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Sample records for crawii insecta homoptera

  1. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus)

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  2. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants.

  3. General trends of chromosomal evolution in Aphidococca (Insecta, Homoptera, Aphidinea + Coccinea)

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov-Zimin, Ilya A.; Stekolshchikov, Andrey V.; Gautam, D.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Parallel trends of chromosomal evolution in Aphidococca are discussed, based on the catalogue of chromosomal numbers and genetic systems of scale insects by Gavrilov (2007) and the new catalogue for aphids provided in the present paper. To date chromosome numbers have been reported for 482 species of scale insects and for 1039 species of aphids, thus respectively comprising about 6% and 24% of the total number of species. Such characters as low modal numbers of chromosomes, heterochromatinization of part of chromosomes, production of only two sperm instead of four from each primary spermatocyte, physiological sex determination, "larval" meiosis, wide distribution of parthenogenesis and chromosomal races are considered as a result of homologous parallel changes of the initial genotype of Aphidococca ancestors. From a cytogenetic point of view, these characters separate Aphidococca from all other groups of Paraneoptera insects and in this sense can be considered as additional taxonomic characters. In contrast to available paleontological data the authors doubt that Coccinea with their very diverse (and partly primitive) genetic systems may have originated later then Aphidinea with their very specialised and unified genetic system. PMID:26312130

  4. Relationships Between Aphids (Insecta: Homoptera: Aphididae) and Slugs (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Agriolimacidae) Pests of Legumes (Fabaceae: Lupinus).

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580

  5. Field population abundance of leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) as affected by rice growth stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafizal, M. M.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    The leafhopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) are considered as important rice pest in Asia including Malaysia. As phloem-feeders, they can cause loss to rice growth development and their population abundance is thought to be influenced by rice growth stages. This study was conducted to examine the population of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae between different rice growth stages, i.e. before and after rice planting periods. Monthly sampling was conducted in three sites in Kuala Selangor at before planting, vegetative, reproductive, maturing stages and post-harvest period using sweeping net and light traps. Population abundance of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae were found to be significantly different and positively correlated with different rice growth stages (p<0.05). Delphacidae was most abundance during maturing stages, while the abundance of Cicadelidae peaked during reproductive stage of rice growth. Differences in temporal abundance of the population of these two homopterans indicated adaptive feeding strategy to reduce food competition.

  6. What is the phylogenetic signal limit from mitogenomes? The reconciliation between mitochondrial and nuclear data in the Insecta class phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Efforts to solve higher-level evolutionary relationships within the class Insecta by using mitochondrial genomic data are hindered due to fast sequence evolution of several groups, most notably Hymenoptera, Strepsiptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Thysanoptera. Accelerated rates of substitution on their sequences have been shown to have negative consequences in phylogenetic inference. In this study, we tested several methodological approaches to recover phylogenetic signal from whole mitochondrial genomes. As a model, we used two classical problems in insect phylogenetics: The relationships within Paraneoptera and within Holometabola. Moreover, we assessed the mitochondrial phylogenetic signal limits in the deeper Eumetabola dataset, and we studied the contribution of individual genes. Results Long-branch attraction (LBA) artefacts were detected in all the datasets. Methods using Bayesian inference outperformed maximum likelihood approaches, and LBA was avoided in Paraneoptera and Holometabola when using protein sequences and the site-heterogeneous mixture model CAT. The better performance of this method was evidenced by resulting topologies matching generally accepted hypotheses based on nuclear and/or morphological data, and was confirmed by cross-validation and simulation analyses. Using the CAT model, the order Strepsiptera was recovered as sister to Coleoptera for the first time using mitochondrial sequences, in agreement with recent results based on large nuclear and morphological datasets. Also the Hymenoptera-Mecopterida association was obtained, leaving Coleoptera and Strepsiptera as the basal groups of the holometabolan insects, which coincides with one of the two main competing hypotheses. For the Paraneroptera, the currently accepted non-monophyly of Homoptera was documented as a phylogenetic novelty for mitochondrial data. However, results were not satisfactory when exploring the entire Eumetabola, revealing the limits of the phylogenetic

  7. Generic vapor heat treatments to control Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2004-08-01

    Vapor heat treatments were developed against life stages of the mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Treatments tested were 47 degrees C for 5-50 min in 5-min increments and 49 degrees C for 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12 min. All tests were conducted with mixed age M. hirsutus on Chinese pea, Pisum sativum L. Treatment at 47 degrees C required 45 min to kill all M. hirsutus, whereas treatment at 49 degrees C required 10 min. The adult female and nymphal stages were the most heat tolerant at 47 degrees C, but the egg stage was the most heat tolerant at 49 degrees C. Use of the vapor heat treatments on other commodities will require achieving or exceeding the proper temperature and duration at all locations on the host where M. hirsutus may reside.

  8. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  9. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  10. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  11. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this category

  12. Feeding preference of Macrolophus caliginosus (Heteroptera: Miridae) on Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Bonato, Olivier; Couton, Louise; Fargues, Jacques

    2006-08-01

    A study of predation choices of Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) late instars and adults, when offered various developmental stages (eggs and nymphs) of the recently established whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was made based on two preference indices. In addition, prey choices of late instars when presented with three ratios of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and B. tabaci at a similar developmental stage (eggs, young or late instars) were assessed. M. caliginosus preferred older nymphs of B. tabaci than any other stage. It also chose T. vaporariorum over B. tabaci, unless the latter consisted of > 75% of the available prey. These results suggested that M. caliginosus might interfere with parasitoids such as Encarsia, Eretmocerus, or Amitus spp. because all three species emerge from the host pupal case. Furthermore, in mixed infestations, M. caliginosus preference for T. vaporariorum might either negatively affect the control of B. tabaci, or, contrarily, enhance the predator population, before a B. tabaci outbreak occurs in the greenhouse.

  13. The mitochondrial genome of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenosvesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Carapelli, Antonio; Vannini, Laura; Nardi, Francesco; Boore,Jeffrey L.; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano; Frati, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    In this study, the nearly complete sequence (14,519 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera) is described. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are in the arrangement known to be ancestral for insects, but three tRNA genes (trnA, trnS(gcu), and trnL(uag)) have transposed to derived positions and there are three tandem copies of trnH, each of which is potentially functional. All of these rearrangements except for that of trnL(uag) is within the short span between nad3 and nad4 and there are numerous blocks of unassignable sequence in this region, perhaps as remnants of larger scale predisposing rearrangements. X. vesparum mtDNA nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward As and Ts, as is typical for insect mtDNAs. There is also significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the J-strand being richer in A than T and in C than G, and the N-strand showing an opposite skew for complementary pairs of nucleotides. The hypothetical secondary structure of the 16S rRNA has also been reconstructed, obtaining a structural model similar to that of other insects.

  14. The complete mitogenome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Nan, Xiaoning; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing data with an average coverage of 1406.7X. The circular genome is 15,122 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop or control region. The tRNA-Ile gene was not found in the mitochondrial genome, as is identical to two other curculionidae species, i.e. Sphenophorus sp. (GU176342) and Naupactus xanthographus (GU176345). All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 started with TTG. Two PCGs (COI and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T. Two PCGs (ND4L and ND1) harbor the stop codon TAG, while all other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (38.7% A, 14.4% C, 9.2% G and 37.8% T) with an overall AT content of 76.5%.

  15. Fine structure of adhesive devices of Strepsiptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf G

    2004-01-01

    Legs and other body parts of males, females and first instar larvae of almost all recognised families of Strepsiptera (Insecta) were examined. Descriptions of tibial, tarsal and pretarsal adhesive structures for each family are presented. These and attachment devices not associated with the legs are discussed. Strepsiptera evolved two strictly different types of tarsal attachment structures: hairy surfaces in the males and smooth flexible pads in the first instar larvae. Additional adhesive devices are present in several subgroups: mushroom-shaped microtrichia on the maxillary palp of males of Bohartillidae and acute pointed tibiae, or tarsal segments of males in different families. First instar larvae have evolved adhesive hairs on the ventral side of the body and on the podomeres. Specialised adhesive hairs are absent in the groundplan of adult males of Strepsiptera, but have evolved with the adoption of permanent endoparasitism of females. The most elaborate attachment structures, both in males and first instar larvae, are present in parasites of fast flying hymenopteran hosts (Aculeata). PMID:18089021

  16. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates.

    PubMed

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-10-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates--filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates.

  17. Brochosomes protect leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) from sticky exudates

    PubMed Central

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates—filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates. PMID:23904586

  18. Greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) dispersal under different UV-light environments.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Dimitrios; Payne, Christopher C

    2007-04-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), is known to respond to UV light (UV). Field studies were conducted to improve our understanding of the behavioral effects and practical implications of using UV-blocking plastic films for the control of whitefly. Adult whiteflies were released in outdoor-located choice-chamber experiments with compartments clad with a range of films that transmitted incident UV to different extents. In release-recapture experiments, a very small proportion of the whiteflies recovered had dispersed into compartments where the entire UV spectrum was blocked, whereas the major proportion preferred compartments with UV. Compartments clad with films that blocked UV below 375 nm attracted significantly more whiteflies than films that blocked UV below 385 nm, whereas the absorption of UV wavelengths above 385 nm did not show any further effect on whitefly numbers. A reduction in the side cladding of the compartments by >20% significantly reduced the advantage of using UV-blocking films. Adult whitefly did not discriminate between direct- and diffused-light environments, as long as the UV-absorbing properties of the films were equivalent. Whitefly dispersal was influenced by the time of the day when adult whitefly were released, with a higher proportion of whitefly avoiding compartments clad with UV-blocking films, at times of the day when light intensities were higher. The future use of UV-blocking films as a potentially highly effective component of integrated pest management systems for the control of whitefly is discussed.

  19. Effect of sucrose octanoate on survival of nymphal and adult Diaphorina citri (Homoptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, C L; Puterka, Gary J

    2004-06-01

    Asian citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Homoptera: Psyllidae) was detected for the first time in the United States near Delray Beach, FL, on 2 June 1998 and is continuing to spread and multiply throughout southern Florida. This psyllid is the vector of Liberobacter asiaticum, a phloem-limited bacterium that causes citrus greening disease. This pathogen has not been found in the Western Hemisphere to date. Furthermore, high infestation levels of D. citri can impact citrus plant health, fruit quality, or yield. Replicated laboratory and spray booth bioassays were conducted to determine the insecticidal activity of a synthetic analog of natural sugar esters found in leaf trichomes of wild tobacco, Nicotiatna gossei Domin, to nymphal and adult D. citri. Field trials were initiated in Fort Pierce, FL, in 2000 to determine activity of the sugar ester formulation (sucrose octanoate) on D. citri and other citrus pests, including immature Asian citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton and mites. Sucrose octanoate rates tested ranged from 400 to 8000 ppm (0.1-2% formulated product). Our data suggest that both nymphal and adult D. citri as well as the mite complex tested would be equally controlled to levels of >90% at the higher concentrations of sucrose octanoate and that good coverage is key to efficacy.

  20. Enumerative and binomial sampling plans for citrus mealybug (Homoptera: pseudococcidae) in citrus groves.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ferrer, María Teresa; Ripollés, José Luís; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), was studied in citrus groves in northeastern Spain. Constant precision sampling plans were designed for all developmental stages of citrus mealybug under the fruit calyx, for late stages on fruit, and for females on trunks and main branches; more than 66, 286, and 101 data sets, respectively, were collected from nine commercial fields during 1992-1998. Dispersion parameters were determined using Taylor's power law, giving aggregated spatial patterns for citrus mealybug populations in three locations of the tree sampled. A significant relationship between the number of insects per organ and the percentage of occupied organs was established using either Wilson and Room's binomial model or Kono and Sugino's empirical formula. Constant precision (E = 0.25) sampling plans (i.e., enumerative plans) for estimating mean densities were developed using Green's equation and the two binomial models. For making management decisions, enumerative counts may be less labor-intensive than binomial sampling. Therefore, we recommend enumerative sampling plans for the use in an integrated pest management program in citrus. Required sample sizes for the range of population densities near current management thresholds, in the three plant locations calyx, fruit, and trunk were 50, 110-330, and 30, respectively. Binomial sampling, especially the empirical model, required a higher sample size to achieve equivalent levels of precision.

  1. Effects of Transgenic Bt Rice on Nontarget Rhopalosiphum maidis (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ren, Shao-Peng; Yang, Fan; Gao, Ming-Qing; Pu, De-Qiang; Shi, Min; Ye, Gong-Yin; Shen, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, Xue-Xin

    2016-08-01

    The effects of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) rice lines, KMD1, KMD2, and G8-7, on biological parameters and population dynamics of nontarget insect, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) (Homoptera: Aphididae), were investigated in the laboratory and field. No significant differences were found between Bt and non-Bt rice lines for aphid survival. The developmental time of R. maidis that fed on KMD1 and KMD2 did not differ significantly from those of the individuals feeding on the parental variety Xiushui11, but significantly prolonged developmental time was observed on G8-7 as compared with its parental variety Xiushui110. Aphid fecundity was significantly higher on Bt than on parental rice. A 2-yr field survey indicated that Bt rice did not significantly affect the population dynamics of R. maidis in comparison with non-Bt rice. Additionally, guttation droplets of Bt rice and aphids feeding on Bt rice were analyzed for presence of Cry1Ab using ELISA. No Cry1Ab protein was found in aphid adults feeding on Bt rice lines both in the laboratory and field. By using the guttation droplets from the top of rice seedlings, we designed a novel method to collect phloem sap, and found that relatively low concentrations were detected in the guttation droplets from Bt rice lines. In conclusion, although the Bt rice lines tested in this study stimulate the fecundity of R. maidis, the aphid population density did not increase in Bt rice fields. PMID:27389683

  2. Effects of temperature on mate location in the planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Long, Ying; Hu, Chaoxing; Shi, Baokun; Yang, Xiao; Hou, Maolin

    2012-10-01

    The planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Homoptera: Delphacidae), uses acoustic signals generated by abdominal vibration and transmitted through rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants to locate mates. The influence of temperature (20, 28, and 32°C) on abdominal vibration patterns of individual females and males, proportion of mated females, and responsivity of male to female vibrational signals was investigated. When female and male adults were observed individually, temperatures of 20 and 32°C inhibited abdominal vibration by both genders in terms of proportion of vibrating insects, time spent in vibration per insect, time spent per bout of vibration, or all of these; the effects were more pronounced at 32°C than at 20°C especially in males at 32°C. Although not significantly different, male responsivity to vibrating female was relatively high at 28°C, lower at 32°C, and still lower at 20°C, and finally more males located females at 28°C than at 20°C, which contributes to the higher proportion of mated females at 28°C than at 20 or 32°C. Our results indicate that temperatures of 20 and 32°C inhibit the production of abdominal vibration and, to some extent, reduce male responsivity to female vibrational signals, which may partially explain the frequent population outbreaks in N. lugens in the years with warm autumn.

  3. Responses of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) to susceptible and resistant lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; McCreight, James D

    2006-06-01

    Nymphs and alates of aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Homoptera: Aphididae) were tested on 10 lettuce cultivars with N. ribisnigri resistance gene Nr and 18 cultivars without the resistance gene in various bioassays. Bioassays used whole plants, leaf discs, or leaf cages to determine susceptibility of commercial lettuce cultivars to N. ribisnigri infestation and to evaluate screening methods for breeding lettuce resistance to N. ribisnigri. Resistant and susceptible plants were separated in 3 d when using whole plant bioassays. Long-term (> or =7 d) no-choice tests using leaf cages or whole plants resulted in no survival of N. ribisnigri on resistant plants, indicating great promise of the Nr gene for management of N. ribisnigri. Effective screening was achieved in both no-choice tests where resistant or susceptible intact plants were tested separately in groups or individually and in choice tests where susceptible and resistant plants were intermixed. Leaf discs bioassays were not suitable for resistance screening. All lettuce cultivars without the resistance gene were suitable hosts for N. ribisnigri, indicating the great importance of this pest to lettuce production and the urgency in developing resistant lettuce cultivars to manage N. ribisnigri. PMID:16813339

  4. Monochoroterpes, a replacement name for Monophyllus Kluge, 2012 (Insecta: Ephemeroptera), nec Monophyllus Leach, 1821 (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    PubMed

    Kluge, Nikita J; Jacobus, Luke M

    2015-01-01

    The genus group name Monophyllus Kluge, 2012 was established to include a single species of the mayfly family Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) from Hainan Island, China, Choroterpes (Monophyllus) monophyllus Kluge, 2012. Unfortunately, this name is preoccupied by Monophyllus Leach, 1821, a genus of Phyllostomidae bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) from the Antilles (type species: M. redmani Leach, 1821: 76). Therefore, we propose a replacement name for the mayfly genus group as follows. PMID:25947682

  5. Checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): an update based on the 2004 to 2013 literature.

    PubMed

    Larivière, Marie-Claude; Larochelle, André

    2014-01-23

    An updated checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) is provided as a supplement to the "Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue" of Larivière and Larochelle (2004: Fauna of New Zealand 50). A total of 142 genera and 319 species belonging to 28 families are recorded for New Zealand. Changes to the 2004 catalogue are documented. The synonymy and primary type information of taxa described between 2004 and July 2013 are also given. The presence of the anthocorid Macrotrachelia nigronitens in New Zealand is confirmed.

  6. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and mobility from rice plants to Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ting-li; Liu, Shun; Tang, Qi-yi; Cheng, Jia-an

    2014-06-01

    Samples of soils, rice plants, and the adult, long-winged, brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), were collected from 18 sites of 9 regions in southern China. The concentrations of seven elements (Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Ag, Cd, and Pb) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Heavy metal mobility and bioaccumulation were analyzed in the rice plant-N. lugens system. The concentrations of Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in rice plants were positively correlated with their relevant concentrations in soil samples The bioconcentration factors of the seven elements in the rice plant-N. lugens system showed that the order of metal accumulation was Mo>Zn>Ag>Cd>Cu>Pb>As. In particular, Mo and Zn showed significantly high accumulation in N. lugens. A cluster analysis and factor analysis showed that the bioaccumulation of these seven elements in the rice plant-N. lugens system could be classified into two groups, closely related to their molar mass. The first group consisted of five elements with relatively light molar masses: Cu, Zn, As, Mo, and Ag. Cu and Zn, which have nearly equal molar masses, showed similar accumulation levels in N. lugens. The second group included two elements with relatively heavy molar masses: Cd and Pb. This study demonstrated that bioaccumulation of seven heavy metals was regular in the rice plant-N. lugens system. N. lugens could be used as bioindicators of the contaminated degree for Zn in rice paddy fields. This information may provide a basis for future ecological research on the bioaccumulation mechanism in N. lugens. PMID:24735989

  7. Description of a new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) living on Pennisetum setaceum, from Italy.

    PubMed

    Bella, Salvatore; Cupani, Sebastiano; D'urso, Vera; Laudonia, Stefania; Sinno, Martina; Viggiani, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), O. balcluthae Viggiani et Laudonia n. sp., is described as a parasitoid of the eggs of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) associated with crimson fountain grass, Pennisetum setaceum (Poaceae) in Italy. Morphological features and biology of the new species are discussed and illustrated. The 28S-D2 and ITS2 regions were successfully amplified and sequenced. PMID:26624644

  8. Genetic diversity of Costa Rican populations of the rice planthopper Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Hernández, Myriam; Quesada, Tania; Muñoz, Claudia; Espinoza, Ana M

    2004-09-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) is one of the main constraints of the rice production in the Neotropics. This planthopper produces severe damages as a phloem feeder, causes mechanical injury during oviposition and vectors the rice hoja blanca virus (RHBV). The main objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of T. orizicolus populations from three rice growing regions of Costa Rica, using RAPDs. Individuals from Guanacaste, Parrita, San Carlos and Cali-Colombia, as outgroup, were analyzed using the random primers. Phenetic relationships revealed that the Costa Rican populations were clearly separated from Cali-Colombia, sharing less than 25% similarity. Costa Rican populations were divided into two main branches separated at 30% similarity. The first branch included Guanacaste and San Carlos and the second displayed Parrita. In relation to similarity indexes within groups, the Guanacaste cluster showed the highest (over 50%) and Cali-Colombia was the most diverse (28%). The correspondence analysis confirmed the clusters of the phenogram and showed close interactions between the Parrita and San Carlos populations. The genetic separation observed could be the result of the geographic isolation among populations, but it could also be explained by the infection with the rickettsia Wolbachia pipientis. This bacterium causes cytoplasmic incompatibility in its host, which results in non-viable progeny when infected males mate with non-infected females, or when insects hosting different strains of Wolbachia mate. Then, a search for Wolbachia in previously described populations of T orizicolus was initiated. The presence of the bacteria was analyzed by PCR with 16S rDNA-specific primers for Wolbachia. The PCR analyses revealed infections of 86% in the population of San Carlos, 96% in Guanacaste, 37% in Parrita and 100% in Cali-Colombia. Crosses between individuals of T. orizicolus from Parrita and Guanacaste were performed for testing

  9. Structural variation of the ribosomal gene cluster within the class Insecta

    SciTech Connect

    Mukha, D.V.; Sidorenko, A.P.; Lazebnaya, I.V.

    1995-09-01

    General estimation of ribosomal DNA variation within the class Insecta is presented. It is shown that, using blot-hybridization, one can detect differences in the structure of the ribosomal gene cluster not only between genera within an order, but also between species within a genera, including sibling species. Structure of the ribosomal gene cluster of the Coccinellidae family (ladybirds) is analyzed. It is shown that cloned highly conservative regions of ribosomal DNA of Tetrahymena pyriformis can be used as probes for analyzing ribosomal genes in insects. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Trichadenotecnum species from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocidae).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Lienhard, Charles; Ghani, Idris Abd

    2014-07-14

    Species of the bark louse genus Trichadenotecnum Enderlein (Insecta: Psocodea) from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore are revised with illustrations and identification keys. Twenty species are here recognised, with four new species and ten recorded for the first time from this region, together with an unnamed species represented by a single female. The previously described species T. marginatum New & Thornton is not included because its generic assignment is questionable. Females of T. cinnamonum Endang & New, T. imrum New & Thornton and T. sibolangitense Endang, Thornton & New, and the male of T. kerinciense Endang & New are described for the first time. A new species group is defined for T. krucilense Endang, Thornton & New.

  11. Masquerading as self? Endoparasitic Strepsiptera (Insecta) enclose themselves in host-derived epidermal bag.

    PubMed

    Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney; Ross, Larry D; Johnston, J Spencer

    2003-06-24

    We report here the case of a metazoan parasite, a strepsipteran, that manipulates host epidermal tissue and wraps itself within it; which probably camouflages the endoparasite and is recognized as "self" by the host. This mechanism is one of immune avoidance among parasitoid insects. The host-derived epidermal "bag" might have enabled Strepsiptera to radiate to disparate hosts compared with the relatively few taxa (596 species) described so far. They have been recorded as parasitizing 34 families belonging to seven orders of Insecta. We also report a mechanism of insect ecdysis between the first- and second-instar larva, while enclosed in the bag. PMID:12788973

  12. Inheritance, realized heritability and biochemical mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest in many countries of the world because of its polyphagous nature and has caused huge losses to the cotton crop. The aim of present study was to explore the mode of inheritance and mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in P. solenopsis. After five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315-fold resistance compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The LC50 values of progenies of both reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1') showed no significant difference and degree of dominance values were 0.56 and 0.93 for F1 and F1', respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance and Lande's method revealed that more than one factors were involved in acetamiprid resistance. Realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.58 for acetamiprid resistance. A synergism study of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) with acetamiprid also showed the significant presence of P-450 mono-oxygenase and esterase in the acetamiprid resistance. Hence, acetamiprid resistance in the P. solenopsis was autosomal, incompletely dominant and polygenic. These results are a source of basic information to design and plan fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis. PMID:26071806

  13. Genetics, realized heritability and preliminary mechanism of spinosad resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): an invasive pest from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-12-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) has gained recognition as a key pest due to its invasive nature throughout the world. The P. solenopsis has a wide range of host plants and damages the cotton crop in various parts of the world. In view of the economic importance of this pest, a study on selection, inheritance and mechanism of spinosad resistance was conducted on P. solenopsis. Selection of field collected P. solenopsis for seven generations with spinosad resulted in a high resistance ratio of 282.45-fold. Genetic studies of spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis indicated that maternal effects are not involved in spinosad resistance; and resistance development is an autosomal and incompletely dominant trait. The number of genes involved in spinosad resistance was determined to be more than one, suggesting that resistance is controlled by multiple loci. The realized heritability (h (2)) value for spinosad resistance was 0.94. Synergism bioassays of spinosad with piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate showed that spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis could be due to esterase only. The study provides the basic information for implementation of effective resistance management strategies to control P. solenopsis.

  14. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.

  15. Inheritance, realized heritability and biochemical mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest in many countries of the world because of its polyphagous nature and has caused huge losses to the cotton crop. The aim of present study was to explore the mode of inheritance and mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in P. solenopsis. After five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315-fold resistance compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The LC50 values of progenies of both reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1') showed no significant difference and degree of dominance values were 0.56 and 0.93 for F1 and F1', respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance and Lande's method revealed that more than one factors were involved in acetamiprid resistance. Realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.58 for acetamiprid resistance. A synergism study of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) with acetamiprid also showed the significant presence of P-450 mono-oxygenase and esterase in the acetamiprid resistance. Hence, acetamiprid resistance in the P. solenopsis was autosomal, incompletely dominant and polygenic. These results are a source of basic information to design and plan fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis.

  16. Genetics, realized heritability and preliminary mechanism of spinosad resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): an invasive pest from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-12-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) has gained recognition as a key pest due to its invasive nature throughout the world. The P. solenopsis has a wide range of host plants and damages the cotton crop in various parts of the world. In view of the economic importance of this pest, a study on selection, inheritance and mechanism of spinosad resistance was conducted on P. solenopsis. Selection of field collected P. solenopsis for seven generations with spinosad resulted in a high resistance ratio of 282.45-fold. Genetic studies of spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis indicated that maternal effects are not involved in spinosad resistance; and resistance development is an autosomal and incompletely dominant trait. The number of genes involved in spinosad resistance was determined to be more than one, suggesting that resistance is controlled by multiple loci. The realized heritability (h (2)) value for spinosad resistance was 0.94. Synergism bioassays of spinosad with piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate showed that spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis could be due to esterase only. The study provides the basic information for implementation of effective resistance management strategies to control P. solenopsis. PMID:26494239

  17. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis. PMID:26868652

  18. Novel Primers From Informative Nuclear Loci for Louse Molecular Phylogenetics (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Allen, Julie M; Johnson, Kevin P

    2014-11-01

    While parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) have historically been an important model taxon for understanding host-parasite coevolution, very few molecular markers have been developed for phylogenetic analysis. The current markers are insufficient to resolve many of the deeper nodes in this group; therefore, sequences from additional genetic loci are necessary. Here, we design primers targeting several nuclear protein coding genes based on a complete genome and transcriptome of Pediculus humanus L. plus transcriptomes and modest coverage genomic data from five genera of avian feather lice. These primers were tested on 32 genera of avian feather lice (Ischnocera), including multiple species within some genera. All of the new primer combinations produced sequences for the majority of the genera and had similar or higher divergences than the most widely used nuclear protein-coding gene in lice, EF-1α. These results indicate that these new loci will be useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships among parasitic lice. PMID:26309297

  19. A review of the current state of knowledge of fossil Mantispidae (Insecta: Neuroptera).

    PubMed

    Jepson, James E

    2015-01-01

    There are 32 individual specimens of Mantispidae (Insecta: Neuroptera) currently recorded from the fossil record, the oldest of which dates back to the Lower Jurassic. These include 19 described species (in 16 genera), 1 specimen described to genus level and 9 unnamed specimens The specimens have been assigned to the extant subfamilies Drepanicinae (4), Mantispinae (10), Symphrasinae (1), and the extinct subfamily Mesomantispinae (16), with one incertae sedis within Mantispidae. There are currently no known fossil representatives of the subfamily Calomantispinae. Mesithoninae has been removed from Mantispidae and placed back within Berothidae. The species Mesithone carnaria and M. monstruosa, however, are true mantispids and have been removed from Mesithone and placed within a new genus Karataumantispa gen. nov. in the subfamily Mesomantispinae. The current state of knowledge of the fossil record of Mantispidae is reviewed and a key to the genera of Mesomantispinae is provided. PMID:26249453

  20. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genomes of four cockroaches (Insecta: Blattodea) and phylogenetic analyses within cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong

    2016-07-15

    Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset. PMID:27045773

  2. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and D. barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica v. virgifera (16,747 bp) and D. barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and...

  3. Brochosomal coats turn leafhopper (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) integument to superhydrophobic state

    PubMed Central

    Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200–700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165–172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m−1. By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103–129° and SFEs above 20 mN m−1. Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates. PMID:23235705

  4. Research on possible medical use of silk produced by caddisfly larvae of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Trichoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Tszydel, M; Zabłotni, A; Wojciechowska, D; Michalak, M; Krucińska, I; Szustakiewicz, K; Maj, M; Jaruszewska, A; Strzelecki, J

    2015-05-01

    Silk products are used in medicine as biomaterials, and are particularly promising as scaffolds in tissue engineering. To date only silkworm and spider silk medical potential has been evaluated, whereas the possible application of the material spun by caddisflies in wet environment has not been examined. Biomedical application of every natural material requires biocompatibility testing and evaluation of unique microbiological and mechanical properties. This article focuses on silk fibers formed in caddisflies cocoons of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera) larvae. Preliminary biological evaluation shows that trichopteran silk is not cytotoxic to human cells. Caddisfly silk itself does not possess antiseptic properties and thus sterilization is indispensable for its application in medicine. Among tested methods of sterilization and disinfection only thermal methods (tyndallization and autoclaving) enabled complete eradication of bacteria and gave fully sterile material. Caddisfly silk appeared to be resistant to high temperature. Fully sterile fibers can be stored without a loss of breaking force and tensile strength. Our work shows that trichopteran silk has a significant potential to be used as a biomaterial.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Dong, Pengzhi; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun

    2009-01-01

    Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea) + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea))). PMID:19523246

  6. The mitochondrial genome of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Carapelli, Antonio; Vannini, Laura; Nardi, Francesco; Boore, Jeffrey L; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano; Frati, Francesco

    2006-07-19

    In this study, the nearly complete sequence (14,519 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera) is described. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are in the arrangement known to be ancestral for insects, but three tRNA genes (trnA, trnS(gcu), and trnL(uag)) have transposed to derived positions and there are three tandem copies of trnH, each of which is potentially functional. All of these rearrangements except for that of trnL(uag) is within the short span between nad3 and nad4 and there are numerous blocks of unassignable sequence in this region, perhaps as remnants of larger scale predisposing rearrangements. X. vesparum mtDNA nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward A and T, as is typical for insect mtDNAs. There is also a significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the J-strand being richer in A than T and in C than G, and the N-strand showing an opposite skew for complementary pairs of nucleotides. The hypothetical secondary structure of the LSU rRNA has also been reconstructed, obtaining a structural model similar to that of other insects. PMID:16766140

  7. Critical evaluation of five methods for quantifying chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Clayton, D H; Drown, D M

    2001-12-01

    Five methods for estimating the abundance of chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) were tested. To evaluate the methods, feral pigeons (Columba livia) and 2 species of ischnoceran lice were used. The fraction of lice removed by each method was compared, and least squares linear regression was used to determine how well each method predicted total abundance. Total abundance was assessed in most cases using KOH dissolution. The 2 methods involving dead birds (body washing and post-mortem-ruffling) provided better results than 3 methods involving live birds (dust-ruffling, fumigation chambers, and visual examination). Body washing removed the largest fraction of lice (>82%) and was an extremely accurate predictor of total abundance (r2 = 0.99). Post-mortem-ruffling was also an accurate predictor of total abundance (r2 > or = 0.88), even though it removed a smaller proportion of lice (<70%) than body washing. Dust-ruffling and fumigation chambers removed even fewer lice, but were still reasonably accurate predictors of total abundance, except in the case of data sets restricted to birds with relatively few lice. Visual examination, the only method not requiring that lice be removed from the host, was an accurate predictor of louse abundance, except in the case of wing lice on lightly parasitized birds.

  8. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiao-Yi; Duan, Xiao-Yu; Qiang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. This circular genome is 15 496 bp in size, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and one A + T-rich D-loop or control region. Most PCGs are initiated with the ATN codons, except for COX1 with the unusual CGA as its initiation codon. Four PCGs (COX1, COX2, ND3, and ND4) are terminated with incomplete codon T, ND4L uses TAG as its termination codon, while all the other eight PCGs employ the usual ATN codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (40.1% A, 40.9% T, 7.6% G, and 11.4% C) with an overall A + T content of 81.0%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining (NJ) method suggests that C. dominula is more phylogenetically related to its confamilial counterparts than to those from other families.

  9. Terrestrial arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. II. Sawflies (Insecta: Hymenoptera: "Symphyta")

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David R.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the second in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 47 species of "Symphyta" (Insecta: Hymenoptera), 30 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Argidae) Sterictiphora serotina; (Cimbicidae) Abia americana; (Diprionidae) Monoctenus fulvus; (Orussidae) Orussus terminalis; (Pamphiliidae) Onycholyda luteicornis, Pamphilius ocreatus, P. persicum, P. rileyi; (Pergidae) Acordulecera dorsalis, A. mellina, A. pellucida; (Tenthredinidae) Caliroa quercuscoccineae, Empria coryli, Hoplocampa marlatti, Macrophya cassandra, Monophadnoides conspiculatus, Monophadnus bakeri, Nematus abbotii, Neopareophora litura, Pachynematus corniger, Paracharactus rudis, Periclista marginicollis, Pristiphora banski, P. chlorea, Strongylogaster impressata, S. remota, Taxonus epicera, Thrinax albidopictus, T. multicinctus, Zaschizonyx montana; (Xiphydriidae) Xiphydria tibialis. PMID:27222635

  10. Assessment of water quality in urban streams based on larvae of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera).

    PubMed

    Tszydel, Mariusz; Markowski, Marcin; Majecki, Janusz; Błońska, Dagmara; Zieliński, Mateusz

    2015-10-01

    Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera) larvae were used as indicators of stream contamination in the city of Łódź, Poland. The larvae of H. angustipennis were present at 9 sampling sites established for this study. Significant differences between the sampling sites were noted for environmental parameters as well as concentration of chemicals in water and biodiversity of aquatic invertebrates. Statistical analyses showed significant correlations between quantity and quality of water pollutants and density of H. angustipennis larvae, concentration of metals in larval bodies, and the appearance of morphological anomalies in tracheal gills and anal papillae. In comparison to literature data, the level of contaminants in water, including heavy metals, for each of the studied streams of Łódź was surprisingly low while concentration of these metals in the whole bodies of H. angustipennis larvae was very high. Some of the heavy metals present in the water might be identified only after conducting analyses of their concentration in the larval bodies. Therefore, long life cycle of H. angustipennis and heavy metal tolerance with a possibility of their accumulation in the larval bodies may constitute a support to traditional chemical assessment of water quality or traditional biomonitoring.

  11. Research on possible medical use of silk produced by caddisfly larvae of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Trichoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Tszydel, M; Zabłotni, A; Wojciechowska, D; Michalak, M; Krucińska, I; Szustakiewicz, K; Maj, M; Jaruszewska, A; Strzelecki, J

    2015-05-01

    Silk products are used in medicine as biomaterials, and are particularly promising as scaffolds in tissue engineering. To date only silkworm and spider silk medical potential has been evaluated, whereas the possible application of the material spun by caddisflies in wet environment has not been examined. Biomedical application of every natural material requires biocompatibility testing and evaluation of unique microbiological and mechanical properties. This article focuses on silk fibers formed in caddisflies cocoons of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera) larvae. Preliminary biological evaluation shows that trichopteran silk is not cytotoxic to human cells. Caddisfly silk itself does not possess antiseptic properties and thus sterilization is indispensable for its application in medicine. Among tested methods of sterilization and disinfection only thermal methods (tyndallization and autoclaving) enabled complete eradication of bacteria and gave fully sterile material. Caddisfly silk appeared to be resistant to high temperature. Fully sterile fibers can be stored without a loss of breaking force and tensile strength. Our work shows that trichopteran silk has a significant potential to be used as a biomaterial. PMID:25723346

  12. Mitochondrial genome deletions and minicircles are common in lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The gene composition, gene order and structure of the mitochondrial genome are remarkably stable across bilaterian animals. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are a major exception to this genomic stability in that the canonical single chromosome with 37 genes found in almost all other bilaterians has been lost in multiple lineages in favour of multiple, minicircular chromosomes with less than 37 genes on each chromosome. Results Minicircular mt genomes are found in six of the ten louse species examined to date and three types of minicircles were identified: heteroplasmic minicircles which coexist with full sized mt genomes (type 1); multigene chromosomes with short, simple control regions, we infer that the genome consists of several such chromosomes (type 2); and multiple, single to three gene chromosomes with large, complex control regions (type 3). Mapping minicircle types onto a phylogenetic tree of lice fails to show a pattern of their occurrence consistent with an evolutionary series of minicircle types. Analysis of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially-targetted genes inferred from the body louse, Pediculus, suggests that the loss of mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) may be responsible for the presence of minicircles in at least species with the most derived type 3 minicircles (Pediculus, Damalinia). Conclusions Minicircular mt genomes are common in lice and appear to have arisen multiple times within the group. Life history adaptive explanations which attribute minicircular mt genomes in lice to the adoption of blood-feeding in the Anoplura are not supported by this expanded data set as minicircles are found in multiple non-blood feeding louse groups but are not found in the blood-feeding genus Heterodoxus. In contrast, a mechanist explanation based on the loss of mtSSB suggests that minicircles may be selectively favoured due to the incapacity of the mt replisome to synthesize long replicative products without mtSSB and thus the

  13. Type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea and adjacent regions deposited at Insect Collections of Chungnam National University (CNU) in Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunghoon; Kim, Junggon; Oh, Sumin; Heiss, Ernst

    2015-07-06

    A list of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea (mostly by the late Dr. Michail Josifov, Sofia, Bulgaria) acquired earlier by E. Heiss, now donated to and deposited in the insect collections of Chungnam National University (CNU), Deajeon, Korea, is presented. A total of 31 holotypes and 694 paratypes of 41 species and 1 subspecies in 6 families and 9 subfamilies are presented: Miridae (Deraeocorinae, Mirinae, Orthotylinae, Phylinae), Tingidae (Tinginae), Piesmatidae (Piesmatinae), Berytidae (Metacanthinae), Cymidae (Cyminae), Pentatomidae (Asopinae).

  14. A checklist of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) associated with Mexican wild mammals, including geographical records and a host-parasite list.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; León-Paniagua, Livia; Rivas, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of 44 species of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) recorded in Mexico, belonging to nine genera in six families is given, together with a list of the 63 species of Mexican wild mammal hosts with which they are associated. Summaries of the known geographical records and host relationships for each louse species are presented for each Mexican state. Data were compiled from published and original records, including three new locality records from the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero.

  15. The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Insecta, Hemiptera, Rhopalidae): First Asian record, with a review of bionomics

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jing-Fu; Hsieh, Yi-Xuan; Rédei, Dávid

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Herrich-Schäffer, 1847) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhopalidae: Serinethinae), a species native in tropical and subtropical regions of the New World and accidentally introduced to Hawaii, is reported for the first time from Asia (Taiwan). This record represents the first occurrence of the species in Asia. Stable populations composed of hundreds of specimens were found in seven localities of Kaohsiung City and one locality in Tainan City, and a single specimen was observed in Chiayi County. Aggregating adults and larvae fed in large numbers on the sapindacean plants Cardiospermum halicacabum L. and Koelreuteria elegans (Seem.) A. C. Smith ssp. formosana (Hayata) F. G. Meyer. Diagnostic characters of adults and larvae of Jadera haematoloma are discussed. A review of its bionomics and a bibliography are provided. Initial observations on the populations in southern Taiwan are presented. The species is potentially invasive, and further extension of its range is anticipated in Southeast Asia. PMID:23794880

  16. Redescription of Gyropus parvus (Ewing, 1924) (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) from tucos-tucos (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae: Ctenomys ) in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martino, N S; Romero, M D; Castro, D C

    2010-02-01

    A detailed redescription of Gyropus parvus (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) is given based on specimens collected from the type host, Ctenomys colburni Allen 1903 , and the type locality, Estancia Huanuluán, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina. We expand and provide new chaetotaxy. New scanning electron microscopy images showing microstructural details of adults and eggs of G. parvus obtained from topotype specimens are included. Sexual dimorphism was mainly shown by differences in body size and abdominal chaetotaxy, with females being 17.5% larger than males and with more setae in each cluster. Significant differences between males and females were also observed in sternal plate measurements. Features described here show homogeneity within type host population. This information contributes to our knowledge of intra- and inter-specific variability for parasite populations. Our investigation constitutes the first collection of G. parvus from the type host and locality since it was described.

  17. Host plant shifts and transitions into new adaptive zones in leafhoppers:
    the example of Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae)
    of Russia and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2016-06-08

    The modes of diversification of Palaearctic Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) are reconstructed based on data on their host plants and distribution in Russia and the adjacent territories. Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) is originally an Oriental group, which penetrated into the Palaearctic from Southeast Asia. The genus Pediopsoides and species of the genus Macropsis that feed on East Asian oaks have not dispersed beyond broadleaf forests of the Eastern Palaearctic. Apparently, Pediopsis and elm-feeding species of Macropsis initially dispersed throughout the entire broadleaf forest zone. Division of this zone into two widely separated parts in temperate areas of Europe and East Asia (nemoral disjunction), produced closely related vicariant pairs of sister species. The genus Oncopsis and species of Macropsis feeding on Salicaceae dispersed throughout the entire Palaearctic following their host plants. Both lineages penetrated into riparian forests of the foothills and midlands of Central Asia, where they produced endemic species. The Central Asian Macropsis lineage shifted from Salicaceae to trees and shrubs of unrelated families (wild roses, barberry, oleaster, and sea-buckthorn) growing in the same biotopes. Subsequent diversification on those plants produced several separate host-associated species-groups, some of which penetrated following their hosts from riparian forests into arid habitats. One such lineage apparently shifted from shrubs to wormwood species (Artemisia spp.) and thus gave rise to the genus Macropsidius. This genus underwent adaptive radiation on wormwood species in the plains of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia; advancing westward, it formed secondary centres of diversity in Transcaucasia and the Mediterranean. Finally, some lineage of Macropsidius (or its sister-group) switched from feeding on Artemisia to polyphagy, yielding the ancestral form of the genus Hephathus. In general, the evolution of

  18. Host plant shifts and transitions into new adaptive zones in leafhoppers:
    the example of Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae)
    of Russia and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2016-01-01

    The modes of diversification of Palaearctic Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) are reconstructed based on data on their host plants and distribution in Russia and the adjacent territories. Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) is originally an Oriental group, which penetrated into the Palaearctic from Southeast Asia. The genus Pediopsoides and species of the genus Macropsis that feed on East Asian oaks have not dispersed beyond broadleaf forests of the Eastern Palaearctic. Apparently, Pediopsis and elm-feeding species of Macropsis initially dispersed throughout the entire broadleaf forest zone. Division of this zone into two widely separated parts in temperate areas of Europe and East Asia (nemoral disjunction), produced closely related vicariant pairs of sister species. The genus Oncopsis and species of Macropsis feeding on Salicaceae dispersed throughout the entire Palaearctic following their host plants. Both lineages penetrated into riparian forests of the foothills and midlands of Central Asia, where they produced endemic species. The Central Asian Macropsis lineage shifted from Salicaceae to trees and shrubs of unrelated families (wild roses, barberry, oleaster, and sea-buckthorn) growing in the same biotopes. Subsequent diversification on those plants produced several separate host-associated species-groups, some of which penetrated following their hosts from riparian forests into arid habitats. One such lineage apparently shifted from shrubs to wormwood species (Artemisia spp.) and thus gave rise to the genus Macropsidius. This genus underwent adaptive radiation on wormwood species in the plains of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia; advancing westward, it formed secondary centres of diversity in Transcaucasia and the Mediterranean. Finally, some lineage of Macropsidius (or its sister-group) switched from feeding on Artemisia to polyphagy, yielding the ancestral form of the genus Hephathus. In general, the evolution of

  19. [Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park].

    PubMed

    Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Parrado-Rosselli, Angela; Noriega, Jorge Ari

    2013-06-01

    Abstract: Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park. Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high) in 12 transects (four in each intervention level), and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n = 232, 27 spp.) and Dynastidae (n = 161, 26 spp.) were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2%) from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9%) from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8%) from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7%) from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8%) from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most

  20. [Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park].

    PubMed

    Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Parrado-Rosselli, Angela; Noriega, Jorge Ari

    2013-06-01

    Abstract: Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park. Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high) in 12 transects (four in each intervention level), and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n = 232, 27 spp.) and Dynastidae (n = 161, 26 spp.) were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2%) from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9%) from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8%) from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7%) from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8%) from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most

  1. Reproductive mode of grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Homoptera: Phylloxeridae) in Europe: molecular evidence for predominantly asexual populations and a lack of gene flow between them.

    PubMed

    Vorwerk, Sonja; Forneck, Astrid

    2006-06-01

    The genetic structure of European grape phylloxera populations, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Homoptera: Phylloxeridae), was analyzed using 6 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity data of 6 populations originating from northern and southern European viticultural regions was assessed for geographic differences, and the structure of 2 additional populations was examined in more detail, focusing on specific host plant and habitat characteristics. To test for "signatures" of clonal reproduction, different population genetic measures were applied to the data obtained from these populations. A total of 195 multilocus genotypes were detected in 360 individuals tested. Significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, negative FIS values (from -0.148 to -0.658 per population), and the presence of multicopy genotypes revealed that the current major reproductive mode at each of the locations tested was asexual. The high genotypic diversity detected within and among populations, however, together with the occurrence of unique D. vitifoliae genotypes, indicates sexual recombination events took place, probably prior to the multiple introductions into Europe. The absence of overlapping genotypes between the sampling sites suggests low migration rates among the populations studied and implies that the main mode of insect dispersal is through infested plant material carried by human agency. The specific features of European D. vitifoliae habitats are illustrated to discuss the role of habitat and life cycle in the genetic structure of this globally important pest aphid species. PMID:16936847

  2. Acute ozone stress on eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr. ) and the pest potential of the aphid, Chaitophorus populicola Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.S.; Jones, C.G.

    1988-04-01

    The effect of acute ozone exposure of eastern cottonwood (populus deltoides Bartr.) on the survivorship, reproduction, and development of the aphid Chaitophorus populicola Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae) was investigated. Cottonwoods were exposed to 397 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.20 ppm) ozone or charcoal-filtered air and infested with aphids on leaf plastochron index 5, 40 h after fumigation. Aphid performance was not significantly different on plants exposed to ozone compared with charcoal-filtered air-treated control plants. These data do not support the notion that aphid performance will directly increase on air pollution-stressed plants. We also examined settling and feeding preference of aphids for cottonwood leaves of different developmental ages. Aphids significantly preferred leaf plastochron index 5 to all other leaf ages. These data support hypothesis relating aphid leaf preference to stages of leaf development. Reproduction of the cottonwood leaf rust fungus (Melampsora medusae Thum.) and the imported willow leaf beetle (Plagiodera versicolora Laicharting) are reduced on ozone-fumigated plants (reported elsewhere). If aphid populations are affected by competition with these cottonwood pests for leaf resources, then aphid pest potential may actually increase in areas characterized by episodic ozone concentrations because of ozone-induced decreases in populations of M. medusae and P. versicolora.

  3. Phylogenetic position of the yeast-like symbiotes of Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) based on 18S ribosomal DNA partial sequences.

    PubMed

    Xet-Mull, Ana M; Quesada, Tania; Espinoza, Ana M

    2004-09-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus Muir (Homoptera: Delphacidae), the endemic delphacid species of tropical America carries yeast-like symbiotes (YLS) in the abdominal fat bodies and the ovarial tissues, like other rice planthoppers of Asia. These YLS are obligate symbiotes, which are transmitted transovarially, and maintain a mutualistic relationship with the insect host. This characteristic has made in vitro culture and classification of YLS rather difficult using conventional methods. Nevertheless, microorganisms of similar characteristics have been successfully classified by using molecular taxonomy. In the present work, the YLS of Tagosodes orizicolus (YLSTo) were purified on Percoll gradients, and specific segments of 18S rDNA were amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced. Sequences were aligned by means of the CLUSTAL V (DNASTAR) program; phylogenetic trees were constructed with the Phylogeny Inference Package (PHYLIP), showing that YLSTo belong to the fungi class Pyrenomycetes, phylum Ascomycota. Similarities between 98% and 100% were observed among YLS of the rice delphacids Tagosodes orizicolus, Nilaparvata lugens, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella fur cifera, and between 89.8% and 90.8% when comparing the above to YLS of the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci. These comparisons revealed that delphacid YLS are a highly conserved monophyletic group within the Pyrenomycetes and are closely related to Hypomyces chrysospermus. PMID:17361570

  4. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  5. Virulence testing and extracellular subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity during propagule production of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus isolates from whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Moguel, Judith; González-Barajas, Margarita; Mier, Teresa; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío; Aranda, Eduardo; Toriello, Conchita

    2007-03-01

    To properly characterize several isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, a fungal entomopathogen of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and other insect pests for biocontrol purposes, virulence towards Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) protease activity during propagule production were investigated in monospore cultures (MCs). The virulence of three MCs towards second instar whiteflies was measured and expressed as lethal median concentration (LC50). Number and widthlength ratio of propagules (blastospores, hyphal bodies, short hyphae, submerged conidia) and extracellular proteolytic activity was determined simultaneously in liquid medium. Total protease activity was assayed with azocasein, Pr1 and Pr2 activity was determined with the substrates N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide and N-Benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-pnitroanilide, respectively. Natural variability in virulence, propagule production and cuticle-degrading proteases among isolates was observed. Bioassays showed a LC50 of 1.1 x 1,000, 2.5 x 10,000 and 7.6 x 10,000 conidia/ml for MCs EH-506/3, EH-503/3 and EH-520/3, respectively, EH-506/3 being the most virulent isolate. Isolate EH-503/3 produced the highest yield of propagules (7.7 x 10000000 propagules/ml), followed by EH-520/3 with 6.4 x 10000000 and EH-506/3 with 1.0 x 10000000 propagules/ml. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity was present in the three MCs. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) activity was highest (745.7 UPr1/ml at 120 h) in the most virulent isolate, EH-506/3, pointing at Pr1 as a phenotypic marker of virulence for P. fumosoroseus. EH-506/3 appears to be a good candidate for whitefly biocontrol due to its high virulence, Pr1 concentration and rapid transition to blastospores in submerged liquid medium.

  6. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  7. Phenology and density of balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae) in relation to bud break, shoot damage, and value of fir Christmas trees.

    PubMed

    Fondren, K M; McCullough, D G

    2003-12-01

    The balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a major insect pest of balsam and Fraser fir grown for Christmas trees. Our objectives in this study were to 1) monitor the phenology of A. abietinus in fir plantations; 2) assess relationships among M. abietinus density, tree phenology, and damage to tree foliage; and 3) develop an esthetic injury level for M. abietinus on Christmas trees. We monitored phenology of M. abietinus and fir trees on three commercial Christmas tree plantations in central and northern Lower Michigan for 3 yr (1999-2001). Phenology of M. abietinus fundatrices and sexuparae was strongly correlated with accumulated degree-days (DD) base 10 degrees C. Fundatrices matured by approximately 83 DD(10 degrees C) and sexuparae were first observed at approximately 83-111 DD(10 degrees C). Trees that broke bud approximately 1 wk later than other trees in the same field escaped M. abietinus damage and shoot expansion rate in spring was generally positively correlated with M. abietinus damage. Retail customers surveyed at a choose-and-cut Christmas plantation in 2 yr did not consistently differentiate between similarly sized trees with no, light, and moderate M. abietinus damage, but heavy damage (>50% damaged shoots) did affect customer perception. Similarly, when wholesale grades were assigned, the high quality Grade 1 trees had up to 40% shoot damage, whereas Grade 2 trees had 32-62% shoot damage. Two trees ranked as unsaleable had sparse canopies and distorted needles on 42% to almost 100% of the shoots.

  8. PCB congener analysis of water and caddisfly larvae (Insecta:Trichoptera) in the upper Hudson River by glass capillary chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Simpson, K.W.; Shane, L.; Koblintz, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The separation and analysis of the constituents of industrially produced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been almost exclusively performed using techniques involving packed gas chromatographic columns. However, the packed column chromatograms proved to be inadequate with regard to the separation of the many congeners which compose the complex PCB mixtures. Unlike the packed column methods, a separation technique based upon gas capillary technology produces chromatograms with sharp peaks, and hence accurate analysis is possible according to individual congener concentrations. This capability permitted more precise analysis of macroinvertebrates - specifically aquatic insects in the polluted water of the upper Hudson River. This study examines the presence and relative concentration of 74 congeners in water and caddisfly larvae collected from 3 sites in the Hudson River. Caddisfly larvae (Insecta:Trichoptera) usually dominate the macroinvertebrate communities in riffle habitats of the study area. Their relatively large size and abundance facilitated the acquisition of sufficient biomass for analysis (200 mg wet weight). The sampling was carried out on July 6, 1983 and August 15, 1983.

  9. Differences in straggling rates between two genera of dove lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) reinforce population genetic and cophylogenetic patterns.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Johnson, Kevin P; Parker, Patricia G

    2004-09-01

    Differences in dispersal abilities have been implicated for causing disparate evolutionary patterns between Columbicola and Physconelloides lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). However, no study has documented straggling (when lice are found on atypical hosts) rates within these lineages. We used the fact that the Galapagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis (Gould) (Falconiformes) feeds on the Galapagos Dove Zenaida galapagoensis Gould (Columbiformes) within an ecologically simplified setting. The Galapagos Dove is the only typical host of Columbicola macrourae (Wilson) and Physconelloides galapagensis (Kellogg and Huwana) in Galapagos. We quantitatively sampled and found these lice on both bird species. A DNA barcoding approach confirmed that stragglers were derived from Galapagos doves. We also collected a Bovicola sp. louse, likely originating from a goat (Capra hircus). On hawks, C. macrourae was significantly more prevalent than P. galapagensis. On doves, the two lice were equally prevalent and abundant. Differences in prevalence on hawks was a function of differences in straggling rate between lice, and not a reflection of their relative representation within the dove population. This provides further evidence that differences in dispersal abilities may drive differences in the degree of cospeciation in Columbicola and Phyconelloides lice, which have become model systems in evolutionary biology.

  10. Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-10-01

    Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be

  11. Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    PubMed

    Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-10-01

    Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be

  12. Diversity of larvae of littoral Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta) and their role as bioindicators in urban reservoirs of different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Morais, S S; Molozzi, J; Viana, A L; Viana, T H; Callisto, M

    2010-11-01

    The Chironomidae (Diptera: Insecta) have a high species richness, with species adapted to live under widely different environmental conditions. The study of the taxonomic composition of chironomid larvae and the percentage of occurrence of deformities in mouthparts, mainly in the mentum, are used in biomonitoring programmes in order to obtain information on the levels of organic and chemical pollution of aquatic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the abundance of chironomid larvae and to quantify the occurrence of mentum deformities in the specimens collected in three urban reservoirs with different trophic levels. The reservoirs are located in the hydrographic basin of the Paraopeba River, an affluent of the São Francisco River basin (Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil). The Serra Azul Reservoir is oligotrophic, the Vargem das Flores Reservoir is mesotrophic, and the Ibirité Reservoir is eutrophic. Along the littoral zone of each reservoir, 30 samples were collected during each sampling campaign. Sampling was carried out every three months for one year, with two sampling campaigns during the wet season and two during the dry season in 2008. Physical and chemical parameters measured in the water column included the water depth, Secchi depth, air and water temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, redox potential, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, Total-N, Total-P, P-ortho, and chlorophyll-a. The chironomid larvae were identified to the genus level. The structure of the chironomid assemblages was evaluated based on taxonomic richness (24 genera), density, equitability, and diversity. The potential indicator taxa for each reservoir were established through an Indicator Species Analysis. The values for taxonomic richness (20 taxa), equitability (0.737), and Shannon-Wiener diversity (2.215) were highest in the Serra Azul Reservoir. Fissimentum was the indicator taxon in Serra Azul, the oligotrophic reservoir; whereas

  13. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and Diabrotica barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data.

    PubMed

    Coates, Brad S

    2014-06-01

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (16,747 bp) and Diabrotica barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were in typical of insect mitochondrial genomes. Non-standard nad4 and cox3 stop codons were composed of single T nucleotides and likely completed by adenylation, and atypical TTT start codons was predicted for both D. v. virgifera and D. barberinad1 genes. The D. v. virgifera and D. barberi haplotypes showed 819 variable nucleotide positions within PCG regions (7.36% divergence), which suggest that speciation may have occurred ~3.68 million years ago assuming a linear rate of short-term substitution. Phylogenetic analyses of Coleopteran MtD genome show clustering based on family level, and may have the capacity to resolve the evolutionary history within this Order of insects. PMID:24657060

  14. The Influence of Heavy Metals and Water Parameters on the Composition and Abundance of Water Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera) in the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda

    2014-01-01

    The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ 2 = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H’ and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin. PMID:27073600

  15. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    PubMed

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas.

  16. The Influence of Heavy Metals and Water Parameters on the Composition and Abundance of Water Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera) in the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda

    2014-12-01

    The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ (2) = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H' and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin.

  17. The Influence of Heavy Metals and Water Parameters on the Composition and Abundance of Water Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera) in the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda

    2014-12-01

    The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ (2) = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H' and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin. PMID:27073600

  18. Fumigant toxicity of summer savory and lemon balm oil constituents and efficacy of spray formulations containing the oils to B- and neonicotinoid-resistant Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Chae, Song-Hwa; Kim, Soon-Il; Yeon, Seong Hum; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-02-01

    An assessment was made of the fumigant toxicity of 36 constituents from lemon balm oil (LBO) and summer savory oil (SSO) and another additional nine previously identified compounds of the oils, as well as of the control efficacy of four experimental spray formulations containing individual oils (0.5 and 0.1% sprays) and spinosad 10% suspension concentrate (SC) to females from B- and neonicotinoid-resistant Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Based on 24-h LC50 values, Q-biotype females (0.20 microg/cm3) were 40 times less susceptible to dichlorvos than B-biotype females (0.005 microg/cm3). Thymol (LC50, 0.35 microg/cm3) and carvacrol (0.56 microg/cm3) were the most toxic compounds toward Q-biotype females, followed by (1S)-(-)-borneol, alpha-terpineol, nerol, linalool, and carvone (1.06-1.38 microg/cm3). The toxicity of these compounds was virtually identical toward both biotype females, indicating that the terpenoids and the insecticides (neonicotinoids and dichlorvos) do not share a common mode of action or elicit cross-resistance. The 0.5% spray of LBO, SSO, and spinosad 10% SC resulted in >90% mortality toward both biotype females. Global efforts to reduce the level of toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on LBO- and SSO-derived materials as potential contact-action fumigants for the control of B. tabaci populations. PMID:24665712

  19. Fumigant toxicity of summer savory and lemon balm oil constituents and efficacy of spray formulations containing the oils to B- and neonicotinoid-resistant Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Chae, Song-Hwa; Kim, Soon-Il; Yeon, Seong Hum; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-02-01

    An assessment was made of the fumigant toxicity of 36 constituents from lemon balm oil (LBO) and summer savory oil (SSO) and another additional nine previously identified compounds of the oils, as well as of the control efficacy of four experimental spray formulations containing individual oils (0.5 and 0.1% sprays) and spinosad 10% suspension concentrate (SC) to females from B- and neonicotinoid-resistant Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Based on 24-h LC50 values, Q-biotype females (0.20 microg/cm3) were 40 times less susceptible to dichlorvos than B-biotype females (0.005 microg/cm3). Thymol (LC50, 0.35 microg/cm3) and carvacrol (0.56 microg/cm3) were the most toxic compounds toward Q-biotype females, followed by (1S)-(-)-borneol, alpha-terpineol, nerol, linalool, and carvone (1.06-1.38 microg/cm3). The toxicity of these compounds was virtually identical toward both biotype females, indicating that the terpenoids and the insecticides (neonicotinoids and dichlorvos) do not share a common mode of action or elicit cross-resistance. The 0.5% spray of LBO, SSO, and spinosad 10% SC resulted in >90% mortality toward both biotype females. Global efforts to reduce the level of toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on LBO- and SSO-derived materials as potential contact-action fumigants for the control of B. tabaci populations.

  20. Rapid and accurate taxonomic classification of insect (class Insecta) cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcode sequences using a naïve Bayesian classifier

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Teresita M; Gibson, Joel F; Shokralla, Shadi; Baird, Donald J; Golding, G Brian; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Current methods to identify unknown insect (class Insecta) cytochrome c oxidase (COI barcode) sequences often rely on thresholds of distances that can be difficult to define, sequence similarity cut-offs, or monophyly. Some of the most commonly used metagenomic classification methods do not provide a measure of confidence for the taxonomic assignments they provide. The aim of this study was to use a naïve Bayesian classifier (Wang et al. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2007; 73: 5261) to automate taxonomic assignments for large batches of insect COI sequences such as data obtained from high-throughput environmental sequencing. This method provides rank-flexible taxonomic assignments with an associated bootstrap support value, and it is faster than the blast-based methods commonly used in environmental sequence surveys. We have developed and rigorously tested the performance of three different training sets using leave-one-out cross-validation, two field data sets, and targeted testing of Lepidoptera, Diptera and Mantodea sequences obtained from the Barcode of Life Data system. We found that type I error rates, incorrect taxonomic assignments with a high bootstrap support, were already relatively low but could be lowered further by ensuring that all query taxa are actually present in the reference database. Choosing bootstrap support cut-offs according to query length and summarizing taxonomic assignments to more inclusive ranks can also help to reduce error while retaining the maximum number of assignments. Additionally, we highlight gaps in the taxonomic and geographic representation of insects in public sequence databases that will require further work by taxonomists to improve the quality of assignments generated using any method.

  1. Heptageniidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Braasch, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nine genera and twenty-two species of heptageniid mayflies from Thailand are defined in this present work as well as one suggested further subgenus, Compsoneuria (Siamoneuria) kovaci (species “incertae sedis”) including some particular characters. Taxonomic remarks, diagnoses, line drawings of key characters, distribution, habitat and biological data, and a larval key to the genera and species are provided. The chorionic eggs of eight genera and eight species were observed and shown using a scanning electron microscope. PMID:23794803

  2. Characteristics of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) rRNA genes of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable elements

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R

    2006-01-01

    As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome

  3. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae). Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Stereolidae Rafinesque, 1815 nom. oblitum (Throscidae) and Lophocaterini Crowson, 1964 over Lycoptini Casey, 1890 nom. oblitum (Trogossitidae); Monotoma Herbst, 1799 nom. protectum over Monotoma Panzer, 1792 nom. oblitum (Monotomidae); Pediacus Shuckard, 1839 nom. protectum over Biophloeus Dejean, 1835 nom. oblitum (Cucujidae), Pachypus Dejean, 1821 nom. protectum over Pachypus Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae), Sparrmannia Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Leocaeta Dejean, 1833 nom. oblitum and Cephalotrichia Hope, 1837 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae). PMID:21594053

  4. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  5. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae). Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom.

  6. Comparative cytogenetics of Auchenorrhyncha (Hemiptera, Homoptera): a review

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Valentina; Aguin-Pombo, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A comprehensive review of cytogenetic features is provided for the large hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha, which currently contains approximately 42,000 valid species. This review is based on the analysis of 819 species, 483 genera, and 31 families representing all presently recognized Auchenorrhyncha superfamilies, e.i. Cicadoidea (cicadas), Cercopoidea (spittle bugs), Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers), Myerslopioidea (ground-dwelling leafhoppers), and Fulgoroidea (planthoppers). History and present status of chromosome studies are described, as well as the structure of chromosomes, chromosome counts, trends and mechanisms of evolution of karyotypes and sex determining systems, their variation at different taxonomic levels and most characteristic (modal) states, occurrence of parthenogenesis, polyploidy, B-chromosomes and chromosome rearrangements, and methods used for cytogenetic analysis of Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:26807037

  7. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2003-10-01

    A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 microl/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control.

  8. Preference of Gossypium genotypes to Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several Gossypium species and genotypes were evaluated by in field and greehouse tests in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, for preference to the whitefly. Genotypes with G.hirsutum, G. barabadense, G. herbaceum, and G. arboreum were examined, including commercial and obsolete cultivars,(cultivar...

  9. Toxicity of plant essential oils to Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Eun-Hee; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Park, Hyung-Man; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2003-10-01

    A total of 53 plant essential oils were tested for their insecticidal activities against eggs, nymphs, and adults of Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, using an impregnated filter paper bioassays without allowing direct contact. Responses varied according to oil type and dose, and developmental stage of the insect. Bay, caraway seed, clove leaf, lemon eucalyptus, lime dis 5 F, pennyroyal, peppermint, rosewood, spearmint, and tea tree oils were highly effective against T. vaporariorum adults, nymphs, and eggs at 0.0023, 0.0093, and 0.0047 microl/ml air, respectively. These results indicate that the mode of delivery of these essential oils was largely a result of action in the vapor phase. Significant correlations among adulticidal, nymphicidal, and ovicidal activities of the test oils were observed. The essential oils described herein merit further study as potential fumigants for T. vaporariorum control. PMID:14650521

  10. [Host plants of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Vázquez, L L; Jiménez, R; de la Iglesia, M; Mateo, A; Borges, M

    1997-03-01

    The sweet potato white fly, Bemisia tabaci, is an important pest of tomatoes and beans, among other crops, which transmits viral diseases. Since the second quarter of 1989 a significant population increase of this pest has been noted in several cultivated plants. From 1989 to 1992, a survey was done throughout the country, chiefly in vegetable and bean-producing areas. They occur in 119 species (42 families), a great increase over the previous record of four species. Worldwide, this report represents 50 species and six families which are new records.

  11. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca) angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska); Empoasca (Empoasca) ch...

  12. Acoustic communication in Okanagana rimosa (Say) (Homoptera: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Stölting, Heiko; Moore, Thomas E; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    The cicada Okanagana rimosa (Say) has an acoustic communication system with three types of loud timbal sounds: (i) A calling song lasting several seconds to about 1 min which consists of a sequence of chirps at a repetition rate of 83 chirps per second. Each chirp of about 6 ms duration contains 4-5 pulses. The sound level of the calling song is 87-90 dB SPL at a distance of 15 cm. (ii) An amplitude modulated courtship song with increasing amplitude and repetition rate of chirps and pulses. (iii) A protest squawk with irregular chirp and pulse structure. The spectra of all three types are similar and show main energy peaks at 8-10 kHz. Only males sing, and calling song production is influenced by the songs of other males, resulting in an almost continuous sound in dense populations. In such populations, the calling songs overlap and the temporal structure of individual songs is obscured within the habitat. The calling song of the broadly sympatric, closely related species O. canadensis (Provander) is similar in frequency content, but distinct in the temporal pattern (24 chirps per second, 24 ms chirp duration, eight pulses per chirp) which is likely important for species separation in sympatric populations. The hearing threshold of the auditory nerve is similar for females and males of O. rimosa and most sensitive at 4-5 kHz. Experiments in the field show that female phonotaxis of O. rimosa depends on parameters of the calling song. Most females are attracted to calling song models with a 9 kHz carrier frequency (peak frequency of the calling song), but not to models with a 5 kHz carrier frequency (minimum hearing threshold). Phonotaxis depends on temporal parameters of the conspecific song, especially chirp repetition rate. Calling song production is influenced by environmental factors, and likelihood to sing increases with temperature and brightness of the sky. Correspondingly, females perform phonotaxis most often during sunny conditions with temperatures above 22 degrees C. Non-mated and mated females are attracted by the acoustic signals, and the percentage of mated females performing phonotaxis increases during the season. PMID:16351942

  13. Embryonic development of pleuropodia of the cicada, Magicicada cassini

    PubMed Central

    Strauß, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    In many insects the first abdominal segment possesses embryonic appendages called pleuropodia. Here we show the embryogenesis of pleuropodial cells of the periodical cicada, Magicicada cassini (Fisher 1851) (Insecta, Homoptera, Cicadidae). An antibody, anti-horseradish perioxidase (HRP), that is usually neuron-specific strongly marked the pleuropodial anlagen and revealed their ectodermal origin shortly after limb bud formation. Thereafter the cells sank into the epidermis and their apical parts enlarged. A globular part protruded from the body wall. Filamentous structures were marked at the stem region and into the apical dilation. In later embryonic stages the pleuropodia degenerated. Despite the binding of anti-HRP the cells had no morphological neuronal characters and cannot be regarded as neurons. The binding indicates that glycosylated cell surface molecules contribute to the adhesion between the presumably glandular pleuropodial cells. In comparison, anti-HRP does not mark the pleuropodia of Orthoptera. PMID:19537987

  14. Genome size of termites (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Isoptera) and wood roaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Cryptocercidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru

    2008-09-01

    The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes ( C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.

  15. Genome size of termites (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Isoptera) and wood roaches (Insecta, Dictyoptera, Cryptocercidae).

    PubMed

    Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru

    2008-09-01

    The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes (C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.

  16. A new species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Western Alps (Insecta: Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorum sp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorum sp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe – a supposedly well-explored region. PMID:27069351

  17. Divergence of unique DNA sequences in Lepidoptera (insecta)

    SciTech Connect

    Ado, N.Yu.; Petrov, N.B.

    1985-07-01

    The authors contribute additional information about the interrelationship between lepidoteran taxons. Such information may be obtained by the techniques of genosystematics. DNA was extracted from the last larval instars of images by the usual methods. The labeled and unlabeled fragments were 150-250 nucleotide pairs (n.p.) long. DNA hybridization was performed under gentle conditions: 0.5 M Na phosphage buffer, pH 6.8, at 55/sup 0/C, incubation to 10,000 C/sub o/T (product of initial concentration of single-strand DNA molecules, moles/liter, and time of incubation (in seconds)), permitting the comparison of genomes of species from taxons phylogenetically far apart. The ratio of labeled fragments of reference unique DNA sequences to unlabeled total DNA was 1:2500. The techniques of hybridization and determination of the thermal stability (T/sub m/) of the duplexes, taking into account the auto-reassociation of the labeled DNA fragments. The radioactivity was determined in a dioxane-based scintillator, after partial acid hydrolysis of the DNA at 55/sup 0/C, in a counter. Under the experimental conditions chosen, reassociation of unique DNA sequences in homologous reactions was 70-85%

  18. An annotated checklist of the Greek Stonefly Fauna (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Andriopoulou, Argyro; Kouvarda, Theodora; Murányi, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the Greek stonefly (Plecoptera) fauna is presented as an annotated index of all available published records. These records have resulted in an updated species list reflecting current taxonomy and species distributions of the Greek peninsula and islands. Currently, a total of 71 species and seven subspecies belonging to seven families and 19 genera are reported from Greece. There is high species endemicity of the Leuctridae and Nemouridae, particularly on the Greek islands. The endemics known from Greece comprise thirty species representing 42% of the Greek stonefly fauna. The remaining taxa are typical Balkan and Mediterranean species. PMID:27395093

  19. Chironomids (Insecta: Diptera) as Indicators of Ecological Status in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marziali, L.; Lencioni, V.; Rossaro, B.

    2005-05-01

    Benthic communities are used in biological assessment and monitoring in lakes. Chironomids are considered indicators of oxygen level and trophic state. The taxocoenosis of 42 Italian lakes with different volume, depth, annual minimum hypolimnetic oxygen concentration, transparency and phosphorous concentration were investigated. Larvae were collected with a Petersen grab at different depths, pupal exuviae with a drift net near the outlet of lakes and adults with a sweep net along the shore. 334 species were identified: 41 Tanypodinae, 17 Diamesinae, 3 Prodiamesinae, 118 Orthocladiinae, 155 Chironominae (61 Tanytarsini, 93 Chironomini and 1 Pseudochironomini). Drift samples included many more taxa than grab samples, adult samples often included terrestrial species. Lake Garda, Como and Maggiore were the richest in species (78, 72 and 66 respectively), as expected because of their large size. Species richness did not result as good indicator: both oligotrophic (Monate 52 species, Toblino 33) and eutrophic lakes (Annone 57, Pusiano 42) were characterized by similar species numbers. Different species were more suitable indicators of oxygen concentration rather than of nutrients. A comparison of different lakes is preliminary because of: 1. different morphometric and trophic conditions; 2. different sampling effort; 3. lack of knowledge of species optima and tolerance.

  20. Tropical dermatology: Venomous arthropods and human skin: Part I. Insecta.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2012-09-01

    Although many tropical insects carry infectious diseases, cutaneous injury can occur by other mechanisms, for example erucism (envenomation by caterpillars) or lepidopterism (dermatitis from moths). Pararama is a unique form of erucism seen in workers in contact with rubber trees in the Amazon, and it is caused by Premolis larvae, resulting in progressive periarticular fibrosis, ankylosis, and the loss of articulation. Ants and aquatic insects of the Belostomatidae family can cause painful bites and stings. Anaphylactic shock and death can result from the venom of bees and wasps. Beetles can cause vesicular dermatitis via cantharidin or paederin. Myiasis results from fly larvae (maggots) feeding on live or necrotic tissue of humans or other hosts, while New World screwworm fly larvae feed only on living tissue and burrow (ie, screw) more deeply when attempts are made to remove them. Tungiasis is characterized by very pruritic and painful papules and ulcers resulting from a Tunga flea penetrating the host's skin. Dermatologists should be able to diagnose and treat the cutaneous manifestations of these tropical insects and educate their patients on prevention. PMID:22890734

  1. Chromosome numbers in antlions (Myrmeleontidae) and owlflies (Ascalaphidae) (Insecta, Neuroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Khabiev, Gadzhimurad N.; Krivokhatsky, Victor A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A short review of main cytogenetic features of insects belonging to the sister neuropteran families Myrmeleontidae (antlions) and Ascalaphidae (owlflies) is presented, with a particular focus on their chromosome numbers and sex chromosome systems. Diploid male chromosome numbers are listed for 37 species, 21 genera from 9 subfamilies of the antlions as well as for seven species and five genera of the owlfly subfamily Ascalaphinae. The list includes data on five species whose karyotypes were studied in the present work. It is shown here that antlions and owlflies share a simple sex chromosome system XY/XX; a similar range of chromosome numbers, 2n = 14-26 and 2n = 18-22 respectively; and a peculiar distant pairing of sex chromosomes in male meiosis. Usually the karyotype is particularly stable within a genus but there are some exceptions in both families (in the genera Palpares and Libelloides respectively). The Myrmeleontidae and Ascalaphidae differ in their modal chromosome numbers. Most antlions exhibit 2n = 14 and 16, and Palparinae are the only subfamily characterized by higher numbers, 2n = 22, 24, and 26. The higher numbers, 2n = 20 and 22, are also found in owlflies. Since the Palparinae represent a basal phylogenetic lineage of the Myrmeleontidae, it is hypothesized that higher chromosome numbers are ancestral for antlions and were inherited from the common ancestor of Myrmeleontidae + Ascalaphidae. They were preserved in the Palparinae (Myrmeleontidae), but changed via chromosomal fusions toward lower numbers in other subfamilies. PMID:26807036

  2. A review of the fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Sanchez, Juliana; Autino, Analía

    2016-01-01

    The Order Siphonaptera comprises cosmopolitan haematophagous ectoparasites of birds and mammals. More than ten years have past since the last list of species known for Argentina. Herein we provide a review of the fleas from the country, which includes an updated list, host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments. We report 127 species and subspecies belonging to eleven different families; 42 of these species are endemic. Four genera (Adoratopsylla, Cleopsylla, Ctenidiosomus, and Nonnapsylla) and six species and subspecies (Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, Agastopsylla pearsoni, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) silewi, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) wilesi and Tunga terasma) are added to the list for Argentina. Nine species new to science are included, described on the bases of specimens collected from Argentina (Ctenidiosomus austrinus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) lareschiae, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) spiculatus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) morenoi, Hectopsylla narium, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii, Neotyphloceras crackensis, Neotyphloceras pardinasii and Tunga perforans). Information provided herein contributes to the knowledge of the fleas from Argentina, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance. PMID:27394731

  3. Croatian mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera): species diversity and distribution patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vilenica, Marina; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Mihaljević, Zlatko; Sartori, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of the mayfly biodiversity in the Balkan Peninsula is still far from complete. Compared to the neighbouring countries, the mayfly fauna in Croatia is very poorly known. Situated at the crossroads of central and Mediterranean Europe and the Balkan Peninsula, Croatia is divided into two ecoregions: Dinaric western Balkan and Pannonian lowland. Mayflies were sampled between 2003 and 2013 at 171 sites, and a total of 66 species was recorded. Combined with the literature data, the Croatian mayfly fauna reached a total of 79 taxa. Of these, 29 species were recorded for the first time in Croatia while 15 species were not previously recorded in Dinaric western Balkan ecoregion. Based on the mayfly assemblage, sampling sites were first structured by ecoregion and then by habitat type. In comparison with the surrounding countries, the Croatian mayfly fauna is the most similar to the Hungarian and Bosnian fauna. Some morphologically interesting taxa such as Baetis cf. nubecularis Eaton, 1898 and Rhithrogena from the diaphana group were recorded. Ephemera cf. parnassiana Demoulin, 1958, the species previously recorded only from Greece, was also recorded. PMID:26478701

  4. Revision of Trachelissa Aurivillius, 1912 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Quintino, Hingrid Yara S; Monné, Marcela L

    2014-01-01

    A revision of the genus Trachelissa Aurivillius, 1912, based on a study of external morphology and terminalia, is presented. The genus and its species are redescribed. Five species are recognized, two of which are described as new: T. bella sp. nov. from Bolivia and T. opaca sp. nov. from Argentina. A new host plant for T. maculicollis Audinet-Serville, 1834 is recorded. A key to all species, and their photographs and distribution maps are provided. 

  5. The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2016-05-01

    Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.

  6. A review of the fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera) from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Sanchez, Juliana; Autino, Analía

    2016-04-13

    The Order Siphonaptera comprises cosmopolitan haematophagous ectoparasites of birds and mammals. More than ten years have past since the last list of species known for Argentina. Herein we provide a review of the fleas from the country, which includes an updated list, host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments. We report 127 species and subspecies belonging to eleven different families; 42 of these species are endemic. Four genera (Adoratopsylla, Cleopsylla, Ctenidiosomus, and Nonnapsylla) and six species and subspecies (Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, Agastopsylla pearsoni, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) silewi, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) wilesi and Tunga terasma) are added to the list for Argentina. Nine species new to science are included, described on the bases of specimens collected from Argentina (Ctenidiosomus austrinus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) lareschiae, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) spiculatus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) morenoi, Hectopsylla narium, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii, Neotyphloceras crackensis, Neotyphloceras pardinasii and Tunga perforans). Information provided herein contributes to the knowledge of the fleas from Argentina, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance.

  7. An annotated checklist of the Greek Stonefly Fauna (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Andriopoulou, Argyro; Kouvarda, Theodora; Murányi, Dávid

    2016-05-17

    An overview of the Greek stonefly (Plecoptera) fauna is presented as an annotated index of all available published records. These records have resulted in an updated species list reflecting current taxonomy and species distributions of the Greek peninsula and islands. Currently, a total of 71 species and seven subspecies belonging to seven families and 19 genera are reported from Greece. There is high species endemicity of the Leuctridae and Nemouridae, particularly on the Greek islands. The endemics known from Greece comprise thirty species representing 42% of the Greek stonefly fauna. The remaining taxa are typical Balkan and Mediterranean species.

  8. [Understanding mitochondrial genome fragmentation in parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed. PMID:23853355

  9. On Afromantispa and Mantispa (Insecta, Neuroptera, Mantispidae): elucidating generic boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Snyman, Louwtjie P.; Sole, Catherine L.; Ohl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Afromantispa Snyman & Ohl, 2012 was recently synonymised with Mantispa Illiger, 1798 by Monserrat (2014). Here morphological evidence is presented in support of restoring the genus Afromantispa stat. rev. to its previous status as a valid and morphologically distinct genus. Twelve new combinations (comb. n.) are proposed as species of Afromantispa including three new synonyms. PMID:26478700

  10. New Jurassic Hangingflies (Insecta: Mecoptera: Bittacidae) from Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sulin; Shih, Chungkun; Bashkuev, Alexei; Ren, Dong

    2016-01-01

    A new bittacid genus, Composibittacus gen. nov., with two new species, C. bipunctatus gen. et sp. nov. and C. reticulatus sp. nov., and a new species of Orthobittacus Willmann 1989, O. maculosus sp. nov., are described from the latest Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. Composibittacus gen. nov. has unique wing characters, such as five pterostigmal crossveins between R1 and R2 and R1 and R2+3 and an elongated pterostigma area, which distinguishes it from all other known genera in Bittacidae. Orthobittacus maculosus sp. nov. differs from other species of Orthobittacus by a combination of the following wing characters: M with six branches in forewings and hind wings, two crossveins between C and Sc, and two pterostigmal crossveins in the forewing. In addition, O. maculosus sp. nov. has light-colored or white spots on the fore- and hind wings. These new venational characters of Composibittacus gen. nov. and O. maculosus sp. nov. enhance our understanding of the diverse morphological characters of early hangingflies. Furthermore, based on the striking similarity of the wings of O. maculosus sp. nov. and Juracimbrophlebia ginkgofolia Wang, Labandeira, Shih & Ren 2012 (Cimbrophlebiidae), we propose that leaf mimesis and mutualism with ginkgo plants might have been present in the Bittacidae, as has been proposed in the Cimbrophlebiidae. PMID:27395863

  11. The Nabidae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marcela; Coscarón, María C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, five genera and 14 species are recorded in the subfamilies Prostemmatinae and Nabinae: Hoplistoscelis sordidus Reuter, Lasiomerus constrictus Champion, Metatropiphorus alvarengai Reuter, Nabis argentinus Meyer-Dür, Nabis (Tropiconabis) capsiformis Germar, Nabis faminei Stål, Nabis paranensis Harris, Nabis punctipennis Blanchard, Nabis roripes Stål, Nabis setricus Harris, Nabis tandilensis Berg, Pagasa (Pagasa) costalis Reuter, Pagasa (Lampropagasa) fuscipennis Reuter and Pagasa (Pagasa) signatipennis Reuter. PMID:24146557

  12. Larvae of hydromanicus (insecta: trichoptera: hydropsychidae) from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Prommi, Taeng On; Permkam, Surakrai

    2015-01-29

    Larvae of only 2 of the 13 species of Hydromanicus known from Thailand have been described previously. In this research, the "metamorphotype method" was used to associate yet-unidentifiable larvae and pupae with their identifiable adults: Pupal identifications were based on genitalic features in common with described adults, and larvae were associated with the pupae. Herein, the final larval instar of Hydromanicus malayanus, H. abiud and H. inferior are described and illustrated. 

  13. A new species of Mengenilla (Insecta, Strepsiptera) from Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans; Niehuis, Oliver; Gloyna, Kai; Misof, Bernhard; Beutel, Rolf G

    2012-01-01

    A new species of Mengenilla Hofeneder, 1910 (Strepsiptera, Mengenillidae) from southern Tunisia is described. Mengenilla moldrzykisp. n. can be distinguished from congeners by a slightly emarginated posterodorsal margin of the head, compound eyes with a light tan dorsal part, mandibles with a narrow distal part, and a v-shaped pronotum. With the description of Mengenilla moldrzykisp. n., eleven valid species of Mengenilla are currently recognised. Mengenilla moldrzykisp. n. is the third species of the genus with known females and female puparia. First instar larvae, endoparasitic larval stages, the male puparium and the host are unknown. The new species is also the first strepsipteran with a fully sequenced genome. PMID:22707907

  14. Traumatic insemination and female counter-adaptation in Strepsiptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Peinert, Miriam; Wipfler, Benjamin; Jetschke, Gottfried; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Beutel, Rolf G; Pohl, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In a few insect groups, males pierce the female's integument with their penis during copulation to transfer sperm. This so-called traumatic insemination was previously confirmed for Strepsiptera but only in species with free-living females. The more derived endoparasitic groups (Stylopidia) were suggested to exhibit brood canal mating. Further, it was assumed that females mate once and that pheromone production ceases immediately thereafter. Here we examined Stylops ovinae to provide details of the mating behaviour within Stylopidia. By using μCT imaging of Stylops in copula, we observed traumatic insemination and not, as previously suggested, brood canal mating. The penis is inserted in an invagination of the female cephalothorax and perforates its cuticle. Further we show that female Stylops are polyandrous and that males detect the mating status of the females. Compared to other strepsipterans the copulation is distinctly prolonged. This may reduce the competition between sperm of the first mating male with sperm from others. We describe a novel paragenital organ of Stylops females, the cephalothoracic invagination, which we suggest to reduce the cost of injuries. In contrast to previous interpretations we postulate that the original mode of traumatic insemination was maintained after the transition from free-living to endoparasitic strepsipteran females. PMID:27125507

  15. Mating of Xenos vesparum (Rossi) (Strepsiptera, Insecta) revisited.

    PubMed

    Beani, L; Giusti, F; Mercati, D; Lupetti, P; Paccagnini, E; Turillazzi, S; Dallai, R

    2005-09-01

    The controversial mating of the strepsipteran Xenos vesparum was studied to investigate the possible sperm routes for fertilization. The female, which is a neotenic permanent endoparasite of Polistes wasps, extrudes only its anterior region, the "cephalothorax," from the host abdomen. This region has an opening where both mating and larval escape occur. Observations with scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed spermatozoa not only in the hemocoel, but also in the "ventral canal" (an extragenital duct peculiar to strepsipteran females) and in the "genital ducts" (ectodermal invaginations connecting the ventral canal to the hemocoel) of recently mated females. Xenos vesparum spermatozoa can reach the oocytes either through the hemocoel as a result of a hypodermic insemination, or by moving along the extragenital ducts, which are later used by first instar larvae to escape. The hypothesis of hypodermic insemination is reconsidered in the light of behavioral and ultrastructural evidence. PMID:16047336

  16. Molecular phylogeny of Polyneoptera (Insecta) inferred from expanded mitogenomic data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    The Polyneoptera represents one of the earliest insect radiations, comprising the majority of hemimetabolous orders, in which many species have great economic importance. Here, we sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes of the polyneopteran insects by using high throughput pooled sequencing technology, and presented a phylogenetic reconstruction for this group based on expanded mitochondrial genome data. Our analyses included 189 taxa, of which 139 species represent all the major polyneopteran lineages. Multiple results support the monophyly of Polyneoptera, the monophyly of Dictyoptera, and the monophyly of Orthoptera. Sister taxon relationships Plecoptera + Dermaptera, and Zoraptera + Embioptera are also supported by most analyses. Within Dictyoptera, the Blattodea is consistently retrieved as paraphyly due to the sister group relationship of Cryptocercus with Isoptera. In addition, the results demonstrate that model selection, data treatment, and outgroup choice can have significant effects on the reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of Polyneoptera. PMID:27782189

  17. Tropical dermatology: Venomous arthropods and human skin: Part I. Insecta.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K

    2012-09-01

    Although many tropical insects carry infectious diseases, cutaneous injury can occur by other mechanisms, for example erucism (envenomation by caterpillars) or lepidopterism (dermatitis from moths). Pararama is a unique form of erucism seen in workers in contact with rubber trees in the Amazon, and it is caused by Premolis larvae, resulting in progressive periarticular fibrosis, ankylosis, and the loss of articulation. Ants and aquatic insects of the Belostomatidae family can cause painful bites and stings. Anaphylactic shock and death can result from the venom of bees and wasps. Beetles can cause vesicular dermatitis via cantharidin or paederin. Myiasis results from fly larvae (maggots) feeding on live or necrotic tissue of humans or other hosts, while New World screwworm fly larvae feed only on living tissue and burrow (ie, screw) more deeply when attempts are made to remove them. Tungiasis is characterized by very pruritic and painful papules and ulcers resulting from a Tunga flea penetrating the host's skin. Dermatologists should be able to diagnose and treat the cutaneous manifestations of these tropical insects and educate their patients on prevention.

  18. Supergroup F Wolbachia bacteria parasitise lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Covacin, Catherine; Barker, Stephen C

    2007-02-01

    We studied six species of lice from three of the four suborders of lice. These lice were infected with Wolbachia bacteria from supergroups A and F. This is the first report of an infection of supergroup F Wolbachia in lice. To date, Wolbachia from supergroup F have been found in filarial nematodes, Mansonella spp., and, rarely, in insects. We inferred the phylogeny of the Wolbachia from lice and representatives of all Wolbachia supergroups, with nucleotide sequences from the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). There was no evidence of congruence between the taxon of louse and the Wolbachia bacteria that infect lice. There is no evidence that Wolbachia and their louse hosts co-evolved at least at the level of Wolbachia supergroups. We propose a novel mechanism for the horizontal transfer of Wolbachia between different species of lice from birds: transfer of Wolbachia during phoresis by hippoboscid flies.

  19. [Understanding mitochondrial genome fragmentation in parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera)].

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao

    2013-07-01

    Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed.

  20. Reduced taxonomic richness of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) in diving birds.

    PubMed

    Felsõ, B; Rózsa, L

    2006-08-01

    Avian lice occupy different habitats in the host plumage that the physical environment outside the host body may affect in several ways. Interactions between host plumage and water may be an important source of such effects. Here, we use a comparative approach to examine the effect of a host's diving behavior on the taxonomic richness of its lice. Louse genera richness was significantly lower in clades of diving birds than on their nondiving sister clades. Species richness of host and body mass did not differ significantly between these clades; thus, these factors did not bias our results. This study suggests that the hosts' diving behavior can effectively influence ectoparasite communities.

  1. Fossil Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) as Paleothermometers in the African Tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggermont, H.; Heiri, O.; Russell, J.; Vuille, M.; Audenaert, L.; Klaassen, G.; Verschuren, D.

    2008-12-01

    Reconstruction of Africa's temperature history from natural climate archives such as lake sediments is essential to amend the current scarcity of information on natural tropical climate and ecosystem variability. Chironomids are well-established paleothermometers in north-temperate/boreal regions, but their potential in tropical lakes has never before been assessed. We surveyed sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in surface sediments from 65 lakes and permanent pools in southwestern Uganda and central/southern Kenya, spanning elevations between 489 and 4575 m asl. Using various subsets of lakes and corresponding Surface-Water Temperatures (SWTemp) and Mean Annual Air Temperatures (MATemp), we developed a series of inference models for quantitative paleotemperature reconstruction. Models using both low-, mid- and high-elevation sites suffer to some extent from the small number of samples between 2500 and 3500 m asl, and from the presence of ecologically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable taxa. Models confined to mountain sites produce poorer error statistics, but are less prone to the biogeographical and taxonomic complexities associated with long climatic gradients. Overall, error statistics compare favourably with those of inference models developed for temperate regions, indicating that fossil assemblages of African Chironomidae can be valuable indicators of past temperature change. We subsequently used these models to evaluate whether high-elevation lakes in the Rwenzori Mountains (>3000 m asl) have been impacted by climate warming in recent centuries by comparing temperatures inferred from chironomid assemblages in modern sediments with those derived from chironomid assemblages in sediments deposited within or briefly after the Little Ice Age (1270-1850 AD). Depending on the model used, between 44 and 63% of the 16 lakes studied indicate significantly warmer temperatures in recent times (corresponding with an average MATemp rise of 0.88 ° C, and average SWTemp rise of 1.33 ° C), while all but one of the other lakes show temperature changes that are statistically insignificant. We conclude that chironomid communities in Rwenzori lakes adequately record past temperature changes, with potential for evaluating the impacts of past air temperature variation on the long-term dynamics of the Rwenzori glaciers.

  2. Traumatic insemination and female counter-adaptation in Strepsiptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Peinert, Miriam; Wipfler, Benjamin; Jetschke, Gottfried; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Beutel, Rolf G.; Pohl, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In a few insect groups, males pierce the female’s integument with their penis during copulation to transfer sperm. This so-called traumatic insemination was previously confirmed for Strepsiptera but only in species with free-living females. The more derived endoparasitic groups (Stylopidia) were suggested to exhibit brood canal mating. Further, it was assumed that females mate once and that pheromone production ceases immediately thereafter. Here we examined Stylops ovinae to provide details of the mating behaviour within Stylopidia. By using μCT imaging of Stylops in copula, we observed traumatic insemination and not, as previously suggested, brood canal mating. The penis is inserted in an invagination of the female cephalothorax and perforates its cuticle. Further we show that female Stylops are polyandrous and that males detect the mating status of the females. Compared to other strepsipterans the copulation is distinctly prolonged. This may reduce the competition between sperm of the first mating male with sperm from others. We describe a novel paragenital organ of Stylops females, the cephalothoracic invagination, which we suggest to reduce the cost of injuries. In contrast to previous interpretations we postulate that the original mode of traumatic insemination was maintained after the transition from free-living to endoparasitic strepsipteran females. PMID:27125507

  3. The blattodeas.s. (Insecta, dictyoptera) of the Guiana shield.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Dominic A; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L; Wilson, Megan M; Ware, Jessica L

    2015-01-01

    Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblattaberenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodeas.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under-sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under-sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics.

  4. Subforaminal bridges in Hymenoptera (Insecta), with a focus on Chalcidoidea.

    PubMed

    Burks, R A; Heraty, J M

    2015-03-01

    Variation in structures of the posterior surface of the head in Hymenoptera is compared and interpreted according to theories of head capsule evolution, with focus on understanding previously baffling conditions in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. Features are investigated separately without first classifying subforaminal bridges into subcategories. In Proctotrupomorpha (including Chalcidoidea), Ceraphronoidea and some Ichneumonoidea, there are multiple posterior pits associated with the tentorium. In most examined Hymenoptera with a subforaminal bridge, there was a differentiated median area, typically with highly variable microtrichia. This area is elevated in Cephoidea and Pamphilioidea, but is not elevated in other Hymenoptera. Subforaminal bridges in Apocrita previously classified as hypostomal bridges are discussed in the context of A.P. Rasnitsyn's hypothesis that relative importance of adult feeding drives subforaminal bridge evolution.

  5. Biological diversity of the Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta, Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The caddisfly fauna of Minnesota contains at least 277 species within 21 families and 75 genera. These species are based on examination of 312,884 specimens from 2,166 collections of 937 Minnesota aquatic habitats from 1890 to 2007. Included in these totals is my own quantitative sampling of 4 representative habitat types: small streams, medium rivers, large rivers, and lakes, from each of the 58 major Minnesota watersheds from June through September during 1999–2001. All species are illustrated herein, and their known Minnesota abundances, distributions, adult flight periodicities, and habitat affinities presented. Four species: Lepidostoma griseum (Lepidostomatidae), Psilotreta indecisa (Odontoceridae), and Phryganea sayi and Ptilostomis angustipennis (Phryganeidae) are added to the known fauna. An additional 31 dubious species records are removed for various reasons. Of the 5 determined caddisfly regions of the state, species richness per watershed was highest in the Lake Superior and Northern Regions, intermediate in the Southeastern, and lowest in the Northwestern and Southern. Of the 48 individual collections that yielded >40 species, all but 1 were from the Northern Region. Many species, especially within the families Limnephilidae and Phryganeidae, have appeared to decrease in distribution and abundance during the past 75 years, particularly those once common within the Northwestern and Southern Regions. Many species now appear regionally extirpated, and a few have disappeared from the entire state. The loss of species in the Northwestern and Southern Regions, and probably elsewhere, is almost certainly related to the conversion of many habitats to large-scale agriculture during the mid-20th century. PMID:22615539

  6. Nine new species of Phoridae (Insecta: Diptera) from Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Romera, Carlos; Barrientos, Jose Antonio

    2014-08-28

    One new species of Triphleba Rondani and eight new species of Megaselia Rondani are described from Montseny Natural Park (mainland Spain). The new species are Megaselia arbuciensis García-Romera sp.nov., Megaselia barrientosi García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia callunae García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia carminis García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia ivanis García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia longianalis García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia montseniensis García-Romera sp. nov., Megaselia sarae García-Romera sp. nov., Triphleba beatricis García-Romera sp. nov. 

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of Heliconius pachinus (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhao-Hui; Dai, Pan-Feng; Zhao, Gui-Fang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Heliconius pachinus has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. The circular genome is 15,369 bp in length, and comprises the typical components: 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop region. PCGs are mostly initiated with either the ATN codons (COII, COIII, Cytb, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5, ND6, ATP6 & ATP8) or the TTG codon (ND1); the COI gene may use the unusual CGA as its initiation codon, as suggested for other lepidopteran species. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND3) or incomplete termination codon T (COI, COII & ND4), while the others use TAA as their termination codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (39.2% A, 42.0% T, 7.7% G, 11.1% C) with an overall GC content of 18.8%.

  8. Reassessing the phylogenetic position of the epizoic earwigs (Insecta: Dermaptera).

    PubMed

    Naegle, Michael A; Mugleston, Joseph D; Bybee, Seth M; Whiting, Michael F

    2016-07-01

    Dermaptera is a relatively small order of free-living insects that typically feed on detritus and other plant material. However, two earwig lineages - Arixeniidae and Hemimeridae - are epizoic on Cheiromeles bats and Beamys and Cricetomys rats respectively. Both of these epizoic families are comprised of viviparous species. The monophyly of these epizoic lineages and their placement within dermapteran phylogeny has remained unclear. A phylogenetic analyses was performed on a diverse sample of 47 earwig taxa for five loci (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, COI, Histone 3, and Tubulin Alpha I). Our results support two independent origins of the epizoic lifestyle within Dermaptera, with Hemimeridae and Arixeniidae each derived from a different lineage of Spongiphoridae. Our analyses places Marava, a genus of spongiphorids that includes free-living but viviparous earwigs, as sister group to Arixeniidae, suggesting that viviparity evolved prior to the shift to the epizoic lifestyle. Additionally, our results support the monophyly of Forficulidae and Chelisochidae and the paraphyly of Labiduridae, Pygidicranidae, Spongiphoridae, and Anisolabididae. PMID:27033951

  9. Intraspecific Signals Inducing Aggregation in Periplaneta americana (Insecta: Dictyoptera).

    PubMed

    Imen, Saïd; Christian, Malosse; Virginie, Durier; Colette, Rivault

    2015-06-01

    Chemical communication is necessary to induce aggregation and to maintain the cohesion of aggregates in Periplaneta americana (L.) cockroaches. We aimed to identify the chemical message inducing aggregation in this species. Two types of bioassays were used-binary choice tests in Petri dishes and tests in Y-olfactometer. Papers conditioned by direct contact of conspecifics induce aggregation when proposed in binary choice tests and were attractive in a Y-olfactometer. The identification of the molecules present on these conditioned papers indicated that dichloromethane extracts contained mainly cuticular hydrocarbons whereas methanol extracts contained more volatile molecules. Only a mixture of extracts in both solvents induced aggregation. High concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are necessary to induce aggregation when presented alone. When presented with volatile molecules present in methanol extracts, low concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are sufficient to induce aggregation if they are presented in contact. Among volatile molecules collected on filter paper, a mixture of three compounds-hexadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and pentaethylene glycol-induced aggregation. Our results provide evidence that aggregation processes in P. americana relies on a dual mechanism: attraction over long distances by three volatile molecules and maintenance on site by contact with cuticular hydrocarbons. PMID:26313978

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Poratrioza sinica (Insecta: Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi-Lin; Guo, Zhong-Long; Yuan, Ming-Long

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Poratrioza sinica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) has been sequenced and annotated in this study. This mitogenome is 14,863 bp in length with an A + T content of 72.0%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes that are arranged in the same order as that of the putative ancestral insect mitogenome. All protein-coding genes start with ATN codons except for nad5, which uses TTG as the initial codon. All the transfer RNA genes have the typical cloverleaf structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The control region is 700 bp in length with 82.4% A + T content. This is the second completely sequenced mitogenome from the family Psyllidae of Hemiptera.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of Cotesia Cameron, 1891 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) parasitoids associated with Melitaeini butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Melitaeini).

    PubMed

    Kankare, Maaria; Shaw, Mark R

    2004-07-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among Cotesia Cameron (Braconidae) species parasitising Melitaeini butterflies were examined using DNA sequence data (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and NADH1 dehydrogenase genes, nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region) as well as 12 microsatellite loci. Molecular data were available from ostensibly six species of Cotesia from 16 host butterfly species in Europe, Asia, and North America. Analysis of the combined sequence data using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood revealed two distinct Cotesia clades. In one clade (C. acuminata (Reinhard); C. bignellii (Marshall)) host ranges are apparently narrow and, although Euphydryas (s. lato) is well-utilised, permeation of Melitaea (s. lato) has been slight. In the other clade (C. melitaearum (Wilkinson); C. lycophron (Nixon); C. cynthiae (Nixon)) host utilization across the Melitaeini as a whole is more extensive and the data are consistent with more recent, or active, speciation processes. Neighbour-joining trees calculated separately for the two main clades based on chord distance (DCE) of microsatellite allele frequencies were consistent with phylogenetic trees obtained from the sequence data. Our analysis strongly suggests the presence of several additional, previously unrecognised, Cotesia species parasitising this group of butterflies.

  12. Egg parasitoids of Sophonia rufofascia (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Seasonal population dynamics of the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on strawberries in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Bi, J L; Toscano, N C; Ballmer, G R

    2002-12-01

    The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), has recently become a major insect pest of strawberries in Southern California. The population dynamics of this pest were monitored over 2 yr in six commercial strawberry fields near the coastal communities of Oxnard and Ventura under two crop-production regimes, summer- and fall-planted strawberries. Adult whitefly numbers generally peaked during the February through May period for fall-planted strawberries and during the October through November period for summer-planted strawberries. Population densities varied greatly among fields within each regime and the differences were likely caused by surrounding alternate host crops.

  14. Effects of UV-absorbing plastic films on greenhouse whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Mutwiwa, Urbanus N; Borgemeister, Christian; von Elsner, Burkhard; Tantau, Hans-Juergen

    2005-08-01

    Studies were conducted to investigate the effects of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films on the orientation and distribution behavior of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). In field experiments, small tunnels were constructed and covered with either an UV-transmitting (Thermilux) or UV-absorbing (K-Rose) plastic film. Results show that significantly more whiteflies were recorded in the tunnels with high compared with those with low UV intensities. Moreover, whitefly penetration and dispersion were less inside the UV-deficient tunnels. These results suggest that the type of plastic film used for greenhouse covers may have a significant influence on both the initial immigration and distribution of T. vaporariorum into greenhouses. The possibilities of using UV-absorbing plastic films for whitefly integrated pest management in greenhouses are discussed.

  15. Aploneura lentisci (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Its Interactions with Fungal Endophytes in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne)

    PubMed Central

    Popay, Alison J.; Cox, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Aploneura lentisci Pass. is endemic to the Mediterranean region where it is holocyclic, forming galls on its primary host, Pistacia lentiscus and alternating over a 2-year period between Pistacia and secondary hosts, principally species of Gramineae. This aphid is widely distributed in Australia and New Zealand on the roots of the common forage grasses, ryegrass (Lolium spp.) and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) where it exists as permanent, anholocyclic, parthenogenetic populations. Previous studies have indicated that infestations of A. lentisci significantly reduce plant growth and may account for differences in field performance of Lolium perenne infected with different strains of the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii. These obligate biotrophs protect their host grasses from herbivory via the production of alkaloids. To confirm the hypothesis that growth of L. perenne is associated with the effect of different endophyte strains on aphid populations, herbage and root growth were measured over time in two pot trials that compared three fungal endophyte strains with an endophyte-free control. In both pot trials, aphid numbers were lowest on plants infected with endophyte strain AR37 at all sampling times. In plants infected with a common toxic strain naturalized in New Zealand, aphid numbers overall were lower than on uninfected plants or those infected with strain AR1, but numbers did not always differ significantly from these treatments. Populations on AR1-infected plants were occasionally significantly higher than those on endophyte-free. Cumulative foliar growth was reduced in AR1 and Nil treatments relative to AR37 in association with population differences of A. lentisci in both trials and root dry weight was reduced in one trial. In four Petri dish experiments survival of A. lentisci on plants infected with AR37 declined to low levels after an initial phase of up to 19 days during which time aphids fed and populations were similar to those on plants without endophyte. Aphids on AR37-infected plants became uncoordinated in their movement and developed tremors before dying suggesting a neurotoxin was responsible for their mortality. Results support the hypothesis that differences in A. lentisci populations due to endophyte infection status and strain affects plant growth. PMID:27695470

  16. Heterochromatization and euchromatization of whole genomes in scale insects (Coccoidea: Homoptera).

    PubMed

    Nur, U

    1990-01-01

    In several families of scale insects (coccids), the sex of an embryo is determined by the number of genetically active genomes present (one = males, two = females). In mealybugs (Pseudococcidae), both males and females develop from fertilized eggs but, in the embryos that develop into males, the set of chromosomes (genome) of paternal origin (PG) becomes heterochromatic (H) and genetically inactive and is not transmitted to the offspring. The mechanism that reduces the number of active genomes in male embryos may vary between families and even between congeneric species. Thus, in male embryos of most armored scale species (Diaspididae), the PG is eliminated, while in a few species it becomes H. In two genera of soft scales (Coccidae), males develop from unfertilized eggs when one of two identical genomes of maternal origin becomes H. In most male tissues, one genome remains H. However, in several tissues that become polyploid by endoreduplication, the PG becomes E and genetically active. The tissues in which the PG becomes E often vary between species and the analysis of hybrid males demonstrated that whether the PG becomes H or remains E is determined by the genome of maternal origin. The euchromatization of the PG in the haploid sector of mosaic male embryos and the presence of spermatocytes with two E genomes (instead of one E and one H), following the irradiation of young mealybug males, strongly suggest that the maintenance of the H state requires the presence of a genetically active genome.

  17. Aphicidal Activity of an Ageraphorone Extract From Eupatorium adenophorum Against Pseudoregma bambucicola (Homoptera: Aphididae, Takahashi).

    PubMed

    Nong, Xiang; Chen, Feng-Zheng; Yang, Yao-Jun; Liang, Zi; Huang, Bao-Lian; Li, Yi; Liu, Tian-Fei; Yu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The bamboo aphid, Pseudoregma bambucicola, is an important insect pest of bamboo that affects normal bamboo growth and induces sooty molds. The control of P. bambucicola involves the application of chemicals, such as imidacloprid, to which many species are resistant. In this study, we isolate a novel botanical pesticide (9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone) from an Eupatorium adenophorum(Asteraceae: Compositae) petroleum ether extract and test the aphicidal activity of this compound against P. bambucicola in laboratory bioassay and field-based experiments. This ageraphorone compound at a concentration of 2 mg/ml caused 73.33% mortality (corrected mortality [Subtracted the mortality of the negative control]: 70%) of P. bambucicola by laboratory bioassay within 6 h. Even at lower concentrations, this compound caused greater 33% mortality (corrected mortality: 30%) of aphids. Field experiments with naturally infested bamboo plants showed that two applications of 2 mg/ml ageraphorone to infested plants completely cleared infestations within 30 d. These effects were similar to those of the positive control (imidacloprid). These results reveal that 9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone exhibits significant aphicidal activity against bamboo aphids. We suggest that future research be directed at developing this ageraphorone compound from E. adenophorum as an aphicidal agent for biocontrol. PMID:26113513

  18. Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I

    2005-04-01

    Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

  19. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides. PMID:12020008

  20. Collective Defense of Aphis nerii and Uroleucon hypochoeridis (Homoptera, Aphididae) against Natural Enemies

    PubMed Central

    Hartbauer, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    The prevalent way aphids accomplish colony defense against natural enemies is a mutualistic relationship with ants or the occurrence of a specialised soldier caste typcial for eusocial aphids, or even both. Despite a group-living life style of those aphid species lacking these defense lines, communal defense against natural predators has not yet been observed there. Individuals of Aphis nerii (Oleander aphid) and Uroleucon hypochoeridis, an aphid species feeding on Hypochoeris radicata (hairy cat's ear), show a behavioral response to visual stimulation in the form of spinning or twitching, which is often accompanied by coordinated kicks executed with hind legs. Interestingly, this behaviour is highly synchronized among members of a colony and repetitive visual stimulation caused strong habituation. Observations of natural aphid colonies revealed that a collective twitching and kicking response (CTKR) was frequently evoked during oviposition attempts of the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani and during attacks of aphidophagous larvae. CTKR effectively interrupted oviposition attempts of this parasitoid wasp and even repelled this parasitoid from colonies after evoking consecutive CTKRs. In contrast, solitary feeding A. nerii individuals were not able to successfully repel this parasitoid wasp. In addition, CTKR was also evoked through gentle substrate vibrations. Laser vibrometry of the substrate revealed twitching-associated vibrations that form a train of sharp acceleration peaks in the course of a CTKR. This suggests that visual signals in combination with twitching-related substrate vibrations may play an important role in synchronising defense among members of a colony. In both aphid species collective defense in encounters with different natural enemies was executed in a stereotypical way and was similar to CTKR evoked through visual stimulation. This cooperative defense behavior provides an example of a surprising sociality that can be found in some aphid species that are not expected to be social at all. PMID:20454683

  1. Antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididac) in Colocasia esculenta.

    PubMed

    Coleson, Jenifer L; Miller, Ross H

    2005-06-01

    Fifty cultivars of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae), collected from islands in Micronesia and Polynesia, eight cultivars from the University of Hawaii's taro germplasm collection, and a closely related aroid, Xanthosorna sagittifolium (L.) (Araceae), were screened for antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii Clover. Life history data for A. gossypii were collected by assessing survivorship and fecundity of aphids caged on taro leaves in the field. Significant differences in aphid reproductive rate and longevity were observed among the taro cultivars, and cultivars were ranked from most resistant to most susceptible. Antixenosis was assayed in the laboratory in a multiround choice test where A. gossypii were offered four leaf discs excised from different taro cultivars. Additionally, field observations of aphid abundance on taro cultivars were made to corroborate clip cage studies and laboratory experiments. 'Iliuaua','Rumung Mary','Maria', 'Ketan 36', and'Agaga' were the most resistant in terms of reducing aphid fecundity and survivorship, whereas the Iliuana,'Purple', 'TC-83001', and 'Putih 24' were least preferred in aphid choice tests. X. sagittifolium consistently exhibited strong aphid resistance. Resistant cultivars identified in this study may form the basis of breeding programs seeking to combine aphid resistance with other desirable agronomic traits in taro.

  2. Hot water treatment and insecticidal coatings for disinfesting limes of mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Gould, W P; McGuire, R G

    2000-06-01

    Hot water immersion and insecticidal coatings were tested to determine if they could be used to disinfest Persian limes, Citrus latifolia Tanaka, of the mealybug pests Planococcus citri Risso and Pseudococcus odermatti Miller & Williams. A 20-min 49 degrees C hot water immersion treatment is effective in killing mealybugs and all other arthropods tested found externally on limes, or under the calyx. No insects or mites were found to survive after the 20-min hot water treatment. In this test, 7,200 limes were treated with 1,308 insects killed and zero survivors. Treatment at 49 degrees C for 20 min did not significantly affect quality when treated fruit were compared with untreated control fruit. Four coatings were tested at a 3% rate: two petroleum-based oils (Ampol and Sunspray oil), a vegetable oil (natural oil), and a soap (Mpede). The coatings gave up to 94% kill (Ampol) of mealybugs, which is not sufficient to provide quarantine security. The coatings might be effective as a postharvest dip before shipment.

  3. Host plant effects on resistance to bifenthrin in silverleaf whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Riley, David G; Tan, Weijia

    2003-08-01

    Effects of host plants on resistance to bifenthrin in the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, were determined by LC50 bioassay. In addition, inheritance of resistance to bifenthrin was investigated beginning with a single source of a bifenthrin-susceptible population. Overall, the resistance ratio between the bifenthrin-susceptible population and the selected bifenthrin-resistant population from the same source population was 915-fold after 1 yr in the greenhouse. Responses to bifenthrin among the susceptible and the resistant populations were changed when whiteflies were reared on three different host plants, i.e., cotton, cabbage, and squash. In the resistant populations, the LC50 value of whitefly fed on squash was increased as much as 7.5-fold, while the LC50 value of whitefly fed on cabbage was similar to cotton that served as the control plant. The host plant on which whiteflies feed appears to be an important factor in selection for resistance to bifenthrin, but these effects are crop specific. Based on an analysis using LC50 values of the reciprocal F1 cross on cotton, resistance of whitefly from a single-source whitefly population was inherited as an incompletely dominant factor. A model used to estimate loci numbers showed that resistance of whitefly to bifenthrin is probably controlled primarily by a few or a single locus. In addition, the difference in the ratio of LC50 values between males from unmated mother and males from mated mother was approximately fivefold, suggesting that insecticide resistance in whitefly males is in some way affected by mating.

  4. Plastic cup traps equipped with light-emitting diodes for monitoring adult Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Chu, Chang-Chi; Jackson, Charles G; Alexander, Patrick J; Karut, Kamil; Henneberry, Thomas J

    2003-06-01

    Equipping the standard plastic cup trap, also known as the CC trap, with lime-green light-emitting diodes (LED-plastic cup trap) increased its efficacy for catching Bemisia tabaci by 100%. Few Eretmocerus eremicus Rose and Zolnerowich and Encarsia formosa Gahan were caught in LED-plastic cup traps. The LED-plastic cup traps are less expensive than yellow sticky card traps for monitoring adult whiteflies in greenhouse crop production systems and are more compatible with whitefly parasitoids releases for Bemisia nymph control.

  5. Effect of temperature on the biology of Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: Effect of temperature on the biology of Paracoccus marginatus was investigated. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18°, 20°, 25° and 30°C. At 15°, 34° and 35°C eggs hatched, but further development was arrested. Approximately 80 -90% of the eggs survived betw...

  6. Genetics and preliminary mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Ijaz, Mamuna; Farooq, Zahra; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-03-01

    Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, is a serious pest of cotton and other crops and infestation by this pest results in yield losses that affect the economy of Pakistan. Various groups of insecticides have been used to control this pest but resistance development is a major factor that inhibits its control in the field. Chlorpyrifos is a common insecticide used against many pests including P. solenopsis. The present experiment was designed to assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance and to develop a better resistance management strategy and assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance. Before selection, the field strain showed 3.1-fold resistance compared to the susceptible strain (CSS). After 8 rounds of selection with chlorpyrifos, a selected population developed a 191.0-fold resistance compared to the CSS. The LC50 values of F1 (CRR ♀ × CSS ♂) and F1(†) (CRR ♂ × CSS ♀) strains were not significantly different and dominance (DLC) values were 0.42 and 0.55. Reciprocal crosses between chlorpyrifos susceptible and resistant strains indicated that resistance was autosomal and incompletely recessive. The monogenic model of fit test and calculation of number of genes segregating in the chlorpyrifos resistant strain demonstrated that resistance is controlled by multiple genes. A value of 0.59 was calculated for realized heritability for chlorpyrifos resistance. Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and S, S, S-butyl phosphorotrithioate showed that chlorpyrifos resistance was associated with microsomal oxidases and esterases. It was concluded that chlorpyrifos resistance in P. solenopsis was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings would be helpful to improve the management of P. solenopsis.

  7. Distinction of Indian commercial lac insect lines of Kerria spp. (Homoptera: Coccoidea) based on their morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ayashaa; Ramani, Ranganathan; Sharma, Kewal K; Vidyarthi, Ambrish S; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor V

    2014-01-01

    The lac insects belong to the genus Kerria (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae) and are commercially exploited worldwide for the production of lac, which comes from their waxy test and has diverse industrial applications. The insects are maintained by the Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums as distinctive lines that are cultivated and commercialized in the lac producing areas of India. The lines are all considered to belong to the genus Kerria but without validation of their taxonomic characters, and their identity to species has not been ascertained. This study used single-factor analysis of variance and several multivariate analyses, such as principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis, and canonical discriminant analysis to explore the morphometrics of some of the adult female lac insect lines. The results have enabled the identification of some taxonomically significant characters in adult females, which has grouped the 32 lac insect lines studied into 15 species along with validation of the most significant characters. Distinctive grouping patterns for the species of Kerria have been brought out using morphometrics.

  8. Aphicidal Activity of an Ageraphorone Extract From Eupatorium adenophorum Against Pseudoregma bambucicola (Homoptera: Aphididae, Takahashi)

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Xiang; Chen, Feng-Zheng; Yang, Yao-Jun; Liang, Zi; Huang, Bao-Lian; Li, Yi; Liu, Tian-Fei; Yu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The bamboo aphid, Pseudoregma bambucicola, is an important insect pest of bamboo that affects normal bamboo growth and induces sooty molds. The control of P. bambucicola involves the application of chemicals, such as imidacloprid, to which many species are resistant. In this study, we isolate a novel botanical pesticide (9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone) from an Eupatorium adenophorum(Asteraceae: Compositae) petroleum ether extract and test the aphicidal activity of this compound against P. bambucicola in laboratory bioassay and field-based experiments. This ageraphorone compound at a concentration of 2 mg/ml caused 73.33% mortality (corrected mortality [Subtracted the mortality of the negative control]: 70%) of P. bambucicola by laboratory bioassay within 6 h. Even at lower concentrations, this compound caused greater 33% mortality (corrected mortality: 30%) of aphids. Field experiments with naturally infested bamboo plants showed that two applications of 2 mg/ml ageraphorone to infested plants completely cleared infestations within 30 d. These effects were similar to those of the positive control (imidacloprid). These results reveal that 9-oxo-10,11-dehydro-ageraphorone exhibits significant aphicidal activity against bamboo aphids. We suggest that future research be directed at developing this ageraphorone compound from E. adenophorum as an aphicidal agent for biocontrol. PMID:26113513

  9. Extended survival of spiders (Aranaeae) feeding on whitefly (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) honeydew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeydew produced by homopteran insects such as aphids, whiteflies and mealybugs, can be abundant in some crops and may represent an important food resource for spiders and other honeydew feeding natural enemies. Woolly whiteflies are common in south Texas citrus, and spiders consistently make up a...

  10. Life history and life tables of Bactericera cockerelli (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on eggplant and bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Bing; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2009-12-01

    The development, survivorship, and fecundity of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), fed on eggplant (Solanum melongena L., variety Special Hibush) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L., variety Capsitrano) were studied in the laboratory at 26.7 +/- 2 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH, and at a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Immature B. cockerelli developed faster (24.1 d) when fed on eggplant than on bell pepper (26.2 d). Survival rates of immature stages from egg to adult emergence were higher on eggplant (50.2%) than on bell pepper (34.6%). The longevity of B. cockerelli female adults fed on bell pepper was similar to that of females fed on eggplant (62.2 versus 55.0 d), but the male adults fed on eggplant lived shorter lives (39.4 d) than those fed on bell pepper (53.9 d). However, the preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, and sex ratio of B. cockerelli fed on eggplant were not different from those fed on bell pepper. The r(m ) value and the finite rate of increase (lambda) of B. cockerelli were higher on eggplant (0.1099 and 1.116, respectively) than on bell pepper (0.0884 and 1.0924, respectively). Mean generation time and doubling time of B. cockerelli were shorter on eggplant (40.4 and 6.3 d, respectively) than on bell pepper (46.1 and 7.8 d, respectively). In contrast, lifetime fecundity of B. cockerelli was greater on bell pepper (227.3 offspring) than on eggplant (186.5 offspring). Based on these life history parameters, we concluded that B. cockerelli performed better on eggplant than on bell pepper.

  11. Aploneura lentisci (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Its Interactions with Fungal Endophytes in Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne)

    PubMed Central

    Popay, Alison J.; Cox, Neil R.

    2016-01-01

    Aploneura lentisci Pass. is endemic to the Mediterranean region where it is holocyclic, forming galls on its primary host, Pistacia lentiscus and alternating over a 2-year period between Pistacia and secondary hosts, principally species of Gramineae. This aphid is widely distributed in Australia and New Zealand on the roots of the common forage grasses, ryegrass (Lolium spp.) and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) where it exists as permanent, anholocyclic, parthenogenetic populations. Previous studies have indicated that infestations of A. lentisci significantly reduce plant growth and may account for differences in field performance of Lolium perenne infected with different strains of the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii. These obligate biotrophs protect their host grasses from herbivory via the production of alkaloids. To confirm the hypothesis that growth of L. perenne is associated with the effect of different endophyte strains on aphid populations, herbage and root growth were measured over time in two pot trials that compared three fungal endophyte strains with an endophyte-free control. In both pot trials, aphid numbers were lowest on plants infected with endophyte strain AR37 at all sampling times. In plants infected with a common toxic strain naturalized in New Zealand, aphid numbers overall were lower than on uninfected plants or those infected with strain AR1, but numbers did not always differ significantly from these treatments. Populations on AR1-infected plants were occasionally significantly higher than those on endophyte-free. Cumulative foliar growth was reduced in AR1 and Nil treatments relative to AR37 in association with population differences of A. lentisci in both trials and root dry weight was reduced in one trial. In four Petri dish experiments survival of A. lentisci on plants infected with AR37 declined to low levels after an initial phase of up to 19 days during which time aphids fed and populations were similar to those on plants without endophyte. Aphids on AR37-infected plants became uncoordinated in their movement and developed tremors before dying suggesting a neurotoxin was responsible for their mortality. Results support the hypothesis that differences in A. lentisci populations due to endophyte infection status and strain affects plant growth.

  12. Genetic Diversity of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) Populations from Different Geographic Regions in China

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Juan-Juan; Shang, Qing-Li; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Sitobion avenae is a major agricultural pest of wheat in China. Using microsatellite markers, we studied the potential gene flow, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and genetic structure of seven S. avenae populations from different regions of China (Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Shanxi provinces). The populations from Henan, Shandong, and Jiangsu showed high levels of genic and genotypic diversity. By contrast, the genic diversity in the Beijing and Hebei populations was much lower. Despite this low genic diversity, the genotypic diversity of the Beijing population was higher than that of all of the other populations, except those from Jiangsu and Shandong. Overall, the genetic divergence among the seven S. avenae populations tested was high, though there was almost no differentiation between the Shandong and Henan populations. We observed significant negative correlation between the strength of gene flow and the geographic distances among populations. Based on genetic analysis, the seven S. avenae populations studied can be divided into four distinct clusters; (i) Hubei, (ii) Shanxi, (iii) Beijing and Hebei, and (iv) Shandong, Henan, and Jiangsu. The present results provide a basis for potentially optimizing integrated pest management (IPM) programs in China, through adapting control methods that target biological traits shared by various populations of the same genotype. PMID:25356548

  13. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci in the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis Goethe (Homoptera).

    PubMed

    Papura, D; Giresse, X; Chauvin, B; Caron, H; Delmotte, F; VAN Helden, M

    2009-05-01

    Eight dinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized within the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Goethe) using an enrichment cloning procedure. Primers were tested on 171 individuals collected in the southwest of France from the vine plants. The identified loci were polymorphic, with allelic diversity ranging from two to 18 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosities were from 0.021 to 0.760. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful tool for estimating the population genetic structure, host-plant specialization and migration capacity of this insect.

  14. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on iceberg lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2005-12-01

    The aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) is a common pest of lettuce in the United States. It hinders export of U.S. lettuce to the overseas market such as Japan where it is a quarantined pest. Ultralow oxygen treatments were studied for control of the insect on iceberg lettuce. Small-scale ultralow oxygen treatments in plastic jars were conducted at 1, 5, and 10 degrees C for different durations to determine effective treatment against nymphs and alates of N. ribisnigri. At oxygen levels of 0.015-0.025%, N. ribisnigri can be controlled in 3 d at 1 degrees C, 2 d at 5 degrees C, and 1 d at 10 degrees C. Large-scale ultralow oxygen treatments were conducted in bulk container treatment chambers with commercial iceberg lettuce heads for 2 d at 6 degrees C with oxygen levels of 0.015 and 0.025% and for 3 d at 3 degrees C with oxygen level of 0.015%. All treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. No negative impact on lettuce quality was detected after 2 wk of posttreatment storage. Therefore, the selected treatments have potential to be commercially developed for postharvest control of N. ribisnigri on iceberg lettuce. PMID:16539111

  15. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use. PMID:22812116

  16. Insect-vacs for sampling Asian citrus psyllid (Homoptera: psyllidae) on citrus trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three vacuum devices were compared for sampling psyllid populations. One was an AC rechargeable, handheld, cordless model and a second was a handheld, DC model powered through a cord connected to a 12V vehicle battery. Each of these devices had a mesh cylinder (substituted for a dust bag) in which...

  17. Comparison of insect vacuums for sampling Asian citrus psyllid (Homoptera: Psyllidae) on citrus trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three vacuum devices were compared for sampling psyllid populations. One was an AC rechargeable, handheld, cordless model and a second was a handheld, DC model powered through a cord connected to a 12V vehicle battery. Each of these devices had a mesh cylinder (substituted for a dust bag) in which...

  18. The Toxicity and Detoxifying Mechanism of Cycloxaprid and Buprofezin in Controlling Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Yongda; Zhang, Tianshu; Wang, Dongsheng; Du, Xingbin; Wu, Xiangwen; Chen, Haixia; Chen, Yaozhong; Jiao, Yuetong; Teng, Haiyuan

    2015-01-01

    The effects of cycloxaprid (a modified neonicotinoid insecticide) and buprofezin (a thiadiazine insecticide) on mortality of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera, were determined in laboratory assays. Cycloxaprid killed WBPH nymphs and adults but buprofezin killed only nymphs, and cycloxaprid acted faster than buprofezin. One day after infestation, mortality of third-instar nymphs was >65% with cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter−1 but was <38% with buprofezin at 148 mg liter−1. By the 4th day after infestation, however, control of nymphs by the two insecticides was similar, and cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter−1 caused ≥80% mortality of adults but buprofezin at 148 mg liter−1 (the highest rate tested) caused almost no adult mortality. LC50 values for cycloxaprid were lowest with nymphs, intermediate with adult males, and highest with adult females. Although buprofezin was slower acting than cycloxaprid, its LC50 for nymphs 5 d after infestation was 3.79-fold lower than that of cycloxaprid. Mean carboxylesterase (CarE) specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with cycloxaprid and buprofezin was higher than that of control, but there was no significant difference between cycloxaprid and control (no insecticide), and it was significantly higher for buprofezin than those of cycloxaprid and control. For glutathione S-transferase and mixed function oxygenase, the specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with buprofezin was significantly higher than those of cycloxaprid and control, too. PMID:26175461

  19. Mechanisms of Oryza sativa (Poaceae) resistance to Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae) under greenhouse condition in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    González, Alex; Labrín, Natalia; Alvarez, Rosa M; Jayaro, Yorman; Gamboa, Carlos; Reyes, Edicta; Barrientos, Venancio

    2012-03-01

    Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the "Rice hoja blanca virus". During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundaci6n Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundaci6n Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition). Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control 'Bluebonnet 50' was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control 'Makalioka' had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and oviposition. The genotype 'FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1' was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata. PMID:22458212

  20. Appearance of cicada fauna (Homoptera: Cicadoidea) by altitudes in Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Aliadi Mohd; Sulaiman, Azman

    2015-09-01

    A total of 31 cicada species in 15 genera under two families (Cicadidae, 27 species in 11 genera; Tibicinidae, four species in three genera) was recorded for Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor. This was based on 666 individuals were obtained through six sampling occasions in November 2012 until October 2013, each time using light trap set in six sampling locations (L1, L2, L3, L4a, L4b, L4c) that were selected based on altitudes. The most common and abundant species in L1 is Pomponia sp1 and recognized as new species that need to be described as new to science. Orientopsaltria saudarapadda Duffles & Zaidi appeared as the most common and abundant species in L2, represented by 21 individuals which covers 34.43 % of the total cicadas specimen in that area. In the location of L3, Dundubia vaginata (Fabricius) appeared as the most abundant species represented by 37 individuals or 26.81% while Abroma maculicollis Guerin appeared as the most common species. Shannon's Species Diversity Index (H') in L3 was the highest (H'=2.28) followed by L4b (H'=2.21), L2 (H'=1.93) L4a (H'=1.92), L4c (H'=1.84) and L1 (H'=1.58), and the evenness index in L1 was the highest (E= 0.88), followed by L4b (E= 0.79), L3 (E= 0.77), L2 (E= 0.75), L4c (E= 0.74) and L4a (E= 0.79). Margalef Species Richness Index in L3 was the highest (R'=3.65), followed by oleh L4b (R'=3.01), L4a (R'=2.97), L2 (R'=2.92), L4c (R'=2.4), and L1 (R'=2.01). Generally shows that L3 at the altitude 350 m appear as the best sampling site for cicadas species in Mount Ledang Johor with the highest value of species diversity and richness index.

  1. The authority and types for the hackberry gall psyllid genus Pachypsylla (Riley) (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nomenclatural problems with the hackberry gall psyllid species names are rectified. The genus Pachypsylla Riley, 1883, type species, Psylla venusta Osten-Sacken, includes 14 nominal species. These are: Pachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861); P. celtidismamma Riley, 1875; P. celtidisgemma Ri...

  2. Fixed precision sampling plans for white apple leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) on apple.

    PubMed

    Beers, Elizabeth H; Jones, Vincent P

    2004-10-01

    Constant precision sampling plans for the white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, were developed so that it could be used as an indicator species for system stability as new integrated pest management programs without broad-spectrum pesticides are developed. Taylor's power law was used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance, and Green's constant precision sequential sample equation was used to develop sampling plans. Bootstrap simulations of the sampling plans showed greater precision (D = 0.25) than the desired precision (Do = 0.3), particularly at low mean population densities. We found that by adjusting the Do value in Green's equation to 0.4, we were able to reduce the average sample number by 25% and provided an average D = 0.31. The sampling plan described allows T. pomaria to be used as reasonable indicator species of agroecosystem stability in Washington apple orchards.

  3. Differential susceptibility of Dysmicoccus vaccinii (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae).

    PubMed

    Stuart, R J; Polavarapu, S; Lewis, E E; Gaugler, R

    1997-08-01

    The susceptibility of the mealy bug, Dysmicoccus vaccinii Miller & Polavarapu, to infection by various species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes was investigated in laboratory sand-dish and sand-column assays. Steinernemo carpocapsae (Weiser) (All strain), S. feltiae (Filipjev) (AB [Australia] strain), and S. glaseri (Steiner) (NC strain) were ineffective against individual mealybugs in sand-dish assays conducted in small petri dishes (1 cm high by 3.5 cm diameter) at 25 degrees C with doses of infective juvenile nematodes ranging up to 500 or 1,000 infective juveniles and exposure periods up to 5 d. However, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (HP88 strain and 2 New Jersey isolates). H. hawaiiensis Gardner, Stock & Kaya (MG-13 strain), and H. indicus Poinar, Karunakar & David (EMS-13 strain) induced significant mortality (65.0-90.0%) at doses as low as 100 infective juveniles and an exposure of 5 d. H. bacteriophora (HBNJ strain) was effective at doses of 500 and 1,000 infective juveniles but, together with H. zealandica Poinar (V16 strain) and 4 other H. bacteriophora isolates from New Jersey, was ineffective at doses of 100 infective juveniles. Removal of the waxy coating from the mealybugs did not influence susceptibility to H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain). In the sand-column assay (5.5 cm high by 5 cm diameter, 5-d exposure, 25 degrees C), which more closely resembles host-finding in the field, H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain) induced no significant mortality against individual mealybugs at doses of 100 infective juveniles but produced 93.8% mortality at 500 infective juveniles, whereas H. indicus (EMS-13 strain) induced 56.3 and 100% mortality at 100 and 500 infective juveniles, respectively. H. bacteriophora (HP88 strain and some New Jersey isolates), H. hawaiiensis (MG-13 strain), and H. indicus (EMS-13 strain) successfully reproduced in and emerged from mealybug cadavers. This study demonstrates strong variability in the susceptibility of D. vaccinii to different species and strains of entomopathogenic nematodes, and implicates certain heterorhabditids as promising candidates for the biological control of this insect. PMID:9260541

  4. The meaning of predatory specialization as illustrated by Aelurillus m-nigrum, an ant-eating jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae) from Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Huseynov, Elchin F; Jackson, Robert R; Cross, Fiona R

    2008-03-01

    The distinctions between a predator's diet, its prey-choice behaviour and its preference are illustrated in a study of Aelurillus m-nigrum Kulczyn'ski, a salticid spider from Azerbaijan. The natural diet of A. m-nigrum was determined from records of individuals feeding in the field (N=58). Ten arthropod orders were represented. Nine were from the class Insecta (Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Heteroptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Psocoptera) and one from the class Arachnida (Araneae). Of 50 insects among the prey, 21 (42%) were Hymenoptera, with ants (family Formicidae) alone accounting for 31% of all prey records. Although the majority (69%) of the natural prey were not ants, results from prey-choice testing in the laboratory implied that A. m-nigrum preferred ants as prey. However, this preference was evident only when the testing environment included sand and a small stone. Our findings illustrate the importance of not conflating the concept of a predator's preference with the concept of a predator's natural diet and illustrate that physical features of a predator's habitat may be an important factor in influencing how strongly preference is expressed. PMID:18178038

  5. Growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): effect of host age.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing S; Gelman, Dale B; Blackburn, Michael B

    2002-03-01

    The tiny parasitoid wasp, Encarsia formosa, has been used successfully to control greenhouse whiteflies (GHWFs) in greenhouses in many countries throughout the world. Therefore, there has been considerable interest in developing methods for artificially rearing this wasp. However, little information is available concerning the regulation of its development including the host-parasitoid interactions that are required for the parasitoid to complete its life cycle. Here we confirm that parasitoid developmental rates differ significantly based upon the host instar parasitized. Development was faster when 3rd and 4th instar GHWFs were offered for parasitization than when 1st or 2nd instars were used. Our results show that it is primarily the embryo and the first two parasitoid instars that exhibit prolonged developmental times when 1st and 2nd instar whiteflies are parasitized. Although percent emergence was not affected by host age at the time of parasitization, adult longevity as well as adult emergence pattern varied greatly depending upon the instar parasitized. When 3rd and 4th instar GHWFs were selected for oviposition, adult wasps lived significantly longer than when 1st or 2nd instars were used; also, there was a sharp emergence peak on the 2nd day after emergence was first observed (reduced or absent when 1st or 2nd instar GHWFs were parasitized) and the emergence period was reduced from between 8 and 11 days to 5 days. In general, the younger the host instar parasitized, the less synchronous was parasitoid development. Previous reports that E. formosa will not molt to the 2nd instar until the host has reached its 4th instar were not confirmed. When 1st instar host nymphs were parasitized, 2nd instar parasitoids were detected in 3rd instar hosts. Importantly, however, no matter which instar was parasitized, the parasitoid never molted to its last instar until the host had reached Stage 5 of its last instar, a stage in which host pharate adult formation has been initiated. It appears, then, that a condition(s) associated with host pharate adult formation is required for the parasitoid's final larval molt. Results reported here should facilitate the development of in vitro rearing systems for E. formosa.

  6. Delphastus catalinae and Coleomegilla maculata lengi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as biological control agents of the greenhouse whitefly, trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Lucas, Eric; Labrecque, Claude; Coderre, Daniel

    2004-11-01

    Predation efficacy and compatibility of the predatory lady beetles Coleomegilla maculata lengi Timberlake and Delphastus catalinae (Horn) against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) were studied in laboratory on glabrous fuchsia (Fuchsia hybrida Voss cv Lena Corolla) and pubescent poinsettia plants (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd ex Klotzch cv Dark Red Annette Hegg). On glabrous plants (fuchsia), fourth-instar and adults of C maculata were the most efficient, both against whitefly eggs and pupae. On pubescent plants (poinsettia), the larger stages of C maculata were negatively affected and less efficient than adults of D catalinae. The presence of plant structure did not affect the voracity of either predator species. Finally, the simultaneous use of both predator species generated inter-specific competition. These results provide recommendations for biological control of whitefly in horticultural greenhouses.

  7. [Evaluation of interactive efficacy of two mycoinsecticides and low application rate imidacloprid in controlling greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Feng, Mingguang

    2003-11-01

    The interactive effects of pure emulsifiable formulations (10(10) conidia.ml-1) of Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus conidia and 1% and 3% of imidacloprid 10% WP were tested for controlling greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, on lettuce grown in four polyethylene film-covered greenhouses (5 m x 100 m) in Kunming, Yunnan. Six fungal treatments, two imidacloprid ones, and one water-spray control were included in the experiment, with each being replicated in three plots (7 m x 5 m.plot-1). For each of the treatments, 1000-fold aqueous dilution (10(7) conidia.ml-1) was sprayed twice at a 15-d interval, with the first spray given on day 11 after lettuce transplantation. Counts of live and dead whiteflies from each treatment were made on the initial day, and then, once every five days. During a 30-d period of observation from August 20, the two applications of the fungal formulations alone or those containing low rates of imidacloprid 10% WP effectively protected the lettuce from damage by T. vaporariorum, and generated relative efficacies. Whitefly density decreased > 95%, which was significantly higher than that attributed to the low application rates of imidacloprid 10% WP. Based on the estimations of relative efficacy and percent density decrease, P. fumosoroseus treatments controlled the whiteflies better than B. bassiana ones, and the effects of both fungi on the pest population were apparently enhanced with the quantity of imidacloprid added. The differences among the fungal treatments in the two estimations were larger during the first 10 days, but decreased thereafter, becoming insignificant on day 10 after the second spray. The results indicated that the fungal formulations tested in this study are of great potential for practical use in whitefly control, and their efficacy could be enhanced with low rates of imidacloprid.

  8. Co-development of Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae): a histological examination.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Michael B; Gelman, Dale B; Hu, Jing S

    2002-09-01

    Using histological techniques, we have simultaneously examined the co-development of the Aphelinid parasitoid Encarsia formosa and its host the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. Previously we have determined that regardless of the whitefly instar parasitized, parasitoid larvae would not molt to their final instar until the whitefly reaches its maximum dimensions. In unparasitized T. vaporariorum, this point in development corresponds to the initiation of the adult molt. In part, this study was conducted to determine the developmental state of parasitized whiteflies at the time they achieve their maximum dimensions. It was found that parasitized final instar T. vaporariorum do, in fact, undergo a final molt and that E. formosa larvae will not molt to their final instar until this has occurred. The timing of the final whitefly molt appears unaffected by parasitization. The commonly observed melanization of parasitized whiteflies appears to be a consequence of this molt. In addition, we have discovered that the adult wasp oviposits within the ventral ganglion of the whitefly, and that major organ systems of the whitefly persist very late into parasitoid development. We also report the presence of possible endosymbiotic bacteria residing in the fatbody of E. formosa.

  9. Changes in life history parameters of Rhopalosiphum maidis (Homoptera: Aphididae) under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haicui; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhenying; Ni, Xinzhi; Cai, Wanzhi; He, Kanglai

    2014-08-01

    Biological characteristics of corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), on barley, Hordeum vulgare L., were examined for two generations under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations. The developmental duration for each life stage was significantly reduced under the elevated temperature (+4 degrees C). The elevated CO2 (700-750 microl/liter) reduced only the development time of fourth-instar nymph. The overall duration of nymphal stage was reduced in the second generation. Thus, the temperature was the dominant factor to development duration of corn leaf aphid. The fecundity of corn leaf aphid was significantly increased under the elevated temperature and CO2, as well as in the later generation. Elevated temperature and CO2 increased the number of alate production, which may enhance the aphid migration or dispersal and the spread of plant viruses. Corn leaf aphid had the highest intrinsic rate of increase under the elevated temperature and CO2 combination in the second generation. These results indicate that the combined effects of both elevated temperature and CO2 on aphid biology may exacerbate aphid damage on barley under the climate change in accompany with elevated temperature and CO2 level. PMID:25195429

  10. The Environmental Plasticity of Diverse Body Color Caused by Extremely Long Photoperiods and High Temperature in Saccharosydne procerus (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Haichen; Shi, Qihao; Shakeel, Muhammad; Kuang, Jing; Li, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Melanization reflects not only body color variation but also environmental plasticity. It is a strategy that helps insects adapt to environmental change. Different color morphs may have distinct life history traits, e.g., development time, growth rate, and body weight. The green slender planthopper Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura) is the main pest of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia). This insect has two color morphs. The present study explored the influence of photoperiod and its interaction with temperature in nymph stage on adult melanism. Additionally, the longevity, fecundity, mating rate, and hatching rate of S. procerus were examined to determine whether the fitness of the insect was influenced by melanism under different temperature and photoperiod. The results showed that a greater number of melanic morphs occurred if the photoperiod was extremely long. A two-factor ANOVA showed that temperature and photoperiod both have a significant influence on melanism. The percentages of variation explained by these factors were 45.53 and 48.71%, respectively. Moreover, melanic morphs had greater advantages than non-melanic morphs under an environmental regime of high temperatures and a long photoperiod, whereas non-melanic morphs were better adapted to cold temperatures and a short photoperiod. These results cannot be explained by the thermal melanism hypothesis. Thus, it may be unavailable to seek to explain melanism in terms of only one hypothesis. PMID:27672370

  11. Distribution and abundance of mymarid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) of Sophonia rufofascia Kuoh and Kuoh (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, P.; Foote, D.; Alyokhin, A.V.; Lenz, L.; Messing, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    The abundance of mymarid parasitoids attacking the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia [Kuoh and Kuoh]), a polyphagous pest recently adventive to Hawaii, was monitored using yellow sticky cards deployed in several areas on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii. The yellow cards captured Chaetomymar sp. nr bagicha Narayanan, Subba Rao, & Kaur and Schizophragma bicolor (Dozier), both adventive species, and Polynema sp. Haliday, which is endemic to Hawaii (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). The former two species were most abundant at all sites. On Kauai, there was a negative correlation between the captures of C. sp. nr bagicha and those of Polynema sp. Throughout the season, the increase in parasitoid numbers generally followed the increase in leafhopper numbers. C. sp. nr. bagicha and S. bicolor showed distinct habitat preferences. Removal of Myrica faya Aiton, an invasive weed that is a highly preferred two-spotted leafhopper host, decreased the overall numbers of captured parasitoids, but led to a twofold increase in the ratio of trapped parasitoids/hosts in weed-free areas. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  12. Antifeedant activity of botanical crude extracts and their fractions on Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) adults: II. Sechium pittieri (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Flores, Guillermo; Hilje, Luko; Mora, Gerardo A; Carballo, Manuel

    2008-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci is a key pest of vegetables and other crops worldwide, but it is a particularly serious problem in the tropics, due to its ability to transmit several types of viruses, especially begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of wild "tacaco" (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract as well as some fractions exert such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages), fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (ether) and 0.5% (water and water: methanol), with the methanol fraction showing no activity. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse) no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions.

  13. Projection pursuit nonparametric regression applied to field counts of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on tomato crops in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Boll, R; Lapchin, L

    2002-04-01

    The number of plants that sampling requires in aphid population studies often exceeds one hundred. Thus, only quick and nondestructive methods can be used to sample this pest in a reasonable time interval. We propose a visual method for estimating the density of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) on tomato plants reared in greenhouses. After approximately 1min of visual observation plants can be assigned to abundance classes, the boundaries of which are roughly the powers of square root 10. Precise counts were collected simultaneously on sets of reference plants from the same greenhouse. Projection pursuit nonparametric regression was then used to provide unbiased estimates of aphid densities from the abundance classes and several easily gathered explanatory variables. The robustness of the method was evaluated by testing the models on the complementary data sets from plants in which the aphid densities were precisely counted. In both single and twin-row cultural conditions, for the reference and complementary data sets, the order of magnitude of the error was less than one class rank per plant. The investigation time was reduced by approximately 10-fold compared with the exact counting method. This easy-to-teach field method could be useful in large-scale population surveys and for optimizing integrated pest management strategies.

  14. Host plant effects on development and reproduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development, survivorship, longevity, reproduction and life table parameters of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were examined in the laboratory using three host plants, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Chrysanthemum morifolium L. and euonymus (Euonymus japonica Thu...

  15. Evaluation of the Synergistic Effect Between Ethyl Formate and Phospine for Control of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Hye Min; Kim, Bong Soo; Yang, Jeong Oh; Moon, Young Mi; Ren, Yonglin

    2016-02-01

    Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is known as a quarantine pest that is hard to control with short periods of fumigation with phosphine (PH(3)) or low concentrations of ethyl formate. Moreover, low-temperature fumigation with ethyl formate can lead to phototoxic damage of some perishable commodities. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic effect of mixing ethyl formate and PH(3) for the treatment of adults and nymphs of A. gossypii. Combined toxicity was observed and compared with a single dose of eitherrethyl formate or PH(3). When insects were exposed to 0.5 g/m(3) of PH(3) combined with different levels of ethyl formate from 1.6 to 16.3 g/m(3) at 5 and 20C for 2 h, L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) values were greatly reduced in comparison with a single dose of either ethyl formate or PH(3). The synergistic ratio (SR) is described as L(Ct) of ethyl formate alone/L(Ct) of ethyl formate + PH(3). The SR values of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) for adult A. gossypii at 5C were 4.55 and 2.33, respectively. However, at 20C the SR levels of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) were 2.22 and 1.45, respectively, but still showed significant synergism (significant difference, P<0.5). This new technology could meet quarantine and preshipment requirements for shorter exposure times and less damage of perishable commodities, and could also be extended for controlling other quarantine pests and thereby be a useful alternative to methyl bromide for fruit and vegetable applications. PMID:26476554

  16. Morphostructural analysis of the male reproductive system and DNA barcoding in Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 (Homoptera, Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Vitale, D G M; Viscuso, R; D'Urso, V; Gibilras, S; Sardella, A; Marletta, A; Pappalardo, A M

    2015-12-01

    Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 is an allochthonous leafhopper infesting an invasive grass, Pennisetum setaceum, in Sicily and in mainland Europe; therefore, this species could compete with populations of native species, thus contributing to the loss of biodiversity. Considering the ecological implications of B. brevis, investigations on all its biological aspects represent, therefore, a premise for further studies in applied sciences. Based on the lacking ultrastructural data about the reproductive systems of the Auchenorrhyncha, we carried out morphostructural investigations on the male reproductive system of B. brevis. Further, a first report of DNA barcoding analysis (amplification and sequencing of Cytochrome Oxidase I gene) has also been performed to characterize B. brevis compared to other congeneric species. From a morphological point of view, the male reproductive system of B. brevis has an organization comparable to the general anatomical features of most of the Auchenorrhyncha species; however, comparing our data with those concerning the different groups of Cicadomorpha, some considerations are discussed. As for the histological and ultrastructural investigations, our results show a secretory activity of the various examined structures, mainly in the lateral ejaculatory ducts and in the accessory glands. The latter, in particular, show morphostructural differences comparing the distal tract to the proximal one; moreover, the histochemical techniques showed the possible presence of a lipid component in the peculiar cytoplasmic granules found in the gland cells. The significance of these findings in the accessory glands is discussed. Finally, the ultrastructural features found in the seminal vesicles are different from those of the lateral ejaculatory ducts and are indicative of the different roles played by these structures in the organization of the spermatozoa bundles.

  17. Evaluation of the Synergistic Effect Between Ethyl Formate and Phospine for Control of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Ho; Kim, Hye Min; Kim, Bong Soo; Yang, Jeong Oh; Moon, Young Mi; Ren, Yonglin

    2016-02-01

    Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, is known as a quarantine pest that is hard to control with short periods of fumigation with phosphine (PH(3)) or low concentrations of ethyl formate. Moreover, low-temperature fumigation with ethyl formate can lead to phototoxic damage of some perishable commodities. Therefore, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the synergistic effect of mixing ethyl formate and PH(3) for the treatment of adults and nymphs of A. gossypii. Combined toxicity was observed and compared with a single dose of eitherrethyl formate or PH(3). When insects were exposed to 0.5 g/m(3) of PH(3) combined with different levels of ethyl formate from 1.6 to 16.3 g/m(3) at 5 and 20C for 2 h, L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) values were greatly reduced in comparison with a single dose of either ethyl formate or PH(3). The synergistic ratio (SR) is described as L(Ct) of ethyl formate alone/L(Ct) of ethyl formate + PH(3). The SR values of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) for adult A. gossypii at 5C were 4.55 and 2.33, respectively. However, at 20C the SR levels of L(Ct)(50) and L(Ct)(99) were 2.22 and 1.45, respectively, but still showed significant synergism (significant difference, P<0.5). This new technology could meet quarantine and preshipment requirements for shorter exposure times and less damage of perishable commodities, and could also be extended for controlling other quarantine pests and thereby be a useful alternative to methyl bromide for fruit and vegetable applications.

  18. A comparison of four geographic sources of the biocontrol agent Prokelisia marginata (Homoptera: Delphacidae) following introduction into a common environment.

    PubMed

    Grevstad, F S; O'Casey, C; Katz, M L

    2012-06-01

    As part of a biological control program against Spartina alterniflora Loisel. (smooth cordgrass), we simultaneously released populations of the planthopper Prokelisia marginata (van Duzee) from four geographic areas in each of five replicate field sites in the Willapa Bay estuary in Washington State. The four sources (California, Georgia, Virginia, and Rhode Island) have varying climate and seasonal regimes. We expected local adaptations would affect performance in the new environment. Using vacuum sampling, we measured population densities in spring and fall for 2 yr after release. In addition, we measured the timing of spring emergence through bi-weekly surveys of the number of nymphs residing in overwintering sites (curled leaves of senesced Spartina culms) versus on live green shoots. The observed sequence of emergence GA>CA>VA>RI was consistent with the hypothesis that this insect responds to a photoperiod cue for emergence timing. The four populations also differed in their reproductive capacity as measured by the increase in population densities over the summer months. Overall, the California and Rhode Island populations had higher population growth than those from Virginia and Georgia. Our results suggest that the climate and seasonal adaptations of biocontrol agents should be carefully considered as they can affect the performance and phenology in the new range. At the same time, it is noteworthy that all four populations were capable of establishing and growing, indicating a degree of resiliency for populations experiencing a rapid change in climate. PMID:22732601

  19. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fangmei; Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Yunhui; Coates, Brad; Zhou, Xuguo “Joe”; Cheng, Dengfa

    2015-01-01

    Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues, including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone) and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod). The majority of the phloem-feeding aphids carry Buchnera, an obligate symbiotic proteobacteria. Buchnera has a highly reduced genome size, but encode key enzymes in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway and is crucial for nutritional balance, development and reproduction in aphids. In this study, we investigated the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors, symbionts and starvation, on the wing dimorphism in the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, a devastating insect pest of cereal crops (e.g., wheat) worldwide. Elimination of Buchnera using the antibiotic rifampicin significantly reduced the formation of winged morphs, body mass, and fecundity in S. avenae. Furthermore, the absence of this primary endosymbiont may disrupt the nutrient acquisition in aphids and alter transgenerational phenotypic expression. Similarly, both survival rate and the formation of winged morphs were substantially reduced after neonatal (<24 h old) offspring were starved for a period of time. The combined results shed light on the impact of two nutritional-based biotic factors on the phenotypic plasticity in aphids. A better understanding of the wing dimorphism in aphids will provide the theoretical basis for the prediction and integrated management of these phloem-feeding insect pests. PMID:26042046

  20. Differential resistance and cross-resistance to three phenylpyrazole insecticides in the Brown Planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-resistance to two fipronil analogs, butene-fipronil and ethiprole were detected in fipronil-resistant field populations and a resistant laboratorial strain of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, although the two analogs have not been used widely in rice-growing areas in China. The resul...

  1. Bacterial symbionts, Buchnera, and starvation on wing dimorphism in English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone) and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod). Virtually al...

  2. Gamma-butyrolactone as a lure for traps targeting the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an invasive pest of citrus and vector of citrus greening disease. Gamma-butyrolactone failed to lure adult psyllids to sticky traps deployed in infested citrus groves in numbers greater than those captured on non-baited traps....

  3. Wolbachia infection shared among planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and their endoparasite (Strepsiptera: Elenchidae): a probable case of interspecies transmission.

    PubMed

    Noda, H; Miyoshi, T; Zhang, Q; Watanabe, K; Deng, K; Hoshizaki, S

    2001-08-01

    Wolbachia, a group of parasitic bacteria of arthropods, are believed to be horizontally transmitted among arthropod taxa. We present a new probable example of interspecies horizontal transmission of Wolbachia by way of an endoparasite based on the conformity of Wolbachia gene sequences. Field samples of two rice planthoppers, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella furcifera possessed identical Wolbachia. Among three major endoparasites of planthoppers, a strepsipteran, Elenchus japonicus, harboured the identical Wolbachia strain, suggesting strepsipteran transmission of Wolbachia from one planthopper to the other. No Wolbachia was detected in a mermithid nematode Agamermis unka, and dryinid wasps possessed different types of Wolbachia. PMID:11555254

  4. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in the winged and wingless English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Fangmei; Coates, Brad; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhou, Xuguo; Cheng, Dengfa

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, particularly during development. In this study, 345 miRNAs were identified from the English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), of which 168 were conserved and 177 were S. avenae-specific. Quantitative comparison of miRNA expression levels indicated that 16 and 12 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in winged and wingless S. avenae small RNA libraries, respectively. Differential expression of these miRNAs was confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR validation. The putative transcript targets for these candidate miRNAs were predicted based on sequences from a model species Drosophila melanogaster and four aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum, Myzus persicae, Toxoptera citricida, and Aphis gosspii. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses shed light on the potential functions of these miRNAs in the regulation of genes involved in the metabolism, development and wing polyphenism of S. avenae. PMID:27762301

  5. The Environmental Plasticity of Diverse Body Color Caused by Extremely Long Photoperiods and High Temperature in Saccharosydne procerus (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Haichen; Shi, Qihao; Shakeel, Muhammad; Kuang, Jing; Li, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Melanization reflects not only body color variation but also environmental plasticity. It is a strategy that helps insects adapt to environmental change. Different color morphs may have distinct life history traits, e.g., development time, growth rate, and body weight. The green slender planthopper Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura) is the main pest of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia). This insect has two color morphs. The present study explored the influence of photoperiod and its interaction with temperature in nymph stage on adult melanism. Additionally, the longevity, fecundity, mating rate, and hatching rate of S. procerus were examined to determine whether the fitness of the insect was influenced by melanism under different temperature and photoperiod. The results showed that a greater number of melanic morphs occurred if the photoperiod was extremely long. A two-factor ANOVA showed that temperature and photoperiod both have a significant influence on melanism. The percentages of variation explained by these factors were 45.53 and 48.71%, respectively. Moreover, melanic morphs had greater advantages than non-melanic morphs under an environmental regime of high temperatures and a long photoperiod, whereas non-melanic morphs were better adapted to cold temperatures and a short photoperiod. These results cannot be explained by the thermal melanism hypothesis. Thus, it may be unavailable to seek to explain melanism in terms of only one hypothesis.

  6. Interplant movement and spatial distribution of alate and apterous morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on lettuce.

    PubMed

    Diaz, B M; Barrios, L; Fereres, A

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on colonization modes and interplant movement of Nasonovia ribisnigri can contribute to the development of optimal control of this pest. The aim of this study was to determine the spatio-temporal distribution and the mode of spread between adult morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri, comparing spring and autumn lettuce protected crops. The spatial and temporal pattern was analyzed using the spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) methodology and other related displacement indices. The population size of N. ribisnigri was greater in the autumn than in the spring growing seasons due to milder temperatures. The percentage of plants colonized by aphids was higher in spring than in autumn, showing the great dispersal potential of this aphid species independent of their population size. Differential propensity for initial displacement from the central plant was observed between adult morphs in spring, resulting in a greater ability of apterous than alate aphids to spread far away from the source plant. In autumn, both adult morphs showed an initial reduced displacement; however, the number of plants infested (≈20%) with at least one aphid at this initial time (seven days) was similar for both adult morphs and both growing seasons. Analysis of the spatial pattern of both adult morphs revealed a predominantly random distribution for both spring and autumn trials. This pattern was achieved by a prevalent random movement over the area (γ≈0.5). These results highlight the ability of the apterous N. ribisnigri to spread within greenhouse lettuce crops early in the spring, suggesting that detection of the pest by deep visual inspection is required after lettuce emergence. PMID:22289142

  7. Volatiles from potato plants infected with potato leafroll virus attract and arrest the virus vector, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed Central

    Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Ding, Hongjian; Shiel, Patrick; Berger, Philip H

    2002-01-01

    The influence of viral disease symptoms on the behaviour of virus vectors has implications for disease epidemiology. Here we show that previously reported preferential colonization of potatoes infected by potato leafroll virus (genus Polerovirus) (luteovirus) (PLRV) by alatae of Myzus persicae, the principal aphid vector of PLRV, is influenced by volatile emissions from PLRV-infected plants. First, in our bioassays both differential immigration and emigration were involved in preferential colonization by aphids of PLRV-infected plants. Second, M. persicae apterae aggregated preferentially, on screening above leaflets of PLRV-infected potatoes as compared with leaflets from uninfected plants, or from plants infected with potato virus X (PVX) or potato virus Y (PVY). Third, the aphids aggregated preferentially on screening over leaflet models treated with volatiles collected from PLRV-infected plants as compared with those collected from uninfected plants. The specific cues eliciting the aphid responses were not determined, but differences between headspace volatiles of infected and uninfected plants suggest possible ones. PMID:11886636

  8. Insecticidal activity of 23 essential oils and their major compounds against adult Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis) (Aphididae: Homoptera).

    PubMed

    Sampson, Blair J; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kirimer, Nes'e; Demirci, Betul; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A; Spiers, James M; Wedge, David E

    2005-11-01

    Essential oils from 23 species of plants comprising 14 genera and 4 plant families were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified with GC-MS and their insecticidal activity against adult turnip aphids, Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis), tested with dosage-mortality bioassays. We examined mortality only for viviparous adults because sizeable aphid populations on crucifer (Brassicaceae) hosts are largely produced by these wingless, parthenogenic females. Twenty-two of the oils were directly applied to aphid females in randomized blocks at concentrations of 0.0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg ml(-1). Essential oils mixed with a non-toxic emulsifying agent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), more easily penetrated the waxy insect cuticle. Probit analysis and LC(50) at three different exposures showed aphids were quickly incapacitated and killed by aliphatic aldehydes, phenols and monocyclic terpenes contained in Bifora and Satureja oils and at applied concentrations as low as 0.3 to 1.0 mg ml(-1). Only enough Pimpinella isaurica oil and its three phenylpropanoid fractions were available for testing at a single concentration of 10 mg ml(-1). We could not spare any additional P. isaurica oil for testing at other concentrations. Phenylpropanoids isolated from P. isaurica oil when recombined or left naturally blended in the oil were highly bioactive against L. pseudobrassicae at 10 mg ml(-1). PMID:16075408

  9. The Environmental Plasticity of Diverse Body Color Caused by Extremely Long Photoperiods and High Temperature in Saccharosydne procerus (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Yin, Haichen; Shi, Qihao; Shakeel, Muhammad; Kuang, Jing; Li, Jianhong

    2016-01-01

    Melanization reflects not only body color variation but also environmental plasticity. It is a strategy that helps insects adapt to environmental change. Different color morphs may have distinct life history traits, e.g., development time, growth rate, and body weight. The green slender planthopper Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura) is the main pest of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia). This insect has two color morphs. The present study explored the influence of photoperiod and its interaction with temperature in nymph stage on adult melanism. Additionally, the longevity, fecundity, mating rate, and hatching rate of S. procerus were examined to determine whether the fitness of the insect was influenced by melanism under different temperature and photoperiod. The results showed that a greater number of melanic morphs occurred if the photoperiod was extremely long. A two-factor ANOVA showed that temperature and photoperiod both have a significant influence on melanism. The percentages of variation explained by these factors were 45.53 and 48.71%, respectively. Moreover, melanic morphs had greater advantages than non-melanic morphs under an environmental regime of high temperatures and a long photoperiod, whereas non-melanic morphs were better adapted to cold temperatures and a short photoperiod. These results cannot be explained by the thermal melanism hypothesis. Thus, it may be unavailable to seek to explain melanism in terms of only one hypothesis. PMID:27672370

  10. Contributions to the study of the genus Hephathus Ribaut, 1952 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) of Russia and adjacent countries.

    PubMed

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2015-08-12

    In Russia and the adjacent territories, the genus Hephathus includes three species, H. nanus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1835), H. freyi (Fieber, 1868) = H. tshakaranus Dlabola, 1957, syn. n., and H. achilleae Mityaev, 1967. They are indistinguishable in genitalia shape, but differ in male calling signal structure and black pattern of face. Photos of habitus and face, drawings of genitalia and male 2(nd) abdominal apodemes, signal oscillograms, and distribution maps for all species are provided. H. orientalis Linnavuori, 1953 is indistinguishable from H. freyi in coloration and genitalia shape; therefore, investigation of male calling signals is necessary for elucidation of its status. Macropsis fergusoni Evans, 1942 from Tasmania and Asmaropsis troilos Linnavuori, 1978 from Eritrea differ from Palaearctic Hephathus in the shape of head, pro-, and mesonotum and apparently belong to other genera.

  11. Phenology, natural enemies, and efficacy of horticultural oil for control of Chionaspis heterophyllae (Homoptera: Diaspididae) on Christmas tree plantations.

    PubMed

    Fondren, Kirsten M; McCullough, Deborah G

    2005-10-01

    Pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), and Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley are important pests of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., and other conifers in much of North America. On Christmas tree plantations, these insects are typically controlled by spraying broad-spectrum insecticides when the vulnerable immature stages are present. However, effective control of bivoltine populations can be difficult to achieve due to asynchronous hatch and development of the second generation. Our objectives were to 1) determine the phenology of the second generation of C. heterophyllae in Michigan; 2) characterize the natural enemy complex; and 3) assess the effectiveness of horticultural oil for control of C. heterophyllae on P. sylvestris Christmas tree plantations. We monitored scale populations in three counties in lower Michigan for 3 yr. Scale phenology was consistently associated with cumulative degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD(10 degrees C)). Second-generation egg hatch began at approximately 1230-1300 DD(10 degrees C), and continued for approximately 3 wk. The peak of the second instar coincided with 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees C). Common predators included the coccinellids Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Microweisia misella (LeConte). On average, 70% of the C. heterophyllae population in unsprayed fields was killed by predators in 1999. Two endoparasitic wasps, Encarsia bella Gahan and Marietta mexicana Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), also were recovered. In 2000 and 2001, we applied a highly refined horticultural spray oil with a backpack mist blower at 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees). Scale mortality on trees treated with oil ranged from 66 to 80% and was similar to control achieved using conventional insecticides in both years.

  12. Scale insects and mealy bugs (Homoptera: Coccoidea) attacking deciduous fruit trees in the western north coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mourad, A K; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak Soad, I

    2008-01-01

    This investigation covered a survey of scale insects and mealy bugs infesting ten growing species of deciduous fruit trees in three localities in Alexandria govemorate. These localities were Merghem, Burg El-Arab, and El-Nahda about 50 Km. West of Alexandria under both rain-fed and irrigation system conditions. The common inspected fruit trees were fig, white mulberry, pomegranate, apple, pear, apricot, European plum, peach, almond, and persimmon. It was shown that a group of twenty scale insects and meaty bug species pertaining to fifteen genera belonging to six families of the super family: Coccoidea were collected and identified during the elapsing period from January to December, 2004. Among these species, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) was recorded for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, many insect and non-insect parasitoids and predators were also found associated with these scale insects and mealy bugs on deciduous fruit trees in the three concerned localities throughout this investigation. These natural enemies were identified and recorded.

  13. Biodiversity of termite (Insecta: Isoptera) in tropical peat land cultivated with oil palms.

    PubMed

    Kon, Thian-Woei; Bong, Choon-Fah J; King, Jie-Hung P; Leong, Chan-Teck S

    2012-02-01

    Termites are the major decomposers in tropical region but yet their occurrences in oil palm plantation especially in peat soil are generally treated as pest. Study of termite species in peat land was conducted in selected oil palm plantations in North Sarawak with 5-7 years old palms and South Sarawak with 13-15 years old palms with two sites in each area. Results of quadrate (25 x 25 x 30 cm) sampling showed termite was significantly higher in relative density with increasing depth of soil (0-10 = 21.23, 10-20 = 42.52 and 20-30 cm = 81.12%) which could be advantaged from being predated by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) which were higher in density from soil surface to 10 cm soil depth with relative density of 31.84%. Modified transect sampling (50x6 m) had successfully sampled 18 species of termites from 2 families (Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae), 5 subfamilies (Rhinotermitinae, Coptotermitinae, Termitinae, Macrotermitinae and Nasutitermitinae) and 11 genera (Coptotermes, Schedorhinotermes, Termes, Macrotermes, Nasutitermes, Globitermes, Amitermes, Parrhinotermes, Pericapritermes, Havilanditermes and Prohamitermes). Both plantation sites have termite dominantly feeding on rotten wood as a result of abundant dead woods. However, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren was identified to feed on the living tissues of oil palm causing damage or death of the tree. Study showed higher encounter of soil-feeding termite in longer established plantation. It indicates the gradually shifting of soil condition towards a stabilized environment which favors the successful settlement of soil feeder termite species. Termite control should be more targets specific to avoid harming beneficial termites. PMID:22866541

  14. Checklist of the superfamilies Oestroidea and Hippoboscoidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko; Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the superfamilies Oestroidea and Hippoboscoidea recorded from Finland is presented. The checklist covers the following families: Calliphoridae, Rhiniidae, Sarcophagidae, Rhinophoridae, Tachinidae, Oestridae and Hippoboscidae. PMID:25337034

  15. Differential toxicity to Cd, Pb, and Cu in dragonfly larvae (Insecta: Odonata).

    PubMed

    Tollett, V D; Benvenutti, E L; Deer, L A; Rice, T M

    2009-01-01

    Odonate larvae are important organisms in aquatic ecosystems but have been rarely studied in laboratory toxicity tests. Only a few previous studies have been conducted on odonates and their responses to heavy metals. We exposed two species of libellulid larvae (Anisoptera: Libellulidae) to equimolar concentrations of cadmium, lead, or copper in 7-day survival tests. Larvae were tolerant of high concentrations of cadmium and lead, as no significant decrease in survival was observed at exposures as high as 0.893 and 2.232 mM, respectively. In contrast, larvae were more sensitive to copper exposure, demonstrating significantly decreased survival to exposures as low as 2.360 microM. In whole animal samples, larvae accumulated very high concentrations (>1000 microg/g dry weight) of all three metals in an exposure-related manner. Much of this accumulation could probably be attributed to adsorption or accumulation of metal within the exoskeleton, because odonate larvae are known to sequester metals into this material. Our results were generally consistent with previous observations indicating that odonates are tolerant to metal exposures, even in comparison with other aquatic invertebrates. However, there are few studies that have used odonates in toxicity tests and compared these organisms to other aquatic life. Based on their abundance and their simple requirements in the laboratory, we believe that odonate larvae can be useful toxicological model organisms.

  16. [Papilionoidea from Sierra de Huantla, Morelos and Puebla, México (Insecta: Lepidoptera)].

    PubMed

    Luna-Reyes, Mercedes; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    The Cuenca del Balsas region has significant biodiversity and endemicity of its herpetofauna, avifauna and vascular plants. Despite this, our knowledge of the Papilionoidea of the region is poor. We analyzed the local and temporal distribution of Papilionoidea at 24 localities in the states of Morelos and Puebla. The study sites are situated between 900 and 1300 m. a.s.l., and are composed of dry tropical forest (dtf). We recorded 8790 individuals of 83 genera and 142 species of Papilionoidea (sensu Kristensen, 1975), over 79 days of field work, with 2-4 days at each of the 24 localities. Twenty five species were newly recorded for the state of Puebla. Our data render Morelos and Puebla among the seven richest Mexican states, in terms of Papilionoidea diversity. Our results show that the Sierra de Huautla has the lowest diversity, but the highest standard abundance, compared to other Mexican regions with similar vegetation. Patterns of diversity and seasonal abundance are atypical, in that individuals of many species are unusually abundant during the wet months.

  17. Mitochondrial genomic comparisons of the subterranean termites from the Genus Reticulitermes (Insecta: Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Cameron, Stephen L; Whiting, Michael F

    2007-02-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are some of the most significant pests of structural timber and tree farming in the northern hemisphere, causing losses in the billions of dollars annually because of direct damage and termite control costs. This group has been frequently targeted for population genetic, phylogenetic, and species limit studies, most of which use mitochondrial (mt) genes; however, only a small fraction of the genome has been sequenced. The entire mt genome was sequenced for the eastern North American members of Reticulitermes: R. flavipes, R. santonensis, R. virginicus, and R. hageni. The mt genome has the same gene content and organization as that found in most insect species; however, the nucleotide composition and skew are highly biased (AT% low, strong A- and C-skew). Both the protein-coding and transfer RNA genes show high absolute levels of nucleotide substitution, suggesting that the high rates of mutation within Reticulitermes inferred from analyses of single mt genes are a general characteristic of the entire mt genome. The AT-rich or control region has a remarkable structure not previously observed in insect mt genomes. The majority of the control region is made up of 2 sets of repeat units, typically with 2 full and 1 partial copies of both the A (or small; 186 bp) and B (or large; 552 bp) repeats. The partial repeat units overlap by 36 bp. The size, location, and degree of overlap for the partial repeat units correspond to highly conserved stem/loop structures within the repeat units, suggesting that these structures are involved in the replication-mediated processes that govern repeat-unit evolution within mt genomes. Finally, molecular variation within the mt gene regions was compared with previous regions used in molecular diagnostics or phylogenetics of Reticulitermes. High numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in each of the mt genes, and some of the highest variability was found in gene regions that have not previously been investigated in this group. The whole mt genome sequence can thus be used to predict useful regions for future investigation. PMID:17546084

  18. Inconsistency in the analysis of morphological deformities in chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) larvae.

    PubMed

    Salmelin, Johanna; Vuori, Kari-Matti; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-08-01

    The incidence of morphological deformities of chironomid larvae as an indicator of sediment toxicity has been studied for decades. However, standards for deformity analysis are lacking. The authors evaluated whether 25 experts diagnosed larval deformities in a similar manner. Based on high-quality digital images, the experts rated 211 menta of Chironomus spp. larvae as normal or deformed. The larvae were from a site with polluted sediments or from a reference site. The authors revealed this to a random half of the experts, and the rest conducted the assessment blind. The authors quantified the interrater agreement by kappa coefficient, tested whether open and blind assessments differed in deformity incidence and in differentiation between the sites, and identified those deformity types rated most consistently or inconsistently. The total deformity incidence varied greatly, from 10.9% to 66.4% among experts. Kappa coefficient across rater pairs averaged 0.52, indicating insufficient agreement. The deformity types rated most consistently were those missing teeth or with extra teeth. The open and blind assessments did not differ, but differentiation between sites was clearest for raters who counted primarily absolute deformities such as missing and extra teeth and excluded apparent mechanical aberrations or deviations in tooth size or symmetry. The highly differing criteria in deformity assignment have likely led to inconsistent results in midge larval deformity studies and indicate an urgent need for standardization of the analysis. PMID:26061223

  19. Diapause, signal and molecular characteristics of overwintering Chilo suppressalis (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Lu, Ming-Xing; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou; Liu, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Pingyang; Li, Jianyong

    2013-11-14

    Diapause is a complex and dynamic process. Chilo suppressalis, an important rice pest in Asia enters facultative diapause as larvae. Our results demonstrated in Yangzhou, China, diapause was initiated between September 4 and 12, 2010. After diapause termination, C. suppressalis remained in quiescence in the field for as long as three months. The average time between collection of field larvae of C. suppressalis and their pupation decreased as the season progressed from fall to next spring. Unexpectedly, the pupated ratio of female to male in the initiation of diapause was 0.22. The abundance of hsp90, hsp70, hsp60 and CsAQP1 all peaked on January 8 or 15, 2011. Nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger that is positively correlated with the diapause of C. suppressalis. Among several geographically separated populations of C. suppressalis, there are no significant differences in the mRNA levels of hsp70, hsp60 or CsAQP1.

  20. Salivary digestive enzymes of the wheat bug, Eurygaster integriceps (Insecta: Hemiptera: Scutelleridae).

    PubMed

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali Reza; Dastranj, Mehdi

    2014-06-01

    The digestive enzymes from salivary gland complexes (SGC) of Eurygaster integriceps, and their response to starvation and feeding were studied. Moreover, digestive amylases were partially purified and characterized by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The SGC are composed of two sections, the principal glands and accessory glands. The principal glands are further divided into the anterior lobes and posterior lobes. The SGC main enzyme was α-amylase, which hydrolyzed starch better than glycogen. The other carbohydrases were also present in the SGC complexes. Enzymatic activities toward mannose (α/β-mannosidases) were little in comparison to activities against glucose (α/β-glucosidases) and galactose (α/β-galactosidases), the latter being the greatest. Acid phosphatase showed higher activity than alkaline phosphatase. There was no measurable activity for lipase and aminopeptidase. Proteolytic activity was detected against general and specific protease substrates. Activities of all enzymes were increased in response to feeding in comparison to starved insects, revealing their induction and secretion in response to feeding pulse. The SGC amylases eluted in four major peaks and post-electrophoretic detection of the α-amylases demonstrated the existence of at least five isoamylases in the SGC. The physiological implication of these findings in pre-oral digestion of E. integriceps is discussed. PMID:24961557

  1. One new species and two new records of the genus Aeolothrips from Iran (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Aeolothripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, Jalil; Awal, Mehdi Modarres; Fekrat, Lida; Minaei, Kambiz; Manzari, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aeolothrips gundeliae sp. n. is described, and two bicolored species of the same genus, Aeolothrips ericae Bagnall and Aeolothrips albithorax Pelikan are newly reported from northeast of Iran. Diagnostic characters are provided for each species as well as illustrations to distinguish these species. PMID:26884701

  2. Diapause, signal and molecular characteristics of overwintering Chilo suppressalis (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Xing; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Yu-Zhou; Liu, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Pingyang; Li, Jianyong

    2013-01-01

    Diapause is a complex and dynamic process. Chilo suppressalis, an important rice pest in Asia enters facultative diapause as larvae. Our results demonstrated in Yangzhou, China, diapause was initiated between September 4 and 12, 2010. After diapause termination, C. suppressalis remained in quiescence in the field for as long as three months. The average time between collection of field larvae of C. suppressalis and their pupation decreased as the season progressed from fall to next spring. Unexpectedly, the pupated ratio of female to male in the initiation of diapause was 0.22. The abundance of hsp90, hsp70, hsp60 and CsAQP1 all peaked on January 8 or 15, 2011. Nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger that is positively correlated with the diapause of C. suppressalis. Among several geographically separated populations of C. suppressalis, there are no significant differences in the mRNA levels of hsp70, hsp60 or CsAQP1. PMID:24226906

  3. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    PubMed

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)).

  4. Stoneflies (Insecta: Plecoptera) from Serra Bonita, Bahia, Brazil: new species and updated records.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Tácio; Lecci, Lucas S; Calor, Adolfo R

    2014-03-13

    There are 176 species representing eight genera and two families of Plecoptera known from Brazil. However, only ten of these species are recorded from the State of Bahia. In this study, an inventory of stoneflies from the southern region of Bahia State, Serra Bonita, including the municipality of Camacan, was undertaken from 2007-2012. Stoneflies were collected using UV light pan traps, Malaise traps, and aerial nets. One new gripopterygid species, Tupiperla bispoi n. sp., is described and illustrated. Four genera representing ten other species are recorded: Gripopteryx cancellata, G. clemira, G. garbei, G. pinima, Paragripopteryx sp., and Tupiperla tessellata (Gripopterygidae), Kempnyia alterosarum, K. gracilenta, K. jatim, and K. neotropica (Perlidae). With the present study, the number of known species of stoneflies recorded from Bahia State is 17, ten of these recorded from the Serra Bonita region.

  5. Comparative Mitogenomic Analysis of Damsel Bugs Representing Three Tribes in the Family Nabidae (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fan; Shi, Aimin; Zhou, Xuguo; Cai, Wanzhi

    2012-01-01

    Background Nabidae, a family of predatory heteropterans, includes two subfamilies and five tribes. We previously reported the complete mitogenome of Alloeorhynchus bakeri, a representative of the tribe Prostemmatini in the subfamily Prostemmatinae. To gain a better understanding of architecture and evolution of mitogenome in Nabidae, mitogenomes of five species representing two tribes (Gorpini and Nabini) in the subfamily Nabinae were sequenced, and a comparative mitogenomic analysis of three nabid tribes in two subfamilies was carried out. Methodology/Principal Findings Nabid mitogenomes share a similar nucleotide composition and base bias, except for the control region, where differences are observed at the subfamily level. In addition, the pattern of codon usage is influenced by the GC content and consistent with the standard invertebrate mitochondrial genetic code and the preference for A+T-rich codons. The comparison among orthologous protein-coding genes shows that different genes have been subject to different rates of molecular evolution correlated with the GC content. The stems and anticodon loops of tRNAs are extremely conserved, and the nucleotide substitutions are largely restricted to TψC and DHU loops and extra arms, with insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Comparative analysis shows similar rates of substitution between the two rRNAs. Long non-coding regions are observed in most Gorpini and Nabini mtDNAs in-between trnI-trnQ and/or trnS2-nad1. The lone exception, Nabis apicalis, however, has lost three tRNAs. Overall, phylogenetic analysis using mitogenomic data is consistent with phylogenies constructed mainly form morphological traits. Conclusions/Significance This comparative mitogenomic analysis sheds light on the architecture and evolution of mitogenomes in the family Nabidae. Nucleotide diversity and mitogenomic traits are phylogenetically informative at subfamily level. Furthermore, inclusion of a broader range of samples representing various taxonomic levels is critical for the understanding of mitogenomic evolution in damsel bugs. PMID:23029320

  6. Levels of asymmetry in Formica pratensis Retz. (Hymenoptera, Insecta) from a chronic metal-contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Rabitsch, W.B.

    1997-07-01

    Asymmetries of bilaterally symmetrical morphological traits in workers of the ant Formica pratensis Retzius were compared at sites with different levels of metal contamination and between mature and pre-mature colonies. Statistical analyses of the right-minus-left differences revealed that their distributions fit assumptions of fluctuating asymmetry (FA). No direct asymmetry or antisymmetry were present. Mean measurement error accounts for a third of the variation, but the maximum measurement error was 65%. Although significant differences of FA in ants were observed, the inconsistent results render uncovering a clear pattern difficult. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in the ants decreased with the distance from the contamination source, but no relation was found between FA and the heavy metal levels. Ants from the premature colonies were more asymmetrical than those from mature colonies but accumulated less metals. The use of asymmetry measures in ecotoxicology and biomonitoring is criticized, but should remain widely applicable if statistical assumptions are complemented by genetic and historical data.

  7. Larval morphology of Panorpodes kuandianensis (Insecta, Mecoptera, Panorpodidae) and its evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Yue, Chao; Hua, Baozhen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Larval characters play a significant role in evolutionary and systematic studies of holometabolous insects. However, Panorpodidae, a derived family of Mecoptera, are largely unknown in their immature stages to date. Here, the first instar larva of the short-faced scorpionfly Panorpodes kuandianensis Zhong, Zhang & Hua, 2011 is described and illustrated using light and scanning electron microscopy. The larva of Panorpodes is remarkable for the absence of compound eyes on the head and the presence of seven small unpaired proleg-like processes along the midventral line on abdominal segments II–VIII. The homology of these unpaired appendage-like processes, their ecological adaptation, and the evolutionary implications of some larval characters of Panorpodidae are discussed. PMID:24715802

  8. The histology of the cerebral neurosecretory system in several representatives of Cleroidea (Coleoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    1989-01-01

    In Thymalus sp. (Peltidae), Melambia tekkensi (Trogositidae), Trichodes apiarius and Thanasimus formicarius (Cleridae), the composition of cerebral neurosecretory cells (NSC) is similar to that found earlier in Meloidae (Panov 1985a) and Tenebrionidae (Melnikova and Panov 1981; Melnikova 1983). 20 type I NSCs, 16 type II NSCs, 4 type III NSCs, several type IV NSCs and 4 type V NSCs are characteristic of their pars intercerebralis. On the other hand, a reduction of type I and II NSC number to 10 and 12 cells, respectively, was revealed in Malachius affinis, Malachius viridis and Malachius bipustulatus (Melyridae). There are 6 large dorsolateral NSCs and 2 lateral ones in each brain hemisphere of most Cleroidea studied. Their retrocerebral endocrine complex is similar to that of most polyphagous coleopterans: a single nervus corporis cardiaci leaves each brain side, the corpora cardiaca are fused with lateral aorta walls and corresponding corpora allata.

  9. Intraspecific transfer of cantharidin within selected members of the family Meloidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood Reza; Dettner, Konrad; Boland, Wilhelm; Gäde, Gerd; Dötterl, Steffan

    2007-09-01

    The use of deuterium-labelled cantharidin (CAN-D(2)) to study details of cantharidin transfer in blister beetles indicates that the dynamics of organ-selective cantharidin accumulation may differ over time. Although the accessory glands absorb a high amount of CAN-D(2) in the short term, they ultimately accumulate less than the testes. Confirming previous studies, the last steps in the pathway of biosynthesis of cantharidin occur in the male's body distantly from the reproductive system but the ultimate product, cantharidin, is transported into the male reproductive tract via the membrane of the accessory glands. From there it first transfers preferentially to the epididimis and the vas deferens, followed by final deposition in the testes. Most, if not all, of the cantharidin passes internally within the sexual organs; hemolymph transport is not involved. In female meloids, cantharidin enters the genitalia from the male as a nuptial gift. High amounts are first absorbed by the spermatophoral receptacle followed by spreading through the ovaries and an ultimate accumulation in the eggs. The amount taken up by the ovaries remains considerably lower than that of the receptacle. Over time these two organs stop accumulating cantharidin, while the bursa copulatrix starts to incorporate the gift actively. The accumulated amount taken up by bursa is mainly supplied by the receptacle and ovaries suggesting that an internal transfer of cantharidin is used in females as the main transport route.

  10. Cleridae (Insecta: Coleoptera) type collection at National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC), Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India).

    PubMed

    Faisal, Mohammad; Singh, Sudhir; Yousuf, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Clerids are small predacious beetles (Coleoptera) that belong to the family Cleridae. In the National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC) Cleridae is represented by 31 authentically identified specimens including types of 27 species. The type material of Cleridae, deposited in the NFIC, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India), is listed and illustrated with digital automontage photographs. A list of 27 type species of Cleridae, 13 holotypes and 14 paratypes with information on species names, reference of the original publication, all available information on labels of types (country, locality, date of collection, collector name, etc) along with colored photographs of types and the labels that are attached to them, taken with Auto-montage 3-D imaging system, is provided. 

  11. Bacterial formyl peptides affect the innate cellular antimicrobial responses of larval Galleria mellonella (Insecta: Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Alavo, Thiery B C; Dunphy, Gary B

    2004-04-01

    The non-self cellular (hemocytic) responses of Galleria mellonella larvae, including the attachment to slides and the removal of the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Bacillus subtilis from the hemolymph, were affected by N-formyl peptides. Both N-formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) and the ester derivative decreased hemocyte adhesion in vitro, and both elevated hemocyte counts and suppressed the removal of both X. nematophila and B. subtilis from the hemolymph in vivo. The amide derivative and the antagonist tertiary-butoxy-carbonyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (tBOC) increased hemocyte attachment to glass. The fMLF suppressed protein discharge from monolayers of granular cells with and without bacterial stimulation, while tBOC stimulated protein discharge. The peptide tBOC offset the effects of fMLF in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report implying the existence of formyl peptide receptors on insect hemocytes in which the compounds fMLF and tBOC inhibited and activated hemocyte activity, respectively.

  12. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  13. The history of endemic Iberian ground beetle description (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae): which species were described first?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.

    2007-01-01

    iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.

  14. Tricholoma matsutake 1-Ocen-3-ol and methyl cinnamate repel mycophagous Proisotoma minuta (Collembola: Insecta).

    PubMed

    Sawahata, Takuo; Shimano, Satoshi; Suzuki, Masahiro

    2008-02-01

    Two major volatiles produced by the mycelia and fruiting bodies of Tricholoma matsutake (1-octen-3-ol and methyl cinnamate) repel a mycophagous collembolan, Proisotoma minuta. Aggregation of the collembolans on their diet was significantly inhibited by exposure to 1 ppm methyl cinnamate or 10 to 100 ppm 1-octen-3-ol. The aggregation activity decreased dose-dependently upon exposure to 1-octen-3-ol at concentrations higher than 0.01 ppm. Aggregation in the presence of methyl cinnamate exhibited three phases: no significant effect at concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 ppm, significant inhibition from 1 to 100 ppm, and strong inhibition at 1,000 ppm. These results may explain why certain collembolan species do not prefer T. matsutake fruiting bodies.

  15. Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of fringing wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armitage, Brian J.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Fringing wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes are subject to natural processes, such as water-level fluctuation and wave-induced erosion, and to human alterations. In order to evaluate the quality of these wetlands over space and time, biological communities are often examined. This paper reports on the use of adult caddisflies to evaluate fringing wetlands of Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Lake Superior.

  16. Molecular phylogeny of Panorpidae (Insecta: Mecoptera) based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gui-Lin; Yan, Gang; Xu, Hao; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2015-04-01

    Panorpidae are the largest family in Mecoptera, covering approximately 70% species of the order. However, the phylogenetic relationship within Panorpidae has not been adequately explored. Here we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among 70 species of five genera in Panorpidae using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference based on two mitochondrial (cox1 and cox2) and one nuclear (28S rRNA) gene fragments with Panorpodes kuandianensis and Brachypanorpa carolinensis in Panorpodidae as outgroups. The results show that the genera Neopanorpa, Sinopanorpa and Dicerapanorpa are monophyletic, while the widespread genus Panorpa is reconfirmed to be a paraphyletic group. The P. centralis group is monophyletic and may merit a generic status, while the P. davidi and P. amurensis groups are paraphyletic. The divergence time estimated from BEAST analysis indicates that the Panorpidae may originate in the period from early Paleogene (63.6mya) to middle Eocene (41.2mya), and most diversification within Panorpidae occurred in the Cenozoic. The phylogeny and biogeography of Panorpidae are briefly discussed.

  17. Origin of the hungry caterpillar: Evolution of fasting in slug moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Limacodidae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, J M; Weller, S J; Epstein, M E

    2016-01-01

    Studies of caterpillar defense strategy evolution typically focus on aposematic coloration, gregarious behavior, and/or chemical defense. In the slug moth family Limacodidae, the evolution of chemical defense is coupled to the life history trait of first instar feeding behaviors. In nettle caterpillars, the first instars fast and molt into a second instar that feeds. In contrast, gelatines and monkey slug larval forms feed in the first instar. This study focused on whether the evolution of fasting associated with the nettle morphology was a derived trait of single or multiple origins. Twenty-nine species of Limacodidae (including one Chrysopolominae) representing 27 genera and four outgroup species with known first and final instar morphologies and behaviors were included. Four out-group species representing Megalopygidae (1 sp), Dalceridae (1 sp) and Aididae (2 sp) were included. These were sequenced for three molecular markers for a total of 4073 bp, mitochondrial COI (∼1500 bp), 18S (∼1900 bp) and the D2 region of 28S (approximately 670 bp). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were conducted. The resulting phylogeny and comparative analysis of feeding strategy revealed that the nettle caterpillar morphology and behavior of larval fasting may have a single origin. PMID:26432392

  18. Mitochondrial genomic comparisons of the subterranean termites from the Genus Reticulitermes (Insecta: Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Cameron, Stephen L; Whiting, Michael F

    2007-02-01

    Termites of the genus Reticulitermes are some of the most significant pests of structural timber and tree farming in the northern hemisphere, causing losses in the billions of dollars annually because of direct damage and termite control costs. This group has been frequently targeted for population genetic, phylogenetic, and species limit studies, most of which use mitochondrial (mt) genes; however, only a small fraction of the genome has been sequenced. The entire mt genome was sequenced for the eastern North American members of Reticulitermes: R. flavipes, R. santonensis, R. virginicus, and R. hageni. The mt genome has the same gene content and organization as that found in most insect species; however, the nucleotide composition and skew are highly biased (AT% low, strong A- and C-skew). Both the protein-coding and transfer RNA genes show high absolute levels of nucleotide substitution, suggesting that the high rates of mutation within Reticulitermes inferred from analyses of single mt genes are a general characteristic of the entire mt genome. The AT-rich or control region has a remarkable structure not previously observed in insect mt genomes. The majority of the control region is made up of 2 sets of repeat units, typically with 2 full and 1 partial copies of both the A (or small; 186 bp) and B (or large; 552 bp) repeats. The partial repeat units overlap by 36 bp. The size, location, and degree of overlap for the partial repeat units correspond to highly conserved stem/loop structures within the repeat units, suggesting that these structures are involved in the replication-mediated processes that govern repeat-unit evolution within mt genomes. Finally, molecular variation within the mt gene regions was compared with previous regions used in molecular diagnostics or phylogenetics of Reticulitermes. High numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms were found in each of the mt genes, and some of the highest variability was found in gene regions that have not previously been investigated in this group. The whole mt genome sequence can thus be used to predict useful regions for future investigation.

  19. Taxonomic and Numerical Resolutions of Nepomorpha (Insecta: Heteroptera) in Cerrado Streams

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Nubia França da Silva; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro; Batista, Joana Darc; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity), although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77). The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively). The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation actions, and faunal complementarity and/or inventories. PMID:25083770

  20. Taxonomic revision of Trypanidius Blanchard, 1846 in South America (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Carelli, Allan; Monné, Marcela L; Machado, Vanessa Souza

    2013-01-01

    The genus Trypanidius Blanchard, 1846 includes 15 species in the Neotropical Region, nine of which occur in South America. In this contribution, the genus and South American species are redescribed and Trypanidius mimicavus sp. nov. is described from Bolivia. New distributional data are given for T. andicola Blanchard, 1846; T. dimidiatus Thomson, 1860; and T. notatus (Fabricius, 1787). All species are illustrated and a key to all species is provided.

  1. A remarkable new species of the sharpshooter genus Egidemia (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae).

    PubMed

    Mejdalani, Gabriel; Garcia, Cláudia

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Egidemia China, 1927, Egidemia impudica, is described and illustrated from the Department of Magdalena (Colombia). The male genitalia of the new species have a very peculiar, diagnostic feature: the pygofer is considerably reduced and truncate posteriorly, so that part of the aedeagus is exposed. A key to males of all known Egidemia species is provided. Notes comparing Egidemia impudica with the other nine known species of the genus are also given.

  2. Taxonomic Revision of the genus Mesomphalia Hope, 1839 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Simões, Marianna V P; Monné, Marcela L

    2014-01-01

    A revision of the genus Mesomphalia Hope, 1839, is presented based on a detailed morphological study of all species, except M. ampliata Boheman, 1850 and M. albofasciculata Boheman, 1856. The genus and species are redescribed. One species is transferred to Stolas Billberg, 1820, as S. scrobiculata (Boheman, 1850) comb. nov.; one species is transferred to Cyrtonota Chevrolat, 1836, as C. pyramidata (Boheman, 1850) comb. nov.; M. sexmaculata Boheman, 1850 syn. nov. is a junior subjective synonym of M. turrita (Illiger, 1801); one new species M. spaethi Simões & Monné, sp. nov. is described. Following this revision, Mesomphalia now contains fourteen species. A key to the species, photographs and distribution maps are provided.

  3. [Co-adaptation between mites (Arachnida: Klinckowstroemiidae) and Passalidae beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Francke, Oscar F; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae establish an association with beetles of the family Passalidae known as phoresy. In order to obtain information about this association, we analyzed the relationship between mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae and beetles of the family Passalidae, as adult mites have been exclusively collected from host beetles. We examined 1 150 beetles collected in seven states of the Mexican Republic, and found 19 species of klinckowstroemiid mites associated with 168 passalids, that belong to 28 different species in 15 genera. Host specificity between species of both groups does not exist, as one species of passalid beetle can have several different symbionts; conversely, a given mite species can associate with passalid beetles of different species and even of different genera. This way, Odontotaenius zodiacus has been found associated with mites of seven species of the genus Klinckowstroemia. Besides, Klinckowstroemia valdezi is associated with five species of passalids. Furthermore, two and even three different species of mites have been found on one host beetle (synhospitality). The lack of congruence between the phylogenies of the mites and that of the beetles indicates that a process of co-adaptation by colonization is going on, because the association is due to the resources that passalid beetles can offer to the mites, like transportation, food and refuge. Since these resources are not host-specific, the klinckowstroemiid mites can climb onto virtually any species of passalid beetles occurring on the same habitat.

  4. New species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from Europe: Alps and Pyrenees as harbours of unknown biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Graf, Wolfram; Vitecek, Simon; Previšić, Ana; Malicky, Hans

    2015-01-20

    New species are described from the genera Consorophylax and Anisogamus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Limnephilinae, Stenophylacini). Additionally the larva of the genus Anisogamus, and the larval stages of Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. and A. difformis (McLachlan 1867) are described. The new species Consorophylax vinconi sp. nov. is a microendemic from the Southern Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the parameres, which are distinctly straitened in the distal quarter in the new species. The new species Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. represents the second species in the hitherto monospecific genus Anisogamus. Compared to Anisogamus difformis, the male of A. waringeri sp. nov. has more-slender superior appendages; a more-rounded basal plate of the intermediate appendages, lacking pointed protuberances; and parameres shorter than the aedaegus, proximally with one dorsal and several ventral tines. Further, the two species are disjunctly distributed in the European mountain ranges (A. difformis: Alps, A. waringeri sp. nov.: Pyrenees). Larvae of species in the genus Anisogamus are characterized by the lack of a dorsal protuberance on abdominal segment I, a unique feature among Eurasian Limnephilidae. Anisogamus difformis and A. waringeri sp. nov. larvae differ in pronotum shape. The discovery of two new species demonstrates the significance of taxonomic studies in Europe, and the importance of adequate training for young scientists in order to assess an incompletely described biodiversity under threat of extinction. 

  5. The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

    PubMed

    Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata. PMID:26246088

  6. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology. PMID:26249885

  7. A taxonomic synopsis of Limnogeton Mayr, 1853 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José Ricardo I; Meyin-A-Ebong, Solange E; Le-Gall, Philippe; Guilbert, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Afrotropical Belostomatidae fauna has long proved to be a difficult taxonomic problem, not so much for the overwhelmingly large number of species involved but rather because of a lack of trained specialists. The rarity of some taxa also contributes to confusion, because some species remain poorly described or are known only from one or two specimens. During a visit to the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France and the Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium, it was possible to comprehensively review the Limnogeton species based mainly on the specimens housed in the aforementioned collections. An updated key to adults of all species presently included in the genus, particularly based on male genitalia characters studied during the present study, has been provided.

  8. Contribution to the knowledge of Turkish stoneflies with annotated catalogue (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Darilmaz, Mustafa Cemal; Salur, Ali; Murányi, Dávid; Vinçon, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The stoneflies of Turkey are reviewed providing all known distributions and including new records. Additionally, ecological and biogeographical notes are given. The genus Taeniopteryx Pictet 1841 is reported from Turkey for the first time and 12 species new for the Turkish fauna: Leuctra joosti Braasch 1970, L. kopetdaghi Zhiltzova 1972, Protonemura rauschi Theischinger 1975, P. strandschaensis Braasch & Joost 1972, Nemoura asceta Murányi 2007, N. cambrica Stephens 1836, N. uncinata Despax 1934, Taeniopteryx caucasica Zhiltzova 1981, Brachyptera risi (Morton 1896), Pontoperla katherinae (Balinsky 1950), Siphonoperla neglecta (Rostock 1881), and Bulgaroperla mirabilis nigrita Zwick 1978.          Protonemura bithynica Aubert 1964 and Nemoura turcica Zwick 1972 are recognized as full species. The previously unknown female of Leuctra marilouae Vinçon & Sivec 2001 is described. The type locality is also given for each species located in Turkey.          The distributions of several rare endemic species are augmented by additional new records (Leuctra aculeata Zwick 1982, L. brachyptera Kazancı 1985, L. karcali Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. kurui Kazancı 1983, L. marilouae Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. sipahilerae Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. theischingeri Vinçon & Sivec 2001, Protonemura bacurianica bacurianica Zhiltzova 1957, P. oreas Martynov 1928, P. spinulata Martynov 1928 (first confirmed records from Anatolia), P. triangulata Martynov 1928, Nemoura dromokeryx Theischinger 1976, N. martynovia Claassen 1936, and Brachyptera berkii Kazancı 2001.          Several species previously reported only from females are excluded from the Turkish fauna: Leuctra minuta minuta Zhiltzova 1960, L. svanetica Zhiltzova 1960, P. dilatata Martynov 1928. Other species are also excluded from the Turkish fauna: L. fusca fusca (Linnaeus 1758), N. carpathica Illies 1963, Siphonoperla burmeisteri (Pictet 1841), and S. libanica Alouf, 1992.          According to literature and our new faunistic data, 117 stonefly taxa representing 7 families and 24 genera are known from Turkey. Among them, 44 are endemic species from Anatolia.

  9. Distribution and characterization of nitric oxide synthase in the nervous system of Triatoma infestans (Insecta: Heteroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Coronel, María F.; Nowicki, Susana; Nighorn, Alan J.; Villar, Marcelo J.

    2007-01-01

    The biochemical characterization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and its distribution in the central nervous system (CNS) were studied in the heteropteran bug Triatoma infestans. NOS-like immunoreactivity was found in the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and thoracic ganglia by using immunocytochemistry. In the protocerebrum, NOS-immunoreactive (IR) somata were detected in the anterior, lateral, and posterior soma rinds. In the optic lobe, numerous immunostained somata were observed at the level of the first optic chiasma, around the lobula, and in the proximal optic lobe. In the deutocerebrum, NOS-IR perikarya were mainly observed in the lateral soma rind, surrounding the sensory glomeruli, and a few cell bodies were seen in association with the antennal mechanosensory and motor neuropil. No immunostaining could be detected in the antennal nerve. The subesophageal and prothoracic ganglia contained scattered immunostained cell bodies. NOS-IR somata were present in all the neuromeres of the posterior ganglion. Western blotting showed that a universal NOS antiserum recognized a band at 134 kDa, in agreement with the expected molecular weight of the protein. Analysis of the kinetics of nitric oxide production revealed a fully active enzyme in tissue samples of the CNS of T. infestans. PMID:17235602

  10. The First Mitochondrial Genome for Caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) with Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuyu; Liu, Xingyue; Yang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    The Trichoptera (caddisflies) is a holometabolous insect order with 14,300 described species forming the second most species-rich monophyletic group of animals in freshwater. Hitherto, there is no mitochondrial genome reported of this order. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a caddisfly species, Eubasilissa regina (McLachlan, 1871). A phylogenomic analysis was carried out based on the mt genomic sequences of 13 mt protein coding genes (PCGs) and two rRNA genes of 24 species belonging to eight holometabolous orders. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support the sister relationship between Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. PMID:24391451

  11. Environmental influence on coprophagous Scarabaeidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) assemblages in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso.

    PubMed

    Tissiani, A S O; Sousa, W O; Santos, G B; Ide, S; Battirola, L; Marques, M I

    2015-11-01

    Here we examine assemblage structure of coprophagous Scarabaeidae (dung beetles) in the Pantanal of the state of Mato Grosso with respect to flooding regimes, soil texture, leaf litter volume and tree dominance in native and exotic pastures. Samples were collected along 30 transects of 250 m in length in a 5×5 km grid (25 km2). Five pitfalls baited with human feces were placed in each transect. A total of 1692 individuals in 19 species were captured, the majority in the subfamily Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae. Assemblages were influenced by the duration of flooding and leaf litter volume. None of the other habitat variables was correlated with species richness. Cultivated pastures with exotic grasses were unimportant for composition of the assemblages of beetles. These results indicate that duration of flooding is the most important regulating force in this community.

  12. The morphology of the eggs of three species of Zoraptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Yuta; Beutel, Rolf G; Dallai, Romano; Gottardo, Marco; Lee, Chow-Yang; Machida, Ryuichiro

    2015-11-01

    The egg structure of Zorotypus magnicaudelli, Zorotypus hubbardi and Zorotypus impolitus was examined and described in detail. Major characteristics of zorapteran eggs previously reported were confirmed in these species, with the partial exception of Z. impolitus: 1) a pair of micropyles at the equator of the egg's ventral side, 2) a honeycomb pattern on the egg surface, 3) a two-layered chorion, 4) micropylar canals running laterally, 5) a flap covering the inner opening of the micropylar canal and 6) no region specialized for hatching. These features are probably part of the groundplan of the order. Three groups (A-C) and two subgroups (A1 and A2) of Zoraptera can be distinguished based on characters of the reproductive apparatus including eggs. However, information for more species is needed for a reliable interpretation of the complex and apparently fast evolving character system. The egg of Z. impolitus presumably shows apomorphic characteristics not occurring in other species, a chorion without layered construction and polygonal surface compartments with different sculptures on the dorsal and ventral sides of the egg. Another feature found in this species, distinct enlargement of the micropyles, is also found in Z. hubbardi. The increased micropylar size is likely correlated with the giant spermatozoa produced by males of these two species. These two features combined with the large size of the spermatheca are arguably a complex synapomorphy of Z. hubbardi and Z. impolitus. The phylogenetic placement of Zoraptera is discussed based on the egg structure. A clade of Zoraptera + Eukinolabia appears most plausible, but the issue remains an open question.

  13. Endosymbiotic microorganisms in Adelges (Sacchiphantes) viridis (Insecta, Hemiptera, Adelgoidea: Adelgidae): Molecular characterization, ultrastructure and transovarial transmission.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Anna; Gołas, Aniela; Kot, Marta; Wieczorek, Karina; Szklarzewicz, Teresa

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify endosymbiotic microorganisms living in the body cavity of a Polish population of an aphid, Adelges (Sacchiphantes) viridis, as well as to describe their ultrastructure and mode of transmission between generations. Molecular data (amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes) indicated that endosymbionts of A. (S.) viridis are Betaproteobacteria of the species "Candidatus Vallotia virida". Endosymbiotic bacteria are rod-shaped and localized in the cytoplasm of specific cells, termed bacteriocytes, of host insects. Endosymbionts sharing the same bacteriocytes differ in the density of their cytoplasm. There are two morphotypes of endosymbiotic bacteria: with electron-dense cytoplasm and electron-translucent cytoplasm. Since only bacteria containing electron-dense cytoplasm were observed in the binary fusion stage, differences in density of the cytoplasm are probably due to changes in the cytoskeleton of bacteria during division. Endosymbionts of A. (S.) viridis are transovarially (i.e. via oocytes) transmitted from the mother to the offspring.

  14. Larvicidal and repellent potential of Moringa oleifera against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, K; Murugan, K; Nareshkumar, A; Ramasubramanian, N; Bragadeeswaran, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm). Methods M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 100 g of the plant material were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield 122 mg and 110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) from Arcang amara and Ocimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm were prepared. Results Larvicidal activity of M. oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of the A. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were 57.79 ppm and 125.93 ppm for the first instar, 63.90 ppm and 133.07 ppm for the second instar, 72.45 ppm and 139.82 ppm for the third instar, 78.93 ppm and 143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract of M. oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were 67.77 ppm and 141.00 ppm, respectively. Conclusions The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived from M. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs. PMID:23569741

  15. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  16. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.

  17. Crickets (Insecta, Orthoptera, Grylloidea) from Southern New Caledonia,
    with descriptions of new taxa.

    PubMed

    Anso, Jérémy; Jourdan, Hervé; Desutter-Grandcolas, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Intensive sampling of cricket communities has been undertaken in southern New Caledonia in selected plots of vegetation, i.e. rain forest, preforest and maquis shrubland. This leads to the discovery of many new taxa, which are described in the present paper, together with closely related species from nearby areas. Descriptions are based on general morphology and characters of genitalia. Calling songs are described for all acoustic taxa but two, and observations about species habitats are given. In total, 35 species belonging to 13 genera are studied, including 21 new species and two new genera. The pattern of assemblages of cricket species in New Caledonia is discussed. PMID:27395569

  18. Critical Structure for Telescopic Movement of Honey bee (Insecta: Apidae) Abdomen: Folded Intersegmental Membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z-S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. PMID:27456912

  19. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana

    PubMed Central

    Mouro, Lucas D.; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C.S.; Waichel, Breno L.

    2016-01-01

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian–Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea. PMID:26765261

  20. Biodiversity of Minnesota caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera): delineation and characterization of regions.

    PubMed

    Houghton, David C

    2004-07-01

    Despite the value of aquatic insects in aquatic ecosystem biomonitoring, few studies within North America have addressed relationships between aquatic insect assemblages and landscape-level environmental variables. In this study, over 300,000 adult caddisfly specimens representing 224 species were collected and analyzed from samples of 225 Minnesota aquatic habitats within 58 watersheds. Detrended Correspondence Analysis and a UPGMA dendrogram of caddisfly relative abundance data determined that five regions of caddisfly biodiversity exist within the state. Species richness and diversity were significantly highest in the Lake Superior and Northern regions, lowest in the Northwestern and Southern regions, and intermediate in the Southeastern region. Canonical Correspondence Analysis determined that caddisfly species composition was related to temperature, percentage of disturbed habitat, and stream gradient. Although a strong correlation between temperature and percentage of disturbed habitat made determination of the relative importance of those variables difficult, it is likely that anthropogenic disturbance has decreased caddisfly biodiversity in at least the Northwestern and Southern regions. Now that regions of biodiversity have been established, future changes to the fauna can be evaluated with greater precision and confidence. This study represents the most comprehensive faunal analysis of an aquatic insect order within the Western Hemisphere.

  1. New Fossil Lepidoptera (Insecta: Amphiesmenoptera) from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142

  2. A new species of Fuziidae (Insecta, Blattida) from the Inner Mongolia, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dandan; Liang, Junhui; Ren, Dong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species attributed to the genus Parvifuzia Guo & Ren, 2011, Parvifuzia peregrina sp. n., is described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China. This new species, with apex of wing almost reaching the end of the abdomen and forewing venation with 30–32 veins at margin, broadens the diversity of Parvifuzia. This new species, with strongly curved cerci, could tightly clasp female and complete copulation more efficiently, same as other members of the family Fuziidae. PMID:22977342

  3. Taxonomic and numerical resolutions of nepomorpha (insecta: heteroptera) in cerrado streams.

    PubMed

    Giehl, Nubia França da Silva; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro; Batista, Joana Darc; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2014-01-01

    Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity), although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77). The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively). The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation actions, and faunal complementarity and/or inventories. PMID:25083770

  4. [Parasitism of Ips sexdentatus (Insecta: Scolytidae) by Parasitorhabditis ipsophila (Nematoda: Rhabditidae)].

    PubMed

    Lieutier, F

    1984-01-01

    The study of parasitism percentages and contaminations intensity in Ips sexdentatus parasitized by P. ipsophila as well as the examination of the wormholes in the galleries of the bark beetle gave better insight into certain features of nematode biology. Larvae of I. sexdentatus could be infected, whereas pupae could not. Adults were contaminated from initial stages of maturation and throughout preswarming maturation. Following swarming and installation on a new tree, insects were rapidly decontaminated, but recontamination could occur by the end of oviposition. P. ipsophila larvae were found in the mesenteron before they penetrated into the hind gut. Seemingly, the parasite underwent no evolution within its host. All developmental stages of the nematode could be observed in the galleries of the bark beetle as long as the latter was present. No apparent relation exists between parasitism of the digestive tract by P. ipsophila and parasitism of the body or fat body by Parasitaphelenchus or Contortylenchus diplogaster. P. ipsophila exerts very limited effects on I. sexdentatus populations. A slight delay in swarming and initiation of oviposition, and a very low decrease in density of notches of oviposition and of eggs was observed, but the features of the gallery of oviposition (total length, length before the first notch) showed no alteration. No mortality was detected.

  5. 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia crassificans', an intracellular bacterial pathogen of the cockroach Blatta orientalis (Insecta: Blattodea).

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Thomas, Vincent; Goy, Genevieve; Venditti, Danielle; Radek, Renate; Greub, Gilbert

    2007-04-01

    The genus Rickettsiella comprises various intracellular bacterial pathogens of arthropods, exhibiting a chlamydia-like developmental cycle. Species may be divided into two main groups, the R. popilliae-R. grylli group and the R. chironomi group. Previous phylogenetic studies based on the 16S ribosomal RNA encoding gene showed that two Rickettsiella species, one from each group, belong in reality to two distantly related lineages, the gamma-Proteobacteria (R. grylli) and the Chlamydiales ('Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis', a pathogen of terrestrial isopods). In the present work, the 16S rDNA sequence of another Rickettsiella-like species, causing abdominal swelling to its cockroach host Blatta orientalis, was determined and phylogenetic analysis performed. Identical 16S rDNA sequences of 1495 nucleotides were obtained from fat body and ovary tissues of both healthy and diseased cockroach individuals. The sequence shared only 73% of similarity with R. grylli, but 82-87% with most Chlamydiales, and even 96.3% with 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis'. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the affiliation of the cockroach pathogen within the order Chlamydiales, and based on ultrastructural characteristics and genetic analyses, we propose its inclusion in the 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia' as a distinct taxon, 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia crassificans'. These results extend our knowledge of the phylogenetic diversity of the Chlamydiales.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens—eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.

  7. The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs – including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata. PMID:26246088

  8. [Comparative histology of mushroom bodies in carnivorous beetles of the suborder polyphaga (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom bodies in beetles of the families Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Cantharidae, Trogossitidae, Peltidae, Cleridae, Malachiidae, and Coccinellidae are shown to be rather poorly developed. The calyx region of the mushroom bodies in these beetles never forms two separate cups, and the peduncular apparatus includes a unified shaft almost over its entire length. Only the pedunculus contains two separate shafts in a few cases. Two proliferative centers consisting of one to three neuroblasts are often found in each Kenyon cell group. The shift from carnivorous to feeding on pollen or leaves, which has taken place in some taxa, does not visibly affect the degree of mushroom body development.

  9. Beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, W E; Alves, A C F; Creão-Duarte, A J

    2014-08-01

    The species richness, abundance and seasonality of Coleoptera fauna associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area were examined. Tray, pitfall and modified Shannon traps were settled together to collect these insects during two seasons (dry and rainy). 4,851 beetles were collected, belonging to 19 families and 88 species. Staphylinidae (2,184) and Histeridae (1,264) were the most abundant families and accounted for 71.1% of the specimens collected. Scarabaeidae (15) showed the highest species richness. The most abundant species were Atheta iheringi Bernhauer, 1908 (Staphylinidae) (1,685), Euspilotus sp. (Histeridae) (461), Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) (Nitidulidae) (394), Xerosaprinus diptychus (Marseul, 1855) (Histeridae) (331) and Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 (Dermestidae). Amongst these species, X. diptychus showed to be strongly influenced by seasonality, since 96.1% of the specimens were collected during the dry season.

  10. [Histological structure of tripartite mushroom bodies in ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera: Carabidae)].

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to members of the suborder Polyphaga; ground beetles have been found to possess tripartite mushroom bodies, which are poorly developed in members of basal taxa and maximally elaborated in evolutionarily advanced groups. Nevertheless, they do not reach the developmental stage, which has been previously found in particular families of beetles. It has been pointed out that anew formation of the Kenyon cells occurs during at least the first months of adult life, and inactive neuroblasts are found even in one-year-old beetles. It has been suggested that there is a relation between the Kenyon cell number and development of the centers of Kenyon cell new-formation.

  11. Evolutionary History of Assassin Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Insights from Divergence Dating and Ancestral State Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11–14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears the way for in-depth evolutionary hypothesis testing in one of the most speciose clades of predators. PMID:23029072

  12. The larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5–9) serrated, lateral spines on S6–9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6–7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6–9 serrate, lateral spines on S7–9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7–9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water’s edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva. PMID:27635319

  13. Redescription of the larva of Gynacantha cylindrata Karsch (Insecta: Odonata: Aeshnidae).

    PubMed

    Domenico, Marco Di; Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B; Carchini, Gianmaria

    2016-01-01

    The ultimate stadium larva of Gynacantha cylindrata Karsch, 1891 is described and illustrated based on fifteen male and female exuviae from Bundibugyo, Uganda. The larva resembles those of the few described African species of the genus but shows a denser coverage of spine-like setae on body surface and abundance of hair-like setae on mouthparts. The female gonapophyses appear to be the longest described in the genus up to now and similar to those of G. villosa, a species included in the same group of African species. PMID:27395964

  14. First Record of Anisoptera (Insecta: Odonata) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese Amber.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Mario; Bechly, Günter

    2016-01-01

    The fossil dragonfly Burmalindenia imperfecta gen. et sp. nov. is described from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber as the first record of the odonate suborder Anisoptera for this locality and one of the few records from amber in general. The inclusion comprises two fragments of the two hind wings of a dragonfly. The fossil can be attributed to a new genus and species of the family Gomphidae, presumably in the subfamily Lindeniinae, and features a strange teratological phenomenon in its wing venation. PMID:27394756

  15. The larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5-9) serrated, lateral spines on S6-9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6-7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6-9 serrate, lateral spines on S7-9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7-9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water's edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva. PMID:27635319

  16. Cerapanorpa, a new genus of Panorpidae (Insecta: Mecoptera) with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chao; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    A new genus of Panorpidae (Mecoptera), Cerapanorpa gen. nov., is erected with Panorpa obtusa Cheng, 1949 as its type species. The new genus can be readily recognized by having a single digitate anal horn on the posterior edge of tergum VI in males, and a broad main plate bearing two pairs of basal plates at the genital plate and a well-developed elongate axis in females. Nineteen described species are transferred from Panorpa Linnaeus, 1758 to the new genus. In addition, three new species, Cerapanorpa liupanshana sp. nov., Cerapanorpa protrudens sp. nov. and Cerapanorpa sinuata sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Panorpa alticola Zhou, 2000 syn. nov. is regarded as a junior synonym of P. obtusa Cheng, 1949. A key to genera of Panorpidae is updated to include the new genus. A key to species of Cerapanorpa is also presented. PMID:27615872

  17. Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy

    2015-06-25

    A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality.

  18. A survey of the praying mantises of Rwanda, including new records (Insecta, Mantodea).

    PubMed

    Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of two surveys targeting praying mantises in four localities in Rwanda, specifically Akagera National Park, Nyungwe National Park, Volcanoes National Park, and the Arboretum de Ruhande at the National University of Rwanda. Using an assortment of collecting techniques, including metal halide light traps, sweep netting vegetation and general searching, we obtained 387 adult and 352 juvenile specimens, representing 41 species. A total of 28 novel species records for Rwanda are added to the 18 previously recorded species for the country, in addition to 20 novel species records for the broader region, including neighbouring Uganda and Burundi. This study provides high resolution images of the dorsal habitus of both sexes of representative species, both pinned and living. Species distribution records are presented and discussed. With a 155% increase in species recorded from Rwanda, this survey illustrates the need for further taxonomic work in the region.

  19. A peculiar new virus-spermatozoon association in the bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) (Heteroptera-Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mercati, David; Dallai, Romano

    2016-01-01

    The sperm of the heteropteran bug Raphigaster nebulosa (Poda) are of two types, differing in length and size of their flagella. The thicker sperm are shorter than the thinner ones and have large mitochondrial derivatives. The presence of virus particles associated with the plasma membrane of thinner sperm is described for the first time; thicker sperm are immune to virus infection. The fact that virus particles are present on thinner sperm only initiates considerations on the transmission of virus.

  20. Survey of macromoths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of a Palouse prairie remnant site in eastern Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Palouse or Palouse Prairie is a bioregion consisting primarily of native grasses, shrubs, and forbs that originally covered over 16,000 km2 of central Idaho, southeastern Washington, and northeastern Oregon. Less than 1% of this habitat remains with much of it having been converted to agricultu...

  1. New Method for Automatic Body Length Measurement of the Collembolan, Folsomia candida Willem 1902 (Insecta: Collembola)

    PubMed Central

    Bánszegi, Oxána; Kosztolányi, András; Bakonyi, Gábor; Szabó, Borbála; Dombos, Miklós

    2014-01-01

    The collembolan, Folsomia candida, is widely used in soil ecotoxicology. In recent years, growth rate of collembolans has become as frequently used endpoint as reproduction rate in ecotoxicological studies. However, measuring collembolan body sizes to estimate growth rate is a complicated and time-consuming task. Here we present a new image analysis method, which facilitates and accelerates the body length measurement of the collembolan Folsomia candida. The new software package, called CollScope, consists of three elements: 1) an imaging device; 2) photographing software; 3) an ImageJ macro for image processing, measurement and data analysis. We give a complete description of the operation of the software, the image analyzing process and describe its accuracy and reliability. The software with a detailed usage manual is attached as Supplementary Material. We report a case study to demonstrate that the automated measurement of collembolan body sizes is highly correlated with the traditional manual measurements (estimated measuring accuracy 0.05 mm). Furthermore, we performed a dose-response ecotoxicity test using cadmium-sulfate by using CollScope as well as classical methods for size measurement. Size data measured by CollScope or manually did not differ significantly. Furthermore the new software package decreased time consumption of the measurements to 42% when tested on 35 animals. Consequently, methodological investigations performed in this study should be regarded as a recommendation for any other routine dose-response study where body growth is an endpoint. PMID:24901322

  2. Influence of life history and sex on metal accumulation in two beetle species (insecta: Coleoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Lindqvist, L.; Block, M.

    1997-04-01

    Insects are important components of most terrestrial environments owing to their great abundance, biomass and diversity. They also make up an important food resource for other animals. Consequently, in many food webs insects constitute important links in metal-transport chains between trophic levels. Therefore trace-metal concentrations in insects have an important influence on the trace-metal distribution in the biosphere. In various insects, Cd, Cu and Zn are usually accumulated to the extent that they reach levels above those of the food, whereas Fe is not. In response to metal pollution, accumulation of nonessential metals was found to increase markedly, whereas essential metals accumulated less owing to regulating mechanisms in the insects. In polluted environments, metal concentrations were found to be higher in predatory invertebrates than in phytophagous ones in studies where insects were analysed in broad categories such as families. However, no such trend was observed when species were treated separately. The pattern of metal accumulation can differ between species. This is true even for species utilizing the same food resource. For instance, concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe differed between four species of sawflies feeding on pine needles from the same locality. It is therefore likely that insects with different food sources accumulate metals differently depending on the concentration and chemical form of the metals in the food. There have been few studies aimed at determining whether patterns of metal accumulation differ between males and females of the same species. In one such study on the sawfly Neodiprion sertifer concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe tended to be higher in males than in females. However, this pattern was not found in two other sawfly species. Target organs for Cd were found to differ between males and females in the grasshopper Aiolopus thalassinus. The testis accumulated Cd to a higher degree than the ovaries.

  3. Rampant nuclear insertion of mtDNA across diverse lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J; Whiting, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies. PMID:25333882

  4. Fossils from the Middle Jurassic of China shed light on morphology of Choristopsychidae (Insecta, Mecoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Xiao; Shih, Chung Kun; Petrulevičius, Julian F.; Dong, Ren

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Choristopsychidae, established by Martynov in 1937 with a single isolated forewing, is a little known extinct family in Mecoptera. Since then, no new members of this enigmatic family have been described. Based on 23 well-preserved specimens with complete body and wings from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China, we report one new genus and three new species of Choristopsychidae, two new species of the genus Choristopsyche Martynov, 1937: Choristopsyche perfecta sp. n. and Choristopsyche asticta sp. n.; one new species of Paristopsyche gen. n.: Paristopsyche angelineae sp. n.; and re-describe Choristopsyche tenuinervis Martynov, 1937. In addition, we emend the diagnoses of Choristopsychidae and Choristopsyche. Analyzing the forewing length/width ratios of representative species in Mecoptera, we confirm that choristopsychids have the lowest ratio of forewing length/width, meaning broadest forewings. These findings, the first fossil choristopsychids with well-preserved body structure and the first record of Choristopsychidae in China, shed light on the morphology of these taxa and broaden their distribution from Tajikistan to China, while increasing the diversity of Mesozoic Mecoptera in China. PMID:23950679

  5. Rampant nuclear insertion of mtDNA across diverse lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J; Whiting, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies.

  6. The non-LTR retrotransposon R2 in termites (Insecta, Isoptera): characterization and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ghesini, Silvia; Luchetti, Andrea; Marini, Mario; Mantovani, Barbara

    2011-03-01

    The full-length element of the non-LTR retrotransposon R2 is here characterized in three European isopteran species: the more primitive Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), including two highly divergent mitochondrial lineages, and the more derived Reticulitermes lucifugus and R. urbis (Rhinotermitidae). Partial 3' sequences for R. grassei and R. balkanensis were also analyzed. The essential structural features of R2 elements are conserved in termites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that termite elements belong to the same clade and that their phylogeny is fully compatible with the phylogeny of their host species. The study of the number and the frequency of R2 insertion variants in four R. urbis colonies suggests a greatly reduced, or completely absent, recent element activity.

  7. Origin of the hungry caterpillar: Evolution of fasting in slug moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Limacodidae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, J M; Weller, S J; Epstein, M E

    2016-01-01

    Studies of caterpillar defense strategy evolution typically focus on aposematic coloration, gregarious behavior, and/or chemical defense. In the slug moth family Limacodidae, the evolution of chemical defense is coupled to the life history trait of first instar feeding behaviors. In nettle caterpillars, the first instars fast and molt into a second instar that feeds. In contrast, gelatines and monkey slug larval forms feed in the first instar. This study focused on whether the evolution of fasting associated with the nettle morphology was a derived trait of single or multiple origins. Twenty-nine species of Limacodidae (including one Chrysopolominae) representing 27 genera and four outgroup species with known first and final instar morphologies and behaviors were included. Four out-group species representing Megalopygidae (1 sp), Dalceridae (1 sp) and Aididae (2 sp) were included. These were sequenced for three molecular markers for a total of 4073 bp, mitochondrial COI (∼1500 bp), 18S (∼1900 bp) and the D2 region of 28S (approximately 670 bp). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were conducted. The resulting phylogeny and comparative analysis of feeding strategy revealed that the nettle caterpillar morphology and behavior of larval fasting may have a single origin.

  8. Setting boundaries: environmental and spatial effects on Odonata larvae distribution (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mendes, Thiago P; Cabette, Helena S R; Juen, Leandro

    2015-03-01

    Environmental characteristics and spatial distances between sites have been used to explain species distribution in the environment, through Neutral (space) and Niche theory (environment) predictions. We evaluated the effects of spatial and environmental factors on Odonata larvae distribution along the Suiá-Missú River Basin, state of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the environment is the main factor structuring the community due to its ecophysiological requirements; and (2) the pattern, if present, is clearer for Zygoptera. Samples were made in 12 sites on the Suiá-Missú River Basin in three seasons (2007/2008), with a total of 1.382 Odonata larvae, comprising 10 families, 51 genera and 100 morphospecies. The Anisoptera were more abundant than Zygoptera, comprising 81% of all specimens. The environment affected Zygoptera (R=0.291; p=0.007) and was the main factor structuring the assembly. Thus, Niche theory was confirmed. The absence of this effect on Anisoptera may be due to the ecophysiological adaptations that enable it to occupy different habitats. Zygoptera larvae are indicators of changes in habitat structure. The effects of environmental variables on larvae ecology emphasize the strong relationship between these organisms and environmental integrity. PMID:25806986

  9. The Distribution of eIF4E-Family Members across Insecta

    PubMed Central

    Tettweiler, Gritta; Kowanda, Michelle; Lasko, Paul; Sonenberg, Nahum; Hernández, Greco

    2012-01-01

    Insects are part of the earliest faunas that invaded terrestrial environments and are the first organisms that evolved controlled flight. Nowadays, insects are the most diverse animal group on the planet and comprise the majority of extant animal species described. Moreover, they have a huge impact in the biosphere as well as in all aspects of human life and economy; therefore understanding all aspects of insect biology is of great importance. In insects, as in all cells, translation is a fundamental process for gene expression. However, translation in insects has been mostly studied only in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We used all publicly available genomic sequences to investigate in insects the distribution of the genes encoding the cap-binding protein eIF4E, a protein that plays a crucial role in eukaryotic translation. We found that there is a diversity of multiple ortholog genes encoding eIF4E isoforms within the genus Drosophila. In striking contrast, insects outside this genus contain only a single eIF4E gene, related to D. melanogaster eIF4E-1. We also found that all insect species here analyzed contain only one Class II gene, termed 4E-HP. We discuss the possible evolutionary causes originating the multiplicity of eIF4E genes within the genus Drosophila. PMID:22745595

  10. New Eocene damselflies and first Cenozoic damsel-dragonfly of the isophlebiopteran lineage (Insecta: Odonata).

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André

    2015-01-01

    The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera. PMID:26624314

  11. A survey of the praying mantises of Rwanda, including new records (Insecta, Mantodea).

    PubMed

    Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of two surveys targeting praying mantises in four localities in Rwanda, specifically Akagera National Park, Nyungwe National Park, Volcanoes National Park, and the Arboretum de Ruhande at the National University of Rwanda. Using an assortment of collecting techniques, including metal halide light traps, sweep netting vegetation and general searching, we obtained 387 adult and 352 juvenile specimens, representing 41 species. A total of 28 novel species records for Rwanda are added to the 18 previously recorded species for the country, in addition to 20 novel species records for the broader region, including neighbouring Uganda and Burundi. This study provides high resolution images of the dorsal habitus of both sexes of representative species, both pinned and living. Species distribution records are presented and discussed. With a 155% increase in species recorded from Rwanda, this survey illustrates the need for further taxonomic work in the region. PMID:26624167

  12. New species of Limnephilidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from Europe: Alps and Pyrenees as harbours of unknown biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Graf, Wolfram; Vitecek, Simon; Previšić, Ana; Malicky, Hans

    2015-01-01

    New species are described from the genera Consorophylax and Anisogamus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Limnephilinae, Stenophylacini). Additionally the larva of the genus Anisogamus, and the larval stages of Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. and A. difformis (McLachlan 1867) are described. The new species Consorophylax vinconi sp. nov. is a microendemic from the Southern Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the parameres, which are distinctly straitened in the distal quarter in the new species. The new species Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. represents the second species in the hitherto monospecific genus Anisogamus. Compared to Anisogamus difformis, the male of A. waringeri sp. nov. has more-slender superior appendages; a more-rounded basal plate of the intermediate appendages, lacking pointed protuberances; and parameres shorter than the aedaegus, proximally with one dorsal and several ventral tines. Further, the two species are disjunctly distributed in the European mountain ranges (A. difformis: Alps, A. waringeri sp. nov.: Pyrenees). Larvae of species in the genus Anisogamus are characterized by the lack of a dorsal protuberance on abdominal segment I, a unique feature among Eurasian Limnephilidae. Anisogamus difformis and A. waringeri sp. nov. larvae differ in pronotum shape. The discovery of two new species demonstrates the significance of taxonomic studies in Europe, and the importance of adequate training for young scientists in order to assess an incompletely described biodiversity under threat of extinction.  PMID:25661619

  13. The mitochondrial genome of the 'twisted-wing parasite' Mengenilla australiensis (Insecta, Strepsiptera): a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Strepsiptera are an unusual group of sexually dimorphic, entomophagous parasitoids whose evolutionary origins remain elusive. The lineage leading to Mengenilla australiensis (Family Mengenillidae) is the sister group to all remaining extant strepsipterans. It is unique in that members of this family have retained a less derived condition, where females are free-living from pupation onwards, and are structurally much less simplified. We sequenced almost the entire mitochondrial genome of M. australiensis as an important comparative data point to the already available genome of its distant relative Xenos vesparum (Family Xenidae). This study represents the first in-depth comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis of Strepsiptera. Results The partial genome of M. australiensis is presented as a 13421 bp fragment, across which all 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 18 transfer RNA (tRNA) sequences are identified. Two tRNA translocations disrupt an otherwise ancestral insect mitochondrial genome order. A+T content is measured at 84.3%, C-content is also very skewed. Compared with M. australiensis, codon bias in X. vesparum is more balanced. Interestingly, the size of the protein coding genome is truncated in both strepsipterans, especially in X. vesparum which, uniquely, has 4.3% fewer amino acids than the average holometabolan complement. A revised assessment of mitochondrial rRNA secondary structure based on comparative structural considerations is presented for M. australiensis and X. vesparum. Conclusions The mitochondrial genome of X. vesparum has undergone a series of alterations which are probably related to an extremely derived lifestyle. Although M. australiensis shares some of these attributes; it has retained greater signal from the hypothetical most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Strepsiptera, inviting the possibility that a shift in the mitochondrial selective environment might be related to the specialization accompanying the evolution of a small, morphologically simplified completely host-dependent lifestyle. These results provide useful insights into the nature of the evolutionary transitions that accompanied the emergence of Strepsiptera, but we emphasize the need for adequate sampling across the order in future investigations concerning the extraordinary developmental and evolutionary origins of this group. PMID:20003419

  14. A "spare" compensates for the risk of destruction of the elongated penis of earwigs (Insecta: Dermaptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Matsuo, Yoh

    2001-11-01

    Male animals in several groups have multiple intromittent organs that outnumber the corresponding female gonopore. In Dermaptera (earwigs), males of the family Anisolabididae have paired, elongated male intromittent organs (virgae), while females have a single sperm-storage organ (spermatheca). Several authors have assumed that one of the paired virgae is non-functional, because it points in the "wrong" direction. We investigated the mating success of handicapped males of Euborellia plebeja in which one of their paired virgae was removed experimentally. These handicapped males succeeded in inseminating a mate. Males with genital damage are found in the field, suggesting that the "spare" functions under natural conditions. Based on phylogenetic information on earwigs, we discuss possible evolutionary scenarios for this genital peculiarity.

  15. Catalog of Hymenoptera described by Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Penati, Fabio; Mariotti, Alberto

    2015-03-10

    Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) was an Italian civil engineer who described 377 new taxa of Hymenoptera, 199 of which are still valid and in use today, and proposed 6 replacement names. The present catalog provides a brief biography of Gribodo, a bibliography of his 42 publications and a complete list of the taxa proposed by Gribodo. The catalog lists, for all published names, details on the type series, type locality and collector, present status based on literature, all data labels, relevant references and remarks. A gazetteer of type-localities, a systematical list of Genus- and Species-group names, a chronological list of new names proposed by Giovanni Gribodo, with name-bearing types, and a list of Algerian species and varieties are also given. Furthermore, an unpublished manuscript by Gribodo on hymenopterological fauna of Tunisia, still kept at the Civic Museum of Natural History "Giacomo Doria" (Genoa, Italy), is described, and data on the 57 "new" taxa therein listed are reported, discussing their relevance in order to ascertain the original type series of 27 taxa validly published later. Finally, the problem posed by the enigmatic "disappearance" of a large number of Algerian types, already faced by several entomologists in the past, is analyzed, in order to prevent future mistaken designations of lectotypes and neotypes. The following six nomenclatural acts are proposed here by R. Wahis: Hemipepsis sycophanta Gribodo, 1884 = Hemipepsis bellicosa (Smith, 1873) new synonym; Anospilus sulcithorax (Gribodo, 1924) new combination; Auplopus validus (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Dichragenia quartinae (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Diplonyx caesar (Gribobo, 1894) new combination; Paracyphononyx melanicrus Gribodo, 1884 status revalidated (resurrected from synonymy with Pompilus ruficrus Klug, 1834). The following four nomenclatural acts are proposed by F. Penati: Parachrysis Gribodo, 1879 [subgenus of Chrysis Linnaeus] = Chrysis Linnaeus, 1760 new synonym; Psammotherma (Mutilla) quartinae Gribodo, 1884 = Psammotherma flabellata (Fabricius, 1804) new synonym; Megascolia (Regiscolia) alecto (Smith, 1858) subspecies vespillo (Gribodo, 1893) new combination; Megachile (Megachile) moutoni Gribodo, 1894 emendated name.

  16. Two new bee-killing flies from Brazil (Insecta: Diptera: Phoridae: Melaloncha)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The genus Melaloncha is a large group of species of parasitoid phorid flies that attack Hymenoptera, mostly stingless bees (Meliponinae, Apidae) in the Neotropical Region. New information Two new Brazilian species, Melaloncha (Melaloncha) peacockorum sp. n. and Melaloncha (Udamochiras) nielsi sp. n., are described and their identification clarified. PMID:26929720

  17. Review of Anasillomos Londt, 1983 with the description of a new species (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae).

    PubMed

    Dikow, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The southern African assassin-fly genus Anasillomos Londt, 1983 is reviewed. A new species, Anasillomosjuergeni sp. n., is described from the Namib desert and represents the second species in the genus. Descriptions/re-descriptions, photographs, and identification keys are provided to aid in the identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence are discussed. PMID:25829862

  18. Evolutionary history of assassin bugs (insecta: hemiptera: Reduviidae): insights from divergence dating and ancestral state reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11-14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears the way for in-depth evolutionary hypothesis testing in one of the most speciose clades of predators. PMID:23029072

  19. New predatory cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria: Manipulatoridae fam.n.) from the Upper Cretaceous Myanmar amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vršanský, Peter; Bechly, Günter

    2015-04-01

    We describe a new extinct lineage Manipulatoridae (new family) of cockroaches from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. Manipulator modificaputis gen. et sp. n. is a morphologically unique extinct cockroach that represents the first (of a total of 29 known worldwide) cockroach family reported exclusively from the Myanmar amber. This family represents an early side branch of the stem group of Mantodea (most probably a sister group of Eadiidae within Blattaria/Corydioidea) because it has some synapomorphies with the Mantodea (including the stem group and Eadiidae). This family also retains symplesiomorphies that exclude a position in the crown group, and furthermore has unique autapomorphies that exclude a position as a direct ancestor of Mantodea. The unique adaptations such as strongly elongated extremities and freely movable head on a long neck suggest that these animals were pursuit predators. Five additional specimens (including two immatures) reported from the Myanmar amber suggest that this group was relatively rare but belonged to the indigenous and autochthonous inhabitants of the ancient amber forest of the Myanmar region.

  20. [Generic diversity of Trichoptera (Insecta) of Paramo Rabanal (Cundinamarca-Boyacá, Colombia)].

    PubMed

    Latorre-Beltrán, Ivonne T; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Favila, Mario E

    2014-04-01

    Trichopterans are considered an important and diverse biotic element in continental aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the assemblages of the order Trichoptera in two subwatersheds with a gradient of disturbance. Four sampling events were conducted in two subwatersheds in the Eastern Mountain Range of the Colombian Andes. For the analysis we used rarefaction curves, Bray-Curtis Index and Partitioning Diversity and total richness and Shannon's diversity as metrics. Although total richness was similar between both subwatersheds, abundance was always highest in streams within the conserved subwatershed. Each subwatershed was dominated by different genera, except Ochrotrichia, which was abundant at all sites. Alpha diversity was similar among streams in the conserved watershed, while a reduction in diversity potentially associated with the disturbance gradient was observed in streams of the disturbed subwatershed. Beta diversity (0Dbeta and 1Dbeta) between subwatersheds and among conserved streams was similar, while in disturbed streams a similar gradient to that of alpha diversity was found. The similitude analysis clustered streams according to their conservation status. Differences found in trichopteran assemblages do confirm that the use of their attributes is adequate to assess the conservation status of stream ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2): 97-110. Epub 2014 April 01. PMID:25189072

  1. Evidence for Gene Flow between Two Sympatric Mealybug Species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species – the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of ‘hybrid females’ among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. ‘hybrid females’ from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894

  2. The fine structure of the rectal pads of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Mashimo, Y; Machida, R; Beutel, R G

    2016-07-01

    The rectal pads of a species of the controversial polyneopteran order Zoraptera were examined using histological sections and TEM micrographs. Six pads are present along the thin rectal epithelium. Each pad consists of a few large principal cells surrounded by flattened junctional cells, which extend also beneath the principal cells. The cells are lined by a thin apical cuticle. No basal cells and no cavity have been observed beneath the pad. Principal cells have a regular layer of apical microvilli and are joined by intercellular septate junctions, which are interrupted by short dilatations of the intercellular space. At these levels the two adjacent plasma membranes are joined by short zonulae adhaerentes. In the cytoplasm, a rich system of strict associations between lateral plasma membranes and mitochondria forms scalariform junctions. Rectal pads share ultrastructural features with similar excretory organs of several neopteran groups, in particular with Blattodea (roaches and termites) and Thysanoptera, and are involved in fluid reabsorption and ion regulation. PMID:27368527

  3. Principles of the highly ordered arrangement of metaphase I bivalents in spermatocytes of Agrodiaetus (Insecta, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Dantchenko, Alexander V

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the nature of highly ordered bivalent arrangement in lepidopteran spermatocytes by analysing and comparing the patterns of bivalent distribution in intact metaphase I plates of 24 closely related species of the genus Agrodiaetus (Lycaenidae). The studied species greatly differed in haploid chromosome numbers (from n = 13 to n = 90) and in the structure of their karyotypes. We found that the larger the bivalent, the closer to the centre of the metaphase plate it was situated. In species with a high chromosome number and asymmetrical karyotype structure, the largest bivalent was located in the centre of the circular metaphase plate. Bivalents of equal size were approximately equidistant from the centre of the metaphase plate and formed concentric circles around the largest bivalent. These principles are diametrically different from those known in the majority of other animals and plants, in which the smallest elements of the chromosome set are situated in the centre of metaphase plate. The only exception from the above principles was observed in spermatocytes of A. surakovi which were heterozygous for reciprocal translocation involving two or three chromosome pairs. In addition to one large bivalent, the heterozygous cells had a multivalent, the size of which was comparable to or even exceeded that of the largest bivalentin the karyotype. In spite of thelarge size, the multivalent was always situated at the periphery of metaphase plate. This indicated that the chromosome size itself is not the only factor determining the bivalent position. We also found that the structure of the metaphase plate is fundamentally different in mitotic and meiotic cells of Agrodiaetus. In spermatogonial metaphase, chromosomes were tightly brought together, forming a dense compact disk, whereas during metaphase I of spermatocytes, all bivalents were clearly separated from each other, and the distance between adjacent bivalents varied from 0.4 to 1.5 microm. Based on the above findings, we proposed a model of bivalent distribution in the Lepidoptera. According to the model, during congregation in the prometaphase stage there is a centripetal movement of bivalents made by a force directed to the centre of the metaphase plate transverse to the spindle. This force is proportional to the kinetochore size of a particular bivalent. The Lepidoptera have a special near-holokinetic type of chromosome organisation. Therefore, large bivalents having large kinetochores are situated in the central part of metaphase plate. Another possible factor affecting the bivalent position is the interaction of bivalents with the cisternae of the membrane system compartmentalising the intraspindle space. PMID:11863071

  4. Endogenous cellulolytic enzyme systems in the longhorn beetle Mesosa myops (Insecta: Coleoptera) studied by transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Song, Keqing; Teng, Huajing; Zhang, Bin; Li, Wenzhu; Xue, Huaijun; Yang, Xingke

    2015-09-01

    The Cerambycidae (longhorn beetle) is a large family of Coleoptera with xylophagous feeding habits. Cellulose digestion plays an important role in these wood-feeding insects. In this study, transcriptomic technology was used to obtain one glycoside hydrolase family 45 (GH45) cellulase and seven GH5 cellulases from Mesosa myops, a typical longhorn beetle. Analyses of expression dynamics and evolutionary relationships provided a complete description of the cellulolytic system. The expression dynamics related to individual development indicated that endogenous GH45 and GH5 cellulases dominate cellulose digestion in M. myops. Evolutionary analyses suggested that GH45 cellulase gene is a general gene in the Coleoptera Suborder Polyphaga. Evolutionary analyses also indicated that the GH5 cellulase group in Lamiinae longhorn beetles is closely associated with wood feeding. This study demonstrated that there is a complex endogenous cellulolytic system in M. myops that is dominated by cellulases belonging to two glycoside hydrolase families.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens--eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.

  6. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.

  7. New Eocene damselflies and first Cenozoic damsel-dragonfly of the isophlebiopteran lineage (Insecta: Odonata).

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André

    2015-10-09

    The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion of three ground beetle species (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2016-04-01

    The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens--eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future. PMID:27000261

  9. Australian thrips of the Haplothrips lineage (Insecta: Thysanoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Mound, Laurence A.; Minaei, Kambiz

    2007-12-01

    Water is important and ubiquitous and surprisingly not understood. Just because is it common, does not mean its understood "Poets say science takes away from the beauty of the stars-mere globs of gas atoms. I too can see the stars on a desert night, and feel them. But do I see less or more? ... What is the pattern, or the meaning, or the why? It does not do harm to the mystery to know a little about it. For far more marvelous is the truth than any artists of the past imagined it." - Richard P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, 1963. (Cited in the introduction to Chapter 3 of "The Snowflake, Winter's Secret Beauty, Text by Kenneth Libbrecht, Photography by Patricia Rasmussen.) 1. Highlight the fact that water is still one of the most active and challenging research areas in chemistry and physics 2. Describe in general terms why water is unique from the point of view of its properties o Large dipole-moment o Very polarizable o Involved in is own chemistry (e.g. auto ionization defining the pH scale) • Atomic view: o Oxygen and Hydrogen. o Hydrogen is a quantum mechanical in nature. Classical physics is no good. o Water’s Charge-charge interaction described by classical physics laws (e.g. Coulomb) o The statistical mechanics of water. Why counting is important. o You need the full arsenal of theoretical methods to understand water • Waters well known bulk properties do not explain waters anomalies o Surface tension, heat capacity • Understanding the microscopic nature of water and how this gives rise to the known bulk quantities is the thrust of state-of-the-art research o Hydrogen bonding o Liquid structure o The so-called “spherical cow” model gets you no where with water o There are 10s-100s of different water models available in the scientific literature. It is a hard business • All of life takes place at the interfaces of solid, liquid, and gas o Biology takes advantage of waters varying properties in different geometries (e.g. confined, surfaces, etc. o Water behaves differently in confined environments • Water is the most abundant greenhouse gas o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of the radiation budget of the earth o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of weather.

  10. Review of Anasillomos Londt, 1983 with the description of a new species (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The southern African assassin-fly genus Anasillomos Londt, 1983 is reviewed. A new species, Anasillomos juergeni sp. n., is described from the Namib desert and represents the second species in the genus. Descriptions/re-descriptions, photographs, and identification keys are provided to aid in the identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence are discussed. PMID:25829862

  11. Utilizing online resources for taxonomy: a cybercatalog of Afrotropical apiocerid flies (Insecta: Diptera: Apioceridae)

    PubMed Central

    Agosti, Donat

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A cybercatalog to the Apioceridae (apiocerid flies) of the Afrotropical Region is provided. Each taxon entry includes links to open-access, online repositories such as ZooBank, BHL/BioStor/BLR, Plazi, GBIF, Morphbank, EoL, and a research web-site to access taxonomic information, digitized literature, morphological descriptions, specimen occurrence data, and images. Cybercatalogs as the one presented here will need to become the future of taxonomic catalogs taking advantage of the growing number of online repositories, linked data, and be easily updatable. Comments on the deposition of the holotype of Apiocera braunsi Melander, 1907 are made. PMID:26491392

  12. The first African Anthracoptilidae (Insecta: Paoliida) near the Permian--Triassic boundary in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Nel, Andre; Garrouste, Romain; Prokop, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The first findings of Antracoptilidae (Paoliida) from the Late Permian/ Early Triassic of Africa, i.e. the new genus Afrocladus comprising A. pumilio sp. nov. and A. kenyaensis sp. nov., are described from the Mombasa Basin of Maji ya Chumvi Formation in Kenya (Duruma sandstones). Both diagnoses are based on wing venation pattern. Their occurrences close to the P-T boundary possibly indicate the last appearence date of the group being known since early Pennsylvanian. Moreover, their significantly smaller wing sizes compared to known taxa suggest adaptations to different habitats and environmental conditions or different life strategy. PMID:25781736

  13. DNA Barcoding to Improve the Taxonomy of the Afrotropical Hoverflies (Insecta: Diptera: Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jordaens, Kurt; Goergen, Georg; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Backeljau, Thierry; Vokaer, Audrey; De Meyer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The identification of Afrotropical hoverflies is very difficult because of limited recent taxonomic revisions and the lack of comprehensive identification keys. In order to assist in their identification, and to improve the taxonomy of this group, we constructed a reference dataset of 513 COI barcodes of 90 of the more common nominal species from Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria (W Africa) and added ten publically available COI barcodes from nine nominal Afrotropical species to this (total: 523 COI barcodes; 98 nominal species; 26 genera). The identification accuracy of this dataset was evaluated with three methods (K2P distance-based, Neighbor-Joining (NJ) / Maximum Likelihood (ML) analysis, and using SpeciesIdentifier). Results of the three methods were highly congruent and showed a high identification success. Nine species pairs showed a low (< 0.03) mean interspecific K2P distance that resulted in several incorrect identifications. A high (> 0.03) maximum intraspecific K2P distance was observed in eight species and barcodes of these species not always formed single clusters in the NJ / ML analayses which may indicate the occurrence of cryptic species. Optimal K2P thresholds to differentiate intra- from interspecific K2P divergence were highly different among the three subfamilies (Eristalinae: 0.037, Syrphinae: 0.06, Microdontinae: 0.007–0.02), and among the different general suggesting that optimal thresholds are better defined at the genus level. In addition to providing an alternative identification tool, our study indicates that DNA barcoding improves the taxonomy of Afrotropical hoverflies by selecting (groups of) taxa that deserve further taxonomic study, and by attributing the unknown sex to species for which only one of the sexes is known. PMID:26473612

  14. The complete mitogenome of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (Insecta: Isoptera: Termopsidae).

    PubMed

    Qian, Zeng-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis was reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data with an average coverage of 7052×. The circular genome is 15,444 bp in length, and consists of 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 and ND5 genes with the start codon GTG. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND1) or incomplete stop codon T (COII, ND5 & Cytb), while the others use TAA as their stop codons. The nucleotide composition is asymmetric (45.8% A, 19.8% C, 10.9% G, 23.5% T) with an overall GC content of 30.7%. These data would contribute to the design of novel molecular markers for population and evolutionary studies of this and related termite species.

  15. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta) of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980). The number of true flies (Diptera) known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist) and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae) have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae) known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase), Pipunculidae (98%), and Chironomidae (90%). PMID:25337004

  16. Brachyceran Diptera (Insecta) in Cretaceous ambers, Part IV, Significant New Orthorrhaphous Taxa.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, David A; Arillo, Antonio; Cumming, Jeffrey M; Hauser, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Thirteen species of basal Brachycera (11 described as new) are reported, belonging to nine families and three infraorders. They are preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) of Lebanon, Albian of northern Spain, upper Albian to lower Cenomanian of northern Myanmar, and Late Cretaceous of New Jersey USA (Turonian) and Alberta, Canada (Campanian). Taxa are as follows, with significance as noted: In Stratiomyomorpha: Stratiomyidae (Cretaceogaster pygmaeus Teskey [2 new specimens in Canadian amber], Lysistrata emerita Grimaldi & Arillo, gen. et sp. n. [stem-group species of the family in Spanish amber]), and Xylomyidae (Cretoxyla azari Grimaldi & Cumming, gen. et sp. n. [in Lebanese amber], and an undescribed species from Spain). In Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae (Cratotabanus newjerseyensis Grimaldi, sp. n., in New Jersey amber). In Muscomorpha: Acroceridae (Schlingeromyia minuta Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. and Burmacyrtus rusmithi Grimaldi & Hauser gen. etsp. n., in Burmese amber, the only definitive species of the family from the Cretaceous); Mythicomyiidae (Microburmyia analvena Grimaldi & Cumming gen. et sp. n. and Microburmyia veanalvena Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n., stem-group species of the family, both in Burmese amber); Apsilocephalidae or near (therevoid family-group) (Kumaromyia burmitica Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. [in Burmese amber]); Apystomyiidae (Hilarimorphites burmanica Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n. [in Burmese amber], whose closest relatives are from the Late Jurassic of Kazachstan, the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey, and Recent of California). Lastly, two species belonging to families incertae sedis, both in Burmese amber: Tethepomyiidae (Tethepomyia zigrasi Grimaldi & Arillo sp. n., the aculeate oviscapt of which indicates this family was probably parasitoidal and related to Eremochaetidae); and unplaced to family is Myanmyia asteiformia Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n., a minute fly with highly reduced venation. These new taxa significantly expand the Mesozoic fossil record of rare and phylogenetically significant taxa of lower Brachycera. PMID:22287902

  17. Brachyceran Diptera (Insecta) in Cretaceous ambers, Part IV, Significant New Orthorrhaphous Taxa

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, David A.; Arillo, Antonio; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; Hauser, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen species of basal Brachycera (11 described as new) are reported, belonging to nine families and three infraorders. They are preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) of Lebanon, Albian of northern Spain, upper Albian to lower Cenomanian of northern Myanmar, and Late Cretaceous of New Jersey USA (Turonian) and Alberta, Canada (Campanian). Taxa are as follows, with significance as noted: In Stratiomyomorpha: Stratiomyidae (Cretaceogaster pygmaeus Teskey [2 new specimens in Canadian amber], Lysistrata emerita Grimaldi & Arillo, gen. et sp. n. [stem-group species of the family in Spanish amber]), and Xylomyidae (Cretoxyla azari Grimaldi & Cumming, gen. et sp. n. [in Lebanese amber], and an undescribed species from Spain). In Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae (Cratotabanus newjerseyensis Grimaldi, sp. n., in New Jersey amber). In Muscomorpha: Acroceridae (Schlingeromyia minuta Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. and Burmacyrtus rusmithi Grimaldi & Hauser gen. et sp. n., in Burmese amber, the only definitive species of the family from the Cretaceous); Mythicomyiidae (Microburmyia analvena Grimaldi & Cumming gen. et sp. n. and Microburmyia veanalvena Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n., stem-group species of the family, both in Burmese amber); Apsilocephalidae or near (therevoid family-group) (Kumaromyia burmitica Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. [in Burmese amber]); Apystomyiidae (Hilarimorphites burmanica Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n. [in Burmese amber], whose closest relatives are from the Late Jurassic of Kazachstan, the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey, and Recent of California). Lastly, two species belonging to families incertae sedis, both in Burmese amber: Tethepomyiidae (Tethepomyia zigrasi Grimaldi & Arillo sp. n., the aculeate oviscapt of which indicates this family was probably parasitoidal and related to Eremochaetidae); and unplaced to family is Myanmyia asteiformia Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n., a minute fly with highly reduced venation. These new taxa significantly expand the Mesozoic fossil record of rare and phylogenetically significant taxa of lower Brachycera. PMID:22287902

  18. A DNA Barcode Library for Korean Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) and Indexes for Defining Barcode Gap

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won

    2012-01-01

    Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified larvae. The interspecies and intraspecies COI sequence variations were analyzed. Sophisticated indexes were developed in order to properly evaluate indistinct barcode gaps that are created by insufficient sampling on both the interspecies and intraspecies levels and by variable mutation rates across taxa. In a variety of insect datasets, these indexes were useful for re-evaluating large barcode datasets and for defining COI barcode gaps. The COI-based DNA barcode library will provide a rapid and reliable tool for the molecular identification of Korean chironomid species. Furthermore, this reverse-taxonomic approach will be improved by the continuous addition of other speceis’ sequences to the library. PMID:22138764

  19. The use of caddisfly fauna (Insecta: Trichoptera) to characterise the Late-glacial River Trent, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, M. T.; Agnew, M. D.; Wood, P. J.

    2003-10-01

    Trichoptera have been utilised infrequently in palaeoecological studies despite their value as environmental indicators of freshwater habitat structure and quality, via their aquatic larvae, and catchment macroclimate conditions, via the aerial adults. Two sites, dated ca. 11 600 14C yr BP, in the middle reaches of the River Trent (England) supported caddisfly (Trichoptera) assemblages indicative of a dynamic braided river with extensive floodplain development. At the first, Barrow-upon-Trent, the caddisfly assemblage was dominated by taxa indicative of a medium to large gravel-bed river (Lepidostoma hirtum, Micrasema setiferum and taxa from the family Hydropsychidae). At the second site, Hemington, the caddisfly fauna was dominated by taxa from the families Limnephilidae and Phryganeidae. These usually occur in slow flowing and standing waters and are indicative of cut-off channels on the floodplain. Micrasema setiferum does not occur in the contemporary UK fauna and has a modern distribution across central Europe and Fennoscandia. A gridded climatology extracted for those geographical areas where M. setiferum occurs today indicated a greater degree of continentality than currently prevailing in the Trent catchment. The value of Trichoptera in palaeoecological studies is explored and a model of channel evolution for the River Trent is presented based on caddisfly data. Copyright

  20. Reconstructing the anatomy of the 42-million-year-old fossil Mengea tertiaria (Insecta, Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Grimaldi, David; Beckmann, Felix; Beutel, Rolf G

    2010-09-01

    Fossilization in amber is unique in preserving specimens with microscopic fidelity; however, arthropod inclusions are rarely examined beyond the exoskeleton as this requires destructive sampling when traditional techniques are used. We report the first complete, digital 3D, non-destructive reconstruction of the anatomy of an insect fossil, a specimen of Mengea tertiaria embedded in a 42-Ma Baltic amber. This was made possible using Synchrotron micro-CT. The species belongs to the stem group of the phylogenetically enigmatic and extremely specialized Strepsiptera. Most internal structures of the fossil are preserved, but small parts of the lumen had decayed due to incomplete infiltration of the resin. Data on internal organs provided additional information for resolving phylogenetic relationships. A sister group relationship between Mengea and all extant lineages of the group was confirmed with characters previously not accessible. The newly gained information also yielded some insights in the biology of Mengea and the early evolutionary history of Strepsiptera. The technique has a tremendous potential for a more accurate interpretation of diverse fossil arthropods preserved in ambers from 130 Ma to the present. PMID:20711557

  1. The genus Triozocera Pierce, 1909 (Insecta: Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae) in South America.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Marcos; Cook, Jerry L

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Triozocera from the Brazilian Amazon basin was found in a sample of male Strepsiptera from the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA-Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil). Triozocera buehrheimi sp.n. is described and the status of T. paulistana Kogan, 1958, the first strepsipteran described from Brazil, is reviewed, with additional diagnostic characters used to reinstate the species based on comparative analyses to the other three species occurring in southern US, Mexico, and Central America: T. mexicana Pierce, 1909, T. tecpanensis Brailowsky and Márquez, 1974, and T. vernalis Kifune and Brailowsky, 1987. A key to those species is included. PMID:24871713

  2. New findings on sperm ultrastructure of Xenos vesparum (Rossi) (Strepsiptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Beani, L; Kathirithamby, J; Lupetti, P; Afzelius, B A

    2003-02-01

    The systematic position of insect order Strepsiptera is still under debate. It was, therefore, thought of interest to examine the ultrastructure of a strepsipteran in a search for synapomorphies shared with Coleoptera, Diptera, or any other insect order. The fine structure of spermatozoa and the spermatid from Xenos vesparum (Rossi) was re-examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and a fixation technique that permits the visualization of the macromolecular organization of the organelles. The spermatozoon was shown to possess several traits that are characteristics of insects in general, such as a 9 + 9 + 2 axoneme, two mitochondrial derivatives containing a crystalline material and two 'zipper lines' present along the sperm tail. Seventeen protofilaments occurred along most of the accessory tubules, which reduced to 16 posteriorly. An acrosome is absent. The neck region contains a prominent centriolar adjunct, which gives rise to two accessory bodies which adhere to the mitochondrial derivatives, and to slender strands of the so-called intertubular material found between the accessory tubules. Of interest is the finding that the glycocalyx consists of prominent filamentous strands, similar to those found in siphonapterans, mecopterans and basal dipterans. PMID:12589726

  3. The morphology and evolution of the female postabdomen of Holometabola (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Hünefeld, Frank; Missbach, Christine; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2012-07-01

    In the present article homology issues, character evolution and phylogenetic implications related to the female postabdomen of the holometabolan insects are discussed, based on an earlier analysis of a comprehensive morphological data set. Hymenoptera, the sistergroup of the remaining Holometabola, are the only group where the females have retained a fully developed primary ovipositor of the lepismatid type. There are no characters of the female abdomen supporting a clade Coleopterida + Neuropterida. The invagination of the terminal segments is an autapomorphy of Coleoptera. The ovipositor is substantially modified in Raphidioptera and distinctly reduced in Megaloptera and Neuroptera. The entire female abdomen is extremely simplified in Strepsiptera. The postabdomen is tapering posteriorly in Mecopterida and retractile in a telescopic manner (oviscapt). The paired ventral sclerites of segments VIII and IX are preserved, but valvifers and valvulae are not distinguishable. In Amphiesmenoptera sclerotizations derived from the ventral appendages VIII are fused ventromedially, forming a solid plate, and the appendages IX are reduced. The terminal segments are fused and form a terminal unit which bears the genital opening subapically. The presence of two pairs of apophyses and the related protraction of the terminal unit by muscle force are additional autapomorphies, as is the fusion of the rectum with the posterior part of the genital chamber (cloaca). Antliophora are supported by the presence of a transverse muscle between the ventral sclerites of segment VIII. Secondary egg laying tubes have evolved independently within Boreidae (absent in Caurinus) and in Tipulomorpha. The loss of two muscle associated with the genital chamber are likely autapomorphies of Diptera. The secondary loss of the telescopic retractability of the postabdomen is one of many autapomorphies of Siphonaptera. PMID:22583791

  4. Revision of the Neotropical bark mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 (Insecta, Mantodea, Liturgusini)

    PubMed Central

    Svenson, Gavin J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The praying mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 occurs only in Central and South America and represents the most diverse genus of Neotropical Liturgusini (Ehrmann 2002). The genus includes bark dwelling species, which live entirely on the trunks and branches of trees and run extremely fast. All species included within the genus Liturgusa are comprehensively revised with a distribution stretching from central Mexico, the island of Dominica to the southeastern regions of Brazil and southern Bolivia. All known species are redescribed to meet the standards of the new treatment of the genus (11 species). Three new genera are described including Fuga gen. n., Velox gen. n., and Corticomantis gen. n. for species previously included in Liturgusa as well as Hagiomantis. Liturgusa mesopoda Westwood, 1889 is moved to within the previously described genus Hagiomantis Audinet Serville, 1838. A total of 19 species are newly described within Liturgusa, Fuga, and Velox including L. algorei sp. n., L. bororum sp. n., L. cameroni sp. n., L. cura sp. n., L. dominica sp. n., L. fossetti sp. n., L. kirtlandi sp. n., L. krattorum sp. n., L. manausensis sp. n., L. maroni sp. n., L. milleri sp. n., L. neblina sp. n., L. purus sp. n., L. stiewei sp. n., L. tessae sp. n., L. trinidadensis sp. n., L. zoae sp. n., F. grimaldii sp. n., and V. wielandi sp. n. Four species names are synonymized: Liturgusa peruviana Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889 and Hagiomantis parva Piza, 1966, syn. n., Liturgusa sinvalnetoi Piza, 1982, syn. n., and Liturgusa parva Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Mantis annulipes Audinet Serville, 1838. Lectotypes are designated for the following two species: Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894 and Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838). A male neotype is designated for Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939. Males for eight species are described for the first time including Liturgusa cayennensis Saussure, 1869, Liturgusa lichenalis Gerstaecker, 1889, Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939, Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894, Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889, Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838), Corticomantis atricoxata (Beier, 1931), and Hagiomantis mesopoda (Westwood, 1889). The female of Fuga fluminensis (Piza, 1965) is described for the first time. Complete bibliographic histories are provided for previously described species. The spelling confusion surrounding Liturgusa/Liturgousa is resolved. Full habitus images for males and females are provided for nearly all species. Habitus and label images of type specimens are provided when possible. Diagnostic illustrations of the head and pronotum for males and females are provided for all species when possible. Illustrations of male genital structures are provided for all species for which males are known. Measurement data, including ranges and averages, are provided for males and females of all species. Combined male and female genus and species level dichotomous keys are provided with a Spanish translation. A complete table of all examined specimens lists label data, museum codes, repositories, and other specimen specific information. A KML file with all georeferenced locality records is downloadable from mantodearesearch.com for viewing in Google Earth. Natural history information is provided for species observed by the author. PMID:24715776

  5. Reconstructing the anatomy of the 42-million-year-old fossil † Mengea tertiaria (Insecta, Strepsiptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Grimaldi, David; Beckmann, Felix; Beutel, Rolf G.

    2010-09-01

    Fossilization in amber is unique in preserving specimens with microscopic fidelity; however, arthropod inclusions are rarely examined beyond the exoskeleton as this requires destructive sampling when traditional techniques are used. We report the first complete, digital 3D, non-destructive reconstruction of the anatomy of an insect fossil, a specimen of † Mengea tertiaria embedded in a 42-Ma Baltic amber. This was made possible using Synchrotron μ-CT. The species belongs to the stem group of the phylogenetically enigmatic and extremely specialized Strepsiptera. Most internal structures of the fossil are preserved, but small parts of the lumen had decayed due to incomplete infiltration of the resin. Data on internal organs provided additional information for resolving phylogenetic relationships. A sister group relationship between † Mengea and all extant lineages of the group was confirmed with characters previously not accessible. The newly gained information also yielded some insights in the biology of † Mengea and the early evolutionary history of Strepsiptera. The technique has a tremendous potential for a more accurate interpretation of diverse fossil arthropods preserved in ambers from 130 Ma to the present.

  6. Antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts from Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae.

    PubMed

    Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Seong-Ryul; Lee, Kyung-Seok; Park, Shin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2010-05-01

    This study was under taken to evaluate the antioxidant properties of larvae extracts of Allomyrina dichotoma. The antioxidant activities of various larvae extracts of water, methanol, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and hexane were measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion radical and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). The methanolic larvae extracts displayed the greatest effect in DPPH radical scavenging assay, but the reducing activity of larvae extracts was weaker in the superoxide anion radical assay. However, methanol (ME) and chloroform extracts (CE) could be compared to ascorbic acid in (1)O(2) quenching ability. ME (the concentration of 50% (1)O(2) quenching, QC(50)=0.080mg/ml) and CE (QC(50)=0.051mg/ml) extracts had 1.7, 2.7 times better efficiency than ascorbic acid (QC(50)=0.138mg/ml), respectively. Also the extracts were found to protect biological systems in Escherichia coli and lactate dehydrogenase against detrimental effects of (1)O(2) of type II photosensitization in vitro. The ability of larvae extracts to scavenge free radicals could significantly change contents of GA equivalent, an important factor for the potency of antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that our study may contribute to the development of new bioactive products with potential applications to reduce oxidative stress in living organisms involving reactive oxygen species as well as play a vital role in insect organisms against oxidative damage of undesirable conditions.

  7. [Transverse folding and the evolution of hind wings in beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    Fedorenko, D N

    2013-01-01

    Strong intensification of the protective function of the fore wing in Coleoptera has made their flight apparatus a posteromotoric one and invited an apparatus responsible for folding the hindwings beneath the elytra to develop. Folding apparatus could hardly develop without higher deformability of veins or their parts, which diminished strength properties of the wing support. The effect was stressed by folds that intersected veins. Organization of the folds into a system confined this negative influence to a few wing regions and some veinal sections. This having happened, wing support and folding pattern evolved interrelated, the former into being more flexible, with no or minimum loss of rigidity, and the latter towards being less harmful for the supporting elements, especially axial ones. Monofunctionality, together with very simple structure and little specialization of constituent parts, made the folding pattern very labile during evolution. The folding pattern evolved more rapidly than wing venation, thus defining transformations of the latter. Evolutionary conservatism of wing venation stemmed from that many veins were strongly specialized in performing two conflicting functions. An adaptive compromise was necessary for the conflict to be solved, which determined the wing to orthogenetic development. The main evolutionary trends for wing venation and folding pattern were those towards simplification and a higher complexity, respectively. The beetle wing has passed through two main evolutionary stages. Among them, the first resulted in the development of the "Archostemata" wing type, the second started from the "cantharoid" structural plan. The main evolutionary factors were the infancies of wing posteromotorism at the first stage while the wing strongly influenced by size evolution, with the main trend towards miniaturization, at the second. The archostematan and "cantharoid" morphofunctional wing types differ fundamentally. In the wing of the former kind, folding and flight apparatus, because of considerably overlapping supporting systems, constitute a lasting coadaptive ensemble, with only minor deviations from the ground-plan occurring through evolution. The uprise of the "cantharoid" wing type was an upgrade of morpho-functional organization. The region of maximum transverse deformations having been extruded from the remigium basal part, chief supporting axes of the wing increased their rigid properties. The supporting systems of the two wing apparatus became more autonomous, having been separated. This expanded the adaptive zone for the wing strongly, which a great variety of derived wing types have emerged from. PMID:25438578

  8. [Transverse folding and the evolution of hind wings in beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)].

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Strong intensification of the protective function of the fore wing in Coleoptera has made their flight apparatus a posteromotoric one and invited an apparatus responsible for folding the hindwings beneath the elytra to develop. Folding apparatus could hardly develop without higher deformability of veins or their parts, which diminished strength properties of the wing support. The effect was stressed by folds that intersected veins. Organization of the folds into a system confined this negative influence to a few wing regions and some veinal sections. This having happened, wing support and folding pattern evolved interrelated, the former into being more flexible, with no or minimum loss of rigidity, and the latter towards being less harmful for the supporting elements, especially axial ones. Monofunctionality, together with very simple structure and little specialization of constituent parts, made the folding pattern very labile during evolution. The folding pattern evolved more rapidly than wing venation, thus defining transformations of the latter. Evolutionary conservatism of wing venation stemmed from that many veins were strongly specialized in performing two conflicting functions. An adaptive compromise was necessary for the conflict to be solved, which determined the wing to orthogenetic development. The main evolutionary trends for wing venation and folding pattern were those towards simplification and a higher complexity, respectively. The beetle wing has passed through two main evolutionary stages. Among them, the first resulted in the development of the "Archostemata" wing type, the second started from the "cantharoid" structural plan. The main evolutionary factors were the infancies of wing posteromotorism at the first stage while the wing strongly influenced by size evolution, with the main trend towards miniaturization, at the second. The archostematan and "cantharoid" morphofunctional wing types differ fundamentally. In the wing of the former kind, folding and flight apparatus, because of considerably overlapping supporting systems, constitute a lasting coadaptive ensemble, with only minor deviations from the ground-plan occurring through evolution. The uprise of the "cantharoid" wing type was an upgrade of morpho-functional organization. The region of maximum transverse deformations having been extruded from the remigium basal part, chief supporting axes of the wing increased their rigid properties. The supporting systems of the two wing apparatus became more autonomous, having been separated. This expanded the adaptive zone for the wing strongly, which a great variety of derived wing types have emerged from. PMID:25508109

  9. Embryonic development of Zoraptera with special reference to external morphology, and its phylogenetic implications (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Yuta; Beutel, Rolf G; Dallai, Romano; Lee, Chow-Yang; Machida, Ryuichiro

    2014-03-01

    The embryonic development of Zorotypus caudelli Karny (Zoraptera) is described with the main focus on its external features. A small heart-shaped embryo is formed on the dorsal side of the egg by the fusion of paired blastoderm regions with higher cellular density. The orientation of its anteroposterior axis is opposed to that of the egg. This unusual condition shows the potential autapomorphy of Zoraptera. The embryo extends along the egg surface and after reaching its full length, it migrates into the yolk. After developing there for a period of time, it reappears on the surface, accompanied by a reversion of its anteroposterior axis, finally taking its position on the ventral side of the egg. The definitive dorsal closure completes, and the prelarva hatches after perforating the chorion with very long egg tooth formed on the embryonic cuticle. Embryological data suggest the placement of Zoraptera among the "lower neopteran" or polyneopteran lineage: features supporting this are embryo formation by the fusion of paired regions with higher cellular density and blastokinesis accompanied by full elongation of the embryo on the egg surface. The extraordinarily long egg tooth has potential synapomorphy with Embioptera or Eukinolabia (= Embioptera + Phasmatodea). Together with the results from our previous studies on the egg structure, male reproductive system and spermatozoa, the close affinity of Zoraptera with Eukinolabia appears likely, that is, a clade Zoraptera + (Embioptera + Phasmatodea).

  10. Re-visiting phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships in the genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species. PMID:22912691

  11. 18S rRNA secondary structure and phylogenetic position of Peloridiidae (Insecta, hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Ouvrard, D; Campbell, B C; Bourgoin, T; Chan, K L

    2000-09-01

    A secondary structure model for 18S rRNA of peloridiids, relict insects with a present-day circumantarctic distribution, is constructed using comparative sequence analysis, thermodynamic folding, a consensus method using 18S rRNA models of other taxa, and support of helices based on compensatory substitutions. Results show that probable in vivo configuration of 18S rRNA is not predictable using current free-energy models to fold the entire molecule concurrently. This suggests that refinements in free-energy minimization algorithms are needed. Molecular phylogenetic datasets were created using 18S rRNA nucleotide alignments produced by CLUSTAL and rigorous interpretation of homologous position based on certain secondary substructures. Phylogenetic analysis of a hemipteran data matrix of 18S rDNA sequences placed peloridiids sister to Heteroptera. Resolution of affiliations between the three main euhemipteran lineages was unresolved. The peloridiid 18S RNA model presented here provides the most accurate template to date for aligning homologous nucleotides of hemipteran taxa. Using folded 18S rRNA to infer homology of character as morpho-molecular structures or nucleotides and scoring particular sites or substructures is discussed. PMID:10991793

  12. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  13. Resin gathering in neotropical resin bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): functional and comparative morphology.

    PubMed

    Forero, Dimitri; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Weirauch, Christiane

    2011-02-01

    Apiomerini (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) collect plant resins with their forelegs and use these sticky substances for prey capture or maternal care. These behaviors have not been described in detail and morphological structures involved in resin gathering, transfer, and storage remain virtually undocumented. We here describe these behaviors in Apiomerus flaviventris and document the involved structures. To place them in a comparative context, we describe and document leg and abdominal structures in 14 additional species of Apiomerini that represent all but one of the 12 recent genera in the tribe. Based on these morphological data in combination with the behavioral observations on A. flaviventris, we infer behavioral and functional hypotheses for the remaining genera within the tribe Apiomerini. Setal abdominal patches for resin storage are associated with maternal care so far only documented for species of Apiomerus. Based on the occurrence of these patches in several other genera, we propose that maternal care is widespread within the tribe. Ventral abdominal glands are widespread within female Apiomerini. We propose that their products may prevent hardening of stored resins thus providing long-term supply for egg coating. Judging from the diverse setal types and arrangements on the front legs, we predict six different behavioral patterns of resin gathering within the tribe.

  14. Familial Clarification of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. and New Saucrosmylids from Daohugou, China (Insecta, Neuroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Ren, Dong; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    Backgound Saucrosmylids are characterized by the typically large body size, complicated venation and diverse wing markings, which were only discovered in Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Ningcheng county, Inner Mongolia, China. Principal Findings Saucrosmylinae Ren, 2003, originally included as a subfamily in the Osmylidae, was transferred and elevated to family rank based on the definitive synapomorphic character. The updated definition of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. was outlined in detail: presence of nygma and trichosors; diverse markings on membrane; complicated cross-veins; distal fusion of Sc and R1; expanded space between R1 and Rs having 2–7 rows of cells that should be a synapomorphic character of the family; proximal MP fork. And the previous misuses of Saucrosmylidae are also clarified. Furthermore, a new genus with a new species and an indeterminate species of Saucrosmylidae are described as Ulrikezza aspoeckae gen. et sp. nov. and Ulrikezza sp. from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. A key to genera of Saucrosmylidae is provided. Conclusions/Significance The intriguing group represents a particular lineage of Neuroptera in the Mesozoic Era. The familial status of Saucrosmylidae was firstly advanced that clarified the former incorrect citation and use of the family name. As an extinct clade, many species of the saucrosmylids were erected just based on a single fore- or hindwing, and it should be realized that providing more stable characters is necessary when describing new lacewing taxa just based on an isolated hindwing. It is vital for the systematics of Saucrosmylidae. PMID:26485027

  15. Distinct Genetic Lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) Revealed by COI and 16S DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I. Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The ‘p’ values are distinctly different from intraspecific ‘p’ distance (0–0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus – B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  16. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres (‘p’ = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the ‘p’ distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853

  17. The Blattodea s.s. (Insecta, Dictyoptera) of the Guiana Shield

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Dominic A.; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L.; Wilson, Megan M.; Ware, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics. PMID:25684997

  18. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9–20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis – the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5–4.2 kb in size and has 2–6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago. PMID:26617060

  19. New records of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from South America

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Higor D. D.; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; Reduciendo Klementová, Barbora; Svitok, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera occur on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide variety of habitats, including lentic and lotic water bodies, perennial or temporary. In the Neotropical Region, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the geographical distribution of most represented species, which can only be solved by the collection of specimens in under-studied areas and publication of new records and lists of species. New information New records are presented for eleven species of Gerromorpha and ten Nepomorpha, including first records from Venezuela (Brachymetra lata, Limnogonus hyalinus, Rhagovelia evidis, Tenagobia peruana, Limnocoris burmeisteri, L. fittkaui fittkaui, Placomerus micans, and Martarega gonostyla), the Venezuelan State of Bolívar (Cylindrostethus palmaris, R. elegans, R. tenuipes, and Ambrysus stali), the Brazilian State of Bahia (Martarega bentoi), Peru (Euvelia lata), and the Peruvian Region of Arequipa (Microvelia pulchella). PMID:27226754

  20. Catalog of Hymenoptera described by Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) (Insecta).

    PubMed

    Penati, Fabio; Mariotti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) was an Italian civil engineer who described 377 new taxa of Hymenoptera, 199 of which are still valid and in use today, and proposed 6 replacement names. The present catalog provides a brief biography of Gribodo, a bibliography of his 42 publications and a complete list of the taxa proposed by Gribodo. The catalog lists, for all published names, details on the type series, type locality and collector, present status based on literature, all data labels, relevant references and remarks. A gazetteer of type-localities, a systematical list of Genus- and Species-group names, a chronological list of new names proposed by Giovanni Gribodo, with name-bearing types, and a list of Algerian species and varieties are also given. Furthermore, an unpublished manuscript by Gribodo on hymenopterological fauna of Tunisia, still kept at the Civic Museum of Natural History "Giacomo Doria" (Genoa, Italy), is described, and data on the 57 "new" taxa therein listed are reported, discussing their relevance in order to ascertain the original type series of 27 taxa validly published later. Finally, the problem posed by the enigmatic "disappearance" of a large number of Algerian types, already faced by several entomologists in the past, is analyzed, in order to prevent future mistaken designations of lectotypes and neotypes. The following six nomenclatural acts are proposed here by R. Wahis: Hemipepsis sycophanta Gribodo, 1884 = Hemipepsis bellicosa (Smith, 1873) new synonym; Anospilus sulcithorax (Gribodo, 1924) new combination; Auplopus validus (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Dichragenia quartinae (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Diplonyx caesar (Gribobo, 1894) new combination; Paracyphononyx melanicrus Gribodo, 1884 status revalidated (resurrected from synonymy with Pompilus ruficrus Klug, 1834). The following four nomenclatural acts are proposed by F. Penati: Parachrysis Gribodo, 1879 [subgenus of Chrysis Linnaeus] = Chrysis Linnaeus, 1760 new synonym; Psammotherma (Mutilla) quartinae Gribodo, 1884 = Psammotherma flabellata (Fabricius, 1804) new synonym; Megascolia (Regiscolia) alecto (Smith, 1858) subspecies vespillo (Gribodo, 1893) new combination; Megachile (Megachile) moutoni Gribodo, 1894 emendated name. PMID:25781809

  1. Thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) of Iran: a revised and updated checklist

    PubMed Central

    Minaei, Kambiz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Iran, as a result of recent changes in nomenclature 201 species and one species group of the insect Order Thysanoptera, are here listed in 70 genera and five families. In considering species listed previously from this country, the presence of 7 species is considered not confirmed, and 12 species are excluded from the Iranian list. Problems in the study of Iranian Thysanoptera are discussed briefly. PMID:24146555

  2. Two new genera and two new species of Mantophasmatodea (Insecta, Polyneoptera) from Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Pohl, Hans; Predel, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new species and two new genera (Pachyphasma, Striatophasma) of Mantophasmatodea are described from Namibia. Pachyphasma brandbergense is endemic to the Brandberg massif; Striatophasma occupies an extensive area south of the region inhabited by Mantophasma. Phylogenetic analyses (see Predel et al. in press) suggest a sistergroup relationship of Striatophasma and the South African Austrophasmatidae. PMID:22328860

  3. A new species of sucking louse (Insecta, Anoplura) parasitic on Auliscomys (Mammalia, Rodentia) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Castro, D D; Gonzalez, A; Dreon, M

    2001-04-01

    Hoplopleura auliscomydis n. sp. is described based on specimens collected from Auliscomys micropus (Waterhouse 1837), from Collń Curá, Neuquén Province, Argentina. Descriptions are provided for the holotype male, female, first nymphal instar, external architecture of eggs (by scanning electron microscopy), and sites of oviposition, providing differences from its close relative Hoplopleura neotomydis Castro, González, and Cicchino, 1995. The geographical ranges of these 2 species are restricted to the Neuquén Province in Argentina. A key to the 9 species of the Hoplopleura travassosi species-group recorded in Argentina is also given.

  4. Immunolocalization of odorant-binding proteins in noctuid moths (Insecta, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Zhang, S; Maida, R; Steinbrecht, R A

    2001-09-01

    Odorant-binding proteins were studied in the noctuid moths Agrotis segetum, Autographa gamma, Helicoverpa armigera, Heliothis virescens and Spodoptera littoralis using antisera raised against the pheromone-binding protein (PBP) and general odorant-binding protein 2 (GOBP2) of Antheraea polyphemus (Saturniidae). Proteins immunoreacting with these antisera were only found on the antennae and PBP and GOBP2 could be identified on western blots of males and females of all five species. PBPs were predominantly localized in sensilla trichodea and GOBP2 in sensilla basiconica, in good correlation with the stimulus specificity of the receptor cells in these sensilla. In H. armigera and H. virescens the majority of the s. trichodea immunoreacted with the antiserum against PBP of A. polyphemus; in A. segetum, A. gamma and S. littoralis, on the other hand, a high percentage of s. trichodea remained unlabelled. Probably, the PBP expressed in these sensilla is so different that it does not immunoreact with the antiserum used. Such a protein was found by native PAGE of antennal extracts of A. segetum and S. littoralis. These data correlate with the fact that the two heliothine species use pheromones with the same alkyl chain length as A. polyphemus, while the other three species use pheromones with shorter chains. In H. armigera, H. virescens, A. gamma and S. littoralis female antennae were also immunolabelled and a large number of PBP-expressing s. trichodea was consistently found. In S.littoralis this fits with the electrophysiologically recorded high pheromone sensitivity of female s. trichodea, whereas in females of H. armigera and H. virescens no or only weak responses to pheromone stimulation have been reported. Therefore, PBP expression in a sensillum does not necessarily imply pheromone sensitivity of its receptor cells. PMID:11555483

  5. An Extraordinary Host-Specific Sex Ratio in an Avian Louse (Phthiraptera: Insecta)--Chemical Distortion?

    PubMed

    Douglas, H D; Malenke, J R

    2015-08-01

    Distortions of sex ratios and sexual traits from synthetic chemicals have been well documented; however, there is little evidence for such phenomena associated with naturally occurring chemical exposures. We reasoned that chemical secretions of vertebrates could contribute to skewed sex ratios in ectoparasitic insects due to differences in susceptibility among the sexes. For example, among ectoparasitic lice the female is generally the larger sex. Smaller males may be more susceptible to chemical effects. We studied sex ratios of lice on two sympatric species of colonial seabirds. Crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) secrete a strong smelling citrus-like odorant composed of aldehydes while a closely related congener the least auklet (Aethia pusilla) lacks these compounds. Each auklet hosts three species of lice, two of which are shared in common. We found that the sex ratio of one louse species, Quadraceps aethereus (Giebel), was highly skewed on crested auklets 1:69 (males: females), yet close to unity on least auklets (1:0.97). We suggest that a host-specific effect contributes to this difference, such as the crested auklet's chemical odorant.

  6. Parasitism underground: lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) along its coastal distribution in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Martino, Natalia S; Romero, Mariano D; Malizia, Ana I

    2014-03-01

    Species of South American subterranean rodents belonging to the genus Ctenomys (commonly called tuco-tucos) are widely distributed across the southern Neotropical region. Despite their relatively well-studied biology and reproductive physiology, current knowledge of their ectoparasite fauna is limited to a few ambiguous studies, based on scattered samples from a small number of host individuals. Ctenomys talarum is the most widely distributed species in the genus. Lice (Phthiraptera) were collected from these tuco-tucos throughout their entire coastal range. Two species, one chewing louse (Gyropus parvus), and one sucking louse (Eulinognathus americanus) were collected. The distribution ranges for both louse species were extended with new locality records. No lice were found in two host populations. Furthermore, co-occurrence of both ectoparasites was not detected.

  7. Changes in base composition bias of nuclear and mitochondrial genes in lice (Insecta: Psocodea).

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Johnson, Kevin P

    2013-12-01

    While it is well known that changes in the general processes of molecular evolution have occurred on a variety of timescales, the mechanisms underlying these changes are less well understood. Parasitic lice ("Phthiraptera") and their close relatives (infraorder Nanopsocetae of the insect order Psocodea) are a group of insects well known for their unusual features of molecular evolution. We examined changes in base composition across parasitic lice and bark lice. We identified substantial differences in percent GC content between the clade comprising parasitic lice plus closely related bark lice (=Nanopsocetae) versus all other bark lice. These changes occurred for both nuclear and mitochondrial protein coding and ribosomal RNA genes, often in the same direction. To evaluate whether correlations in base composition change also occurred within lineages, we used phylogenetically controlled comparisons, and in this case few significant correlations were identified. Examining more constrained sites (first/second codon positions and rRNA) revealed that, in comparison to the other bark lice, the GC content of parasitic lice and close relatives tended towards 50 % either up from less than 50 % GC or down from greater than 50 % GC. In contrast, less constrained sites (third codon positions) in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes showed less of a consistent change of base composition in parasitic lice and very close relatives. We conclude that relaxed selection on this group of insects is a potential explanation of the change in base composition for both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, which could lead to nucleotide frequencies closer to random expectation (i.e., 50 % GC) in the absence of any mutation bias. Evidence suggests this relaxed selection arose once in the non-parasitic common ancestor of Phthiraptera + Nanopsocetae and is not directly related to the evolution of the parasitism in lice.

  8. Fragmented mitochondrial genomes in two suborders of parasitic lice of eutherian mammals (Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan

    2015-11-30

    Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9-20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis - the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago.

  9. An annotated checklist of parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from the Galápagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Palma, Ricardo L; Peck, Stewart B

    2013-01-01

    We list all described species and subspecies of parasitic lice from the Galápagos Islands, based on literature and specimen records. A total of eight families, 47 genera, and 104 species and subspecies of parasitic lice are listed, of which 26 are new species records and eight are new genus records. Also, we report 17 new host-louse associations. The checklist includes 17 endemic species (16 from birds, one from a mammal), 79 native species and subspecies (78 from birds, one from a mammal), and eight species and subspecies (five from birds, three from mammals) introduced by human agency. Nine species assigned in error to the Galápagos Islands in the literature are discussed and deleted from the fauna. For each valid species and subspecies we give information on its taxonomic history, type material, host associations, geographic distribution, biogeographical status, systematic relationships, and relevant literature references. We also give a brief summary of louse biology, and an account of the history of louse collecting, expeditions, collections, and research relating to Galápagos Islands lice. We include a host-parasite list, and a list of hosts which breed in the Galápagos Islands but without lice recorded from them. Also, we formally designate four lectotypes from the Kellogg Collection.

  10. Comparisons of host specificity in feather louse genera (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) parasitizing gulls (Aves: Laridae: Larus).

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Ayaka; Yao, Izumi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    Data from gene sequences and morphological structures were collected for the gull feather lice, Saemundssonia lari, Quadraceps punctatus, and Q. ornatus, parasitizing Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus. Saemundssonia lari was collected from both gull species, and no detectable morphological and genetic differences were found between lice collected from the two different hosts. In contrast, Q. punctatus was only collected from L. crassirostris, whereas Q. ornatus was only collected from L. schistisagus. The two Quadraceps species were genetically highly divergent, and body-size differences corresponding to the gull's body size (Harrison's rule) were also detected between them. Both Quadraceps species were collected from the interbarb of the remex or rectrix, and a match in body size between the louse and the interbarb space may be important in escape from host preening defenses. In contrast, Saemundssonia is a head louse, inhabiting the finer feathers of the head and neck, which the bird cannot preen. A close match to host body size may be less important for lice in the head microhabitat. The differences in the pattern of host-specificity between Saemundssonia and Quadraceps on the two focal host species of this study were probably due to their different microhabitat preferences. More broadly, comparisons of the gene sequences of S. lari and Q. punctatus to those from other gull hosts showed that genetically almost undifferentiated populations of both species were distributed on wide range of gull species. Frequent interspecific hybridization of gulls is one possible factor that may allow these lice to maintain gene flow across multiple host species.

  11. Extraordinary number of gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of lice (Phthiraptera: Insecta).

    PubMed

    Covacin, C; Shao, R; Cameron, S; Barker, S C

    2006-02-01

    The arrangement of genes in the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of most insects is the same, or near-identical, to that inferred to be ancestral for insects. We sequenced the entire mt genome of the small pigeon louse, Campanulotes bidentatus compar, and part of the mt genomes of nine other species of lice. These species were from six families and the three main suborders of the order Phthiraptera. There was no variation in gene arrangement among species within a family but there was much variation in gene arrangement among the three suborders of lice. There has been an extraordinary number of gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of lice!

  12. The Chewing Lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) Fauna of the Swainson's Warbler, Limnothlypis swainsonii (Aves, Parulidae).

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Reiley, Bryan M

    2015-09-01

    We examined Swainson's warblers (Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon, 1834), Aves: Parulidae) for lice fauna during 2 yr at three study sites in Arkansas, USA. A total of 66 individuals were examined; eight birds (10.6%) were parasitized with 16 lice of two new species belonging to two genera Myrsidea Waterson, 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Parasitological parameter data are given on the prevalence of lice on Swainson's warblers. Species descriptions and illustrations are provided for Myrsidea bensoni sp. nov. and Brueelia limnothlypiae sp. nov.; including a key for females of the genus Myrsidea that parasitize Parulidae (Passeriformes).

  13. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853

  14. Contribution to the knowledge of Turkish stoneflies with annotated catalogue (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    PubMed

    Darilmaz, Mustafa Cemal; Salur, Ali; Murányi, Dávid; Vinçon, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The stoneflies of Turkey are reviewed providing all known distributions and including new records. Additionally, ecological and biogeographical notes are given. The genus Taeniopteryx Pictet 1841 is reported from Turkey for the first time and 12 species new for the Turkish fauna: Leuctra joosti Braasch 1970, L. kopetdaghi Zhiltzova 1972, Protonemura rauschi Theischinger 1975, P. strandschaensis Braasch & Joost 1972, Nemoura asceta Murányi 2007, N. cambrica Stephens 1836, N. uncinata Despax 1934, Taeniopteryx caucasica Zhiltzova 1981, Brachyptera risi (Morton 1896), Pontoperla katherinae (Balinsky 1950), Siphonoperla neglecta (Rostock 1881), and Bulgaroperla mirabilis nigrita Zwick 1978.          Protonemura bithynica Aubert 1964 and Nemoura turcica Zwick 1972 are recognized as full species. The previously unknown female of Leuctra marilouae Vinçon & Sivec 2001 is described. The type locality is also given for each species located in Turkey.          The distributions of several rare endemic species are augmented by additional new records (Leuctra aculeata Zwick 1982, L. brachyptera Kazancı 1985, L. karcali Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. kurui Kazancı 1983, L. marilouae Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. sipahilerae Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. theischingeri Vinçon & Sivec 2001, Protonemura bacurianica bacurianica Zhiltzova 1957, P. oreas Martynov 1928, P. spinulata Martynov 1928 (first confirmed records from Anatolia), P. triangulata Martynov 1928, Nemoura dromokeryx Theischinger 1976, N. martynovia Claassen 1936, and Brachyptera berkii Kazancı 2001.          Several species previously reported only from females are excluded from the Turkish fauna: Leuctra minuta minuta Zhiltzova 1960, L. svanetica Zhiltzova 1960, P. dilatata Martynov 1928. Other species are also excluded from the Turkish fauna: L. fusca fusca (Linnaeus 1758), N. carpathica Illies 1963, Siphonoperla burmeisteri (Pictet 1841), and S. libanica Alouf, 1992.          According to literature and our new faunistic data, 117 stonefly taxa representing 7 families and 24 genera are known from Turkey. Among them, 44 are endemic species from Anatolia. PMID:27395953

  15. Head anatomy of adult Sisyra terminalis (Insecta: Neuroptera: Sisyridae)--functional adaptations and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Randolf, Susanne; Zimmermann, Dominique; Aspöck, Ulrike

    2013-11-01

    The external and internal head anatomy of Sisyra terminalis is described in detail and compared with data from literature. A salivary pump consisting of a peculiar reservoir and a hitherto unknown muscle, M. ductus salivarii, is newly described for Neuroptera. The upward folded paraglossae form a secondary prolongation of the salivary system. These structures are discussed as functional adaptations for feeding on aphids and desiccated honeydew. In a phylogenetic analysis the basal position of the Sisyridae within Neuroptera is retrieved. The following new synapomorphies are postulated: (1) for Neuropterida, the presence of a M. submentomentalis and prepharyngeal ventral transverse muscles, and the absence of a M. submentopraementalis; (2) for Neuroptera and Sialidae, the presence of a mandibular gland; (3) for Neuroptera, the presence of four scapopedicellar muscles; (4) for Neuroptera exclusive Nevrorthidae and Sisyridae, the weakening of dorsal tentorial arms, the presence of a M. tentoriomandibularis medialis superior and the shifted origin of M. tentoriocardinalis.

  16. Bacterial symbionts of the leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae).

    PubMed

    Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed.

  17. The larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 (Insecta: Odonata: Gomphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5–9) serrated, lateral spines on S6–9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6–7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6–9 serrate, lateral spines on S7–9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7–9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water’s edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva.

  18. Re-Visiting Phylogenetic and Taxonomic Relationships in the Genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species. PMID:22912691

  19. Re-visiting phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships in the genus Saga (Insecta: Orthoptera).

    PubMed

    Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species.

  20. A new type of ant-decapitation in the Phoridae (Insecta: Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kung, Giar-Ann; Porras, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Dohrniphora is a hyperdiverse group of phorid flies, a family whose species are commonly characterized as generalized scavengers. The lifestyle of most species of Dohrniphora is unknown, although one cosmopolitan, synanthropic species, D. cornuta (Bigot) fits the general scavenger mold. Here we show that flies of the D. longirostrata species group exhibit highly specific “headhunting” behavior in which injured Odontomachus ants are decapitated, the heads dragged away, and females either feed on their contents or lay an egg nearby. Since most females studied lacked eggs in their ovaries, we conclude that this bizarrely specialized feeding is necessary to provide nutrients for reproduction in these flies. Our study provides further evidence that injured ants are a common, stable resource in tropical ecosystems that support a wide array of phorid flies. Such narrowly constrained lifestyles, as exemplified by exclusively feeding on and breeding in the head contents of certain ponerine worker ants, could allow the co-existence of a huge community of saprophagous flies. PMID:25709534

  1. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

    PubMed

    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)). PMID:24883360

  2. Checklist of the Diptera superfamilies Tephritoidea and Sciomyzoidea of Finland (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A revised checklist of the flies of superfamilies Tephritoidea and Sciomyzoidea of Finland is provided. The following families are covered: Eurygnathomyiidae, Lonchaeidae, Neottiophilidae, Pallopteridae, Piophilidae, Platystomatidae, Tephritidae, Ulidiidae (Tephritoidea); Coelopidae, Dryomyzidae, Heterocheilidae, Phaeomyiidae, Sciomyzidae, Sepsidae (Sciomyzoidea). PMID:25337022

  3. Barcoding Bugs: DNA-Based Identification of the True Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Doo-Sang; Foottit, Robert; Maw, Eric; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA barcoding, the analysis of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene, has been shown to provide an efficient method for the identification of species in a wide range of animal taxa. In order to assess the effectiveness of barcodes in the discrimination of Heteroptera, we examined 344 species belonging to 178 genera, drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 90% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 3% in 77% of congeneric species pairs. Instances where barcodes fail to distinguish species represented clusters of morphologically similar species, except one case of barcode identity between species in different genera. Several instances of deep intraspecific divergence were detected suggesting possible cryptic species. Conclusions/Significance Although this analysis encompasses 0.8% of the described global fauna, our results indicate that DNA barcodes will aid the identification of Heteroptera. This advance will be useful in pest management, regulatory and environmental applications and will also reveal species that require further taxonomic research. PMID:21526211

  4. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2015-01-01

    The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary. PMID:26694371

  5. An enigmatic new stick insect from the Philippine Islands (Insecta: Phasmatodea).

    PubMed

    Gottardo, Marco; Heller, Philipp

    2012-09-01

    A new genus and species of stick insect is described and figured from Mount Halcon, on the Philippine island of Mindoro. Conlephasma enigma gen. et sp. n. is a stout, flightless, and apparently ground-dwelling species with vivid integumental colors. When disturbed, specimens spray a defensive secretion from the prothoracic exocrine glands. The systematic position of Conlephasma within Euphasmatodea is unclear. The elongated galealobulus and the trichome area located laterally in the galea, represent unusual apomorphic characters of the maxilla that could indicate affinities with Necrosciinae or Pseudophasmatinae. All tibiae exhibit the anareolate condition. Euplantulae are of two types: those of tarsomeres I-IV feature a nubby microstructure, whilst the one on the ventral side of the pretarsus is smooth. Males are characterized by the presence of a well-developed vomer on the tenth abdominal segment. A distinctive and apomorphic trait of female terminalia is represented by the elongated tenth abdominal tergum. Conlephasma can represent an interesting taxon for studies on the evolution of the stick and leaf insects.

  6. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia

    2015-12-17

    The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary.

  7. The Hemiptera (Insecta) of Canada: Constructing a Reference Library of DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, H. Eric L.; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcode reference libraries linked to voucher specimens create new opportunities for high-throughput identification and taxonomic re-evaluations. This study provides a DNA barcode library for about 45% of the recognized species of Canadian Hemiptera, and the publically available R workflow used for its generation. The current library is based on the analysis of 20,851 specimens including 1849 species belonging to 628 genera and 64 families. These individuals were assigned to 1867 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), sequence clusters that often coincide with species recognized through prior taxonomy. Museum collections were a key source for identified specimens, but we also employed high-throughput collection methods that generated large numbers of unidentified specimens. Many of these specimens represented novel BINs that were subsequently identified by taxonomists, adding barcode coverage for additional species. Our analyses based on both approaches includes 94 species not listed in the most recent Canadian checklist, representing a potential 3% increase in the fauna. We discuss the development of our workflow in the context of prior DNA barcode library construction projects, emphasizing the importance of delineating a set of reference specimens to aid investigations in cases of nomenclatural and DNA barcode discordance. The identification for each specimen in the reference set can be annotated on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), allowing experts to highlight questionable identifications; annotations can be added by any registered user of BOLD, and instructions for this are provided. PMID:25923328

  8. MOSCHweb - a matrix-based interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera).

    PubMed

    Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; Lopresti, Massimo; Giovanni, Filippo Di

    2012-01-01

    We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an original interactive key web application for the identification of Palaearctic Tachinidae genera. The full list of terminal taxa included in the key, which is the most updated list of genera currently recorded for the Palaearctic Region, is given. We also briefly discuss the need for dealing with detailed and standardized taxa descriptions as a base to keep matrix-based interactive tools easily updated, by proposing a standardized protocol.

  9. Arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. III. Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the third in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 54 species of Heteroptera, 11 of which were new state records for Arkansas: (Aradidae) Aradus approximatus, Aradus duzeei, Aradus ornatus, Neuroctenus elongatus, Neuroctenus pseudonymus, Notapictinus aurivilli; (Cydnidae) Sehirus cinctus; (Lygaeidae) Nysius raphanus; (Miridae) Prepops insitivus; (Reduviidae) Zelus tetracanthus; (Rhyparochromidae) Kolenetrus plenus. PMID:27346950

  10. Revision of the Neotropical bark mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 (Insecta, Mantodea, Liturgusini).

    PubMed

    Svenson, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    The praying mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 occurs only in Central and South America and represents the most diverse genus of Neotropical Liturgusini (Ehrmann 2002). The genus includes bark dwelling species, which live entirely on the trunks and branches of trees and run extremely fast. All species included within the genus Liturgusa are comprehensively revised with a distribution stretching from central Mexico, the island of Dominica to the southeastern regions of Brazil and southern Bolivia. All known species are redescribed to meet the standards of the new treatment of the genus (11 species). Three new genera are described including Fuga gen. n., Velox gen. n., and Corticomantis gen. n. for species previously included in Liturgusa as well as Hagiomantis. Liturgusa mesopoda Westwood, 1889 is moved to within the previously described genus Hagiomantis Audinet Serville, 1838. A total of 19 species are newly described within Liturgusa, Fuga, and Velox including L. algorei sp. n., L. bororum sp. n., L. cameroni sp. n., L. cura sp. n., L. dominica sp. n., L. fossetti sp. n., L. kirtlandi sp. n., L. krattorum sp. n., L. manausensis sp. n., L. maroni sp. n., L. milleri sp. n., L. neblina sp. n., L. purus sp. n., L. stiewei sp. n., L. tessae sp. n., L. trinidadensis sp. n., L. zoae sp. n., F. grimaldii sp. n., and V. wielandi sp. n. Four species names are synonymized: Liturgusa peruviana Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889 and Hagiomantis parva Piza, 1966, syn. n., Liturgusa sinvalnetoi Piza, 1982, syn. n., and Liturgusa parva Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Mantis annulipes Audinet Serville, 1838. Lectotypes are designated for the following two species: Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894 and Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838). A male neotype is designated for Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939. Males for eight species are described for the first time including Liturgusa cayennensis Saussure, 1869, Liturgusa lichenalis Gerstaecker, 1889, Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939, Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894, Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889, Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838), Corticomantis atricoxata (Beier, 1931), and Hagiomantis mesopoda (Westwood, 1889). The female of Fuga fluminensis (Piza, 1965) is described for the first time. Complete bibliographic histories are provided for previously described species. The spelling confusion surrounding Liturgusa/Liturgousa is resolved. Full habitus images for males and females are provided for nearly all species. Habitus and label images of type specimens are provided when possible. Diagnostic illustrations of the head and pronotum for males and females are provided for all species when possible. Illustrations of male genital structures are provided for all species for which males are known. Measurement data, including ranges and averages, are provided for males and females of all species. Combined male and female genus and species level dichotomous keys are provided with a Spanish translation. A complete table of all examined specimens lists label data, museum codes, repositories, and other specimen specific information. A KML file with all georeferenced locality records is downloadable from mantodearesearch.com for viewing in Google Earth. Natural history information is provided for species observed by the author. PMID:24715776

  11. Some taxonomic and nomenclatural changes in American Mantodea (Insecta, Dictyoptera)--Part I.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Antonio A; Rivera, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Multiple nomenclatural problems persist in mantodean taxonomy. This constitutes an important challenge for praying mantis systematics, its forthcoming development and future consolidation. In this first contribution, we attempt solving a number of issues involving mostly Neotropical praying mantis species described by Brazilian entomologists Paulo S. Terra, Cândido F. de Mello-Leitão, Salvador de Toledo Piza Junior and Lauro J. Jantsch. We provide evidence to justify the following nomenclatural changes. In Acanthopidae, Acontiothespis travassosi Jantsch, 1986 is a new synonym of Raptrix perspicua (F. 1787). Changes in Thespidae are: Emboicy Terra, 1982 is a new synonym of Chloromiopteryx Giglio-Tos, 1915, E. mirim Terra, 1982 is transferred to Chloromiopteryx as C. mirim (Terra, 1982) (new combination); Musoniola plurilobata Mello-Leitão, 1937 is transferred to Chloromiopteryx as C. plurilobata (Mello-Leitão, 1937) (new combination); Metathespis modesta Piza, 1968 is removed from synonymy with Chloromiopteryx thalassina (Burmeister, 1838) and considered valid as C. modesta (Piza, 1968) (new combination and status revalidated); Metathespis precaria Piza, 1968 is removed from synonymy with Chloromiopteryx thalassina (Burmeister, 1838) and considered a new synonym of Miobantia rustica (Fabricius, 1781); Eumiopteryx magna Jantsch, 1991 is transferred to Anamiopteryx as A. magna (Jantsch, 1991) (new combination). For Mantidae/Amelinae, Tithrone corseuli Jantsch, 1986 and T. clauseni Jantsch, 1995 are new synonyms of Litaneutria minor (Scudder, 1872); in Mantidae/Photininae Coptopteryx gigliotosi Piza, 1960 (non Werner, 1925), its replacement name Coptopteryx ermannoi Jantsch & Corseuil, 1988 and Paraphotina precaria Piza, 1966 (the latter currently placed within Coptopteryx) are all new synonyms of Coptopteryx argentina (Burmeister, 1838), whereas Brachypteromantis bonariensis Piza 1960 (currently placed among Coptopteryx) is a new synonym of Coptopteryx gayi (Blanchard, 1851); Tithrone major Piza, 1962 is transferred to Orthoderella as O. major (Piza, 1962) (new combination); Orthoderella brasiliensis Roy & Stiewe, 2011 is a new synonym of Orthoderella major (Piza, 1962); Tithrone catharinensis Piza, 1962 is a new synonym of Photina vitrea (Burmeister, 1838); Margaromantis Piza, 1982, Rehniella Lombardo, 1999, Colombiella Koçak & Kemal, 2008 and Lombardoa Özdikmen, 2008 are all new synonyms of Photiomantis Piza, 1968 (status revalidated); Metriomantis planicephala Rehn 1916 is transferred to Photiomantis as P. planicephala (Rehn, 1916) (new combination) and Photiomantis silvai Piza, 1968 is considered a new synonym of Photiomantis planicephala (Rehn, 1916);  Margaromantis nigrolineata Menezes & Bravo, 2015 is transferred to Photiomantis as P. nigrolineata (Menezes & Bravo, 2015) (new combination). In Mantidae/Vatinae, Uromantis amazonica Jantsch, 1985 and Uromantis paraensis Jantsch, 1985 (currently placed among Stagmomantis), are new synonyms of Chopardiella latipennis (Chopard, 1911), while Pseudovates hyalostigma Mello-Leitão, 1937 and Vates obscura Toledo Piza, 1983 are new synonyms of V. biplagiata Sjöstedt, 1930. Lectotypes are designated for Chloromiopteryx thalassina (Burmeister, 1838) and Orthoderella major (Piza, 1962). Finally, we provide supplementary information about the works of S. de T. Piza and L. J. Jantsch, and a necessary critical assessment of their taxonomic contributions to the Mantodea. PMID:25947440

  12. A new species of Dystacta Saussure, 1871 from Nyungwe National Park, Rwanda (Insecta, Mantodea, Dystactinae).

    PubMed

    Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    A recent targeted entomological survey in the Republic of Rwanda has produced two conspecific male and female specimens of an undescribed species of praying mantis (Mantodea). The specimens were collected in Nyungwe National Park in May of 2013. The species is closest morphologically to Dystacta alticeps (Schaum, 1853). Therefore, a new species is described, Dystacta tigrifrutex sp. n., along with the first instar nymphs and ootheca. In addition, the previously monotypic genus Dystacta Saussure, 1871 is re-described to provide a broader definition of the genus group. Habitus images, measurement data, a key to species, natural history information, and locality data are provided. PMID:24899847

  13. A new species of Dystacta Saussure, 1871 from Nyungwe National Park, Rwanda (Insecta, Mantodea, Dystactinae)

    PubMed Central

    Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A recent targeted entomological survey in the Republic of Rwanda has produced two conspecific male and female specimens of an undescribed species of praying mantis (Mantodea). The specimens were collected in Nyungwe National Park in May of 2013. The species is closest morphologically to Dystacta alticeps (Schaum, 1853). Therefore, a new species is described, Dystacta tigrifrutex sp. n., along with the first instar nymphs and ootheca. In addition, the previously monotypic genus Dystacta Saussure, 1871 is re-described to provide a broader definition of the genus group. Habitus images, measurement data, a key to species, natural history information, and locality data are provided. PMID:24899847

  14. Arthropod fauna of rolled alder leaves in Washington State, United States of America (Insecta: Arachnida)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...

  15. Vastarena, a new genus for the New Caledonian cicada Abroma pumila Distant (Insecta: Hemiptera, Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Delorme, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    In New Caledonia, the species Abroma pumila (Distant, 1892) shows several incompatibilities with the genus type species A. guerinii (Signoret, 1860). A new genus, Vastarena, is proposed. PMID:27615969

  16. Digestive enzyme activity of two stonefly species (Insecta, Plecoptera) and their feeding habits.

    PubMed

    de Figueroa, J M Tierno; Trenzado, C E; López-Rodríguez, M J; Sanz, A

    2011-11-01

    The digestive enzymes of two stoneflies species, Hemimelaena flaviventris and Isoperla morenica, were studied for the first time. These species are temporary water inhabitants and exhibit great feeding plasticity. Although they are traditionally referred to as predators, a previous study revealed that H. flaviventris incorporates some diatoms into its diet in addition to feeding usually on several prey, and I. morenica (in that study under the name of I. curtata) only feeds on animals occasionally. The enzymatic activities of digestive amylase, lipase, protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin were determined for each species at the same developmental stage. The results show that H. flaviventris has a greater digestive enzymatic pool and higher relative and absolute protease, lipase and trypsin activities than I. morenica. The latter has a relative higher amylase activity. As higher amylase activity is typical of phytophagous species and higher protease activity typical of carnivorous species; these results reveal that H. flaviventris is a more efficient zoophagous species than I. morenica. The ecological implications of these findings, including the higher secondary production of H. flaviventris in its habitat, are discussed.

  17. Ultrastructure and Morphology of Compound Eyes of the Scorpionfly Panorpa dubia (Insecta: Mecoptera: Panorpidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing-Xiao; Hua, Bao-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Mecoptera are unique in holometabolous insects in that their larvae have compound eyes. In the present study the cellular organisation and morphology of the compound eyes of adult individuals of the scorpionfly Panorpa dubia in Mecoptera were investigated by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the compound eyes of adult P. dubia are of the apposition type, each eye comprising more than 1200 ommatidia. The ommatidium consists of a cornea, a crystalline cone made up of four cone cells, eight photoreceptors, two primary pigment cells, and 18 secondary pigment cells. The adult ommatidium has a fused rhabdom with eight photoreceptors. Seven photoreceptors extend from the proximal end of the crystalline cone to the basal matrix, whereas the eighth photoreceptor is shorter, extending from the middle level of the photoreceptor cluster to the basal matrix. The fused rhabdom is composed of the rhabdomeres of different photoreceptors at different levels. The adult ommatidia have the same cellular components as the larval ommatidia, but the tiering scheme is different. PMID:27258365

  18. The complete mitogenome of the Cydno Longwing Heliconius cydno (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Qian, Zeng-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the Cydno Longwing Heliconius cydno has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. The circular genome is 15,367 bp in length, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop region. PCGs are mostly initiated with the ATN codons (COII, COIII, Cytb, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5, ND6, ATP6 & ATP8), except for the ND1 and COI genes with TTG and the unusual CGA as their initiation codons, respectively. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND3) or incomplete termination codon T (COI, COII & ND4), while all the others use TAA as their termination codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (39.3% A, 42.1% T, 7.6% G, 11.0% C) with an overall GC content of 18.6%.

  19. Checklist of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482

  20. Grasshoppers, Crickets and Katydids (Insecta: Orthoptera) of Cuba: an annotated checklist.

    PubMed

    Yong, Sheyla; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2014-07-07

    An annotated list of the Cuban fauna of Orthoptera is presented. For each species we include details of valid names, synonyms, type specimens (type category, sex, locality and depository), geographic distribution and bibliographic references. Clarifying notes are added, as well as comments on the species considered doubtful. A total of 140 species included in 62 genera, 31 subfamilies and 12 families make up the known Cuban fauna of Orthoptera. The family Episactidae, the acridid subfamily Ommatolampidinae with 3 unknown genera, 3 unknown genera of Tettigoniidae (Conocephalinae) and 1 undescribed new genus of Tetrigidae (Cladonotinae) are here recorded for the first time from Cuba. Syntypes are designated for Hygronemobius histrionicus Zayas.

  1. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Lucas D; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C S; Waichel, Breno L

    2016-01-14

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea.

  2. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas) are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas]), found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA) of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families). Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies) in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained) was supported by statistical tests of codiversification. Codiversification tests also supported concordance of the Sulcia phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts, as well as concordance of planthopper-associated Vidania and Sulcia phylogenies. Conclusions Our results indicate that the Betaproteobacterium Vidania is an ancient endosymbiont that infected the common ancestor of Fulgoroidea at least 130 million years ago. Comparison of our findings with the early light-microscopic surveys conducted by Müller suggests that Vidania is Müller’s x-symbiont, which he hypothesized to have codiversified with most lineages of planthoppers and with the Sulcia endosymbiont. PMID:22697166

  3. Distribution of chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) in polluted rivers of the Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; HassanAhmad, Abu; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd

    2010-01-01

    The influence of physical and chemical parameters on the abundance and diversity of chironomids was studied in six rivers with moderate to highly polluted water in the Juru River Basin. The rivers: Ceruk Tok Kun (CTKR) as reference site, and polluted rivers of Pasir (PR), Juru (JR), Permatang Rawa (PRR), Ara (AR) and Kilang Ubi (KUR) were sampled over a period of five months (November 2007-March 2008). Nine chirnomid species: Chironimus kiiensis, C. javanus, Polypedilum trigonus, Microchironomus sp., Dicrotendipes sp., Tanytarsus formosanus, Clinotanypus sp., Tanypus punctipennis and Fittkauimyia sp. were identified. Assessment of their relationships with several environmental parameters was performed using the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Tanytarsus formosanus was the most dominant in the relatively clean CTKR and moderately polluted JR with mean densities of 19.66 and 25.32 m(-2), respectively while C. kiiensis was abundant in more polluted rivers. Tanytarsus formosanus, Dicrotendipes sp. and Microchironomus sp. were grouped under moderate to high water temperature, total organic matter (TOM), total suspended solids (TSS), velocity, pH, phosphates and sulphates. However, Tanypus punctipennis, Fittkauimyia sp., and Clinotanypus sp. were associated with high contents of river sediment such as TOM, Zn and Mn and water ammonium-N and nitrate-N and they were associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) content in the water. Chironomus kiiensis, C. javanus and P. trigonus showed positive relationships with TOM, ammonium-N and nitrate-N as well as trace metals of Zn, Cu and Mn. These three species could be considered as tolerant species since they have the ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions with low DO and high concentrations of pollutants. Based on the water parameter scores in all rivers, the highest diversity of chironomid larvae was reported in CTKR. With higher concentrations of organic and/or inorganic pollutants as reported in PPR, KUR and AR, the chironomid larval diversity decreased, and the abundance of tolerant species, mainly Chironomus spp., increased.

  4. Exposure to Exogenous Enkephalins Disrupts Reproductive Development in the Eastern Lubber Grasshopper, Romalea microptera (Insecta: Orthoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sandeep; Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju; Song, Hojun; von Kalm, Laurence; Borst, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Enkephalins play a major role in reproductive physiology in crustaceans; however their role in reproductive development in insects is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of exposure to exogenous leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk), methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk), and the opioid antagonist naloxone on gonad development in the Eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera. Injection of either Leu-Enk or naloxone alone significantly increased the testicular index and testicular follicular diameter in males, and the ovarian index, oocyte length, and oocyte diameter in females. In contrast, injection of Met-Enk inhibited all measures of reproductive development in both sexes. Surprisingly, co-injection of naloxone with either enkephalin enhanced the effect associated with administration of the enkephalin alone. This study clearly demonstrates the ability of enkephalins to disrupt insect sexual development and also suggests the existence of conserved enkephaline-dependent regulatory mechanisms in insects and crustaceans. PMID:23226477

  5. The histology of the cerebral neurosecretory system in several representatives of Cleroidea (Coleoptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Panov, A A

    1989-01-01

    In Thymalus sp. (Peltidae), Melambia tekkensi (Trogositidae), Trichodes apiarius and Thanasimus formicarius (Cleridae), the composition of cerebral neurosecretory cells (NSC) is similar to that found earlier in Meloidae (Panov 1985a) and Tenebrionidae (Melnikova and Panov 1981; Melnikova 1983). 20 type I NSCs, 16 type II NSCs, 4 type III NSCs, several type IV NSCs and 4 type V NSCs are characteristic of their pars intercerebralis. On the other hand, a reduction of type I and II NSC number to 10 and 12 cells, respectively, was revealed in Malachius affinis, Malachius viridis and Malachius bipustulatus (Melyridae). There are 6 large dorsolateral NSCs and 2 lateral ones in each brain hemisphere of most Cleroidea studied. Their retrocerebral endocrine complex is similar to that of most polyphagous coleopterans: a single nervus corporis cardiaci leaves each brain side, the corpora cardiaca are fused with lateral aorta walls and corresponding corpora allata. PMID:2723412

  6. Intraspecific transfer of cantharidin within selected members of the family Meloidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood Reza; Dettner, Konrad; Boland, Wilhelm; Gäde, Gerd; Dötterl, Steffan

    2007-09-01

    The use of deuterium-labelled cantharidin (CAN-D(2)) to study details of cantharidin transfer in blister beetles indicates that the dynamics of organ-selective cantharidin accumulation may differ over time. Although the accessory glands absorb a high amount of CAN-D(2) in the short term, they ultimately accumulate less than the testes. Confirming previous studies, the last steps in the pathway of biosynthesis of cantharidin occur in the male's body distantly from the reproductive system but the ultimate product, cantharidin, is transported into the male reproductive tract via the membrane of the accessory glands. From there it first transfers preferentially to the epididimis and the vas deferens, followed by final deposition in the testes. Most, if not all, of the cantharidin passes internally within the sexual organs; hemolymph transport is not involved. In female meloids, cantharidin enters the genitalia from the male as a nuptial gift. High amounts are first absorbed by the spermatophoral receptacle followed by spreading through the ovaries and an ultimate accumulation in the eggs. The amount taken up by the ovaries remains considerably lower than that of the receptacle. Over time these two organs stop accumulating cantharidin, while the bursa copulatrix starts to incorporate the gift actively. The accumulated amount taken up by bursa is mainly supplied by the receptacle and ovaries suggesting that an internal transfer of cantharidin is used in females as the main transport route. PMID:17493632

  7. Larval cases of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) affinity in Early Permian marine environments of Gondwana.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Lucas D; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C S; Waichel, Breno L

    2016-01-01

    Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea. PMID:26765261

  8. Rampant Nuclear Insertion of mtDNA across Diverse Lineages within Orthoptera (Insecta)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J.; Whiting, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies. PMID:25333882

  9. Aligned 18S for Zoraptera (Insecta): phylogenetic position and molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Johnson, Kevin P

    2005-11-01

    The order Zoraptera (angel insects) is one of the least known insect groups, containing only 32 extant species. The phylogenetic position of Zoraptera is poorly understood, but it is generally thought to be closely related to either Paraneoptera (hemipteroid orders: booklice, lice, thrips, and bugs), Dictyoptera (blattoid orders: cockroaches, termites, and mantis), or Embioptera (web spinners). We inferred the phylogenetic position of Zoraptera by analyzing nuclear 18S rDNA sequences, which we aligned according to a secondary structure model. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses both supported a close relationship between Zoraptera and Dictyoptera with relatively high posterior probability. The 18S sequences of Zoraptera exhibited several unusual properties: (1) a dramatically increased substitution rate, which resulted in very long branches; (2) long insertions at helix E23; and (3) modifications of secondary structures at helices 12 and 18.

  10. Critical Structure for Telescopic Movement of Honey bee (Insecta: Apidae) Abdomen: Folded Intersegmental Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2016-01-01

    The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z–S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. PMID:27456912

  11. Deliberately unequal gene sampling: boon or bane for phylogenetics of Lepidoptera (Insecta)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper addresses two much-debated questions, on which evidence is still limited, about the design of molecular phylogenetic studies. The first is whether one can economically improve the resolution of a phylogeny estimate by increasing gene sampling in only a subset of tax, without having the an...

  12. Extrachromosomal amplification of rDNA in oocytes of Hemerobius spp. (Insecta, Neuroptera).

    PubMed

    Kubrakiewicz, J; Biliński, S M

    1995-05-01

    In previtellogenic oocytes of the neuropteran, Hemerobius spp., two distinct, DNA-positive intranuclear structures have been observed. Chromosomes of meiotic prophase assemble in the center of the oocyte nucleus forming a highly polymorphic karyosphere, which persists in this position until the very late stages of vitellogenesis. The extrachromosomal DNA body, containing amplified ribosomal genes, undergoes fragmentation and dispersion in the nucleoplasm. At the onset of previtellogenic growth, transcription of extra rDNA starts, which is accompanied by the appearance of dense, granular material (multiple nucleoli). Arising nucleoli gradually fill the nucleoplasm. At the electron microscopic (EM) level two electron dense structural forms of the granular material have been described. Together with general histological and ultrastructural analysis the amplification of rDNA genes in Hemerobius spp. oocytes has been demonstrated by means of the spreading technique, which has shown that extra rDNA is organized in rings containing various numbers of active ribosomal genes. The transcription activity of amplified genes is manifested in the form of typical "Christmas tree" structures.

  13. New national and state records of Neotropical Staphylinidae (Insecta: Coleoptera).

    PubMed

    Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich

    2015-06-19

    Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology.

  14. Origin and pathway of the epidermal secretion in the damselfly head-arresting system (Insecta: Odonata).

    PubMed

    Gorb, S N.

    1998-11-01

    In damselflies, the arrester system is responsible for an additional attachment of the head to the neck. It consists of a pair of mobile postcervical sclerites (SPC) covered by microtrichia. In their lateral position, SPCs can fixate the head on fields of microtrichia on the back surface of the head. The intact surface of microtrichia of the SPC is usually covered by a lipid-containing secretion. The present study provides ultrastructural data on the secretory epidermis and pore channels adapted to transport the secretion to the cuticle surface. 1) Shock-frozen preparations of the contact area show that microtrichia of co-opted surfaces do not interlock with each other. When co-opted fields are pressed to each other, deformations of flexible microtrichia of the SPC result in an increase of contact area between corresponding structures and consequently in an increase of frictional forces. 2) In the area of the SPC, only electron-lucent vesicles have been found. Histochemical procedures revealed that the material stored in vesicles and liberated on the external surface of the SPC is presumably non-volatile lipid. 3) Only a small number of large pore channels reach the surface of a microtrichium. Most of them terminate with tiny terminal channels, whose diameter is approximately six to twenty times smaller than the diameter of structures of secretory blooms occurring in SEM in shock-frozen and air-dried preparations. The terminal channels do not penetrate the epicuticular layer. It seems that the secretion reaches the epicuticle through terminal channels and diffuses through the epicuticle without any channel structures.

  15. Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.

  16. Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imael H N; Chandre, Fabrice; Glitho, Isabelle; Akogbeto, Martin; Dabiré, Roch K; Martin, Thibaud

    2013-10-01

    Insecticides from the organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PY) chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year (mainly on cotton), has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato (s.l.) is probably related to the current use of these insecticides in agriculture. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes. Identification of knock down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace1) mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase) are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance. Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. tabaci that could be from different biotype vectors of plant viruses. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae threatens the management of malaria vectors in West Africa. It raises the question of priority in the use of insecticides in health and/or agriculture, and more generally, the question of sustainability of crop protection and vector control strategies in the region. Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. tabaci, a major pest in cotton and vegetable crops, and An. gambiae, main vector of malaria. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina Faso between 2008 and 2010 under the Corus 6015 research program. This review aims to show: (i) the insecticide resistance in B. tabaci as well as in An. gambiae; and (ii) due to this, the impact of selection of resistant populations on malaria vector control strategies. Some measures that could be beneficial for crop protection and vector control strategies in West Africa are proposed.

  17. Within-plant distribution and sampling of single and mixed infestations of Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in winter tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Arnó, Judit; Albajes, Ramon; Gabarra, Rosa

    2006-04-01

    In several areas of Spain, the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood), and the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), coexist in tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller. For integrated pest management decision-making, it is important to know the abundance of each species, because they exhibit different abilities to transmit viruses, are susceptible to different biological control agents, and have different responses to insecticides. This study was conducted to provide information on the vertical distribution of T. vaporariorumn and B. tabaci in tomato plants grown in greenhouses in winter and to determine the optimal sampling unit and the sample size for estimating egg and nymphal densities of both whitefly species. Eggs of T. vaporariorum were mainly located on the top stratum of the plant, whereas B. tabaci eggs were mainly found on the middle stratum. Nymphs of both species mainly concentrated in the bottom stratum of the plant. When pest abundance and low relative variation were considered, the bottom stratum was selected as the most convenient for sampling nymphs of both whitefly species. Conversely, the same two criteria indicated that either the top or the middle strata could be used when sampling T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci eggs. Several different sampling units were compared to optimize the estimation of nymphal and egg densities in terms of cost efficiency. One disk (1.15 cm in diameter) per leaflet collected from the top stratum of the tomato plant was the most efficient sampling unit for simultaneously estimating the egg densities of the two whitefly species.

  18. Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on cotton grown in open-top field chambers enriched with CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, G.D. Jr.; Kimball, B.A.; Mauney, J.R.

    1985-02-01

    Atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels are anticipated to rise from the current ambient level of ca. 350 ..mu..l/liter to 500-600 ..mu..l/liter in the next 50 to 75 years. Plant scientists are artificially enhancing the CO/sub 2/ environment of crop plants to increase photosynthesis, which is currently limited by inadequate levels of CO/sub 2/. It is not known how increases of CO/sub 2/ might affect consumers in the food chain. Population levels of sweet potato whitefly (SPWF), Bermisiaa tabaci (Gennadius), were assessed with sticky traps placed in a field experiment wherein cotton was grown in open-top field chambers that were enriched with CO/sub 2/ at levels approaching 200% ambient concentration levels. Although trapping started at the first of June, only an occasional SPWF was caught until early August. At that time populations began to increase at an exponential rate similar to that observed in commercial cotton fields in Arizona and California in previous years. There was no difference in rate of buildup of SPWF in ambient and CO/sub 2/-enriched chambers in either wet or dry irrigation treatment. Thus, it seems that raised CO/sub 2/ levels, either natural or artificial, do not affect SPWF populations.

  19. Experimental epizootiology of Zoophthora anhuiensis (Entomophthorales) against Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) with a description of a modified Gompertz model for aphid epizootics.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming-Guang; Li, Hui-Ping

    2003-11-01

    Epizootiological features of Zoophthora anhuiensis, a fungal pathogen specific to aphids in southern China, were studied in six aptera colonies of Myzus persicae at 16 regimes of temperature (T = 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C) and relative humidity (H = 90%, 95%, 98% and 100% RH) with initially infected proportion (Ip) of 0.5 in experiment (Expt) 1 or at a fixed regime of 15 degrees C and 100% RH with a variable Ip of 0.17-1.00 in Expt 2. Mycosis-caused mortalities (Mp) varied with aphid densities (D) over time after colony initiation (t) were well fitted to a Gompertz growth model modified to include the variables T, H, Ip and D in the form of Mp = 91.72exp[-5.282exp[-(0.0095T + 0.0128H/T-0.5407D2/H)t

  20. Is the old world fig, Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), an alternate host for the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Homoptera: Psyllidae)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The only non-rutaceous plant on which D. citri has been found breeding in Texas is the edible fig, Ficus carica (Moraceae). In the summer of 2010, we discovered D. citri nymphs on a dooryard fig tree. Fig has its own species of psyllid, Homatoma ficus, but both adults and nymphs of that species ar...

  1. Changes in life history parameters of corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidus (Homoptera: Aphididae), under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological characteristics of corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), on barley, Hordeum vulgare L., were examined for two generations under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations. The developmental duration for each life stage was significantly reduced under the elevated te...

  2. Pyridine derivatives as insecticides. Part 1: synthesis and toxicity of some pyridine derivatives against cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Bakhite, Etify A; Abd-Ella, Aly A; El-Sayed, Mohamed E A; Abdel-Raheem, Shaban A A

    2014-10-15

    Five pyridine derivatives, namely, N-morpholinium 7,7-dimethyl-3-cyano-4-(4'-nitrophenyl)-5-oxo-1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydroquinoline-2-thiolate (1), sodium 5-acetyl-3-amino-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-6-methylthieno[2,3-b] pyridine-2-carboxylate (2), piperidinium 3,5-dicyano-2-oxo-4-spirocyclopentane-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine-6-thiolate (3), piperidinium 5-acetyl-3-cyano-4-(4'-methoxyphenyl)-6-methylpyridine-2-thiolate (4), and piperidinium 5-acetyl-4-(4'-chlorophenyl)-3-cyano-6-methyl-pyridine-2-thiolate (5) were prepared in pure state and subjected to the title study. The bioassay results indicated that the insecticidal activity of compound 1 is about 4-fold that of acetamiprid insecticide. The rest of the tested compounds possess moderate to strong aphidicidal activities.

  3. Establishment of Lipolexis oregmae (Hymenoptera: Aphidiidae) in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Persad, A.B.; Hoy, M.A.; Ru Nguyen

    2007-03-15

    The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introduced as L. scutellaris Mackauer) was imported from Guam, evaluated in quarantine, mass reared, and released into citrus groves in Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Releases of 20,200, 12,100, and 1,260 adults of L. oregmae were made throughout Florida during 2000, 2001, and 2002, respectively. To determine if L. oregmae had successfully established, surveys were conducted throughout the state beginning in the summer of 2001 and continuing through the summer of 2003. Parasitism during 2001 and 2002 was evaluated by holding brown citrus aphids in the laboratory until parasitoid adults emerged. Lipolexis oregmae was found in 10 sites in 7 counties and 4 sites in 3 counties with parasitism rates ranging from 0.7 to 3.3% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Laboratory tests indicated that high rates of mortality occurred if field-collected parasitized aphids were held in plastic bags, so a molecular assay was used that allowed immature L. oregmae to be detected within aphid hosts immediately after collection. The molecular assay was used in 2003 with the brown citrus aphids and with other aphid species collected from citrus, weeds, and vegetables near former release sites; immatures of L. oregmae were detected in black citrus aphids, cowpea aphids, spirea aphids, and melon aphids, as well as in the brown citrus aphid, in 4 of 8 counties sampled, with parasitism ranging from 2.0 to 12.9%, indicating that L. oregmae is established and widely distributed. Samples taken in Polk County during Oct 2005 indicated that L. oregmae has persisted. The ability of L. oregmae to parasitize other aphid species on citrus, and aphids on other host plants, enhances the ability of L. oregmae to persist when brown citrus aphid populations are low. (author) [Spanish] El parasitoide Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introducido como L. scutellaris Mackauer) fue importado de Guam, evaluado en cuarentena, criado en masa y liberado en huertos de citricos en un programa de control biologico clasico dirigido contra el afido pardo de citricos, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Se hicieron liberaciones de 20,200, 12,100, y 1,260 adultos de L. oregmae a traves de la Florida durante los anos de 2000, 2001, y 2002, respectivamente. Para determinar si L. oregmae ha logrado en establecer, se realizaron sondeos a traves del estado empezando en el verano del 2001 y continuando hasta el final del verano del 2003. El parasitismo durante 2001 y 2002 fue evaluado con el mantenimiento de individuos del afido pardo de los citricos en el laboratorio hasta que los adultos emergieron. Lipolexis oregmae fue encontrado en 10 sitios en 7 condados y con tasas de parasitismo en 4 sitios en 3 condados entre 0.7 a 3.3% en el 2001 y 2002, respectivamente. Las pruebas del laboratorio indicaron que las tasas altas de mortalidad fueron posibles si los afidos con parasitos recolectados en el campo fueron mantenidos en bolsas plasticas, entonces un ensayo molecular fue usado con lo que permitio la deteccion de inmaduros de L. oregmae dentro de los hospederos de afidos inmediatamente despues de la recoleccion. El ensayo molecular fue usado en el 2003 con individuos del afido pardo de los citricos y con otras especies de afidos recolectados sobre citricos, malezas y hortalizas cerca de los sitios donde los parasitoides fueron liberados anteriormente; inmaduros de L. oregmae fueron detectados en individuos del afido negro de los citricos, el afido del caupi, el afido spirea y el afido del melon, ademas del afido pardo de los citricos en 4 de los 8 condados muestreados, con la tasa del parasitismo entre 2.0 a12.9%, indicando que L. oregmae estaba estabecido y ampliamente distribuido. Las muestras tomadas en el Condado de Polk durante octobre del 2005 indicaron que L. oregmae ha persistido. La capacidad de L. oregmae para parasitar otras especies de afidos sobre citricos y otros afidos sobre otras plantas hospederas, incrementa la capacidad de L. oregmae para persistir cuando las poblaciones del afido pardo de los citricos estan bajas. (author)

  4. The study and analysis of the mating behavior and sound production of male cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol.) (Homoptera:Cicadidae) to make disruption in mating.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, H; Mehdipour, M; Ghaemi, N

    2008-09-01

    Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect's attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas.

  5. Interactive Effects of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus Infection of Host Plant and Vector on Performance of the Vector, Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Lei, Wenbin; Liu, Danfeng; Li, Pei; Hou, Maolin

    2014-10-01

    Performance of insect vectors can be influenced by the viruses they transmit, either directly by infection of the vectors or indirectly via infection of the host plants. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a propagative virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hovath). To elucidate the influence of SRBSDV on the performance of white-backed planthopper, life parameters of viruliferous and nonviruliferous white-backed planthopper fed rice seedlings infected or noninfected with SRBSDV were measured using a factorial design. Regardless of the infection status of the rice plant host, viruliferous white-backed planthopper nymphs took longer to develop from nymph to adult than did nonviruliferous nymphs. Viruliferous white-backed planthopper females deposited fewer eggs than nonviruliferous females and both viruliferous and nonviruliferous white-backed planthopper females laid fewer eggs on infected than on noninfected plants. Longevity of white-backed planthopper females was also affected by the infection status of the rice plant and white-backed planthopper. Nonviruliferous white-backed planthopper females that fed on infected rice plants lived longer than the other three treatment groups. These results indicate that the performance of white-backed planthopper is affected by SRBSDV either directly (by infection of white-backed planthopper) or indirectly (by infection of rice plant). The extended development of viruliferous nymphs and the prolonged life span of nonviruliferous adults on infected plants may increase their likelihood of transmitting virus, which would increase virus spread. PMID:26309259

  6. An Opposite Pattern to the Conventional Thermal Hypothesis: Temperature-Dependent Variation in Coloration of Adults of Saccharosydne procerus (Homoptera: Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Haichen; Shakeel, Muhammad; Kuang, Jing; Li, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    Melanism is a common polymorphism in many insect species that also influences immune function. According to the thermal melanin hypothesis, ectothermic individuals from cooler environments have darker cuticles and higher polyphenol oxidase (PO) levels, which represent a better immunocompetence. In this study, the links among environmental temperature, melanism, and PO activity of Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura) were examined. Most S. procerus have a black spot on their forewings at high temperatures in the field and in the laboratory. In PO activity assay, a positive association between PO level and temperature was found. Our results showed that a diversification of melanism occurred under different temperatures and that melanism in S. procerus presented an opposite pattern to the one proposed by the thermal hypothesis. PMID:26024474

  7. Source Areas for the Early Immigration of Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae) at Xiushan in the Middle Reach of Yangtze River of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, C X; Chen, X L; Bi, J C; Li, J J; Xiao, X H; Li, Q; Wang, H J; Yang, Q F

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of source areas for the early immigration of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvάth), at Xiushan in the middle reach of Yangtze River of China, was analyzed with HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) and ArcGIS 10.0. The analysis was based on light trap data collected during April-July in 2000-2012. The synoptic meteorology backgrounds during the immigration periods were analyzed by GrADS (Grid Analysis and Display System). The light trap catches of S. furcifera varied monthly and annually. S. furcifera started immigration in Xiushan in early April to early May, whereas the main immigration period was in July. The distribution of the source areas varied monthly, and the core was moved from the south to the north gradually. The main source areas of S. furcifera in May were in southwestern Guangxi and northern Vietnam. The source areas of S. furcifera in June were located in southwestern Guangxi and western Hunan. Additionally, some of the pests were from southeastern Yunnan. The source areas in July were in northwestern Guangxi, southwestern Guizhou, eastern Yunnan, and the transitional parts of Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan. The sum frequencies of southwest and south winds on the 850 hPa isobaric surface of Xiushan of May-July in heavy occurrence years were more than the light occurrence years. The key meteorological factors were suggested to be vertical perturbation, precipitation, and wind shear during S. furcifera immigration periods. PMID:26470376

  8. Population dynamics of Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on spring collard and relationship to yield in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

    PubMed

    Liu, T X

    2000-06-01

    Seasonal population dynamics of the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring [formerly known as the sweetpotato whitefly, B. tabaci (Gennadius) Biotype "B"], was investigated on collard (Brassica oleracea L. variety acephala) during spring 1998 and 1999 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Yield loss caused by whitefly was determined by using insecticides to suppress whitefly populations to a low level. Although B. argentifolii populations of adults and immatures fluctuated greatly from April to June during the two seasons, the relative values were similar. Adult whiteflies first appeared on the plants in early April, increased rapidly within the month, peaked in May, and declined at the end of the season in early or mid-June. Whitefly eggs appeared on plants soon after adults were found, but high numbers of eggs were observed on foliage until late May 1998 and mid- and late May 1999. Nymphs and pupae increased slowly before June 1998 and increased early in May 1999. Whitefly population levels appeared to be positively associated with the availability and the growth of host plants until plant maturation, afterward being negatively related with plant quality in the late season. Temperature, rainfall, and natural enemies were not key factors in regulating population dynamics during the two seasons. Collard plants with heavy infestations of whiteflies were unmarketable because of the damage caused by honeydew and sooty mold on the foliage. Application of a combination of fenpropathrin (Danitol) and acephate (Orthene) not only significantly reduced the whitefly infestation levels but also reduced plant foliar damage, resulting in marketable foliage with six to seven times greater yield and higher quality compared with the untreated plants.

  9. The Effect of Ultraviolet-A Radiation Exposure on the Reproductive Ability, Longevity, and Development of the Dialeurodes citri (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) F1 Generation.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Kaleem; Noor, Mah; Saeed, Shafqat; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has been used worldwide to monitor and trap insect pests. Whitefly adults show conspicuous positive phototactic behavior toward UV light stimuli; however, knowledge of the effect of UV light exposure on various life-history parameters of Dialeurodes citri remains limited. The present research aimed to investigate the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV-A; long-wave) exposure on the reproduction and longevity of D. citri adults as well as the development of immature (eggs, larvae, and pupae) flies in the F1 generation. Paired D. citri adults were exposed to UV-A radiation for different periods (0, 1, 4, and 7 h/d) until the end of their life. The results of the experiment revealed that fecundity and oviposition rates increased when adults were irradiated for 1 and 4 h/d, but interestingly, both were significantly decreased compared with those of the controls after the longest exposure time (7 h/d). The longevity of adults of both sexes and the cumulative survival of F1 immatures were decreased with increased exposure time. Exposure to UV-A radiation prolonged the developmental time of immature stages, and a positive correlation was observed with exposure time. Exposure to UV light significantly inhibited egg hatching, larval development, pupation, and adult emergence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing the effect of UV radiation on a homopteran insect pest. This research may provide a foundation for the scientific community to use UV light in the field as an integrated pest management strategy to control this devastating agricultural pest.

  10. Biomarker discovery from the top down: Protein biomarkers for efficient virus transmission by insects (Homoptera: Aphididae) discovered by coupling genetics and 2-D DIGE.

    PubMed

    Cilia, Michelle; Howe, Kevin; Fish, Tara; Smith, Dawn; Mahoney, Jaclyn; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia; Burd, John; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Gray, Stewart

    2011-06-01

    Yellow dwarf viruses cause the most economically important virus diseases of cereal crops worldwide and are vectored by aphids. The identification of vector proteins mediating virus transmission is critical to develop sustainable virus management practices and to understand viral strategies for circulative movement in all insect vectors. Previously, we applied 2-D DIGE to an aphid filial generation 2 population to identify proteins correlated with the transmission phenotype that were stably inherited and expressed in the absence of the virus. In the present study, we examined the expression of the DIGE candidates in previously unstudied, field-collected aphid populations. We hypothesized that the expression of proteins involved in virus transmission could be clinically validated in unrelated, virus transmission-competent, field-collected aphid populations. All putative biomarkers were expressed in the field-collected biotypes, and the expression of nine of these aligned with the virus transmission-competent phenotype. The strong conservation of the expression of the biomarkers in multiple field-collected populations facilitates new and testable hypotheses concerning the genetics and biochemistry of virus transmission. Integration of these biomarkers into current aphid-scouting methodologies will enable rational strategies for vector control aimed at judicious use and development of precision pest control methods that reduce plant virus infection. PMID:21648087

  11. The study and analysis of the mating behavior and sound production of male cicada Psalmocharias alhageos (Kol.) (Homoptera:Cicadidae) to make disruption in mating.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, H; Mehdipour, M; Ghaemi, N

    2008-09-01

    Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect's attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas. PMID:19266919

  12. [Micromorphology of leaf epidermis of some Venezuelan rice cultivars (Poaceae) associated with the mechanical damage of Sogata T. orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae)].

    PubMed

    Velásquez-Salazar, Rosalia; Diamont, Diego

    2014-06-01

    Rice cultivars are affected directly and indirectly by the insect sogata. The mechanical damage or direct loss, is produced after feeding and ovoposition on the young leaves tissues, while the indirect damage is produced after the transmission of the Rice hoja blanca virus. We studied the morpho-anatomic structures associated with the resistance of the mechanical damage produced by the insect, in six rice cultivars, including controls for resistance and susceptibility (Makalioka and Bluebonnet 50), during August 2011, in Fundacion Danac, Venezuela. Samples were taken from leaf 3, where cuticle thickness, presence of macrohair, microhair and silica bodies in the second third of the leaf was evaluated. A significant difference to thickness of the cuticle, the presence of microhair in the leaves, and presence of silica bodies was observed among cultivars, determining a significant correlation among the number of macrohair and microhair in the adaxial leaf blade with the presence of silica bodies, and thickness of the cuticle and number of posed insects. Thickness of the cuticle and presence of silica bodies in the intercostals space of microhair and macrohair showed to be the variables most related to mechanical damage and resistance mechanism. PMID:25102661

  13. Comparative use of Mindarus abietinus (Homoptera: Aphididae) by two coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the native Anatis mali and the exotic Harmonia axyridis, in a Christmas tree plantation.

    PubMed

    Berthiaume, Richard; Hébert, Christian; Cloutier, Conrad

    2007-04-01

    The exotic coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) recently expanded its range into eastern Canada and elsewhere in North America. We hypothesized that this coccinellid should be less well adapted to the prey Mindarus abietinus Koch. on balsam fir trees than the native coccinellid Anatis mali (Say), which evolved in close association with aphids on conifers in North America. We compared, under field conditions, prey use by both species by collecting data on their synchrony with M. abietinus, their prey searching and predation behaviors, life stage distribution in fir canopy, and their overall reproductive success in this system. The seasonal life cycle of A. mali was better synchronized with that of M. abietinus compared with that of H. axyridis. In spring, A. mali adults appeared nearly 2 wk earlier on trees than H. axyridis and were active predators of the aphid fundatrices. A. mali oviposition thus began before the aphid population started to grow, and its larvae were most active during peak aphid colonies. Behavioral observations showed that both adults and larvae of the native A. mali searched for prey more actively than those of H. axyridis. Distribution of life stages also showed that eggs and pupae had different distributions on trees and that the adult-to-adult net reproductive rate of A. mali was three times higher than that of H. axyridis. Thus, the native A. mali was better adapted than H. axyridis to prey on M. abietinus, possibly because it evolved for a much longer period of time with this prey in conifer habitats.

  14. Source Areas for the Early Immigration of Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae) at Xiushan in the Middle Reach of Yangtze River of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, C X; Chen, X L; Bi, J C; Li, J J; Xiao, X H; Li, Q; Wang, H J; Yang, Q F

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of source areas for the early immigration of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvάth), at Xiushan in the middle reach of Yangtze River of China, was analyzed with HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) and ArcGIS 10.0. The analysis was based on light trap data collected during April-July in 2000-2012. The synoptic meteorology backgrounds during the immigration periods were analyzed by GrADS (Grid Analysis and Display System). The light trap catches of S. furcifera varied monthly and annually. S. furcifera started immigration in Xiushan in early April to early May, whereas the main immigration period was in July. The distribution of the source areas varied monthly, and the core was moved from the south to the north gradually. The main source areas of S. furcifera in May were in southwestern Guangxi and northern Vietnam. The source areas of S. furcifera in June were located in southwestern Guangxi and western Hunan. Additionally, some of the pests were from southeastern Yunnan. The source areas in July were in northwestern Guangxi, southwestern Guizhou, eastern Yunnan, and the transitional parts of Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan. The sum frequencies of southwest and south winds on the 850 hPa isobaric surface of Xiushan of May-July in heavy occurrence years were more than the light occurrence years. The key meteorological factors were suggested to be vertical perturbation, precipitation, and wind shear during S. furcifera immigration periods.

  15. Review of the systematics, biology and ecology of lice from pinnipeds and river otters (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae).

    PubMed

    Soledad Leonardi, Maria; Palma, Ricardo Luis

    2013-01-01

    We present a literature review of the sucking louse family Echinophthiriidae, its five genera and twelve species parasitic on pinnipeds (fur seals, sea lions, walruses, true seals) and the North American river otter. We give detailed synonymies and published records for all taxonomic hierarchies, as well as hosts, type localities and repositories of type material; we highlight significant references and include comments on the current taxonomic status of the species. We provide a summary of present knowledge of the biology and ecology for eight species. Also, we give a host-louse list, and a bibliography to the family as complete as possible. PMID:26131525

  16. Venom and Dufour's glands of the emerald cockroach wasp Ampulex compressa (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Sphecidae): structural and biochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Gnatzy, Werner; Michels, Jan; Volknandt, Walter; Goller, Stephan; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    The digger wasp species Ampulex compressa produces its venom in two branched gland tubules. They terminate in a short common duct, which is bifurcated at its proximal end. One leg is linked with the venom reservoir, the other one extends to the ductus venatus. Each venom gland tubule possesses, over its entire length, a cuticle-lined central duct. Around this duct densely packed class 3 gland units each composed of a secretory cell and a canal cell are arranged. The position of their nuclei was demonstrated by DAPI staining. The brush border of the secretory cells surrounds the coiled end-apparatus. Venom is stored in a bladder like reservoir, which is surrounded by a thin reticulated layer of muscle fibres. The reservoir as a whole is lined with class 3 gland units. The tubiform Dufour's gland has a length of about 350 μm (∅ 125 μm) only and is surrounded by a network of pronounced striated muscle fibres. The glandular epithelium is mono-layered belonging to the class 1 type of insect epidermal glands. The gland cells are characterized by conspicuous lipid vesicles. Secretion of material via the gland cuticle into the gland lumen is apparent. Analysis of the polypeptide composition demonstrated that the free gland tubules and the venom reservoir contain numerous proteins ranging from 3.4 to 200 kDa. The polypeptide composition of the Dufour's gland is completely different and contains no lectin-binding glycoproteins, whereas a dominant component of the venom droplets is a glycoprotein of about 80 kDa. Comparison of the venom reservoir contents with the polypeptide pattern of venom droplets revealed that all of the major proteinaceous constituents are secreted. The secreted venom contains exclusively proteins present in the soluble contents of the venom gland. The most abundant compound class in the Dufour's gland consisted of n-alkanes followed by monomethyl-branched alkanes and alkadienes. Heptacosane was the most abundant n-alkane. Furthermore, a single volatile compound, 2-methylpentan-3-one, was identified in various concentrations in the lipid extract of the Dufour's gland. PMID:26352105

  17. A new species of Stenopsyche, with descriptions of larvae and females of some species associated by gene sequences (Insecta: Trichoptera).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-Hua; Sun, Chang-Hai; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2015-12-09

    Twenty-seven individuals of Stenopsyche from An-hui, Shan-xi and Si-chuan provinces, China, were examined and their DNA (mtCOI) sequences were extracted and analyzed. The larva, male, and female of a new species, S. huangshanensis sp. nov., associated by mtCOI gene sequences, are described and illustrated. Larvae and adult females of 3 known species, S. angustata Martynov 1930, S. navasi Ulmer 1926, and S. tienmushanensis Hwang 1957, were successfully associated with their identifiable males; the larvae and females of S. navasi and S. tienmushanensis were described and illustrated for the first time, and the larva and female of S. angustata were re-described and re-illustrated. DNA from identifiable males of Stenopsyche lotus Weaver 1987 was also sequenced, but the larva and female of this species remain unknown. An unknown larva, not associated with an identifiable adult, was described and illustrated as Stenopsyche sp. 1. All the sequences were uploaded to GenBank. All specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection of Nanjing Agricultural University.

  18. Genome exclusion and gametic DAPI-DNA content in the hybridogenetic Bacillus rossius-grandii benazzii complex (Insecta Phasmatodea).

    PubMed

    Tinti, F; Scali, V

    1992-11-01

    Among Sicilian stick insects, two hybridogenetic complexes have been discovered: Bacillus rossius-grandii benazzii and B. rossius-grandii grandii, which also produce androgenetic offspring. The egg maturation of the former is analyzed here through DAPI fluorometry, which, besides the assessment of the meiotic stages, also allows their DNA measurements and the analysis of sperm-head evolution into male pronuclei in these polyspermic eggs. Hybridogenetic eggs undergo an extrasynthesis of chromosomes, because two groups of n autobivalents (4C each) are segregated at metaphase 1st; the two groups must correspond to the pure parental species haplosets. Then the grandii chromosomes degenerate (1st polar body), while the rossius chromosomes divide further to produce two groups of n autodiads (2C each); one of them degenerates (2nd polar body), and the other is ready to perform syngamy (female pronucleus). Meanwhile, several B. grandii sperm evolve into male pronuclei by doubling their DNA (from 1C to 2C content) and assuming an interphase nucleus appearance. If regular mixis occurs, the F1 hybrid constitution is restored but, if it fails, a fusion between two sperms may occur, originating fully paternal descendants (natural androgenesis). The genome exclusion mechanism of stick-insect hybridogens appears to be more primitive than those observed in the already known hybridogenetic complexes of Poeciliopsis and Rana esculenta. Unfertilized eggs of hybridogens are capable of self-activation, but the cytology of the related clonally reproducing B. whitei indicates that its parthenogenetic mechanism stems from the hybridization event (hybrid theory) rather than from tychoparthenogenetic potentialities (spontaneous theory).

  19. DNA-based identification of forensically important species of Sarcophagidae (Insecta: Diptera) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Napoleão, K S; Mello-Patiu, C A; Oliveira-Costa, J; Takiya, D M; Silva, R; Moura-Neto, R S

    2016-05-06

    Sarcophagidae, or flesh flies, are of great importance in forensic entomology, but their effective application requires precise taxonomic identification, which relies almost exclusively on characteristics of the male genitalia. Given that female flies and larvae are most abundant in animal carcasses or on corpses, precise morphological identification can be difficult; therefore, DNA sequencing can be an additional tool for use in taxonomic identification. This paper analyzes part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from three Sarcophagidae species of forensic importance in the City of Rio de Janeiro: Oxysarcodexia fluminensis, Peckia chrysostoma, and Peckia intermutans. COI fragments of 400 bp from 36 specimens of these three species were sequenced. No intraspecific differences were found among specimens of O. fluminensis, but P. chrysostoma and P. intermutans each had two haplotypes, ranging from 0 to 0.7%. The interspecific divergence was 8.5-11.6%, corroborating previously reported findings.

  20. Environmental controls on the distribution and diversity of lentic Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) across an altitudinal gradient in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Gosling, William D; Coe, Angela L; Bush, Mark; Mayle, Francis E; Axford, Yarrow; Brooks, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To predict the response of aquatic ecosystems to future global climate change, data on the ecology and distribution of keystone groups in freshwater ecosystems are needed. In contrast to mid- and high-latitude zones, such data are scarce across tropical South America (Neotropics). We present the distribution and diversity of chironomid species using surface sediments of 59 lakes from the Andes to the Amazon (0.1-17°S and 64-78°W) within the Neotropics. We assess the spatial variation in community assemblages and identify the key variables influencing the distributional patterns. The relationships between environmental variables (pH, conductivity, depth, and sediment organic content), climatic data, and chironomid assemblages were assessed using multivariate statistics (detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis). Climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) were most significant in describing the variance in chironomid assemblages. Temperature and precipitation are both predicted to change under future climate change scenarios in the tropical Andes. Our findings suggest taxa of Orthocladiinae, which show a preference to cold high-elevation oligotrophic lakes, will likely see range contraction under future anthropogenic-induced climate change. Taxa abundant in areas of high precipitation, such as Micropsectra and Phaenopsectra, will likely become restricted to the inner tropical Andes, as the outer tropical Andes become drier. The sensitivity of chironomids to climate parameters makes them important bio-indicators of regional climate change in the Neotropics. Furthermore, the distribution of chironomid taxa presented here is a vital first step toward providing urgently needed autecological data for interpreting fossil chironomid records of past ecological and climate change from the tropical Andes.

  1. A new permopsocidan genus and species from the Late Permian of Australia (Insecta: Acercaria: Psocidiidae).

    PubMed

    Prokop, Jakub; Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André

    2016-01-01

    The psocidiid Hypopsylla belmontensis gen. et sp. nov., new psocidiid genus and species, is described and figured from the Late Permian of New South Wales in Australia. This discovery extends the knowledge on the diversity of the small order Permopsocida whose members passed the Permian-Triassic boundary and became extinct in Cretaceous. PMID:27515638

  2. Predatory Ground Beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Gaoligong Mountain Region of Western Yunnan Province, China: the Tribe Cyclosomini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.

    2013-12-01

    Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.

  3. Description of a new genus and two new species of high frequency cicada from New Caledonia (Insecta: Hemiptera, Cicadoidea, Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Delorme, Quentin; Mille, Christian; Jourdan, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The new genus Murmurillana Delorme gen. nov., is described within the tribe Cicadettini Buckton, 1889, designating Murmurillana inaudibilis Delorme sp. nov., as the type species. Murmurillana inaudibilis Delorme sp. nov. and Murmurillana paenetacita Delorme sp. nov. are described from New Caledonia. They are respectively found in mid altitude dense Niaouli shrub (Melaleuca quinquenervia, Myrtaceae) vegetation, mixed with dense fern cover (Pteridium sp., Dennstaedtiaceae) on the Massif of Aoupinié (800 m) and on foothills of the Mont Panié (570 m). Male calling songs of the two new species are described from field recordings. These calling songs exhibit unusually high dominant frequencies. A key to the species of Murmurillana Delorme gen. nov., is also provided. PMID:27395606

  4. Extremely miniaturised and highly complex: the thoracic morphology of the first instar larva of Mengenilla chobauti (Insecta, Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Osswald, Judith; Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2010-07-01

    Thoracic structures of the extremely small first instar larva of the strepsipteran species Mengenilla chobauti (ca. 200 microm) were examined, described and reconstructed 3-dimensionally. The focus is on the skeletomuscular system. The characters were compared to conditions found in other insect larvae of very small (Ptiliidae) or large (Dytiscus) size (both Coleoptera) and features of "triungulin" larvae, first instar larvae of Rhipiphoridae, Meloidae (both Coleoptera), and Mantispidae (Neuroptera). The specific lifestyle and the extreme degree of miniaturisation result in numerous thoracic modifications. Many sclerites of the exo- and endoskeleton are reduced. Cervical sclerites, pleural ridges, furcae and spinae are absent. Most of the longitudinal muscles are connected within the thorax, and a pair of ventral longitudinal muscles is present in the pleural region of the meso- and metathorax. This results in a high intersegmental flexibility. Due to the size reduction and the correlated shift of the brain to the thorax, with 94 identified muscles the thoracic musculature appears highly compact. Compared to larger larvae the number of both the individual muscles and the muscle bundles are distinctly reduced. The thorax of the first instar larvae displays many additional strepsipteran autapomorphies. At least partly due to the highly specialised condition, potential synapomorphies with other groups were not found.

  5. Annotated type catalogue of the Chrysididae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) deposited in the collection of Maximilian Spinola (1780–1857), Turin

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-fu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera), belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis comparata Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis dives Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis pumila Klug, 1845; Chrysis succincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrum bidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysis aequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis analis Spinola, 1808; Chrysis assimilis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis bihamata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis chilensis Spinola, 1851; Chrysis dichroa Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis distinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis episcopalis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis incrassata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pallidicornis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pulchella Spinola, 1808; Chrysis ramburi Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis refulgens Spinola, 1806; Chrysis splendens Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis versicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampus gayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum caerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; Hedychrum difficile Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum virens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga janthina Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga luzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984); Chrysis calimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965); Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991)); Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986); Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984). Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrum intermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopyga fervida (Fabricius, 1781); Chrysis sicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis germari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysis distinguenda Spinola, 1838, and Chrysis coronata Spinola, 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrum alterum Lepeletier, 1806, and Hedychrum aulicum Spinola, 1843, are considered nomina oblita. Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854, and Hedychrum niemelai Linsenmaier, 1959, are retained as nomina protecta. The first available name for Chrysis succinctula sensu Linsenmaier is Chrysis tristicula Linsenmaier, 1959, (stat. n.) The current status and validity of some types in the Spinola collection are discussed. Photographs of fifty-three types are given. PMID:25632245

  6. Case 3693 Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 (Insecta: Diptera: Tephritidae): Proposed suppression of Cryptodacus Gundlach, 1862 (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norrbom, Allen L.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Chen, Xiao-Lin; David, King J.; De Meyer, Marc; Freidberg, Amnon; Han, Ho-Yeon; Steck, Gary J.; Thompson, F. Christian; White, Ian M.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this application, under Article 23.9.3, is to conserve current usage of the well-established genus-group name Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 for a genus of Neotropical fruit flies by suppression of the earlier, unused name Crypto- dacus Gundlach, 1862, currently a junior synonym of Arrhyton Günther, 1858, a genus of snakes, under the plenary power of the Commission, in the interest of nomenclatural stability. Cryptodacus Gundlach has not been used as a valid name since 1883, whereas Cryptodacus Hendel has been used in a significant body of literature relating to fruit fly systematics, morphology and phylogeny and is the currently used name in various name and molecular databases. 

  7. A DNA barcode library for ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Germany: The genus Bembidion Latreille, 1802 and allied taxa

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Hannig, Karsten; Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As molecular identification method, DNA barcoding based on partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences has been proven to be a useful tool for species determination in many insect taxa including ground beetles. In this study we tested the effectiveness of DNA barcodes to discriminate species of the ground beetle genus Bembidion and some closely related taxa of Germany. DNA barcodes were obtained from 819 individuals and 78 species, including sequences from previous studies as well as more than 300 new generated DNA barcodes. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BIN and traditionally recognized species for 69 species (89%). Low interspecific distances with maximum pairwise K2P values below 2.2% were found for three species pairs, including two species pairs with haplotype sharing (Bembidion atrocaeruleum/Bembidion varicolor and Bembidion guttula/Bembidion mannerheimii). In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with distinct lineages were revealed for two species (Bembidion geniculatum/Ocys harpaloides). Our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of the analyzed ground beetles species and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for the Carabidae in Germany and Central Europe as well. PMID:27408547

  8. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L. A.; Rosado-Neto, G. H.

    2010-08-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures ( Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  9. Central European Acer- and Salicaceae-feeding aphids of the genus Stomaphis (Insecta: Aphidoidea: Lachnidae) -separate species or populations?

    PubMed

    Depa, Lukasz; Mróz, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    In Europe, there are three aphid species of the genus Stomaphis Walker that feed on trees in the genus Acer and one that feeds on trees in the family Salicaceae. Although these species are considered morphologically distinct, their uncertain host specificity and variation in morphological features has led to misidentifications or questionable attribution of subspecies status. The aim of the present study was to clarify the identity of the Central European representatives on the basis of morphological and molecular analyses. Our study is based on 42 samples from Central Europe and Northern Italy. Mitochondrial markers COXI and COXII were used to determine the molecular identity of the specimens studied. Our molecular analyses revealed the existence of three clades (two on Acer, one on Salicaceae) as defined by both molecular markers. Morphological analysis showed a broad range of variability of the key morphological features in all three clades. Despite significant differences in the mean values of morphometric traits, their range of variability strongly overlapped. Samples from COXI clades on Acer showed two different patterns of geographical distribution. Host specificity is recognized only at the level of host plant genera (Acer) and family (Salicaceae), excluding the possibility of the existence of separate subspecies on single host plant species.

  10. Faunistic catalog of the caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Parque Nacional do Itatiaia and its surroundings in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia - PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range. PMID:22958122

  11. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers highlight the biodiversity of Kalotermes flavicollis (Fabricius, 1793) (Insecta, Isoptera, Kalotermitidae) in the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Velonà, A; Luchetti, A; Ghesini, S; Marini, M; Mantovani, B

    2011-06-01

    The biodiversity of the European termite Kalotermes flavicollis is here studied through the analysis of mitochondrial (303 bp of control region and 912 bp of COI/tRNA(Leu)/COII) and nuclear (five microsatellite and 20 Inter-SINE loci) markers on 18 colonies collected in Southern France, Corsica, Sardinia, peninsular Italy, the Balkans and Greece. Different statistical analyses (Bayesian phylogenetic analysis,parsimony network, F-statistics, PCA) were performed. Mitochondrial sequences produced an unresolved polytomy including samples from peninsular Italy, Balkans and Greece, and three main clades: southern France, Corsica-Sardinia and Portoscuso(SW Sardinia). Nuclear markers confirm these data, further highlighting a more significant divergence at the regional scale. The results obtained for the peri-Tyrrhenian area agree with major paleogeographic and paleoclimatic events that shaped the biodiversity of the local fauna. K. flavicollis biodiversity and its phylogeographic pattern are also evaluated in the light of the data available for the other native European termite taxon (genus Reticulitermes), in order to produce a more complete scenario of the Mediterranean. In the area comprised between southern France and Italy, the degree of diversity is similar; however, in the eastern area, while K. flavicollis is differentiated only at the population level, the genus Reticulitermes comprises at least six entities of specific and/or subspecific level. This discrepancy may be explained by taking into account the different evolutionary histories of the two taxa. PMID:21226979

  12. Bioefficacy of plant-mediated gold nanoparticles and Anthocepholus cadamba on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, A Naresh; Jeyalalitha, T; Murugan, K; Madhiyazhagan, P

    2013-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases in India, e.g., malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, and Japanese encephalitis cause thousands of deaths per year. Mosquito control is to enhance the health and quality of life of county residents and visitors through the reduction of mosquito populations. Mosquito control is of serious concern in developing countries like India due to the lack of general awareness, development of resistance, and socioeconomic reasons. Noble metal nanoparticles have been used because of their unique optical properties; especially gold and silver have a broad absorption band in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cymbopogan citratus is an ecofriendly approach for safer environment. C. citratus leaf broth was a good reducing agent that converted chloroauric acid (HAuCl(4)) to metal gold and further heating converted it into nanoparticles. Characterization using UV spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyzer, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the particles are gold nanoparticles ranging between 10 and 110 nm with an average particles size of 20 nm. Further biosynthesized gold nanoparticles and Anthocephalus cadamba were experimented for the larvicidal effect on the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Results showed that the gold nanoparticles are much toxic than the plant extract. Observed lethal concentrations (LC(50) and LC(90)) were 1.08 and 2.76 ppm for gold nanoparticles and 21.82 and 79.52 ppm for the third instar of C. quinquefasciatus.

  13. Cerambycidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) of Quixadá, Ceará State, Brazil: new records and new species.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Bravo, Freddy; Monnè, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Quixadá County, Ceará State, Brazil is presented. Fifty-six specimens were examined and 32 species were identified, distributed in 29 genera, 19 tribes and two subfamilies. Fifteen species are new distributional records for Ceará State. Nealcidion latipenne (Bates, 1863) is recorded by the first time in Caatinga Biome. Lathroeus immaculatus sp. nov. (Acanthocinini, Lamiinae) is described and figured.

  14. The genus Macronemus Dejean, 1835 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae): two new species, new records and a new synonymy.

    PubMed

    Machado, Vanessa S; Monné, Marcela L

    2013-01-01

    The genus Macronemus Dejean, 1835 is redescribed and two new species are described: Macronemus mimus sp. nov. from Brazil (Bahia to Santa Catarina) and Argentina and Macronemus giuglarisi sp. nov. from French Guiana and Brazil (Amapá, Amazonas). M. verrucosus (Pascoe, 1866) is considered a new synonym of M. asperulus White, 1855. New distributional data and a key to the seven species of the genus are provided.

  15. Two new species and new records of Cerambycidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) from Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A; Botero, Juan P; Carelli, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The descriptions of two species of Lamiinae, Lepturges (Lepturges) batesi sp. nov. (Acanthocinini) and Onocephala chicomendes sp. nov. (Onocephalini) and an addendum of Cerambycinae and Lamiinae to the list of species of Cerambycidae in the Itatiaia National Park are presented. The data are based on fieldwork conducted over the last six years. Eighteen species of Cerambycinae and 21 of Lamiinae are recorded, with a total of 39 new distribution records.

  16. A new genus and new bromelicolous species of Cicadellini (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mejdalani, Gabriel; Quintas, Victor; Carvalho, Rachel A; Takiya, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    A new genus, Cavichiana, is described for a new species of Cicadellini, C. bromelicola, from Southeastern Brazil (states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo). The new genus can be distinguished from other genera of the Cicadellini by the following combination of features: (1) head deltoid, strongly produced anteriorly; (2) ocelli located distinctly anterad of anterior eye angles; (3) aedeagus tubular, elongate, its apex with a conspicuous crown of spines; (4) paraphyses with both stalk and rami elongate, rami slender and each with basidorsal dentiform projection. The new species has a distinctive color pattern. The dorsum is dark brown to black with contrasting blue to white spots. The anterior half of the fore wings has a large, circular transcommissural yellow macula bordered by a blue to white border, the anterior portion of this macula covering the scutellum. Specimens of the new species were found on leaves of bromeliads in areas of restinga (sand dune vegetation) of the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil. Other cases of association between hemipterans and bromeliads are listed and briefly discussed.

  17. Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov. (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Praesiricidae), the Hitherto Largest Sawfly from the Mesozoic of China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Taiping; Shih, Chungkun; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background Large body size of an insect, in general, enhances its capability of predation, competition, and defense, resulting in better survivability and reproduction. Hymenopterans, most being phytophagous or parasitic, have a relatively small to medium body size, typically under 50.0 mm in body length. Principal Findings Herein, we describe Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov., assigned to Praesiricidae, from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China. This new species is the largest fossil hymenopteran hitherto with body estimated >55.0 mm long and wing span >92.0 mm. H. duolunica is, to our knowledge, the only sawfly with Sc present in the hind wing but not in the forewing. Its Rs1 and M1 meeting each other at 145° angle represents an intermediate in the transition from “Y” to “T” shapes. Even though Hoplitolyda differs significantly from all previously described genera in two subfamilies of Praesricidae, we leave the new genus unplaced in existing subfamilies, pending discovery of material with more taxonomic structure. Conclusions/Significance Hoplitolyda has many unique and interesting characters which might have benefitted its competition, survival, and reproduction: large body size and head with robust and strong mandibles for defense and/or sexual selection, unique wing venation and setal arrangements for flight capability and mobility, dense hairs on body and legs for sensing and protection, etc. Considering the reported ferocious predators of feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, birds, and mammals coexisting in the same eco-system, Hoplitolyda is an interesting case of “survival of the fittest” in facing its evolutionary challenges. PMID:23671596

  18. Preliminary list of the leaf-roller moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) of Virginia with comments on spatial and temporal distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on the examination of 3,457 pinned specimens, we document 263 species of leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Commonwealth of Virginia. The vast majority of specimens examined are from five unrelated efforts: a survey of George Washington Memorial Parkway National Park, Fairfa...

  19. On the female of Gypona reversa DeLong & Martinson, 1972, with emphasis on genital structures (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Luci B. N.; Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Gypona reversa DeLong & Martinson, 1972 has its ovipositor described and illustrated based on the examination of specimens from its type locality. This is the first species of Gypona Germar, 1821 to have the female genitalia detailed description published. PMID:25589876

  20. Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the Afrotropical Region, with the description of seven new genera

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, James E.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Tachinidae of the Afrotropical Region are catalogued and seven genera and eight species are newly described. There are 237 genera and 1126 species recognized, of which 101 genera and 1043 species are endemic to the region. The catalogue is based on examination of the primary literature comprising about 525 references as well as numerous name-bearing types and other specimens housed in collections. Taxa are arranged hierarchically and alphabetically under the categories of subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus (where recognized), species, and rarely subspecies. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms (mostly restricted to Afrotropical taxa) and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country within the Afrotropical Region and by larger geographical divisions outside the region. Additional information is given in the form of notes, numbering about 300 in the catalogue section. Seven genera and eight species are described as new: Afrophylax Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Austrosolieria Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Austrosolieria londti Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa) and Austrosolieria freidbergi Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Malawi) (Tachininae, Leskiini); Carceliathrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Filistea Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927, gen. n. and Filistea verbekei Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Uganda) (Exoristinae, Blondeliini); Mesnilotrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976, gen. n. (Dexiinae, Dexiini); Myxophryxe Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n., Myxophryxe murina Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), Myxophryxe regalis Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), and Myxophryxe satanas Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa) (Exoristinae, Goniini); and Stiremania Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Stiremania karoo Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa), and Stiremania robusta Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa) (Exoristinae, Goniini). Paraclara Bezzi, 1908 is transferred from the Cylindromyiini to the Hermyini, comb. n. Sarrorhina Villeneuve, 1936 is transferred from the Minthoini to the Graphogastrini, comb. n. Three genera are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region: Madremyia Townsend, 1916 (Eryciini); Paratrixa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 (Blondeliini); and Simoma Aldrich, 1926 (Goniini). Three genera previously recorded from the Afrotropical Region are no longer recognized from the region: Calozenillia Townsend, 1927 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); Eurysthaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); and Trixa Meigen, 1824 (Palaearctic and Oriental regions). Two species are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region: Amnonia carmelitana Kugler, 1971 (Ethiopia, Kenya); and Simoma grahami Aldrich, 1926 (Namibia). Three species previously recorded from the Afrotropical Region are no longer recognized from the region: Euthera peringueyi Bezzi, 1925 (Oriental Region); Hamaxia incongrua Walker, 1860 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); Leucostoma tetraptera (Meigen, 1824) (Palaearctic Region). New replacement names are proposed for five preoccupied names of Afrotropical species: Billaea rubida O’Hara & Cerretti for Phorostoma rutilans Villeneuve, 1916, preoccupied in the genus Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Musca rutilans Fabricius, 1781, nom. n.; Cylindromyia braueri O’Hara & Cerretti for Ocyptera nigra Villeneuve, 1918, preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Glossidionophora nigra Bigot, 1885, nom. n.; Cylindromyia rufohumera O’Hara & Cerretti for Ocyptera scapularis Villeneuve, 1944, preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Ocyptera scapularis Loew, 1845, nom. n.; Phytomyptera longiarista O’Hara & Cerretti for Phytomyzoneura aristalis Villeneuve, 1936, preoccupied in the genus Phytomyptera Rondani, 1845 by Phasiostoma aristalis Townsend, 1915, nom. n.; and Siphona (Siphona) pretoriana O’Hara & Cerretti for Siphona laticornis Curran, 1941, preoccupied in the genus Siphona Meigen, 1803 by Actia laticornis Malloch, 1930, nom. n. New type species fixations are made under the provisions of Article 70.3.2 of the ICZN Code for two genus-group names: Lydellina Villeneuve, 1916, type species newly fixed as Lydellina villeneuvei Townsend, 1933 (valid genus name); and Sericophoromyia Austen, 1909, type species newly fixed as Tachina quadrata Wiedemann, 1830 (synonym of Winthemia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). Lectotypes are designated for the following nine nominal species based on examination of one or more syntypes of each: Degeeria crocea Villeneuve, 1950; Degeeria semirufa Villeneuve, 1950; Erycia brunnescens Villeneuve, 1934; Exorista oculata Villeneuve, 1910; Kiniatilla tricincta Villeneuve, 1938; Myxarchiclops caffer Villeneuve, 1916; Ocyptera linearis Villeneuve, 1936; Peristasisea luteola Villeneuve, 1934; and Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938. The following four genus-group names that were previously treated as junior synonyms or subgenera are recognized as valid generic names: Bogosiella Villeneuve, 1923, status revived; Dyshypostena Villeneuve, 1939, status revived; Perlucidina Mesnil, 1952, status revived; and Thelymyiops Mesnil, 1950, status n. The following six species-group names that were previously treated as junior synonyms are recognized as valid species names: Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908, status revived; Degeeria cinctella Villeneuve, 1950, status revived (as Medina cinctella (Villeneuve)); Nemoraea miranda intacta Villeneuve, 1916, status revived (as Nemoraea intacta Villeneuve); Succingulum exiguum Villeneuve, 1935, status revived (as Trigonospila exigua (Villeneuve)); Wagneria rufitibia abbreviata Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia abbreviata (Mesnil)); and Wagneria rufitibia nudinerva Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia nudinerva (Mesnil)). The following 25 new or revived combinations are proposed: Afrophylax aureiventris (Villeneuve, 1910), comb. n.; Blepharella orbitalis (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Bogosiella pomeroyi Villeneuve, 1923, comb. revived; Brachychaetoides violacea (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Carceliathrix crassipalpis (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Charitella whitmorei (Cerretti, 2012), comb. n.; Dyshypostena edwardsi (van Emden, 1960), comb. n.; Dyshypostena tarsalis Villeneuve, 1939, comb. revived; Estheria buccata (van Emden, 1947), comb. n.; Estheria surda (Curran, 1933), comb. n.; Filistea aureofasciata (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Madremyia setinervis (Mesnil, 1968), comb. n.; Mesnilotrix empiformis (Mesnil, 1976), comb. n.; Myxophryxe longirostris (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Nealsomyia chloronitens (Mesnil, 1977), comb. n.; Nealsomyia clausa (Curran, 1940), comb. n.; Nilea longicauda (Mesnil, 1970), comb. n.; Paratrixa aethiopica Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Paratrixa stammeri Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Perlucidina africana (Jaennicke, 1867), comb. n.; Perlucidina perlucida (Karsch, 1886), comb. revived; Prolophosia retroflexa (Villeneuve, 1944), comb. n.; Sturmia profana (Karsch, 1888), comb. n.; additionally, Ceromasia rufiventris Curran, 1927 is treated as an unplaced species of Goniini, comb. n. and Hemiwinthemia stuckenbergi Verbeke, 1973 is treated as an unplaced species of Leskiini, comb. n. New or revived generic and specific synonymies are proposed for the following nine names: Afrosturmia Curran, 1927 with Blepharella Macquart, 1851, syn. n.; Archiphania van Emden, 1945 with Catharosia Rondani, 1868, syn. revived; Besseria longicornis Zeegers, 2007 with Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908 (current name Besseria fossulata), syn. n.; Dexiomera Curran, 1933 with Estheria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, syn. n.; Hemiwinthemia francoisi Verbeke, 1973 with Nemoraea capensis Schiner, 1868 (current name Smidtia capensis), syn. n.; Kinangopana van Emden, 1960 with Dyshypostena Villeneuve, 1939, syn. n.; Metadrinomyia Shima, 1980 with Charitella Mesnil, 1957, syn. n.; Phorocera majestica Curran, 1940 with Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938 (current name Myxophryxe longirostris), syn. n.; and Podomyia discalis Curran, 1939 with Antistasea fimbriata Bischof, 1904 (current name Antistasea fimbriata), syn. n. PMID:27110184

  1. Description of the female terminalia of twelve species of Proconiini and a key to genera from Argentina (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Dellapé, Gimena

    2016-01-01

    The female terminalia of 12 sharpshooter species are described and illustrated: Aulacizes basalis, A. conspersa, A. insistans, A. obsoleta, A. quadripunctata, Cicciana latreillei, Pseudometopia amblardii, Stictoscarta sulcicollis, Tretogonia bergi, T. cribata, T. dentalis, and T. notatifrons. A key to the identification of the Argentinean Proconiini genera including male and female characters is provided. PMID:27395170

  2. Contrasting genetic structure of closely related giant water bugs: phylogeography of Appasus japonicus and Appasus major (Insecta: Heteroptera, Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoya; Kitano, Tadashi; Tojo, Koji

    2014-03-01

    Appasus japonicus and A. major, two belostomatid species of the giant water bug found in parts of East Asia, have very similar morphological characteristics and ecological niches, and also overlapping habitats. However, the results of our previous published study utilizing molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed extensive genetic differences, which indicated that the possibility of inter-specific hybridization was extremely unlikely. We collected A. japonicus and A. major from the Japanese Archipelago, Korean Peninsula, and Russian Far East, and conducted molecular analyses of mitochondrial DNA COI and 16S rRNA to compare phylogenetic relationships between these species. Three major clades were recognized within A. japonicus. Specimens from the Korean population constituted a monophyletic clade, and were a sister group of the western region of the Japanese Archipelago. The Eastern Japanese clade was clearly differentiated. Four major clades were recognized within A. major. Specimens from the Japanese and Korean populations revealed two distinct monophyletic clades. Significant differentiation was clearly observed between their genetic structures. Furthermore, the results of mismatch distribution and Bayesian skyline plot analyses suggested the possibility of a bottleneck effect or founder effect in two of the A. major clades. Collectively, these results demonstrated both similarities and differences in these two species even though their distribution widely overlaps in East Asia, with their morphological characteristics and ecological niches being very similar. These differences in genetic structures are considered to be due to their evolutionary history.

  3. Chapter 3. Integration of botanicals and microbial pesticides for the control of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Insecta: Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes are the single most important group of insects in terms of public health significance and causing diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis and other fevers. There has been an outbreak of Chikungunya and dengue all over the India from 2006 – 2009. Aedes ae...

  4. A New Fossil of Necrotauliidae (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Jiulongshan Formation of China and Its Taxonomic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yujia; Zhang, Weiting; Yao, Yunzhi; Ren, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Background Acisarcuatus variradius gen. et sp. nov., an extinct new species representing a new genus, is described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we revised the diagnosis of Necrotauliidae Handlirsch, 1906. One new genus and species of Necrotauliidae is described. An analysis based on the fossil morphological characters clarified the taxonomic status of the new taxa. Conclusions/Significance New fossil evidence supports the viewpoint that the family Necrotauliidae belongs to the Integripalpia. PMID:25494387

  5. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders. Mecoptera was recovered as the sister-group of Diptera. Neuropterida (Neuroptera + Megaloptera), and a sister-group relationship with (Diptera + Mecoptera) were supported across all analyses. Conclusions Our comparative studies indicate that mitochondrial genomes are a useful phylogenetic tool at the ordinal level within Holometabola, at the superfamily within Hymenoptera and at the subfamily level within Braconidae. Variation at all of these hierarchical levels suggests that the utility of mitochondrial genomes is likely to be a valuable tool for systematics in other groups of arthropods. PMID:20537196

  6. How old are the rove beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) and their lineages? Seeking an answer with DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Zhou, Hong-Zhang

    2013-06-01

    The phylogeny and related evolutionary history of rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) remain unclear. This study provides phylogenetic analyses for the family based on three genes (mitochondrial COI, nuclear protein-coding wingless and a portion of the ribosomal 28S rDNA) including 2413 bp for 104 taxa representing most major staphylinid lineages. The subfamilies Oxyporinae, Paederinae, Steninae, and Proteininae are all well-supported clades, as evidenced by all three inference methods, namely maximum parsimony, Bayesian inference, and maximum likelihood. From fossils available for calibration, the divergence time of the main lineages in the family is estimated based on an uncorrelated lognormal relaxed molecular clock analysis method. The molecular clock analysis suggests that the family Staphylinidae dates from approximately the Early Triassic epoch and the most lineages of the family started to radiate from the Late Jurassic to the Early Paleogene.

  7. A new species of Rotigonalia (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Peru with a key to males of the genus.

    PubMed

    Leal, Afonso Henrique; Mejdalani, Gabriel; Creão-Duarte, Antonio J

    2016-01-01

    Rotigonalia regina sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on a male specimen from Pasco, Peru. The holotype of R. regina is rather large in comparison with other specimens of the genus, but the inflated clypeus and the shape of the paraphyses support its inclusion in Rotigonalia Young, 1977. A key to males of the five known species of Rotigonalia is given. PMID:27395668

  8. Inventory of the Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) in Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, a highly urbanized area in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masayuki U.; Kishimoto-Yamada, Keiko; Kato, Toshihide; Kurashima, Osamu; Ito, Motomi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Heteroptera, or true bugs, forms one of the major insect groups with respect to the very diverse habitat preferences, including both aquatic and terrestrial species, as well as a variety of feeding types. The first comprehensive inventory of the Heteroptera at Komaba Campus of the University of Tokyo, or an urban green space in the center of the Tokyo Metropolis, Japan, was conducted. New information A total of 115 species in 29 families of the suborder Heteroptera were identified. The area had a high species richness compared with other urbanized and suburbanized localities in Tokyo. The campus is found to show a substantial difference in heteropteran species compositions, despite being close to the other localities surrounded by highly urbanized zones in central Tokyo. PMID:25941455

  9. Environmental controls on the distribution and diversity of lentic Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) across an altitudinal gradient in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Gosling, William D; Coe, Angela L; Bush, Mark; Mayle, Francis E; Axford, Yarrow; Brooks, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To predict the response of aquatic ecosystems to future global climate change, data on the ecology and distribution of keystone groups in freshwater ecosystems are needed. In contrast to mid- and high-latitude zones, such data are scarce across tropical South America (Neotropics). We present the distribution and diversity of chironomid species using surface sediments of 59 lakes from the Andes to the Amazon (0.1-17°S and 64-78°W) within the Neotropics. We assess the spatial variation in community assemblages and identify the key variables influencing the distributional patterns. The relationships between environmental variables (pH, conductivity, depth, and sediment organic content), climatic data, and chironomid assemblages were assessed using multivariate statistics (detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis). Climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) were most significant in describing the variance in chironomid assemblages. Temperature and precipitation are both predicted to change under future climate change scenarios in the tropical Andes. Our findings suggest taxa of Orthocladiinae, which show a preference to cold high-elevation oligotrophic lakes, will likely see range contraction under future anthropogenic-induced climate change. Taxa abundant in areas of high precipitation, such as Micropsectra and Phaenopsectra, will likely become restricted to the inner tropical Andes, as the outer tropical Andes become drier. The sensitivity of chironomids to climate parameters makes them important bio-indicators of regional climate change in the Neotropics. Furthermore, the distribution of chironomid taxa presented here is a vital first step toward providing urgently needed autecological data for interpreting fossil chironomid records of past ecological and climate change from the tropical Andes. PMID:26811777

  10. Descriptions and records of Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Insecta: Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and National Natural Park Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Martínez, Nadia R; González-Obando, Ranulfo; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-11-28

    The results of a survey on the species diversity of the families Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Epipsocetae) in Valle del Cauca and in the National Natural Park (NNP) Gorgona, Colombia, are presented. The specimens studied were collected in the context of two scientific projects, in which 12 species in the two families were identified, five in Cladiopsocidae and seven in Dolabellopsocidae. In the first family, Cladiopsocus presented a new record in the country and four new species; in the latter, two genera were identified, Dolabellopsocus, with three new species and two new records, and Isthmopsocus, with two new species. This study presents the description of the nine new species from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, the new records for Colombia and identification keys to the neotropical species of both families.

  11. The phallus in Tettigoniidae (Insecta: Orthoptera: Ensifera): revision of morphology and terminology, and discussion on its taxonomic importance and evolution.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    The phallus in Tettigoniidae (katydids) is a structure informative relative to the systematics of the group. Despite this, it is often not considered in descriptions of taxa. The lack of adequate descriptions of phalli is not only a gap for sytematic and morphological studies, but postpones works on the evolution of copula. Here we study the exoskeletal morphology of the phallus in katydids, its components, and revised the terminology for them. We carried out dissections for morphological comparisons, and complement the observational information with published data. We stained phalli of katydids with chlorazol black, to better contrast membranous versus sclerotized components. We demonstrate that phallic components vary at specific, generic and suprageneric levels, and that internal and external components vary in number, shape, size and position. Currently there is little comparative data to support hypotheses on the evolution of this structure, but possibly the possession of a titillator is an ancestral condition. We identify additional sclerotized components, the sclerites of the ventral fold of the dorsal lobe, which can modify the shape and function of the titillator, being also important for understanding the evolution of the phallus. Potential functional relationships based on hypothetical morphological correlations between the shape of titillator and cerci are proposed, categorized in three main groups: (i) phallus devoid of titillator and cerci simple, (ii) titillator with bifurcated or paired sclerites, and cerci adapted for grasping, and (iii) titillator with single process and/or sclerite and cerci simple, sometimes with a pointed tip. Two explanations for these hypothetical morphological correlations and morphological variation are proposed: first, species with similar structures at the postabdomen would share similar copulatory behaviour, and second, more than one selective pressure would have acted over the structures of the postabdomen.

  12. Revision of Anomopterella Rasnitsyn, 1975 (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Anomopterellidae) with two new Middle Jurassic species from northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longfeng; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2014-10-01

    New Anomopterella Rasnitsyn, 1975, wasps from the Jiulongshan Formation (Bathonian/Callovian) at Daohugou (Inner Mongolia of China), with well-preserved wings, body, antennae and tarsi, document relationship among species and enhance our understanding of the morphology of the extinct family Anomopterellidae Rasnitsyn, 1975. Based on eight well-preserved specimens, we describe, A. pygmea sp. n. and A. brevis sp. n., describe new materials of A. ovalis Li, Rasnitsyn, Shih & Ren, 2013, and A. ampla Li, Rasnitsyn, Shih & Ren, 2013, emend the genus in Anomopterellidae (A. pygmea sp. n. with toruli and eyes), and provide a determination key to species of the genus, including four specimens outside the formal classification.

  13. Complete mitogenome of the semi-aquatic grasshopper Oxya intricate (Stål.) (Insecta: Orthoptera: Catantopidae).

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Jia; Guan, De-Long; Xu, Sheng-Quan

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitogenome of Oxya intricate (Stål.) has been reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data with an average coverage of 294×. The circular genome is 15,466 bp in length, and consists of 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons, and are terminated with TAR codons except for ND5 with the incomplete stop codon T. The nucleotide composition is asymmetric (42.5%A, 14.6%C, 10.6%G, 32.3%T) with an overall GC content of 25.2%. These data would contribute to the design of novel molecular markers for population and evolutionary studies of this and related orthopteran species.

  14. A new species of mealybug in the genus Paracoccus Ezzat & McConnell from North America (Insecta: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Stocks, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    A probably adventive mealybug species, Paracoccus gillianae sp. n. is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely to have been via the horticultural trade of Agave spp. (Liliales: Agavaceae) and other host plants in the family Agavaceae. Illustrations of the adult female and male, and diagnosis from congeners in the New World and from other Paracoccus species known to feed on Agavaceae, are provided. PMID:25544203

  15. The effects of fossil placement and calibration on divergence times and rates: an example from the termites (Insecta: Isoptera).

    PubMed

    Ware, Jessica L; Grimaldi, David A; Engel, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Among insects, eusocial behavior occurs in termites, ants, some bees and wasps. Isoptera and Hymenoptera convergently share social behavior, and for both taxa its evolution remains poorly understood. While dating analyses provide researchers with the opportunity to date the origin of eusociality, fossil calibration methodology may mislead subsequent ecological interpretations. Using a comprehensive termite dataset, we explored the effect of fossil placement and calibration methodology. A combined molecular and morphological dataset for 42 extant termite lineages was used, and a second dataset including these 42 taxa, plus an additional 39 fossil lineages for which we had only morphological data. MrBayes doublet-model analyses recovered similar topologies, with one minor exception (Stolotermitidae is sister to the Hodotermitidae, s.s., in the 42-taxon analysis but is in a polytomy with Hodotermitidae and (Kalotermitidae + Neoisoptera) in the 81-taxon analysis). Analyses using the r8s program on these topologies were run with either minimum/maximum constraints (analysis a = 42-taxon and analysis c = 81-taxon analyses) or with the fossil taxon ages fixed (ages fixed to be the geological age of the deposit from which they came, analysis b = 81-taxon analysis). Confidence intervals were determined for the resulting ultrametric trees, and for most major clades there was significant overlap between dates recovered for analyses A and C (with exceptions, such as the nodes Neoisoptera, and Euisoptera). With the exception of isopteran and eusiopteran node ages, however, none of the major clade ages overlapped when analysis B is compared with either analysis A or C. Future studies on Dictyoptera should note that the age of Kalotermitidae was underestimated in absence of kalotermitid fossils with fixed ages.

  16. The Odonata (Insecta) of Patagonia: a synopsis of their current status with illustrated keys for their identification.

    PubMed

    Muzón, Javier; Pessacq, Pablo; Lozano, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Patagonia is a vast landmass with a distinctive environmental and biotic heterogeneity. Its Odonata biodiversity is the best known of South America, and it is composed of 36 species, of which more than 50% are endemic. We summarize the main taxonomic, distributional and biological information including illustrated keys for adults and known larvae, and distributional maps. PMID:24872061

  17. A novel mitochondrial genome architecture in thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera): extreme size asymmetry among chromosomes and possible recent control region duplication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-partite mitochondrial genomes are very rare in animals but have been found previously in two insect orders with highly rearranged genomes, the Phthiraptera (parasitic lice), and the Psocoptera (booklice/barklice). We provide the first report of a multi-partite mitochondrial genome architecture...

  18. Two new species and new records of Cerambycidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) from Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A; Botero, Juan P; Carelli, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The descriptions of two species of Lamiinae, Lepturges (Lepturges) batesi sp. nov. (Acanthocinini) and Onocephala chicomendes sp. nov. (Onocephalini) and an addendum of Cerambycinae and Lamiinae to the list of species of Cerambycidae in the Itatiaia National Park are presented. The data are based on fieldwork conducted over the last six years. Eighteen species of Cerambycinae and 21 of Lamiinae are recorded, with a total of 39 new distribution records. PMID:27470728

  19. Cerambycidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) of Quixadá, Ceará State, Brazil: new records and new species.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Bravo, Freddy; Monnè, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) of Quixadá County, Ceará State, Brazil is presented. Fifty-six specimens were examined and 32 species were identified, distributed in 29 genera, 19 tribes and two subfamilies. Fifteen species are new distributional records for Ceará State. Nealcidion latipenne (Bates, 1863) is recorded by the first time in Caatinga Biome. Lathroeus immaculatus sp. nov. (Acanthocinini, Lamiinae) is described and figured. PMID:27615939

  20. The earwig fauna (Insecta: Dermaptera) of Penang Island, Malaysia, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Masaru; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2016-01-01

    The earwig (Dermaptera) fauna of Penang Island, Malaysia, was evaluated by means of an extensive field survey together with revision of the few published data. Based on the results of the field survey, 31 species are recognized (2 Diplatyidae, 3 Pygidicranidae, 5 Anisolabididae, 2 Labiduridae, 14 Spongiphoridae, 4 Chelisochidae, 1 Forficulidae). Fifteen of these taxa are new to Peninsular Malaysia (=West Malaysia): Diplatys annandalei Burr, 1911, Diplatys mutiara n. sp., Euborellia philippinensis Srivastava, 1979, Metisolabis punctata (Dubrony, 1879), Pseudovostox brindlei Srivastava, 2003, Chaetospania anderssoni Brindle, 1971, Chaetospania javana Borelli, 1926, Chaetospania huisiangi n. sp., Paralabellula boettcheri (Borelli, 1923), Paralabellula rotundifrons (Hincks, 1954), Nesogaster amoenus (Stål, 1855), Hamaxas crassus Borelli, 1926, Proreus coalescens (Borelli, 1927), Hypurgus humeralis (Kirby, 1891), and an unidentified Echinosoma sp. Species composition of the island are compared with the dermapteran fauna of Thailand. Descriptions of females (or female genitalia) are given for some species for the first time. PMID:27394261

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Mitochondrial Genomes in Coleoptera (Arthropoda: Insecta) and Genome Descriptions of Six New Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Song, H.; Cameron, S. L.; Whiting, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    Coleoptera is the most diverse group of insects with over 360,000 described species divided into four suborders: Adephaga, Archostemata, Myxophaga, and Polyphaga. In this study, we present six new complete mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) descriptions, including a representative of each suborder, and analyze the evolution of mtgenomes from a comparative framework using all available coleopteran mtgenomes. We propose a modification of atypical cox1 start codons based on sequence alignment to better reflect the conservation observed across species as well as findings of TTG start codons in other genes. We also analyze tRNA-Ser(AGN) anticodons, usually GCU in arthropods, and report a conserved UCU anticodon as a possible synapomorphy across Polyphaga. We further analyze the secondary structure of tRNA-Ser(AGN) and present a consensus structure and an updated covariance model that allows tRNAscan-SE (via the COVE software package) to locate and fold these atypical tRNAs with much greater consistency. We also report secondary structure predictions for both rRNA genes based on conserved stems. All six species of beetle have the same gene order as the ancestral insect. We report noncoding DNA regions, including a small gap region of about 20 bp between tRNA-Ser(UCN) and nad1 that is present in all six genomes, and present results of a base composition analysis. PMID:18779259

  2. The Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Three Bristletails (Insecta: Archaeognatha): The Paraphyly of Machilidae and Insights into Archaeognathan Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue; He, Kun; Yu, Panpan; Yu, Danna; Cheng, Xuefang; Zhang, Jiayong

    2015-01-01

    The order Archaeognatha was an ancient group of Hexapoda and was considered as the most primitive of living insects. Two extant families (Meinertellidae and Machilidae) consisted of approximately 500 species. This study determined 3 complete mitochondrial genomes and 2 nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the bristletail. The size of the 5 mitochondrial genome sequences of bristletail were relatively modest, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The gene orders were identical to that of Drosophila yakuba and most bristletail species suggesting a conserved genome evolution within the Archaeognatha. In order to estimate archaeognathan evolutionary relationships, phylogenetic analyses were conducted using concatenated nucleotide sequences of 13 protein-coding genes, with four different computational algorithms (NJ, MP, ML and BI). Based on the results, the monophyly of the family Machilidae was challenged by both datasets (W12 and G12 datasets). The relationships among archaeognathan subfamilies seemed to be tangled and the subfamily Machilinae was also believed to be a paraphyletic group in our study. PMID:25635855

  3. Faunistic Catalog of the Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Parque Nacional do Itatiaia and its Surroundings in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia — PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range. PMID:22958122

  4. The sperm of Matsucoccus feytaudi (Insecta, Coccoidea): Can the microtubular bundle be considered as a true flagellum?

    PubMed

    Paoli, Francesco; Roversi, Pio Federico; Benassai, Daniele; Squarcini, Michele; Mercati, David; Dallai, Romano

    2015-03-01

    In the present work the spermiogenesis and sperm structure of Matsucoccus feytaudi, a primary pest of the maritime pine in southern eastern Europe, is studied. In addition to the already known characteristics of coccid sperm, such as the absence of the acrosome and mitochondria, and the presence of a bundle of microtubules responsible for sperm motility, a peculiar structure from which the microtubule bundle takes origin is described. Such a structure--a short cylinder provided with a central hub surrounded by several microtubules with a dense wall--is regarded as a Microtubule Organizing Centre (MTOC). During spermiogenesis, quartets of fused spermatids are formed; from each spermatid, a bundle of microtubules, generated by the MTOC, projects from the cell surface. Each cell has two centrioles, suggesting the lack of a meiotic process and the occurrence of parthenogenesis. At the end of the spermiogenesis, when the cysts containing bundles of sperm are formed, part of the nuclear material together with the MTOC structure is eliminated. Based on the origin of the microtubular bundle from the MTOC, the nature of the bundle as a flagellum is discussed.

  5. Feminizing Wolbachia in Zyginidia pullula (Insecta, Hemiptera), a leafhopper with an XX/X0 sex-determination system

    PubMed Central

    Negri, I; Pellecchia, M; Mazzoglio, P.J; Patetta, A; Alma, A

    2006-01-01

    Zyginidia pullula is a grass-dwelling leafhopper characterized by a bisexual reproduction mode. In this species, some females collected in Northern Italy, when mated with males, gave origin to an exclusively female brood. Here, we demonstrated that in these lineages an infection by a new strain of Wolbachia pipientis—designated as wZygpul—was detected by amplifying and sequencing the wsp and 16S rRNA genes. About half of the female progeny were characterized by intersexual phenotypes, i.e. showing upper pygofer appendages, a typical male secondary sexual feature. The karyological analysis proved that while phenotypically normal females had a female genotype, those with upper pygofer appendages had a male genotype and were thus feminized males. The complete removal of W. pipientis after tetracycline treatment of morphologically normal females, and the consequent re-appearance of males in the brood, permitted us to connect the feminizing effect with the presence of the bacterium. This is the first case of feminization by W. pipientis in an XX/X0 sex-determination system, and is the second case reported in insects. PMID:16928646

  6. New species of aquatic insects from Europe (Insecta: Trichoptera): Alps and Pyrenees as harbours of unknown biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON; PREVIŠIĆ, ANA; MALICKY, HANS

    2016-01-01

    New species are described from the following genera: Consorophylax and Anisogamus, (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). Additionally the larvae of the genus Anisogamus, and the larval stages of Anisogamus waringeri nov. sp. and A. difformis (McLachlan 1867) are described. The new species Consorophylax vinconi sp. nov. is a microendemic from the Southern Alps and differs distinctly from its congeners in the shape of the parameres, which are distinctly straitened in the distal quarter in the new species. The new species Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. represents the second species in the hitherto monospecific genus Anisogamus. Compared to Anisogamus difformis, A. waringeri sp. nov. develops more slender superior appendages; a more rounded basal plate of the intermediate appendages, lacking pointed protuberances; and parameres shorter than the aedaegus, proximally with one dorsal and several ventral tines. Further, the two species are disjunctly distributed in the European mountain ranges (A. difformis: Alps, A. waringeri sp. nov.: Pyrenees). Larvae of the genus Anisogamus are characterized by the lack of a dorsal protuberance on the 1st abdominal segment, a unique feature among Limnephilidae. Anisogamus difformis and A. waringeri sp. nov. larvae differ in pronotum shape. The recovery of two new species demonstrates the significance of taxonomic studies in Europe, and the importance of adequate training for young scientists in order to assess a biodiversity under threat of extinction that has yet to be fully described. PMID:25661619

  7. Faunistic catalog of the caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of Parque Nacional do Itatiaia and its surroundings in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia - PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range.

  8. The Hippoboscidae (Insecta: Diptera) from Madagascar, with new records from the “Parc National de Midongy Befotaka”

    PubMed Central

    Rahola, N.; Goodman, S.M.; Robert, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Hippoboscidae or “louse-flies” is a family of pupiparous Diptera, which in their adult stage are ectoparasites of mammals and birds. This paper presents a comprehensive review of Malagasy Hippoboscidae. In total, amongst the 213 species of this family known worldwide, 14 have been reported in Madagascar, among which six are considered as endemic to the Malagasy region. In addition, data are presented from a collection of 17 Hippoboscidae obtained from seven species of forest-dwelling birds in the “Parc National de Midongy Befotaka”, southeastern Madagascar, in 2003. The flies in this collection belong to three different species: Icosta malagasii (one), Ornithoica podicipis (ten) and Ornithoctona laticornis (six). The two former species were previously only known from single specimens in museum collections; the later species is distributed across much of the Afrotropical region and the records presented herein are the first for Madagascar. All the seven bird species are new hosts for hippoboscids. We present the first description of the male of Icosta malagasii. An illustrated dichotomous determination key of the 14 Malagasy species, based on morphological criteria only, is presented. PMID:21678788

  9. From the Western Alps across Central Europe: Postglacial recolonisation of the tufa stream specialist Rhyacophila pubescens (Insecta, Trichoptera)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the decision to leave a habitat patch in favour of another, and connectivity of occupied habitat. Thus, dispersal of species that are highly specialised to a certain habitat is limited by habitat availability. Species inhabiting very stable environments may also adopt a sedentary life-style. Both factors should lead to strong genetic differentiation in highly specialised species inhabiting stable environments. These two factors apply to our model species Rhyacophila pubescens a highly specialised freshwater insect that occurs in tufa springs, a very stable habitat. Results We examined the genetic population structure and phylogeography using range-wide mtCOI sequence and AFLP data from 333 individuals of R. pubescens. We inferred the location of Pleistocene refugia and postglacial colonisation routes of R. pubescens, and examined ongoing local differentiation. Our results indicate intraregional differentiation with a high number of locally endemic haplotypes, that we attributed to habitat specificity and low dispersal rates of R. pubescens. We observed high levels of genetic diversity south of the Alps and genetic impoverishment north of the Alps. Estimates of migrants placed the refugium and the source of the colonisation in the Dauphiné Alps (SW Alps). Conclusions This is the first example of an aquatic insect with a colonisation route along the western margin of the Alps to the Central European highlands. The study also shows that specialisation to a stable environment may have promoted a behavioural shift to decreased dispersal rates, leading to stronger local population differentiation than in less specialised aquatic insects. Alternatively, the occurrence of highly specialised tufa spring habitats may have been more widespread in the past, leading to range regression and fragmentation among present day R. pubescens populations. PMID:21569621

  10. Fine structure of the Nassonow's gland in the neotenic endoparasitic of female Xenos vesparum (Rossi) (Strepsiptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Dallai, R; Lupetti, P; Giusti, F; Mercati, D; Paccagnini, E; Turillazzi, S; Beani, L; Kathirithamby, J

    2004-06-01

    Nassonow's gland consists of a number of cells with ducts that open on to the ventral surface of the brood canal in the cephalothoracic region of a neotenic female strepsipteran. The structural organization of the gland is reminiscent of the class 3 of the epidermal gland cells as defined by Noirot and Quennedey [Ann. Rev. Entomol. 19 (1974) 61], which consists of secretory and duct forming cells. The ultrastructure of the Nassonow's gland is described in female Xenos vesparum (Rossi) parasitic in the social wasp Polistes dominulus Christ. The large secretory cells are clustered in groups of three to four, rich in smooth endoplasmic reticulum and produce a secretion made up of lipids. In young females, just before mating, the ultrastructure of the cells and their inclusions indicate that they are active. In old-mated females the Nassonow's gland degenerates. Microvilli line an extracellular cavity and there are pores present in the irregularly thick cuticle of the efferent duct. The small duct forming cells, intermingle with epidermal cells, overlap secretory cells and produce a long efferent duct, the cuticle of which becomes thick close to its opening in the brood canal. Nassonow's gland could be the source of a sex pheromone, which might be capable of attracting the free-living male to a permanently endoparasitic female. PMID:15140598

  11. The first molecular phylogeny of Strepsiptera (Insecta) reveals an early burst of molecular evolution correlated with the transition to endoparasitism.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Dino P; Hayward, Alexander; Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive model of evolution requires an understanding of the relationship between selection at the molecular and phenotypic level. We investigate this in Strepsiptera, an order of endoparasitic insects whose evolutionary biology is poorly studied. We present the first molecular phylogeny of Strepsiptera, and use this as a framework to investigate the association between parasitism and molecular evolution. We find evidence of a significant burst in the rate of molecular evolution in the early history of Strepsiptera. The evolution of morphological traits linked to parasitism is significantly correlated with the pattern in molecular rate. The correlated burst in genotypic-phenotypic evolution precedes the main phase of strepsipteran diversification, which is characterised by the return to a low and even molecular rate, and a period of relative morphological stability. These findings suggest that the transition to endoparasitism led to relaxation of selective constraint in the strepsipteran genome. Our results indicate that a parasitic lifestyle can affect the rate of molecular evolution, although other causal life-history traits correlated with parasitism may also play an important role. PMID:21738621

  12. Extremely miniaturised and highly complex: the thoracic morphology of the first instar larva of Mengenilla chobauti (Insecta, Strepsiptera).

    PubMed

    Osswald, Judith; Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2010-07-01

    Thoracic structures of the extremely small first instar larva of the strepsipteran species Mengenilla chobauti (ca. 200 microm) were examined, described and reconstructed 3-dimensionally. The focus is on the skeletomuscular system. The characters were compared to conditions found in other insect larvae of very small (Ptiliidae) or large (Dytiscus) size (both Coleoptera) and features of "triungulin" larvae, first instar larvae of Rhipiphoridae, Meloidae (both Coleoptera), and Mantispidae (Neuroptera). The specific lifestyle and the extreme degree of miniaturisation result in numerous thoracic modifications. Many sclerites of the exo- and endoskeleton are reduced. Cervical sclerites, pleural ridges, furcae and spinae are absent. Most of the longitudinal muscles are connected within the thorax, and a pair of ventral longitudinal muscles is present in the pleural region of the meso- and metathorax. This results in a high intersegmental flexibility. Due to the size reduction and the correlated shift of the brain to the thorax, with 94 identified muscles the thoracic musculature appears highly compact. Compared to larger larvae the number of both the individual muscles and the muscle bundles are distinctly reduced. The thorax of the first instar larvae displays many additional strepsipteran autapomorphies. At least partly due to the highly specialised condition, potential synapomorphies with other groups were not found. PMID:19874911

  13. Developmental strategy of the endoparasite Xenos vesparum (strepsiptera, Insecta): host invasion and elusion of its defense reactions.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Fabio; Giusti, Fabiola; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano

    2007-07-01

    To successfully complete its endoparasitic development, the strepsipteran Xenos vesparum needs to elude the defense mechanisms of its host, the wasp Polistes dominulus. SEM and TEM observations after artificial infections allow us to outline the steps of this intimate host-parasite association. Triungulins, the mobile 1st instar larvae of this parasite, are able to "softly" overcome structural barriers of the larval wasp (cuticle and epidermis) without any traumatic reaction at the entry site, to reach the hemocoel where they settle. The parasite molts 48 h later to a 2nd instar larva, which moves away from the 1st instar exuvium, molts twice more without ecdysis (a feature unique to Strepsiptera) and pupates, if male, or develops into a neotenic female. Host encapsulation involves the abandoned 1st larval exuvium, but not the living parasite. In contrast to the usual process of encapsulation, it occurs only 48 h after host invasion or later, and without any melanization. In further experiments, first, we verified Xenos vesparum's ability to reinfect an already parasitized wasp larva. Second, 2nd instar larvae implanted in a new host did not evoke any response by hemocytes. Third, we tested the efficiency of host defense mechanisms by implanting nylon filaments in control larval wasps, excluding any effect due the dynamic behavior of a living parasite; within a few minutes, we observed the beginning of a typical melanotic encapsulation plus an initial melanization in the wound site. We conclude that the immune response of the wasp is manipulated by the parasite, which is able to delay and redirect encapsulation towards a pseudo-target, the exuvia of triungulins, and to elude hemocyte attack through an active suppression of the immune defense and/or a passive avoidance of encapsulation by peculiar surface chemical properties. PMID:17437299

  14. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae confer resistance to obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Il; Chung, Mi Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Han, Myung Sae; Goo, Tae-Won; Yun, Eun-Young

    2015-03-17

    To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

  15. Family Panorpodidae (Insecta, Mecoptera) from Baltic amber (upper Eocene): new species, redescription and palaeogeographic remarks of relict scorpionflies.

    PubMed

    Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka; Krzemińsk, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    The history of the species-poor family Panorpodidae is very interesting due to its uneven present distribution. The only fossils of the genus Panorpodes are two species known from Baltic amber, described in 1856 and 1954. A third species, Panorpodes weitschati sp. nov., is herein described. New diagnoses and descriptions as well as new drawings of all fossil species of Panorpodes are provided, including the first illustration of the wing of P. hageni. Fossil Panorpodes display three diametrically opposed patterns of wings markings, from the highly transparent wings of P. brevicauda, through transparent wings with dark bands and spots of P. weitschati sp. nov., to the dark wings with only narrow transparent bands of P. hageni. The fossil specimens are characterized by a great variability in wing venation, even in a single specimen, similar to that of living species. PMID:26042307

  16. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) Larvae Confer Resistance to Obesity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Young-Il; Chung, Mi Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Han, Myung Sae; Goo, Tae-Won; Yun, Eun-Young

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:25790040

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera arecae (Insecta: Tephritidae) by next-generation sequencing and molecular phylogeny of Dacini tribe

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chow, Wan-Loo; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera arecae was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 15,900 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The control region (952 bp) was flanked by rrnS and trnI genes. The start codons included 6 ATG, 3 ATT and 1 each of ATA, ATC, GTG and TCG. Eight TAA, two TAG, one incomplete TA and two incomplete T stop codons were represented in the protein-coding genes. The cloverleaf structure for trnS1 lacked the D-loop, and that of trnN and trnF lacked the TΨC-loop. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 protein-coding genes was concordant with 37 mitochondrial genes, with B. arecae having closest genetic affinity to B. tryoni. The subgenus Bactrocera of Dacini tribe and the Dacinae subfamily (Dacini and Ceratitidini tribes) were monophyletic. The whole mitogenome of B. arecae will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26472633

  18. Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico III

    PubMed Central

    Lafontaine, J. Donald; Schmidt, B. Christian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A total of 124 additions and corrections are listed and discussed for the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico published in 2010. Twenty-eight species are added to the list, 16 through new species descriptions, eight as a result of taxonomic splits, and four based on newly recorded species. Forty-eight species are deleted from the list, 41 through synonymy, and seven that were based on misidentifications. Twelve changes are corrections in the spelling of names, or changes in parentheses on dates of publication. Twenty-seven are changes in taxonomy of names where no species are added or deleted; eight changes involve the renumbering of existing species for better taxonomic arrangement. Within the text 2 stat. n., 10 stat. rev., 27 syn. n., 5 syn. rev., and 1 comb. n. are proposed for the first time. PMID:26692790

  19. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken. PMID:23794915

  20. Population genetics of bisexual and unisexual populations of the scaly-winged bark louse Echmepteryx hageni (Insecta: Psocoptera).

    PubMed

    Shreve, Scott M; Johnson, Kevin P

    2014-10-01

    The scaly-winged bark louse, Echmepteryx hageni, exhibits a unique pattern of co-existence of apparently differnt reproductive modes. Unisexuality is widespread in eastern North America, while sexual populations are restricted to isolated rock out-croppings in southern Illinois and eastern Kentucky. Three of the four nuclear loci examined show greater genetic diversity in the unisexual form compared to the sexual form of E. hageni, in accordance with the pattern previously shown in mitochondrial genetic data. Neutrality tests of the nuclear loci indicate a consistent signal of demographic expansion in asexual populations, but not in sexual populations. There was evidence of inbreeding in the isolated sexual populations at three of the nuclear loci, and one locus had signs of gene specific balancing selection. However, there is no significant genetic differentiation between bisexual and unisexual populations, possibly due to the greater effective population size of nuclear loci relative to mitochondrial loci. The mitochondrial differentiation of E. hageni populations in the northwestern part of their range (Minnesota and Wisconsin) was also not reflected in the nuclear data. We present three hypotheses that may explain the disparity in observed nuclear and mitochondrial genetic diversity between the reproductive forms of E. hageni.

  1. Review of the Gauromydas giant flies (Insecta, Diptera, Mydidae), with descriptions of two new species from Central and South America.

    PubMed

    Calhau, Julia; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2015-01-01

    Gauromydas Wilcox, Papavero & Pimentel, 1989 are giant flies, and include the largest fly known, G. heros (Perty, 1833). This genus was originally erected to group four Neotropical species, namely G. apicalis (Wiedemann, 1830), G. autuorii (d'Andretta, 1951), G. heros, and G. mystaceus (Wiedemann, 1830). As with most of the remaining Mydidae, adults of Gauromydas are very rarely collected. We here describe two new species of Gauromydas (G. mateus sp. nov. and G. papaveroi sp. nov.) discovered in entomological collections, including specimens unstudied for up to eight decades. We also provide revised diagnoses for the remaining four species of Gauromydas, along with a new key and new distribution records for the genus.

  2. Review of the systematics, biology and ecology of lice from pinnipeds and river otters (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae).

    PubMed

    Soledad Leonardi, Maria; Palma, Ricardo Luis

    2013-01-01

    We present a literature review of the sucking louse family Echinophthiriidae, its five genera and twelve species parasitic on pinnipeds (fur seals, sea lions, walruses, true seals) and the North American river otter. We give detailed synonymies and published records for all taxonomic hierarchies, as well as hosts, type localities and repositories of type material; we highlight significant references and include comments on the current taxonomic status of the species. We provide a summary of present knowledge of the biology and ecology for eight species. Also, we give a host-louse list, and a bibliography to the family as complete as possible.

  3. Chewing lice (Insecta, Phthiraptera) and feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds of the Cerrado in Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Enout, Alexandre Magno Junqueira; Lobato, Débora Nogueira Campos; Diniz, Francisco Carvalho; Antonini, Yasmine

    2012-10-01

    The association of chewing lice and feather mites with wild birds of riparian forest was investigated in the Cerrado biome, Tocantins State, Brazil. The birds were captured with mist nets between July 2008 and March 2009. Ectoparasites were collected by the dust-ruffling technique. Infestation rates were determined by the sampling prevalence, abundance, and mean intensity of ectoparasites. A total of 1,479 chewing lice were collected that were distributed in 3 families and 18 genera, of which 15 taxa were identified to the species level. Sixteen genera of feather mites were found, and 10 species were identified. A high prevalence rate of chewing lice and feather mites was found in non-Passeriformes (66.7 and 50.0%) and Passeriformes (57.8 and 75.6%) birds. New host-parasite associations were registered for two species of chewing lice and for four species of feather mites, thus expanding the geographical distribution in Brazil of six chewing lice species. This is the first study of the ectoparasites of wild birds to be conducted in this region of Brazil.

  4. The head and body lice of humans are genetically distinct (Insecta: Phthiraptera, Pediculidae): evidence from double infestations.

    PubMed

    Leo, N P; Hughes, J M; Yang, X; Poudel, S K S; Brogdon, W G; Barker, S C

    2005-07-01

    Little is known about the population genetics of the louse infestations of humans. We used microsatellite DNA to study 11 double infestations, that is, hosts infested with head lice and body lice simultaneously. We tested for population structure on a host, and for population structure among seven hosts that shared sleeping quarters. We also sought evidence of migration among louse populations. Our results showed that: (i) the head and body lice on these individual hosts were two genetically distinct populations; (ii) each host had their own populations of head and body lice that were genetically distinct to those on other hosts; and (iii) lice had migrated from head to head, and from body to body, but not between heads and bodies. Our results indicate that head and body lice are separate species.

  5. The Chewing Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Amblycera) of Japanese Pigeons and Doves (Columbiformes), with Descriptions of Three New Species.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Daniel R; Tsurumi, Miyako; Bush, Sarah E

    2015-06-01

    The chewing louse fauna of pigeons and doves in Japan is reviewed based on published records and new collections. An updated checklist of the chewing lice of Japanese pigeons and doves is provided, and 3 new species are described: Columbicola asukae n. sp. and Coloceras nakamurai n. sp., both from Columba janthina Temminck, 1830 (Japanese wood pigeon), and Columbicola lemoinei n. sp. from Treron formosae permagnus Stejneger, 1887, and Treron formosae medioximus (Bangs, 1901) (whistling green-pigeons). This checklist includes data on the first records of Coloceras chinense (Kellogg and Chapman, 1902), Coloceras piriformis ( Tendeiro, 1969 ), and Columbicola guimaraesi Tendeiro, 1965, in Japan. New host records of Hohorstiella sp. from Columba janthina and Treron formosae permagnus, and Coloceras sp. from Treron sieboldii sieboldii (Temminck, 1835) (white-bellied green-pigeon) are provided.

  6. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) based on multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Tian, Ying; Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic.

  7. Molecular and morphological evaluation of the aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae), with a description of a new species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyalopterus is a small genus containing two currently recognized species: Hyalopterus amygdali (Blanchard) and Hyalopterus pruni (Geoffroy). Morpholgical means of distinguishing these species have been difficult and identifications have often been based on host plant data rather than structural char...

  8. A new species of Rotigonalia (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Peru with a key to males of the genus.

    PubMed

    Leal, Afonso Henrique; Mejdalani, Gabriel; Creão-Duarte, Antonio J

    2016-01-01

    Rotigonalia regina sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on a male specimen from Pasco, Peru. The holotype of R. regina is rather large in comparison with other specimens of the genus, but the inflated clypeus and the shape of the paraphyses support its inclusion in Rotigonalia Young, 1977. A key to males of the five known species of Rotigonalia is given.

  9. Phylogeny of the major lineages of Membracoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha) based on 28S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C H; Rakitov, R A; Holmes, J L; Black, W C

    2001-02-01

    Analysis of sequences from a 3.5-kb region of the nuclear ribosomal 28S DNA gene spanning divergent domains D2-D10 supports the hypothesis, based on fossil, biogeographic, and behavioral evidence, that treehoppers (Aetalionidae and Membracidae) are derived from leafhoppers (Cicadellidae). Maximum-parsimony analysis indicated that treehoppers are the sister group of a lineage comprising the currently recognized cicadellid subfamilies Agalliinae, Megophthalminae, Adelungiinae, and Ulopinae. Based on this phylogenetic estimate, the derivation of treehoppers approximately coincided with shifts in physiology and behavior, including loss of brochosome production and a reversal from active, jumping nymphs to sessile, nonjumping nymphs. Myerslopiidae, traditionally placed as a tribe of the cicadellid subfamily Ulopinae, represented a basal lineage distinct from other extant membracoids. The analysis recovered a large leafhopper lineage comprising a polyphyletic Deltocephalinae (sensu stricto) and its apparent derivatives Koebeliinae, Eupelicinae (polyphyletic), Selenocephalinae, and Penthimiinae. Clades comprising Macropsinae, Neocoelidiinae, Scarinae, Iassinae, Coelidiinae, Eurymelinae + Idiocerinae, Evacanthini + Pagaroniini, Aphrodinae + Ledrinae (in part), Stenocotini + Tartessinae, and Cicadellini + Proconiini were also recovered with moderate to high branch support. Cicadellinae (sensu lato), Ledrinae, Typhlocybinae, and Xestocephalinae were consistently polyphyletic on the most-parsimonious topologies, but constraining these groups to be monophyletic did not significantly increase the length of the cladograms. Relationships among the major lineages received low branch support, suggesting that more data are needed to provide a robust phylogenetic estimate.

  10. First evidence for (TTAGG)n telomeric sequence and sex chromosome post-reduction in Coleorrhyncha (Insecta, Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Grozeva, Snejana M.; Hartung, Viktor; Anokhin, Boris A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Telomeric repeats are general and significant structures of eukaryotic chromosomes. However, nothing is known about the molecular structure of telomeres in the enigmatic hemipteran suborder Coleorrhyncha (moss bugs) commonly considered as the sister group to the suborder Heteroptera (true bugs). The true bugs are known to differ from the rest of the Hemiptera in that they display an inverted sequence of sex chromosome divisions in male meiosis, the so-called sex chromosome post-reduction. To date, there has been no information about meiosis in Coleorrhyncha. Here we report a cytogenetic observation of Peloridium pomponorum, a representative of the single extant coleorrhynchan family Peloridiidae, using the standard chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a (TTAGG)n telomeric probe. We show that Peloridium pomponorum displays 2n = 31 (30A + X) in males, the classical insect (TTAGG)n telomere organization and sex chromosome post-reduction during spermatocyte meiosis. The plesiomorphic insect-type (TTAGG)n telomeric sequence is suggested to be preserved in Coleorrhyncha and in a basal heteropteran infraorder Nepomorpha, but absent (lost) in the advanced heteropteran lineages Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha. The telomere structure in other true bug infraorders is currently unknown. We consider here the inverted sequence of sex chromosome divisions as a synapomorphy of the group Coleorrhyncha + Heteroptera. PMID:26753072

  11. A DNA barcode library for ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Germany: The genus Bembidion Latreille, 1802 and allied taxa.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Michael J; Hannig, Karsten; Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars

    2016-01-01

    As molecular identification method, DNA barcoding based on partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences has been proven to be a useful tool for species determination in many insect taxa including ground beetles. In this study we tested the effectiveness of DNA barcodes to discriminate species of the ground beetle genus Bembidion and some closely related taxa of Germany. DNA barcodes were obtained from 819 individuals and 78 species, including sequences from previous studies as well as more than 300 new generated DNA barcodes. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BIN and traditionally recognized species for 69 species (89%). Low interspecific distances with maximum pairwise K2P values below 2.2% were found for three species pairs, including two species pairs with haplotype sharing (Bembidion atrocaeruleum/Bembidion varicolor and Bembidion guttula/Bembidion mannerheimii). In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with distinct lineages were revealed for two species (Bembidion geniculatum/Ocys harpaloides). Our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of the analyzed ground beetles species and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for the Carabidae in Germany and Central Europe as well. PMID:27408547

  12. Contrasting genetic structure of closely related giant water bugs: phylogeography of Appasus japonicus and Appasus major (Insecta: Heteroptera, Belostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomoya; Kitano, Tadashi; Tojo, Koji

    2014-03-01

    Appasus japonicus and A. major, two belostomatid species of the giant water bug found in parts of East Asia, have very similar morphological characteristics and ecological niches, and also overlapping habitats. However, the results of our previous published study utilizing molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed extensive genetic differences, which indicated that the possibility of inter-specific hybridization was extremely unlikely. We collected A. japonicus and A. major from the Japanese Archipelago, Korean Peninsula, and Russian Far East, and conducted molecular analyses of mitochondrial DNA COI and 16S rRNA to compare phylogenetic relationships between these species. Three major clades were recognized within A. japonicus. Specimens from the Korean population constituted a monophyletic clade, and were a sister group of the western region of the Japanese Archipelago. The Eastern Japanese clade was clearly differentiated. Four major clades were recognized within A. major. Specimens from the Japanese and Korean populations revealed two distinct monophyletic clades. Significant differentiation was clearly observed between their genetic structures. Furthermore, the results of mismatch distribution and Bayesian skyline plot analyses suggested the possibility of a bottleneck effect or founder effect in two of the A. major clades. Collectively, these results demonstrated both similarities and differences in these two species even though their distribution widely overlaps in East Asia, with their morphological characteristics and ecological niches being very similar. These differences in genetic structures are considered to be due to their evolutionary history. PMID:24398367

  13. Sexual conflict in Gerris gillettei (Insecta: Hemiptera): intraspecific intersexual correlated morphology and experimental assessment of behaviour and fitness.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, M-C; Turgeon, J

    2011-07-01

    The contemporary dynamics of sexually antagonistic coevolution caused by sexual conflicts have seldom been investigated at the intraspecific level. We characterized natural populations of Gerris gillettei and documented significant intersexual correlations for morphological traits previously related to sexual conflict in water striders. These results strongly indicate that sexually antagonistic coevolution contributed to population differentiation and resulted in different balances of armaments between the sexes within natural populations of this species. No-choice mating experiments further revealed that both male and male-female relative arms levels influence copulation duration. However, there were no asymmetries in reproductive behaviour and fitness between sympatric and allopatric mating pairs, suggesting that differentiation by sexual conflict was not sufficient to influence the outcome of mating interactions. Altogether, these results question the relative importance of female connexival spines vs. genitalia traits in mediating pre- and post-copulatory conflict in Gerris.

  14. Higher Level Phylogeny and the First Divergence Time Estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) Based on Multiple Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  15. Geographic distribution, phylogeny, and genetic diversity of the fruit- and blood-feeding moth Calyptra thalictri Borkhausen (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Zaspel, Jennifer M; Scott, Clare H; Hill, Sharon R; Ignell, Rickard; Kononenko, Vladimir S; Weller, Susan J

    2014-10-01

    Facultative blood feeding on live animals or carrion is widespread within Lepidoptera. Male moths within the genus Calyptra are known to use their fruit-piercing mouthparts to occasionally feed on mammalian blood. The Palearctic species Calyptra thalictri is known to exhibit differential feeding behaviors that appear to be based on geographic location. This species is known to pierce fruit throughout its range but has recently been reported to also feed on human blood under experimental conditions in the Russian Far East. Here we document the distribution of this widespread species, reconstruct its evolutionary history, and calculate its genetic diversity for the first time. Recently collected samples are combined with museum specimens to model suitable environments for this taxon. Our findings suggest that while the blood-feeding populations are not monophyletic, there is geographical structure. Our analysis of macroclimate variables suggests that altitude and precipitation are the environmental variables most critical to habitat suitability in this lineage. PMID:24779998

  16. A new genus and new bromelicolous species of Cicadellini (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mejdalani, Gabriel; Quintas, Victor; Carvalho, Rachel A; Takiya, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    A new genus, Cavichiana, is described for a new species of Cicadellini, C. bromelicola, from Southeastern Brazil (states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo). The new genus can be distinguished from other genera of the Cicadellini by the following combination of features: (1) head deltoid, strongly produced anteriorly; (2) ocelli located distinctly anterad of anterior eye angles; (3) aedeagus tubular, elongate, its apex with a conspicuous crown of spines; (4) paraphyses with both stalk and rami elongate, rami slender and each with basidorsal dentiform projection. The new species has a distinctive color pattern. The dorsum is dark brown to black with contrasting blue to white spots. The anterior half of the fore wings has a large, circular transcommissural yellow macula bordered by a blue to white border, the anterior portion of this macula covering the scutellum. Specimens of the new species were found on leaves of bromeliads in areas of restinga (sand dune vegetation) of the Atlantic Forest of Southeastern Brazil. Other cases of association between hemipterans and bromeliads are listed and briefly discussed. PMID:24869841

  17. Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the Afrotropical Region, with the description of seven new genera.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    The Tachinidae of the Afrotropical Region are catalogued and seven genera and eight species are newly described. There are 237 genera and 1126 species recognized, of which 101 genera and 1043 species are endemic to the region. The catalogue is based on examination of the primary literature comprising about 525 references as well as numerous name-bearing types and other specimens housed in collections. Taxa are arranged hierarchically and alphabetically under the categories of subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus (where recognized), species, and rarely subspecies. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms (mostly restricted to Afrotropical taxa) and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country within the Afrotropical Region and by larger geographical divisions outside the region. Additional information is given in the form of notes, numbering about 300 in the catalogue section. Seven genera and eight species are described as new: Afrophylax Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Austrosolieria Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Austrosolieria londti Cerretti & O'Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa) and Austrosolieria freidbergi Cerretti & O'Hara, sp. n. (Malawi) (Tachininae, Leskiini); Carceliathrix Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Filistea Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927, gen. n. and Filistea verbekei Cerretti & O'Hara, sp. n. (Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Uganda) (Exoristinae, Blondeliini); Mesnilotrix Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976, gen. n. (Dexiinae, Dexiini); Myxophryxe Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n., Myxophryxe murina Cerretti & O'Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), Myxophryxe regalis Cerretti & O'Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), and Myxophryxe satanas Cerretti & O'Hara, sp. n. (South Africa) (Exoristinae, Goniini); and Stiremania Cerretti & O'Hara with type species Stiremania karoo Cerretti & O'Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa), and Stiremania robusta Cerretti & O'Hara, sp. n. (South Africa) (Exoristinae, Goniini). Paraclara Bezzi, 1908 is transferred from the Cylindromyiini to the Hermyini, comb. n. Sarrorhina Villeneuve, 1936 is transferred from the Minthoini to the Graphogastrini, comb. n. Three genera are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region: Madremyia Townsend, 1916 (Eryciini); Paratrixa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 (Blondeliini); and Simoma Aldrich, 1926 (Goniini). Three genera previously recorded from the Afrotropical Region are no longer recognized from the region: Calozenillia Townsend, 1927 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); Eurysthaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); and Trixa Meigen, 1824 (Palaearctic and Oriental regions). Two species are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region: Amnonia carmelitana Kugler, 1971 (Ethiopia, Kenya); and Simoma grahami Aldrich, 1926 (Namibia). Three species previously recorded from the Afrotropical Region are no longer recognized from the region: Euthera peringueyi Bezzi, 1925 (Oriental Region); Hamaxia incongrua Walker, 1860 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); Leucostoma tetraptera (Meigen, 1824) (Palaearctic Region). New replacement names are proposed for five preoccupied names of Afrotropical species: Billaea rubida O'Hara & Cerretti for Phorostoma rutilans Villeneuve, 1916, preoccupied in the genus Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Musca rutilans Fabricius, 1781, nom. n.; Cylindromyia braueri O'Hara & Cerretti for Ocyptera nigra Villeneuve, 1918, preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Glossidionophora nigra Bigot, 1885, nom. n.; Cylindromyia rufohumera O'Hara & Cerretti for Ocyptera scapularis Villeneuve, 1944, preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Ocyptera scapularis Loew, 1845, nom. n.; Phytomyptera lon

  18. Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 (Insecta: Diptera: TEPHRITIDAE): Proposed conservation by suppression of Cryptodacus Gundlach, 1862 (Reptilia: Serpentes: COLUBRIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this application under Articles 78.1, 80.2.2, and 81.2.1 is to conserve current usage of the well-established genus-group name Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 for a genus of Neotropical fruit flies by suppression of the earlier name Cryptodacus Gundlach, 1862, currently a junior synonym of A...

  19. Visual stimuli that elicit visual tracking, approaching and striking behavior from an unusual praying mantis, Euchomenella macrops (Insecta: Mantodea).

    PubMed

    Prete, Frederick R; Theis, Robert; Komito, Justin L; Dominguez, Jessica; Dominguez, Salina; Svenson, Gavin; Wieland, Frank

    2012-05-01

    In comparison to other similarly sized mantis species examined in previous studies, Euchomenella macrops has a significantly smaller head, shorter foreleg tibia, but longer prothorax which have been interpreted as specializations for the capture of smaller, slower prey. We tested this conjecture by assessing the rates at which computer generated stimuli elicit visual tracking, approaching, and striking behaviors by adult females. When presented with black disks moving erratically against a white background, strike rate rose progressively as disks enlarged up to 44 deg (visual angle) if the disks moved rapidly (e.g., 143 deg/s); at slower speeds (113, 127 deg/s), smaller disks (<27 deg) were preferred. When black moved linearly from the visual periphery to visual field center (at 73 or 143 deg/s) and then stopped, E. macrops struck consistently at disks as small as 5 deg after movement ceased. E. macrops also struck at higher rates in response to 23 deg erratically moving (subjective) red (versus subjective blue or green) disks that were luminance matched to a grey background although they tracked all colors at equally high rates. Unlike some other species, E. macrops did not strike at higher rates in response to elongated rectangular stimuli moving parallel (versus perpendicular) to their long axis, although the former elicited higher rates of approaching. An analysis of tracking behavior revealed that virtually all tracking movements were a result of head (versus) prothorax rotation. PMID:22342660

  20. A DNA barcode library for ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Germany: The genus Bembidion Latreille, 1802 and allied taxa.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Michael J; Hannig, Karsten; Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars

    2016-01-01

    As molecular identification method, DNA barcoding based on partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences has been proven to be a useful tool for species determination in many insect taxa including ground beetles. In this study we tested the effectiveness of DNA barcodes to discriminate species of the ground beetle genus Bembidion and some closely related taxa of Germany. DNA barcodes were obtained from 819 individuals and 78 species, including sequences from previous studies as well as more than 300 new generated DNA barcodes. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BIN and traditionally recognized species for 69 species (89%). Low interspecific distances with maximum pairwise K2P values below 2.2% were found for three species pairs, including two species pairs with haplotype sharing (Bembidion atrocaeruleum/Bembidion varicolor and Bembidion guttula/Bembidion mannerheimii). In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with distinct lineages were revealed for two species (Bembidion geniculatum/Ocys harpaloides). Our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of the analyzed ground beetles species and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for the Carabidae in Germany and Central Europe as well.

  1. Diversity and phenology of the generalist predator community in apple orchards of Central Washington State (insecta, araneae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predatory insects and spiders were collected from apple orchards in two geographic regions of Central Washington State to assess seasonal phenology and diversity of the generalist predator community. Arthropods were collected from orchard canopy every 3-7 d over two growing seasons (March-October) ...

  2. Genetic Variation of North American Triatomines (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Initial Divergence between Species and Populations of Chagas Disease Vector

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Bertha; Martínez-Ibarra, Jose Alejandro; Villalobos, Guiehdani; De La Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The triatomines vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi are principal factors in acquiring Chagas disease. For this reason, increased knowledge of domestic transmission of T. cruzi and control of its insect vectors is necessary. To contribute to genetic knowledge of North America Triatominae species, we studied genetic variations and conducted phylogenetic analysis of different triatomines species of epidemiologic importance. Our analysis showed high genetic variations between different geographic populations of Triatoma mexicana, Meccus longipennis, M. mazzottii, M. picturatus, and T. dimidiata species, suggested initial divergence, hybridation, or classifications problems. In contrast, T. gerstaeckeri, T. bolivari, and M. pallidipennis populations showed few genetics variations. Analysis using cytochrome B and internal transcribed spacer 2 gene sequences indicated that T. bolivari is closely related to the Rubrofasciata complex and not to T. dimidiata. Triatoma brailovskyi and T. gerstaeckeri showed a close relationship with Dimidiata and Phyllosoma complexes. PMID:23249692

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of spittlebug Paphnutius ruficeps (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cercopidae) with a fairly short putative control region.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Liang, Aiping

    2013-04-01

    The mitochondrial genome of the spittlebug Paphnutius ruficeps is a double-strand DNA circular molecule of 14,841 bp with a total A and T content of 73.8%. It is one of the shortest genomes among published hemipteran mitogenomes and encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosome RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. The gene order is consistent with the hypothesized ancestral arthropod genome arrangement. Most of the protein-coding genes use ATG as start and TAA as stop codon. The codons show an evident bias toward the nucleotides T and A at the third codon position and the most commonly used codons contain more A and T than their synonymous ones. The anticodons of the 22 tRNA genes are identical to those of the mitogenome of Philaenus spumarius, another studied spittlebug. All the tRNAs could be folded into traditional clover leaf secondary structures. The putative control region (traditionally called A + T-rich region) is the main non-coding part of the mitogenome. The AT content of this region (74.5%) is not significantly higher than that of the total mitogenome (73.8%) and slightly lower than that of the N-chain protein-coding genes (75.3%). The absence of repeat sequences as well as its short length is the most obvious characteristics of the mitochondrial genome of Paphnutius ruficeps compared with those of other published hemipteran species.

  4. Identification of the terebrantian thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera) associated with cultivated plants in Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A

    2013-01-01

    An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken.

  5. Eochrysis, a new replacement name for the fossil Protochrysis Bischoff, 1916 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) nec Pascher, 1911 (Protista: Cryptomonada).

    PubMed

    Doweld, Alexander B

    2015-12-18

    The genus Protochrysis (type species P. succinalis Bischoff, 1916, by monotypy) was established by Bischoff (1916: 139) for distinctive fossil insect remains of Eocene (Lutetian) age from the former Königsberg outskirts of East Prussia (now Kalinigrad, Russian Federation), referred at present to the Chrysididae (Hymenoptera) (Brues 1933; Carpenter 1985, 1992). However, an identical generic name Protochrysis had previously been proposed by Pascher (1911: 191) for a living protist (Cryptomonada). Bischoff's (1916) name is therefore an invalid junior homonym. Carpenter (1985: 577) proposed a new replacement name for the fossil genus, but overlooked the fact that his newly proposed generic name Protochrysidis was also preoccupied, again by the name of another protist genus, Protochrysidis [Protista: Chrysomonada] described by Skvortzov (1969: 346) from Harbin (China). In fact, the protistan genus Protochrysidis had initially been published as chrysophyte algae following the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (McNeill et al. 2012) by Skvortzov (1961: 4) who had failed to designate holotype of the species, but later fulfilled all conditions for valid publication in 1969 by providing necessary typification and reference to formerly published description and illustrations. At present chrysophyte algae are still maintained as Chrysomonada in protozoology due to a continued somewhat archaic tradition (Preisig & Anderson 2002). Protochrysidis Skvortzov, 1969 remained little studied since the time of its first description and is currently treated as an incertae sedis protistan taxon.

  6. Ohio USA stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera): species richness estimation, distribution of functional niche traits, drainage affiliations, and relationships to other states.

    PubMed

    Dewalt, R Edward; Cao, Yong; Tweddale, Tari; Grubbs, Scott A; Hinz, Leon; Pessino, Massimo; Robinson, Jason L

    2012-01-01

    Ohio is an eastern USA state that historically was >70% covered in upland and mixed coniferous forest; about 60% of it glaciated by the Wisconsinan glacial episode. Its stonefly fauna has been studied in piecemeal fashion until now. The assemblage of Ohio stoneflies was assessed from over 4,000 records accumulated from 18 institutions, new collections, and trusted literature sources. Species richness totaled 102 with estimators Chao2 and ICE Mean predicting 105.6 and 106.4, respectively. Singletons and doubletons totaled 18 species. All North American families were represented with Perlidae accounted for the highest number of species at 34. The family Peltoperlidae contributed a single species. Most species had univoltine-fast life cycles with the vast majority emerging in summer, although there was a significant component of winter stoneflies. Nine United States Geological Survey hierarchical drainage units level 6 (HUC6) were used to stratify specimen data. Species richness was significantly related to the number of unique HUC6 locations, but there was no relationship with HUC6 drainage area. A nonparametric multidimensional scaling analysis found that larger HUC6s in the western part of the state had similar assemblages with lower species richness that were found to align with more savanna and wetland habitat. Other drainages having richer assemblages were aligned with upland deciduous and mixed coniferous forests of the east and south where slopes were higher. The Ohio assemblage was most similar to the well-studied fauna of Indiana (88 spp.) and Kentucky (108 spp.), two neighboring states. Many rare species and several high quality stream reaches should be considered for greater protection.

  7. Larvae of Chironomids (Insecta, Diptera) Encountered in the Mantle Cavity of Zebra Mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Bivalvia, Dreissenidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastitsky, Sergey E.; Samoilenko, Vera M.

    2005-02-01

    The paper includes data on species composition of chironomid larvae which were encountered in the mantle cavity of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within 7 waterbodies in the Republic of Belarus. All were found to be free-living species commonly present in periphyton and/or benthos. A long-term study of the seasonal dynamics of these larvae in Dreissena did not reveal any typical pattern. Our data suppose that chironomids do not have an obligate association with zebra mussels and possibly enter their mantle cavity inadvertently.

  8. Annotated catalogue of the Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) of the Afrotropical Region, with the description of seven new genera

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, James E.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Tachinidae of the Afrotropical Region are catalogued and seven genera and eight species are newly described. There are 237 genera and 1126 species recognized, of which 101 genera and 1043 species are endemic to the region. The catalogue is based on examination of the primary literature comprising about 525 references as well as numerous name-bearing types and other specimens housed in collections. Taxa are arranged hierarchically and alphabetically under the categories of subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus (where recognized), species, and rarely subspecies. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms (mostly restricted to Afrotropical taxa) and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country within the Afrotropical Region and by larger geographical divisions outside the region. Additional information is given in the form of notes, numbering about 300 in the catalogue section. Seven genera and eight species are described as new: Afrophylax Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Austrosolieria Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Austrosolieria londti Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa) and Austrosolieria freidbergi Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Malawi) (Tachininae, Leskiini); Carceliathrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Filistea Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927, gen. n. and Filistea verbekei Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Uganda) (Exoristinae, Blondeliini); Mesnilotrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976, gen. n. (Dexiinae, Dexiini); Myxophryxe Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n., Myxophryxe murina Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), Myxophryxe regalis Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), and Myxophryxe satanas Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa) (Exoristinae, Goniini); and Stiremania Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Stiremania karoo Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa), and Stiremania robusta Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa) (Exoristinae, Goniini). Paraclara Bezzi, 1908 is transferred from the Cylindromyiini to the Hermyini, comb. n. Sarrorhina Villeneuve, 1936 is transferred from the Minthoini to the Graphogastrini, comb. n. Three genera are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region: Madremyia Townsend, 1916 (Eryciini); Paratrixa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 (Blondeliini); and Simoma Aldrich, 1926 (Goniini). Three genera previously recorded from the Afrotropical Region are no longer recognized from the region: Calozenillia Townsend, 1927 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); Eurysthaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); and Trixa Meigen, 1824 (Palaearctic and Oriental regions). Two species are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region: Amnonia carmelitana Kugler, 1971 (Ethiopia, Kenya); and Simoma grahami Aldrich, 1926 (Namibia). Three species previously recorded from the Afrotropical Region are no longer recognized from the region: Euthera peringueyi Bezzi, 1925 (Oriental Region); Hamaxia incongrua Walker, 1860 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); Leucostoma tetraptera (Meigen, 1824) (Palaearctic Region). New replacement names are proposed for five preoccupied names of Afrotropical species: Billaea rubida O’Hara & Cerretti for Phorostoma rutilans Villeneuve, 1916, preoccupied in the genus Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Musca rutilans Fabricius, 1781, nom. n.; Cylindromyia braueri O’Hara & Cerretti for Ocyptera nigra Villeneuve, 1918, preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Glossidionophora nigra Bigot, 1885, nom. n.; Cylindromyia rufohumera O’Hara & Cerretti for Ocyptera scapu

  9. A new species of mealybug in the genus Paracoccus Ezzat & McConnell from North America (Insecta: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Stocks, Ian C

    2014-10-14

    A probably adventive mealybug species, Paracoccus gillianae sp. n. is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely to have been via the horticultural trade of Agave spp. (Liliales: Agavaceae) and other host plants in the family Agavaceae. Illustrations of the adult female and male, and diagnosis from congeners in the New World and from other Paracoccus species known to feed on Agavaceae, are provided.

  10. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) based on multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Tian, Ying; Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  11. Functional morphology of a double-walled multiporous olfactory sensillum: the sensillum coeloconicum of Bombyx mori (Insecta, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Hunger, T; Steinbrecht, R A

    1998-02-01

    The fine structure of coeloconic sensilla of Bombyx mori was studied in cryofixed specimens. These sensilla belong to the category of double-walled wall-pore sensilla. The pegs are approximately 10 microm long, located in pits on the dorsal side of the antennal branches, and longitudinally grooved in their distal half (grooved surface approximately 30 microm(2)). The central lumen contains the outer dendritic segments of usually five receptor cells, and is surrounded by up to 15 partially fused cuticular fingers. The peripheral lumina of these cuticular fingers are filled with material resembling wax-canal filaments. Radial spoke channels (approximately 600 per peg), each 10-20 nm wide, connect the central lumen with the longitudinal groove channels. Groove and spoke channels are assumed to mediate the transport of odorant molecules from the outer epicuticular surface layers to the sensory dendrites. Thus the double-walled wall-pore sensilla represent a bauplan essentially different from single-walled wall-pore sensilla; the reason, however, why the two types are found together throughout the insect orders remains enigmatic. Other peculiar features of the coeloconic sensilla of the silkmoth are invaginations of the outer dendritic segments and direct contacts between the receptor cell somata. The latter may be the structural correlate to electrophysiological observations indicative of peripheral interaction between the receptor neurons. All three auxiliary cells have elaborately folded apical plasma membranes studded with portasomes and associated with an abundance of mitochondria; basally they often contact tracheal branches. As compared to the auxiliary cells of the single-walled olfactory sensilla of the same species, all the mentioned features are much more prominent and hint to a higher ion pumping activity at the border to the sensillum-lymph cavities. PMID:18627836

  12. Molecular characterization, tissue distribution, and ultrastructural localization of adipokinetic hormones in the CNS of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera, Insecta).

    PubMed

    Kodrík, Dalibor; Stašková, Tereza; Jedličková, Veronika; Weyda, František; Závodská, Radka; Pflegerová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) are a group of insect metabolic neurohormones, synthesized and released from an endocrine retrocerebral gland, the corpus cardiacum (CC). Small amounts of AKH have also been identified in the brain, although their role in this organ is not clear. To address this gap in the knowledge about insect brain biology, we studied the nucleotide sequence, tissue distribution, and subcellular localization of AKHs in the brain and CC of the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus. This insect expresses two AKHs; the octapeptides Pyrap-AKH and Peram-CAH-II, the presence of which was documented in the both studied organs. In situ hybridization and quantitative reverse-transcription (q-RT)-PCR revealed the expression of the genes encoding for both AKHs not only in the CC, but also in brain. Electron microscopy analysis of the brain revealed the presence of these hormones in specialized secretory granules localized predominantly in the cellular bodies of neurons. The hormones might be transported from the granules into the axons, where they could play a role in neuronal signaling. Under acute stress induced by the injection of 3μmol KCl, the level of AKHs in the brain increased to a greater extent than that in the CC. These results might indicate an enhanced role of brain-derived AKHs in defence reaction under acute stress situations. PMID:25449136

  13. DNA-based identification of forensically important species of Sarcophagidae (Insecta: Diptera) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Napoleão, K S; Mello-Patiu, C A; Oliveira-Costa, J; Takiya, D M; Silva, R; Moura-Neto, R S

    2016-01-01

    Sarcophagidae, or flesh flies, are of great importance in forensic entomology, but their effective application requires precise taxonomic identification, which relies almost exclusively on characteristics of the male genitalia. Given that female flies and larvae are most abundant in animal carcasses or on corpses, precise morphological identification can be difficult; therefore, DNA sequencing can be an additional tool for use in taxonomic identification. This paper analyzes part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from three Sarcophagidae species of forensic importance in the City of Rio de Janeiro: Oxysarcodexia fluminensis, Peckia chrysostoma, and Peckia intermutans. COI fragments of 400 bp from 36 specimens of these three species were sequenced. No intraspecific differences were found among specimens of O. fluminensis, but P. chrysostoma and P. intermutans each had two haplotypes, ranging from 0 to 0.7%. The interspecific divergence was 8.5-11.6%, corroborating previously reported findings. PMID:27173314

  14. First Record Of The Order Mecoptera (Insecta) For The Gorgona Island (Colombia), With The Description Of A New Species.

    PubMed

    Ascuntar-Osnas, Oscar; Domínguez, Diana Torres; Ulloa, Patricia Chacón De; Machado, Renato Jose Pires

    2016-01-01

    During a review of material from the project "Assessment of the current status of the faunistic conservation objects from the Gorgona Island: a holistic approach to the ecological evaluation of the Gorgona Natural National Park", conducted 2010‒2011, a male specimen of Pazius Navás, 1913 (Mecoptera: Bittacidae) was found. The genus had been previously recorded in Colombia in the Amazonas and Cundinamarca departments. The specimen described here differs from other species of Pazius by the absence of the aedeagus ventral process, the presence of seven short dorsal spines at the epandrium and shape of the ventral process. This finding represents the first record of the order Mecoptera for Gorgona Island, a new species of Pazius, and the expansion of the genus distribution in Colombia. A detailed morphological description of Pazius gorgonensis n. sp. and an identification key for species of the genus are presented. PMID:27394544

  15. The earwig fauna (Insecta: Dermaptera) of Penang Island, Malaysia, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Masaru; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2016-02-25

    The earwig (Dermaptera) fauna of Penang Island, Malaysia, was evaluated by means of an extensive field survey together with revision of the few published data. Based on the results of the field survey, 31 species are recognized (2 Diplatyidae, 3 Pygidicranidae, 5 Anisolabididae, 2 Labiduridae, 14 Spongiphoridae, 4 Chelisochidae, 1 Forficulidae). Fifteen of these taxa are new to Peninsular Malaysia (=West Malaysia): Diplatys annandalei Burr, 1911, Diplatys mutiara n. sp., Euborellia philippinensis Srivastava, 1979, Metisolabis punctata (Dubrony, 1879), Pseudovostox brindlei Srivastava, 2003, Chaetospania anderssoni Brindle, 1971, Chaetospania javana Borelli, 1926, Chaetospania huisiangi n. sp., Paralabellula boettcheri (Borelli, 1923), Paralabellula rotundifrons (Hincks, 1954), Nesogaster amoenus (Stål, 1855), Hamaxas crassus Borelli, 1926, Proreus coalescens (Borelli, 1927), Hypurgus humeralis (Kirby, 1891), and an unidentified Echinosoma sp. Species composition of the island are compared with the dermapteran fauna of Thailand. Descriptions of females (or female genitalia) are given for some species for the first time.

  16. POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI FROM NORTHERN AND MEXICAN CORN ROOTWORMS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) AND CROSS-AMPLIFICATION WITH OTHER DIABROTICA SPP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) and Mexican corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera zeae) are significant agricultural pests. For the northern corn rootworm, and to a lesser extent, the Mexican corn rootworm, high resolution molecular markers are needed. Here we pres...

  17. Porous channels in the cuticle of the head-arrester system in dragon/damselflies (Insecta:Odonata).

    PubMed

    Gorb, S N

    The ultrastructure of the porous channels (PC) of the postcervical sclerite (SPC), which provides additional head fixation to the neck in adult odonates, was studied using TEM and high resolution SEM microscopy. Single chitin-protein microfibrils, about 0.14 micron thick, are arranged into channels with cylinder-like shapes. The axial rod of the chitin fiber (0.04 micron thick) is located in the center of the cylinder. The orientation of the axial rods was three-dimensionally demonstrated after dissolving the protein cover with NaOH. The PCs are arranged vertically to the surface and pass from the epidermal cells through all the cuticular layers to the surface of the cuticle. In the exo- and endocuticle, the PCs are usually oval in cross-section and about 0.3 micron thick. In the endocuticle, the cross-sectional area of the PCs varies widely, from 0.01-0.15 micron2. The shape of the PC is determined by the macromolecular organization of the chitin-protein microfibrils: the long axis of the channel is orientated parallel to the axis of the preferred orientation of the cuticular microfibrils. The microfibrils tend to follow the line of the channel very closely. In fractures orientated perpendicular to the surface, the PC resembles a ribbon-like construction, which was clearly demonstrated by casts. The strongly parallel orientation of PCs in the deep layers of the cuticle changes within the microtrichia (MT), and they begin to be curved. Numerous PCs pass through the microtrichium, and most of them end on its side wall. PCs usually contain channel filaments about 0.09 micron thick. Usually, a single channel contained one filament, but channels located in the deep layers of the endocuticle have from one to five single filaments. The filaments were observed in the intact cuticle and in the cuticle enzymatically treated with chitinase, while in the cuticle treated with NaOH filaments were absent. The porous channel system of the odonate arrester is interpreted as a device transporting adhesive excretions from the epidermal cells to the cuticular surface.

  18. Augmentation and Evaluation of a Parasitoid, Encarsia inaron, and a Predator, Clitostethus arcuatus, for Biological Control of the Pomegranate Whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pomegranate whitefly, Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), attacks at least 60 plant species of economic importance including pomegranate (Punica granatum), apple (Malus domestica), pear (Pyrus communis) and ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). A study was conducted to evaluate the b...

  19. Morphological features of larvae of Drusus plicatus Radovanović (Insecta, Trichoptera) from the Republic of Macedonia with molecular, ecological, ethological, and distributional notes.

    PubMed

    Kučinić, Mladen; Previšić, Ana; Mihoci, Iva; Krpač, Vladimir; Živić, Ivana; Stojanović, Katarina; Vojvoda, Ana Mrnjavčić; Katušić, Luka

    2016-01-01

    A description of the larva of Drusus plicatus Radovanović is given for the first time. The most important diagnostic characters enabling separation from larvae of the other Drusinae from the southeast Europe are listed. Molecular, ecological, and ethological features and distribution patterns of the species are given. Additionally, information on the sympatric caddisfly species of the three springs where larvae and adults of Drusus plicatus were found and presented. PMID:27408591

  20. Geographic distribution of Gryllotalpa stepposa in south-eastern Europe, with first records for Romania, Hungary and Serbia (Insecta, Orthoptera, Gryllotalpidae).

    PubMed

    Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Puskás, Gellért; Ivković, Slobodan; Borisov, Simeon; Gavril, Viorel Dumitru; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Described from the steppe zones north of the Black Sea, Caucasus, and central Asia, Gryllotalpa stepposa Zhantiev was recently recorded from a few localities in Greece, R. Macedonia, and Bulgaria. In May 2015, several specimens were collected from Ivrinezu Mare in Romania, which suggested a continuous distribution area of the species, stretching from the central Balkans to central Asia. Thus, to reveal its actual range of occurrence, a survey of several Orthoptera collections became mandatory and, as expected, a large number of misidentified specimens of Gryllotalpa stepposa were discovered, providing new data on the species distribution in south-eastern Europe, including also the first records of this mole cricket in Serbia and Hungary. Here a full locality list is presented of this species west of Ukraine and Moldova and the current geographic distribution of the genus Gryllotalpa in the Balkans is revised. A key for distinguishing the mole crickets in south-eastern Europe and a distribution map for this region are presented. PMID:27551213