V.; Treble, Pauline C.; Baker, Andy; Fairchild, Ian; Hankin, Stuart; Roach, Regina; Markowska, Monika; McDonald, Janece

    2016-11-01

    Speleothems (cave deposits), used for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, are deposited from cave drip water. Differentiating climate and karst processes within a drip-water signal is fundamental for the correct identification of palaeoenvironmental proxies and ultimately their interpretation within speleothem records. We investigate the potential use of trace element and stable oxygen-isotope (δ18O) variations in cave drip water as palaeorainfall proxies in an Australian alpine karst site. This paper presents the first extensive hydrochemical and δ18O dataset from Harrie Wood Cave, in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern (SE) Australia. Using a 7-year long rainfall δ18O and drip-water Ca, Cl, Mg / Ca, Sr / Ca and δ18O datasets from three drip sites, we determined that the processes of mixing, dilution, flow path change, carbonate mineral dissolution and prior calcite precipitation (PCP) accounted for the observed variations in the drip-water geochemical composition. We identify that the three monitored drip sites are fed by fracture flow from a well-mixed epikarst storage reservoir, supplied by variable concentrations of dissolved ions from soil and bedrock dissolution. We constrained the influence of multiple processes and controls on drip-water composition in a region dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). During the El Niño and dry periods, enhanced PCP, a flow path change and dissolution due to increased soil CO2 production occurred in response to warmer than average temperatures in contrast to the La Niña phase, where dilution dominated and reduced PCP were observed. We present a conceptual model, illustrating the key processes impacting the drip-water chemistry. We identified a robust relationship between ENSO and drip-water trace element concentrations and propose that variations in speleothem Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios may be interpreted to reflect palaeorainfall conditions. These findings inform palaeorainfall reconstruction from

  1. Variations in car crash-related hospitalization costs amongst young adults in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Jan, S; Boufous, S; Martiniuk, A L C; Ivers, R; Senserrick, T; Norton, R; Muscatello, D

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to examine factors associated with variation in crash-related hospitalization costs for young adults in New South Wales (NSW), Australia with a particular focus on types of vehicle occupant, rurality of residence and socioeconomic status (SES). Data on patients aged 17-25 years, admitted to public hospitals due to a crash during July 2000-June 2007 were extracted from the NSW Health Admission Collection database. The hospitalization cost of each admission was calculated based on published charges for specific Australian Refined-Diagnosis Related Groups (AR-DRG). Multivariable analyses using generalized estimating equations were used to estimate costs by vehicle occupant type (driver, passenger and other occupants), rurality of residence (urban, regional and rural areas) and SES (low, moderate and high SES areas). During 2000-2007, there were 11,892 crash-related hospitalizations involving young adults, aged 17-25 years, in NSW. These cost the health sector about A$87.6 million or on average, A$7363 per hospitalization (mean length of stay (LOS) 5.3 days). Compared to drivers, passengers had significantly longer LOS (<0.01) as well as higher hospitalization costs (p = 0.04). Regional and rural young adults had significantly longer LOS and higher hospitalization costs compared to urban young adults (p<0.05). Compared with young adults from high SES areas, young adults from moderate SES areas had significantly higher costs (p = 0.02), whilst the higher costs for young adults of low SES areas was borderline significant (p = 0.06), although differences in LOS by SES were not significant. Annually, young adults' crashes in NSW were estimated to cost the health sector at least A$14.6 million between 2001 and 2007. The higher hospitalization costs and LOS for young adults living in regional and rural vs. urban areas, and those living in moderate and low SES vs. high SES areas partly reflects the severity of these crashes and challenges for treatment. Based

  2. Landslide tsunami hazard in New South Wales, Australia: novel observations from 3D modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Hannah; Clarke, Samantha; Hubble, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the potential of tsunami inundation generated from two case study sites of submarine mass failures on the New South Wales coast of Australia. Two submarine mass failure events are investigated: the Bulli Slide and the Shovel Slide. Both slides are located approximately 65 km southeast of Sydney and 60 km east of the township of Wollongong. The Bulli Slide (~20 km3) and the Shovel Slide (7.97 km3) correspond to the two largest identified erosional surface submarine landslides scars of the NSW continental margin (Glenn et al. 2008; Clarke 2014) and represent examples of large to very large submarine landslide scars. The Shovel Slide is a moderately thick (80-165 m), moderately wide to wide (4.4 km) slide, and is located in 880 m water depth; and the Bulli Slide is an extremely thick (200-425 m), very wide (8.9 km) slide, and is located in 1500 m water depth. Previous work on the east Australian margin (Clarke et al., 2014) and elsewhere (Harbitz et al., 2013) suggests that submarine landslides similar to the Bulli Slide or the Shovel Slide are volumetrically large enough and occur at shallow enough water depths (400-2500 m) to generate substantial tsunamis that could cause widespread damage on the east Australian coast and threaten coastal communities (Burbidge et al. 2008; Clarke 2014; Talukder and Volker 2014). Currently, the tsunamogenic potential of these two slides has only been investigated using 2D modelling (Clarke 2014) and to date it has been difficult to establish the onshore tsunami surge characteristics for the submarine landslides with certainty. To address this knowledge gap, the forecast inundation as a result of these two mass failure events was investigated using a three-dimensional model (ANUGA) that predicts water flow resulting from natural hazard events such as tsunami (Nielsen et al., 2005). The ANUGA model solves the two-dimensional shallow water wave equations and accurately models the process of wetting and drying thus

  3. Testing-adjusted chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales, Australia, 2000 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Darren; Reynolds, Roderick; Spokes, Paula; Madeddu, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Between 2005 and 2010, Australian notification rates for chlamydia infection increased by 64% from 203 to 333 per 100 000 population. Interpreting this trend is difficult without examining rates and local patterns of testing. We examined the effect of adjusting for local testing rates on chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2000 to 2010. Methods We used testing data for NSW residents for Medicare Benefits Schedule items for chlamydia from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2005 and 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2010. This data set excluded testing by public sector laboratories. We also obtained laboratory-confirmed genital chlamydia notifications in NSW residents for 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2010 and excluded notifications from public laboratories. We used negative binomial regression to assess trends in chlamydia notification rates by age and sex after adjusting for local government area (LGA)-level Medicare-funded testing rates, socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Medicare provider density. Results Testing-adjusted rates of chlamydia notifications declined by 5.2% per annum (rate ratio [RR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93–0.96) for women overall, and 2.3% (RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96–1.00) and 5.0% per annum (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.93–0.98) for men in LGAs with moderate and high densities of Medicare providers, respectively. Notification rates remained stable for men in low Medicare provider density LGAs (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.96–1.07). Discussion It is likely that increased testing for chlamydia has driven increases in chlamydia notification in NSW over the last decade. Notification data provide no evidence for a general increase in the prevalence of chlamydia in the NSW community for this period. Notification-based chlamydia surveillance should be routinely adjusted for local testing rates. PMID:25648858

  4. Magnetic Susceptibility Cyclostratigraphy of the Ediacaran Wonoka Formation, South Australia, from a Portable Susceptibility Meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minguez, D. A.; Kodama, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of a rock magnetic cyclostratigraphy of the Ediacaran Wonoka Fm., from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. The Wonoka Fm. records the Shuram C-isotope excursion, and the results of this study provide an estimate of its duration. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility (MS) were made in the field with a portable susceptibility meter (GF Instruments SM-20) every 0.4 m over 600 m of dominantly carbonate stratigraphic section, with a 100 meter interval of fine sand turbidites. We filter the data series to pass wavelengths shorter than 300 meters (the Rayleigh frequency for our data series) and use Multi Taper Method (MTM) time series analysis to estimate the power spectrum of the series. We fit a red noise model to the MTM spectrum and calculate 99% chi squared confidence limits to identify cycles with statistical significance. Unambiguous spectral peaks rise above the 99% confidence level with wavelengths of 116.9 m, 45.5 m, 23.1 m, 7.0 m, 2.5 m, 1.7 m, 1.3 m, 1.2 m, 0.9 m, and 0.8 m. Haines (1988, Sed. Geo. V 58) recognizes cycles in clastic sediment delivery to the carbonate portions of the Wonoka with an average wavelength of 8 m and hypothesizes a climate driver related to Milankovitch cycles. The 7 m cycle in MS is likely a more precise measure of the same phenomenon. Furthermore, cycles with wavelengths of 24.1 m, 7.0 m, 1.7m, 1.26 m, and 0.9 m exhibit ratios matching modeled durations of long eccentricity (405 kyr), short eccentricity (123 kyr), obliquity (29 kyr), and the 2 periods of precession (19 and 14 kyr) for the late Neoproterozoic. This interpretation yields a duration of 10 Myr for the 600 m we sampled. Assuming a constant sedimentation rate yields an 11.3 Myr estimate for the ~675 m thick Shuram C-isotope excursion. However, uncertainty lies in applying the MTM-based estimate to the turbidite section. Our estimate will be refined and compared with laboratory rock magnetic measurements in an ongoing study of the Wonoka Fm.

  5. Carbonate production and deposition in a warm-temperate macroalgal environment, Investigator Strait, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Noel P.; Bone, Yvonne

    2011-08-01

    The prolific macroalgal forests in shallow (< 20 m), warm-temperate, marine environments off southern Yorke Peninsula, South Australia have two carbonate-producing habitats, 1) upward-facing, exposed rock surfaces beneath large phaeophytes, and 2) concealed rock surfaces under overhangs, on rock walls, in crevasses, and indentations that all lie behind a curtain of brown macroalgae. Exposed surfaces have three growth tiers; 1) a basal, cm-high veneer or turf of crustose corallines, geniculate corallines, and short fleshy red algae that are grazed by herbivorous gastropods, 2) an intermediate, 5-20 cm-high community of fleshy red algae, and 3) a 20-100 cm+-high canopy of large phaeophytes (especially Ecklonia, Cystophora and Xiophora) whose blades are locally encrusted with bryozoans, such as Membranipora membranacea, and spirorbids. Concealed surfaces of subvertical rock walls and cryptic habitats behind the macroalgal curtain have two tiers; 1) a cornucopia of encrusting plants and animals, especially crustose and geniculate corallines in shallow water, that give way in water depths > 4 m to numerous bryozoans (especially fenestrates), serpulid worms, numerous and diverse demosponges, ascidians, small solitary corals, epifaunal echinoids, and gastropods, and 2) a veil of macroalgae (mainly Cystophora and Ecklonia) that drapes down and shades the rock walls. Most carbonate sediment production does not come from calcareous epiphytes on the macroalgae but comes from the coralline algae and calcareous invertebrates living on the rock walls and in concealed depressions. Mollusks (gastropods and bivalves) and geniculate coralline algae with numerous lithoclasts, crustose coralline fragments, barnacle plates, serpulid worms, bryozoans, and large benthic foraminifers (especially Amphistegina) dominate the resultant gravels and sands; but there is little or no mud. This is because carbonate sediment is the result of production not only in the macrophyte factory but also in

  6. Personal injury recovery cost of pedestrian-vehicle collisions in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Bambach, Mike R

    2016-07-03

    There is a need for routine estimates of injury recovery costs from pedestrian collisions using hospital separation records for economic evaluations. To estimate the cost of injury recovery following pedestrian-vehicle collisions using the personal injury recover cost (PIRC) equation using key demographic and injury characteristics. An estimation of the costs of on-road pedestrian-vehicle collisions involving individuals who were injured and hospitalized in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, from 2002 to 2011 using the PIRC equation. The PIRC estimates individual injury recovery costs and does not include costs associated with property damage, vehicle repair, or rescue services. Individual recovery costs associated with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were estimated. The injured individual's mean, median, and total injury recovery costs are described for key demographic, injury, and crash characteristics. There were 9,781 pedestrians who were injured, costing an estimated total of $2.4 billion in personal injury recovery costs, an annual cost of $243 million. Males had a total injury recovery cost 1.7 times higher than females. The median injury recovery cost decreased with increasing age. TBI ($248,491) and spinal cord and vertebral column injuries ($264,103) had the highest median injury recovery costs for the body region of the most severe injury. TBI accounted for 22.6% of the total injury recovery costs for the most severe injury sustained. Just over one third of pedestrians sustained 4 or more injuries, with a median cost of $243,992, which was 1.6 times higher than the cost for a pedestrian who sustained a single injury ($153,682). Personal injury recovery costs following pedestrian-vehicle collisions where a pedestrian is injured are substantial in NSW. The PIRC equation enables the economic cost burden of road traffic injury to be calculated using hospital separation data. The PIRC enables comprehensive personal injury recovery costs to be estimated

  7. Inorganic pollution of the sediments of the River Torrens, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, R. J. B.; Gale, S. J.; Winchester, H. P. M.

    2006-05-01

    The River Torrens plays a vital role in the economic, social and environmental life of South Australia. The river rises on the Adelaide Hills and flows west across the Adelaide Plains, bisecting the city of Adelaide and reaching the sea at the Gulf of St Vincent. The bed sediments of the Torrens were sampled from its headwaters to the coast and analysed for cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, phosphorus and zinc. With the exception of chromium, the concentration of every metal investigated lies above the national trigger value for sediment quality at some point along the course of the river. The sediments of the headwaters exhibit high values of copper and zinc, although these probably reflect natural background conditions rather than pollution. By contrast, in the residential areas that dominate the Adelaide Plains, almost every site is contaminated by lead and zinc, some to well beyond the point of biological damage. Several residential sites, notably those downstream of the city of Adelaide, are also polluted by cadmium. Within the industrial zone around the city, every site is contaminated by lead and zinc, with concentrations at some locations far beyond the threshold for ecological damage. Several industrial sites are also polluted by cadmium and copper. There are no national guidelines against which to assess the phosphorus content of the sediments. However, there is strong evidence that human activities have had a significant impact on phosphorus levels in the river. Major cyanobacterial blooms along the lower Torrens have been linked to the release of nutrients from the sediments, and phosphorus concentrations in the water have reached dramatic levels. Much of this contamination appears to be a consequence of past pollution practices. In particular, the severe pollution along the reach immediately to the west of the city may be largely attributed to the former concentration of metallurgical and chemical industries in that area. These problems are likely to

  8. Barriers around access to abortion experienced by rural women in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Doran, Frances M; Hornibrook, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about Australian rural women's overall experiences of accessing an abortion service and the barriers they encounter. Approximately one in three Australian women access an abortion at some time in their lives. Most abortions are undertaken during the first trimester of pregnancy in private clinics. Although both medical and surgical abortions are uncomplicated medical procedures, abortion remains a contentious area of women's health. Whilst it is clear that rural women experience disparities in relation to access to health care, there is a gap in the evidence on rural women's experiences of accessing an abortion. The aim of the present study was to identify factors that women in rural New South Wales (NSW) experience in accessing abortion services and suggestions about how rural women could be better supported when seeking access to an abortion service. In-depth qualitative interviews were undertaken with rural women living in NSW who had had an abortion in the previous 15 years. Participants self-selected for a phone or face-to-face interview, in response to promotion of the study through women's services, community flyers and press releases. Rural women in this study experienced many barriers to accessing an abortion. Women travelled 1-9 hours one way to access an abortion in clinics. Several women borrowed money for the abortion fee. Five themes were identified: finding information about the provider; stigma, shame and secrecy; logistics involved in accessing the clinic related to travel, money and support; medical and surgical abortion; and ways rural women could be better supported in this process. Suggestions to improve rural women's access to abortion services included more affordable services that were 'closer to home' as a way to reduce travel and cost, and to normalise abortion as a women's health rights issue. Despite welcome legal and pharmaceutical reform in Australia, results from this small study indicate that there is a long way to go

  9. Mortality among a Cohort of Persons with an Intellectual Disability in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Florio, Tony; Trollor, Julian

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the study was to compare mortality for people with an intellectual disability (ID) to the general population in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A second objective was to provide mortality data for people with an intellectual disability from NSW in a standardized format, which allows for international comparisons of the mortality of people with an intellectual disability. The study was a longitudinal cohort study linking retrospective data from the population databases of the NSW Department of Ageing, Disability and Home Care (ADHC) Intellectual Disability Services Dataset (intellectual disability cohort) to the mortality data set of the NSW Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages (RBDM) for the period 1 June 2005 to 31 December 2011. The two groups of interest for this study were persons with an intellectual disability recorded in the intellectual disability cohort (953 deaths among 42,219 persons over 270,649 person-years of observation) and the rest of the NSW population (312,649 deaths among over 7,218,529 persons [2011 population] and 45,818,946 person-years of observation). In this study, we compared the intellectual disability cohort with the rest of the NSW population using age-adjusted death rates (ADRs), standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and age standardized death rates (ASDRs) based upon the World Health Organization (WHO) standard population. We found a significantly higher mortality in a cohort of people with an intellectual disability compared to the rest of the NSW population. The intellectual disability cohort compared to the rest of the NSW population had an SMR of 2.48 for all ages and an SMR of 3.15 for those aged 5-69 years. We also found an SMR for females (4.26) with an intellectual disability that was significantly higher than that for males (2.52) with an intellectual disability. The ASDR for the intellectual disability cohort was 4.04 (deaths per 1000) and the ASDR for the rest of the NSW population was 1

  10. Humeral Fractures in South-Eastern Australia: Epidemiology and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Kara L; Bucki-Smith, Gosia; Morse, Amelia G; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon L; Kotowicz, Mark A; Moloney, David J; Sanders, Kerrie M; Korn, Sam; Timney, Elizabeth N; Dobbins, Amelia G; Pasco, Julie A

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the epidemiology and risk factors for humeral fractures (proximal humerus and shaft) among men and women residing in south-eastern Australia. Incident fractures during 2006 and 2007 were identified using X-ray reports (Geelong Osteoporosis Study Fracture Grid). Risk factors were identified using data from case-control studies conducted as part of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Median age of fracture was lower in males than females for proximal humerus (33.0 vs 71.2 years), but not for humeral shaft (8.9 vs 8.5 years). For females, proximal humerus fractures occurred mainly in the 70-79 and 80+ years age groups, whereas humeral shaft fractures followed a U-shaped pattern. Males showed a U-shaped pattern for both proximal humerus and humeral shaft fractures. Overall age-standardised incidence rates for proximal humerus fractures in males and females were 40.6 (95% CI 32.7, 48.5) and 73.2 (95% CI 62.2, 84.1) per 100,000 person years, respectively. For humeral shaft fractures, the age-standardised rate was 69.3 (95% CI 59.0, 79.6) for males and 61.5 (95% CI 51.9, 71.0) for females. There was an increase in risk of proximal humerus fractures in men with a lower femoral neck BMD, younger age, prior fracture and higher milk consumption. In pre-menopausal women, increased height and falls were both risk factors for proximal humerus fractures. For post-menopausal women, risk factors associated with proximal humerus fractures included a lower non-milk dairy consumption and sustaining a prior fracture. Humeral shaft fractures in both sexes were sustained mainly in childhood, while proximal humerus fractures were sustained in older adulthood. The overall age-standardised rates of proximal humerus fractures were nearly twice as high in females compared to males, whereas the incidence rates of humeral shaft fractures were similar.

  11. Age and origin of Terra Rossa soils in the Coonawarra area of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Aija C.; Bestland, Erick A.; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2004-03-01

    The famous Terra Rossa soil in the Coonawarra area, South Australia, is dominated by locally derived aeolian detritus, which probably accumulated over the last 120-130 ka. Four soil profiles and associated limestone and lunette deposits were investigated using the following methods: mass balance geochemistry of bulk soil samples (major and trace elements), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, strontium isotopes (87/86), as well as grain-size analysis and cation exchange capacity. These data show that the Terra Rossa soil from the Coonawarra has a thick, clayey B-horizon which is geochemically homogeneous and dominated by smectite and kaolinite. Mass-balance calculations show unrealistic weathering scenarios when plotted using silicate residuum from the underlying limestone as parent. Realistic weathering scenarios are produced with fine-grained silicate material from local lunette deposits as parent. Strontium isotopes of silicate residuum from Gambier Limestone (0.78) contrast strongly with the clayey B-horizon (0.726). Strontium isotope ratios of silicate material from a local lunette (0.725) are similar to the B-horizon soil values. Strontium isotope ratios from regional geological units indicate that the strontium signature in the lunette and soil B-horizon is dominated by weathering products from the Palaeozoic Kanmantoo shales, extensively exposed upwind to the west on Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. Optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating of 61 individual quartz grains (single aliquot) from three samples in the Coonawarra soil profile (one from the A-horizon and two from the B-horizon) shows that most of the quartz sand grains have been buried for only a few thousand years. Many of the grains, however, have been buried for tens of thousands of years with three grains having exposure ages of between 105 and 109 ka. The large population of young exposure dates represents quartz sands recently exposed in the A-horizon and

  12. Detection of Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens in faeces from naturally infected rural domestic dogs in south eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D J; McKinlay, A; Duolong, H E; Bradshaw, H; Craig, P S

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of Echinococcus granulosus in rural domestic dogs in farming areas around Yass, New South Wales, and Mansfield and Whitfield, Victoria. Faeces were collected per-rectally from farm dogs voluntarily presented by their owners in four farming districts in New South Wales and two in Victoria. Faeces were collected in the field, an extract prepared from each sample and E granulosus coproantigens detected in an ELISA. Farmers were also questioned about their dog feeding and worming practices. Echinococcus granulosus coproantigens were detected in 99 of 344 dogs (29%) from 95 farms in south eastern New South Wales and 38 of 217 dogs (17.5%) from 43 farms in Victoria. Cross-reactions between E granulosus coproantigen trapping antibody and coproantigens in faeces from dogs monospecifically infected with other species of intestinal helminthes (Taenia ovis, T hydatigena, T pisiformis, Spirometra ericacei, Dipylidium caninum, hookworm, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis) were not evident. Dietary and worming data revealed many owners fed raw meat and occasionally offal from domestic livestock and wildlife to their dogs and few owners wormed their dogs frequently enough to preclude the chance of patent E granulosus being present in their dogs. Echinococcus granulosus occurs commonly in rural dogs in south eastern Australia and an education program promoting the public health importance of responsible management of rural dogs is urgently needed.

  13. Metal levels in seston and marine fish flesh near industrial and metropolitan centres in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J W; Edyvane, K S; Boxall, V A; Hamann, M; Soole, K L

    2001-05-01

    Port Pirie is the site of the largest lead smelter in the world, depositing 250 t of zinc, and 100 t of lead annually into Spencer Gulf. Barker Inlet is adjacent to metropolitan Adelaide, and receives unknown quantities of urban and industrial discharges. Both areas are sites of major commercial and recreational fisheries, contained within delicately balanced marine wetland ecosystems, comprising large areas of mangrove and seagrass habitats. Aldrichetta forsteri and Sillago schomburgkii are major species within these fisheries and as estuarine-dependent species were chosen for this study as indicator species for the detection and monitoring of pollutant impacts in the nearshore marine ecosystems of South Australia. Seston sediment collectors were deployed at each site and analysed seasonally for the presence of cadmium, lead and copper. Flesh samples from A. forsteri and S. schomburgkii were examined seasonally for the presence of cadmium, lead and copper and the results correlated with levels found in the seston sediment at each site. Metal concentrations were also correlated with a biomarker of genotoxicity measured in the same animals (micronuclei in erythrocytes) that were reported previously. Seston levels of cadmium, lead and copper were highest at Port Pirie, followed by Barker Inlet and were lowest at Wills Creek, with cadmium undetectable at the latter site. Metals in seston varied considerably with season, with generally higher levels in winter samples. In fish flesh, metal levels followed broadly similar trends as for seston. Spearman rank correlations between metals in seston and in flesh were strongly positive. There was also a significant correlation between flesh concentrations of each metal and the frequency of micronuclei in erythrocytes. This study has shown that seston concentration of pollutant metals are high in areas of industrial activity, and that these levels are also reflected in metal content of fish flesh. Mean flesh levels of cadmium

  14. Characteristics and Aspirations of Older Learners from Twelve U3A Campuses in New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindell, Rick

    A June 1990 survey was used to determine characteristics and aspirations of University of the Third Age (U3A) participants in Australia. The overall response rate was 73 percent. The three parts of the survey questionnaire collected information regarding wider adult education questions such as educational background, extent of activity in leisure…

  15. A multi-locus molecular phylogeny for Australia's iconic Jacky Dragon (Agamidae: Amphibolurus muricatus): phylogeographic structure along the Great Dividing Range of south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Mitzy; Barquero, Marco D; Whiting, Martin J; Keogh, J Scott

    2014-02-01

    Jacky dragons (Amphibolurus muricatus) are ubiquitous in south-eastern Australia and were one of the first Australian reptiles to be formally described. Because they are so common, Jacky dragons are widely used as a model system for research in evolutionary biology and ecology. In addition, their distribution along the Great Dividing Range of eastern Australia provides an opportunity to examine the influence of past biogeographical processes, particularly the expansion and contraction of forest habitats, on the diversification of this iconic agamid lizard. We generated sequence data for two mitochondrial and three nuclear DNA loci (4251base pairs) for 62 Jacky dragons sampled from throughout their distribution. Phylogenetic analyses based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian species-tree methods revealed five geographically structured clades separated by up to 6% mitochondrial and 0.7% nuclear sequence divergence. We also quantified body proportion variation within and between these genetic clades for more than 500 specimens and found no evidence of any significant differentiation in body proportions across their range. Based on body proportion homogeneity and lack of resolution in the nuclear loci, we do not support taxonomic recognition of any of the mitochondrial clades. Instead, A. muricatus is best thought of as a single species with phylogeographic structure. The genetic patterns observed in the Jacky dragon are consistent with fragmented populations reduced to multiple refugia during cold, arid phases when forested habitats were greatly restricted. Consequently, the inferred biogeographic barriers for this taxon appear to be in line with lowland breaks in the mountain ranges. Our results are congruent with studies of other reptiles, frogs, mammals, birds and invertebrates, and together highlight the overarching effects of widespread climatic and habitat fluctuations along the Great Dividing Range since the Pliocene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Pregnant women's use of information and communications technologies to access pregnancy-related health information in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Rodger, D; Skuse, A; Wilmore, M; Humphreys, S; Dalton, J; Flabouris, M; Clifton, V L

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how pregnant women living in South Australia use information and communication technologies (ICTs), principally Internet and mobile phones, to access pregnancy-related information. It draws on 35 semistructured interviews conducted as part of the 'Health-e Baby' project, a qualitative study designed to assess the information needs and ICT preferences of pregnant women cared for at a South Australian metropolitan teaching hospital. Our research shows that although ICTs offer exciting possibilities for health promotion and the potential for new forms of communication, networking and connection, we cannot assume the effectiveness of communicating through such channels, despite near universal levels of ICT access. In turn, this highlights that if e-mediated health promotion is to be effective, health promoters and practitioners need to better understand ICT access, usage and content preferences of their clients.

  17. Antibodies to the Ross River virus in captive marsupials in urban areas of eastern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Old, Julie M; Deane, Elizabeth M

    2005-07-01

    Serum samples collected from 224 tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii) in two captive populations in urban areas in eastern New South Wales Australia, between December 1999 and May 2004, were tested for antibodies to Ross River virus (RRV). In one population in northwest Sydney, 21 animals (11%) tested positive, and in another population in Newcastle, New South Wales, thirteen (33%) of the animals were positive. Antibodies were detected in four of 11 wallaroos (Macropus robustus) (36%) but not in parma wallabies (Macropus parma) (n=5), koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) (n=12) and southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) (n=2) from the Sydney area. These data support the possible role of marsupials as urban amplifying hosts for RRV.

  18. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little

  19. Is Drosera meristocaulis a pygmy sundew? Evidence of a long-distance dispersal between Western Australia and northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Rivadavia, F.; de Miranda, V. F. O.; Hoogenstrijd, G.; Pinheiro, F.; Heubl, G.; Fleischmann, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims South America and Oceania possess numerous floristic similarities, often confirmed by morphological and molecular data. The carnivorous Drosera meristocaulis (Droseraceae), endemic to the Neblina highlands of northern South America, was known to share morphological characters with the pygmy sundews of Drosera sect. Bryastrum, which are endemic to Australia and New Zealand. The inclusion of D. meristocaulis in a molecular phylogenetic analysis may clarify its systematic position and offer an opportunity to investigate character evolution in Droseraceae and phylogeographic patterns between South America and Oceania. Methods Drosera meristocaulis was included in a molecular phylogenetic analysis of Droseraceae, using nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid rbcL and rps16 sequence data. Pollen of D. meristocaulis was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy techniques, and the karyotype was inferred from root tip meristem. Key Results The phylogenetic inferences (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches) substantiate with high statistical support the inclusion of sect. Meristocaulis and its single species, D. meristocaulis, within the Australian Drosera clade, sister to a group comprising species of sect. Bryastrum. A chromosome number of 2n = approx. 32–36 supports the phylogenetic position within the Australian clade. The undivided styles, conspicuous large setuous stipules, a cryptocotylar (hypogaeous) germination pattern and pollen tetrads with aperture of intermediate type 7–8 are key morphological traits shared between D. meristocaulis and pygmy sundews of sect. Bryastrum from Australia and New Zealand. Conclusions The multidisciplinary approach adopted in this study (using morphological, palynological, cytotaxonomic and molecular phylogenetic data) enabled us to elucidate the relationships of the thus far unplaced taxon D. meristocaulis. Long-distance dispersal between southwestern

  20. Colorectal cancer screening in rural and remote areas: analysis of the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program data for South Australia.

    PubMed

    Martini, Angelita; Javanparast, Sara; Ward, Paul R; Baratiny, Genevieve; Gill, Tiffany; Cole, Stephen; Tsourtos, George; Aylward, Paul; Jiwa, Moyez; Misan, Gary; Wilson, Carlene; Young, Graeme P

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, colorectal cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer and cause of death from malignant diseases, and its incidence is rising. The aim of this article was to present an analysis of National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) data for rural and remote South Australia (SA), in order to identify geographical areas and population groups that may benefit from targeted approaches to increase participation rates in colorectal cancer screening. De-identified data from the NBCSP (February 2007 to July 2008) were provided by Medicare Australia. Mapping and analysis of the NBCSP data was performed using ESRI ArcGIS (http://www.esri.com/software/arcgis/index.html) and MapInfo (http://slp.pbinsight.com/info/mipro-sem-au). Data were aggregated to postcode and Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA) and participation was then mapped according to overall participation rates, sex, age, Indigenous status and Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA)-Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage (IRSD). The participants were South Australians who turned 55 and 65 years between 2007 and 2008 who returned the completed NBCSP test sent to them by Medicare Australia. The overall participation rate was 46.1% in rural and remote SA, although this was statistically significantly different (p<.001) according to sex (46.7% for males and 53.3% for females), age (45.2% for those 55 years, and 52% for those 65 years), socio-economic status (from 43% in 'most deprived' quintile to 50% in 'most affluent' quintile) and remoteness (45.6% for metropolitan, 46% for remote and 48.6% for rural areas). Indigenous participation was 0.5%. The findings of this study suggest lower NBCSP participation rates for people from metropolitan and remote areas, compared with those from rural areas. The uptake of cancer screening is lower for older rural and remote residents, men, Indigenous people, lower socioeconomic groups and those living in the Far North subdivision of SA.

  1. Summer and winter plankton fish assemblages around offshore oil and gas platforms in south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, Francisco J.

    2005-06-01

    Opportunistic plankton surveys were conducted within a 5-nmi radius of nine offshore oil and gas platforms in Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia, in February 1998 and 1999 (summer) and August 1998 (winter). The 108 day-night samples collected alongside (vertical tows) and nearby (surface and oblique tows) platforms yielded 1526 larval and early juvenile fishes representing 55 taxa from 45 families. Epipelagic/mesopelagic taxa dominated the catches, whereas hard/soft habitat-associated taxa were uncommon. Carangidae (36.2%) and Myctophidae (31.5%) dominated in summer and winter, respectively. The most abundant taxon was Trachurus declivis (Carangidae, 35.1%), followed by Bovichtus angustifrons (Bovichtidae, 8.7%), Scomberesox saurus (Scomberesocidae, 3.7%), Centroberyx affinis (Berycidae, 3.0%) and Arripis trutta (Arripidae, 1.7%). Fish concentrations (nos. per 100 m 3) alongside platforms did not differ significantly between day and night across all surveys. Likewise, concentrations nearby platforms in February 1999, including those of T. declivis, did not vary significantly by tow type (surface vs. oblique) or day vs. night. The far greater diversity and abundance recorded in February 1999 are likely the result of upwelling conditions over the eastern Bass Strait shelf during the sampling period, and which were not detected in February 1998. In the absence of data on adult fishes associated with the Bass Strait platforms, and given the limited availability of reefs directly around the area, it could be argued that some of the taxa caught may originate from spawning around neighboring natural reefs, particularly those off the Gippsland coastline and the south-east corner of mainland Australia. However, the prime position of the platforms almost right in the center of a productivity "hotspot" would have a confounding effect on the potential source(s) of larval fishes in that region of south-eastern Australia. The role of platforms as potential de-facto reefs for

  2. A review of Galaxiella pusilla (Mack) (Teleostei: Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia with a description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Rhys A; Hoffmann, Ary A; Raadik, Tarmo A

    2015-09-25

    The dwarf galaxias, Galaxiella pusilla (Mack), is a small, threatened freshwater fish from coastal south-eastern Australia. Recent genetic studies, using multiple nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, found substantial differences between populations in western Victoria and south Australia ('west region') compared to eastern Victoria, Flinders Island, and Tasmania ('east region') that suggest the presence of a cryptic species. Morphological measurements and meristic counts from multiple populations within each region were undertaken to investigate potential differences between regions. Several characters, found to discriminate between individuals in the regions and to be diagnostic for two taxa, were used to describe a new species, Galaxiella toourtkoourt, for the west region. This is only the second species in the Galaxiidae to exhibit sexual dimorphism. The original description of Galaxiella pusilla, based on five specimens, is revised following examination of a large number of individuals. Both species are considered nationally threatened and are categorised as 'endangered'; the revised distribution of G. pusilla s.s. is reduced by approximately 60%. A number of inconsistencies in the most recent revision of the genus Galaxiella are also corrected.

  3. Precambrian Cratons and Fold-Belts in Brazil: Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuck, R.

    2008-05-01

    the western border of the São Francisco craton and on the northeastern margin of the Paranapanema block. Deep seismic refraction and other geophysical and geological studies were able to discriminate several crust compartments within the Brasília belt, like the juvenile Goiás magmatic arc, the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Goiás massif, and the external belt zone, as distinguished from the São Francisco craton. The Borborema Province in northeast Brazil is a complex array of Neoproterozoic fold belts (Médio Coreaú, Seridó, Sergipana, Riacho do Pontal, Rio Preto) between the São Luiz and São Francisco cratons, partially covering different crustal blocks (NW Ceará, Ceará Central, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco-Alagoas) separated by large crustal-scale, strike-slip lineaments (Transbrasiliano, Senador Pompeu, Orós, Porta Alegre, Patos, Pernambuco, etc.). Basement of the crustal blocks is mainly Paleoproterozoic in age, but may include Archean cores (São José do Campestre, Grangeiro, Troia). South of the Patos lineament, Mesoproterozoic gneiss, granite and supracrustal belts are recorded in the Transversal domain, in the Pernambuco-Alagoas massif and in the Sergipano and Riacho do Pontal fold belts. Geophysical studies (MT sounding, gravity, seismology, deep seismic refraction, etc.) are underway in order to understand crustal structure and evolution of the province.

  4. Remote Sensing of Subsurface Fractures in the Otway Basin, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Adam; King, Rosalind; Holford, Simon; Hand, Martin

    2013-04-01

    A detailed understanding of naturally occurring fracture networks within the subsurface is becoming increasingly important to the energy sector, as the focus of exploration has expanded to include unconventional reservoirs such as coal seam gas, shale gas, tight gas, and engineered geothermal systems. Successful production from such reservoirs, where primary porosity and permeability is often negligible, is heavily reliant on structural permeability provided by naturally occurring and induced fracture networks, permeability, which is often not provided for through primary porosity and permeability. In this study the Penola Trough, located within the onshore Otway Basin in South Australia, is presented as a case study for remotely detecting and defining subsurface fracture networks that may contribute to secondary permeability. This area is prospective for shale and tight gas and geothermal energy. The existence and nature of natural fractures is verified through an integrated analysis of geophysical logs (including wellbore image logs) and 3D seismic data. Wellbore image logs from 11 petroleum wells within the Penola Trough were interpreted for both stress indicators and natural fractures. A total of 507 naturally occurring fractures were identified, striking approximately WNE-ESE. Fractures which are aligned in the in-situ stress field are optimally oriented for reactivation, and are hence likely to be open to fluid flow. Fractures are identifiable as being either resistive or conductive sinusoids on the resistivity image logs used in this study. Resistive fractures, of which 239 were identified, are considered to be cemented with electrically resistive cements (such as quartz or calcite) and thus closed to fluid flow. Conductive fractures, of which 268 were identified, are considered to be uncemented and open to fluid flow, and thus important to geothermal exploration. Fracture susceptibility diagrams constructed for the identified fractures illustrate that the

  5. Exploring interhospital transfers and partnerships in the hospital sector in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Leeder, Stephen R

    2016-11-04

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore characteristics of interhospital transfers (IHT) and sharing of care among hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia.Methods Data were extracted from patient-level linked hospital administrative datasets for separations from all NSW acute care hospitals from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2015. Patient discharge and arrival information was used to identify IHTs. Characteristics of patients and related hospitals were then analysed.Results Transfer-in patients accounted for 3.9% of all NSW admitted patients and, overall, 7.3% of NSW admissions were associated with transfers (IHT rate). Patients with injuries and circulatory system diseases had the highest IHT rate, accounting for one-third of all IHTs. Patients were more often transferred to larger than smaller hospitals (61% vs 29%). Compared with private hospitals, public hospitals had a higher IHT rate (8.4% vs 5.1%) and a greater proportion of transfer-out IHTs (52% vs 28%). Larger public hospitals had lower IHT rates (3-8%) compared with smaller public hospitals (13-26%). Larger public hospitals received and retransferred higher proportions of IHT patients (52-58% and 11% respectively) than their smaller counterparts (26-30% and 2-3% respectively). Less than one-quarter of IHTs were between the public and private sectors or between government health regions. The number of interacting hospitals and their interactions varied across hospital peer groups.Conclusion NSW IHTs were often to hospitals with greater speciality services. The patterns of interhospital interactions could be affected by organisational and regional preferences.What is known about the topic? IHTs aim to provide efficient and effective care. Nonetheless, information on transfers and the sharing of care among hospitals in an Australian setting is lacking. Studies of transfers and hospital partnership patterns will inform efforts to improve patient-centred transfers and hospital accountability in

  6. Cultural Diversity, Racialisation and the Experience of Racism in Rural Australia: The South Australian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrest, James; Dunn, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Rural spaces in settler nations like Australia are commonly perceived as "white", with low numbers of "non-white" ethnic minorities. Perhaps because of this, although ethnic diversity is a feature of some rural communities, there is a paucity of research into issues of cultural exclusion. This is surprising in view of recent…

  7. Internet Usage in Small Businesses in Regional South Australia: Service Learning Opportunities for a Local University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nina; Sawyer, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The Internet offers opportunities for electronic trading in the global marketplace and as such it can provide substantial benefits to a business. Despite this, the rate of adoption of e-commerce by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Australia has been slower than anticipated and these benefits are not being realised (Pease & Rowe,…

  8. Comprehensive Secondary Schools in Australia: A View from Newcastle, New South Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcan, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The two most significant events in government secondary schools in Australia between the end of the Second World War in 1945 and the cultural revolution of the late 1960s and early 1970s were the vast expansion in enrolments and the curricular changes entailed, in part, by these. Between 1953 and 1964 four of the six states introduced…

  9. Remote Control: A Spatial-History of Correspondence Schooling in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In large continental landmasses such as Australia, forms of education, including correspondence schooling, emerged in the early twentieth century that allowed children in remote regions to access education. To make such schooling possible, other "technologies" of state provision were mobilised such as the postal system, rail network, and…

  10. MISR Stereo Imagery of Blue Mountain Fires in New South Wales, Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-17

    ... mild winter and an extremely hot September in Australia have led to an early start to the fire season Down Under. A number of significant ... can be viewed with standard red/blue 3D glasses with the red lens over the left eye. Sydney itself is in the bottom center of the image, ...

  11. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia.

  12. Internet Usage in Small Businesses in Regional South Australia: Service Learning Opportunities for a Local University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nina; Sawyer, Janet

    2009-01-01

    The Internet offers opportunities for electronic trading in the global marketplace and as such it can provide substantial benefits to a business. Despite this, the rate of adoption of e-commerce by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Australia has been slower than anticipated and these benefits are not being realised (Pease & Rowe,…

  13. Lessons Learned from the Hunter Region Health Promoting Schools in New South Wales, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynagh, Marita; Knight, Jenny; Schofield, Margot J.; Paras, Lorraine

    1999-01-01

    Describes development over five years of Australia's Hunter Region Health Promoting Schools Project, noting barriers to health-promoting schools, examining the new approach to health promotion, discussing the minimum set of health-promotion actions for reducing risk behaviors (increasing knowledge and skills, modifying availability of products,…

  14. Comprehensive Secondary Schools in Australia: A View from Newcastle, New South Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcan, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The two most significant events in government secondary schools in Australia between the end of the Second World War in 1945 and the cultural revolution of the late 1960s and early 1970s were the vast expansion in enrolments and the curricular changes entailed, in part, by these. Between 1953 and 1964 four of the six states introduced…

  15. A Comparison of Science Laboratory Classrooms in Asia, Australia, South Pacific and USA: An International Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giddings, Geoffrey; Waldrip, Bruce G.

    This study attempted to compare the science laboratory learning environments of secondary schools across both developed and developing countries (Australia, Brunei, Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, United States, Vanuatu, and Western Samoa). The study used a version of the Science Laboratory Learning…

  16. Drinking & Congenital Birth Defects: Alcohol Awareness in the Northern Rivers Region of New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeigh, Tony; Dip, Grad; Kean, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Guidelines developed to minimise the risk of harm associated with alcohol consumption in Australia focus on promoting population health by changing cultural attitudes. This research study was conducted to uncover attitudes toward maternal drinking and awareness of alcohol-related birth defects within the semi-rural Northern Rivers area of…

  17. Remote Control: A Spatial-History of Correspondence Schooling in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symes, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In large continental landmasses such as Australia, forms of education, including correspondence schooling, emerged in the early twentieth century that allowed children in remote regions to access education. To make such schooling possible, other "technologies" of state provision were mobilised such as the postal system, rail network, and…

  18. A Widening Gap? Changes in Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours by Socioeconomic Status in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-2012.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ding; Do, Anna; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Bauman, Adrian E

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes have increased over the past few decades in some countries. However, the trends in inequalities related to multiple health risk behaviours have been infrequently reported. In this study, we examined the trends in individual health risk behaviours and a summary lifestyle risk index in New South Wales, Australia, and whether the absolute and relative inequalities in risk behaviours by socioeconomic positions have changed over time. Using data from the annual New South Wales Adult Population Health Survey during the period of 2002-2012, we examined four individual risk behaviours (smoking, higher than recommended alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, and insufficient physical activity) and a combined lifestyle risk indicator. Socioeconomic inequalities were assessed based on educational attainment and postal area-level index of relative socio-economic disadvantage (IRSD), and were presented as prevalence difference for absolute inequalities and prevalence ratio for relative inequalities. Trend tests and survey logistic regression models examined whether the degree of absolute and relative inequalities between the most and least disadvantaged subgroups have changed over time. The prevalence of all individual risk behaviours and the summary lifestyle risk indicator declined from 2002 to 2012. Particularly, the prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking decreased from 52.6% and 22% in 2002 to 43.8% and 17.1% in 2012 (p for trend<0.001). However, a significant trend was observed for increasing absolute and relative inequalities in smoking, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and the summary lifestyle risk indicator. The overall improvement in health behaviours in New South Wales, Australia, co-occurred with a widening socioeconomic gap. Governments should address health inequalities through risk factor surveillance and combined strategies of population-wide and targeted interventions.

  19. A Widening Gap? Changes in Multiple Lifestyle Risk Behaviours by Socioeconomic Status in New South Wales, Australia, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ding; Do, Anna; Schmidt, Heather-Marie; Bauman, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health outcomes have increased over the past few decades in some countries. However, the trends in inequalities related to multiple health risk behaviours have been infrequently reported. In this study, we examined the trends in individual health risk behaviours and a summary lifestyle risk index in New South Wales, Australia, and whether the absolute and relative inequalities in risk behaviours by socioeconomic positions have changed over time. Methods Using data from the annual New South Wales Adult Population Health Survey during the period of 2002–2012, we examined four individual risk behaviours (smoking, higher than recommended alcohol consumption, insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, and insufficient physical activity) and a combined lifestyle risk indicator. Socioeconomic inequalities were assessed based on educational attainment and postal area-level index of relative socio-economic disadvantage (IRSD), and were presented as prevalence difference for absolute inequalities and prevalence ratio for relative inequalities. Trend tests and survey logistic regression models examined whether the degree of absolute and relative inequalities between the most and least disadvantaged subgroups have changed over time. Results The prevalence of all individual risk behaviours and the summary lifestyle risk indicator declined from 2002 to 2012. Particularly, the prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking decreased from 52.6% and 22% in 2002 to 43.8% and 17.1% in 2012 (p for trend<0.001). However, a significant trend was observed for increasing absolute and relative inequalities in smoking, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and the summary lifestyle risk indicator. Conclusions The overall improvement in health behaviours in New South Wales, Australia, co-occurred with a widening socioeconomic gap. Implications Governments should address health inequalities through risk factor surveillance and combined

  20. African hot spot volcanism: small-scale convection in the upper mantle beneath cratons.

    PubMed

    King, S D; Ritsema, J

    2000-11-10

    Numerical models demonstrate that small-scale convection develops in the upper mantle beneath the transition of thick cratonic lithosphere and thin oceanic lithosphere. These models explain the location and geochemical characteristics of intraplate volcanos on the African and South American plates. They also explain the presence of relatively high seismic shear wave velocities (cold downwellings) in the mantle transition zone beneath the western margin of African cratons and the eastern margin of South American cratons. Small-scale, edge-driven convection is an alternative to plumes for explaining intraplate African and South American hot spot volcanism, and small-scale convection is consistent with mantle downwellings beneath the African and South American lithosphere.

  1. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, W.; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; Emelyanova, I.; Hodgson, G.; McFarlane, D.

    2012-05-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15%. There is expected to be a continuing reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia. Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A Vertical Flux Manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland), soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. These recharge estimates were accumulated on a daily basis for both observed and projected climate scenarios and used in a MODFLOW simulation with monthly stress periods. In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In the Dandaragan Plateau to the north-east of Perth there has been groundwater level rise since the 1970s associated with land clearing, and with rainfall projected to reduce the least in this area the groundwater levels are estimated to continue to rise. Along the coastal zone north of Perth there is an interaction between projected rainfall decline and legislated removal to pine forests. This results in areas of increasing

  2. Referrals to chiropractors and osteopaths: a survey of general practitioners in rural and regional New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chiropractic and osteopathy form a significant part of the healthcare setting in rural and regional Australia, with national registration of practitioners, public subsidies for services and high utilisation by the Australian public. However, despite their significant role in rural and regional Australia, there has been little exploration of the interface between chiropractic and osteopathy and conventional primary health care practitioners in this area. The study aim was to examine the referral practices and factors that underlie referral to chiropractors and osteopaths by rural and regional Australian general practitioners (GPs), by drawing on a sample of GPs in rural and regional New South Wales. Methods A 27-item questionnaire was sent to all 1486 GPs currently practising in rural and regional Divisions of General Practice in New South Wales, Australia. Results A total of 585 GPs responded to the questionnaire, with 49 questionnaires returned as “no longer at this address” (response rate: 40.7%). The majority of GPs (64.1%) referred to a chiropractor or osteopath at least a few times per year while 21.7% stated that they would not refer to a chiropractor or osteopath under any circumstances. Patients asking the GP about CAM (OR=3.59; CI: 1.12, 11.55), GP’s use of CAM practitioners as a major source of information (OR=4.39; 95% CI: 2.04, 9.41), lack of other treatment options (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.18, 5.12), access to a wide variety of medical specialists (OR=12.5; 95% CI: 2.4, 50.0), GP’s belief in the efficacy of chiropractic and osteopathy services (OR=3.39; 95% CI: 2.19, 5.25) and experiencing positive results from patients using these services previously (OR=1.67; CI: 1.02, 2.75) were all independently predictive of increased referral to chiropractic and osteopathy services amongst the rural GPs. Conclusions There is a significant interface between chiropractic and osteopathy and Australian rural and regional general practice in New South

  3. Two new mite species of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin, 1957 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae), parasites of the passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes) in Australia and South Asia.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Klompen, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Two new mite species of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin, 1957 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae) are described from passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes): Harpirhynchoides artamus n. sp. from Artamus fuscus Vieillot (Artamidae) from an unknown locality in South Asia and Neharpyrhynchus domrowi n. sp. from three host species of the family Meliphagidae, Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris (Latham) (type-host) from Australia (New South Walles), Ptiloprora perstriata (De Vis) and Myzomela rosenbergii Schlegel from Papua New Guinea.

  4. The metamorphic evolution from ultrahigh-temperature to amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Odaesan area after the collision between the North and South China Cratons in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Keewook

    2016-07-01

    The Odaesan Gneiss Complex (Odesan Gneiss Complex) is the eastern end of the Hongseong-Odaesan collision belt in the Korean Peninsula, which is an extension of the Dabie-Sulu collision belt between the North and South China cratons. The Odaesan Gneiss Complex mainly consists of banded and migmatitic gneisses with porphyritic granitoids and amphibolites. The garnet-bearing banded gneisses can be subdivided into garnet-biotite and garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses. At the beginning of the post-collision stage, the banded gneisses underwent regional ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism (902-950 °C/8.8-9.4 kbar) at ca. 247-245 Ma due to the heat supplied from underplated basic magma, which was generated by the partial melting of the lithospheric mantle caused by the heat supplied from the asthenospheric mantle. As a result of the continuous extensional force, the study area (lower crust) uplifted onto the middle crust depths, and then the study area underwent prograde granulite facies metamorphism from 660 °C and 8.7 kbar to 750-760 °C and 6.3-6.5 kbar at ca. 227 Ma, causing migmatization, which erased the ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in most of the study area. The ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism was preserved only in the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses due to their very low water contents. During migmatization, the garnet-biotite banded gneisses were retrograded into upper granulite facies due to the relatively abundant water compared with the garnet-orthopyroxene gneisses. Finally, the study area was uplifted to a shallow depth and locally underwent amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism (575-680 °C and 3.1-4.5 kbar). In addition, Paleoproterozoic metamorphic (ca. 1930-1886 Ma) and post-collisional magmatic events (ca. 1847 Ma) are identified based on SHRIMP age dating. These ages agree well with the regional Paleoproterozoic metamorphic and post-collisional magmatic activities reported from other areas of the Gyeonggi Massif.

  5. The Changing Nature of Drought Risk in South-east Australia Over the Past Two Millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiem, A.; Ho, M. W.; Verdon-Kidd, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) is one of the most important food and fibre regions in Australia, producing one-third of the national food supply and exporting produce to many other countries. In total, the Basin contains about 40% of Australia's farms and 70% of Australia's irrigated land area. However, the MDB is also one of the most spatially and temporally variable river systems in the world, with severe droughts a regular occurrence over the ~100 years of instrumental record and decadal-scale droughts (e.g. "Federation" (~1895-1902), "World War II" (~1937-1945) and "Millennium" or "Big Dry" (~1997-2010) droughts) matched by flood dominated epochs (e.g. 1950s, 1970s). The accurate estimation of drought risk in the MDB is hampered by relatively short instrumental records and also by the complexity of the region's climate teleconnections with several large-scale ocean-atmospheric processes in the Pacific (El Niño Southern Oscillation, Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation), the Indian (Indian Ocean Dipole) and Southern Oceans (Southern Annular Mode). Climate-sensitive paleoclimate records provide an opportunity to resolve hydroclimatic variability over long time periods prior to the availability of instrumental records and therefore offer the potential for improved quantification of risks associated with hydroclimatic extremes. However, the MDB, as with many regions in Australia, currently lacks suitable in situ proxies necessary to do this. Therefore, remote paleoclimate rainfall proxies in the Australasian region spanning are used to develop new reconstructions of MDB rainfall over the Common Era (CE) (i.e. approximately the past 2000 years). The nature of MDB dry epochs from 749BCE to 1981CE are then compared with the frequency and duration of droughts recorded in instrumental records (i.e. approximately the past 100 years). Importantly, the results show that the probability of decadal scale droughts is three times greater than instrumental records suggest.

  6. Recreational drug use within the employees of the mariculture and seafood industry in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alan R; Tait, Russell; Harvey, Peter; Newbury, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    A study of recreational drug use among workers in the Port Lincoln mariculture and seafood industries was conducted by self report questionnaire. High rates of cannabis and alcohol use were revealed during the shore based fish farming season. The occupational health and safety implications of these findings in one of Australia's most dangerous industries are significant. Further research could inform the development of industry specific harm minimisation policies.

  7. Self-medication with over-the-counter drugs and complementary medications in South Australia's elderly population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A number of surveys have examined use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) in Australia. However, there are limited Australian data on use of CAM and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines in the elderly population. The main aims of this study were to examine self-medication practices with CAM and OTC medicines among older Australians and variables associated with their use. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ALSA) is an ongoing multidisciplinary prospective study of the older population which commenced in 1992 in South Australia. Data collected in 4 waves of ALSA between 1992 and 2004 were used in this study with a baseline sample of 2087 adults aged 65 years and over, living in the community or residential aged care. OTC medicines were classified according to the World Health Organization Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification. CAM were classified according a modified version of the classification adopted by the Therapeutics Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia. Results The prevalence of CAM or OTC use ranged from 17.7% in 2000-2001 to 35.5% in 2003-2004. The top classes of CAM and OTC medicines used remained relatively constant over the study period. The most frequent classes of CAM used were vitamins and minerals, herbal medicines and nutritional supplements while the most commonly used OTC were analgesics, laxatives and low dose aspirin. Females and those of younger age were more likely to be CAM users but no variable was associated with OTC use. Conclusion Participants seemed to self-medicate in accordance with approved indications, suggesting they were informed consumers, actively looking after their own health. However, use of analgesics and aspirin are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events in the elderly. Future work should examine how self-medication contributes to polypharmacy and increases the risk of adverse drug reactions. PMID:19906314

  8. Emergence of Brucella suis in dogs in New South Wales, Australia: clinical findings and implications for zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Mor, Siobhan M; Wiethoelter, Anke K; Lee, Amanda; Moloney, Barbara; James, Daniel R; Malik, Richard

    2016-09-09

    Animal reservoirs of brucellosis constitute an ongoing threat to human health globally, with foodborne, occupational and recreational exposures creating opportunities for transmission. In Australia and the United States, hunting of feral pigs has been identified as the principal risk factor for human brucellosis due to Brucella suis. Following increased reports of canine B. suis infection, we undertook a review of case notification data and veterinary records to address knowledge gaps about transmission, clinical presentation, and zoonotic risks arising from infected dogs. Between 2011 and 2015, there was a 17-fold increase in the number of cases identified (74 in total) in New South Wales, Australia. Spatial distribution of cases largely overlapped with high feral pig densities in the north of the state. Ninety per cent of dogs had participated directly in pig hunting; feeding of raw feral pig meat and cohabitation with cases in the same household were other putative modes of transmission. Dogs with confirmed brucellosis presented with reproductive tract signs (33 %), back pain (13 %) or lameness (10 %); sub-clinical infection was also common (40 %). Opportunities for dog-to-human transmission in household and occupational environments were identified, highlighting potential public health risks associated with canine B. suis infection. Brucellosis due to B. suis is an emerging disease of dogs in Australia. Veterinarians should consider this diagnosis in any dog that presents with reproductive tract signs, back pain or lameness, particularly if the dog has a history of feral pig exposure. Moreover, all people in close contact with these dogs such as hunters, household contacts and veterinary personnel should take precautions to prevent zoonotic transmission.

  9. The Changing Nature of the Role of Principals in Primary and Junior Secondary Schools in South Australia Following the Introduction Local School Management (Partnerships 21)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahid, Abdul

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the changing nature of the role of principals following the introduction of local school management (Partnerships 21) in South Australia. The study reports the series of interviews with primary and junior secondary principals with regard to their roles in several areas namely; instructional leadership, teachers' professional…

  10. Rethinking the Pattern of External Policy Referencing: Media Discourses over the "Asian Tigers" PISA Success in Australia, Germany and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldow, Florian; Takayama, Keita; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    The article compares how the success of the "Asian Tiger" countries in PISA, especially PISA 2009, was depicted in the media discussion in Australia, Germany and South Korea. It argues that even in the times of today's "globalised education policy field", local factors are important in determining whether or not a country…

  11. Rethinking the Pattern of External Policy Referencing: Media Discourses over the "Asian Tigers" PISA Success in Australia, Germany and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldow, Florian; Takayama, Keita; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    The article compares how the success of the "Asian Tiger" countries in PISA, especially PISA 2009, was depicted in the media discussion in Australia, Germany and South Korea. It argues that even in the times of today's "globalised education policy field", local factors are important in determining whether or not a country…

  12. Inclusion of Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Government Schools in New South Wales, Australia: Development and Implementation of a Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Linda J.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Rickards, Field W.; Brown, P. Margaret

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on how the policy and continuum of services in New South Wales, Australia, for serving students who are deaf or hard of hearing have developed and the attitudes of stakeholders toward both policy and practice. It concludes by attempting to assess the potential effects on students. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  13. From Youth to 'Greatest Pedagogue': William Cawthorne and the Construction of a Teaching Profession in Mid-Nineteenth Century South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the diary and teaching career of William Cawthorne in an effort to explore the concepts of masculinity and professional identity present in South Australia during the mid-nineteenth century. Discusses the process of converting teaching into a profession that aimed for the middle-class and the presence of female teachers. (CMK)

  14. Partnership in Knowledge Creation: Lessons Learned from a Researcher-Policy Actor Partnership to Co-Produce a Rapid Appraisal Case Study of South Australia's Social Inclusion Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Kate; Patterson, Jan; Baum, Fran

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a partnership between researchers and policy actors that was developed within a short timeframe to produce a rapid appraisal case study of a government policy initiative--South Australia's "Social Inclusion Initiative"--for the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the international Commission on Social Determinants…

  15. Temporal trends over the past two decades in asphyxial deaths in South Australia involving plastic bags or wrapping.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Simpson, Ellie; Gilbert, John D

    2006-01-01

    Asphyxial deaths utilising plastic bags or wrappings occurring over a 20-year period from March 1984 to February 2004 were reviewed at Forensic Science SA, Australia. A total of 45 cases were identified, with three occurring in infants and children (one accidental asphyxia; two homicides). Of the remaining 42 adults the male to female ratio was approximately 1:1 (23 and 19 cases, respectively), with all deaths attributed to suicide. The 42 adult cases represented 1.2% of the 3569 suicides autopsied at the centre over the time period of the study. The age ranges of the adult victims were 19-88 years (mean=47.1 years) for the males, and 32-89 years (mean=60.5 years) for the females. The adult female victims were significantly older than the males (p<0.001). A number of victims had histories of depression and had taken prescription medications. A significant difference was found in the temporal occurrence of the adult deaths, with six cases occurring between 1984 and 1989, nine between 1989 and 1994, 11 between 1994 and 1999, and 16 between 1999 and 2004 (p<0.001). Plastic bag asphyxial deaths were rare and in adults were due to suicide involving either older females or younger males. A significant increase in cases in South Australia in recent years was demonstrated, possibly related to publicity surrounding assisted suicides, and the ready availability of suicide manuals and information on suicide techniques from the internet.

  16. Demographic and socio-cultural correlates of medical mistrust in two Australian States: Victoria and South Australia.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, Andre; Polonsky, Michael; McQuilten, Zoe; Waters, Neil

    2013-11-01

    Studies on medical mistrust have mainly focused on depicting the association between medical mistrust and access/utilization of healthcare services. The effect of broader socio-demographic and psycho-social factors on medical mistrust remains poorly documented. The study examined the effect of broader socio-demographic factors, acculturation, and discrimination on medical mistrust among 425 African migrants living in Victoria and South Australia, Australia. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, low medical mistrust scores (i.e., more trusting of the system) were associated with refugee (β=-4.27, p<0.01) and family reunion (β=-4.01, p<0.01) migration statuses, being Christian (β=-2.21, p<0.001), and living in rural or village areas prior to migration (β=-2.09, p<0.05). Medical mistrust did not vary by the type of acculturation, but was positively related to perceived personal (β=0.43, p<0.001) and societal (β=0.38, p<0.001) discrimination. In order to reduce inequalities in healthcare access and utilisation and health outcomes, programs to enhance trust in the medical system among African migrants and to address discrimination within the community are needed. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  17. Morbillivirus infection in live stranded, injured, trapped, and captive cetaceans in southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brett M; Blyde, David J; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Morton, John M

    2012-01-01

    We report serologic evidence of cetacean morbillivirus (CMV) infection in five of eight cetacean species found live stranded, injured, or trapped along the coast of southeastern Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia between December 2005 and January 2011. Antibody to CMV was detected in 13 of 27 (48%) wild cetaceans sampled. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher in clinically diseased (69%) compared to nondiseased (18%) animals (P=0.018). There was high antibody prevalence (83%, n=6) in melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra). Two of 13 (15%) captive cetaceans sampled between November 2005 and January 2011 had CMV antibodies and, as infection was unlikely to have occurred while in captivity, CMV infection appears to have been present in Australian wild cetaceans since at least 1985. These results indicate that morbillivirus infection is occurring without widespread cetacean mortality in this region. However, as the deaths of two immature Australian offshore bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were attributed to CMV infection, morbillivirus infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of disease in cetaceans in Australia. Captive cetacean populations may be prone to significant mortality as a result of CMV introduction, so strict quarantine procedures should be enforced when injured or stranded cetaceans are hospitalized and rehabilitated at Australian zoos and marine parks.

  18. Recent mantle degassing recorded by carbonic spring deposits along sinistral strike-slip faults, south-central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ring, Uwe; Tonguç Uysal, I.; Yüce, Galip; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Italiano, Francesco; İmer, Ali; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2016-11-01

    The interior of the Australian continent shows evidence for late Quaternary to Recent fault-controlled mantle 3He and CO2 degassing. A series of interconnected NW-striking sinistral faults, the Norwest fault zone (NFZ), in south-central Australia are associated with travertine mounds, the latter show a regular spacing of 50-70 km. U-series ages on 26 samples range from 354 ± 7 to 1.19 ± 0.02ka (2σ errors) and suggest a clustering every ∼3-4 ka since ∼26 ka. Geochemical data demonstrate a remarkable mantle-to-groundwater connection. Isotopic data indicate that the groundwater is circulating to depths >3 km and interacting with Neoproterozoic/Cambrian basement and mantle volatiles. 3He/4He isotope ratios show that the He comes in part from the mantle. This demonstrates that the NFZ cuts through the entire crust and provides pathways for mantle degassing. Scaling relationships suggest that the series of sinistral faults that make up the NFZ are interconnected at depths and have a significant strike length of 60-70 km or more. The NFZ occurs where a major compositional boundary and a significant heat flow anomaly occurs, and a major step in lithospheric thickness has been mapped. We discuss a tectonic model in which recent stress field, heat flow and lithospheric structure in central Australia reactivated a set of steeply dipping Neoproterozoic faults, which may now be growing into a crustal/lithospheric-scale structure.

  19. Sex worker victimization, modes of working, and location in New South Wales, Australia: a geography of victimization.

    PubMed

    Prior, Jason; Hubbard, Phil; Birch, Philip

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the association among victimization, modes of sex working, and the locations used by sex workers through an analysis of "Ugly Mug" reports detailing 528 crime acts in 333 reported incidents in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. These forms, voluntarily lodged between 2000 and 2008 by members of NSW's estimated 10,000 sex worker population, suggest that street-based work has a higher victimization rate than other modes of working, including escort work, work in commercial premises, and private work. Although this ostensibly supports the commonly held view that "outdoor" working is more dangerous than "indoor" work, this analysis suggests that most instances of victimization actually occur in private spaces. Hence, it is argued that risks of victimization in sex work are influenced by a variety of environmental characteristics relating to concealment, control, and isolation, suggesting that not all off-street locations are equally safe. We conclude with recommendations for policy regarding sex work.

  20. Trace-elements in sheep grazing near a lead-zinc smelting complex at Port Pirie, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, T.S.; Judson, G.J.

    1986-07-01

    In South Australia, several studies have shown that heavy metal pollution of soils and plants occurs in the vicinity of a lead/zinc smelter at Port Pirie. Data on soil analysis indicates that at least 3400 km/sup 2/ of land near these smelters has been contaminated by the fallout of Pb, Zn and Cd. It is possible that contamination of soil and pasture by heavy metals may adversely affect the health of livestock grazing near the smelters. In sheep, Pb toxicity causes anorexia, abdominal pain and diarrhea while Zn or Cd supplementation reduces the Cu status. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of heavy metals on the trace-element status of sheep grazing at selected distances from the Port Pirie smelters.

  1. Distribution of the genus Alexandrium (Halim) and paralytic shellfish toxins along the coastline of New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Hazel; Brett, Steve; Ajani, Penelope; Murray, Shauna

    2013-07-15

    Blooms of Alexandrium species, in particular the species Alexandrium catenella, accounted for more than 50% of algal related, shellfish aquaculture harvest zone closures in New South Wales (NSW) Australia since 2005. While there are indications that species of Alexandrium are more abundant than they were formerly, there is little data available on the spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of the genus in NSW. A six and a half year dataset comprising a total of 8649 fortnightly samples from 31 estuaries spread over 2000 km of NSW coastline was analysed. The greatest abundances of Alexandrium spp. were observed during the austral Spring and Summer, in estuaries in the mid and southern latitudes of the state. In identifying these high risk zones, we propose variables such as season, temperature, rainfall and estuarine flushing to be targeted in intensive site specific studies, to support the development of predictive tools for resource managers.

  2. The mineralogy of the Yaringie Hill meteorite —A new H5 chondrite from South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappert, R.; Foden, J.; Pring, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Yaringie Hill meteorite is a new H5 ordinary chondrite found in the Gawler Ranges, South Australia. The meteorite, which shows only minor signs of terrestrial weathering, is predominantly composed of olivine (Fa17.2), orthopyroxene (Fs15.1Wo1.1), and three distinct phases of nickeliferous iron metal (kamacite, taenite, tetrataenite). Other minerals include troilite, plagioclase (Ab81An16Or3), clinopyroxene (En52Wo42Fs6), chlorapatite, merrillite, ilmenite, and native copper. Three types of spinel with distinctive textures (coarse, skeletal aggregates, rounded aggregates) and with compositions close to the join MgAl2O4-FeCr2O4 are also present. Chondrules within the Yaringie Hill meteorite, which often have poorly defined boundaries, are placed in a recrystallized matrix. Shock indicators suggest that the meteorite experienced only weak shock metamorphism (S3).

  3. Yardea Dacite -large-volume, high-temperature felsic volcanism from the Middle Proterozoic of South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Creaser, R.A.; White, A.J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    The Yardea Dacite is a large-volume felsic volcanic unit from the Middle Proterozoic Gawler Range Volcanics of South Australia; it has been previously described as an ignimbrite. However, some samples contain no petrographic evidence for a pyroclastic origin, but have characteristics compatible with final crystallization from a nonfragmented magma. These samples may have erupted as lavas, but others are likely to be extremely densely welded ignimbrites, suggesting a compound nature for the unit. Geothermometry and phase equilibria indicate that the Yardea Dacite originated from a high-temperature ({approximately}1,000{degree}C) felsic magma with a low water content ({le}2%). The Yardea Dacite is not associated with a known caldera of the Valles type, and shares many characteristics of recently described Cenozoic felsic volcanic rocks from the western United States, interpreted as rheoignimbrites or as unusually extensive lavas.

  4. Modelling bloom formation of the toxic dinoflagellates Dinophysis acuminata and Dinophysis caudata in a highly modified estuary, south eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajani, Penelope; Larsson, Michaela E.; Rubio, Ana; Bush, Stephen; Brett, Steve; Farrell, Hazel

    2016-12-01

    Dinoflagellates belonging to the toxigenic genus Dinophysis are increasing in abundance in the Hawkesbury River, south-eastern Australia. This study investigates a twelve year time series of abundance and physico-chemical data to model these blooms. Four species were reported over the sampling campaign - Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis caudata, Dinophysis fortii and Dinophysis tripos-with D. acuminata and D. caudata being most abundant. Highest abundance of D. acuminata occurred in the austral spring (max. abundance 4500 cells l-1), whilst highest D. caudata occurred in the summer to autumn (max. 12,000 cells l-1). Generalised additive models revealed abundance of D. acuminata was significantly linked to season, thermal stratification and nutrients, whilst D. caudata was associated with nutrients, salinity and dissolved oxygen. The models' predictive capability was up to 60% for D. acuminata and 53% for D. caudata. Altering sampling strategies during blooms accompanied with in situ high resolution monitoring will further improve Dinophysis bloom prediction capability.

  5. Pregnancy, prison and perinatal outcomes in New South Wales, Australia: a retrospective cohort study using linked health data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies from the United States and the United Kingdom have found that imprisoned women are less likely to experience poorer maternal and perinatal outcomes than other disadvantaged women. This population-based study used both community controls and women with a history of incarceration as a control group, to investigate whether imprisoned pregnant women in New South Wales, Australia, have improved maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods Retrospective cohort study using probabilistic record linkage of routinely collected data from health and corrective services in New South Wales, Australia. Comparison of the maternal and perinatal outcomes of imprisoned pregnant women aged 18–44 years who gave birth between 2000–2006 with women who were (i) imprisoned at a time other than pregnancy, and (ii) community controls. Outcomes of interest: onset of labour, method of birth, pre-term birth, low birthweight, Apgar score, resuscitation, neonatal hospital admission, perinatal death. Results Babies born to women who were imprisoned during pregnancy were significantly more likely to be born pre-term, have low birthweight, and be admitted to hospital, compared with community controls. Pregnant prisoners did not have significantly better outcomes than other similarly disadvantaged women (those with a history of imprisonment who were not imprisoned during pregnancy). Conclusions In contrast to the published literature, we found no evidence that contact with prison health services during pregnancy was a “therapunitive” intervention. We found no association between imprisonment during pregnancy and improved perinatal outcomes for imprisoned women or their neonates. A history of imprisonment remained the strongest predictor of poor perinatal outcomes, reflecting the relative health disadvantage experienced by this population of women. PMID:24968895

  6. Effects of Affective and Anxiety Disorders on Outcome in Problem Gamblers Attending Routine Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Harvey, Peter; Humeniuk, Rachel; Battersby, Malcolm; Pols, Rene

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 12-month affective and anxiety disorders on treatment outcomes for adult problem gamblers in routine cognitive-behavioural therapy. A cohort study at a state-wide gambling therapy service in South Australia. Primary outcome measure was rated by participants using victorian gambling screen (VGS) 'harm to self' sub-scale with validated cut score 21+ (score range 0-60) indicative of problem gambling behaviour. Secondary outcome measure was Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). Independent variable was severity of affective and anxiety disorders based on Kessler 10 scale. We used propensity score adjusted random-effects models to estimate treatment outcomes for sub-populations of individuals from baseline to 12 month follow-up. Between July, 2010 and December, 2012, 380 participants were eligible for inclusion in the final analysis. Mean age was 44.1 (SD = 13.6) years and 211 (56%) were males. At baseline, 353 (92.9%) were diagnosed with a gambling disorder using VGS. For exposure, 175 (46%) had a very high probability of a 12-month affective or anxiety disorder, 103 (27%) in the high range and 102 (27%) in the low to moderate range. For the main analysis, individuals experienced similar clinically significant reductions (improvement) in gambling related outcomes across time (p < 0.001). Individuals with co-varying patterns of problem gambling and 12 month affective and anxiety disorders who present to a gambling help service for treatment in metropolitan South Australia gain similar significant reductions in gambling behaviours from routine cognitive-behavioural therapy in the mid-term.

  7. The association between congenital chondrodystrophy of unknown origin (CCUO) in beef cattle and drought in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    White, Peter J; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Windsor, Peter A

    2010-05-01

    Reports of congenital chondrodystrophy of unknown origin (CCUO) have been anecdotally associated with periods of drought during the gestation period of affected beef calves. Reported sporadically in the past, the incidence of CCUO has increased in south-eastern Australia and has been reported every year between 2002 and 2007. A maternal nutritional deficiency arising from poor quality pastures and supplements has been suggested as contributing to the disorder. With an increase in drought occurrence predicted by climate change models, it is possible that the incidence will increase into the future. Retrospective data collected during a case control study was used to determine if the occurrence of cases of CCUO was associated with rainfall deficiency during gestation. A total of 799 cases occurring on 46 farms in south-eastern Australia were identified and a time series of cases was created. The association of both average monthly and three-month average rainfall with cases of CCUO revealed a significant negative correlation (r=-0.29 and r=-0.37 respectively, P<0.05) five months prior to the birth of CCUO calves on the farms studied. Logistic regression analysis showed a 3.3 (CI 1.8; 5.8, P<0.001) times increased risk of CCUO calves when the three-month average rainfall was in the lowest decile five months prior to the birth of calves. This information may be used to alert farmers as to when high quality supplemental feed may be provided to improve maternal nutrition and reduce the number of CCUO calves born. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Volcanic degassing, hydrothermal circulation and the flourishing of early life on Earth: A review of the evidence from c. 3490-3240 Ma rocks of the Pilbara Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Kranendonk, Martin J.

    2006-02-01

    New data gathered during mapping of c. 3490-3240 Ma rocks of the Pilbara Supergroup in the Pilbara Craton show that most bedded chert units originated as epiclastic and evaporative sedimentary rocks that were silicified by repeated pulses of hydrothermal fluids that circulated through the footwall basalts during hiatuses in volcanism. For most cherts, fossil hydrothermal fluid pathways are preserved as silica ± barite ± Fe-bearing veins that cut through the footwall and up to the level of individual bedded chert units, but not above, indicating the contemporaneity of hydrothermal silica veining and bedded chert deposition at the end of volcanic eruptive events. Silica ± barite ± Fe-bearing vein swarms are accompanied by extensive hydrothermal alteration of the footwall to the bedded chert units, and occurred under alternating high-sulphidation and low-sulphidation conditions. These veins provided pathways to the surface for elements leached from the footwall (e.g., Si, Ba, Fe) and volcanogenic emissions from underlying felsic magma chambers (e.g., CO 2, H 2S/HS -, SO 2). Stratigraphic evidence of shallowing upward and subsequent deepening associated with the deposition of Warrawoona Group cherts is interpreted to relate to the emplacement of subvolcanic laccoliths and subsequent eruption and/or degassing of these magmas. Heat from these intrusions drove episodes of hydrothermal circulation. Listric normal faulting during caldera collapse produced basins with restricted circulation of seawater. Eruption of volcanogenic emissions into these restricted basins formed brine pools with concentration of the volcanogenic components, thereby providing habitats suitable for early life forms. Fossil stromatolites from two distinct stratigraphic units in the North Pole Dome grew in shallow water conditions, but in two very different geological settings with different morphologies. Stratiform and domical stromatolites in the stratigraphically lower, c. 3490 Ma, Dresser

  9. Akaganéite (β-FeOOH) precipitation in inland acid sulfate soils of south-western New South Wales (NSW), Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, Irshad; Singh, Balwant; Silvester, Ewen

    2011-11-01

    The prevalence of sulphidic sediments in inland wetlands has been only recently recognized in many parts of the world, including Australia. The exposure of sulphidic sediments in these wetlands due to natural and human induced drying events has resulted in the oxidation of iron sulfide minerals, the formation of secondary iron minerals characteristic of acid sulfate soils and the release of highly acidic solutions. The objective of this study was to determine the mineralogy and morphology of sediments collected from the oxidized surface horizon (0-5 cm) of an inland acid sulfate soil located in south-western New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Random powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) techniques were used to characterize the minerals present in these sediments. Akaganéite was identified as the major mineral phase in the sediments; K-jarosite was also determined in small amounts in some sediments. The XRD patterns of sequentially washed (E-pure® water-0.01 M HCl-0.01 M EDTA) sediment samples showed all akaganéite peaks; the Rietveld refinement of these patterns also revealed a predominance of akaganéite. The chemical analyses of the original and washed sediments using STEM-EDS clearly showed the presence of akaganéite as a pure mineral phase with an average Fe/Cl mole ratio of 6.7 and a structural formula of Fe 8O 8(OH) 6.8(Cl) 1.2. These findings show that the extreme saline-acidic solutions (pH ˜ 2, EC = 216 dS/m) at the Bottle Bend lagoon provide ideal conditions for the crystallization of this rarely forming mineral.

  10. An Introduction to Credentialing Issues in Counselling and Some Main Counselling Groups in Australia (University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, May 6, 2005)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelling, Nadine J.

    2005-01-01

    Counselling is an unregulated activity in Australia. As a developing profession in Australia counselling has two main general and many specialty counselling associations attempting to represent counselling to counsellors, clients, and government bodies. This has led to confusion about counselling credentialing efforts. A presentation was arranged…

  11. Long-term marine litter monitoring in the remote Great Australian Bight, South Australia.

    PubMed

    Edyvane, K S; Dalgetty, A; Hone, P W; Higham, J S; Wace, N M

    2004-06-01

    The Anxious Bay beach litter clearance is the longest running annual survey of ocean-based litter in Australia. It's remoteness from centres of human population and location (with respect to prevailing winds and currents) make it an ideal place for monitoring ocean or ship-based litter in Australia's southern oceans and particularly, the Great Australian Bight. Over the 1991-1999 period, a large but gradual decline in the amount of beach washed litter was recorded (with minor peaks recorded during the 1992 and 1994 surveys). Beach washed litter decreased by approximately 86%, from 344 kg recorded in 1991 (13.2 kg/km) to 49 kg in 1999 (i.e. 1.9 kg/km), reaching a maximum of 390 kg in 1992 (or 15 kg/km of beach). However, a sharp increase in litter was recorded in 2000 (i.e. 252 kg or 9.7 kg/km). This increase in litter yield in 2000 is probably due to stronger than average onshore surface flow (or Ekman Transport) in the western Eyre Peninsula and Bight region. Prior to the survey in 2000, the results appeared to indicate that ocean litter on Anxious Bay beach was beginning to level out at around 50-70 kg/year (i.e. 2-3 kg/km). As the beach surveys involve the assumption that the beach is completely cleared of litter, this may represent a baseline level for ocean-based litter in the region. The yields and type of litter collected from the annual survey indicates that the majority of litter washed ashore originates from commercial fishing activities within the Great Australian Bight. Most of the fishing-related litter was directly sourced to the Southern Rock Lobster Fishery (i.e. bait buckets, baskets, pots), the Great Australian Bight Trawl Fishery (i.e. codends, trawl nets) and the Southern Shark Fishery (i.e. monofilament gillnets and longlines). Between 1994 and 1999, large reductions were observed in the amount of bait straps (77% reduction), lobster bait baskets/buckets (86% reduction), nets/ropes (62% reduction) and floats/buoys (83% reduction). Significantly

  12. Iodine status of pregnant women in South Australia after mandatory iodine fortification of bread and the recommendation for iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Condo, Dominique; Huyhn, Dao; Anderson, Amanda J; Skeaff, Sheila; Ryan, Philip; Makrides, Maria; Mühlhaüsler, Beverly S; Zhou, Shao J

    2017-10-01

    Mandatory iodine fortification of bread was introduced in 2009 in Australia in response to the reemergence of iodine deficiency. The aim of this study was to assess iodine intake, urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and their correlation in pregnant women (n = 783) recruited from South Australia 2 years following mandatory iodine fortification. Total iodine intake (food and supplements) and UIC were assessed at study entry (<20 weeks') and at 28 weeks' gestation. Mean (±SD) total iodine intake at study entry and 28 weeks' gestation was 307 ± 128 μg/day and 300 ± 127 μg/day, respectively. Overall, 85.9% of women met the estimated average intake (≥160 μg/day) for iodine in pregnancy, but only 44.5% met the estimated average intake from food alone. The main food sources of iodine were dairy foods and iodine-fortified bread. Median (interquartile range) UIC at study entry and 28 weeks' gestation was 189 μg/L and 172 μg/L, respectively. At study entry, median UIC was higher in women taking supplements containing iodine ≥150 μg/day compared with those containing iodine <150 μg/day (221 μg/L vs. 163 μg/L, p = .003) and those not taking supplements containing iodine (221 μg/L vs. 159 μg/L, p < .001). At 28 weeks' gestation, the median UIC for the groups was 187, 152 and 141 μg/L, respectively (each of the two comparisons yielded p < .001). Total iodine intake (food and supplements) from all women was positively, though weakly, correlated with UIC (r = .23, p < .001). In conclusion, pregnant women in South Australia are iodine sufficient postmandatory iodine fortification of bread. However, without iodine supplementation, it may be difficult to achieve a UIC >150 μg/L. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetisation of Cryogenian glaciogenic and Ediacaran red beds, South Australia: Neoproterozoic apparent or true polar wander?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Phillip W.; Williams, George E.

    2013-11-01

    Determining the effects of compaction-related inclination shallowing of remanence directions is crucial for ascertaining the validity of low palaeolatitudes for Neoproterozoic red beds in South Australia that are central to the debate concerning low-latitude Proterozoic glaciation. The inclination correction (or flattening) factor, f, is defined as tan(ID)/tan(IF), where ID and IF are the inclinations of the measured detrital remanence and the ancient inducing field, respectively. The anisotropy can be estimated using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and the anisotropy of high-field isothermal remanence (hf-AIR). The elongation-inclination (E-I) method has also been used to infer inclination shallowing. We add the anisotropy of thermoremanent magnetisation (ATR) to these methods. For the late Cryogenian Elatina Formation arenites, which constitute the bulk of the Elatina data set, the inclination correction using f = 0.738 derived from ATR increases the palaeolatitude of the Elatina Formation from 6.5 ± 2.2° to 8.8 ± 3.2°, which confirms that the Elatina glaciation occurred near the palaeoequator. Inclination corrections for the Ediacaran argillaceous Brachina and Wonoka formations, using f = 0.35-0.38 derived from ATR, are significantly greater than for the more arenaceous Elatina Formation, which increases their palaeolatitudes from ~ 12° to ~ 30°. Carbonates from the basal Ediacaran Nuccaleena Formation yielded f = 0.8 from ATR, which represents only a small palaeolatitude correction from 19° to 23°. The anisotropy results imply that the characteristic remanent magnetisations carried by all these units were acquired early as depositional remanent magnetisations, essentially at the time of deposition. The shift of the palaeopoles from argillaceous units indicating significantly higher palaeolatitudes introduces a distinctive loop into the late Cryogenian-Ediacaran-Cambrian pole path for Australia. This loop shows similarities with the North American

  14. What's the bloody law on this? Nurses, swearing, and the law in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Teresa; Francis, Lyn

    2010-01-01

    Most clinical nurses, particularly those working in mental health areas, have to deal on a regular basis with offensive language including swearing. Despite its prevalence, there has been little academic research concerning the extent of verbal aggression within health care settings, and none about the legal aspects of swearing in a nursing context. This paper is intended to give nurses practising in Australia a better understanding of definitional aspects of swearing and offensive language, the relevant law, and the basis of policy. This will then be followed by a critical examination of the management of offensive language in health care settings.

  15. Laurentia, Australia, and Antarctica as a Late Proterozoic supercontinent: Constraints from isotopic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Scott G.; Depaolo, Donald J.

    1994-04-01

    The reconstruction of Laurentia, Australia, and Antarctica into a Proterozoic supercontinent is evaluated by analyzing the fit of Precambrian provinces defined by isotopic and geochronologic mapping. The analysis is complicated by allochthonous segments of the Antarctic and eastern Australian margins. Removal of the allochthonous provinces produces a closer fit of the continents; there is a match of Early Proterozoic basement between southwestern Laurentia and the only exposure of craton known from the paleo-Pacific margin of Antarctica. In addition, western Laurentia is brought closer to the Australian Gawler block, consistent with provenance interpretations of the Belt Supergroup. Removal of the allochthonous provinces by right-lateral translation relative to the Antarctic craton margin places them in a pre-750 Ma position where they could be southwestward extensions of the Yavapai-Mazatzal and Grenville provinces of southern Laurentia. This modified reconstruction leads to a prediction of extensive Archean basement in Antarctica between the South Pole and Victoria Land, a prediction partly borne out by Archean rocks in the Miller Range of the Transantarctic Mountains; it also predicts the presence of 1.4Ga rapakivi granites in the Transantarctic Mountains basement. This configuration implies assembly of the Australia-Antarctica Gondwana margin by terrane accretion following, or accompanied by, left-lateral translation. This is compatible with a tectonic regime of clockwise rotation of Laurentia relative to Australia and Antarctica after rifting. Thus, the proposed supercontinent, with some modifications, has potential for explaining several aspects of the pattern of Precambrian provinces in the three continents.

  16. The Tsunami Risk of South-East Tasmania, Australia - the impact of the Puysegur Trench on greater Hobart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Mazengarb, Colin; Rigby, Edward; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    The coastline of South-East Tasmania in Australia has seen various tsunami events over the last couple of centuries, many of them with an ambiguous offspring. None of these tsunamis have caused a significant loss so far. Due to the absence of locally tsunami-triggering earthquake sources, the area of greater Hobart can be considered fairly safe at least in comparison to more exposed regions like New Zealand or Chile. Nevertheless, the Puysegur trench, about 1500 km East of Tasmania is considered to be capable of triggering earthquakes beyond magnitude 8.5. These events are rare yet possible and therefore a detailed study of the likely impact patterns of such earthquake scenarios has been undertaken. The seismic source characteristics of the Puysegur trench have been reviewed in detail to provide a selection of possible rupture scenarios, considering partial and full rupture of the trench. In addition, these results have been compared to those of other authors. The propagation and inundation patterns of the scenarios are compared to previous studies and the impact of varying seismic slip distribution has been investigated. Inundation is calculated using high-resolution elevation models for various locations in and around Hobart. Furthermore, inundation and average flow velocity data is used to compute the full range of socio-economic losses associated with the event set. This study provides a detailed tsunami risk assessment of South East Tasmania and indicates the hazard and risk variability with respect to varying slip distribution of the earthquake source.

  17. The revival of water fluoridation in the state of New South Wales, Australia, in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Sivaneswaran, Shanti

    2012-10-01

    The State of New South Wales (NSW) in Australia has over half a century of experience with water fluoridation. Yass was the first town to be fluoridated in 1956 and Sydney in 1968, and by the late 1970s, approximately 90% of NSW was fluoridated. However, since then, there have been no new fluoridation schemes. In NSW under the Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies Act 1957, the decision to fluoridate rests with local government authorities (councils). Since 2004, the NSW Health Department has been proactive in promoting and extending water fluoridation to unfluoridated rural communities in an attempt to reduce oral health inequalities. This has resulted in 20 councils implementing fluoridation, increasing population coverage of water fluoridation from 90% in 2004 to 96% in 2012. When the remaining 16 councils that have been gazetted to fluoridate implement fluoridation, approximately 98% of NSW residents will have access to fluoridated water. This article provides an overview of the framework used to extend water fluoridation to many rural communities in New South Wales in the 21st century. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Using local clinical educators and shared resources to deliver simulation training activities across rural and remote South Australia and south-west Victoria: A distributed collaborative model.

    PubMed

    Masters, Stacey C; Elliott, Sandi; Boyd, Sarah; Dunbar, James A

    2017-08-11

    There is a lack of access to simulation-based education (SBE) for professional entry students (PES) and health professionals at rural and remote locations. A descriptive study. Health and education facilities in regional South Australia and south-west Victoria. Number of training recipients who participated in SBE; geographical distribution and locations where SBE was delivered; number of rural clinical educators providing SBE. A distributed model to deliver SBE in rural and remote locations in collaboration with local health and community services, education providers and the general public. Face-to-face meetings with health services and education providers identified gaps in locally delivered clinical skills training and availability of simulation resources. Clinical leadership, professional development and community of practice strategies were implemented to enhance capacity of rural clinical educators to deliver SBE. The number of SBE participants and training hours delivered exceeded targets. The distributed model enabled access to regular, localised training for PES and health professionals, minimising travel and staff backfill costs incurred when attending regional centres. The skills acquired by local educators remain in rural areas to support future training. The distributed collaborative model substantially increased access to clinical skills training for PES and health professionals in rural and remote locations. Developing the teaching skills of rural clinicians optimised the use of simulation resources. Consequently, health services were able to provide students with flexible and realistic learning opportunities in clinical procedures, communication techniques and teamwork skills. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  19. The Moho in Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, M.; Kennett, B. L. N.; Stern, T.; Aitken, A. R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Australia and New Zealand share in part a history in the Gondwana supercontinent. Australia has a long and complex tectonic history with the last major accretion in the early Paleozoic, whereas New Zealand is still undergoing major plate boundary processes. The Australian continent is relatively well covered with both active and passive seismic techniques. Multiple sources of information are therefore available for building a model of Moho depth. Results from on-shore and off-shore refraction experiments are supplemented by receiver functions from a large number of portable stations and the recently augmented set of permanent stations. Moho picks from more than 10 500 km of full-crustal reflection profiles provide valuable additional constraints. The composite data set provides good sampling of much of Australia, though coverage remains low in some remote desert areas. The various datasets provide multiple estimates of the depth to Moho in many regions, and the consistency between the different techniques is high. Some of the thinnest crust lies beneath the Archean craton in the Pilbara, and in the neighbourhood of the Simpson desert. Thick crust is encountered beneath parts of the Proterozoic in Central Australia, and beneath the Paleozoic Lachlan fold belt in southeastern Australia. There are a number of zones of sharp contrast in depth to Moho, notably in the southern part of Central Australia. Despite most of the continental material around New Zealand being submerged, Moho data for this region is mainly onshore concentrating on the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. Two major wide-angle reflection transects provide the bulk of the active source data with just a few traditional reflection profiles offshore. The plate boundary provides an abundance of local earthquakes for tomographic imaging and this data is supplemented with receiver functions from both portable and permanent networks. Onshore the combined coverage is as dense as that of Australia, although it

  20. The Moho in Australia and New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmon, Michelle; Kennett, Brian; Sambridge, Malcolm; Stern, Tim

    2013-04-01

    Australia and New Zealand share in part a history in the Gondwana supercontinent. Australia has a long and complex tectonic history with the last major accretion in the early Paleozoic, whereas New Zealand is still undergoing major plate boundary processes. The Australian continent is relatively well covered with both active and passive seismic techniques. Multiple sources of information are therefore available for building a model of Moho depth. Results from on-shore and off-shore refraction experiments are supplemented by receiver functions from a large number of portable stations and the recently augmented set of permanent stations. Moho picks from more than 10500 km of full-crustal reflection profiles provide valuable additional constraints. The composite data set provides good sampling of much of Australia, though coverage remains low in some remote desert areas. The various datasets provide multiple estimates of the depth to Moho in many regions, and the consistency between the different techniques is high. Some of the thinnest crust lies beneath the Archean craton in the Pilbara, and in the neighbourhood of the Simpson desert. Thick crust is encountered beneath parts of the Proterozoic in Central Australia, and beneath the Paleozoic Lachlan fold belt in southeastern Australia. There are a number of zones of sharp contrast in depth to Moho, notably in the southern part of Central Australia. Despite most of the continental material around New Zealand being submerged, Moho data for this region is mainly onshore concentrating on the Australia-Pacific plate boundary. Two major wide-angle reflection transects provide the bulk of the active source data with just a few traditional reflection profiles offshore. The plate bound- ary provides an abundance of local earthquakes for tomographic imaging and this data is supplemented with receiver functions from both portable and permanent networks.Onshore the combined coverage is as dense as that of Australia, although it

  1. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  2. Indigenous Gambling Motivations, Behaviour and Consequences in Northern New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.; Hing, Nerilee; Gordon, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Against a background of public health, we sought to examine and explain gambling behaviours, motivations and consequences of Indigenous Australians in northern New South Wales. Adhering to national Aboriginal and ethical guidelines and using qualitative methods, 169 Indigenous Australians were interviewed individually and in small groups using…

  3. Christian Feminism in Action: Kate Cocks's Social Welfare Work in South Australia, 1900-1950

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trethewey, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Utilizing a biographical approach and network analysis, this article examines one South Australian woman's life of public and Methodist social welfare service in the post-suffrage era. It is argued that although Kate Cocks (1875-1954) viewed her welfare work as "a God-given mission", as "practical Christian service", personal…

  4. Young Offenders in New South Wales, Australia and the Need for Remedial Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistler, Grant; Kirkwood, Kristie; Potter, Emily; Cashin, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The 2005-2008 Australian National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy identifies young people as a key target group in need of sexual health education, screening and management. For young people who are in contact with the New South Wales (NSW) juvenile justice system, a dire need for remedial sexual health education exists. NSW young…

  5. Heritage Languages at Upper Secondary Level in South Australia: A Struggle for Legitimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Antonio; Scarino, Angela

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes how more than 40 languages gained and retained legitimacy as subjects for graduation from upper secondary schooling and for tertiary entrance selection in the South Australian educational system. Essentially the process required conforming with administrative, curriculum and community structures and fitting the mould of…

  6. Remove, Rehabilitate, Return? The Use and Effectiveness of Behaviour Schools in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granite, Elizabeth; Graham, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that enrolments in separate special educational settings for students with disruptive behaviour have increased in a number of educational jurisdictions internationally. Recent analysis of school enrolment data has identified a similar increase in the New South Wales (NSW) government school sector; however, questions have been…

  7. Remove, Rehabilitate, Return? The Use and Effectiveness of Behaviour Schools in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granite, Elizabeth; Graham, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that enrolments in separate special educational settings for students with disruptive behaviour have increased in a number of educational jurisdictions internationally. Recent analysis of school enrolment data has identified a similar increase in the New South Wales (NSW) government school sector; however, questions have been…

  8. Young Offenders in New South Wales, Australia and the Need for Remedial Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mistler, Grant; Kirkwood, Kristie; Potter, Emily; Cashin, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The 2005-2008 Australian National Sexually Transmissible Infections Strategy identifies young people as a key target group in need of sexual health education, screening and management. For young people who are in contact with the New South Wales (NSW) juvenile justice system, a dire need for remedial sexual health education exists. NSW young…

  9. Modeling geomagnetic induction hazards using a 3-D electrical conductivity model of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liejun; Lewis, Andrew M.; Ogawa, Yasuo; Jones, William V.; Costelloe, Marina T.

    2016-12-01

    The surface electric field induced by external geomagnetic source fields is modeled for a continental-scale 3-D electrical conductivity model of Australia at periods of a few minutes to a few hours. The amplitude and orientation of the induced electric field at periods of 360 s and 1800 s are presented and compared to those derived from a simplified ocean-continent (OC) electrical conductivity model. It is found that the induced electric field in the Australian region is distorted by the heterogeneous continental electrical conductivity structures and surrounding oceans. On the northern coastlines, the induced electric field is decreased relative to the simple OC model due to a reduced conductivity contrast between the seas and the enhanced conductivity structures inland. In central Australia, the induced electric field is less distorted with respect to the OC model as the location is remote from the oceans, but inland crustal high-conductivity anomalies are the major source of distortion of the induced electric field. In the west of the continent, the lower conductivity of the Western Australia Craton increases the conductivity contrast between the deeper oceans and land and significantly enhances the induced electric field. Generally, the induced electric field in southern Australia, south of latitude -20°, is higher compared to northern Australia. This paper provides a regional indicator of geomagnetic induction hazards across Australia.

  10. Water contamination risks associated with a combination of planned and unplanned fire in south eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, G. J.; Nyman, P.; Langhans, C.; Noske, P. J.; Lane, P. N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Planned burning reduces fuel loads in forests, potentially reducing the severity of subsequent wildfires. However planned burning also increases the risk of a significant water quality impact by maintaining a proportion of the catchment in a burnt condition conducive to generating high magnitude erosion events (eg. debris flows). Differences in the frequency and magnitude of planned and unplanned fire, combined with poorly understood relationships between fire severity and hydrologic impacts, means that predictions of the net water contamination risks associated with any particular fire regime are difficult to predict. This presentation synthesises results from 10 years of point, plot and catchment-scale post-fire hydrology and erosion studies in SE Australia to estimate the likely benifits and risks of planned burning scenarios from a drinking water supply perspective

  11. The crustal thickness of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clitheroe, G.; Gudmundsson, O.; Kennett, B.L.N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the crustal structure of the Australian continent using the temporary broadband stations of the Skippy and Kimba projects and permanent broadband stations. We isolate near-receiver information, in the form of crustal P-to-S conversions, using the receiver function technique. Stacked receiver functions are inverted for S velocity structure using a Genetic Algorithm approach to Receiver Function Inversion (GARFI). From the resulting velocity models we are able to determine the Moho depth and to classify the width of the crust-mantle transition for 65 broadband stations. Using these results and 51 independent estimates of crustal thickness from refraction and reflection profiles, we present a new, improved, map of Moho depth for the Australian continent. The thinnest crust (25 km) occurs in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia; the thickest crust (61 km) occurs in Proterozoic central Australia. The average crustal thickness is 38.8 km (standard deviation 6.2 km). Interpolation error estimates are made using kriging and fall into the range 2.5-7.0 km. We find generally good agreement between the depth to the seismologically defined Moho and xenolith-derived estimates of crustal thickness beneath northeastern Australia. However, beneath the Lachlan Fold Belt the estimates are not in agreement, and it is possible that the two techniques are mapping differing parts of a broad Moho transition zone. The Archean cratons of Western Australia appear to have remained largely stable since cratonization, reflected in only slight variation of Moho depth. The largely Proterozoic center of Australia shows relatively thicker crust overall as well as major Moho offsets. We see evidence of the margin of the contact between the Precambrian craton and the Tasman Orogen, referred to as the Tasman Line. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Modern cool-water siliciclastic/carbonate sediments, lacepede shelf South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Bone, Y.; Gostin, V. ); James, N.P. ); Von der Borch, C.C. )

    1991-03-01

    The Lacepeded Shelf is a 130 km {times} 100 km open embayment along the southern passive continental margin of Australia. The shelf includes the mouth of the River Murray - Australia's largest drainage system- the extensive arcuate Coorong strand, the 50-70 m deep and flat plateau of the shelf proper, the nonrimmed shelf break, and the upper slope to depths of 200 m. The shelf bathymetry is locally interrupted by seafloor highs, reflecting the underlying rugged terrain of deformed Precambrian and early Paleozoic bedrock in the west and Tertiary limestones and Quaternary dunes in the east. The late Pleistocene/Holocene sediment blanket is formed by discrete sedimentary facies. Quartz sands cover a significant cross-shelf zone opposite the river mouth, with current generated offsets. High-resolution seismic profiles reveal buried lowstand channels. The mid-shelf is an area of conspicuously coarse-grained, mud-free loose sediments composed of variable amounts of bryozoans and bivalves. The shelf break and upper slop bryozoan sands are similar, apart from species differences, from 40 to 100 m, with an increase in mud below 100 m. The seafloor highs are sites of prolific bryozoan, calcareous algae, sponge, and bivalve growth, the skeletons of which are shed onto the shelf. Bryozoan distribution is moderated by water depth and substrate type. Most forms are low-Mg calcite to high-Mg calcite, but two major groups are aragonitic. Distribution of these different mineralogical types is important for later diagenesis. Both terrigenous clastic and carbonate sediments are a mixture of relict and modern components, depending upon location, and reflect Holocene glacio-eustatic sea-level changes.

  13. Storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food in south-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Hibberson, C E; Vogelnest, L J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate contamination of unopened and opened stored sources of commercial dry dog food by viable storage mites. Prospective laboratory and field study. Samples were collected from nine brands of previously unopened bags (new bags) of dry food and 20 field sources of stored dry food in homes in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All samples were initially examined for the presence of mites using a stereo-binocular microscope and then placed in separate filter-paper-sealed containers. Field samples were incubated at an average temperature of 29°C and 78% relative humidity (RH) for 5 weeks and then at average 26°C/83% RH for 8 weeks. Paired new-bag samples were stored under room conditions (average 23°C/47% RH) and controlled incubator conditions (average 26°C/80% RH) for 6 weeks. All samples were thoroughly examined for mites, mite eggs and visible mould once weekly using a stereo-binocular microscope. Storage mites were not visualised in any of the field samples or in new-bag samples stored at room temperature. Storage mites, identified as Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were visualised in increasing numbers in seven of nine new-bag samples after incubation, with first mites and then eggs evident after 3 weeks of incubation. We confirmed the presence of viable storage mites in a range of previously unopened commercial dry dog foods in Australia and confirmed the possibility of heavy storage mite contamination for dry food stored under conditions of moderate temperature and high humidity. These findings have relevance to storage mite and/or dust mite sensitivity in canine atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Surface Curvature in Island Groups and Discontinuous Cratonic Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, M. S.

    2002-05-01

    The Canadian Archipelago includes eight major islands and a host of smaller ones. They are separated by water bodies, of varying widths attributable to glacial activity and ocean currents. Land form varies from relatively rugged mountains (~2000 m) in eastern, glacial, islands, to low lying western, similar to the continental topography adjacent. The Arctic region is thought to have been low average elevation before the Pleistocene. To a picture puzzler, it all looks like it fit together. Experimentally cutting apart the islands from large scale maps shows that the rough edges match fairly well. However, when those independent pieces are sutured together, without restraint, as in free air, the fit is far better. Far more importantly, they consistently form a noticeably concave surface. This tendency is not at all apparent in flat surface or computer screen manipulation; the pieces need to be "hand joined" or on a molded surface to allow the assembly to freely form as it will. Fitting together the coastlines above 60 \\deg north, from 120 \\deg west to 45 \\deg east, and comparing the resulting contracted area to the original, obtains an 8 percent area reduction. The curvature "humps" a trial planar section of 15 cms by 1.6 cm, a substantial difference in the radius of curvature. If you rashly suggest applying that formula globally, the resulting sphere would have a surface area of 4.7 x108,(down from 5 x108), and therefore radius of 6117 km, down from 6400, which is a rather preposterous conclusion. As nobody would believe it, I tested the idea elsewhere. The Huronian succession of six named cratons is adjacent on the south. I cut this map apart, too, and fit it together, once again getting a curvature, this time more pronounced. I am trying it with the Indonesian Archipelago, although this area has volcanic complications, and with Precambrian Basins in western Australia and Nimibia, Africa. Indications are - an essentially similar pattern of fit, but non uniform

  15. A survey on the beliefs and knowledge of gout management in new medical graduates; New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Matthew; Riordan, John

    2017-05-25

    To assess the beliefs and knowledge of gout management in new medical graduates. A survey on gout management was sent to new medical graduates during their orientation week, New South Wales, Australia. Of 15 hospital networks, 11 agreed to participate. From these, 168 graduates responded (23.7% response rate). Most (81.1%) felt that gout was a serious disease, 51.2% answered that they had been taught adequately to manage acute gout, only 37.2% for chronic gout. In an acute gout flare, 63.4% answered they would continue urate lowering therapy and 67.2% were aware of first-line pharmacological management options; 28% answered the correct dosing regimen for colchicine. Chronic management was answered poorly. Only 42.0% stated they would titrate allopurinol dosing to a target urate level; 23.5% would check the urate level monthly. More than half, 56.8%, were aware that medical prophylaxis is indicated when initiating urate lowering therapy. Of this subgroup, 46.7% (25.9% overall) knew that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine were recommended and 28.4% (15.4% overall) answered the correct timeframe of use. Close to one-third (35.0%), were aware of febuxostat, probenecid and benzbromarone as second-line urate lowering therapy. The findings of this study suggest that new graduates' knowledge of gout management, especially chronic management, is suboptimal. Many felt their teaching on gout management inadequate; this is a potential target for intervention. Up to date university education which covers chronic management may lead to better clinical outcomes for this burdensome disease. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Thermal history and differential exhumation across the Eastern Musgrave Province, South Australia: Insights from low-temperature thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glorie, Stijn; Agostino, Kate; Dutch, Rian; Pawley, Mark; Hall, James; Danišík, Martin; Evans, Noreen J.; Collins, Alan S.

    2017-04-01

    Multi-method geo- and thermochronological data obtained for Palaeo- and Mesoproterozoic granitoids traversing the main structural architecture of the eastern Musgrave Province within South Australia reveal multiphase cooling histories. Apatite U-Pb dating on six samples yield consistent ages of 1075-1025 Ma, suggesting a thermal reset coinciding with mantle-derived magmatism of the greater Warakurna Large Igneous Province ( 1080-1040 Ma). Apatite fission track (AFT) analysis indicate that four discrete thermal events affected the study area, inducing cooling through the AFT partial annealing zone ( 60-120 °C), supported by apatite and zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He data. Late Neoproterozoic cooling from deep crustal levels to temperatures < 200 °C was discerned, which is thought to be related to exhumation and denudation during the Petermann Orogeny. Subsequent cooling events at 450-400 Ma (Silurian-Devonian) and 310-290 Ma (Late Carboniferous) are interpreted to represent exhumation associated with the Alice Springs Orogeny. The latter event exhumed the sampled plutons to shallow crustal depths. An additional Triassic - early Jurassic thermal event, likely recording elevated geothermal gradients at that time, was observed throughout the study area, however, more data is needed to further support this interpretation. The high sample density across the structural architecture of the study area furthermore reveals patterns of fault reactivation and resulting differential exhumation, indicating shallower exhumation levels in the centre and deeper exhumation towards the margins of the sampled transect. The observed differential exhumation patterns match with existing seismic data and fit a model of an inverted graben system for the Phanerozoic evolution of the eastern Musgraves. The results highlight a complex Phanerozoic thermal history for the eastern Musgraves and help to elucidate the poorly appreciated tectonic evolution of inland Australia. This study further demonstrates

  17. Unusual ruby-sapphire transition in alluvial megacrysts, Cenozoic basaltic gem field, New England, New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Frederick L.; Graham, Ian T.; Harris, Stephen J.; Coldham, Terry; Powell, William; Belousova, Elena A.; Martin, Laure

    2017-05-01

    Rare ruby crystals appear among prevailing sapphire crystals mined from placers within basaltic areas in the New England gem-field, New South Wales, Australia. New England ruby (NER) has distinctive trace element features compared to those from ruby elsewhere in Australia and indeed most ruby from across the world. The NER suite includes ruby (up to 3370 ppm Cr), pink sapphire (up to 1520 ppm Cr), white sapphire (up to 910 ppm) and violet, mauve, purple, or bluish sapphire (up to 1410 ppm Cr). Some crystals show outward growth banding in this respective colour sequence. All four colour zones are notably high in Ga (up to 310 ppm) and Si (up to 1820 ppm). High Ga and Ga/Mg values are unusual in ruby and its trace element plots (laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and suggests that magmatic-metasomatic inputs were involved in the NER suite genesis. In situ oxygen isotope analyses (secondary ion mass spectrometry) across the NER suite colour range showed little variation (n = 22; δ18O = 4.4 ± 0.4, 2σ error), and are values typical for corundum associated with ultramafic/mafic rocks. The isolated NER xenocryst suite, corroded by basalt transport and with few internal inclusions, presents a challenge in deciphering its exact origin. Detailed consideration of its high Ga chemistry in relation to the known geology of the surrounding region was used to narrow down potential sources. These include Late Palaeozoic-Triassic fractionated I-type granitoid magmas or Mesozoic-Cenozoic felsic fractionates from basaltic magmas that interacted with early Palaeozoic Cr-bearing ophiolite bodies in the New England Orogen. Other potential sources may lie deeper within lower crust-mantle metamorphic assemblages, but need to match the anomalous high-Ga geochemistry of the New England ruby suite.

  18. Using multiple trait associations to define hydraulic functional types in plant communities of south-western Australia.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Patrick J; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Burgess, Stephen S O

    2008-12-01

    Assessing the hydrological imbalance and associated land degradation issues facing much of southern Australia and other parts of the world requires a better understanding of the defining features of ecosystem water use and the design of sustainable agroecosystems. Thus, by grouping species with similar water-use strategies into 'hydraulic functional types' (HFTs), we investigated the characteristics of water use in species-rich plant communities of south-western Australia. HFTs were determined using multiple-trait associations between morphological and physiological traits relating to water transport, water-use efficiency and response to water deficit. Sixteen traits were assessed from a subset of 21 species from three plant communities located along a topographically determined soil- and water-availability gradient. Multivariate analyses showed that trait variation was least at sites with shallower soils and putatively lower water availability, suggesting a convergence of water-use strategies at sites where plants are exposed to large seasonal water deficits. Stem hydraulic parameters, including stem-specific hydraulic conductivity, conduit diameter and maximum percentage embolism, were positively correlated, indicating the generality that larger conduit diameter permits greater hydraulic efficiency and is associated with greater seasonal reductions in hydraulic conductivity in this ecosystem. Wood density was not correlated with these traits, but closely associated with species' ability to withstand more negative water potentials during summer. Long-term integrated water-use efficiency was lower in shallow-rooted species that exhibited more negative summer water potentials. Specific leaf area and minimum leaf water potential were correlated with a number of separate traits, and appear to represent key axes of trait variation that describe the water-use strategies of different HFTs along the topographic gradient. Five HFTs were classified using a resemblance

  19. A first-order assessment of climate change effects on rainfall erosivity and soil erosion in New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Bofu; Murphy, Brian; Vaze, Jai; Rawson, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall has shown considerable secular variation and statistically significant change on the time scale of decades in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The climate change predictions seem to suggest an increased rainfall intensity for the region. To assess the likely impact of climate change on rainfall erosivity for 13 sites in NSW, a daily rainfall erosivity model was used to compare rainfall erosivity values using historical rainfall data and adjusted rainfall data representing future climate scenarios. To use the rainfall erosivity model, 6-min rainfall intensity data from the 13 sites were used to calibrate the model. The historical rainfall data were available for the period of 112 years (1895 - 2006) for the 13 sites. Adjusted rainfall data for 112 years were provided based on output from Global Climate Models, namely CSIRO-MK3.0 (CSIRO, Australia), MIROC-M (Centre for Climate Research, Japan); MIUB (Meteorological Institute of the University of Bonn, Germany); MRI (Meteorological Research Institute, Japan). The rainfall erosivity model was run for each of the 13 sites, and mean annual, seasonal rainfall erosivity values were contrasted for the present and future climate scenarios. In addition, rainfall erosivity values were compared for average recurrence intervals of 2, 10, and 100 years so that changes to rainfall erosivity during extreme erosive events can be assessed. The results show rainfall erosivity would increase by about 4.6% on average, and the increase occurs mostly in summer (December-January-February). Output from all 4 models suggests that rainfall erosivity would decrease in winter months. Spatially, the change to rainfall erosivity is quite variable, with greater increase mostly occurring along the coast with a temperate climate. As mean annual soil loss is linearly proportional to rainfall erosion, impact on soil loss of a similar magnitude is therefore implied for the 13 sites in NSW.

  20. The formation of saline mantle fluids by open-system crystallization of hydrous silicate-rich vein assemblages - Evidence from fluid inclusions and their host phases in MARID xenoliths from the central Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konzett, Jürgen; Krenn, Kurt; Rubatto, Daniela; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Stalder, Roland

    2014-12-01

    The composition of texturally primary fluid inclusions and their host phases clinopyroxene, K-richterite, and zircon were investigated in two MARID-type (mica-amphibole-rutile-ilmenite-diopside) mantle xenoliths sampled by the Kimberley cluster of Cretaceous kimberlites erupted in the central Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa. P-T conditions of crystallization for the MARID assemblages of 4.2 GPa and 960 °C were estimated based on Ca-in-opx thermometry and the assumption of a 40 mW/m2 geotherm applied to two orthopyroxene-bearing MARIDs collected from the same locality. Cooling/heating stage measurements and Raman spectroscopy indicate a fluid system dominated by H2O-NaCl-MgCl2 with variable total salinities in the range ⩽6.4-32.4 mass% and minor amounts of MgCl2, the latter inferred from the crystallization of MgCl2 × 12H2O during cooling of the inclusions. In addition to liquid and vapour, enstatite, baddeleyite, barite, calcite and a K-Ba-Fe-Cr-titanate were identified as solid phases in opened fluid inclusions, indicating high LIL-(HFS) element concentrations in the saline hydrous fluids prior to solid phase precipitation. The Cl contents of apatite (⩽0.35 wt.%), phlogopite (⩽0.09 wt.%) and K-richterite (⩽0.025 wt.%) follow the enrichment pattern Clap ≫ Clphl > ClKr which is typical for upper mantle rocks. Fluid inclusion-bearing clinopyroxenes show very low H2O contents of ∼45 μg/g which is consistent with a reduced aH2O of the fluids due to the presence of NaCl-MgCl2-SiO2-LILE combined with high fO2 and very low Al3+ contents of the clinopyoxenes. The zircons show a complex compositional zoning with variable and positively correlated Y (⩽1260 μg/g), P (⩽1870 μg/g) and Sc (⩽1373 μg/g) contents, indicating a pretulite-type substitution Si4+ + Zr4+ = P5+ + (Sc, Y, REE)3+. The Sc contents of the zircons are amongst the highest Sc concentrations reported so far for upper mantle silicates. Oxygen isotope analyses of selected zircons yields δ18O

  1. Phase of care prevalence for prostate cancer in New South Wales, Australia: A population-based modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qingwei; Smith, David P.; Clements, Mark S.; Patel, Manish I.; O’Connell, Dianne L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To develop a method for estimating the future numbers of prostate cancer survivors requiring different levels of care. Design, setting and participants Analysis of population-based cancer registry data for prostate cancer cases (aged 18–84 years) diagnosed in 1996–2007, and a linked dataset with hospital admission data for men with prostate cancer diagnosed during 2005–2007 in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods Cancer registry data (1996–2007) were used to project complete prostate cancer prevalence in NSW, Australia for 2008–2017, and treatment information from hospital records (2005–2007) was used to estimate the inpatient care needs during the first year after diagnosis. The proje