von Dohlen, C D; Moran, N A
Homoptera and Heteroptera comprise a large insect assemblage, the Hemiptera. Many of the plant sap-sucking Homoptera possess unusual and complex life histories and depend on maternally inherited, intracellular bacteria to supplement their nutritionally deficient diets. Presumably in connection with their diet and lifestyles, the morphology of many Homoptera has become greatly reduced, leading to major controversies regarding the phylogenetic affiliations of homopteran superfamilies. The most fundamental question concerns whether the Homoptera as a whole are monophyletic. Recent studies based on morphology have argued that the Homoptera Sternorrhyncha (Aphidoidea, Coccoidea, Psylloidea, Aleyrodoidea) is a sister group to a group comprising the Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha (Fulgoroidea, Cicadoidea, Cercopoidea, Cicadelloidea) and the Heteroptera, making the Homoptera paraphyletic. We sequenced the 5' 580-680 base pairs of small-subunit (18S) ribosomal DNA from a selection of Homoptera, Hemiptera, and their putative outgroups, the Thysanoptera and Psocoptera, to apply molecular characters to the problem of Homoptera phylogeny. Parsimony, distance, maximum-likelihood, and bootstrap methods were used to construct trees from sequence data and assess support for the topologies produced. Molecular data corroborate current views of relationships within the Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha based on morphology and strongly support the hypothesis of homopteran paraphyly as stated above. In addition, it was found that Homoptera Sternorrhyncha have extra, GC-rich sequence concentrated in a variable region of the 18S rDNA, which indicates that some unique evolutionary processes are occurring in this lineage.
The fungus Aschersonia basicystison scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidae) is described and illustrated on the basis of the examination of Venezuelan collections, using transmitted light and differential interference contrast optical microscopy.
Gavrilov-Zimin, Ilya A.; Stekolshchikov, Andrey V.; Gautam, D.C.
Abstract Parallel trends of chromosomal evolution in Aphidococca are discussed, based on the catalogue of chromosomal numbers and genetic systems of scale insects by Gavrilov (2007) and the new catalogue for aphids provided in the present paper. To date chromosome numbers have been reported for 482 species of scale insects and for 1039 species of aphids, thus respectively comprising about 6% and 24% of the total number of species. Such characters as low modal numbers of chromosomes, heterochromatinization of part of chromosomes, production of only two sperm instead of four from each primary spermatocyte, physiological sex determination, "larval" meiosis, wide distribution of parthenogenesis and chromosomal races are considered as a result of homologous parallel changes of the initial genotype of Aphidococca ancestors. From a cytogenetic point of view, these characters separate Aphidococca from all other groups of Paraneoptera insects and in this sense can be considered as additional taxonomic characters. In contrast to available paleontological data the authors doubt that Coccinea with their very diverse (and partly primitive) genetic systems may have originated later then Aphidinea with their very specialised and unified genetic system. PMID:26312130
Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria
Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants.
Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria
Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580
Hafizal, M. M.; Idris, A. B.
The leafhopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) are considered as important rice pest in Asia including Malaysia. As phloem-feeders, they can cause loss to rice growth development and their population abundance is thought to be influenced by rice growth stages. This study was conducted to examine the population of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae between different rice growth stages, i.e. before and after rice planting periods. Monthly sampling was conducted in three sites in Kuala Selangor at before planting, vegetative, reproductive, maturing stages and post-harvest period using sweeping net and light traps. Population abundance of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae were found to be significantly different and positively correlated with different rice growth stages (p<0.05). Delphacidae was most abundance during maturing stages, while the abundance of Cicadelidae peaked during reproductive stage of rice growth. Differences in temporal abundance of the population of these two homopterans indicated adaptive feeding strategy to reduce food competition.
Background Efforts to solve higher-level evolutionary relationships within the class Insecta by using mitochondrial genomic data are hindered due to fast sequence evolution of several groups, most notably Hymenoptera, Strepsiptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Thysanoptera. Accelerated rates of substitution on their sequences have been shown to have negative consequences in phylogenetic inference. In this study, we tested several methodological approaches to recover phylogenetic signal from whole mitochondrial genomes. As a model, we used two classical problems in insect phylogenetics: The relationships within Paraneoptera and within Holometabola. Moreover, we assessed the mitochondrial phylogenetic signal limits in the deeper Eumetabola dataset, and we studied the contribution of individual genes. Results Long-branch attraction (LBA) artefacts were detected in all the datasets. Methods using Bayesian inference outperformed maximum likelihood approaches, and LBA was avoided in Paraneoptera and Holometabola when using protein sequences and the site-heterogeneous mixture model CAT. The better performance of this method was evidenced by resulting topologies matching generally accepted hypotheses based on nuclear and/or morphological data, and was confirmed by cross-validation and simulation analyses. Using the CAT model, the order Strepsiptera was recovered as sister to Coleoptera for the first time using mitochondrial sequences, in agreement with recent results based on large nuclear and morphological datasets. Also the Hymenoptera-Mecopterida association was obtained, leaving Coleoptera and Strepsiptera as the basal groups of the holometabolan insects, which coincides with one of the two main competing hypotheses. For the Paraneroptera, the currently accepted non-monophyly of Homoptera was documented as a phylogenetic novelty for mitochondrial data. However, results were not satisfactory when exploring the entire Eumetabola, revealing the limits of the phylogenetic
Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...
Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...
Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas
Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this
Carapelli, Antonio; Vannini, Laura; Nardi, Francesco; Boore,Jeffrey L.; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano; Frati, Francesco
In this study, the nearly complete sequence (14,519 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera) is described. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are in the arrangement known to be ancestral for insects, but three tRNA genes (trnA, trnS(gcu), and trnL(uag)) have transposed to derived positions and there are three tandem copies of trnH, each of which is potentially functional. All of these rearrangements except for that of trnL(uag) is within the short span between nad3 and nad4 and there are numerous blocks of unassignable sequence in this region, perhaps as remnants of larger scale predisposing rearrangements. X. vesparum mtDNA nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward As and Ts, as is typical for insect mtDNAs. There is also significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the J-strand being richer in A than T and in C than G, and the N-strand showing an opposite skew for complementary pairs of nucleotides. The hypothetical secondary structure of the 16S rRNA has also been reconstructed, obtaining a structural model similar to that of other insects.
Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari:Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera:Aphidiae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological c...
Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard
Cicadas (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae) use acoustic signalling for mate attraction and perceive auditory signals by a tympanal organ in the second abdominal segment. The main structural features of the ear are the tympanum, the sensory organ consisting of numerous scolopidial cells, and the cuticular link between sensory neurones and tympanum (tympanal ridge and apodeme). Here, a first investigation of the postembryonic development of the auditory system is presented. In insects, sensory neurones usually differentiate during embryogenesis, and sound-perceiving structures form during postembryogenesis. Cicadas have an elongated and subterranian postembryogenesis which can take several years until the final moult. The neuroanatomy and functional morphology of the auditory system of the cicada Okanagana rimosa (Say) are documented for the adult and the three last larval stages. The sensory organ and the projection of sensory afferents to the CNS are present in the earliest stages investigated. The cuticular structures of the tympanum, the tympanal frame holding the tympanum, and the tympanal ridge differentiate in the later stages of postembryogenesis. Thus, despite the different life styles of larvae and adults, the neuronal components of the cicada auditory system develop already during embryogenesis or early postembryogenesis, and sound-perceiving structures like tympana are elaborated later in postembryogenesis. The life cycle allows comparison of cicada development to other hemimetabolous insects with respect to the influence of specially adapted life cycle stages on auditory maturation. The neuronal development of the auditory system conforms to the timing in other hemimetabolous insects.
Miao, Jin; Han, Bao-Yu; Zhang, Qing-He
Feeding activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis (Gothe) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), on resistant and susceptible cultivars of tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) were recorded and analyzed using the direct current electrical penetration graph (EPG) system. Six distinct EPG waveforms characterizing the feeding behavior of the tea green leafhopper, categorized as waveforms A, C, E, S, F, and R, were obtained during the investigation. Duration of passive ingestion, possibly of phloem (E), was the longest among all the probing waveforms on susceptible cultivars, whereas durations of the salivation (S) waveform and stylet work waveform (F) became longer on resistant cultivars. The durations of waveforms S and F on the resistant cultivar Jiandecha were slightly longer than those on the less resistant cultivar Yunguidaye, and both were significantly longer than those on the susceptible cultivars Hangzhoudaye and Zhushan-1. Waveform E was shorter on the resistant cultivar Jiandecha than on the less resistant cultivars Yunguidaye and was significantly shorter than on the susceptible cultivars (Hangzhoudaye and Zhushan-1). It is suggested that E, S, and F are the important waveforms related to leafhopper feeding behavior and tea plant resistance. Based on the results, the resistance levels of tea cultivars against the tea leafhopper can be evaluated quickly by direct current EPG.
Larivière, Marie-Claude; Larochelle, André
An updated checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) is provided as a supplement to the "Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue" of Larivière and Larochelle (2004: Fauna of New Zealand 50). A total of 142 genera and 319 species belonging to 28 families are recorded for New Zealand. Changes to the 2004 catalogue are documented. The synonymy and primary type information of taxa described between 2004 and July 2013 are also given. The presence of the anthocorid Macrotrachelia nigronitens in New Zealand is confirmed.
Bella, Salvatore; Cupani, Sebastiano; D'urso, Vera; Laudonia, Stefania; Sinno, Martina; Viggiani, Gennaro
A new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), O. balcluthae Viggiani et Laudonia n. sp., is described as a parasitoid of the eggs of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) associated with crimson fountain grass, Pennisetum setaceum (Poaceae) in Italy. Morphological features and biology of the new species are discussed and illustrated. The 28S-D2 and ITS2 regions were successfully amplified and sequenced.
Gingery, Roy E; Anderson, Robert J; Redinbaugh, Margaret G
To determine the most economical and efficient means to maintain cultures of Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) and to screen for host plant resistance to MCDV, we evaluated the effects of temperature, light intensity, daylength, atmospheric pressure, and leafhopper gender on the frequency of transmission of MCDV by Grarminella nigrifrons Forbes (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Female leafhoppers transmitted at higher frequencies than males under most conditions. In temperature studies, transmission rates for both male and female leafhoppers progressively increased as temperatures rose from 20 to 30 degrees C. At high light intensities, both males and females transmitted at greater frequencies than they did at low. Similarly, longer day lengths were correlated with higher transmission rates for both sexes. No significant differences in transmission rates were observed in response to differences in atmospheric pressure. The results also showed that transmission rates under most conditions are high enough to overcome potential ambiguities caused by inoculated susceptible plants that do not become infected (disease escapes) when screening for resistance.
Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali
The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest in many countries of the world because of its polyphagous nature and has caused huge losses to the cotton crop. The aim of present study was to explore the mode of inheritance and mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in P. solenopsis. After five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315-fold resistance compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The LC50 values of progenies of both reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1') showed no significant difference and degree of dominance values were 0.56 and 0.93 for F1 and F1', respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance and Lande's method revealed that more than one factors were involved in acetamiprid resistance. Realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.58 for acetamiprid resistance. A synergism study of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) with acetamiprid also showed the significant presence of P-450 mono-oxygenase and esterase in the acetamiprid resistance. Hence, acetamiprid resistance in the P. solenopsis was autosomal, incompletely dominant and polygenic. These results are a source of basic information to design and plan fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis.
Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A
Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.
Lessio, Federico; Alma, Alberto
The spatial distribution of the nymphs of Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera Cicadellidae), the vector of grapevine flavescence dorée (Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis, 16Sr-V), was studied by applying Taylor's power law. Studies were conducted from 2002 to 2005, in organic and conventional vineyards of Piedmont, northern Italy. Minimum sample size and fixed precision level stop lines were calculated to develop appropriate sampling plans. Model validation was performed, using independent field data, by means of Resampling Validation of Sample Plans (RVSP) resampling software. The nymphal distribution, analyzed via Taylor's power law, was aggregated, with b = 1.49. A sample of 32 plants was adequate at low pest densities with a precision level of D0 = 0.30; but for a more accurate estimate (D0 = 0.10), the required sample size needs to be 292 plants. Green's fixed precision level stop lines seem to be more suitable for field sampling: RVSP simulations of this sampling plan showed precision levels very close to the desired levels. However, at a prefixed precision level of 0.10, sampling would become too time-consuming, whereas a precision level of 0.25 is easily achievable. How these results could influence the correct application of the compulsory control of S. titanus and Flavescence dorée in Italy is discussed.
Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem
The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) has gained recognition as a key pest due to its invasive nature throughout the world. The P. solenopsis has a wide range of host plants and damages the cotton crop in various parts of the world. In view of the economic importance of this pest, a study on selection, inheritance and mechanism of spinosad resistance was conducted on P. solenopsis. Selection of field collected P. solenopsis for seven generations with spinosad resulted in a high resistance ratio of 282.45-fold. Genetic studies of spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis indicated that maternal effects are not involved in spinosad resistance; and resistance development is an autosomal and incompletely dominant trait. The number of genes involved in spinosad resistance was determined to be more than one, suggesting that resistance is controlled by multiple loci. The realized heritability (h (2)) value for spinosad resistance was 0.94. Synergism bioassays of spinosad with piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate showed that spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis could be due to esterase only. The study provides the basic information for implementation of effective resistance management strategies to control P. solenopsis.
Zhang, Yu-Bo; Gerken, Sarah; Chen, Xiang-Sheng
A replacement name is proposed for genus Dayus Gerken, 2001 (Crustacea: Peracarida: Cumacea), preoccupied by Dayus Mahmood, 1967 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The following changes are proposed: Jennidayus new replacement name = Dayus Gerken, 2001 (nec Mahmood 1967); Jennidayus pharocheradus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus pharocheradus Gerken, 2001; Jennidayus acanthus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus acanthus Gerken, 2001; Jennidayus makrokolosus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus makrokolosus Gerken, 2001.
Sweet, Andrew D; Allen, Julie M; Johnson, Kevin P
While parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) have historically been an important model taxon for understanding host-parasite coevolution, very few molecular markers have been developed for phylogenetic analysis. The current markers are insufficient to resolve many of the deeper nodes in this group; therefore, sequences from additional genetic loci are necessary. Here, we design primers targeting several nuclear protein coding genes based on a complete genome and transcriptome of Pediculus humanus L. plus transcriptomes and modest coverage genomic data from five genera of avian feather lice. These primers were tested on 32 genera of avian feather lice (Ischnocera), including multiple species within some genera. All of the new primer combinations produced sequences for the majority of the genera and had similar or higher divergences than the most widely used nuclear protein-coding gene in lice, EF-1α. These results indicate that these new loci will be useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships among parasitic lice.
Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong
Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset.
Ejaz, Masood; Ali Shad, Sarfraz
The Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a major agricultural and horticultural pest of crops throughout the world. To develop a better resistance management strategy for P. solenopsis, we conducted a study on life history parameters of different populations of this pest, one selected with spirotetramat (Spiro-SEL), an unselected (UNSEL) population, and their reciprocal crosses. We also studied the cross-resistance and the stability of spirotetramat resistance. The Spiro-SEL of P. solenopsis exhibited a 328.69-fold resistance compared to the susceptible population (Lab-PK). The Spiro-SEL population also displayed a moderate level of cross-resistance to profenofos and bifenthrin and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin. Resistance to spirotetramat in Spiro-SEL was unstable in the absence of selection. The study of life history parameters showed that there was a significant reduction in fitness parameters of Spiro-SEL population with a relative fitness value of 0.14. There was a significant decrease in survival rate, pupal weight, fecundity, egg hatching percentage, male and female generation time, intrinsic rate of population increase of males and females, biotic potential, and mean relative growth rate. It is concluded that selection with spirotetramat had marked effect on resistance development in P. solenopsis and upon removal of selection pressure spirotetramat resistance declined significantly, indicating unstable resistance. Development of resistance led to high fitness costs for the spirotetramat-selected population. Our study may provide the basic information on spirotetramat resistance and its mechanism to help develop the resistance management strategies.
Seery, David B; Biggins, Dean E; Montenieri, John A; Enscore, Russell E; Tanda, Dale T; Gage, Kenneth L
Burrows within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, were dusted with deltamethrin insecticide to reduce flea (Insecta: Siphonaptera) abundance. Flea populations were monitored pre- and posttreatment by combing prairie dogs and collecting fleas from burrows. A single application of deltamethrin significantly reduced populations of the plague vector Oropsylla hirsuta, and other flea species on prairie dogs and in prairie dog burrows for at least 84 d. A plague epizootic on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge caused high mortality of prairie dogs on some untreated colonies, but did not appear to affect nearby colonies dusted with deltamethrin.
Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N
Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200-700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165-172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m(-1). By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103-129° and SFEs above 20 mN m(-1). Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates.
Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki
Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.
Smith, David R.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.
Abstract Background This is the second in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 47 species of "Symphyta" (Insecta: Hymenoptera), 30 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Argidae) Sterictiphora serotina; (Cimbicidae) Abia americana; (Diprionidae) Monoctenus fulvus; (Orussidae) Orussus terminalis; (Pamphiliidae) Onycholyda luteicornis, Pamphilius ocreatus, P. persicum, P. rileyi; (Pergidae) Acordulecera dorsalis, A. mellina, A. pellucida; (Tenthredinidae) Caliroa quercuscoccineae, Empria coryli, Hoplocampa marlatti, Macrophya cassandra, Monophadnoides conspiculatus, Monophadnus bakeri, Nematus abbotii, Neopareophora litura, Pachynematus corniger, Paracharactus rudis, Periclista marginicollis, Pristiphora banski, P. chlorea, Strongylogaster impressata, S. remota, Taxonus epicera, Thrinax albidopictus, T. multicinctus, Zaschizonyx montana; (Xiphydriidae) Xiphydria tibialis. PMID:27222635
Sweet, Andrew D; Chesser, R Terry; Johnson, Kevin P
Host-parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions. Using molecular sequence data for most phabine species and their lice, we estimated phylogenetic trees for all three groups (pigeons and doves, wing lice and body lice), and compared the phabine (host) tree with both parasite trees using multiple cophylogenetic methods. We found a pattern opposite to that found for New World pigeons and doves, with Australian wing lice showing congruence with their hosts, and body lice exhibiting a lack of congruence. There are no documented records of hippoboscid flies associated with Australian phabines, thus these lice may lack the opportunity to disperse among host species by attaching to hippoboscid flies (phoresis), which could explain these patterns. However, additional sampling for flies is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Large differences in body size among phabine pigeons and doves may also help to explain the congruence of the wing lice with their hosts. It may be more difficult for wing lice than body lice to switch among hosts that vary more dramatically in size. The results from this study highlight how host-parasite coevolutionary histories can vary by region, and how local factors can shape the relationship.
Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; León-Paniagua, Livia; Rivas, Gerardo
A checklist of 44 species of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) recorded in Mexico, belonging to nine genera in six families is given, together with a list of the 63 species of Mexican wild mammal hosts with which they are associated. Summaries of the known geographical records and host relationships for each louse species are presented for each Mexican state. Data were compiled from published and original records, including three new locality records from the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero.
Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu
The modes of diversification of Palaearctic Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) are reconstructed based on data on their host plants and distribution in Russia and the adjacent territories. Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) is originally an Oriental group, which penetrated into the Palaearctic from Southeast Asia. The genus Pediopsoides and species of the genus Macropsis that feed on East Asian oaks have not dispersed beyond broadleaf forests of the Eastern Palaearctic. Apparently, Pediopsis and elm-feeding species of Macropsis initially dispersed throughout the entire broadleaf forest zone. Division of this zone into two widely separated parts in temperate areas of Europe and East Asia (nemoral disjunction), produced closely related vicariant pairs of sister species. The genus Oncopsis and species of Macropsis feeding on Salicaceae dispersed throughout the entire Palaearctic following their host plants. Both lineages penetrated into riparian forests of the foothills and midlands of Central Asia, where they produced endemic species. The Central Asian Macropsis lineage shifted from Salicaceae to trees and shrubs of unrelated families (wild roses, barberry, oleaster, and sea-buckthorn) growing in the same biotopes. Subsequent diversification on those plants produced several separate host-associated species-groups, some of which penetrated following their hosts from riparian forests into arid habitats. One such lineage apparently shifted from shrubs to wormwood species (Artemisia spp.) and thus gave rise to the genus Macropsidius. This genus underwent adaptive radiation on wormwood species in the plains of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia; advancing westward, it formed secondary centres of diversity in Transcaucasia and the Mediterranean. Finally, some lineage of Macropsidius (or its sister-group) switched from feeding on Artemisia to polyphagy, yielding the ancestral form of the genus Hephathus. In general, the evolution of
Mukhopadhyay, Emon; Mazumdar, Abhijit; Joardar, S N; Saha, Goutam K; Banerjee, Dhriti
Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Insecta : Diptera : Ceratopogonidae) are small nematocerous biological vectors of a wide range of pathogens of veterinary and medical importance. They are distributed worldwide but prefer warm, damp, and muddy areas. Female midges require blood for egg maturation. Studies on taxonomy, proper identification keys, and distribution patterns of these flies across different geographical regions of India of these flies are limited. This article provides an updated checklist of Culicoides spp. from India collected from various scattered publications, along with their synonyms and details on their subgenera, geographical distribution, and type locality. A compiled list of different Culicoides vectors from India has also been included separately in this article, along with the type of the diseases spread.
Löwenberg-Neto, Peter; De Carvalho, Claudio J B
Here we provide a geographic database for the Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) that are endemic to Latin America and the Caribbean and non-synanthropic. We summarize the geographic information provided by specimens from three entomological collections in Brazil (DZUP, MNRJ, and MZUEFS) as well as geographic information we compiled in the literature. The resulting 817 species were linked to their geographic records by country, state/province/department, locality, latitude and longitude, including source reference. When coordinates were not provided in specimens' labels, we used the locality information to search geographic coordinates in online gazetteers. We also separated the species by country for a country-species list. These data comprise 250 years of collections and taxonomic studies of Neotropical Muscidae and we expect that it provides a foundation and serves as guide for future studies of systematics and biogeography of the family.
Tsai, Jing-Fu; Hsieh, Yi-Xuan; Rédei, Dávid
Abstract The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Herrich-Schäffer, 1847) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhopalidae: Serinethinae), a species native in tropical and subtropical regions of the New World and accidentally introduced to Hawaii, is reported for the first time from Asia (Taiwan). This record represents the first occurrence of the species in Asia. Stable populations composed of hundreds of specimens were found in seven localities of Kaohsiung City and one locality in Tainan City, and a single specimen was observed in Chiayi County. Aggregating adults and larvae fed in large numbers on the sapindacean plants Cardiospermum halicacabum L. and Koelreuteria elegans (Seem.) A. C. Smith ssp. formosana (Hayata) F. G. Meyer. Diagnostic characters of adults and larvae of Jadera haematoloma are discussed. A review of its bionomics and a bibliography are provided. Initial observations on the populations in southern Taiwan are presented. The species is potentially invasive, and further extension of its range is anticipated in Southeast Asia. PMID:23794880
Martino, N S; Romero, M D; Castro, D C
A detailed redescription of Gyropus parvus (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) is given based on specimens collected from the type host, Ctenomys colburni Allen 1903 , and the type locality, Estancia Huanuluán, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina. We expand and provide new chaetotaxy. New scanning electron microscopy images showing microstructural details of adults and eggs of G. parvus obtained from topotype specimens are included. Sexual dimorphism was mainly shown by differences in body size and abdominal chaetotaxy, with females being 17.5% larger than males and with more setae in each cluster. Significant differences between males and females were also observed in sternal plate measurements. Features described here show homogeneity within type host population. This information contributes to our knowledge of intra- and inter-specific variability for parasite populations. Our investigation constitutes the first collection of G. parvus from the type host and locality since it was described.
Coleman, J.S.; Jones, C.G.
The effect of acute ozone exposure of eastern cottonwood (populus deltoides Bartr.) on the survivorship, reproduction, and development of the aphid Chaitophorus populicola Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae) was investigated. Cottonwoods were exposed to 397 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.20 ppm) ozone or charcoal-filtered air and infested with aphids on leaf plastochron index 5, 40 h after fumigation. Aphid performance was not significantly different on plants exposed to ozone compared with charcoal-filtered air-treated control plants. These data do not support the notion that aphid performance will directly increase on air pollution-stressed plants. We also examined settling and feeding preference of aphids for cottonwood leaves of different developmental ages. Aphids significantly preferred leaf plastochron index 5 to all other leaf ages. These data support hypothesis relating aphid leaf preference to stages of leaf development. Reproduction of the cottonwood leaf rust fungus (Melampsora medusae Thum.) and the imported willow leaf beetle (Plagiodera versicolora Laicharting) are reduced on ozone-fumigated plants (reported elsewhere). If aphid populations are affected by competition with these cottonwood pests for leaf resources, then aphid pest potential may actually increase in areas characterized by episodic ozone concentrations because of ozone-induced decreases in populations of M. medusae and P. versicolora.
Kumar, Prabhat; Poehling, H M
Direct and residual toxicity of NeemAzal-T/S (azadirachtin), Success (spinosad), and abamectin was tested against different life stages of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), under air-conditioned laboratory conditions and in a tropical net greenhouse. NeemAzal-T/S and abamectin deterred the settling of adults on tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill (Solanaceae), plants and consequently reduced egg deposition. No such effect was detected for Success. All three pesticides influenced egg hatch. Effects of NeemAzal-T/ S were significantly altered if applied to different-aged eggs (1, 3, and 5 d old). In contrast, abamectin-treated eggs failed to hatch at any given age class. All three products caused heavy mortality of the three nymphal stages of B. tabaci, with the first instars being most susceptible, abamectin-treated nymphs died within 24 h postapplication. In contrast, 100% nymphal mortality with NeemAzal-T/S and Success was reached 6-9 d postapplication. abamectin caused 100% immature mortality at all residue ages (1, 5, 10, and 15 d) in the laboratory and greenhouse as well. Persistence of Success was comparably high in the laboratory, but in the greenhouse a faster decline of activity was evident by increased egg deposition, egg hatch, and reduced rates of immature mortality. Toxicity of NeemAzal-T/S however gradually declined under greenhouse conditions with time (5 d) postapplication. The findings are discussed within the context of integrated management of whitefly under protected cultivation in the humid tropics.
Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Parrado-Rosselli, Angela; Noriega, Jorge Ari
Abstract: Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park. Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high) in 12 transects (four in each intervention level), and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n = 232, 27 spp.) and Dynastidae (n = 161, 26 spp.) were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2%) from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9%) from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8%) from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7%) from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8%) from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most
Castellanos-Moguel, Judith; González-Barajas, Margarita; Mier, Teresa; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío; Aranda, Eduardo; Toriello, Conchita
To properly characterize several isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, a fungal entomopathogen of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and other insect pests for biocontrol purposes, virulence towards Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) protease activity during propagule production were investigated in monospore cultures (MCs). The virulence of three MCs towards second instar whiteflies was measured and expressed as lethal median concentration (LC50). Number and widthlength ratio of propagules (blastospores, hyphal bodies, short hyphae, submerged conidia) and extracellular proteolytic activity was determined simultaneously in liquid medium. Total protease activity was assayed with azocasein, Pr1 and Pr2 activity was determined with the substrates N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide and N-Benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-pnitroanilide, respectively. Natural variability in virulence, propagule production and cuticle-degrading proteases among isolates was observed. Bioassays showed a LC50 of 1.1 x 1,000, 2.5 x 10,000 and 7.6 x 10,000 conidia/ml for MCs EH-506/3, EH-503/3 and EH-520/3, respectively, EH-506/3 being the most virulent isolate. Isolate EH-503/3 produced the highest yield of propagules (7.7 x 10000000 propagules/ml), followed by EH-520/3 with 6.4 x 10000000 and EH-506/3 with 1.0 x 10000000 propagules/ml. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity was present in the three MCs. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) activity was highest (745.7 UPr1/ml at 120 h) in the most virulent isolate, EH-506/3, pointing at Pr1 as a phenotypic marker of virulence for P. fumosoroseus. EH-506/3 appears to be a good candidate for whitefly biocontrol due to its high virulence, Pr1 concentration and rapid transition to blastospores in submerged liquid medium.
Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).
Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy
In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that
Fondren, K M; McCullough, D G
The balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a major insect pest of balsam and Fraser fir grown for Christmas trees. Our objectives in this study were to 1) monitor the phenology of A. abietinus in fir plantations; 2) assess relationships among M. abietinus density, tree phenology, and damage to tree foliage; and 3) develop an esthetic injury level for M. abietinus on Christmas trees. We monitored phenology of M. abietinus and fir trees on three commercial Christmas tree plantations in central and northern Lower Michigan for 3 yr (1999-2001). Phenology of M. abietinus fundatrices and sexuparae was strongly correlated with accumulated degree-days (DD) base 10 degrees C. Fundatrices matured by approximately 83 DD(10 degrees C) and sexuparae were first observed at approximately 83-111 DD(10 degrees C). Trees that broke bud approximately 1 wk later than other trees in the same field escaped M. abietinus damage and shoot expansion rate in spring was generally positively correlated with M. abietinus damage. Retail customers surveyed at a choose-and-cut Christmas plantation in 2 yr did not consistently differentiate between similarly sized trees with no, light, and moderate M. abietinus damage, but heavy damage (>50% damaged shoots) did affect customer perception. Similarly, when wholesale grades were assigned, the high quality Grade 1 trees had up to 40% shoot damage, whereas Grade 2 trees had 32-62% shoot damage. Two trees ranked as unsaleable had sparse canopies and distorted needles on 42% to almost 100% of the shoots.
Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.
The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.
Wolf, K W; Joshi, H C
The present study focuses on the restructuring of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton and microtubule-organizing centres (MTOCs) throughout spermatogenesis of a darkling beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera, Insecta). To this end, serial ultrathin sections through male germ cells were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, spindles and young spermatids were isolated from testes under MT-stabilizing conditions and doubly labeled with antibodies against beta- and gamma-tubulin. The latter is a tubulin isoform detected in MTOCs of a wide variety of species. The observations suggest that microtubules may be nucleated from sites with and without high gamma-tubulin content and that these sites do not necessarily possess canonical centrosomes. In a prominent cytoplasmic MT system of primary spermatocytes in prophase, microtubule nucleation apparently occurs in the absence of immunologically detectable gamma-tubulin. At the poles of meiotic spindles, MTs are directly inserted into gamma-tubulin-containing material and this connection is considered responsible for their nucleation. The interzone spindle MTs of telophase cells contain gamma-tubulin and this may confer stability to them. Finally, manchette MTs of spermatids originate in the vicinity of the acrosome precursor but are not inserted into this body. The acrosome precursor is surrounded by a membrane and is clearly detected by the antibody against gamma-tubulin.
Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Johnson, Kevin P; Parker, Patricia G
Differences in dispersal abilities have been implicated for causing disparate evolutionary patterns between Columbicola and Physconelloides lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). However, no study has documented straggling (when lice are found on atypical hosts) rates within these lineages. We used the fact that the Galapagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis (Gould) (Falconiformes) feeds on the Galapagos Dove Zenaida galapagoensis Gould (Columbiformes) within an ecologically simplified setting. The Galapagos Dove is the only typical host of Columbicola macrourae (Wilson) and Physconelloides galapagensis (Kellogg and Huwana) in Galapagos. We quantitatively sampled and found these lice on both bird species. A DNA barcoding approach confirmed that stragglers were derived from Galapagos doves. We also collected a Bovicola sp. louse, likely originating from a goat (Capra hircus). On hawks, C. macrourae was significantly more prevalent than P. galapagensis. On doves, the two lice were equally prevalent and abundant. Differences in prevalence on hawks was a function of differences in straggling rate between lice, and not a reflection of their relative representation within the dove population. This provides further evidence that differences in dispersal abilities may drive differences in the degree of cospeciation in Columbicola and Phyconelloides lice, which have become model systems in evolutionary biology.
Takano, Oona M; Mitchell, Preston S; Gustafsson, Daniel R; Adite, Alphonse; Voelker, Gary; Light, Jessica E
Host associations of highly host-specific chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) across multiple avian species remains fairly undocumented in the West African country of Benin. Two hundred and seventeen bird specimens collected from multiple localities across Benin and housed at the Texas A&M University Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections were examined for lice. Lice were identified and genetic data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF-1ÃÂ± genes) were obtained and phylogenetically analyzed. In total, we found 15 host associations, 7 of which were new to science. Genetically, most lice from Benin were unique and could represent new species. Based on host associations and unique genetic lineages, we estimate we discovered a minimum of 4 and possibly as many as 8 new chewing louse species. Given the lack of current data on chewing louse species distributions in Benin, this study adds to the knowledge of host associations, geographic distribution, and genetic variability of avian chewing louse species in West Africa.
Bai, Ming; Jarvis, Karl; Wang, Shu-Yong; Song, Ke-Qing; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Liang; Li, Wen-Zhu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xing-Ke
Modern grylloblattids are one of the least diverse of the modern insect orders. The thorax changes in morphology might be associated with the changes of the function of the forelegs, wing loss, changes in behavior and adaptation to habitat. As temperature is the main barrier for migration of modern grylloblattids, the range of each species is extremely limited. The potential distribution areas of grylloblattids remain unclear. A second new species of ice crawlers (Insecta: Grylloblattodea), Grylloblattella cheni Bai, Wang et Yang sp. nov., is described from China. The distribution map and key to species of Grylloblattella are given. A comparison of the thorax of extant and extinct Grylloblattodea is presented, with an emphasis on the pronotum using geometric morphometric analysis, which may reflect thorax adaptation and the evolution of Grylloblattodea. Potential global distribution of grylloblattids is inferred. Highly diversified pronota of extinct Grylloblattodea may reflect diverse habitats and niches. The relatively homogeneous pronota of modern grylloblattids might be explained by two hypotheses: synapomorphy or convergent evolution. Most fossils of Grylloblattodea contain an obviously longer meso- and metathorax than prothorax. The length of the meso- and metathorax of modern grylloblattids is normally shorter than the prothorax. This may be associated with the wing loss, which is accompanied by muscle reduction and changes to the thoracic skeleton system. Threats to grylloblattids and several conservation comments are also provided. PMID:20877572
Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P
Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be
Dikow, Rebecca B; Frandsen, Paul B; Turcatel, Mauren; Dikow, Torsten
A high-quality draft genome for Proctacanthus coquilletti (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae) is presented along with transcriptomes for 16 Diptera species from five families: Asilidae, Apioceridae, Bombyliidae, Mydidae, and Tabanidae. Genome sequencing reveals that P. coquilletti has a genome size of approximately 210 Mbp and remarkably low heterozygosity (0.47%) and few repeats (15%). These characteristics helped produce a highly contiguous (N50 = 862 kbp) assembly, particularly given that only a single 2 × 250 bp PCR-free Illumina library was sequenced. A phylogenomic hypothesis is presented based on thousands of putative orthologs across the 16 transcriptomes. Phylogenetic relationships support the sister group relationship of Apioceridae + Mydidae to Asilidae. A time-calibrated phylogeny is also presented, with seven fossil calibration points, which suggests an older age of the split among Apioceridae, Asilidae, and Mydidae (158 mya) and Apioceridae and Mydidae (135 mya) than proposed in the AToL FlyTree project. Future studies will be able to take advantage of the resources presented here in order to produce large scale phylogenomic and evolutionary studies of assassin fly phylogeny, life histories, or venom. The bioinformatics tools and workflow presented here will be useful to others wishing to generate de novo genomic resources in species-rich taxa without a closely-related reference genome.
Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda
The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ 2 = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H’ and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin. PMID:27073600
Surface antigens of Xenorhabdus nematophila (F. Enterobacteriaceae) and Bacillus subtilis (F. Bacillaceae) react with antibacterial factors of Malacosoma disstria (C. Insecta: O. Lepidoptera) hemolymph.
Giannoulis, Paschalis; Brooks, Cory L; Dunphy, Gary B; Niven, Donald F; Mandato, Craig A
Previous research established different interactions of the insect pathogen, Xenorhabdus nematophila and nonpathogen, Bacillus subtilis, with antimicrobial hemocytes and humoral factors of larval Malacosoma disstria [Giannoulis, P., Brooks, C.L., Dunphy, G.B., Mandato, C.A., Niven, D.F., Zakarian, R.J., 2007. Interaction of the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteriaceae) and Bacillus subtilis (Bacillaceae) with the hemocytes of larval Malacosoma disstria (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Lasicocampidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 94, 20-30]. The antimicrobial systems were inhibited by X. nematophila and stimulated by B. subtilis. The bacterial surface antigens participating in these reactions were unknown. Thus, herein the effects of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) from X. nematophila and lipoteichoic acid from B. subtilis on the larval M. disstria immune factors, the hemocytes and phenoloxidase, were determined. Endotoxin elevated the level of damaged hemocytes limiting the removal of X. nematophila from the hemolymph and enhancing the rapid release of bacteria trapped by nodulation. Similar effects were observed with the lipid A moiety of the endotoxin. The effects of lipopolysaccharide and lipid A on the hemocyte activities were abrogated by polymyxin B (an antibiotic that binds to lipid A) confirming lipopolysaccharide as the hemocytotoxin by virtue of the lipid A moiety. Lipoteichoic acid elicited nodulation and enhanced phenoloxidase activation and/or activity. Although lipoidal endotoxin and lipid A inhibited phenoloxidase activation they enhanced the activity of the enzyme. Apolipophorin-III precluded the effects of lipopolysaccharide, lipid A, and lipoteichoic acid on the hemocytes and prophenoloxidase until the antigens exceeded a critical threshold.
Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda
The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ (2) = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H' and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin.
Frandsen, Paul B.; Turcatel, Mauren
A high-quality draft genome for Proctacanthus coquilletti (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae) is presented along with transcriptomes for 16 Diptera species from five families: Asilidae, Apioceridae, Bombyliidae, Mydidae, and Tabanidae. Genome sequencing reveals that P. coquilletti has a genome size of approximately 210 Mbp and remarkably low heterozygosity (0.47%) and few repeats (15%). These characteristics helped produce a highly contiguous (N50 = 862 kbp) assembly, particularly given that only a single 2 × 250 bp PCR-free Illumina library was sequenced. A phylogenomic hypothesis is presented based on thousands of putative orthologs across the 16 transcriptomes. Phylogenetic relationships support the sister group relationship of Apioceridae + Mydidae to Asilidae. A time-calibrated phylogeny is also presented, with seven fossil calibration points, which suggests an older age of the split among Apioceridae, Asilidae, and Mydidae (158 mya) and Apioceridae and Mydidae (135 mya) than proposed in the AToL FlyTree project. Future studies will be able to take advantage of the resources presented here in order to produce large scale phylogenomic and evolutionary studies of assassin fly phylogeny, life histories, or venom. The bioinformatics tools and workflow presented here will be useful to others wishing to generate de novo genomic resources in species-rich taxa without a closely-related reference genome. PMID:28168115
Fumigant toxicity of summer savory and lemon balm oil constituents and efficacy of spray formulations containing the oils to B- and neonicotinoid-resistant Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).
Chae, Song-Hwa; Kim, Soon-Il; Yeon, Seong Hum; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Ahn, Young-Joon
An assessment was made of the fumigant toxicity of 36 constituents from lemon balm oil (LBO) and summer savory oil (SSO) and another additional nine previously identified compounds of the oils, as well as of the control efficacy of four experimental spray formulations containing individual oils (0.5 and 0.1% sprays) and spinosad 10% suspension concentrate (SC) to females from B- and neonicotinoid-resistant Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Based on 24-h LC50 values, Q-biotype females (0.20 microg/cm3) were 40 times less susceptible to dichlorvos than B-biotype females (0.005 microg/cm3). Thymol (LC50, 0.35 microg/cm3) and carvacrol (0.56 microg/cm3) were the most toxic compounds toward Q-biotype females, followed by (1S)-(-)-borneol, alpha-terpineol, nerol, linalool, and carvone (1.06-1.38 microg/cm3). The toxicity of these compounds was virtually identical toward both biotype females, indicating that the terpenoids and the insecticides (neonicotinoids and dichlorvos) do not share a common mode of action or elicit cross-resistance. The 0.5% spray of LBO, SSO, and spinosad 10% SC resulted in >90% mortality toward both biotype females. Global efforts to reduce the level of toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on LBO- and SSO-derived materials as potential contact-action fumigants for the control of B. tabaci populations.
El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Elgharbawy, Ali A.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al
Abstract The first list of insects of Al-Baha Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was published in 2013 and contained a total of 582 species; an addendum to this list was published in 2015 adding 142 species and bringing the total number recorded from the province to 724 insect species representing 17 orders. The previous two studies excluded Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve (SANR), so the present study in SANR, as belonging to Al-Baha Province, are complementary to the previous two. The present study presents a preliminary list of Diptera (Insecta) in SANR, with remarks on their zoogeography, and is the first of a series of planned ecological and systematic studies on different insect orders as one of the outputs of a project proposed to study the entire insect fauna of SANR. A total number of 119 Diptera species belonging to 87 genera, 31 tribes, 42 subfamilies, and representing 30 families has been recorded from SANR in the present study. Some species have been identified only to the genus level and listed herein only because this is the first time to record their genera in KSA. Fourteen of the species are recorded for the first time for KSA, namely: Forcipomyia sahariensis Kieffer, 1923 [Ceratopogonidae]; Chaetosciara sp. [Sciaridae]; Neolophonotus sp.1; Neolophonotus sp.2; Promachus sinaiticus Efflatoun, 1934; Saropogon longicornis (Macquart, 1838); Saropogon sp. [Asilidae]; Spogostylum tripunctatum (Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818) [Bombyliidae]; Phycus sp. [Therevidae]; Hemeromyia sp.; Meoneura palaestinensis Hennig, 1937 [Carnidae]; Desmometopa inaurata Lamb, 1914 [Milichiidae]; Stomoxys niger Macquart, 1851 [Muscidae]; and Sarcophaga palestinensis (Lehrer, 1998) [Sarcophagidae]. Zoogeographic affinities of recorded fly species suggest a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region (46%) than to the Palearctic region (23.5%) or the Oriental region (2.5%). This supports the previous studies’ conclusions and emphasizes the fact that parts of the Arabian
Mäenpää, K; Kukkonen, J V K
The discharge of surfactants, such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), into water bodies leads to accumulation of the chemicals in the sediments and may thus pose a problem to benthic organisms. To study the bioaccumulation of surfactants, Oligochaeta worm Lumbriculus variegatus was exposed to sediment-spiked, [14C]-labeled 4-NP and 4-(2-dodecyl)-benzene sulfonate (C12-LAS) in three different sediments (S1-S3). The sediments were characterized for organic carbon (OC) content and particle size distribution. The acute toxicity was examined by exposing L. variegatus and three to four instar Chironomus riparius (Insecta) larvae in water-only exposure to 4-NP and LAS at different concentrations. After 48-h exposure, lethal water concentrations (LC50) and lethal body residues (LBR50) were estimated using liquid scintillation counting. Chronic toxicity was evaluated in two different sediments by exposing first instar C. riparius larvae to sediment-spiked chemicals at different concentrations. After 10 days, the sublethal effects of surfactants were observed by measuring wet weight and head capsule length. Finally, another 10-day test was set up in order to measure the LAS body residues associated with sublethal effects in C. riparius in S2 sediment. The bioaccumulation test revealed that the bioaccumulation of both 4-NP and LAS increased as the sediment organic matter content decreased. It is assumed that the chemical binding to organic material decreased chemical bioavailability. The acute toxicity tests showed that L. variegatus was more tolerant of 4-NP, and C. riparius was more tolerant of LAS when based on water exposure concentration. The LBR-estimates revealed, however, that L. variegatus tolerated clearly higher tissue residues of both chemicals compared with C. riparius. Both chemicals had sublethal effects on C. riparius growth in sediment exposure, reducing larvae wet weight and head capsule size. 4-NP, however, showed an irregular
Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R
As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome
Friedemann, Katrin; Beutel, Rolf G
The pretarsal arolium serves as an attachment device in many groups of insects, enabling them to walk efficiently on smooth surfaces, where claws alone do not provide sufficient foothold. The arolia of representatives of all major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha are described and illustrated, mainly using scanning electron microscopy and histology. Glands inside the lumen of the arolia are described for the first time in this group. It is shown that the morphology of arolia within Auchenorrhyncha differs considerably. Some of them are even distinctly bilobed. The cuticle of the contact zone is thickened and formed of branching chitinous rods. In some cases, two layers of rods oriented in different directions were found. An extended definition of "arolium" is proposed.
Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.
Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106
Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.
Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae). Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Stereolidae Rafinesque, 1815 nom. oblitum (Throscidae) and Lophocaterini Crowson, 1964 over Lycoptini Casey, 1890 nom. oblitum (Trogossitidae); Monotoma Herbst, 1799 nom. protectum over Monotoma Panzer, 1792 nom. oblitum (Monotomidae); Pediacus Shuckard, 1839 nom. protectum over Biophloeus Dejean, 1835 nom. oblitum (Cucujidae), Pachypus Dejean, 1821 nom. protectum over Pachypus Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae), Sparrmannia Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Leocaeta Dejean, 1833 nom. oblitum and Cephalotrichia Hope, 1837 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae). PMID:21594053
Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Reilly, Charles C
Three species of aphids attack pecan foliage, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, and cause economic damage. We tested a kaolin-based particle film against one of these aphid species, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis). Effect of particle film on host selection, adult mortality, and production of nymphs by M. caryaefoliae was tested on seedling pecans in the laboratory. Fewer M. caryaefoliae adults selected treated foliage compared with untreated foliage. A higher percentage of adults that did select treated foliage were recovered from upper leaf surfaces compared with the percentage of adults recovered from upper leaf surfaces of untreated leaves. Observations with a microscope revealed an accumulation of particle film on aphid body parts, especially on tarsi, and strongly suggests that aphid mobility was restricted. Adult mortality was higher on treated foliage and led to an overall decrease in production of nymphs on those seedlings. In addition, we measured spectral properties of treated seedling pecan foliage. Light reflectance by treated foliage was increased and absorptance decreased compared with control foliage whereas transmittance of light through control and particle film-treated leaves was similar. We did not detect any phytotoxic effect on pecan due to application of particle film.
Kuznetsova, Valentina; Aguin-Pombo, Dora
Abstract A comprehensive review of cytogenetic features is provided for the large hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha, which currently contains approximately 42,000 valid species. This review is based on the analysis of 819 species, 483 genera, and 31 families representing all presently recognized Auchenorrhyncha superfamilies, e.i. Cicadoidea (cicadas), Cercopoidea (spittle bugs), Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers), Myerslopioidea (ground-dwelling leafhoppers), and Fulgoroidea (planthoppers). History and present status of chromosome studies are described, as well as the structure of chromosomes, chromosome counts, trends and mechanisms of evolution of karyotypes and sex determining systems, their variation at different taxonomic levels and most characteristic (modal) states, occurrence of parthenogenesis, polyploidy, B-chromosomes and chromosome rearrangements, and methods used for cytogenetic analysis of Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:26807037
Voegtlin, David; Villalobos, William; Sánchez, Marco Vinicio; Saborio-R, Guido; Rivera, Carmen
This guide is a compilation of limited morphological and biological information on the winged morphs of 60 species of aphids that have been collected in Costa Rica. It should not be viewed as a definitive taxonomic treatise on the aphids of Costa Rica, rather it is a tool that can be used to assist in research on the biology, host plant relationships, taxonomy, and virus transmission capabilities of aphids. Each species is covered in an identical manner. Morphological and biological information is provided in both Spanish and English as well as photographs of slide mounted specimens. Keys are provided to help the user in identifying the species. Most of the specimens examined were taken in traps associated with epidemiological studies. Limited field collecting has generated host records and these have been added to a list of the aphids of Central America that was compiled by Pamela Anderson and appended in the guide with her permission. The authors hope that this book will be useful to entomologists in Costa Rica and Central America.
New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca) angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska); Empoasca (Empoasca) ch...
Tsai, J H; Liu, Y H
The biology of the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama was studied at 25 degrees C on four commonly grown citrus and related plants [rough lemon, Citrus jambhiri Lush; sour orange, C aurantium L.; grapefruit, C. paradisi Macfadyen; and orange jessamine, Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack] in the laboratory. The biological characteristics of each life stage are described. The average egg incubation periods on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange varied very little (4.1-4.2 d). The average nymphal developmental periods on these four host plants were essentially the same except the fifth stadium. Survival of immatures on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange was 75.4, 84.6, 78.3, and 68.6%, respectively. Female adults lived an average of 39.7, 39.7, 47.6, and 43.7 d on these respective host plants. The average number of eggs laid per female on grapefruit (858 eggs) was significantly more than those on other hosts (P < 0.05). The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) for D. citri on grapefruit was highest. Jackknife estimates of r(m) varied from 0.188 on grapefruit to 0.162 on orange jessamine and rough lemon. The mean population generation time on these hosts ranged from 31.6 to 34.1 d. The continuous flushes produced by orange jessamine could play an important role in maintaining high populations of this vector when the new flushes are not available in the commercial citrus groves.
Several Gossypium species and genotypes were evaluated by in field and greehouse tests in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, for preference to the whitefly. Genotypes with G.hirsutum, G. barabadense, G. herbaceum, and G. arboreum were examined, including commercial and obsolete cultivars,(cultivar...
Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard
In many insects the first abdominal segment possesses embryonic appendages called pleuropodia. Here we show the embryogenesis of pleuropodial cells of the periodical cicada, Magicicada cassini (Fisher 1851) (Insecta, Homoptera, Cicadidae). An antibody, anti-horseradish perioxidase (HRP), that is usually neuron-specific strongly marked the pleuropodial anlagen and revealed their ectodermal origin shortly after limb bud formation. Thereafter the cells sank into the epidermis and their apical parts enlarged. A globular part protruded from the body wall. Filamentous structures were marked at the stem region and into the apical dilation. In later embryonic stages the pleuropodia degenerated. Despite the binding of anti-HRP the cells had no morphological neuronal characters and cannot be regarded as neurons. The binding indicates that glycosylated cell surface molecules contribute to the adhesion between the presumably glandular pleuropodial cells. In comparison, anti-HRP does not mark the pleuropodia of Orthoptera.
Büsse, Sebastian; Genet, Cécile; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas
Among the winged insects (Pterygota) the Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) are unique for several reasons. Behaviourally they are aerial predators that hunt and catch their prey in flight, only. Morphologically the flight apparatus of Odonata is significantly different from what is found in the remaining Pterygota. However, to understand the phylogenetic relationships of winged insects and the origin and evolution of insect flight in general, it is essential to know how the elements of the odonatan flight apparatus relate to those of the other Pterygota. Here we present a comprehensive, comparative morphological investigation of the thoracic flight musculature of damselflies (Zygoptera). Based on our new data we propose a homologization scheme for the thoracic musculature throughout Pterygota. The new homology hypotheses will allow for future comparative work and especially for phylogenetic analyses using characters of the thoracic musculature throughout all winged insects. This will contribute to understand the early evolution of pterygote insects and their basal phylogenetic relationship.
Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru
The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes ( C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.
Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru
The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes (C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.
GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON
A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorum sp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorum sp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe – a supposedly well-explored region. PMID:27069351
Graf, Wolfram; Vitecek, Simon
A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorumsp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorumsp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe - a supposedly well-explored region.
Houghton, David C.
Abstract The caddisfly fauna of Minnesota contains at least 277 species within 21 families and 75 genera. These species are based on examination of 312,884 specimens from 2,166 collections of 937 Minnesota aquatic habitats from 1890 to 2007. Included in these totals is my own quantitative sampling of 4 representative habitat types: small streams, medium rivers, large rivers, and lakes, from each of the 58 major Minnesota watersheds from June through September during 1999–2001. All species are illustrated herein, and their known Minnesota abundances, distributions, adult flight periodicities, and habitat affinities presented. Four species: Lepidostoma griseum (Lepidostomatidae), Psilotreta indecisa (Odontoceridae), and Phryganea sayi and Ptilostomis angustipennis (Phryganeidae) are added to the known fauna. An additional 31 dubious species records are removed for various reasons. Of the 5 determined caddisfly regions of the state, species richness per watershed was highest in the Lake Superior and Northern Regions, intermediate in the Southeastern, and lowest in the Northwestern and Southern. Of the 48 individual collections that yielded >40 species, all but 1 were from the Northern Region. Many species, especially within the families Limnephilidae and Phryganeidae, have appeared to decrease in distribution and abundance during the past 75 years, particularly those once common within the Northwestern and Southern Regions. Many species now appear regionally extirpated, and a few have disappeared from the entire state. The loss of species in the Northwestern and Southern Regions, and probably elsewhere, is almost certainly related to the conversion of many habitats to large-scale agriculture during the mid-20th century. PMID:22615539
Pohl, Hans; Niehuis, Oliver; Gloyna, Kai; Misof, Bernhard; Beutel, Rolf G.
Abstract A new species of Mengenilla Hofeneder, 1910 (Strepsiptera, Mengenillidae) from southern Tunisia is described. Mengenilla moldrzyki sp. n. can be distinguished from congeners by a slightly emarginated posterodorsal margin of the head, compound eyes with a light tan dorsal part, mandibles with a narrow distal part, and a v-shaped pronotum. With the description of Mengenilla moldrzyki sp. n., eleven valid species of Mengenilla are currently recognised. Mengenilla moldrzyki sp. n. is the third species of the genus with known females and female puparia. First instar larvae, endoparasitic larval stages, the male puparium and the host are unknown. The new species is also the first strepsipteran with a fully sequenced genome. PMID:22707907
Abstract Background The genus Scaponopselaphus Scheerpeltz was originally described to accommodate the species Trigonopselaphus mutator Sharp. New information In this paper, I review Scaponopselaphus and describe a new species from Colombia as Scaponopselaphus diaspartos n. sp. Illustrations are provided for the identification of specimens and the presence of spatulate setae on first mesotarsomere is shown to be a unique characteristic of Scaponopselaphus within Xanthopygina. PMID:25892923
Holzenthal, Ralph W.; Huisman, Jolanda; Thomson, Robin; Rázuri-Gonzales, Ernesto
Background Aquatic insects and other freshwater animals are some of the most threatened forms of life on Earth. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are highly biodiverse in the Neotropics and occupy a wide variety of freshwater habitats. In Andean countries, including Ecuador, knowledge of the aquatic biota is limited, and there is a great need for baseline data on the species found in these countries. Here we present the first list of Trichoptera known from Ecuador, a country that harbors two global biodiversity “hotspots.” Methods We conducted a literature review of species previously reported from Ecuador and supplemented these data with material we collected during five recent field inventories from about 40 localities spanning both hotspots. Using species presence data for each Ecuadorian province, we calculated the CHAO 2 species estimator to obtain the minimum species richness for the country. Results We recorded 310 species, including 48 new records from our own field inventories for the country. CHAO 2 calculations showed that only 54% of the species have been found. Hydroptilidae and Hydropsychidae were the most species rich families. We report the family Xiphocentronidae for the first time from Ecuador as well as several new records of genera from different families. Discussion As in the neighboring Andean countries of Colombia and Peru, it is common to find undescribed species of caddisflies. There are vast areas of Ecuador and the northern Andes that are completely unexplored, and we expect that hundreds of new species are yet to be discovered. PMID:28097062
Peinert, Miriam; Wipfler, Benjamin; Jetschke, Gottfried; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Beutel, Rolf G.; Pohl, Hans
In a few insect groups, males pierce the female’s integument with their penis during copulation to transfer sperm. This so-called traumatic insemination was previously confirmed for Strepsiptera but only in species with free-living females. The more derived endoparasitic groups (Stylopidia) were suggested to exhibit brood canal mating. Further, it was assumed that females mate once and that pheromone production ceases immediately thereafter. Here we examined Stylops ovinae to provide details of the mating behaviour within Stylopidia. By using μCT imaging of Stylops in copula, we observed traumatic insemination and not, as previously suggested, brood canal mating. The penis is inserted in an invagination of the female cephalothorax and perforates its cuticle. Further we show that female Stylops are polyandrous and that males detect the mating status of the females. Compared to other strepsipterans the copulation is distinctly prolonged. This may reduce the competition between sperm of the first mating male with sperm from others. We describe a novel paragenital organ of Stylops females, the cephalothoracic invagination, which we suggest to reduce the cost of injuries. In contrast to previous interpretations we postulate that the original mode of traumatic insemination was maintained after the transition from free-living to endoparasitic strepsipteran females. PMID:27125507
Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Khabiev, Gadzhimurad N.; Krivokhatsky, Victor A.
Abstract A short review of main cytogenetic features of insects belonging to the sister neuropteran families Myrmeleontidae (antlions) and Ascalaphidae (owlflies) is presented, with a particular focus on their chromosome numbers and sex chromosome systems. Diploid male chromosome numbers are listed for 37 species, 21 genera from 9 subfamilies of the antlions as well as for seven species and five genera of the owlfly subfamily Ascalaphinae. The list includes data on five species whose karyotypes were studied in the present work. It is shown here that antlions and owlflies share a simple sex chromosome system XY/XX; a similar range of chromosome numbers, 2n = 14-26 and 2n = 18-22 respectively; and a peculiar distant pairing of sex chromosomes in male meiosis. Usually the karyotype is particularly stable within a genus but there are some exceptions in both families (in the genera Palpares and Libelloides respectively). The Myrmeleontidae and Ascalaphidae differ in their modal chromosome numbers. Most antlions exhibit 2n = 14 and 16, and Palparinae are the only subfamily characterized by higher numbers, 2n = 22, 24, and 26. The higher numbers, 2n = 20 and 22, are also found in owlflies. Since the Palparinae represent a basal phylogenetic lineage of the Myrmeleontidae, it is hypothesized that higher chromosome numbers are ancestral for antlions and were inherited from the common ancestor of Myrmeleontidae + Ascalaphidae. They were preserved in the Palparinae (Myrmeleontidae), but changed via chromosomal fusions toward lower numbers in other subfamilies. PMID:26807036
Cornelis, Marcela; Coscarón, María C.
Abstract In Argentina, five genera and 14 species are recorded in the subfamilies Prostemmatinae and Nabinae: Hoplistoscelis sordidus Reuter, Lasiomerus constrictus Champion, Metatropiphorus alvarengai Reuter, Nabis argentinus Meyer-Dür, Nabis (Tropiconabis) capsiformis Germar, Nabis faminei Stål, Nabis paranensis Harris, Nabis punctipennis Blanchard, Nabis roripes Stål, Nabis setricus Harris, Nabis tandilensis Berg, Pagasa (Pagasa) costalis Reuter, Pagasa (Lampropagasa) fuscipennis Reuter and Pagasa (Pagasa) signatipennis Reuter. PMID:24146557
Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi
The Polyneoptera represents one of the earliest insect radiations, comprising the majority of hemimetabolous orders, in which many species have great economic importance. Here, we sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes of the polyneopteran insects by using high throughput pooled sequencing technology, and presented a phylogenetic reconstruction for this group based on expanded mitochondrial genome data. Our analyses included 189 taxa, of which 139 species represent all the major polyneopteran lineages. Multiple results support the monophyly of Polyneoptera, the monophyly of Dictyoptera, and the monophyly of Orthoptera. Sister taxon relationships Plecoptera + Dermaptera, and Zoraptera + Embioptera are also supported by most analyses. Within Dictyoptera, the Blattodea is consistently retrieved as paraphyly due to the sister group relationship of Cryptocercus with Isoptera. In addition, the results demonstrate that model selection, data treatment, and outgroup choice can have significant effects on the reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of Polyneoptera. PMID:27782189
Snyman, Louwtjie P.; Sole, Catherine L.; Ohl, Michael
Abstract The genus Afromantispa Snyman & Ohl, 2012 was recently synonymised with Mantispa Illiger, 1798 by Monserrat (2014). Here morphological evidence is presented in support of restoring the genus Afromantispa stat. rev. to its previous status as a valid and morphologically distinct genus. Twelve new combinations (comb. n.) are proposed as species of Afromantispa including three new synonyms. PMID:26478700
Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S
Fossilized, winged adults belonging to the psocopteran family Liposcelididae are reported in amber from the mid-Cretaceous (ca 100 Myr) of Myanmar (described as Cretoscelis burmitica, gen. et sp. n.) and the Miocene (ca 20 Myr) of the Dominican Republic (Belaphopsocus dominicus sp. n.). Cretoscelis is an extinct sister group to all other Liposcelididae and the family is the free-living sister group to the true lice (order Phthiraptera, all of which are ectoparasites of birds and mammals). A phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships among genera of Liposcelididae, including fossils, reveals perfect correspondence between the chronology of fossils and cladistic rank of taxa. Lice and Liposcelididae minimally diverged 100 Myr, perhaps even in the earliest Cretaceous 145 Myr or earlier, in which case the hosts of lice would have been early mammals, early birds and possibly other feathered theropod dinosaurs, as well as haired pterosaurs. PMID:16537135
Marziali, L.; Lencioni, V.; Rossaro, B.
Benthic communities are used in biological assessment and monitoring in lakes. Chironomids are considered indicators of oxygen level and trophic state. The taxocoenosis of 42 Italian lakes with different volume, depth, annual minimum hypolimnetic oxygen concentration, transparency and phosphorous concentration were investigated. Larvae were collected with a Petersen grab at different depths, pupal exuviae with a drift net near the outlet of lakes and adults with a sweep net along the shore. 334 species were identified: 41 Tanypodinae, 17 Diamesinae, 3 Prodiamesinae, 118 Orthocladiinae, 155 Chironominae (61 Tanytarsini, 93 Chironomini and 1 Pseudochironomini). Drift samples included many more taxa than grab samples, adult samples often included terrestrial species. Lake Garda, Como and Maggiore were the richest in species (78, 72 and 66 respectively), as expected because of their large size. Species richness did not result as good indicator: both oligotrophic (Monate 52 species, Toblino 33) and eutrophic lakes (Annone 57, Pusiano 42) were characterized by similar species numbers. Different species were more suitable indicators of oxygen concentration rather than of nutrients. A comparison of different lakes is preliminary because of: 1. different morphometric and trophic conditions; 2. different sampling effort; 3. lack of knowledge of species optima and tolerance.
Eggermont, H.; Heiri, O.; Russell, J.; Vuille, M.; Audenaert, L.; Klaassen, G.; Verschuren, D.
Reconstruction of Africa's temperature history from natural climate archives such as lake sediments is essential to amend the current scarcity of information on natural tropical climate and ecosystem variability. Chironomids are well-established paleothermometers in north-temperate/boreal regions, but their potential in tropical lakes has never before been assessed. We surveyed sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in surface sediments from 65 lakes and permanent pools in southwestern Uganda and central/southern Kenya, spanning elevations between 489 and 4575 m asl. Using various subsets of lakes and corresponding Surface-Water Temperatures (SWTemp) and Mean Annual Air Temperatures (MATemp), we developed a series of inference models for quantitative paleotemperature reconstruction. Models using both low-, mid- and high-elevation sites suffer to some extent from the small number of samples between 2500 and 3500 m asl, and from the presence of ecologically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable taxa. Models confined to mountain sites produce poorer error statistics, but are less prone to the biogeographical and taxonomic complexities associated with long climatic gradients. Overall, error statistics compare favourably with those of inference models developed for temperate regions, indicating that fossil assemblages of African Chironomidae can be valuable indicators of past temperature change. We subsequently used these models to evaluate whether high-elevation lakes in the Rwenzori Mountains (>3000 m asl) have been impacted by climate warming in recent centuries by comparing temperatures inferred from chironomid assemblages in modern sediments with those derived from chironomid assemblages in sediments deposited within or briefly after the Little Ice Age (1270-1850 AD). Depending on the model used, between 44 and 63% of the 16 lakes studied indicate significantly warmer temperatures in recent times (corresponding with an average MATemp rise of 0.88 ° C, and average SWTemp rise of 1.33 ° C), while all but one of the other lakes show temperature changes that are statistically insignificant. We conclude that chironomid communities in Rwenzori lakes adequately record past temperature changes, with potential for evaluating the impacts of past air temperature variation on the long-term dynamics of the Rwenzori glaciers.
Felsõ, B; Rózsa, L
Avian lice occupy different habitats in the host plumage that the physical environment outside the host body may affect in several ways. Interactions between host plumage and water may be an important source of such effects. Here, we use a comparative approach to examine the effect of a host's diving behavior on the taxonomic richness of its lice. Louse genera richness was significantly lower in clades of diving birds than on their nondiving sister clades. Species richness of host and body mass did not differ significantly between these clades; thus, these factors did not bias our results. This study suggests that the hosts' diving behavior can effectively influence ectoparasite communities.
Covacin, Catherine; Barker, Stephen C
We studied six species of lice from three of the four suborders of lice. These lice were infected with Wolbachia bacteria from supergroups A and F. This is the first report of an infection of supergroup F Wolbachia in lice. To date, Wolbachia from supergroup F have been found in filarial nematodes, Mansonella spp., and, rarely, in insects. We inferred the phylogeny of the Wolbachia from lice and representatives of all Wolbachia supergroups, with nucleotide sequences from the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). There was no evidence of congruence between the taxon of louse and the Wolbachia bacteria that infect lice. There is no evidence that Wolbachia and their louse hosts co-evolved at least at the level of Wolbachia supergroups. We propose a novel mechanism for the horizontal transfer of Wolbachia between different species of lice from birds: transfer of Wolbachia during phoresis by hippoboscid flies.
Haddad, Vidal; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K
Although many tropical insects carry infectious diseases, cutaneous injury can occur by other mechanisms, for example erucism (envenomation by caterpillars) or lepidopterism (dermatitis from moths). Pararama is a unique form of erucism seen in workers in contact with rubber trees in the Amazon, and it is caused by Premolis larvae, resulting in progressive periarticular fibrosis, ankylosis, and the loss of articulation. Ants and aquatic insects of the Belostomatidae family can cause painful bites and stings. Anaphylactic shock and death can result from the venom of bees and wasps. Beetles can cause vesicular dermatitis via cantharidin or paederin. Myiasis results from fly larvae (maggots) feeding on live or necrotic tissue of humans or other hosts, while New World screwworm fly larvae feed only on living tissue and burrow (ie, screw) more deeply when attempts are made to remove them. Tungiasis is characterized by very pruritic and painful papules and ulcers resulting from a Tunga flea penetrating the host's skin. Dermatologists should be able to diagnose and treat the cutaneous manifestations of these tropical insects and educate their patients on prevention.
Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao
Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed.
Schneeberg, Katharina; Friedrich, Frank; Courtney, Gregory W; Wipfler, Benjamin; Beutel, Rolf G
Larval head structures of Nymphomyia dolichopeza were examined and described in detail. The conditions are compared to those of other dipteran representatives. Our results support the monophyly of Nymphomyiidae. Potential apomorphies are dimorphic crochets on the abdominal prolegs and the complete loss of the tentorium. Possible synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae and Deuterophlebiidae could be the rows of spatulate macrosetae covering the ventral surface of the labrum-epipharynx, the presence of distinct teeth along the anterior premento-hypopharyngeal margin, the absence of labral microtrichia and some other affinities concerning the life history of the two groups. A clade Blephariceromorpha is also supported by some larval features. Potential synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae, Deuterophlebiidae and Blephariceridae are the vestigial M. labroepipharyngalis, the absence of a movable premandible, crochet-tipped prolegs, the complete loss of spiracles and non-retractable anal papillae. A clade Nymphomyiidae and Chironomidae is only weakly supported by characters of the larval head. The anteriorly serrate and posteriorly fused hypostoma is a potential apomorphic character. Our results support neither phylogenetic affinities between Nymphomyiidae and Axymyiidae nor a sistergroup relationship between Nymphomyiidae and the remaining Diptera. However, a comprehensive cladistic analysis is not presented in our study.
Abstract An updated checklist of the Atelestidae, Brachystomatidae, Dolichopodidae, Empididae and Hybotidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. The genera with uncertain placement within superfamily Empidoidea (= the Iteaphila group) are also included in this paper. PMID:25337016
Burks, R A; Heraty, J M
Variation in structures of the posterior surface of the head in Hymenoptera is compared and interpreted according to theories of head capsule evolution, with focus on understanding previously baffling conditions in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. Features are investigated separately without first classifying subforaminal bridges into subcategories. In Proctotrupomorpha (including Chalcidoidea), Ceraphronoidea and some Ichneumonoidea, there are multiple posterior pits associated with the tentorium. In most examined Hymenoptera with a subforaminal bridge, there was a differentiated median area, typically with highly variable microtrichia. This area is elevated in Cephoidea and Pamphilioidea, but is not elevated in other Hymenoptera. Subforaminal bridges in Apocrita previously classified as hypostomal bridges are discussed in the context of A.P. Rasnitsyn's hypothesis that relative importance of adult feeding drives subforaminal bridge evolution.
Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Mashimo, Y; Machida, R; Beutel, R G
The salivary glands of two species of Zoraptera, Zorotypus caudelli and Zorotypus hubbardi, were examined and documented mainly using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results obtained for males and females of the two species are compared and functional aspects related to ultrastructural features are discussed. The salivary glands are divided into two regions: the secretory cell region and the long efferent duct, the latter with its distal end opening in the salivarium below the hypopharyngeal base. The secretory region consists of a complex of secretory cells provided with microvillated cavities connected by short ectodermal ducts to large ones, which are connected with the long efferent duct. The secretory cell cytoplasm contains a large system of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus producing numerous dense secretions. The cells of the efferent duct, characterized by reduced cytoplasm and the presence of long membrane infoldings associated with mitochondria, are possibly involved in fluid uptaking from the duct lumen.
Imen, Saïd; Christian, Malosse; Virginie, Durier; Colette, Rivault
Chemical communication is necessary to induce aggregation and to maintain the cohesion of aggregates in Periplaneta americana (L.) cockroaches. We aimed to identify the chemical message inducing aggregation in this species. Two types of bioassays were used-binary choice tests in Petri dishes and tests in Y-olfactometer. Papers conditioned by direct contact of conspecifics induce aggregation when proposed in binary choice tests and were attractive in a Y-olfactometer. The identification of the molecules present on these conditioned papers indicated that dichloromethane extracts contained mainly cuticular hydrocarbons whereas methanol extracts contained more volatile molecules. Only a mixture of extracts in both solvents induced aggregation. High concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are necessary to induce aggregation when presented alone. When presented with volatile molecules present in methanol extracts, low concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are sufficient to induce aggregation if they are presented in contact. Among volatile molecules collected on filter paper, a mixture of three compounds-hexadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and pentaethylene glycol-induced aggregation. Our results provide evidence that aggregation processes in P. americana relies on a dual mechanism: attraction over long distances by three volatile molecules and maintenance on site by contact with cuticular hydrocarbons.
Erdenee, Bolortsetseg; Maasri, Alain; Gelhaus, Jon K.; Bayartogtokh, Badamdorj
Abstract Streams in the Mongolian Altai Mountains are mostly fed from glaciers and are extreme conditions for mayflies because of high elevation, low temperatures and low annual precipitation. Previous information about mayflies of Western Mongolia is scarce, but with this study a total of 38 species belonging to 26 genera and subgenera and 8 families of mayflies has been recorded in the Mongolian Altai region. Study material was entirely imagos and collected from 78 sites during expeditions led by the Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Raptobaetopus tenellus, Caenis luctuosa and Caenis rivulorum are recorded as new to the fauna of Mongolia, and there are new distribution records for Ameletus montanus, Baetis (Acentrella) lapponica, Baetis sibiricus, Baetis (Labiobaetis) attrebatinus, Centroptilum luteolum, Procloeon pennulatum, Ephemerella aurivillii, Serratella setigera, Ephemera sachalinensis, Ecdyonurus (Afronurus) abracadabrus, Cinygmula kurenzovi, Ecdyonurus (Afghanurus) vicinus and Epeorus (Belovius) pellucidus from the Mongolian Altai region. Baetis vernus and Ephemerella aurivillii are the most frequently encountered species in this region. PMID:28174499
Vilenica, Marina; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Mihaljević, Zlatko; Sartori, Michel
Abstract Knowledge of the mayfly biodiversity in the Balkan Peninsula is still far from complete. Compared to the neighbouring countries, the mayfly fauna in Croatia is very poorly known. Situated at the crossroads of central and Mediterranean Europe and the Balkan Peninsula, Croatia is divided into two ecoregions: Dinaric western Balkan and Pannonian lowland. Mayflies were sampled between 2003 and 2013 at 171 sites, and a total of 66 species was recorded. Combined with the literature data, the Croatian mayfly fauna reached a total of 79 taxa. Of these, 29 species were recorded for the first time in Croatia while 15 species were not previously recorded in Dinaric western Balkan ecoregion. Based on the mayfly assemblage, sampling sites were first structured by ecoregion and then by habitat type. In comparison with the surrounding countries, the Croatian mayfly fauna is the most similar to the Hungarian and Bosnian fauna. Some morphologically interesting taxa such as Baetis cf. nubecularis Eaton, 1898 and Rhithrogena from the diaphana group were recorded. Ephemera cf. parnassiana Demoulin, 1958, the species previously recorded only from Greece, was also recorded. PMID:26478701
Karaouzas, Ioannis; Andriopoulou, Argyro; Kouvarda, Theodora; Murányi, Dávid
An overview of the Greek stonefly (Plecoptera) fauna is presented as an annotated index of all available published records. These records have resulted in an updated species list reflecting current taxonomy and species distributions of the Greek peninsula and islands. Currently, a total of 71 species and seven subspecies belonging to seven families and 19 genera are reported from Greece. There is high species endemicity of the Leuctridae and Nemouridae, particularly on the Greek islands. The endemics known from Greece comprise thirty species representing 42% of the Greek stonefly fauna. The remaining taxa are typical Balkan and Mediterranean species.
The world fauna of Xylomyidae is cataloged, which includes 4 valid genera and 132 species. A phylogenetic analysis is presented which is then formalized in a classification of the family that is used to arrange the catalog. Full taxonomic citations, synonymy and geographic distribution data are pr...
Engel, Michael S.; Grimaldi, David A.; Singh, Hukam; Nascimbene, Paul C.
Abstract The family Scelembiidae (Neoembiodea: Embiomorpha: Archembioidea) is recorded from Asia for the first time, based on two individuals preserved in Early Eocene amber from the Cambay Basin, western India. Kumarembia hurleyi Engel & Grimaldi, gen. n. et sp. n., is described, figured, and distinguished from other archembioid genera. The genus shares male genitalic features with scelembiids, otherwise known from South America and Africa. PMID:22287898
Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Moreno, Lucila; González-Acuña, Daniel
This study presents a revision of the fleas (Siphonaptera) in Chile, gathered from 1993-2013 in response to a request to update our knowledge of the fauna of this country, as catalogued by Beaucournu & Gallardo in 1991 and 1992. For each taxon we give the depository of the type, the main references concerning it, its general distribution, particularly in Chile, and its known hosts, mainly in this country. Our review of the existing literature on fleas of Chile gives information on a total of 8 families, 11 subfamilies, 31 genera, 9 subgenera and 112 species (with 11 subspecies). The hosts are represented by 21 families of mammals (91 species) and 16 of birds (27 species). In addition we present 21 new reports of fleas for Chile and 165 new localities.
Lareschi, Marcela; Sanchez, Juliana; Autino, Analía
The Order Siphonaptera comprises cosmopolitan haematophagous ectoparasites of birds and mammals. More than ten years have past since the last list of species known for Argentina. Herein we provide a review of the fleas from the country, which includes an updated list, host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments. We report 127 species and subspecies belonging to eleven different families; 42 of these species are endemic. Four genera (Adoratopsylla, Cleopsylla, Ctenidiosomus, and Nonnapsylla) and six species and subspecies (Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, Agastopsylla pearsoni, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) silewi, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) wilesi and Tunga terasma) are added to the list for Argentina. Nine species new to science are included, described on the bases of specimens collected from Argentina (Ctenidiosomus austrinus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) lareschiae, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) spiculatus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) morenoi, Hectopsylla narium, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii, Neotyphloceras crackensis, Neotyphloceras pardinasii and Tunga perforans). Information provided herein contributes to the knowledge of the fleas from Argentina, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance.
Dallai, R; Fanciulli, P P; Frati, F
A post-zygotic mechanism of sex determination is described in the two symphypleonans Dicyrtomina ornata (Nicolet) and Ptenothrix italica Dallai. The process consists of the loss of two sex chromosomes from the male embryo. At the end of the first meiotic division of spermatogenesis, a second chromosome elimination occurs, allowing half the secondary spermatocytes, later transformed into spermatids, to receive a complete haploid set of chromosomes. The secondary spermatocytes, which receive an incomplete set of chromosomes, degenerate. Males of the two collembolan species, therefore, produce a reduced number (50%) of spermatozoa. Females of D. ornata have 2n = 12 and males 2n = 10 chromosomes; females of P. italica have 2n = 14 and males 2n = 12 chromosomes. In both species, oogenesis proceeds normally and chromosomes pair and form chiasmata in meiotic prophase. The adaptive significance of this post-zygotic mechanism of sex determination is discussed. The mechanism seems to be a characteristic feature of the suborder Symphypleona. The neanurid Arthropleona Anurida maritima (Guérin), which was studied for comparative analysis, has 2n = 8 chromosomes and normal spermatogenesis producing haploid nuclei with four chromosomes. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 285:215-225, 1999.
Xin, Juan-Juan; Shang, Qing-Li; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xi-Wu
Sitobion avenae is a major agricultural pest of wheat in China. Using microsatellite markers, we studied the potential gene flow, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and genetic structure of seven S. avenae populations from different regions of China (Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Shanxi provinces). The populations from Henan, Shandong, and Jiangsu showed high levels of genic and genotypic diversity. By contrast, the genic diversity in the Beijing and Hebei populations was much lower. Despite this low genic diversity, the genotypic diversity of the Beijing population was higher than that of all of the other populations, except those from Jiangsu and Shandong. Overall, the genetic divergence among the seven S. avenae populations tested was high, though there was almost no differentiation between the Shandong and Henan populations. We observed significant negative correlation between the strength of gene flow and the geographic distances among populations. Based on genetic analysis, the seven S. avenae populations studied can be divided into four distinct clusters; (i) Hubei, (ii) Shanxi, (iii) Beijing and Hebei, and (iv) Shandong, Henan, and Jiangsu. The present results provide a basis for potentially optimizing integrated pest management (IPM) programs in China, through adapting control methods that target biological traits shared by various populations of the same genotype. PMID:25356548
Hubbard, J L; Potter, D A
Seasonal phenology of calico scale, Eulecanium cerasorum (Cockerell), was monitored for 3 yr on various deciduous tree species in central Kentucky. Infestations were found on 16 host species in six plant families. Calico scale is a univoltine parthenogenic species that overwinters as second instars on bark. Nymphs molted to adult females around mid-April and began producing eggs in late April. Mean fecundity ranged from 3,728 to 4,654 eggs per female, depending on host plant species. Date of first crawler hatch in 2001-2003 ranged from 21 to 26 May, corresponding to a mean accumulation of 818 +/- 2 Celsius degree-days (DDC), calculated from 1 January and a base of 4.4 degrees C. This value predicted crawler hatch within 2 d in Lexington, KY, in 2004. Crawler dispersal lasted 2 to 3 wk. Upon hatching, crawlers move to leaves where they feed during summer. Crawlers primarily settled on the abaxial side of leaves and their within-leaf distribution varied between different tree species. Settled crawlers molted in mid-July and second instars remained on leaves until late September through mid-October, when they returned to bark to overwinter. On hackberry, Celtis occidentalis L., they were concentrated toward the basal end of shoots, primarily because leaf flush continued beyond the end of the crawler dispersal period. Crawler distribution did not differ between upper and lower canopy zones. Fourteen species of parasitoids and a coccinellid beetle were reared from individual scales. Monitoring with sticky traps in tree canopies confirmed that targeting crawlers with insecticides during late May or June would not coincide with peak flight activity of the scale's primary parasitoids.
Liu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Pu; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Dong-Li; Hu, Yan-Hong
To explore the function of small heat shock protein genes (shsps) and hsp70 in Ericerus pela, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequences of hsp21.5, hsp21.7, hsp70, and hsc70 and the genomic sequence of hsc70. Open reading frames of the four hsps were 570, 564, 1,908, and 1,962 base pairs (bp), respectively, which encode proteins with calculated molecular mass of 21.5, 21.7, 69.8, and 71.6 kDa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed the presence of the conserved Hsp motifs in all four proteins. The genomic DNA of hsc70 had four introns. ep-hsp21.5 was orthologous and ep-hsp21.7 was species specific. Expression of all four transcripts during heat or cold stress and development was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. All four hsps were upregulated during heat or cold stress in female adults, indicating a correlation between the four hsps and heat or cold-stress tolerance in female adults. ep-hsp21.7 and ep-hsp70 were upregulated during heat stress in male larvae, implying a correlation between the two hsps and heat-stress tolerance in male larvae. The four ep-hsps were also upregulated during the developmental process in males, and ep-hsp21.5, ep-hsp70, and ep-hsc70 were upregulated in females, which indicates their possible role in the developmental regulation of E. pela.
Tahir, Aliadi Mohd; Sulaiman, Azman
A total of 31 cicada species in 15 genera under two families (Cicadidae, 27 species in 11 genera; Tibicinidae, four species in three genera) was recorded for Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor. This was based on 666 individuals were obtained through six sampling occasions in November 2012 until October 2013, each time using light trap set in six sampling locations (L1, L2, L3, L4a, L4b, L4c) that were selected based on altitudes. The most common and abundant species in L1 is Pomponia sp1 and recognized as new species that need to be described as new to science. Orientopsaltria saudarapadda Duffles & Zaidi appeared as the most common and abundant species in L2, represented by 21 individuals which covers 34.43 % of the total cicadas specimen in that area. In the location of L3, Dundubia vaginata (Fabricius) appeared as the most abundant species represented by 37 individuals or 26.81% while Abroma maculicollis Guerin appeared as the most common species. Shannon's Species Diversity Index (H') in L3 was the highest (H'=2.28) followed by L4b (H'=2.21), L2 (H'=1.93) L4a (H'=1.92), L4c (H'=1.84) and L1 (H'=1.58), and the evenness index in L1 was the highest (E= 0.88), followed by L4b (E= 0.79), L3 (E= 0.77), L2 (E= 0.75), L4c (E= 0.74) and L4a (E= 0.79). Margalef Species Richness Index in L3 was the highest (R'=3.65), followed by oleh L4b (R'=3.01), L4a (R'=2.97), L2 (R'=2.92), L4c (R'=2.4), and L1 (R'=2.01). Generally shows that L3 at the altitude 350 m appear as the best sampling site for cicadas species in Mount Ledang Johor with the highest value of species diversity and richness index.
Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J
Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides.
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is an invasive pest that vectors citrus greening disease. In 2005-2006 mycosed psyllids displaying two phenotypes were collected in central Florida. The major pathogen, identified by morphological and genetic analyses, was a novel isolate related to Hirsute...
Haviland, David R; Bentley, Walter J; Daane, Kent M
Hot-water immersions were tested for control of mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret), on dormant grape cuttings used for nursery stock. A range of hot-water temperatures (47-58 degrees C) were evaluated at immersion periods of 2, 5, 10, or 20 min, by using a total of 353,720 mealybugs across all treatments. A 5-min immersion at 51 degrees C is effective in killing > 99% of P. ficus. At or above this immersion period and temperature, there was no difference in mealybug stage mortality. We evaluated a commercial operation, which used a 5-min immersion in each of three water tanks: preheating (30.0 +/- 3 degrees C), hot-water (52.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C), and cooling (23 +/- 3 degrees C). The commercial procedure provided 99.8-100% mealybug control in each of three separate trials.
Papura, D; Giresse, X; Chauvin, B; Caron, H; Delmotte, F; VAN Helden, M
Eight dinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized within the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Goethe) using an enrichment cloning procedure. Primers were tested on 171 individuals collected in the southwest of France from the vine plants. The identified loci were polymorphic, with allelic diversity ranging from two to 18 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosities were from 0.021 to 0.760. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful tool for estimating the population genetic structure, host-plant specialization and migration capacity of this insect.
Verghese, A; Sreedevi, K
Thrips of late are becoming more resurgent in agro-ecosystems especially in India and South Asian countries. One of the reasons attributed is the development of resistance in them to groups of insecticides of organo phosphates, carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids, etc., which form the core of recommendation for thrips management. The chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is no exception and is tending to be an unmanageable pest. In S. dorsalis, besides evidence of resistance, elimination of natural enemies like Orius sp. is evident, which also probably explains the thrips resurgence. Scirtothrips dorsalis is highly polyphagous and of late has become serious on grapes. The damage is manifested as scab on fruit rind, affecting internal and export markets. Fortunately, it does not vector any virus on grapes in India. Farmers have been reporting inefficacy of established chemicals like acephate, dimethoate, monocrotophos, etc. As grapes is an important cash crop of horticulture, management through insecticides, require alternate or new insecticides. So two trials in 2005 on cv. Bangalore Blue following April and October prunings were conducted at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore, S. India to evaluate two doses of a newer molecule viz. Clothianidin [Dantop] on S. dorsalis. Clothianidin 0.006%, Clothianidin 0.008% were compared with monocrotophos 0.05%, dimethoate 0.06% and acephate 0.1125%. There was an untreated check. Each treatment was replicated five times; a vine constituted a replicate. These data were subjected to ANOVA, after arc sine transformation. The critical difference (CD) at p < 0.05 was the test criterion. In the first trial it was found that all the insecticides tried were superior to check and were on par at p < 0.05. However, Clothianidin 0.008% gave the best control with a low mean of 0.26% berry damage/bunch as compared to 4.42% in the unsprayed check. The trend was the same in the second trial also with Clothianidin 0.008% giving the best control with 0.64% berry damage/bunch as compared to 8.49% in the unsprayed check. It was on par with acephate and monocrotophos, but significantly superior to Clothianidin 0.006% and dimethoate.
Granett, J; Omer, A D; Walker, M A
Field experiments were conducted to evaluate population densities and survival, developmental rate, and fecundity of grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), as influenced by root attachment or detachment from mature, field-grown, Vitis vinifera L. grapevines through the growing season. Experiments were performed using artificial infestations of California biotype A grape phylloxera. Thirty-day bioassays on attached- and detached-roots were repeated monthly from May to September in 1997 (cultivar 'Carignane') and April to September in 1998 (cultivar 'Thompson Seedless'). The bioassays showed that attached roots had lower population densities than detached roots in all months of both years. Densities varied by month, tending to be higher in spring than in summer. Of the population parameters studied, survival was most influenced by attachment condition, being higher on detached than on attached roots by up to 25-fold. These results imply the importance of vine-related mortality factors to grape phylloxera population density. Influence of root attachment condition on developmental rate and fecundity was not uniform across bioassay months for either year; however, in the four out of 21 assays where there was a significant difference it favored detached roots by twofold. Fruit harvest resulted in higher survival in the July assay but not for assays in August and September; however, neither developmental rate nor fecundity was affected by harvest in any ofthe assays. We conclude that mortality rather than nutritional factors are most limiting for field populations on susceptible vines. This work suggests that detachment of roots as occurs with root girdling by root pathogens may increase grape phylloxera populations on infested, susceptible vines. These results imply that excised root bioassays over-estimate grape phylloxera virulence and underestimate rootstock resistance.
Coleson, Jenifer L; Miller, Ross H
Fifty cultivars of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae), collected from islands in Micronesia and Polynesia, eight cultivars from the University of Hawaii's taro germplasm collection, and a closely related aroid, Xanthosorna sagittifolium (L.) (Araceae), were screened for antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii Clover. Life history data for A. gossypii were collected by assessing survivorship and fecundity of aphids caged on taro leaves in the field. Significant differences in aphid reproductive rate and longevity were observed among the taro cultivars, and cultivars were ranked from most resistant to most susceptible. Antixenosis was assayed in the laboratory in a multiround choice test where A. gossypii were offered four leaf discs excised from different taro cultivars. Additionally, field observations of aphid abundance on taro cultivars were made to corroborate clip cage studies and laboratory experiments. 'Iliuaua','Rumung Mary','Maria', 'Ketan 36', and'Agaga' were the most resistant in terms of reducing aphid fecundity and survivorship, whereas the Iliuana,'Purple', 'TC-83001', and 'Putih 24' were least preferred in aphid choice tests. X. sagittifolium consistently exhibited strong aphid resistance. Resistant cultivars identified in this study may form the basis of breeding programs seeking to combine aphid resistance with other desirable agronomic traits in taro.
Xin, Juan-Juan; Shang, Qing-Li; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xi-Wu
Sitobion avenae is a major agricultural pest of wheat in China. Using microsatellite markers, we studied the potential gene flow, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and genetic structure of seven S. avenae populations from different regions of China (Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Shanxi provinces). The populations from Henan, Shandong, and Jiangsu showed high levels of genic and genotypic diversity. By contrast, the genic diversity in the Beijing and Hebei populations was much lower. Despite this low genic diversity, the genotypic diversity of the Beijing population was higher than that of all of the other populations, except those from Jiangsu and Shandong. Overall, the genetic divergence among the seven S. avenae populations tested was high, though there was almost no differentiation between the Shandong and Henan populations. We observed significant negative correlation between the strength of gene flow and the geographic distances among populations. Based on genetic analysis, the seven S. avenae populations studied can be divided into four distinct clusters; (i) Hubei, (ii) Shanxi, (iii) Beijing and Hebei, and (iv) Shandong, Henan, and Jiangsu. The present results provide a basis for potentially optimizing integrated pest management (IPM) programs in China, through adapting control methods that target biological traits shared by various populations of the same genotype.
Gavrilov-Zimin, Ilya A
A new monotypic genus and species, Komodesia circuliplurimagen. et sp. n., from Flores Is. (Indonesia) and the new species, Antonina diversiglandulosasp. n., from Southern Thailand are described and illustrated. Chromosomes of these species and also the ones of Antonina purpurea Signoret, 1872 and Antonina thaiensis Takahashi, 1942 are studied for the first time: 2n = 30, 20, 12 and 22+Bs correspondingly; the male embryos of all four species demonstrate Lecanoid paternal heterochromatinization of one haploid set of chromosomes. The karyotypes of three widely distributed species, Antonina pretiosa Ferris, 1953, Antonina graminis (Maskell, 1897) and Chaetococcus bambusae (Maskell, 1893), are studied based on material from other regions in comparison with previously published data. Photographs of the karyotypes are provided for the first time for all seven species. The terminological problems connected with the identification and naming of the three scale insect genetic systems, Lecanoid, Comstockioid and Diaspidoid, are discussed.
Honeydew produced by homopteran insects such as aphids, whiteflies and mealybugs, can be abundant in some crops and may represent an important food resource for spiders and other honeydew feeding natural enemies. Woolly whiteflies are common in south Texas citrus, and spiders consistently make up a...
Win, San San; Muhamad, Rita; Ahmad, Zainal Abidin Mior; Adam, Nur Azura
Survival and fertility characteristics of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were assessed in the laboratory and field. Life tables and population parameters of the BPH were constructed in an environment with unlimited food supply and that was free of natural enemies. The highest mortality occurred in the immature stage, especially in the first and second instars. The life table analysis showed that the population density of BPH decreased gradually. The survival ratio of male to female was 0.512:0.488. The females lived for a maximum of 20 days. The trend of oviposition showed a peak at around the tenth day of the female life. The highest number of eggs produced per female per day was 9.63. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) in egg production per female per day was 0.0677 and the daily finite of increase (λ) was 1.0688 females per female per day, with a mean generation time (T) of 34.05 days. The net reproductive rate (Ro) of the population was 10.02. The population doubling time (DT) was 10.42 days. PMID:24575207
Le Roux, Vincent; Saguez, Julien; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe
With the objective to develop a potato, Solanum tuberosum L., resistance program against aphids, we propose a rapid screening method with Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in the laboratory. We aimed to optimize the duration of the whole procedure and to decrease the frequency of measurements. In a first experiment, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) values were compared between adult aphids reared throughout their entire life and adults reared only during a period equivalent to their prereproductive period. No significant differences were observed. In a second experiment, four groups of aphids were distinguished according to the sampling frequency, i.e., those whose biological parameters were evaluated every single, second, third, and fourth day. Except for the fourth-day experiment, the r(m) values estimated on aphids reared on the three potato lines were not significantly different whatever sampling frequency of single, second, or third day used to check aphids. Thus, screening efforts in laboratory can be largely optimized by evaluating adult aphids only during a period equivalent to their prereproductive period and assessing M. persicae populations every third day. Our method is reliable and adapted to screen a large number of potato plants against M. persicae because it allows an average 70% reduction in the time required for the whole experimental process.
Popay, Alison J.; Cox, Neil R.
Aploneura lentisci Pass. is endemic to the Mediterranean region where it is holocyclic, forming galls on its primary host, Pistacia lentiscus and alternating over a 2-year period between Pistacia and secondary hosts, principally species of Gramineae. This aphid is widely distributed in Australia and New Zealand on the roots of the common forage grasses, ryegrass (Lolium spp.) and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) where it exists as permanent, anholocyclic, parthenogenetic populations. Previous studies have indicated that infestations of A. lentisci significantly reduce plant growth and may account for differences in field performance of Lolium perenne infected with different strains of the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii. These obligate biotrophs protect their host grasses from herbivory via the production of alkaloids. To confirm the hypothesis that growth of L. perenne is associated with the effect of different endophyte strains on aphid populations, herbage and root growth were measured over time in two pot trials that compared three fungal endophyte strains with an endophyte-free control. In both pot trials, aphid numbers were lowest on plants infected with endophyte strain AR37 at all sampling times. In plants infected with a common toxic strain naturalized in New Zealand, aphid numbers overall were lower than on uninfected plants or those infected with strain AR1, but numbers did not always differ significantly from these treatments. Populations on AR1-infected plants were occasionally significantly higher than those on endophyte-free. Cumulative foliar growth was reduced in AR1 and Nil treatments relative to AR37 in association with population differences of A. lentisci in both trials and root dry weight was reduced in one trial. In four Petri dish experiments survival of A. lentisci on plants infected with AR37 declined to low levels after an initial phase of up to 19 days during which time aphids fed and populations were similar to those on plants without endophyte. Aphids on AR37-infected plants became uncoordinated in their movement and developed tremors before dying suggesting a neurotoxin was responsible for their mortality. Results support the hypothesis that differences in A. lentisci populations due to endophyte infection status and strain affects plant growth. PMID:27695470
Smith, David S.; Littau, Virginia C.
An electron microscopic investigation of the Malpighian tubules of a leaf hopper, Macrosteles fascifrons, shows that these organs comprise three quite distinct cell types, and the structure of these and of the mid- and hindgut epithelial cells is described. In particular, a comparison is made between the organization of the basal and apical surfaces of cells in the Malpighian tubule and in the vertebrate kidney, and it is suggested that similarities between these excretory epithelia reflect functional parallels between them. While the midgut and one region of the Malpighian tubule bear a typical microvillar brush border, elsewhere in the tubule and in the hindgut the apical surface bears cytoplasmic leaflets or lamellae. The sole solid excretory material of these insects consists of the brochosomes, secreted by cells of one region of the Malpighian tubule. The structure, geometry, and development of these unusual bodies, apparently formed within specialized Golgi regions, has been investigated, and histochemical tests indicate that they contain lipid and protein components. PMID:19866568
Gould, W P; McGuire, R G
Hot water immersion and insecticidal coatings were tested to determine if they could be used to disinfest Persian limes, Citrus latifolia Tanaka, of the mealybug pests Planococcus citri Risso and Pseudococcus odermatti Miller & Williams. A 20-min 49 degrees C hot water immersion treatment is effective in killing mealybugs and all other arthropods tested found externally on limes, or under the calyx. No insects or mites were found to survive after the 20-min hot water treatment. In this test, 7,200 limes were treated with 1,308 insects killed and zero survivors. Treatment at 49 degrees C for 20 min did not significantly affect quality when treated fruit were compared with untreated control fruit. Four coatings were tested at a 3% rate: two petroleum-based oils (Ampol and Sunspray oil), a vegetable oil (natural oil), and a soap (Mpede). The coatings gave up to 94% kill (Ampol) of mealybugs, which is not sufficient to provide quarantine security. The coatings might be effective as a postharvest dip before shipment.
Beers, Elizabeth H; Jones, Vincent P
Constant precision sampling plans for the white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, were developed so that it could be used as an indicator species for system stability as new integrated pest management programs without broad-spectrum pesticides are developed. Taylor's power law was used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance, and Green's constant precision sequential sample equation was used to develop sampling plans. Bootstrap simulations of the sampling plans showed greater precision (D = 0.25) than the desired precision (Do = 0.3), particularly at low mean population densities. We found that by adjusting the Do value in Green's equation to 0.4, we were able to reduce the average sample number by 25% and provided an average D = 0.31. The sampling plan described allows T. pomaria to be used as reasonable indicator species of agroecosystem stability in Washington apple orchards.
Biotypes of aphids and many other insect pests are defined based on the phenotypic response of host plants to the insect pest without considering their intrinsic characteristics and genotypes. Plant breeders have spent considerable effort to develop aphid-resistant, small grain varieties to limit in...
Yang, Xiang-Bing; Liu, Tong-Xian
The development, survivorship, and fecundity of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), fed on eggplant (Solanum melongena L., variety Special Hibush) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L., variety Capsitrano) were studied in the laboratory at 26.7 +/- 2 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH, and at a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Immature B. cockerelli developed faster (24.1 d) when fed on eggplant than on bell pepper (26.2 d). Survival rates of immature stages from egg to adult emergence were higher on eggplant (50.2%) than on bell pepper (34.6%). The longevity of B. cockerelli female adults fed on bell pepper was similar to that of females fed on eggplant (62.2 versus 55.0 d), but the male adults fed on eggplant lived shorter lives (39.4 d) than those fed on bell pepper (53.9 d). However, the preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, and sex ratio of B. cockerelli fed on eggplant were not different from those fed on bell pepper. The r(m ) value and the finite rate of increase (lambda) of B. cockerelli were higher on eggplant (0.1099 and 1.116, respectively) than on bell pepper (0.0884 and 1.0924, respectively). Mean generation time and doubling time of B. cockerelli were shorter on eggplant (40.4 and 6.3 d, respectively) than on bell pepper (46.1 and 7.8 d, respectively). In contrast, lifetime fecundity of B. cockerelli was greater on bell pepper (227.3 offspring) than on eggplant (186.5 offspring). Based on these life history parameters, we concluded that B. cockerelli performed better on eggplant than on bell pepper.
The encyrtid koinobiont endoparasitoid Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal) is an imported biological control agent being released in Florida against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. The eggs and early larvae were found free-floating within the hemocoel. Larvae...
In 2013 the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in four states and 38 counties in the U.S. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorgh...
The nomenclatural problems with the hackberry gall psyllid species names are rectified. The genus Pachypsylla Riley, 1883, type species, Psylla venusta Osten-Sacken, includes 14 nominal species. These are: Pachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861); P. celtidismamma Riley, 1875; P. celtidisgemma Ri...
Chang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Yongda; Zhang, Tianshu; Wang, Dongsheng; Du, Xingbin; Wu, Xiangwen; Chen, Haixia; Chen, Yaozhong; Jiao, Yuetong; Teng, Haiyuan
The effects of cycloxaprid (a modified neonicotinoid insecticide) and buprofezin (a thiadiazine insecticide) on mortality of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera, were determined in laboratory assays. Cycloxaprid killed WBPH nymphs and adults but buprofezin killed only nymphs, and cycloxaprid acted faster than buprofezin. One day after infestation, mortality of third-instar nymphs was >65% with cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter(-1) but was <38% with buprofezin at 148 mg liter(-1). By the 4th day after infestation, however, control of nymphs by the two insecticides was similar, and cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter(-1) caused ≥ 80% mortality of adults but buprofezin at 148 mg liter(-1) (the highest rate tested) caused almost no adult mortality. LC50 values for cycloxaprid were lowest with nymphs, intermediate with adult males, and highest with adult females. Although buprofezin was slower acting than cycloxaprid, its LC50 for nymphs 5 d after infestation was 3.79-fold lower than that of cycloxaprid. Mean carboxylesterase (CarE) specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with cycloxaprid and buprofezin was higher than that of control, but there was no significant difference between cycloxaprid and control (no insecticide), and it was significantly higher for buprofezin than those of cycloxaprid and control. For glutathione S-transferase and mixed function oxygenase, the specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with buprofezin was significantly higher than those of cycloxaprid and control, too.
Chang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Yongda; Zhang, Tianshu; Wang, Dongsheng; Du, Xingbin; Wu, Xiangwen; Chen, Haixia; Chen, Yaozhong; Jiao, Yuetong; Teng, Haiyuan
The effects of cycloxaprid (a modified neonicotinoid insecticide) and buprofezin (a thiadiazine insecticide) on mortality of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera, were determined in laboratory assays. Cycloxaprid killed WBPH nymphs and adults but buprofezin killed only nymphs, and cycloxaprid acted faster than buprofezin. One day after infestation, mortality of third-instar nymphs was >65% with cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter−1 but was <38% with buprofezin at 148 mg liter−1. By the 4th day after infestation, however, control of nymphs by the two insecticides was similar, and cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter−1 caused ≥80% mortality of adults but buprofezin at 148 mg liter−1 (the highest rate tested) caused almost no adult mortality. LC50 values for cycloxaprid were lowest with nymphs, intermediate with adult males, and highest with adult females. Although buprofezin was slower acting than cycloxaprid, its LC50 for nymphs 5 d after infestation was 3.79-fold lower than that of cycloxaprid. Mean carboxylesterase (CarE) specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with cycloxaprid and buprofezin was higher than that of control, but there was no significant difference between cycloxaprid and control (no insecticide), and it was significantly higher for buprofezin than those of cycloxaprid and control. For glutathione S-transferase and mixed function oxygenase, the specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with buprofezin was significantly higher than those of cycloxaprid and control, too. PMID:26175461
Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Ijaz, Mamuna; Farooq, Zahra; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem
Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, is a serious pest of cotton and other crops and infestation by this pest results in yield losses that affect the economy of Pakistan. Various groups of insecticides have been used to control this pest but resistance development is a major factor that inhibits its control in the field. Chlorpyrifos is a common insecticide used against many pests including P. solenopsis. The present experiment was designed to assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance and to develop a better resistance management strategy and assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance. Before selection, the field strain showed 3.1-fold resistance compared to the susceptible strain (CSS). After 8 rounds of selection with chlorpyrifos, a selected population developed a 191.0-fold resistance compared to the CSS. The LC50 values of F1 (CRR ♀ × CSS ♂) and F1(†) (CRR ♂ × CSS ♀) strains were not significantly different and dominance (DLC) values were 0.42 and 0.55. Reciprocal crosses between chlorpyrifos susceptible and resistant strains indicated that resistance was autosomal and incompletely recessive. The monogenic model of fit test and calculation of number of genes segregating in the chlorpyrifos resistant strain demonstrated that resistance is controlled by multiple genes. A value of 0.59 was calculated for realized heritability for chlorpyrifos resistance. Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and S, S, S-butyl phosphorotrithioate showed that chlorpyrifos resistance was associated with microsomal oxidases and esterases. It was concluded that chlorpyrifos resistance in P. solenopsis was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings would be helpful to improve the management of P. solenopsis.
Abstract: Effect of temperature on the biology of Paracoccus marginatus was investigated. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18°, 20°, 25° and 30°C. At 15°, 34° and 35°C eggs hatched, but further development was arrested. Approximately 80 -90% of the eggs survived betw...
Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., has been targeted as a bioenergy feedstock. However, little is currently known of the mechanisms of insect resistance in this species. Here, two no-choice studies were performed to determine the categories (antibiosis and tolerance) and relative levels of resistanc...
Gavrilov-Zimin, Ilya A.
Abstract A new monotypic genus and species, Komodesia circuliplurima gen. et sp. n., from Flores Is. (Indonesia) and the new species, Antonina diversiglandulosa sp. n., from Southern Thailand are described and illustrated. Chromosomes of these species and also the ones of Antonina purpurea Signoret, 1872 and Antonina thaiensis Takahashi, 1942 are studied for the first time: 2n = 30, 20, 12 and 22+Bs correspondingly; the male embryos of all four species demonstrate Lecanoid paternal heterochromatinization of one haploid set of chromosomes. The karyotypes of three widely distributed species, Antonina pretiosa Ferris, 1953, Antonina graminis (Maskell, 1897) and Chaetococcus bambusae (Maskell, 1893), are studied based on material from other regions in comparison with previously published data. Photographs of the karyotypes are provided for the first time for all seven species. The terminological problems connected with the identification and naming of the three scale insect genetic systems, Lecanoid, Comstockioid and Diaspidoid, are discussed. PMID:28123680
Bernal, Julio S; Luck, Robert F; Morse, J G
We tested several assumptions and predictions of host-quality-dependent sex allocation theory (Charnov et al. 1981) with data obtained for the parasitoid Metaphycus stanleyi Compere on its host, brown soft scale (Coccus hesperidum L.), in a California citrus grove and in the laboratory. Scales ceased growing after parasitization by M. stanleyi. Thus, M. stanleyi may gauge host quality (=size) at oviposition. Host size positively influenced adult parasitoid size, and parasitoid size in turn influenced adult longevity of M. stanleyi. However, parasitoid fitness gains with host size and adult size were similar in males versus females. Sex allocation to individual hosts by M. stanleyi depended on host size; females consistently emerged from larger hosts than males. Host size was important in a relative sense; the mean host sizes of females versus males, and of solitary versus gregarious parasitoids varied with the available host size distribution. The offspring sex ratio of M. stanleyi reflected the available host size distribution; the sex ratio of emerging parasitoids varied with the available host size distribution. We did not detect a "critical host size" below which males emerged, and above which females emerged; rather, only females emerged from hosts in the upper size range, and a variable ratio of males and females emerged from hosts in the lower size range. We conclude that the sex ratio of field populations of M. stanleyi is driven largely by the available size distribution of C. hesperidum. In addition, we tested predictions resulting from theoretical analyses of sex allocation in autoparasitoids with data obtained on Coccophagus semicircularis (Förster) parasitizing brown soft scale in the field. The sex ratio of C. semicircularis was consistently and strongly female biased (ca. 90% females). Based on available theoretical analyses, we suggest that this sex ratio pattern may have resulted from a very low encounter rate of secondary hosts coupled with a strong time limitation in C. semicircularis females. This explanation was the most plausible given constraints stemming from the detection of secondary hosts, their variable location within primary hosts, and their handling times. Finally, the size of hosts which yielded single versus multiple parasitoids, and the sizes of these parasitoids, were compared. These comparisons suggested that: (1) M. stanleyi females gauge host sizes precisely, and in terms of female offspring; thus a fitness penalty is not incurred by females which share a host, while males benefit from sharing a host, and; (2) instances where multiple C. semicircularis emerged from a single host were probably the result of parasitism by different females, or during different encounters by a single female.
Three vacuum devices were compared for sampling psyllid populations. One was an AC rechargeable, handheld, cordless model and a second was a handheld, DC model powered through a cord connected to a 12V vehicle battery. Each of these devices had a mesh cylinder (substituted for a dust bag) in which...
Three vacuum devices were compared for sampling psyllid populations. One was an AC rechargeable, handheld, cordless model and a second was a handheld, DC model powered through a cord connected to a 12V vehicle battery. Each of these devices had a mesh cylinder (substituted for a dust bag) in which...
Miao, Jin; Wu, Kongming; Hopper, Keith R; Li, Guoxun
Field surveys of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, and its natural enemies, as well as natural enemy exclosure experiments, were conducted during 2003 and 2004 in soybean fields near Langfang, China. In 2003, aphid density increased six-fold during 12 d in July from 66+/-12 per 10 plants to a seasonal peak of 401+/-79 per 10 plants. Aphid density remained high for another 10 d and declined during late July and early August. In 2004, aphid density increased 29-fold during 13 d in July from 14+/-2 per 10 plants to a seasonal peak of 375+/-30 per 10 plants. Unlike 2003, aphid density remained relatively high during late July and August, peaking again at 296+/-31 per 10 plants on 24 August. In both years, aphid density remained below economic injury level and seemed to be limited by natural enemies. Exclosure of natural enemies led to increases in A. glycines density in 2003 and 2004. In 2003, peak aphid densities in large- and medium-mesh cages were three- and seven-fold higher, respectively, than densities on uncaged plants. In 2004, peak aphid densities in large- and medium-mesh cages were 2-fold and 30-fold higher, respectively, than densities on uncaged plants in one experiment. In another experiment, peak aphid densities in large-, medium-, and small-mesh cages were 8-fold, 28-fold, and 68-fold higher, respectively, than densities on uncaged plants. Both predators and parasitoids were important in limiting aphid density. We compare our results with those from North America and discuss implications for biological control.
Horowitz, A Rami; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Ishaaya, Isaac
The dynamics of resistance in the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), to the neonicotinoids acetamiprid and thiamethoxam was studied extensively in cotton fields in Israel during the cotton-growing seasons 1999-2003. Whitefly strains were collected in early and late seasons mainly in three locations in northern, central, and southern Israel. The whiteflies were assayed under laboratory conditions for susceptibility to neonicotinoids, as part of the Israeli cotton insecticide resistance management strategy. Selections to both acetamiprid and thiamethoxam and cross-resistance between them also were conducted in the laboratory. Although no appreciable resistance to acetamiprid was observed up to 2001, a slight increase of approximately five-fold resistance was detected during 2002 and 2003. However, from 2001 to 2003 thiamethoxam resistance increased >100-fold in the Ayalon Valley and Carmel Coast cotton fields. In cross-resistance assays with both neonicotinoids, the strain that had been selected with thiamethoxam for 12 generations demonstrated almost no cross-resistance to acetamiprid, whereas the acetamiprid-selected strain exhibited high cross-resistance of >500-fold to thiamethoxam.
Sanborn, A F
Measurements of body temperature in the field demonstrated that endothermic cicadas regulate body temperature by behavioral mechanisms as well as by endogenous heat production. Regression analysis suggests both endothermic and ectothermic species are thermoregulating. Body temperature of endothermically active cicadas without access to exogenous heat is approximately the same as the body temperature of basking cicadas. Tibicen winnemanna (Davis) raises body temperature in the field with the heat produced in flight or through the activation of the flight musculature without the act of flight. T. chloromerus (Walker) uses solar radiation to elevate body temperature to the level necessary for activity. The thermal responses of each species are related to its activity patterns with minimum flight temperature and shade-seeking temperatures significantly lower in the endothermic T. winnemanna. Heat torpor temperature appears to be related to the environment rather than behavior pattern. Endothermy in cicadas may serve to uncouple reproductive behavior from environmental constraints; to circumvent possible thermoregulatory problems; to permit the utilization of habitats unavailable to strictly ectothermic cicadas; to reduce predation; to optimize broadcast coverage and sound transmission; and to decrease possible acoustic interference.
The prevalent way aphids accomplish colony defense against natural enemies is a mutualistic relationship with ants or the occurrence of a specialised soldier caste typcial for eusocial aphids, or even both. Despite a group-living life style of those aphid species lacking these defense lines, communal defense against natural predators has not yet been observed there. Individuals of Aphis nerii (Oleander aphid) and Uroleucon hypochoeridis, an aphid species feeding on Hypochoeris radicata (hairy cat's ear), show a behavioral response to visual stimulation in the form of spinning or twitching, which is often accompanied by coordinated kicks executed with hind legs. Interestingly, this behaviour is highly synchronized among members of a colony and repetitive visual stimulation caused strong habituation. Observations of natural aphid colonies revealed that a collective twitching and kicking response (CTKR) was frequently evoked during oviposition attempts of the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani and during attacks of aphidophagous larvae. CTKR effectively interrupted oviposition attempts of this parasitoid wasp and even repelled this parasitoid from colonies after evoking consecutive CTKRs. In contrast, solitary feeding A. nerii individuals were not able to successfully repel this parasitoid wasp. In addition, CTKR was also evoked through gentle substrate vibrations. Laser vibrometry of the substrate revealed twitching-associated vibrations that form a train of sharp acceleration peaks in the course of a CTKR. This suggests that visual signals in combination with twitching-related substrate vibrations may play an important role in synchronising defense among members of a colony. In both aphid species collective defense in encounters with different natural enemies was executed in a stereotypical way and was similar to CTKR evoked through visual stimulation. This cooperative defense behavior provides an example of a surprising sociality that can be found in some aphid species that are not expected to be social at all. PMID:20454683
The prevalent way aphids accomplish colony defense against natural enemies is a mutualistic relationship with ants or the occurrence of a specialised soldier caste typical for eusocial aphids, or even both. Despite a group-living life style of those aphid species lacking these defense lines, communal defense against natural predators has not yet been observed there. Individuals of Aphis nerii (Oleander aphid) and Uroleucon hypochoeridis, an aphid species feeding on Hypochoeris radicata (hairy cat's ear), show a behavioral response to visual stimulation in the form of spinning or twitching, which is often accompanied by coordinated kicks executed with hind legs. Interestingly, this behaviour is highly synchronized among members of a colony and repetitive visual stimulation caused strong habituation. Observations of natural aphid colonies revealed that a collective twitching and kicking response (CTKR) was frequently evoked during oviposition attempts of the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani and during attacks of aphidophagous larvae. CTKR effectively interrupted oviposition attempts of this parasitoid wasp and even repelled this parasitoid from colonies after evoking consecutive CTKRs. In contrast, solitary feeding A. nerii individuals were not able to successfully repel this parasitoid wasp. In addition, CTKR was also evoked through gentle substrate vibrations. Laser vibrometry of the substrate revealed twitching-associated vibrations that form a train of sharp acceleration peaks in the course of a CTKR. This suggests that visual signals in combination with twitching-related substrate vibrations may play an important role in synchronising defense among members of a colony. In both aphid species collective defense in encounters with different natural enemies was executed in a stereotypical way and was similar to CTKR evoked through visual stimulation. This cooperative defense behavior provides an example of a surprising sociality that can be found in some aphid species that are not expected to be social at all.
Emeljanov, Alexander F.; Shcherbakov, Dmitry E.
Abstract Alicodoxa rasnitsyni gen. et sp. n. (Dictyopharinae: Orthopagini) is described based on a nymph from Rovno amber; it also occurs in Baltic amber. A small additional wax plate dorsal to the large wax plate of abdominal tergites VI–VIII is first reported in this and other genera of Dictyopharidae. A lectotype is designated for Pseudophana reticulata Germar & Berendt, 1856 transferred to Protepiptera (Achilidae): Protepiptera reticulata (Germar & Berendt, 1856), comb. n. PMID:22259275
Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.
Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.
Outbreaks of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, have been occurring more frequently in recent years in China. Control of this pest depended heavily on chemical insecticides. The objective of this study was to determine susceptibilities of N. lugens to neonicotinoids and other insecticides in...
Serrano, M S; Backus, E A; Cardona, C
Two methods for estimating the tolerance of common bean genotypes to Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore were compared, using a yield trial carried out at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia, versus stylet penetration tactics measured by AC electronic feeding monitors. A stylet penetration index was devised based on principal component scores of three penetration tactics identified (pulsing laceration, cell rupturing, and lancing sap ingestion), combined with knowledge of the hopperburn symptoms caused by each tactic. Tolerant genotypes, as classified by the CIAT yield index, showed significantly more unprotected yield and lower hopperburn scores than the susceptible control. They also induced performance of less pulsing laceration (the tactic considered most damaging to the plant), and more of the other two, mitigating tactics, especially cell rupturing. When index values were calculated for each genotype, stylet penetration index values matched those of the yield index for three out of five genotypes: two EMP-coded tolerant lines ('EMP 385' and 'EMP 392') and the susceptible control 'BAT 41'. Thus, for these three genotypes, all subsequent hoppereburn symptoms are predictable by the type of feeding behavior performed on them. 'Porrillo Sintético' and 'EMP 84', considered borderline genotypes by the yield index, were overestimated and underestimated respectively, by the stylet penetration index. We postulate that, for these two genotypes, plant physiological responses to feeding (either compensatory or heightened sensitivity, respectively) synergize with type of feeding performed to generate the overall hopperburn condition. This multivariate analysis of electronic monitoring data was successfully used to devise an index of resistance. The implications of using the stylet penetration index and the advantages of using electronic monitoring in a bean-breeding program are discussed.
Hampton, R O; Jensen, A; Hagel, G T
After characterization of the natural spread of necrosis-inducing Bean yellow mosaic potyvirus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, BYMV(N)), nonpersistently transmitted from clover, Trifolium repens L., to an adjacent field of snap bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in western Oregon, we established a study site enabling us to investigate the virus reservoir, to observe en masse transmission of BYMV(N) to bean plants, and to identify aphid species associated with virus spread. Colonies of Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), and Aphis fabae Scopoli associated with virus spread were established in an insectary and shown to vector this virus. Although Nearctaphis bakeri (Cowen) comprised 68% of aphid alatae taken from bean leaves during virus spread, we were unable to show that this species could vector the virus by using the same methods that were successful for the other species. Instead, we found that when two distinct N. bakeri colonies unexpectedly emerged from the roots of T. repens BYMV(N) source plants (WZwc #6 and #11) that were present in the laboratory (insectary), these aphids transmitted BYMVN at rates comparable with those of M. persicae and A. pisum. Transmission of BYMVN also occurred with two other N. bakeri colonies maintained for 4 mo on Trifolium pratense L. (NZwc Sch 3B and Sch 7C) BYMVN source plants. Each of these four BYMVN transmission successes also demonstrated an unprecedented once-only transmission of BYMV(N) by N. bakeri colonies. Our experience with western Oregon N. bakeri colonies was compared with descriptions of this native North American species after its 1960-1980s arrival in France, Germany, and Italy.
Millar, Jocelyn G; Daane, Kent M; McElfresh, J Steven; Moreira, Jardel A; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha; Guillén, Marta; Bentley, Walt J
The sex pheromone of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret has been identified as a single component, lavandulyl senecioate. Racemic lavandulyl senecioate was as attractive to male mealybugs as the insect-produced (S)-enantiomer, indicating that the unnatural enantiomer is not inhibitory. Lavandulol, which also was found in extracts from virgin females, antagonized attraction of males at higher doses. Rubber septum lures loaded with 10- to 1,000-microg doses of the pheromone were equally attractive, and lures loaded with 100 microg of racemic pheromone remained attractive for at least 12 wk under field conditions. Delta traps were more effective than double-sided sticky cards and minimized captures of nontarget insects. Pheromone-baited traps had an effective range of at least 50 m. Comparison of visual sampling methods and sampling of males with pheromone-baited traps revealed that trap catches were significantly correlated with the results from visual sampling methods, and with economic damage.
The focus of this study was on quantifying fitness attributes, such as spore density and viability, and determining the virulence level against aphid (Aphis gossypii) nymphs of isolates from the fungal species Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungal isolates were obtained from several insects, including Plutella xylostella, Hypothenemus hampei, Bronstispa longissima, A. gossypii, Tenebrio molitor, and Leptocorisa acuta, that were collected from Indonesian islands, such as Sumatera, Java, and Sulawesi. Third instar aphid nymphs were inoculated via topical application of 10(6) conidia ml(-1) of the entomopathogenic fungal isolates. All of the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates could produce very dense spores. The M. anisopliae isolate MaAg, which was obtained from the aphid, had the highest spore density at 6.70 × 10(8) conidia ml(-1). Among the B. bassiana isolates, the highest conidial viability belonged to isolate CPJW8, which was obtained from Chrysodeixis chalcites, with a 39% average viability. Among the M. anisopliae isolates, the highest viabilities belonged to the isolates MaAg and MaLa, which were obtained from L. acuta, with a 33% and 32% average viabilities, respectively. All of the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates were virulent against aphid nymphs, with mortality rates ranging from 64% to 94%. The three most virulent isolates were BBY715 (94%), MPx (92%), and MaTm (92%), and the least virulent isolate was MaLa (64%). BBY715, the most virulent isolate, had the shortest lethal time median (LT50) against aphid nymphs at 2.97 hours, and MaLa had the longest LT50 at 61.81 hours.
Several species of Aphelinus have been introduced to the United States from the Old World for biological control of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Modvilko). Reproductive incompatibility has been observed among populations collected from different geographic areas. We examined whether or ...
Kasmi, Abir; Hammami, Majdi; Raoelison, Emmanuel G; Abderrabba, Manef; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ducamp, Christine
Essential oils (EOs) from Schinus molle, Helichrysum gymnocephalum, Cedrelopsis grevei and Melaleuca viridiflora, four aromatic and medicinal plants, are commonly used in folk medicine. EOs were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID); then evaluated for their behavioral effects on adults of the green pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) using a Perspex four-armed olfactometer in order to test the compatibility of their use as phytoinsecticides to control this insect pest. Our results showed that the Eos from leaves of S. molle, M. viridiflora and C. grevei did not change aphids' behavior. However, S. molle fruits EO seemed to be attractive while H. gymnocephalum leaves EO exhibited repellency towards aphids at a dose of 10 μl. The major compounds in S. molle fruits EO were 6-epi-shyobunol (16.22%) and d-limonene (15.35%). While, in H. gymnocephalum leaves EO, 1.8 cineole was the main compound (47.4%). The difference in aphids' responses to these two EOs could be attributed to the differences in their compositions. Our findings suggest that these two EOs have potential applications for the integrated pest management (IPM) of A. pisum (Harris). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chen, Jiang; McAuslane, Heather J; Carle, R Bruce; Webb, Susan E
Fruit yield and quality of zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., plants infested with Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring were evaluated in a screenhouse under spring and fall growing conditions by using closely related sister lines that were either susceptible (ZUC61) or tolerant (ZUC76-SLR) to squash silverleaf disorder. Our objective was to test separately the effects of level of whitefly infestation and expression of silverleaf symptoms on zucchini yield and quality. In a second experiment, yield and quality of fruit produced by silverleaf-tolerant zucchini genotypes incorporating two different sources of tolerance (ZUC76-SLR and ZUC33-SLR/PMR) were compared with that of 'Zucchini Elite', a silverleaf-susceptible commercial hybrid. Zucchini fruit yield was reduced in plants exposed to repeated infestations of whiteflies in spring and fall of both experiments. In addition, fruit grew to harvestable size more slowly under the highest whitefly infestations. Fruit quality was reduced at high infestations because of uneven and reduced pigmentation. The fruit yield and quality of ZUC61 and ZUC76-SLR were similarly affected by whitefly infestation despite differences in their susceptibility to squash silverleaf disorder. Fruit from infested plants showed decreased levels of chlorophyll and carotenoids causing the "blanching" of the fruit that is associated with loss of quality and reduced marketability. Leaves of infested plants of all genotypes had reduced levels of photosynthetic and photoprotectant pigments, possibly leading to reduced photosynthesis and consequently reduced yield. We conclude that feeding by high whitefly populations rather than expression of squash silverleaf disorder is responsible for yield and quality reduction in zucchini.
Munson, M A; Baumann, P; Moran, N A
A portion of the gene coding for the 16S ribosomal RNA from the endosymbionts of three species of mealybugs [Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley)] was cloned, sequenced, and compared to a homologous fragment from bacteria representative of aphid endosymbionts as well as major subdivisions of the Proteobacteria. Parsimony analysis of the sequences indicated that the mealybug endosymbionts are related and belong to the beta-subdivision; in contrast, previous studies showed that aphid endosymbionts are part of the gamma-subdivision. These findings suggest that the endosymbiosis of mealybugs is a consequence of a single bacterial infection and indicate that this ancestor was different from the ancestor involved in aphid endosymbiosis.
Abstract A new species of scale insects, Aclerda pseudozoysiae sp. n., is described and illustrated. The karyotypes and some aspects of reproductive biology and cytogenetics of the new species species and Aclerda takahashiiKuwana, 1932 were studied, representing the first data for the genus Aclerda Signoret, 1874 and the family Aclerdidae as a whole. Aclerda pseudozoysiae sp. n. has 2n=16, bisexual reproduction, and heterochromatinization of one haploid set of chromosomes in male stages of the life cycle, matching either a Lecanoid or a Comstockioid genetic system. Aclerda takahashii demonstrates 2n=18 and unusual type of parthenogenesis with diploid and haploid embryos (inside each gravid female) without heterochromatinization. Both species are ovoviviparous; all stages of embryonic development occur inside the mother’s body. PMID:24260679
Diaz, B M; Barrios, L; Fereres, A
Knowledge on colonization modes and interplant movement of Nasonovia ribisnigri can contribute to the development of optimal control of this pest. The aim of this study was to determine the spatio-temporal distribution and the mode of spread between adult morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri, comparing spring and autumn lettuce protected crops. The spatial and temporal pattern was analyzed using the spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) methodology and other related displacement indices. The population size of N. ribisnigri was greater in the autumn than in the spring growing seasons due to milder temperatures. The percentage of plants colonized by aphids was higher in spring than in autumn, showing the great dispersal potential of this aphid species independent of their population size. Differential propensity for initial displacement from the central plant was observed between adult morphs in spring, resulting in a greater ability of apterous than alate aphids to spread far away from the source plant. In autumn, both adult morphs showed an initial reduced displacement; however, the number of plants infested (≈20%) with at least one aphid at this initial time (seven days) was similar for both adult morphs and both growing seasons. Analysis of the spatial pattern of both adult morphs revealed a predominantly random distribution for both spring and autumn trials. This pattern was achieved by a prevalent random movement over the area (γ≈0.5). These results highlight the ability of the apterous N. ribisnigri to spread within greenhouse lettuce crops early in the spring, suggesting that detection of the pest by deep visual inspection is required after lettuce emergence.
Mourad, A K; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak Soad, I
This investigation covered a survey of scale insects and mealy bugs infesting ten growing species of deciduous fruit trees in three localities in Alexandria govemorate. These localities were Merghem, Burg El-Arab, and El-Nahda about 50 Km. West of Alexandria under both rain-fed and irrigation system conditions. The common inspected fruit trees were fig, white mulberry, pomegranate, apple, pear, apricot, European plum, peach, almond, and persimmon. It was shown that a group of twenty scale insects and meaty bug species pertaining to fifteen genera belonging to six families of the super family: Coccoidea were collected and identified during the elapsing period from January to December, 2004. Among these species, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) was recorded for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, many insect and non-insect parasitoids and predators were also found associated with these scale insects and mealy bugs on deciduous fruit trees in the three concerned localities throughout this investigation. These natural enemies were identified and recorded.
Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Fangmei; Coates, Brad; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhou, Xuguo; Cheng, Dengfa
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, particularly during development. In this study, 345 miRNAs were identified from the English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), of which 168 were conserved and 177 were S. avenae-specific. Quantitative comparison of miRNA expression levels indicated that 16 and 12 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in winged and wingless S. avenae small RNA libraries, respectively. Differential expression of these miRNAs was confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR validation. The putative transcript targets for these candidate miRNAs were predicted based on sequences from a model species Drosophila melanogaster and four aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum, Myzus persicae, Toxoptera citricida, and Aphis gosspii. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses shed light on the potential functions of these miRNAs in the regulation of genes involved in the metabolism, development and wing polyphenism of S. avenae. PMID:27762301
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is a critically important citrus pest in the United States because it vectors the pathogen responsible for citrus greening disease (huanglongbing). The psyllid is attacked in Asia by the encyrtid parasitoid Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis, and it would be de...
English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), show a classic polyphenic wing dimorphism among isogenic adults that is an intriguing model for the study of morphological plasticity in response to the environment. Short non-coding microRNA (miRNA) molecules regulate gene expression by post-transcriptiona...
Imidacloprid has been used for many years to control the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in China. To provide resistance assessment for the national insecticide resistance management program, we collected a total of 42 samples of the planthoppers from 27 locations covering 8 provinces t...
BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is a serious pest which causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a laboratory pop...
Hogg, Brian N; Moran, Patrick J; Smith, Lincoln
The impacts of weed biological control agents may vary with plant ontogeny. As plants grow, structural and chemical changes can alter plant resistance, which may reduce herbivory via chemical or structural defenses, and plant tolerance, which may enable plants to maintain fitness despite attack. Resistance and tolerance generally increase as plants grow. Nonetheless, prerelease tests of agent efficacy often overlook plant ontogeny. Here, we assess the performance and impacts of a candidate biocontrol agent, the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Loginova), in relation to the age of its host plant, the invasive shrub French broom, Genista monspessulana. We also examined whether the psyllid can consistently kill plants when its densities are sufficiently high. Survival of psyllids to adulthood and the timing of adult emergence did not differ between plant sizes, indicating that performance of nymphs was not influenced by plant size. However, adult psyllid survival was reduced on small plants, suggesting that nymphs and adults responded differently to ontogenetic changes in plant quality. Psyllids affected the growth of small and large plants similarly; all measured plant growth parameters were lower in the presence of psyllids regardless of plant size. In a separate experiment, effects on plant survival depended on psyllid density, as higher realized densities of ∼9 psyllids per cm stem length were necessary to consistently kill plants. Thus, results suggest that the psyllid would be equally effective on a range of plant sizes, particularly at high densities, and show the potential of the psyllid to help control French broom in California.
Liu, D; Trumble, J T
The tomato-potato psyllid Bactericera [Paratrioza] cockerelli (Sulc) has recently caused losses exceeding 50% on fresh market tomatoes in California and Baja, Mexico by injecting a toxin that results in a condition known as 'psyllid yellows'. The objectives of this study were to: (i) document oviposition preferences on a range of tomato cultivars; (ii) determine threshold levels for psyllid densities that would cause psyllid yellows on tomatoes within the first three weeks following transplanting; and (iii) identify the most important 'psyllid yellows' symptoms that might be used in surveying and monitoring for this pest. Plant lines tested included the commonly-planted commercial cultivars 'Shady Lady' and 'QualiT 21', an older, previously commercial cultivar '7718 VFN', a common cultivar planted by consumers 'Yellow Pear', and a wild type plant accession, PI 134417. When given a choice, psyllids significantly preferred 'Yellow Pear' and avoided PI 134417 for oviposition. Under no-choice conditions psyllids laid significantly fewer eggs on PI 134417, but all the other plant lines were equally good substrates for laying eggs. Thus, oviposition preference is not likely to provide a functional management strategy in large plantings. On 'Shady Lady', psyllids preferred to oviposit on plants already infested with adults. On both 'Shady Lady' and '7718 VFN' oviposition was significantly greater on plants previously infested by nymphs as compared to uninfested control plants. This suggests that, at least for some cultivars, there is a physiological change in plant attractiveness following psyllid feeding. 'Yellow Pear' and 'QualiT 21' were relatively tolerant of psyllids, requiring 18 nymphs per plant to produce the disease symptoms. Only eight nymphs per plant were needed on 'Shady Lady' and '7718 VFN'. For all cultivars, the pest density showed strong correlations with measurements such as the number of yellowing leaves and leaflets and distorted leaves, which were as good as or better than the first factor extracted from principal component analysis. Therefore, such measurements have the potential to simplify field surveys.
Buprofezin has been used for many years to control the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in China. To provide resistance assessment for national resistance management program, we collected a total of 45 samples of the planthopper from 27 locations across eight provinces for monitoring the...
Schuster, D J
The whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring is a major pest of tomatoes, causing an irregular ripening disorder characterized externally by incomplete or inhibited reddening of fruit, especially in longitudinal sections, and internally by an increase in the amount of white tissue. Experiments were undertaken during the spring and fall of 1997 and 1998 and the spring of 1999 to develop an action threshold for applying the insect growth regulators (IGRs) buprofezin and pyriproxyfen to manage B. argentifolii and irregular ripening. The IGRs were applied when predetermined thresholds were reached and were compared with a high rate of the systemic insecticide imidacloprid, which was applied at transplanting and provided season-long whitefly control. Only plots treated when the numbers of sessile nymphs (second through fourth instars) reached five per 10 leaflets consistently had both external and internal irregular ripening severity ratings similar to the imidacloprid standard. Results were similar for buprofezin and pyriproxyfen even though the modes of action differ. The five nymphs per 10 leaflets threshold lends itself to field scouting because nymphal counts completed in the field using the unaided eye supplemented with a 10x hand lens were linearly and significantly related to counts completed in the laboratory with a dissecting microscope.
Basit, Muhammad; Saeed, Shafqat; Saleem, Mushtaq Ahmad; Denholm, Ian; Shah, Maqbool
Resistance levels in whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) collections from cotton and sunflower (up to four districts) for five neonicotinoids and two insect growth regulators (IGRs) were investigated for two consecutive years. Based on the LC50(s), all collections showed slight to moderate levels of resistance for the tested insecticides compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The data also indicated that cotton and sunflower collections had similar resistance levels. In comparison (four collections), Vehari collections showed higher resistance for acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram compared with those of others. Average resistance ratios for acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram ranged from 5- to 13-, 4- to 8-, and 9- to 13-fold, respectively. Multan and Vehari collections also exhibited moderate levels (9- to 16-fold) of resistance to buprofezin. Furthermore, toxicity of neonicotinoids against immature stages was equal to that of insect growth regulators. The data also suggested that resistance in the field populations was stable. After selection for four generations with bifenthrin (G1 to G4), resistance to bifenthrin increased to 14-fold compared with the laboratory susceptible population. Selection also increased resistance to fenpropathrin, lambdacyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and diafenthuron. Cross-resistance and stability of resistance in the field populations is of some concern. Rotation of insecticides having no cross-resistance and targeting the control against immature stages may control the resistant insects, simultaneously reducing the selection pressure imposed.
Sanborn, A F; Maté, S
We investigated the thermoregulatory behavior, thermal responses (minimum flight, maximum voluntary tolerance and heat torpor temperatures) and the effect of body temperature (T(b)) on call parameters in the cicada Diceroprocta olympusa (Walker). Regression of T(b) as a function of ambient (T(a)) or perch temperatures (T(p)) suggests thermoregulation is occurring. Thermoregulation occurs through behavioral changes that alter the uptake of solar radiation. T(p) is a better predictor of T(b) than is T(a). Thermal responses (minimum flight temperature 20.4 degrees C, maximum voluntary tolerance temperature 37 degrees C, and heat torpor temperature 46.7 degrees C) may be related to the humid, grassland habitat of the species. In contrast to other acoustic insects, no significant relationship was found between the temporal parameters of the calling song and T(b) within the population of D. olympusa.
Flores, Guillermo; Hilje, Luko; Mora, Gerardo A; Carballo, Manuel
Bemisia tabaci is a key pest of vegetables and other crops worldwide, but it is a particularly serious problem in the tropics, due to its ability to transmit several types of viruses, especially begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of wild "tacaco" (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract as well as some fractions exert such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages), fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (ether) and 0.5% (water and water: methanol), with the methanol fraction showing no activity. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse) no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions.
Randolph, Terri L; Peairs, Frank B; Kroening, Mary K; Armstrong, John S; Hammon, Robert W; Walker, Cynthia B; Quick, James S
Plant damage and yield response to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), were evaluated on a susceptible (TAM 107) and a resistant (RWA E1) winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in three Colorado locations in the 1993 and 1994 crop years. Russian wheat aphid was more abundant on TAM 107 than on RWA E1. Russian wheat aphid days per tiller were greater at the higher infestation levels. Yield losses as a result of Russian wheat aphid infestation occurred most of the time with TAM 107 but rarely with RWA E1. Seed densities were reduced at higher infestation levels in TAM 107 at two locations. Russian wheat aphids per tiller had a negative relationship to yield in TAM 107 but not in RWA E1. In TAM 107 yield decreased as aphid densities increased, but yield remained constant regardless of initial aphid abundance on RWA E1 in all environments. Seed densities were reduced at higher infestation levels in TAM 107 at two locations. The resistance conferred by the Dn4 gene seems to be an effective management approach across a range of field conditions.
Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone) and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod). Virtually al...
Sidumo, Amelia J; Shields, Elson J; Lembo, Arthur
The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), is a circular migratory pest of many crops in the United States that overwinters in the southern states. Northward migrant population arrival to the northern states occurs earlier in the north central states compared with northeastern states. Migrant leafhopper arrival to the north varies from year to year depending on factors influencing the development of spring migrants in the overwintering areas and on timing of weather systems capable of transporting the migrants northward. An estimate of the potato leafhopper minimum temperature survival, the geographic limits of the potato leafhopper overwintering range, leafhopper spring development in the overwintering areas, and the identification of the spring migration initiation northwards can help to predict the leafhopper arrival time in the northern states. In the current study, geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate the potato leafhopper minimum temperature survival and premigrant development. The minimum winter temperature was estimated by overlaying minimum temperature isolines with potato leafhopper collection data taken during the winter, The geographic limits of the overwintering range were estimated using the minimum temperature survival to create a condition-based model by using ArcMap-GIS 8.2. The estimated overwintering range was larger and covered areas further north than previously estimated and included Missouri, Kansas, Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The use of degree-day accumulation to estimate days of first adult emergence in the overwintering areas resulted in earliest adult emergence in the south central region. First adult emergence in south central and southeastern areas occurred before the detection of potato leafhoppers in the north central United States. These data suggested that the difference in population arrival between the north central states and the northeastern states was more dependent on factors affecting the migration and weather conditions encountered along the migration pathway.
The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, has become a serious pest causing severe economic losses to sorghum grown in the southern United States (U.S.). Since its original detection in four states in 2013, M. sacchari on sorghum has now spread to 17 states. The presence of one or multiple genotype...
Yang, P.; Foote, D.; Alyokhin, A.V.; Lenz, L.; Messing, R.H.
The abundance of mymarid parasitoids attacking the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia [Kuoh and Kuoh]), a polyphagous pest recently adventive to Hawaii, was monitored using yellow sticky cards deployed in several areas on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii. The yellow cards captured Chaetomymar sp. nr bagicha Narayanan, Subba Rao, & Kaur and Schizophragma bicolor (Dozier), both adventive species, and Polynema sp. Haliday, which is endemic to Hawaii (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). The former two species were most abundant at all sites. On Kauai, there was a negative correlation between the captures of C. sp. nr bagicha and those of Polynema sp. Throughout the season, the increase in parasitoid numbers generally followed the increase in leafhopper numbers. C. sp. nr. bagicha and S. bicolor showed distinct habitat preferences. Removal of Myrica faya Aiton, an invasive weed that is a highly preferred two-spotted leafhopper host, decreased the overall numbers of captured parasitoids, but led to a twofold increase in the ratio of trapped parasitoids/hosts in weed-free areas. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
Development, survivorship, longevity, reproduction and life table parameters of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were examined in the laboratory using three host plants, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Chrysanthemum morifolium L. and euonymus (Euonymus japonica Thu...
Pemphigus fuscicornis (Koch) is a pest of sugar beet root in warm and dry regions of Iran. This belongs to the Middle East and south east of Asia fauna. Nymphs establish colonies in root sutures and feed heavily which cause wilting and yellowing in beet near harvest. This study was conducted to determine infestation indices, damage occurrence and the necessity for control measures of this pest. Nymph colonies were monitored in different experimental fields that were planted with commonly used monogerm variety Afshari and then five infested places were selected. Damaged root specimens were sampled from five foci and ranked for infestation, yield and sugar concentration. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in weight, sugar concentration and impurities between indices 1, 2, 3 and none infested beets. Only the sugar concentration of indices 4 showed significant differences with zero infested beets. In the other hand, no specimens were found with the highest population density index (indices 5). Therefore, the sugar beet root aphid populations did not reach to the level of economic damage in these experimental fields. Thus, the control measures such as chemical application and use of resistant varieties may be used when the colonies density increases to the indices four and five throughout the foci in such fields.
Keskinen, Essi; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno
The aims of this paper have been to describe (1) the general structure of the compound eye of the spittle bug Philaenus spumarius, (2) the eye's post-embryonic development, (3) photomechanical changes upon dark/light adaptation in the eye, and (4) how leaving the semi-aquatic foam bubble and turning into an adult affects the organization of the eye. Spittle bugs, irrespective of size or sex, possess apposition type compound eyes. The eye's major components (i.e. facet, cornea, cone and rhabdom) grow rather isometrically from the smallest nymph to the adult. Photomechanical changes can occur during both nymphal and adult phases and manifest themselves through pigment granules and mitochondria migrating to and away from the rhabdom, and rhabdom diameters varying with time of day and ambient light level. When a nymph transforms into an adult, its compound eyes' dorsoventral axes widen, facet diameters increase, facet shapes turn from circular to pentagonal and hexagonal, the cornea thickens and the rhabdoms become thinner. The agile adults, free from the foam that surrounds the nymphs, can be expected to need their vision more than the nymphs, and the changes in eye structure do, indeed, indicate that the adults have superior visual acuity. A thicker cornea in the adults reduces water loss and protects the compound eye from mechanical and light-induced damage: protection given to the nymphs by their foam bubbles.
Duke, L; Steinkraus, D C; English, J E; Smith, K G
Massospora cicadina Peck is a fungal pathogen of 13- and 17-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.). In northwest Arkansas, during the spring 1998 emergence of the 13-year periodical cicada, Magicicada tredecassini (Brood XIX), <1% of emerging cicadas were infected with the conidial stage of M. cicadina, similar to data collected from the same population in 1985. However, in northwest Arkansas plots treated with M. cicadina resting spores collected from infected 17-year Magicicada septendecim cicadas (Brood IV) in 1997 from southern Iowa, 10 months prior to the 1998 emergence in Arkansas, conidial stage infections of M. cicadina in 13-year Arkansas M. tredecassini cicadas increased significantly to 10.6% (7.9% in males and 2.6% in females). These data suggest that M. cicadina resting spores do not require a dormancy of 13 or 17 years between cicada emergences. Instead M. cicadina resting spores appear to be capable of germinating and infecting periodical cicadas after less than 1 year. In addition, M. cicadina resting spores derived from one species (17-year M. septendecim cicadas) were infective for a second species (13-year M. tredecassini cicadas). A mean of 1.4 x 10(6)(SE = 1.8 x 10(5)) mature resting spores were produced per infected male M. septendecim.
Fondren, Kirsten M; McCullough, Deborah G
Pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), and Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley are important pests of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., and other conifers in much of North America. On Christmas tree plantations, these insects are typically controlled by spraying broad-spectrum insecticides when the vulnerable immature stages are present. However, effective control of bivoltine populations can be difficult to achieve due to asynchronous hatch and development of the second generation. Our objectives were to 1) determine the phenology of the second generation of C. heterophyllae in Michigan; 2) characterize the natural enemy complex; and 3) assess the effectiveness of horticultural oil for control of C. heterophyllae on P. sylvestris Christmas tree plantations. We monitored scale populations in three counties in lower Michigan for 3 yr. Scale phenology was consistently associated with cumulative degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD(10 degrees C)). Second-generation egg hatch began at approximately 1230-1300 DD(10 degrees C), and continued for approximately 3 wk. The peak of the second instar coincided with 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees C). Common predators included the coccinellids Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Microweisia misella (LeConte). On average, 70% of the C. heterophyllae population in unsprayed fields was killed by predators in 1999. Two endoparasitic wasps, Encarsia bella Gahan and Marietta mexicana Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), also were recovered. In 2000 and 2001, we applied a highly refined horticultural spray oil with a backpack mist blower at 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees). Scale mortality on trees treated with oil ranged from 66 to 80% and was similar to control achieved using conventional insecticides in both years.
Salvianti, Francesca; Bettini, Priscilla P; Giordani, Edgardo; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Bellini, Elvio; Buiatti, Marcello
The molecular interaction between pear tree (Pyrus spp.) and the phloem-feeding psylla Cacopsylla pyri (Linnaeus) was investigated through the construction and characterization of cDNA subtracted libraries. Genes expressed upon insect infestation were identified in the susceptible pear cultivar Bartlett and in the resistant selection NY10355. In both interactions, genes involved in the plant defense response were induced, confirming the observed similarity between the response to pathogens and to insects with piercing/sucking mouthparts. However, the two expression profiles were found to be different, with more genes involved in the response to biotic and abiotic stress being activated in the resistant plant than in the susceptible one. Further characterization of the identified genes could lead to the development of molecular markers associated with tolerance/resistance to pear psylla.
Yin, Haichen; Shi, Qihao; Shakeel, Muhammad; Kuang, Jing; Li, Jianhong
Melanization reflects not only body color variation but also environmental plasticity. It is a strategy that helps insects adapt to environmental change. Different color morphs may have distinct life history traits, e.g., development time, growth rate, and body weight. The green slender planthopper Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura) is the main pest of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia). This insect has two color morphs. The present study explored the influence of photoperiod and its interaction with temperature in nymph stage on adult melanism. Additionally, the longevity, fecundity, mating rate, and hatching rate of S. procerus were examined to determine whether the fitness of the insect was influenced by melanism under different temperature and photoperiod. The results showed that a greater number of melanic morphs occurred if the photoperiod was extremely long. A two-factor ANOVA showed that temperature and photoperiod both have a significant influence on melanism. The percentages of variation explained by these factors were 45.53 and 48.71%, respectively. Moreover, melanic morphs had greater advantages than non-melanic morphs under an environmental regime of high temperatures and a long photoperiod, whereas non-melanic morphs were better adapted to cold temperatures and a short photoperiod. These results cannot be explained by the thermal melanism hypothesis. Thus, it may be unavailable to seek to explain melanism in terms of only one hypothesis. PMID:27672370
Cross-resistance to two fipronil analogs, butene-fipronil and ethiprole were detected in fipronil-resistant field populations and a resistant laboratorial strain of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, although the two analogs have not been used widely in rice-growing areas in China. The resul...
Butin, Elizabeth; Elkinton, Joseph; Havill, Nathan; Montgomery, Michael
The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an introduced pest in North America that is native to Asia, and is causing extensive damage to eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carriere) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Englemann) in the eastern United States. We compared two coccinellids imported for biological control of the adelgid: Scymnus ningshanensis Yu et Yao from China and Pseudoscymnus tsugae Sasaji and McClure from Japan. In a laboratory study, we measured the numerical response of each beetle species to a range of prey densities, and in field studies we examined the reproductive success and ability of the coccinellids to reduce populations of the hemlock woolly adelgid. In the laboratory, S. ningshanensis showed a positive numerical response as hemlock woolly adelgid density increased, and P. tsugae showed a density-independent response. In field cages, the presence of S. ningshanensis resulted in negative hemlock woolly adelgid population growth, in contrast to positive growth in both control cages and cages containing P. tsugae. Both our laboratory and field experiments suggest that S. ningshanensis has good potential as a biological control agent of hemlock woolly adelgid.
Elliott, N C; Giles, K L; Royer, T A; Kindler, S D; Tao, F L; Jones, D B; Cuperus, G W
The numbers of greenbugs, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and bird cherry-oat aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi L., per wheat tiller (stem) were estimated in 189 production winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields located throughout Oklahoma. Taylor's power law regressions were calculated from these data and used to construct fixed precision sequential sampling schemes for each species. An evaluation data set was constructed from 240 samples taken during three growing seasons from winter wheat fields at four locations in Oklahoma. Wheat cultivar and growth stage were recorded for each field on the day of sampling. Taylor's power law parameters for evaluation fields differed significantly for both species among growing seasons, locations, and plant growth stages. Median precision achieved using the fixed precision sequential sampling schemes for each species departed <20% from expected precision over the range population intensity in the evaluation data. For the 10% of samples with greatest deviation between observed and expected precision, observed precision was 13.8-81.8% greater than that expected precision depending on aphid species and population intensity. For the greenbug, the distribution of the percentage deviation between observed and expected precision was positively skewed, so that the sampling scheme tended to over-predict precision. For the bird cherry-oat aphid, the distribution was more symmetric. Even though precision observed using the sampling schemes frequently varied from expected precision, because of the inevitable consequence of sampling error and environmental variation, the sampling schemes yielded median observed precision levels close to expected precision levels over a broad range of population intensity.
Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Fangmei; Coates, Brad; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhou, Xuguo; Cheng, Dengfa
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, particularly during development. In this study, 345 miRNAs were identified from the English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), of which 168 were conserved and 177 were S. avenae-specific. Quantitative comparison of miRNA expression levels indicated that 16 and 12 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in winged and wingless S. avenae small RNA libraries, respectively. Differential expression of these miRNAs was confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR validation. The putative transcript targets for these candidate miRNAs were predicted based on sequences from a model species Drosophila melanogaster and four aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum, Myzus persicae, Toxoptera citricida, and Aphis gosspii. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses shed light on the potential functions of these miRNAs in the regulation of genes involved in the metabolism, development and wing polyphenism of S. avenae.
Zheng, Yan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Xiaoli
Abstract A new genus Maculaprosbole of Tettigarctidae with a new species Maculaprosbole zhengi is described based on a complete fossil forewing from the Mesozoic of northeastern China. Due to its broad costal area and clavus, Maculaprosbole zhengi gen. et sp. n. can be attributed to the subfamily Cicadoprosbolinae. This genus is similar to the genera Sanmai and Hirtaprosbole in coloration pattern and forewing venation, respectively. However, it differs from Hirtaprosbole in crossvein r-m absent and apical CuA section strongly curved, running along the nodal line for a distance, and Sanmai in transverse coloration mainly focusing on the postnodal area. Herein, the prominent coloration pattern of this new taxon is discussed. PMID:27920603
The study of parasitism percentages and contaminations intensity in Ips sexdentatus parasitized by P. ipsophila as well as the examination of the wormholes in the galleries of the bark beetle gave better insight into certain features of nematode biology. Larvae of I. sexdentatus could be infected, whereas pupae could not. Adults were contaminated from initial stages of maturation and throughout preswarming maturation. Following swarming and installation on a new tree, insects were rapidly decontaminated, but recontamination could occur by the end of oviposition. P. ipsophila larvae were found in the mesenteron before they penetrated into the hind gut. Seemingly, the parasite underwent no evolution within its host. All developmental stages of the nematode could be observed in the galleries of the bark beetle as long as the latter was present. No apparent relation exists between parasitism of the digestive tract by P. ipsophila and parasitism of the body or fat body by Parasitaphelenchus or Contortylenchus diplogaster. P. ipsophila exerts very limited effects on I. sexdentatus populations. A slight delay in swarming and initiation of oviposition, and a very low decrease in density of notches of oviposition and of eggs was observed, but the features of the gallery of oviposition (total length, length before the first notch) showed no alteration. No mortality was detected.
Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Fad, Hassan H.; El-Torkey, Ashraf M.; Elgharbawy, Ali A.; Aldryhim, Yousif N.; Kondratieff, Boris C.; Ansi, Amin N. Al; Aldhafer, Hathal M.
Abstract This study was conducted as a part of a comprehensive baseline survey of insect biodiversity of Rawdhat Khorim National Park (RKNP), Central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). During this study a total of 262 Coleoptera species belong to 182 genera in 35 families were identified, of which 247 are named at a species level. Fifteen species (6.0%) are apparently endemic to KSA. Thirty-eight species are new to the known beetle fauna of KSA, including 25 species reported from the Arabian Peninsula for the first time. The families Tenebrionidae (45 species), Scarabaeidae (34 species), and Carabidae (27 species) were the most species rich families. About 37% of the beetle abundance was represented by species of Scarabaeidae, especially Aphodius ictericus ghardimaouensis Balthasar. Karumia inaequalis Pic (Dascillidae) was also an abundant species. Approximately 43.5% of beetle species collected during this study are considered very rare taxa in RKNP. The RKNP beetle fauna shows more affinity to Sahro-Arabian (36.4%), Afrotropical-Sahro-Arabian (17.4%) and Palaearctic-Sahro-Arabian (10.5%). Twenty-three species (9.3%) are considered cosmopolitan or subcosmopolitan. The data on month of collection, method of collection, and abundance status within RKNP, together with the distribution within KSA and the general distribution (zoogeography) of each species are presented. PMID:28331393
Wipfler, Benjamin; Pohl, Hans; Predel, Reinhard
Abstract Two new species and two new genera (Pachyphasma, Striatophasma) of Mantophasmatodea are described from Namibia. Pachyphasma brandbergense is endemic to the Brandberg massif; Striatophasma occupies an extensive area south of the region inhabited by Mantophasma. Phylogenetic analyses (see Predel et al. in press) suggest a sistergroup relationship of Striatophasma and the South African Austrophasmatidae. PMID:22328860
Ramírez-Ponce, Andrés; Garfias-Lozano, Gabriela; Contreras-Ramos, Atilano
The origin and function of exaggerated traits exhibited by a great number of species with sexual dimorphism remain largely unexplored. The usual model considered as the evolutionary mechanism for the development of these structures is sexual selection. The nature of growth of the postocular flange (POF) in three species of the dobsonfly genus Platyneuromus (Megaloptera, Corydalidae, Corydalinae) is analyzed to explore sexual size dimorphism and allometric scaling. Results involve positive allometry of POF in males of two species, and negative allometry in males of one species, in general with a female-biased sexual dimorphism. We suggest an ancestral condition of dual incipient ornamentation in Platyneuromus, with a subsequent departure of size and shape of POF in males, triggered by sexual selection. Different sexual selection intensities may explain the parallel or divergent growth of POF within the scheme of dual ornamentation. Empirical behavioral data as well as a phylogenetic framework are necessary to clarify possible causes of phenotypic development, time of origin, and evolution of the POF. PMID:28212437
Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Matsuo, Yoh
Male animals in several groups have multiple intromittent organs that outnumber the corresponding female gonopore. In Dermaptera (earwigs), males of the family Anisolabididae have paired, elongated male intromittent organs (virgae), while females have a single sperm-storage organ (spermatheca). Several authors have assumed that one of the paired virgae is non-functional, because it points in the "wrong" direction. We investigated the mating success of handicapped males of Euborellia plebeja in which one of their paired virgae was removed experimentally. These handicapped males succeeded in inseminating a mate. Males with genital damage are found in the field, suggesting that the "spare" functions under natural conditions. Based on phylogenetic information on earwigs, we discuss possible evolutionary scenarios for this genital peculiarity.
Zheng, Yan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Xiaoli
A new genus Maculaprosbole of Tettigarctidae with a new species Maculaprosbole zhengi is described based on a complete fossil forewing from the Mesozoic of northeastern China. Due to its broad costal area and clavus, Maculaprosbole zhengigen. et sp. n. can be attributed to the subfamily Cicadoprosbolinae. This genus is similar to the genera Sanmai and Hirtaprosbole in coloration pattern and forewing venation, respectively. However, it differs from Hirtaprosbole in crossvein r-m absent and apical CuA section strongly curved, running along the nodal line for a distance, and Sanmai in transverse coloration mainly focusing on the postnodal area. Herein, the prominent coloration pattern of this new taxon is discussed.
Alborzi, AR; Rahbar, A
Background Hadjelia truncata is a nematode that causes lesions in the gizzard lining of pigeons, which may even lead to death. The aim of this study was to introduce Alphitobius diaperinus as a new intermediate host for Hadjelia truncata. Methods H. truncata infection was identified in a pigeon flock in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, Iran by performing fecal examination and autopsy. Adult and larval stages of beetles were collected from the litter of pigeon houses, and identified morphologically. The beetle larvae were cultured in a medium, containing feces of the infected pigeons. Nematode larval stages from naturally and experimentally (culturally) infected adult beetles were fed to two groups of pigeons Results The collected beetles were identified as Alphitobius diaperinus. Average length and width of the adult beetles were 6.31 mm and 2.88 mm respectively. Infection rates of naturally and experimentally infected beetles with larval stages of the nematode were 66.2% and 45.1% respectively. The adult nematodes collected from gizzards of experimentally infected pigeons were identified as H. truncata. Nematode infection rates in pigeons after feeding the infective larvae collected from naturally and experimentally infected beetles were 44.7% and 32.5% respectively. Conclusion A. diaperinus can serve as a natural intermediate host for H. truncata. PMID:23109952
Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...
The complete mitogenome of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis was reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data with an average coverage of 7052×. The circular genome is 15,444 bp in length, and consists of 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 and ND5 genes with the start codon GTG. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND1) or incomplete stop codon T (COII, ND5 & Cytb), while the others use TAA as their stop codons. The nucleotide composition is asymmetric (45.8% A, 19.8% C, 10.9% G, 23.5% T) with an overall GC content of 30.7%. These data would contribute to the design of novel molecular markers for population and evolutionary studies of this and related termite species.
Shen, Qing-Qing; Wang, Li
The complete mitochondrial genome of the Tiger Longwing Heliconius hecale has been reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data with an average coverage of 1507×. The circular genome is 15,338 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop or control region. All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the COI and ND1 genes with CGA and TTG as their start codons, respectively. Three PCGs (COI, COII and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T, the ND3 gene harbors the stop codon TAG, while all the other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (39.5% A, 42.1% T, 7.5% G, and 10.9% C) with an overall GC content of 18.4%.
Asymmetries of bilaterally symmetrical morphological traits in workers of the ant Formica pratensis Retzius were compared at sites with different levels of metal contamination and between mature and pre-mature colonies. Statistical analyses of the right-minus-left differences revealed that their distributions fit assumptions of fluctuating asymmetry (FA). No direct asymmetry or antisymmetry were present. Mean measurement error accounts for a third of the variation, but the maximum measurement error was 65%. Although significant differences of FA in ants were observed, the inconsistent results render uncovering a clear pattern difficult. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in the ants decreased with the distance from the contamination source, but no relation was found between FA and the heavy metal levels. Ants from the premature colonies were more asymmetrical than those from mature colonies but accumulated less metals. The use of asymmetry measures in ecotoxicology and biomonitoring is criticized, but should remain widely applicable if statistical assumptions are complemented by genetic and historical data.
Delorme, Quentin; Mille, Christian; Jourdan, Hervé
Among New Caledonian cicada taxa, the endemic genus Kanakia Distant, 1892 appears as the most spectacular one, especially because of the large size of its species (length up to 50 mm for males). Recent new specimen collections helped to clarify the taxonomy of this spectacular genus. According to morphological characteristics, we were able to redefine and to split the present genus into three distinct genera: Kanakia Distant, 1892, Pseudokanakia Delorme gen. nov. and Panialna Delorme gen. nov. These two new genera are monotypic and have been respectively established from revision of Kanakia flavoannulata (Distant 1920) and Kanakia parva Boulard 1991. Also, the type species, Kanakia typica Distant, 1892, appears to be a complex of cryptic species. New acoustic and morphological observations allowed us to redefine K. typica and to describe four new species in this complex: Kanakia paniensis Delorme sp. nov., Kanakia rana Delorme sp. nov., Kanakia salesnii Delorme sp. nov. and Kanakia fuscocosta Delorme sp. nov. Kanakia gigas Boulard 1988 is also briefly discussed and the female is described. An identification key of the Kanakia species and allied genera is also provided.
Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I. Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen
The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The ‘p’ values are distinctly different from intraspecific ‘p’ distance (0–0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus – B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962
Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip
Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres (‘p’ = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the ‘p’ distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853
Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Montes De Oca, Fernanda; Prosser, Sean W J; Hebert, Paul D N; Gregory, T Ryan; McMurtrie, Shelley
In this paper, the utility of a partial sequence of the COI gene, the DNA barcoding region, for the identification of species of black flies in the austral region was assessed. Twenty-eight morphospecies were analyzed: eight of the genus Austrosimulium (four species in the subgenus Austrosimulium s. str., three species in the subgenus Novaustrosimulium, and one species unassigned to subgenus), two of the genus Cnesia, eight of Gigantodax, three of Paracnephia, one of Paraustrosimulium, and six of Simulium (subgenera Morops, Nevermannia, and Pternaspatha). The neighbour-joining tree derived from the DNA barcode sequences grouped most specimens according to species or species groups recognized by morphotaxonomic studies. Intraspecific sequence divergences within morphologically distinct species ranged from 0% to 1.8%, while higher divergences (2%-4.2%) in certain species suggested the presence of cryptic diversity. The existence of well-defined groups within S. simile revealed the likely inclusion of cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes also showed that specimens identified as C. dissimilis, C. nr. pussilla, and C. ornata might be conspecific, suggesting possible synonymy. DNA barcoding combined with a sound morphotaxonomic framework would provide an effective approach for the identification of black flies in the region.
Chen, Qing-Xiao; Hua, Bao-Zhen
Mecoptera are unique in holometabolous insects in that their larvae have compound eyes. In the present study the cellular organisation and morphology of the compound eyes of adult individuals of the scorpionfly Panorpa dubia in Mecoptera were investigated by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the compound eyes of adult P. dubia are of the apposition type, each eye comprising more than 1200 ommatidia. The ommatidium consists of a cornea, a crystalline cone made up of four cone cells, eight photoreceptors, two primary pigment cells, and 18 secondary pigment cells. The adult ommatidium has a fused rhabdom with eight photoreceptors. Seven photoreceptors extend from the proximal end of the crystalline cone to the basal matrix, whereas the eighth photoreceptor is shorter, extending from the middle level of the photoreceptor cluster to the basal matrix. The fused rhabdom is composed of the rhabdomeres of different photoreceptors at different levels. The adult ommatidia have the same cellular components as the larval ommatidia, but the tiering scheme is different. PMID:27258365
Prabhu, K; Murugan, K; Nareshkumar, A; Ramasubramanian, N; Bragadeeswaran, S
Objective To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm). Methods M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 100 g of the plant material were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield 122 mg and 110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) from Arcang amara and Ocimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm were prepared. Results Larvicidal activity of M. oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of the A. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were 57.79 ppm and 125.93 ppm for the first instar, 63.90 ppm and 133.07 ppm for the second instar, 72.45 ppm and 139.82 ppm for the third instar, 78.93 ppm and 143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract of M. oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were 67.77 ppm and 141.00 ppm, respectively. Conclusions The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived from M. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs. PMID:23569741
Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J.; Whiting, Michael F.
Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies. PMID:25333882
Kumar, Sandeep; Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju; Song, Hojun; von Kalm, Laurence; Borst, David W.
Enkephalins play a major role in reproductive physiology in crustaceans; however their role in reproductive development in insects is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of exposure to exogenous leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk), methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk), and the opioid antagonist naloxone on gonad development in the Eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera. Injection of either Leu-Enk or naloxone alone significantly increased the testicular index and testicular follicular diameter in males, and the ovarian index, oocyte length, and oocyte diameter in females. In contrast, injection of Met-Enk inhibited all measures of reproductive development in both sexes. Surprisingly, co-injection of naloxone with either enkephalin enhanced the effect associated with administration of the enkephalin alone. This study clearly demonstrates the ability of enkephalins to disrupt insect sexual development and also suggests the existence of conserved enkephaline-dependent regulatory mechanisms in insects and crustaceans. PMID:23226477
This paper addresses two much-debated questions, on which evidence is still limited, about the design of molecular phylogenetic studies. The first is whether one can economically improve the resolution of a phylogeny estimate by increasing gene sampling in only a subset of tax, without having the an...
Wang, Yuyu; Liu, Xingyue; Winterton, Shaun L.; Yan, Yan; Chang, Wencheng; Yang, Ding
Rapisma McLachlan, 1866 (Neuroptera: Ithonidae) is a rarely encountered genus of lacewings found inmontane tropical or subtropical forests in Oriental Asia. In Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet) of China there are two sympatrically distributed species of Rapisma, i.e. Rapisma xizangense Yang, 1993 and Rapisma zayuanum Yang, 1993, in which R. xizangense is only known as male and has dull brownish body and wing coloration, while R. zayuanum is only known as female and has bright green body and wing coloration. In order to clarify the relationship between these two species, we determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of R. xizangense and R. zayuanum for the first time. The mt genomes are 15,961 and 15,984 bp in size, respectively, and comprised 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). A major noncoding (control) region was 1,167 bp in R. xizangense and 1,193 bp in R. zayuanum with structural organizations simpler than that reported in other Neuropterida species, notably lacking conserved blocks or long tandem repeats. Besides similar mitogenomic structure, the genetic distance between R. xizangense and R. zayuanum based on two rRNAs and 13 protein coding genes (PCGs) as well as the genetic distance between each of these two Tibetan Rapisma species and a Thai Rapisma species (R. cryptunum) based on partial rrnL show that R. xizangense and R. zayuanum are most likely conspecific. Thus, R. zayuanum syn. nov. is herein treated as a junior synonym of R. xizangense. The present finding represents a rare example of distinct sexual dimorphism in lacewings. This comparative mitogenomic analysis sheds new light on the identification of rare species with sexual dimorphism and the biology of Neuroptera. PMID:24391859
Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi
Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.
Martino, Natalia S; Romero, Mariano D; Malizia, Ana I
Species of South American subterranean rodents belonging to the genus Ctenomys (commonly called tuco-tucos) are widely distributed across the southern Neotropical region. Despite their relatively well-studied biology and reproductive physiology, current knowledge of their ectoparasite fauna is limited to a few ambiguous studies, based on scattered samples from a small number of host individuals. Ctenomys talarum is the most widely distributed species in the genus. Lice (Phthiraptera) were collected from these tuco-tucos throughout their entire coastal range. Two species, one chewing louse (Gyropus parvus), and one sucking louse (Eulinognathus americanus) were collected. The distribution ranges for both louse species were extended with new locality records. No lice were found in two host populations. Furthermore, co-occurrence of both ectoparasites was not detected.
Abstract Background The genus Melaloncha is a large group of species of parasitoid phorid flies that attack Hymenoptera, mostly stingless bees (Meliponinae, Apidae) in the Neotropical Region. New information Two new Brazilian species, Melaloncha (Melaloncha) peacockorum sp. n. and Melaloncha (Udamochiras) nielsi sp. n., are described and their identification clarified. PMID:26929720
Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora
The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5–9) serrated, lateral spines on S6–9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6–7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6–9 serrate, lateral spines on S7–9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7–9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water’s edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva. PMID:27635319
Salur, Ali; Darilmaz, Mustafa Cemal; Bauernfeind, Ernst
Abstract The mayfly fauna of Turkey was reviewed including all hitherto known distribution records together with references and a few new records. Additionally, comments on taxonomy, identification and nomenclature are provided. Two species are new for the Turkish fauna: Ephemera romantzovi Kluge, 1988 and Thraulus thraker Jacob, 1988. A list of taxa including their recorded distribution in Turkey (according to provinces) is provided in the annotated catalogue. The type locality is also given for each species originally described from Turkey. According to the literature and the new records, 157 mayfly taxa representing 33 genera and 14 families were described from Turkey. Among them, 24 species are considered endemic to Anatolia. PMID:27853408
Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; HassanAhmad, Abu; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd
The influence of physical and chemical parameters on the abundance and diversity of chironomids was studied in six rivers with moderate to highly polluted water in the Juru River Basin. The rivers: Ceruk Tok Kun (CTKR) as reference site, and polluted rivers of Pasir (PR), Juru (JR), Permatang Rawa (PRR), Ara (AR) and Kilang Ubi (KUR) were sampled over a period of five months (November 2007-March 2008). Nine chirnomid species: Chironimus kiiensis, C. javanus, Polypedilum trigonus, Microchironomus sp., Dicrotendipes sp., Tanytarsus formosanus, Clinotanypus sp., Tanypus punctipennis and Fittkauimyia sp. were identified. Assessment of their relationships with several environmental parameters was performed using the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Tanytarsus formosanus was the most dominant in the relatively clean CTKR and moderately polluted JR with mean densities of 19.66 and 25.32 m(-2), respectively while C. kiiensis was abundant in more polluted rivers. Tanytarsus formosanus, Dicrotendipes sp. and Microchironomus sp. were grouped under moderate to high water temperature, total organic matter (TOM), total suspended solids (TSS), velocity, pH, phosphates and sulphates. However, Tanypus punctipennis, Fittkauimyia sp., and Clinotanypus sp. were associated with high contents of river sediment such as TOM, Zn and Mn and water ammonium-N and nitrate-N and they were associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) content in the water. Chironomus kiiensis, C. javanus and P. trigonus showed positive relationships with TOM, ammonium-N and nitrate-N as well as trace metals of Zn, Cu and Mn. These three species could be considered as tolerant species since they have the ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions with low DO and high concentrations of pollutants. Based on the water parameter scores in all rivers, the highest diversity of chironomid larvae was reported in CTKR. With higher concentrations of organic and/or inorganic pollutants as reported in PPR, KUR and AR, the chironomid larval diversity decreased, and the abundance of tolerant species, mainly Chironomus spp., increased.
Kung, Giar-Ann; Porras, Wendy
Abstract The genus Dohrniphora is a hyperdiverse group of phorid flies, a family whose species are commonly characterized as generalized scavengers. The lifestyle of most species of Dohrniphora is unknown, although one cosmopolitan, synanthropic species, D. cornuta (Bigot) fits the general scavenger mold. Here we show that flies of the D. longirostrata species group exhibit highly specific “headhunting” behavior in which injured Odontomachus ants are decapitated, the heads dragged away, and females either feed on their contents or lay an egg nearby. Since most females studied lacked eggs in their ovaries, we conclude that this bizarrely specialized feeding is necessary to provide nutrients for reproduction in these flies. Our study provides further evidence that injured ants are a common, stable resource in tropical ecosystems that support a wide array of phorid flies. Such narrowly constrained lifestyles, as exemplified by exclusively feeding on and breeding in the head contents of certain ponerine worker ants, could allow the co-existence of a huge community of saprophagous flies. PMID:25709534
Grimaldi, David A; Arillo, Antonio; Cumming, Jeffrey M; Hauser, Martin
Thirteen species of basal Brachycera (11 described as new) are reported, belonging to nine families and three infraorders. They are preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) of Lebanon, Albian of northern Spain, upper Albian to lower Cenomanian of northern Myanmar, and Late Cretaceous of New Jersey USA (Turonian) and Alberta, Canada (Campanian). Taxa are as follows, with significance as noted: In Stratiomyomorpha: Stratiomyidae (Cretaceogaster pygmaeus Teskey [2 new specimens in Canadian amber], Lysistrata emerita Grimaldi & Arillo, gen. et sp. n. [stem-group species of the family in Spanish amber]), and Xylomyidae (Cretoxyla azari Grimaldi & Cumming, gen. et sp. n. [in Lebanese amber], and an undescribed species from Spain). In Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae (Cratotabanus newjerseyensis Grimaldi, sp. n., in New Jersey amber). In Muscomorpha: Acroceridae (Schlingeromyia minuta Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. and Burmacyrtus rusmithi Grimaldi & Hauser gen. etsp. n., in Burmese amber, the only definitive species of the family from the Cretaceous); Mythicomyiidae (Microburmyia analvena Grimaldi & Cumming gen. et sp. n. and Microburmyia veanalvena Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n., stem-group species of the family, both in Burmese amber); Apsilocephalidae or near (therevoid family-group) (Kumaromyia burmitica Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. [in Burmese amber]); Apystomyiidae (Hilarimorphites burmanica Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n. [in Burmese amber], whose closest relatives are from the Late Jurassic of Kazachstan, the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey, and Recent of California). Lastly, two species belonging to families incertae sedis, both in Burmese amber: Tethepomyiidae (Tethepomyia zigrasi Grimaldi & Arillo sp. n., the aculeate oviscapt of which indicates this family was probably parasitoidal and related to Eremochaetidae); and unplaced to family is Myanmyia asteiformia Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n., a minute fly with highly reduced venation. These new taxa significantly expand the Mesozoic fossil record of rare and phylogenetically significant taxa of lower Brachycera.
Ramírez-Ponce, Andrés; Garfias-Lozano, Gabriela; Contreras-Ramos, Atilano
The origin and function of exaggerated traits exhibited by a great number of species with sexual dimorphism remain largely unexplored. The usual model considered as the evolutionary mechanism for the development of these structures is sexual selection. The nature of growth of the postocular flange (POF) in three species of the dobsonfly genus Platyneuromus (Megaloptera, Corydalidae, Corydalinae) is analyzed to explore sexual size dimorphism and allometric scaling. Results involve positive allometry of POF in males of two species, and negative allometry in males of one species, in general with a female-biased sexual dimorphism. We suggest an ancestral condition of dual incipient ornamentation in Platyneuromus, with a subsequent departure of size and shape of POF in males, triggered by sexual selection. Different sexual selection intensities may explain the parallel or divergent growth of POF within the scheme of dual ornamentation. Empirical behavioral data as well as a phylogenetic framework are necessary to clarify possible causes of phenotypic development, time of origin, and evolution of the POF.
Background Among the winged insects (Pterygota) the Odonata (dragon- and damselflies) are special for several reasons. They are strictly aerial predators showing remarkable flight abilities and their thorax morphology differs significantly from that of other Pterygota in terms of the arrangement and number of muscles. Even within one individual the musculature is significantly different between the nymphal and adult stage. Results Here we present a comparative morphological investigation of the thoracic musculature of dragonfly (Anisoptera) nymphs. We investigated representatives of the Libellulidae, Aeshnidae and Cordulegasteridae and found 71 muscles: 19 muscles in the prothorax, 26 in the mesothorax and 27 in the metathorax. Nine of these muscles were previously unknown in Odonata, and for seven muscles no homologous muscles could be identified in the neopteran thorax. Conclusion Our results support and extend the homology hypotheses for the thoracic musculatures of Odonata and Neoptera, thus supplementing our understanding of the evolution of Pterygota and providing additional characters for phylogenetic analyses comprising all subgroups of Pterygota. PMID:24180622
Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata. PMID:26246088
Tollett, V D; Benvenutti, E L; Deer, L A; Rice, T M
Odonate larvae are important organisms in aquatic ecosystems but have been rarely studied in laboratory toxicity tests. Only a few previous studies have been conducted on odonates and their responses to heavy metals. We exposed two species of libellulid larvae (Anisoptera: Libellulidae) to equimolar concentrations of cadmium, lead, or copper in 7-day survival tests. Larvae were tolerant of high concentrations of cadmium and lead, as no significant decrease in survival was observed at exposures as high as 0.893 and 2.232 mM, respectively. In contrast, larvae were more sensitive to copper exposure, demonstrating significantly decreased survival to exposures as low as 2.360 microM. In whole animal samples, larvae accumulated very high concentrations (>1000 microg/g dry weight) of all three metals in an exposure-related manner. Much of this accumulation could probably be attributed to adsorption or accumulation of metal within the exoskeleton, because odonate larvae are known to sequester metals into this material. Our results were generally consistent with previous observations indicating that odonates are tolerant to metal exposures, even in comparison with other aquatic invertebrates. However, there are few studies that have used odonates in toxicity tests and compared these organisms to other aquatic life. Based on their abundance and their simple requirements in the laboratory, we believe that odonate larvae can be useful toxicological model organisms.
Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko
The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens--eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.
Zaspel, J M; Weller, S J; Epstein, M E
Studies of caterpillar defense strategy evolution typically focus on aposematic coloration, gregarious behavior, and/or chemical defense. In the slug moth family Limacodidae, the evolution of chemical defense is coupled to the life history trait of first instar feeding behaviors. In nettle caterpillars, the first instars fast and molt into a second instar that feeds. In contrast, gelatines and monkey slug larval forms feed in the first instar. This study focused on whether the evolution of fasting associated with the nettle morphology was a derived trait of single or multiple origins. Twenty-nine species of Limacodidae (including one Chrysopolominae) representing 27 genera and four outgroup species with known first and final instar morphologies and behaviors were included. Four out-group species representing Megalopygidae (1 sp), Dalceridae (1 sp) and Aididae (2 sp) were included. These were sequenced for three molecular markers for a total of 4073 bp, mitochondrial COI (∼1500 bp), 18S (∼1900 bp) and the D2 region of 28S (approximately 670 bp). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were conducted. The resulting phylogeny and comparative analysis of feeding strategy revealed that the nettle caterpillar morphology and behavior of larval fasting may have a single origin.
De Marmels, Jürg; Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar
The ultimate stadium larva of Neuraeschna claviforcipata is described and illustrated based on an F-0 exuvia of a reared female from northern Amazonas State, Brazil. This larva differs from the other two known larvae of the genus in lacking the spiny lateral prominence of the mandible, and in having only a short spine each side of the median cleft of the prementum; labium is shorter and cercus longer. Noteworthy is the presence of a hair brush on each occipital lobe behind mesal angle of compound eye. The larva was found in a small blackwater pool with abundant leaf litter in an open, "campina"-type habitat, with sandy soil and low, bushy vegetation.
Armitage, Brian J.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Wilcox, Douglas A.
Fringing wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes are subject to natural processes, such as water-level fluctuation and wave-induced erosion, and to human alterations. In order to evaluate the quality of these wetlands over space and time, biological communities are often examined. This paper reports on the use of adult caddisflies to evaluate fringing wetlands of Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Lake Superior.
Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...
Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...
Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...
Montes de Oca, E; Ball, G E; Spence, J R
This paper documents the existence of carabid assemblages associated with bromeliads on the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. Based on bromeliads sampled over three altitudinal ranges, the assemblages included at least 26 species with an arboreal lifestyle and another 11 species that are not strictly arboreal. Seven species are new to science, urging us to pay attention to the arboreal fauna in forest conservation studies. Composition of carabid assemblages associated with bromeliads changes with altitude. In lowlands, it is comprised almost entirely of species of Lebiini, with the Platynini dominating assemblages found in bromeliads >1,000 m above sea level. Our data suggest that carabids use bromeliads to reduce stresses associated with drought periods, the exact timing of which depends on altitude. The unexpected low diversity of the carabid fauna associated with bromeliads at middle altitude is explained in terms of anthropogenic conversion of the original forest to pastureland. Given the importance of arboreal elements, further fragmentation of subtropical and tropical mountain forest significantly threatens overall carabid diversity.
Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás
Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species. PMID:22912691
de Figueroa, J M Tierno; Trenzado, C E; López-Rodríguez, M J; Sanz, A
The digestive enzymes of two stoneflies species, Hemimelaena flaviventris and Isoperla morenica, were studied for the first time. These species are temporary water inhabitants and exhibit great feeding plasticity. Although they are traditionally referred to as predators, a previous study revealed that H. flaviventris incorporates some diatoms into its diet in addition to feeding usually on several prey, and I. morenica (in that study under the name of I. curtata) only feeds on animals occasionally. The enzymatic activities of digestive amylase, lipase, protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin were determined for each species at the same developmental stage. The results show that H. flaviventris has a greater digestive enzymatic pool and higher relative and absolute protease, lipase and trypsin activities than I. morenica. The latter has a relative higher amylase activity. As higher amylase activity is typical of phytophagous species and higher protease activity typical of carnivorous species; these results reveal that H. flaviventris is a more efficient zoophagous species than I. morenica. The ecological implications of these findings, including the higher secondary production of H. flaviventris in its habitat, are discussed.
Domenico, Marco Di; Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B; Carchini, Gianmaria
The ultimate stadium larva of Gynacantha cylindrata Karsch, 1891 is described and illustrated based on fifteen male and female exuviae from Bundibugyo, Uganda. The larva resembles those of the few described African species of the genus but shows a denser coverage of spine-like setae on body surface and abundance of hair-like setae on mouthparts. The female gonapophyses appear to be the longest described in the genus up to now and similar to those of G. villosa, a species included in the same group of African species.
Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André
The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera.
Schädel, Mario; Bechly, Günter
The fossil dragonfly Burmalindenia imperfecta gen. et sp. nov. is described from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber as the first record of the odonate suborder Anisoptera for this locality and one of the few records from amber in general. The inclusion comprises two fragments of the two hind wings of a dragonfly. The fossil can be attributed to a new genus and species of the family Gomphidae, presumably in the subfamily Lindeniinae, and features a strange teratological phenomenon in its wing venation.
Mendes, Thiago P; Cabette, Helena S R; Juen, Leandro
Environmental characteristics and spatial distances between sites have been used to explain species distribution in the environment, through Neutral (space) and Niche theory (environment) predictions. We evaluated the effects of spatial and environmental factors on Odonata larvae distribution along the Suiá-Missú River Basin, state of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the environment is the main factor structuring the community due to its ecophysiological requirements; and (2) the pattern, if present, is clearer for Zygoptera. Samples were made in 12 sites on the Suiá-Missú River Basin in three seasons (2007/2008), with a total of 1.382 Odonata larvae, comprising 10 families, 51 genera and 100 morphospecies. The Anisoptera were more abundant than Zygoptera, comprising 81% of all specimens. The environment affected Zygoptera (R=0.291; p=0.007) and was the main factor structuring the assembly. Thus, Niche theory was confirmed. The absence of this effect on Anisoptera may be due to the ecophysiological adaptations that enable it to occupy different habitats. Zygoptera larvae are indicators of changes in habitat structure. The effects of environmental variables on larvae ecology emphasize the strong relationship between these organisms and environmental integrity.
Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.
Petrov, N B; Aleshin, V V
A relative content of unique and reiterated nucleotide sequences in DNA of eleven dragonfly species was estimated. The degree of intra- and intergenomic divergence of these DNA sequences was determined by means of DNA-DNA hybridization. Species from different genera share 40-45% of the repetitive sequences and those from different families--from 11 to 20% only. Data on the thermostability of homo- and heteroduplexes suggest that new families of the repetitive sequences have arisen repeatedly during dragonflies evolution. The quality of homologous unique sequences in the DNA compared (20-97%) correlates with the taxonomic relationships of species. Phylogenesis of some dragonfly families is discussed in view of the results obtained.
Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Grimaldi, David; Beckmann, Felix; Beutel, Rolf G.
Fossilization in amber is unique in preserving specimens with microscopic fidelity; however, arthropod inclusions are rarely examined beyond the exoskeleton as this requires destructive sampling when traditional techniques are used. We report the first complete, digital 3D, non-destructive reconstruction of the anatomy of an insect fossil, a specimen of † Mengea tertiaria embedded in a 42-Ma Baltic amber. This was made possible using Synchrotron μ-CT. The species belongs to the stem group of the phylogenetically enigmatic and extremely specialized Strepsiptera. Most internal structures of the fossil are preserved, but small parts of the lumen had decayed due to incomplete infiltration of the resin. Data on internal organs provided additional information for resolving phylogenetic relationships. A sister group relationship between † Mengea and all extant lineages of the group was confirmed with characters previously not accessible. The newly gained information also yielded some insights in the biology of † Mengea and the early evolutionary history of Strepsiptera. The technique has a tremendous potential for a more accurate interpretation of diverse fossil arthropods preserved in ambers from 130 Ma to the present.
Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Francke, Oscar F; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro
Mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae establish an association with beetles of the family Passalidae known as phoresy. In order to obtain information about this association, we analyzed the relationship between mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae and beetles of the family Passalidae, as adult mites have been exclusively collected from host beetles. We examined 1 150 beetles collected in seven states of the Mexican Republic, and found 19 species of klinckowstroemiid mites associated with 168 passalids, that belong to 28 different species in 15 genera. Host specificity between species of both groups does not exist, as one species of passalid beetle can have several different symbionts; conversely, a given mite species can associate with passalid beetles of different species and even of different genera. This way, Odontotaenius zodiacus has been found associated with mites of seven species of the genus Klinckowstroemia. Besides, Klinckowstroemia valdezi is associated with five species of passalids. Furthermore, two and even three different species of mites have been found on one host beetle (synhospitality). The lack of congruence between the phylogenies of the mites and that of the beetles indicates that a process of co-adaptation by colonization is going on, because the association is due to the resources that passalid beetles can offer to the mites, like transportation, food and refuge. Since these resources are not host-specific, the klinckowstroemiid mites can climb onto virtually any species of passalid beetles occurring on the same habitat.
Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali Reza; Dastranj, Mehdi
The digestive enzymes from salivary gland complexes (SGC) of Eurygaster integriceps, and their response to starvation and feeding were studied. Moreover, digestive amylases were partially purified and characterized by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The SGC are composed of two sections, the principal glands and accessory glands. The principal glands are further divided into the anterior lobes and posterior lobes. The SGC main enzyme was α-amylase, which hydrolyzed starch better than glycogen. The other carbohydrases were also present in the SGC complexes. Enzymatic activities toward mannose (α/β-mannosidases) were little in comparison to activities against glucose (α/β-glucosidases) and galactose (α/β-galactosidases), the latter being the greatest. Acid phosphatase showed higher activity than alkaline phosphatase. There was no measurable activity for lipase and aminopeptidase. Proteolytic activity was detected against general and specific protease substrates. Activities of all enzymes were increased in response to feeding in comparison to starved insects, revealing their induction and secretion in response to feeding pulse. The SGC amylases eluted in four major peaks and post-electrophoretic detection of the α-amylases demonstrated the existence of at least five isoamylases in the SGC. The physiological implication of these findings in pre-oral digestion of E. integriceps is discussed.
Panov, A A
In Thymalus sp. (Peltidae), Melambia tekkensi (Trogositidae), Trichodes apiarius and Thanasimus formicarius (Cleridae), the composition of cerebral neurosecretory cells (NSC) is similar to that found earlier in Meloidae (Panov 1985a) and Tenebrionidae (Melnikova and Panov 1981; Melnikova 1983). 20 type I NSCs, 16 type II NSCs, 4 type III NSCs, several type IV NSCs and 4 type V NSCs are characteristic of their pars intercerebralis. On the other hand, a reduction of type I and II NSC number to 10 and 12 cells, respectively, was revealed in Malachius affinis, Malachius viridis and Malachius bipustulatus (Melyridae). There are 6 large dorsolateral NSCs and 2 lateral ones in each brain hemisphere of most Cleroidea studied. Their retrocerebral endocrine complex is similar to that of most polyphagous coleopterans: a single nervus corporis cardiaci leaves each brain side, the corpora cardiaca are fused with lateral aorta walls and corresponding corpora allata.
Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood Reza; Dettner, Konrad; Boland, Wilhelm; Gäde, Gerd; Dötterl, Steffan
The use of deuterium-labelled cantharidin (CAN-D(2)) to study details of cantharidin transfer in blister beetles indicates that the dynamics of organ-selective cantharidin accumulation may differ over time. Although the accessory glands absorb a high amount of CAN-D(2) in the short term, they ultimately accumulate less than the testes. Confirming previous studies, the last steps in the pathway of biosynthesis of cantharidin occur in the male's body distantly from the reproductive system but the ultimate product, cantharidin, is transported into the male reproductive tract via the membrane of the accessory glands. From there it first transfers preferentially to the epididimis and the vas deferens, followed by final deposition in the testes. Most, if not all, of the cantharidin passes internally within the sexual organs; hemolymph transport is not involved. In female meloids, cantharidin enters the genitalia from the male as a nuptial gift. High amounts are first absorbed by the spermatophoral receptacle followed by spreading through the ovaries and an ultimate accumulation in the eggs. The amount taken up by the ovaries remains considerably lower than that of the receptacle. Over time these two organs stop accumulating cantharidin, while the bursa copulatrix starts to incorporate the gift actively. The accumulated amount taken up by bursa is mainly supplied by the receptacle and ovaries suggesting that an internal transfer of cantharidin is used in females as the main transport route.
Ghesini, Silvia; Luchetti, Andrea; Marini, Mario; Mantovani, Barbara
The full-length element of the non-LTR retrotransposon R2 is here characterized in three European isopteran species: the more primitive Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), including two highly divergent mitochondrial lineages, and the more derived Reticulitermes lucifugus and R. urbis (Rhinotermitidae). Partial 3' sequences for R. grassei and R. balkanensis were also analyzed. The essential structural features of R2 elements are conserved in termites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that termite elements belong to the same clade and that their phylogeny is fully compatible with the phylogeny of their host species. The study of the number and the frequency of R2 insertion variants in four R. urbis colonies suggests a greatly reduced, or completely absent, recent element activity.
Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Iorgu, Elena Iulia
Abstract The Balkano-Anatolian genus Parapholidoptera comprises 21 species and the westernmost one, Parapholidoptera castaneoviridis, previously recognized to occur in western Turkey, north-eastern Greece and south-eastern Bulgaria is recorded for the first time from south-eastern Romania, almost 300 km away from the closest known locality. Illustrations and measurements of morphological characters are given and the male calling song from this new, northernmost population is described. PMID:28144178
Nor Aliza, A R; Bedick, J C; Rana, R L; Tunaz, H; Hoback, W W; Stanley, D W
We report on the presence of high proportions of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) in the tissue lipids of adult fireflies, Photinus pyralis. Arachidonic acid typically occurs in very small proportions in phospholipids (PLs) of terrestrial insects, ranging from no more than traces to less than 1% of PL fatty acids, while 20:5n-3 is often missing entirely from insect lipids. Contrarily, 20:4n-6 made up approximately 21% of the PL fatty acids prepared from whole males and females, and from heads and thoraces prepared from males. Proportions of 20:4n-6 associated with PLs varied among tissues, including approximately 8% for male gut epithelia, 13% for testes, and approximately 25% for light organs and body fat from males. Substantial proportions of 20:5n-3 were also associated with PLs prepared from male firefly tissues, including 5% for body fat and 8% for light organs. Because 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 are precursors for biosynthesis of prostaglandins and other eicosanoids, we considered the possibility that firefly tissues might produce eicosanoids at exceptionally high rates. Preliminary experiments indicated otherwise. Hence, fireflies are peculiar among terrestrial insects with respect to maintaining high proportions of PL 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3.
Bedjanič, M; Conniff, K; Dow, R A; Stokvis, F R; Verovnik, R; Tol, J Van
The 22 Sri Lankan representatives of the family Platystictidae, all endemic to the island and belonging to the distinct endemic subfamily Platystictinae, are revised, and a new reconstruction of the phylogeny based on molecular characters is provided. Five new species are described: Ceylonosticta venusta sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Rambodde Falls, at the tunnel; Nuwara Eliya District, Central Province; N7.0489, E80.6961; 12-vii-2012; to be deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Colombo, Sri Lanka), C. inferioreducta sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Norton Bridge, stream on the B43 road 1.5km WNW of Norton Bridge; Nuwara Eliya District, Central Province; N6.9171, E80.5075; 28-vii-2009; to be deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Colombo, Sri Lanka), C. mirifica sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Uwella, primary forest on the road Uwella-Ratnapura, 11.5km NW of Balangoda; Ratnapura District, Sabaragamuwa Province; N6.6968, E80.6059; 16-vii-2012; to be deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Colombo, Sri Lanka), Platysticta secreta sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Hasalaka; Kandy District, Central Province; N7.3535, E80.9509; 31-v-1975; deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA) and P. serendibica sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Kanneliya; Galle District, Southern Province; N6.2291, E80.3834; 8 & 9-vi-1975; deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA). Additionally, a determination key, figures showing morphological details and coloration in life, as well as distribution maps for all species are presented. Based on molecular analysis of 21 taxa, the phylogeny of Platystictinae is presented and discussed from the zoogeographical and paleogeographical point of view. Sri Lankan species, traditionally placed in the genera Platysticta Selys and Drepanosticta Laidlaw / Ceylonosticta Fraser, separated into distinct clades within the subfamily as presently defined, but the monophyletic nature of the Platystictinae and its Sri Lankan endemicity is confirmed. For the South Indian species, formerly known as Platysticta deccanensis, morphological and molecular analyses demonstrated that it does not belong to the Sri Lankan clade and a new genus Indosticta gen. nov. is erected to accommodate it.
Alavi, Jalil; Awal, Mehdi Modarres; Fekrat, Lida; Minaei, Kambiz; Manzari, Shahab
Abstract Aeolothrips gundeliae sp. n. is described, and two bicolored species of the same genus, Aeolothrips ericae Bagnall and Aeolothrips albithorax Pelikan are newly reported from northeast of Iran. Diagnostic characters are provided for each species as well as illustrations to distinguish these species. PMID:26884701
Kobiałka, Michał; Michalik, Anna; Walczak, Marcin; Junkiert, Łukasz; Szklarzewicz, Teresa
The leafhopper Macrosteles laevis, like other plant sap-feeding hemipterans, lives in obligate symbiotic association with microorganisms. The symbionts are harbored in the cytoplasm of large cells termed bacteriocytes, which are integrated into huge organs termed bacteriomes. Morphological and molecular investigations have revealed that in the bacteriomes of M. laevis, two types of bacteriocytes are present which are as follows: bacteriocytes with bacterium Sulcia and bacteriocytes with Nasuia symbiont. We observed that in bacteriocytes with Sulcia, some cells of this bacterium contain numerous cells of the bacterium Arsenophonus. All types of symbionts are transmitted transovarially between generations. In the mature female, the bacteria Nasuia, bacteria Sulcia, and Sulcia with Arsenophonus inside are released from the bacteriocytes and start to assemble around the terminal oocytes. Next, the bacteria enter the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte. After passing through the follicular cells, the symbionts enter the space between the oocyte and follicular epithelium, forming a characteristic "symbiont ball."
Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna
Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed.
Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy
A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality.
Nascimento, Francisco E DE L; Mermudes, José Ricardo M; Bravo, Freddy; Santos-Silva, Antonio
A checklist of Cerambycidae from three Brazilian localities of the Chapada Diamantina mountain range (Catolés, Piatã and Mucugê) is provided. These three localities are considered of great biological importance. A total of 38 species were collected, belonging to 29 genera, 18 tribes and two subfamilies. Ten new records for the state of Bahia are presented, and a new species, Desmiphora (Desmiphora) iwasarai (Desmiphorini, Lamiinae), is described and illustrated.
Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan
Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9–20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis – the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5–4.2 kb in size and has 2–6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago. PMID:26617060
Santos, W E; Alves, A C F; Creão-Duarte, A J
The species richness, abundance and seasonality of Coleoptera fauna associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area were examined. Tray, pitfall and modified Shannon traps were settled together to collect these insects during two seasons (dry and rainy). 4,851 beetles were collected, belonging to 19 families and 88 species. Staphylinidae (2,184) and Histeridae (1,264) were the most abundant families and accounted for 71.1% of the specimens collected. Scarabaeidae (15) showed the highest species richness. The most abundant species were Atheta iheringi Bernhauer, 1908 (Staphylinidae) (1,685), Euspilotus sp. (Histeridae) (461), Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) (Nitidulidae) (394), Xerosaprinus diptychus (Marseul, 1855) (Histeridae) (331) and Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 (Dermestidae). Amongst these species, X. diptychus showed to be strongly influenced by seasonality, since 96.1% of the specimens were collected during the dry season.
Mantovani, B; Scali, V
The allozymic characterization of several new Croatian, Greek, and Turkish samples thought to belong to different subspecies of Bacillus atticus or to atticus-like taxa is given. Several allelic combinations (zymotypes) were observed among both diploid and triploid samples; the occurrence of highly different levels of heterozygosity for the same locus among populations is also common. The biochemical-genetic features of the numerous zymotypes are interpreted on the basis of the recently assessed cytology of their parthenogenetic reproduction. Biochemical and meiotic features also allow one to suggest that both diploid and triploid cytotypes of B. atticus are more likely interracial hybrids in origin. The new triploid Greek samples show only small genetic distances from the Turkish triploid and diploid ones; also, they do not show clear-cut morphological differences, so that all triploids and Turkish diploid samples are together referred to as B. a. carius. On the other hand, all Croatian, Greek, and Italian diploids appear to belong to the same electrophoretic cluster, biochemically differentiated at a subspecific level from B. a. carious. This newly defined comprehensive group of diploid samples, which also morphologically show gradual patterns of variation, is referred to as B. a. atticus.
The Palouse or Palouse Prairie is a bioregion consisting primarily of native grasses, shrubs, and forbs that originally covered over 16,000 km2 of central Idaho, southeastern Washington, and northeastern Oregon. Less than 1% of this habitat remains with much of it having been converted to agricultu...
Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, H. Eric L.; Hebert, Paul D. N.
DNA barcode reference libraries linked to voucher specimens create new opportunities for high-throughput identification and taxonomic re-evaluations. This study provides a DNA barcode library for about 45% of the recognized species of Canadian Hemiptera, and the publically available R workflow used for its generation. The current library is based on the analysis of 20,851 specimens including 1849 species belonging to 628 genera and 64 families. These individuals were assigned to 1867 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), sequence clusters that often coincide with species recognized through prior taxonomy. Museum collections were a key source for identified specimens, but we also employed high-throughput collection methods that generated large numbers of unidentified specimens. Many of these specimens represented novel BINs that were subsequently identified by taxonomists, adding barcode coverage for additional species. Our analyses based on both approaches includes 94 species not listed in the most recent Canadian checklist, representing a potential 3% increase in the fauna. We discuss the development of our workflow in the context of prior DNA barcode library construction projects, emphasizing the importance of delineating a set of reference specimens to aid investigations in cases of nomenclatural and DNA barcode discordance. The identification for each specimen in the reference set can be annotated on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), allowing experts to highlight questionable identifications; annotations can be added by any registered user of BOLD, and instructions for this are provided. PMID:25923328
Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J
We report the results of two surveys targeting praying mantises in four localities in Rwanda, specifically Akagera National Park, Nyungwe National Park, Volcanoes National Park, and the Arboretum de Ruhande at the National University of Rwanda. Using an assortment of collecting techniques, including metal halide light traps, sweep netting vegetation and general searching, we obtained 387 adult and 352 juvenile specimens, representing 41 species. A total of 28 novel species records for Rwanda are added to the 18 previously recorded species for the country, in addition to 20 novel species records for the broader region, including neighbouring Uganda and Burundi. This study provides high resolution images of the dorsal habitus of both sexes of representative species, both pinned and living. Species distribution records are presented and discussed. With a 155% increase in species recorded from Rwanda, this survey illustrates the need for further taxonomic work in the region.
Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong
Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142
Wei, Dandan; Liang, Junhui; Ren, Dong
Abstract A new species attributed to the genus Parvifuzia Guo & Ren, 2011, Parvifuzia peregrina sp. n., is described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China. This new species, with apex of wing almost reaching the end of the abdomen and forewing venation with 30–32 veins at margin, broadens the diversity of Parvifuzia. This new species, with strongly curved cerci, could tightly clasp female and complete copulation more efficiently, same as other members of the family Fuziidae. PMID:22977342
Fang, Hui; Ren, Dong; Wang, Yongjie
Backgound Saucrosmylids are characterized by the typically large body size, complicated venation and diverse wing markings, which were only discovered in Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Ningcheng county, Inner Mongolia, China. Principal Findings Saucrosmylinae Ren, 2003, originally included as a subfamily in the Osmylidae, was transferred and elevated to family rank based on the definitive synapomorphic character. The updated definition of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. was outlined in detail: presence of nygma and trichosors; diverse markings on membrane; complicated cross-veins; distal fusion of Sc and R1; expanded space between R1 and Rs having 2–7 rows of cells that should be a synapomorphic character of the family; proximal MP fork. And the previous misuses of Saucrosmylidae are also clarified. Furthermore, a new genus with a new species and an indeterminate species of Saucrosmylidae are described as Ulrikezza aspoeckae gen. et sp. nov. and Ulrikezza sp. from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. A key to genera of Saucrosmylidae is provided. Conclusions/Significance The intriguing group represents a particular lineage of Neuroptera in the Mesozoic Era. The familial status of Saucrosmylidae was firstly advanced that clarified the former incorrect citation and use of the family name. As an extinct clade, many species of the saucrosmylids were erected just based on a single fore- or hindwing, and it should be realized that providing more stable characters is necessary when describing new lacewing taxa just based on an isolated hindwing. It is vital for the systematics of Saucrosmylidae. PMID:26485027
Vershinina, A O; Lukhtanov, V A
We employed phylogenetic comparative method to study karyotype evolution in the Agrodiaetus phyllis species complex in which haploid chromosome numbers vary greatly ranging from 10 to 134. We have found that different phylogenetic lineages of the group have different rates of chromosome number changes. Chromosome numbers in the complex posses phylogenetic signal, and their evolutionary transformation is difficult to explain in terms of punctual and gradual evolution.
Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Seong-Ryul; Lee, Kyung-Seok; Park, Shin; Kang, Sun Chul
This study was under taken to evaluate the antioxidant properties of larvae extracts of Allomyrina dichotoma. The antioxidant activities of various larvae extracts of water, methanol, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and hexane were measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion radical and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). The methanolic larvae extracts displayed the greatest effect in DPPH radical scavenging assay, but the reducing activity of larvae extracts was weaker in the superoxide anion radical assay. However, methanol (ME) and chloroform extracts (CE) could be compared to ascorbic acid in (1)O(2) quenching ability. ME (the concentration of 50% (1)O(2) quenching, QC(50)=0.080mg/ml) and CE (QC(50)=0.051mg/ml) extracts had 1.7, 2.7 times better efficiency than ascorbic acid (QC(50)=0.138mg/ml), respectively. Also the extracts were found to protect biological systems in Escherichia coli and lactate dehydrogenase against detrimental effects of (1)O(2) of type II photosensitization in vitro. The ability of larvae extracts to scavenge free radicals could significantly change contents of GA equivalent, an important factor for the potency of antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that our study may contribute to the development of new bioactive products with potential applications to reduce oxidative stress in living organisms involving reactive oxygen species as well as play a vital role in insect organisms against oxidative damage of undesirable conditions.
Eggermont, Hilde; Heiri, Oliver; Verschuren, Dirk
We surveyed sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in surface sediments of 73 low- to mid-elevation lakes in tropical East Africa (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia) to develop inference models for quantitative paleosalinity reconstruction. Using a calibration data set of 67 lakes with surface-water conductivity between 34 and 68,800 μS/cm, trial models based on partial least squares (PLS), weighted-averaging (WA), weighted-averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS), maximum likelihood (ML), and the weighted modern analogue technique (WMAT) produced jack-knifed coefficients of determination ( r2) between 0.83 and 0.87, and root-mean-squared errors of prediction (RMSEP) between 0.27 and 0.31 log 10 conductivity units, values indicating that fossil assemblages of African Chironomidae can be valuable indicators of past salinity change. The new inference models improve on previous models, which were calibrated with presence-absence data from live collections, by the much greater information content of the calibration data set, and greater probability of finding good modern analogues for fossil assemblages. However, inferences still suffered to a greater (WA, WMAT) or lesser (WA-PLS, PLS and ML) extent from weak correlation between chironomid species distribution and salinity in a broad range of fresh waters, and apparent threshold response of African chironomid communities to salinity change near 3000 μS/cm. To improve model sensitivity in freshwater lakes we expanded the calibration data set with 11 dilute (6-61 μS/cm) high-elevation lakes on Mt. Kenya (Kenya) and the Ruwenzori Mts. (Uganda). This did not appreciably improve models' error statistics, in part because it introduced a secondary environmental gradient to the faunal data, probably temperature. To evaluate whether a chironomid-based salinity inference model calibrated in East African lakes could be meaningfully used for environmental reconstruction elsewhere on the continent, we expanded the calibration data set with 8 fresh (15-168 μS/cm) lakes in Cameroon, West Africa, and one hypersaline desert lake in Chad. This experiment yielded poorer error statistics, primarily because the need to amalgamate East and West African sister taxa reduced overall taxonomic resolution and increased the mean tolerance range of retained taxa. However, the merged data set constrained better the salinity optimum of several freshwater taxa, and further increased the probability of finding good modern analogues. We then used chironomid stratigraphic data and independent proxy reconstructions from two fluctuating lakes in Kenya to compare the performance of new and previous African salinity-inference models. This analysis revealed significant differences between the various numerical techniques in reconstructed salinity trends through time, due to their different sensitivity to the presence or relative abundance of certain key taxa, combined with the above-mentioned threshold faunal response to salinity change. Simple WA and WMAT produced ecologically sensible reconstructions because their step-like change in inferred conductivity near 3000 μS/cm mirrors the relatively rapid transitions between fresh and saline lake phases associated with climate-driven lake-level change in shallow tropical closed-basin lakes. Statistical camouflaging of this threshold faunal response in WA-PLS and ML models resulted in less trustworthy reconstructions of past salinity in lakes crossing the freshwater-saline boundary. We conclude that selection of a particular inference model should not only be based on statistical performance measures, but consider chironomid community ecology in the study region, and the amplitude of reconstructed environmental change relative to the modern environmental gradient represented in the calibration data set.
Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...
Mashimo, Yuta; Fukui, Makiko; Machida, Ryuichiro
The egg structure of Paterdecolyus yanbarensis was examined using light, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The egg surface shows a distinct honeycomb pattern formed by exochorionic ridges. Several micropyles are clustered on the ventral side of the egg. The egg membrane is composed of an exochorion penetrated with numerous aeropyles, an endochorion, and an extremely thin vitelline membrane. The endochorion is thickened at the posterior egg pole, probably associated with water absorption. A comparison of egg structure among Orthoptera revealed that the micropylar distribution pattern is conserved in Ensifera and Caelifera and might be regarded as a groundplan feature for each group; in Ensifera, multiple micropyles are clustered on the ventral side of the egg, whereas in Caelifera, micropyles are arranged circularly around the posterior pole of the egg.
The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)).
Mouro, Lucas D.; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C. S.; Waichel, Breno L.
Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian–Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea.
Luna-Reyes, Mercedes; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge
The Cuenca del Balsas region has significant biodiversity and endemicity of its herpetofauna, avifauna and vascular plants. Despite this, our knowledge of the Papilionoidea of the region is poor. We analyzed the local and temporal distribution of Papilionoidea at 24 localities in the states of Morelos and Puebla. The study sites are situated between 900 and 1300 m. a.s.l., and are composed of dry tropical forest (dtf). We recorded 8790 individuals of 83 genera and 142 species of Papilionoidea (sensu Kristensen, 1975), over 79 days of field work, with 2-4 days at each of the 24 localities. Twenty five species were newly recorded for the state of Puebla. Our data render Morelos and Puebla among the seven richest Mexican states, in terms of Papilionoidea diversity. Our results show that the Sierra de Huautla has the lowest diversity, but the highest standard abundance, compared to other Mexican regions with similar vegetation. Patterns of diversity and seasonal abundance are atypical, in that individuals of many species are unusually abundant during the wet months.
Abstract The southern African assassin-fly genus Anasillomos Londt, 1983 is reviewed. A new species, Anasillomos juergeni sp. n., is described from the Namib desert and represents the second species in the genus. Descriptions/re-descriptions, photographs, and identification keys are provided to aid in the identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence are discussed. PMID:25829862
Holzinger, Werner E.; Schlosser, Lydia
Abstract The first overview on the Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs of the Austrian Bohemian Forest is presented. Seven oligotrophic peat bog sites were studied in 2011 by suction sampler (“G-Vac”) and 93 Auchenorrhyncha species (with 7465 adult specimens) were recorded. Eleven species (about 18 % of the individuals) are tyrphobiontic or tyrphophilous. The relative species abundance plot is not very steep; the six most abundant species represent 50 % of the individuals. The most common species is Conomelus anceps (17 % of the individuals). Compared to the whole Austrian Auchenorrhyncha fauna, the fauna of peat bogs comprises distinctly more univoltine species and more species hibernating in nymphal stage. Densities of adult Auchenorrhyncha in peat bogs are low in spring (about 10–60 individuals per m²) and high in July, with up to 180 (±50) individuals per m². Disturbed peat bogs have higher species numbers and higher Auchenorrhyncha densities in total, but lower numbers and densities in peat bog specialists. PMID:24039517
Tan, Ming Kai; Choi, Jihea; Shankar, Nivedita
The orthopterans are diverse insects and play important roles in the ecosystem as well as having "love-hate relationship" with humans. Documentation of diversity in Southeast Asia has long history but remains incomplete. Using information of type specimens and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, we investigated the following questions on new species discovery for the region, specifically: (1) How are new species discoveries of orthopterans distributed in Southeast Asia? (2) How have new species discoveries changed with time? (3) How do new species discoveries relate to the countries of the type depositories? We found that new species discoveries, relative to sampling, are fragmentary in Southeast Asia and changes with different time periods. We also find type depositories tightly linked to the human (colonial) history of Southeast Asian countries. We provide some recommendations and hope that this can help to accelerate the study of orthopteran diversity in the region.
Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I Wayan
Zeugodacus caudatus is a pest of pumpkin flowers. It has a Palearctic and Oriental distribution. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of the Malaysian and Indonesian samples of Z. caudatus determined by next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA and determine their taxonomic status as sibling species and phylogeny with other taxa of the genus Zeugodacus. The whole mitogenome of both samples possessed 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes-PCGs, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes) and a control region. The mitogenome of the Indonesian sample (15,885 bp) was longer than that of the Malaysian sample (15,866 bp). In both samples, TΨC-loop was absent in trnF and DHU-loop was absent in trnS1. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with the two samples of Z. caudatus forming a sister group and the genus Zeugodacus was monophyletic. The Malaysian and Indonesian samples of Z. caudatus have a genetic distance of p = 7.8 % based on 13 PCGs and p = 7.0 % based on 15 mitochondrial genes, indicating status of sibling species. They are proposed to be accorded specific status as members of a species complex.
Valim, Michel P; Reiley, Bryan M
We examined Swainson's warblers (Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon, 1834), Aves: Parulidae) for lice fauna during 2 yr at three study sites in Arkansas, USA. A total of 66 individuals were examined; eight birds (10.6%) were parasitized with 16 lice of two new species belonging to two genera Myrsidea Waterson, 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Parasitological parameter data are given on the prevalence of lice on Swainson's warblers. Species descriptions and illustrations are provided for Myrsidea bensoni sp. nov. and Brueelia limnothlypiae sp. nov.; including a key for females of the genus Myrsidea that parasitize Parulidae (Passeriformes).
Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Johnson, Kevin P
While it is well known that changes in the general processes of molecular evolution have occurred on a variety of timescales, the mechanisms underlying these changes are less well understood. Parasitic lice ("Phthiraptera") and their close relatives (infraorder Nanopsocetae of the insect order Psocodea) are a group of insects well known for their unusual features of molecular evolution. We examined changes in base composition across parasitic lice and bark lice. We identified substantial differences in percent GC content between the clade comprising parasitic lice plus closely related bark lice (=Nanopsocetae) versus all other bark lice. These changes occurred for both nuclear and mitochondrial protein coding and ribosomal RNA genes, often in the same direction. To evaluate whether correlations in base composition change also occurred within lineages, we used phylogenetically controlled comparisons, and in this case few significant correlations were identified. Examining more constrained sites (first/second codon positions and rRNA) revealed that, in comparison to the other bark lice, the GC content of parasitic lice and close relatives tended towards 50 % either up from less than 50 % GC or down from greater than 50 % GC. In contrast, less constrained sites (third codon positions) in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes showed less of a consistent change of base composition in parasitic lice and very close relatives. We conclude that relaxed selection on this group of insects is a potential explanation of the change in base composition for both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, which could lead to nucleotide frequencies closer to random expectation (i.e., 50 % GC) in the absence of any mutation bias. Evidence suggests this relaxed selection arose once in the non-parasitic common ancestor of Phthiraptera + Nanopsocetae and is not directly related to the evolution of the parasitism in lice.
Yamagishi, Ayaka; Yao, Izumi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori
Data from gene sequences and morphological structures were collected for the gull feather lice, Saemundssonia lari, Quadraceps punctatus, and Q. ornatus, parasitizing Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus. Saemundssonia lari was collected from both gull species, and no detectable morphological and genetic differences were found between lice collected from the two different hosts. In contrast, Q. punctatus was only collected from L. crassirostris, whereas Q. ornatus was only collected from L. schistisagus. The two Quadraceps species were genetically highly divergent, and body-size differences corresponding to the gull's body size (Harrison's rule) were also detected between them. Both Quadraceps species were collected from the interbarb of the remex or rectrix, and a match in body size between the louse and the interbarb space may be important in escape from host preening defenses. In contrast, Saemundssonia is a head louse, inhabiting the finer feathers of the head and neck, which the bird cannot preen. A close match to host body size may be less important for lice in the head microhabitat. The differences in the pattern of host-specificity between Saemundssonia and Quadraceps on the two focal host species of this study were probably due to their different microhabitat preferences. More broadly, comparisons of the gene sequences of S. lari and Q. punctatus to those from other gull hosts showed that genetically almost undifferentiated populations of both species were distributed on wide range of gull species. Frequent interspecific hybridization of gulls is one possible factor that may allow these lice to maintain gene flow across multiple host species.
Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan
Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9-20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis - the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago.
Covacin, C; Shao, R; Cameron, S; Barker, S C
The arrangement of genes in the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of most insects is the same, or near-identical, to that inferred to be ancestral for insects. We sequenced the entire mt genome of the small pigeon louse, Campanulotes bidentatus compar, and part of the mt genomes of nine other species of lice. These species were from six families and the three main suborders of the order Phthiraptera. There was no variation in gene arrangement among species within a family but there was much variation in gene arrangement among the three suborders of lice. There has been an extraordinary number of gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of lice!
Douglas, H D; Malenke, J R
Distortions of sex ratios and sexual traits from synthetic chemicals have been well documented; however, there is little evidence for such phenomena associated with naturally occurring chemical exposures. We reasoned that chemical secretions of vertebrates could contribute to skewed sex ratios in ectoparasitic insects due to differences in susceptibility among the sexes. For example, among ectoparasitic lice the female is generally the larger sex. Smaller males may be more susceptible to chemical effects. We studied sex ratios of lice on two sympatric species of colonial seabirds. Crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) secrete a strong smelling citrus-like odorant composed of aldehydes while a closely related congener the least auklet (Aethia pusilla) lacks these compounds. Each auklet hosts three species of lice, two of which are shared in common. We found that the sex ratio of one louse species, Quadraceps aethereus (Giebel), was highly skewed on crested auklets 1:69 (males: females), yet close to unity on least auklets (1:0.97). We suggest that a host-specific effect contributes to this difference, such as the crested auklet's chemical odorant.
Rodrigues, Higor D. D.; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; Reduciendo Klementová, Barbora; Svitok, Marek
Abstract Background Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera occur on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide variety of habitats, including lentic and lotic water bodies, perennial or temporary. In the Neotropical Region, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the geographical distribution of most represented species, which can only be solved by the collection of specimens in under-studied areas and publication of new records and lists of species. New information New records are presented for eleven species of Gerromorpha and ten Nepomorpha, including first records from Venezuela (Brachymetra lata, Limnogonus hyalinus, Rhagovelia evidis, Tenagobia peruana, Limnocoris burmeisteri, L. fittkaui fittkaui, Placomerus micans, and Martarega gonostyla), the Venezuelan State of Bolívar (Cylindrostethus palmaris, R. elegans, R. tenuipes, and Ambrysus stali), the Brazilian State of Bahia (Martarega bentoi), Peru (Euvelia lata), and the Peruvian Region of Arequipa (Microvelia pulchella). PMID:27226754
Kahanpää, Jere; Stuke, Jens-Hermann
Abstract A checklist of the Diptera superfamilies Conopoidea (Conopidae), Nerioidea (Micropezidae, Pseudopomyzidae) and Diopsoidea (Megamerinidae, Psilidae, Strongylophthalmyiidae, Tanypezidae) from Finland in presented. Myopa vicaria Walker, 1849 is formally recorded for the first time from the country. PMID:25337021
Background Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas) are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas]), found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA) of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families). Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies) in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained) was supported by statistical tests of codiversification. Codiversification tests also supported concordance of the Sulcia phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts, as well as concordance of planthopper-associated Vidania and Sulcia phylogenies. Conclusions Our results indicate that the Betaproteobacterium Vidania is an ancient endosymbiont that infected the common ancestor of Fulgoroidea at least 130 million years ago. Comparison of our findings with the early light-microscopic surveys conducted by Müller suggests that Vidania is Müller’s x-symbiont, which he hypothesized to have codiversified with most lineages of planthoppers and with the Sulcia endosymbiont. PMID:22697166
Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.
Abstract Background This is the third in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 54 species of Heteroptera, 11 of which were new state records for Arkansas: (Aradidae) Aradus approximatus, Aradus duzeei, Aradus ornatus, Neuroctenus elongatus, Neuroctenus pseudonymus, Notapictinus aurivilli; (Cydnidae) Sehirus cinctus; (Lygaeidae) Nysius raphanus; (Miridae) Prepops insitivus; (Reduviidae) Zelus tetracanthus; (Rhyparochromidae) Kolenetrus plenus. PMID:27346950
Abstract A cybercatalog to the Apioceridae (apiocerid flies) of the Afrotropical Region is provided. Each taxon entry includes links to open-access, online repositories such as ZooBank, BHL/BioStor/BLR, Plazi, GBIF, Morphbank, EoL, and a research web-site to access taxonomic information, digitized literature, morphological descriptions, specimen occurrence data, and images. Cybercatalogs as the one presented here will need to become the future of taxonomic catalogs taking advantage of the growing number of online repositories, linked data, and be easily updatable. Comments on the deposition of the holotype of Apiocera braunsi Melander, 1907 are made. PMID:26491392
Coronel, María F.; Nowicki, Susana; Nighorn, Alan J.; Villar, Marcelo J.
The biochemical characterization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and its distribution in the central nervous system (CNS) were studied in the heteropteran bug Triatoma infestans. NOS-like immunoreactivity was found in the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and thoracic ganglia by using immunocytochemistry. In the protocerebrum, NOS-immunoreactive (IR) somata were detected in the anterior, lateral, and posterior soma rinds. In the optic lobe, numerous immunostained somata were observed at the level of the first optic chiasma, around the lobula, and in the proximal optic lobe. In the deutocerebrum, NOS-IR perikarya were mainly observed in the lateral soma rind, surrounding the sensory glomeruli, and a few cell bodies were seen in association with the antennal mechanosensory and motor neuropil. No immunostaining could be detected in the antennal nerve. The subesophageal and prothoracic ganglia contained scattered immunostained cell bodies. NOS-IR somata were present in all the neuromeres of the posterior ganglion. Western blotting showed that a universal NOS antiserum recognized a band at 134 kDa, in agreement with the expected molecular weight of the protein. Analysis of the kinetics of nitric oxide production revealed a fully active enzyme in tissue samples of the CNS of T. infestans. PMID:17235602
Penati, Fabio; Mariotti, Alberto
Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) was an Italian civil engineer who described 377 new taxa of Hymenoptera, 199 of which are still valid and in use today, and proposed 6 replacement names. The present catalog provides a brief biography of Gribodo, a bibliography of his 42 publications and a complete list of the taxa proposed by Gribodo. The catalog lists, for all published names, details on the type series, type locality and collector, present status based on literature, all data labels, relevant references and remarks. A gazetteer of type-localities, a systematical list of Genus- and Species-group names, a chronological list of new names proposed by Giovanni Gribodo, with name-bearing types, and a list of Algerian species and varieties are also given. Furthermore, an unpublished manuscript by Gribodo on hymenopterological fauna of Tunisia, still kept at the Civic Museum of Natural History "Giacomo Doria" (Genoa, Italy), is described, and data on the 57 "new" taxa therein listed are reported, discussing their relevance in order to ascertain the original type series of 27 taxa validly published later. Finally, the problem posed by the enigmatic "disappearance" of a large number of Algerian types, already faced by several entomologists in the past, is analyzed, in order to prevent future mistaken designations of lectotypes and neotypes. The following six nomenclatural acts are proposed here by R. Wahis: Hemipepsis sycophanta Gribodo, 1884 = Hemipepsis bellicosa (Smith, 1873) new synonym; Anospilus sulcithorax (Gribodo, 1924) new combination; Auplopus validus (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Dichragenia quartinae (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Diplonyx caesar (Gribobo, 1894) new combination; Paracyphononyx melanicrus Gribodo, 1884 status revalidated (resurrected from synonymy with Pompilus ruficrus Klug, 1834). The following four nomenclatural acts are proposed by F. Penati: Parachrysis Gribodo, 1879 [subgenus of Chrysis Linnaeus] = Chrysis Linnaeus, 1760 new synonym; Psammotherma (Mutilla) quartinae Gribodo, 1884 = Psammotherma flabellata (Fabricius, 1804) new synonym; Megascolia (Regiscolia) alecto (Smith, 1858) subspecies vespillo (Gribodo, 1893) new combination; Megachile (Megachile) moutoni Gribodo, 1894 emendated name.
Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Rafinejad, Javad; Nozari, Jamasb; Rassi, Yavar; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa
Background: Bait-trapping appears to be a generally useful method of studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to construct a new adult flytrap by some modifications in former versions and to evaluate its applicability in a subtropical zone in southern Iran. Methods: The traps were constructed with modification by adding some equipment to a polyethylene container (18× 20× 33 cm) with lid. The fresh sheep meat was used as bait. Totally 27 adult modified traps were made and tested for their efficacies to attract adult flies. The experiment was carried out in a range of different topographic areas of Fars Province during June 2010. Results: The traps were able to attract various groups of adult flies belonging to families of: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, and Faniidae. The species of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) include the majority of the flies collected by this sheep-meat baited trap. Conclusion: This adult flytrap can be recommended for routine field sampling to study diversity and population dynamics of flies where conducting of daily collection is difficult. PMID:23378969
Tettweiler, Gritta; Kowanda, Michelle; Lasko, Paul; Sonenberg, Nahum; Hernández, Greco
Insects are part of the earliest faunas that invaded terrestrial environments and are the first organisms that evolved controlled flight. Nowadays, insects are the most diverse animal group on the planet and comprise the majority of extant animal species described. Moreover, they have a huge impact in the biosphere as well as in all aspects of human life and economy; therefore understanding all aspects of insect biology is of great importance. In insects, as in all cells, translation is a fundamental process for gene expression. However, translation in insects has been mostly studied only in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We used all publicly available genomic sequences to investigate in insects the distribution of the genes encoding the cap-binding protein eIF4E, a protein that plays a crucial role in eukaryotic translation. We found that there is a diversity of multiple ortholog genes encoding eIF4E isoforms within the genus Drosophila. In striking contrast, insects outside this genus contain only a single eIF4E gene, related to D. melanogaster eIF4E-1. We also found that all insect species here analyzed contain only one Class II gene, termed 4E-HP. We discuss the possible evolutionary causes originating the multiplicity of eIF4E genes within the genus Drosophila. PMID:22745595
Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Nalepa, Christine; Lo, Nathan
Isoptera are highly specialized cockroaches and are one of the few eusocial insect lineages. Cryptocercus cockroaches have appeared to many as ideal models for inference on the early evolution of termites, due to their possible phylogenetic relationship and several shared key attributes in life history. Recently, Pellens, Grandcolas, and colleagues have proposed the blaberid cockroach Parasphaeria boleiriana to be an alternative model for the early evolution in termites. We compare the usefulness of Cryptocercus and P. boleiriana as models for termite evolution. Cryptocercus and lower Isoptera (1) can both feed on comparatively recalcitrant wood, (2) have an obligate, rich and unique hypermastigid and oxymonadid fauna in the hindgut, (3) transfer these flagellates to the next generation by anal trophallaxis, (4) have social systems that involve long-lasting biparental care, and, finally, (5) are strongly suggested to be sister groups, so that the key attributes (1)-(4) appear to be homologous between the two taxa. On the other hand, P. boleiriana (1) feeds on soft, ephemeral wood sources, (2) shows no trace of the oxymonadid and hypermastigid hindgut fauna unique to Cryptocercus and lower Isoptera, nor does it have any other demonstrated obligate relationship with hindgut flagellates, (3) is likely to lack anal trophallaxis, (4) has only a short period of uniparental brood care, and (5) is phylogenetically remote from the Cryptocercus+Isoptera clade. These facts would argue against any reasonable usage of P. boleiriana as a model for the early evolution of Isoptera or even of the clade Cryptocercus+Isoptera. Cryptocercus thus remains an appropriate model-taxon-by-homology for early termite evolution. As compared to P. boleiriana, some other Blaberidae (such as the Panesthiinae Salganea) appear more useful as model-taxa-by-homoplasy for the early evolution of the Cryptocercus+Isoptera clade, as their brooding behavior is more elaborate than in P. boleiriana.
Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J; Whiting, Michael F
Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies.
Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi
Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species – the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of ‘hybrid females’ among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. ‘hybrid females’ from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894
McMeniman, C J; Barker, S C
We studied inheritance at three microsatellite loci in eight F, and two F2 families of the body (clothes) louse of humans, Pediculus humanus. The alleles of heterozygous female-parents were always inherited in a Mendelian fashion in these families. Alleles from heterozygous male-parents, however, were inherited in two different ways: (i) in a Mendelian fashion and (ii) in a non-Mendelian fashion, where males passed to their offspring only one of their two alleles, that is, 100% nonrandom transmission. In male body lice, where there was non-Mendelian inheritance, the paternally inherited set of alleles was eliminated. We interpret this pattern of inheritance as evidence for extreme transmission ratio distortion of paternal alleles in this species.
Mortazavi, Abdolazim; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza
A new species of mites of the genus Tarsopolipus (Acari: Prostigmata: Podapolipidae) is described from southern Iran. Tarsopolipus husbandi Mortazavi and Hajiqanbar n. sp. is a sub-elytral ectoparasite of the scarabaeid beetle, Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) acuticollis. The new species is closely related to Tarsopolipus corrugatus Berlese 1911, but is distinguished from it by the following characters. Adult female: presence of vestigial setae v(2) and shorter setae sc(2). Adult male: presence of setae v' on tibia IV and shorter setae sc(2) and c(2). Larval female: shorter cheliceral stylets and longer distance between setae v(1) and ch. Species of Tarsopolipus are currently distributed in Afro-tropical, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions and parasitize species in 3 genera of scarabaeid beetles, i.e., Scarabaeus , Kheper, and Drepanopodes, all belonging to the tribe Scarabaeini.
Evangelista, Dominic A.; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L.; Wilson, Megan M.; Ware, Jessica L.
Abstract Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics. PMID:25684997
Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko
The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens—eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.
Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás
Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species.
Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia
Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482
Mound, Laurence A.; Minaei, Kambiz
Water is important and ubiquitous and surprisingly not understood. Just because is it common, does not mean its understood "Poets say science takes away from the beauty of the stars-mere globs of gas atoms. I too can see the stars on a desert night, and feel them. But do I see less or more? ... What is the pattern, or the meaning, or the why? It does not do harm to the mystery to know a little about it. For far more marvelous is the truth than any artists of the past imagined it." - Richard P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, 1963. (Cited in the introduction to Chapter 3 of "The Snowflake, Winter's Secret Beauty, Text by Kenneth Libbrecht, Photography by Patricia Rasmussen.) 1. Highlight the fact that water is still one of the most active and challenging research areas in chemistry and physics 2. Describe in general terms why water is unique from the point of view of its properties o Large dipole-moment o Very polarizable o Involved in is own chemistry (e.g. auto ionization defining the pH scale) • Atomic view: o Oxygen and Hydrogen. o Hydrogen is a quantum mechanical in nature. Classical physics is no good. o Water’s Charge-charge interaction described by classical physics laws (e.g. Coulomb) o The statistical mechanics of water. Why counting is important. o You need the full arsenal of theoretical methods to understand water • Waters well known bulk properties do not explain waters anomalies o Surface tension, heat capacity • Understanding the microscopic nature of water and how this gives rise to the known bulk quantities is the thrust of state-of-the-art research o Hydrogen bonding o Liquid structure o The so-called “spherical cow” model gets you no where with water o There are 10s-100s of different water models available in the scientific literature. It is a hard business • All of life takes place at the interfaces of solid, liquid, and gas o Biology takes advantage of waters varying properties in different geometries (e.g. confined, surfaces, etc. o Water behaves differently in confined environments • Water is the most abundant greenhouse gas o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of the radiation budget of the earth o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of weather.
Svenson, Gavin J.
Abstract The praying mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 occurs only in Central and South America and represents the most diverse genus of Neotropical Liturgusini (Ehrmann 2002). The genus includes bark dwelling species, which live entirely on the trunks and branches of trees and run extremely fast. All species included within the genus Liturgusa are comprehensively revised with a distribution stretching from central Mexico, the island of Dominica to the southeastern regions of Brazil and southern Bolivia. All known species are redescribed to meet the standards of the new treatment of the genus (11 species). Three new genera are described including Fuga gen. n., Velox gen. n., and Corticomantis gen. n. for species previously included in Liturgusa as well as Hagiomantis. Liturgusa mesopoda Westwood, 1889 is moved to within the previously described genus Hagiomantis Audinet Serville, 1838. A total of 19 species are newly described within Liturgusa, Fuga, and Velox including L. algorei sp. n., L. bororum sp. n., L. cameroni sp. n., L. cura sp. n., L. dominica sp. n., L. fossetti sp. n., L. kirtlandi sp. n., L. krattorum sp. n., L. manausensis sp. n., L. maroni sp. n., L. milleri sp. n., L. neblina sp. n., L. purus sp. n., L. stiewei sp. n., L. tessae sp. n., L. trinidadensis sp. n., L. zoae sp. n., F. grimaldii sp. n., and V. wielandi sp. n. Four species names are synonymized: Liturgusa peruviana Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889 and Hagiomantis parva Piza, 1966, syn. n., Liturgusa sinvalnetoi Piza, 1982, syn. n., and Liturgusa parva Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Mantis annulipes Audinet Serville, 1838. Lectotypes are designated for the following two species: Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894 and Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838). A male neotype is designated for Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939. Males for eight species are described for the first time including Liturgusa cayennensis Saussure, 1869, Liturgusa lichenalis Gerstaecker, 1889, Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939, Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894, Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889, Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838), Corticomantis atricoxata (Beier, 1931), and Hagiomantis mesopoda (Westwood, 1889). The female of Fuga fluminensis (Piza, 1965) is described for the first time. Complete bibliographic histories are provided for previously described species. The spelling confusion surrounding Liturgusa/Liturgousa is resolved. Full habitus images for males and females are provided for nearly all species. Habitus and label images of type specimens are provided when possible. Diagnostic illustrations of the head and pronotum for males and females are provided for all species when possible. Illustrations of male genital structures are provided for all species for which males are known. Measurement data, including ranges and averages, are provided for males and females of all species. Combined male and female genus and species level dichotomous keys are provided with a Spanish translation. A complete table of all examined specimens lists label data, museum codes, repositories, and other specimen specific information. A KML file with all georeferenced locality records is downloadable from mantodearesearch.com for viewing in Google Earth. Natural history information is provided for species observed by the author. PMID:24715776
Abstract In Iran, as a result of recent changes in nomenclature 201 species and one species group of the insect Order Thysanoptera, are here listed in 70 genera and five families. In considering species listed previously from this country, the presence of 7 species is considered not confirmed, and 12 species are excluded from the Iranian list. Problems in the study of Iranian Thysanoptera are discussed briefly. PMID:24146555
Coutinho-Silva, R D; Montes, M A; Oliveira, G F; de Carvalho-Neto, F G; Rohde, C; Garcia, A C L
Seasonality is an important aspect associated with population dynamic and structure of tropical insect assemblages. This study evaluated the effects of seasonality on abundance, richness, diversity and composition of an insect group, drosophilids, including species native to the Neotropical region and exotic ones. Three preserved fragments of the northern Atlantic Forest were surveyed, where temperatures are above 20 °C throughout the year and rainfall regimes define two seasons (dry and rainy). As opposed to other studies about arthropods in tropical regions, we observed that abundance of drosophilids was significantly higher in the dry season, possibly due to biological aspects and the colonization strategy adopted by the exotic species in these environments. Contrarily to abundance, we did not observe a seasonal pattern for richness. As for other parts of the Atlantic Forest, the most representative Neotropical species (Drosophila willistoni, D. sturtevanti, D. paulistorum and D. prosaltans) were significantly more abundant in the rainy season. Among the most abundant exotic species, D. malerkotliana, Zaprionus indianus and Scaptodrosophila latifasciaeformis were more importantly represented the dry season, while D. simulans was more abundant in the rainy period. The seasonality patterns exhibited by the most abundant species were compared to findings published in other studies. Our results indicate that exotic species were significantly more abundant in the dry season, while native ones exhibited an opposite pattern.
Randolf, Susanne; Zimmermann, Dominique; Aspöck, Ulrike
The external and internal head anatomy of Sisyra terminalis is described in detail and compared with data from literature. A salivary pump consisting of a peculiar reservoir and a hitherto unknown muscle, M. ductus salivarii, is newly described for Neuroptera. The upward folded paraglossae form a secondary prolongation of the salivary system. These structures are discussed as functional adaptations for feeding on aphids and desiccated honeydew. In a phylogenetic analysis the basal position of the Sisyridae within Neuroptera is retrieved. The following new synapomorphies are postulated: (1) for Neuropterida, the presence of a M. submentomentalis and prepharyngeal ventral transverse muscles, and the absence of a M. submentopraementalis; (2) for Neuroptera and Sialidae, the presence of a mandibular gland; (3) for Neuroptera, the presence of four scapopedicellar muscles; (4) for Neuroptera exclusive Nevrorthidae and Sisyridae, the weakening of dorsal tentorial arms, the presence of a M. tentoriomandibularis medialis superior and the shifted origin of M. tentoriocardinalis.
Vilenica, Marina; Brigić, Andreja; Kerovec, Mladen; Gottstein, Sanja; Ternjej, Ivančica
Peat bogs are unique wetland ecosystems of high conservation value all over the world, yet data on the macroinvertebrates (including mayfly assemblages) in these habitats are still scarce. Over the course of one growing season, mayfly assemblages were sampled each month, along with other macroinvertebrates, in the largest and oldest Croatian peat bog and an adjacent stream. In total, ten mayfly species were recorded: two species in low abundance in the peat bog, and nine species in significantly higher abundance in the stream. Low species richness and abundance in the peat bog were most likely related to the harsh environmental conditions and mayfly habitat preferences. In comparison, due to the more favourable habitat conditions, higher species richness and abundance were observed in the nearby stream. Three of the recorded species, Caenis luctuosa from the peat bog, and Eurylophella karelica and Leptophlebia marginata from the stream are new records for the Croatian mayfly fauna. Typical Central European life cycle patterns were confirmed for several species (e.g. Baetis vernus, Nigrobaetis niger, Electrogena ujhelyii), while for several others (e.g. Habrophlebia fusca, Paraleptophlebia submarginata) some discrepancies were observed. Therefore, these results provide new and valuable information on the ecology of mayflies in peat bog habitats.
Lindqvist, L.; Block, M.
Insects are important components of most terrestrial environments owing to their great abundance, biomass and diversity. They also make up an important food resource for other animals. Consequently, in many food webs insects constitute important links in metal-transport chains between trophic levels. Therefore trace-metal concentrations in insects have an important influence on the trace-metal distribution in the biosphere. In various insects, Cd, Cu and Zn are usually accumulated to the extent that they reach levels above those of the food, whereas Fe is not. In response to metal pollution, accumulation of nonessential metals was found to increase markedly, whereas essential metals accumulated less owing to regulating mechanisms in the insects. In polluted environments, metal concentrations were found to be higher in predatory invertebrates than in phytophagous ones in studies where insects were analysed in broad categories such as families. However, no such trend was observed when species were treated separately. The pattern of metal accumulation can differ between species. This is true even for species utilizing the same food resource. For instance, concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe differed between four species of sawflies feeding on pine needles from the same locality. It is therefore likely that insects with different food sources accumulate metals differently depending on the concentration and chemical form of the metals in the food. There have been few studies aimed at determining whether patterns of metal accumulation differ between males and females of the same species. In one such study on the sawfly Neodiprion sertifer concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe tended to be higher in males than in females. However, this pattern was not found in two other sawfly species. Target organs for Cd were found to differ between males and females in the grasshopper Aiolopus thalassinus. The testis accumulated Cd to a higher degree than the ovaries.
Abstract New Mydidae species are described from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions including the first records of this family from several countries in eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda) and Mauritania in western Africa as well as Nepal and Thailand in Asia. The new species are, Leptomydinae: Leptomydas notos sp. n. (south-western India), Leptomydas rapti sp. n. (south-central Nepal), Leptomydas tigris sp. n. (north-central Thailand); Syllegomydinae: Mydaselpidini: Mydaselpis ngurumani sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania), Vespiodes phaios sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya); Syllegomydinae: Syllegomydini: Syllegomydas (Notobates) astrictus sp. n. (Kenya), Syllegomydas (Notobates) heothinos sp. n. (Kenya and Uganda), Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas) elachys sp. n. (northern Zimbabwe). Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas) proximus Séguy, 1928 is recorded from western Mauritania and re-described. Syllegomydas (Notobates) dispar (Loew, 1852), which was previously listed as incertae sedis in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue, is re-described and illustrated based on examination of the type specimens and several additional specimens from Mozambique. Cephalocera annulata Brunetti, 1912 and Syllegomydas bucciferus Séguy, 1928, described from north-eastern India and previously unplaced in the Oriental Diptera catalogue, are newly combined with Leptomydas Gerstaecker, 1868 and together with Leptomydas indianus Brunetti, 1912, also from north-eastern India, placed in Leptomydinae. Comments on the possible synonymy of the genera of Mydaselpidini are made. Illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and future identification. A provisional dichotomous key to Mydidae genera occurring in eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda) and the Oriental Region is provided. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots and high-biodiversity wilderness areas, and seasonal incidence are discussed for all species. PMID:21594024
Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David
A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.
Qiao, Xiao; Shih, Chung Kun; Petrulevičius, Julian F.; Dong, Ren
Abstract Choristopsychidae, established by Martynov in 1937 with a single isolated forewing, is a little known extinct family in Mecoptera. Since then, no new members of this enigmatic family have been described. Based on 23 well-preserved specimens with complete body and wings from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China, we report one new genus and three new species of Choristopsychidae, two new species of the genus Choristopsyche Martynov, 1937: Choristopsyche perfecta sp. n. and Choristopsyche asticta sp. n.; one new species of Paristopsyche gen. n.: Paristopsyche angelineae sp. n.; and re-describe Choristopsyche tenuinervis Martynov, 1937. In addition, we emend the diagnoses of Choristopsychidae and Choristopsyche. Analyzing the forewing length/width ratios of representative species in Mecoptera, we confirm that choristopsychids have the lowest ratio of forewing length/width, meaning broadest forewings. These findings, the first fossil choristopsychids with well-preserved body structure and the first record of Choristopsychidae in China, shed light on the morphology of these taxa and broaden their distribution from Tajikistan to China, while increasing the diversity of Mesozoic Mecoptera in China. PMID:23950679
The present study provides new data concerning the morphology and distribution of the labial sensilla of 55 species of 12 nepomorphan families (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha) using the scanning electron microscope. On the labial tip, three morphologically distinct types of chemosensilla have been identified: two types of papillae sensilla and one type of peg-in-pit sensilla. Twenty-one morphologically distinct types of the mechanosensilla as well as two types of the trichoid sensilla (contact-chemoreceptive sensillum) have been identified on all labial segments in representatives of subfamilies. In Nepomorpha, morphological ground plan of the labial sensory structures is represented by an apical sensory field with 10–13 pairs of papillae sensilla and the peg-in-pit ones placed more laterally; numerous trichoid sensilla are placed on the IV segment; the chaetica sensilla are present and placed in groups or rows distributed along the labium near the labial groove on the dorsal side, and also several chaetica sensilla are unevenly scattered on the surface of that segment; the cupola and peg sensilla are numerous and evenly scattered on the fourth labial segment; the prioprerecptive sensilla, one pair is positioned on the dorsal side and on the fourth segment of the labium. The new apomorphical characters have been established for the labial sensilla in the Nepomorpha. PMID:23935421
Grimaldi, David A.; Arillo, Antonio; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; Hauser, Martin
Abstract Thirteen species of basal Brachycera (11 described as new) are reported, belonging to nine families and three infraorders. They are preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) of Lebanon, Albian of northern Spain, upper Albian to lower Cenomanian of northern Myanmar, and Late Cretaceous of New Jersey USA (Turonian) and Alberta, Canada (Campanian). Taxa are as follows, with significance as noted: In Stratiomyomorpha: Stratiomyidae (Cretaceogaster pygmaeus Teskey [2 new specimens in Canadian amber], Lysistrata emerita Grimaldi & Arillo, gen. et sp. n. [stem-group species of the family in Spanish amber]), and Xylomyidae (Cretoxyla azari Grimaldi & Cumming, gen. et sp. n. [in Lebanese amber], and an undescribed species from Spain). In Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae (Cratotabanus newjerseyensis Grimaldi, sp. n., in New Jersey amber). In Muscomorpha: Acroceridae (Schlingeromyia minuta Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. and Burmacyrtus rusmithi Grimaldi & Hauser gen. et sp. n., in Burmese amber, the only definitive species of the family from the Cretaceous); Mythicomyiidae (Microburmyia analvena Grimaldi & Cumming gen. et sp. n. and Microburmyia veanalvena Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n., stem-group species of the family, both in Burmese amber); Apsilocephalidae or near (therevoid family-group) (Kumaromyia burmitica Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. [in Burmese amber]); Apystomyiidae (Hilarimorphites burmanica Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n. [in Burmese amber], whose closest relatives are from the Late Jurassic of Kazachstan, the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey, and Recent of California). Lastly, two species belonging to families incertae sedis, both in Burmese amber: Tethepomyiidae (Tethepomyia zigrasi Grimaldi & Arillo sp. n., the aculeate oviscapt of which indicates this family was probably parasitoidal and related to Eremochaetidae); and unplaced to family is Myanmyia asteiformia Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n., a minute fly with highly reduced venation. These new taxa significantly expand the Mesozoic fossil record of rare and phylogenetically significant taxa of lower Brachycera. PMID:22287902
Vršanský, Peter; Bechly, Günter
We describe a new extinct lineage Manipulatoridae (new family) of cockroaches from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. Manipulator modificaputis gen. et sp. n. is a morphologically unique extinct cockroach that represents the first (of a total of 29 known worldwide) cockroach family reported exclusively from the Myanmar amber. This family represents an early side branch of the stem group of Mantodea (most probably a sister group of Eadiidae within Blattaria/Corydioidea) because it has some synapomorphies with the Mantodea (including the stem group and Eadiidae). This family also retains symplesiomorphies that exclude a position in the crown group, and furthermore has unique autapomorphies that exclude a position as a direct ancestor of Mantodea. The unique adaptations such as strongly elongated extremities and freely movable head on a long neck suggest that these animals were pursuit predators. Five additional specimens (including two immatures) reported from the Myanmar amber suggest that this group was relatively rare but belonged to the indigenous and autochthonous inhabitants of the ancient amber forest of the Myanmar region.
Mouro, Lucas D; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C S; Waichel, Breno L
Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea.
Mouro, Lucas D.; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C.S.; Waichel, Breno L.
Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian–Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea. PMID:26765261
Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won
Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified larvae. The interspecies and intraspecies COI sequence variations were analyzed. Sophisticated indexes were developed in order to properly evaluate indistinct barcode gaps that are created by insufficient sampling on both the interspecies and intraspecies levels and by variable mutation rates across taxa. In a variety of insect datasets, these indexes were useful for re-evaluating large barcode datasets and for defining COI barcode gaps. The COI-based DNA barcode library will provide a rapid and reliable tool for the molecular identification of Korean chironomid species. Furthermore, this reverse-taxonomic approach will be improved by the continuous addition of other speceis’ sequences to the library. PMID:22138764
Salur, Ali; Darilmaz, Mustafa Cemal; Bauernfeind, Ernst
The mayfly fauna of Turkey was reviewed including all hitherto known distribution records together with references and a few new records. Additionally, comments on taxonomy, identification and nomenclature are provided. Two species are new for the Turkish fauna: Ephemera romantzovi Kluge, 1988 and Thraulus thraker Jacob, 1988. A list of taxa including their recorded distribution in Turkey (according to provinces) is provided in the annotated catalogue. The type locality is also given for each species originally described from Turkey. According to the literature and the new records, 157 mayfly taxa representing 33 genera and 14 families were described from Turkey. Among them, 24 species are considered endemic to Anatolia.
Kon, Thian-Woei; Bong, Choon-Fah J; King, Jie-Hung P; Leong, Chan-Teck S
Termites are the major decomposers in tropical region but yet their occurrences in oil palm plantation especially in peat soil are generally treated as pest. Study of termite species in peat land was conducted in selected oil palm plantations in North Sarawak with 5-7 years old palms and South Sarawak with 13-15 years old palms with two sites in each area. Results of quadrate (25 x 25 x 30 cm) sampling showed termite was significantly higher in relative density with increasing depth of soil (0-10 = 21.23, 10-20 = 42.52 and 20-30 cm = 81.12%) which could be advantaged from being predated by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) which were higher in density from soil surface to 10 cm soil depth with relative density of 31.84%. Modified transect sampling (50x6 m) had successfully sampled 18 species of termites from 2 families (Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae), 5 subfamilies (Rhinotermitinae, Coptotermitinae, Termitinae, Macrotermitinae and Nasutitermitinae) and 11 genera (Coptotermes, Schedorhinotermes, Termes, Macrotermes, Nasutitermes, Globitermes, Amitermes, Parrhinotermes, Pericapritermes, Havilanditermes and Prohamitermes). Both plantation sites have termite dominantly feeding on rotten wood as a result of abundant dead woods. However, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren was identified to feed on the living tissues of oil palm causing damage or death of the tree. Study showed higher encounter of soil-feeding termite in longer established plantation. It indicates the gradually shifting of soil condition towards a stabilized environment which favors the successful settlement of soil feeder termite species. Termite control should be more targets specific to avoid harming beneficial termites.
Dos Santos, Ana Clara Gomes; Rodrigues, Albério Lopes; Dos Santos, Sandra Batista; Lima, Roberto César Araújo; Guerra, Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira de Candanedo
The objectives were to identify the species of chewing lice (Mallophaga) at different body sites in chickens (Gallus gallus), in isolated and mixed rearing systems, and to determine the dynamics and structure of the louse populations collected. The prevalences were 100 and 35% for chickens in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The species recorded were: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae and Lipeurus caponis. The chickens in the isolated system presented more lice than did the ones in the mixed system. The most prevalent species were M. gallinae (30.58 and 62.31%) and L. caponis (29.12 and 14.49%), in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The preferential sites of parasitism were the dorsum, venter and wings among the chickens in the isolated system, while among the ones in the mixed system, the preferential sites were the dorsum and venter. The mean intensity of infestation in the isolated system was 111.4 for males and 19.1 for females, while in the mixed system it was 80 for males and 6.75 for females. The amplitudes of the infestation were 1-226 for males and 1-22 for females in the isolated system, while in the mixed system, the amplitudes were 1-111 and 1-8, respectively. It can be concluded that chickens reared in the isolated system harbor a greater number of lice than do chickens in the mixed system. However, the kind of rearing system does not prevent louse infestations.
Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J
Abstract A recent targeted entomological survey in the Republic of Rwanda has produced two conspecific male and female specimens of an undescribed species of praying mantis (Mantodea). The specimens were collected in Nyungwe National Park in May of 2013. The species is closest morphologically to Dystacta alticeps (Schaum, 1853). Therefore, a new species is described, Dystacta tigrifrutex sp. n., along with the first instar nymphs and ootheca. In addition, the previously monotypic genus Dystacta Saussure, 1871 is re-described to provide a broader definition of the genus group. Habitus images, measurement data, a key to species, natural history information, and locality data are provided. PMID:24899847
A comprehensive revision of 981 specimens of fossil cockroaches from the Lower Cretaceous laminated limestones of the Crato Formation of Northeast Brazil shows that they belong to eleven taxa, including Piniblattella limai, P. magna sp. n., Perlucipecta santanensis. sp. n., Raptoblatta waddingtonae; Ocelloblattula santanensis sp. n., Elisama brevis (= E. americana, syn.n.), E. hindwingnii sp. n., Ponopterix axelrodi (= P. maxima syn.n.), Umenopterix burkhardi comb. n., and Cratovitisma oldreadi (Umenocoleidae = Cratovitismidae syn.n. = Ponopterixidae syn.n.). The family Ectobiidae is numerically most abundant in the assemblage of cockroaches of the Crato Formation (83 % of cockroaches), followed by Blattulidae (13 %) and Umenocoleidae (4 %). 79.2 % of specimens are complete and fully articulated. Members of the family Alienopteridae are probably also present. Representatives of a relatively common Mesozoic superfamily Caloblattinoidea are missing. With the exception of the endemic genera Cratovitisma and Raptoblatta and the exclusively Gondwanan genus Ocelloblattula, all other genera were cosmopolitan. Taxonomic richness of cockroaches of the Crato Formation is thus rather low, and consists of geologically long-ranging and geographically-widespread genera, genera restricted to Gondwana, and short-ranging endemic genera found in the Crato Formation only.
Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Kosoy, Michael Y; Harrus, Shimon
Fleas collected from rodents in the Negev Desert in southern Israel were molecularly screened for Bartonella species. A total of 1,148 fleas, collected from 122 rodents belonging to six species, were pooled in 245 pools based on flea species, sex, and rodent host species. Two Bartonella gene fragments, corresponding to RNA polymerase B (rpoB) and citrate synthase (gltA), were targeted, and 94 and 74 flea pools were found positive by PCR, respectively. The Bartonella 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was also targeted, and 66 flea pools were found to be positive by PCR. Sixteen different Bartonella gltA genotypes were detected in 94 positive flea pools collected from 5 different rodent species, indicating that fleas collected from each rodent species can harbor several Bartonella genotypes. Based on gltA analysis, identified Bartonella genotypes were highly similar or identical to strains previously detected in rodent species from different parts of the world. A gltA fragment 100% similar to Bartonella henselae was detected in one flea pool. Another 2 flea pools contained gltA fragments that were closely related to B. henselae (98% similarity). The high sequence similarities to the zoonotic pathogen B. henselae warrant further investigation.
Vilenica, Marina; Brigić, Andreja; Kerovec, Mladen; Gottstein, Sanja; Ternjej, Ivančica
Abstract Peat bogs are unique wetland ecosystems of high conservation value all over the world, yet data on the macroinvertebrates (including mayfly assemblages) in these habitats are still scarce. Over the course of one growing season, mayfly assemblages were sampled each month, along with other macroinvertebrates, in the largest and oldest Croatian peat bog and an adjacent stream. In total, ten mayfly species were recorded: two species in low abundance in the peat bog, and nine species in significantly higher abundance in the stream. Low species richness and abundance in the peat bog were most likely related to the harsh environmental conditions and mayfly habitat preferences. In comparison, due to the more favourable habitat conditions, higher species richness and abundance were observed in the nearby stream. Three of the recorded species, Caenis luctuosa from the peat bog, and Eurylophella karelica and Leptophlebia marginata from the stream are new records for the Croatian mayfly fauna. Typical Central European life cycle patterns were confirmed for several species (e.g. Baetis vernus, Nigrobaetis niger, Electrogena ujhelyii), while for several others (e.g. Habrophlebia fusca, Paraleptophlebia submarginata) some discrepancies were observed. Therefore, these results provide new and valuable information on the ecology of mayflies in peat bog habitats. PMID:28138280
Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen
The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.
Pohjoismäki, Jaakko; Kahanpää, Jere
Abstract An updated checklist of the superfamilies Oestroidea and Hippoboscoidea recorded from Finland is presented. The checklist covers the following families: Calliphoridae, Rhiniidae, Sarcophagidae, Rhinophoridae, Tachinidae, Oestridae and Hippoboscidae. PMID:25337034
Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Kahanpää, Jere
Abstract A checklist of 112 species of shore flies (Ephydridae, Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. Comparing this to the list of Hackman (1980), 52 changes are made: 25 species are added (all but one recorded after 1980), 18 misidentifications are deleted, 5 junior synonyms are replaced and 5 updated generic combinations are given. PMID:25337031
Gibson, Joshua D; Hunt, Greg J
The complete mitochondrial genome from an Africanized honey bee population (AHB, derived from Apis mellifera scutellata) was assembled and analyzed. The mitogenome is 16,411 bp long and contains the same gene repertoire and gene order as the European honey bee (13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). ND4 appears to use an alternate start codon and the long rRNA gene is 48 bp shorter in AHB due to a deletion in a terminal AT dinucleotide repeat. The dihydrouracil arm is missing from tRNA-Ser (AGN) and tRNA-Glu is missing the TV loop. The A + T content is comparable to the European honey bee (84.7%), which increases to 95% for the 3rd position in the protein coding genes.
Dallai, Romano; Gottardo, Marco; Mercati, David; Machida, Ryuichiro; Mashimo, Yuta; Matsumura, Yoko; Rafael, José Albertino; Beutel, Rolf Georg
The male and female reproductive apparatus of Zorotypus magnicaudelli (Malaysia), Zorotypus huxleyi (Ecuador) and Zorotypus weidneri (Brazil) were examined and documented in detail. The genital apparatus and sperm of the three species show only minor differences. The testes are larger in Z. magnicaudelli. Z. huxleyi lacks the helical appendage in the accessory glands. A long cuticular flagellum is present in Z. magnicaudelli and in the previously studied Zorotypus caudelli like in several other species, whereas it is absent in Z. weidneri, Z. huxleyi, Zorotypus hubbardi, Zorotypus impolitus and Zorotypus guineensis. Characteristic features of the very similar sperm are the presence of: a) two dense arches above the axoneme; b) a 9 + 9+2 axoneme with detached subtubules A and B of doublets 1 and 6; c) the axonemal end degenerating with enlarging accessory tubules; d) accessory tubules with 17 protofilaments; e) three accessory bodies beneath the axoneme; and f) two mitochondrial derivatives of equal shape. The first characteristic (a) is unknown outside of Zoraptera and possibly autapomorphic. The sperm structure differs distinctly in Z. impolitus and Z. hubbardi, which produce giant sperm and possess a huge spermatheca. The presence of the same sperm type in species either provided with a sclerotized coiled flagellum in males or lacking this structure indicates that a different organization of the genital apparatus does not necessarily affect the sperm structure. The flagellum and its pouch has probably evolved within Zoraptera, but it cannot be excluded that it is a groundplan feature and was reduced several times. The fossil evidence and our findings suggest that distinct modifications in the genital apparatus occurred before the fragmentation of the Gondwanan landmass in the middle Cretaceous.
Gorb, Stanislav N; Gorb, Elena V
Each tarsus of Coreus marginatus L. (Coreidae) bears a pair of smooth flexible pulvilli adapted for attachment to relatively smooth surfaces, such as their host plant Rumex crispus L. (Polygonaceae). This account quantifies insect attachment abilities on smooth surfaces at various stages of ontogenesis. Friction (shear) force (FF) of adults and juvenile insects was measured by the use of a computer controlled centrifugal force tester equipped with a fibre optical sensor. Pad area, body size and body mass were determined individually for each experimental insect. Light microscopy revealed no difference in pulvilli area between different leg pairs. Pulvilli area demonstrated a stronger increase with increasing linear dimensions, as predicted by scaling laws. Since friction coefficient (relationship between FF and body weight) (FC) was always higher than 1, it was concluded that adhesion has strongly contributed to the measured friction. The frictional properties of pulvilli do not change during ontogenesis. Thus, only the growth of pulvilli and, therefore, the increased contact area, contribute to the increasing attachment ability in insects at later larval stages. Due to different scaling of the body mass and area of attachment organs, smaller insects attach relatively more strongly. Both FF and FC were higher in experiments in which higher angular acceleration (AC) was applied. Lateral tenacity determined individually for experimental insects and pooled for all animals and accelerations is 0.097 N m(-2). These data led us to suggest that viscosity of the pad secretion and/or visco-elastic properties of the foam-like material of pulvilli play an important role in the attachment ability of insects.
Palma, Ricardo L; Peck, Stewart B
We list all described species and subspecies of parasitic lice from the Galápagos Islands, based on literature and specimen records. A total of eight families, 47 genera, and 104 species and subspecies of parasitic lice are listed, of which 26 are new species records and eight are new genus records. Also, we report 17 new host-louse associations. The checklist includes 17 endemic species (16 from birds, one from a mammal), 79 native species and subspecies (78 from birds, one from a mammal), and eight species and subspecies (five from birds, three from mammals) introduced by human agency. Nine species assigned in error to the Galápagos Islands in the literature are discussed and deleted from the fauna. For each valid species and subspecies we give information on its taxonomic history, type material, host associations, geographic distribution, biogeographical status, systematic relationships, and relevant literature references. We also give a brief summary of louse biology, and an account of the history of louse collecting, expeditions, collections, and research relating to Galápagos Islands lice. We include a host-parasite list, and a list of hosts which breed in the Galápagos Islands but without lice recorded from them. Also, we formally designate four lectotypes from the Kellogg Collection.
Yong, Sheyla; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E
An annotated list of the Cuban fauna of Orthoptera is presented. For each species we include details of valid names, synonyms, type specimens (type category, sex, locality and depository), geographic distribution and bibliographic references. Clarifying notes are added, as well as comments on the species considered doubtful. A total of 140 species included in 62 genera, 31 subfamilies and 12 families make up the known Cuban fauna of Orthoptera. The family Episactidae, the acridid subfamily Ommatolampidinae with 3 unknown genera, 3 unknown genera of Tettigoniidae (Conocephalinae) and 1 undescribed new genus of Tetrigidae (Cladonotinae) are here recorded for the first time from Cuba. Syntypes are designated for Hygronemobius histrionicus Zayas.
Abstract The Mydidae genus Namadytes Hesse, 1969 is reviewed. It is known from five species, primarily occurring in Namibia. The study of newly available material from both Namibia and South Africa deposited in several natural history collections results in the recognition of three species and new synonymy of two, i.e., Namadytes pallidus Hesse, 1972 is a new junior synonym of Namadytes maculiventris (Hesse, 1969) and Namadytes prozeskyi Hesse, 1969: 282 is a new junior synonym of Namadytes vansoni Hesse, 1969: 280. All three species are re-described and comments on sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variation are made, a dichotomous key for their identification is presented, and illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and facilitate future identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence with associated weather and climatic data are discussed for all species. A morphological structure ventral to the halter and posterior to the metathoracic spiracle, the infra-halter sclerite, is here newly termed. PMID:24891827
Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane
Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11–14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears the way for in-depth evolutionary hypothesis testing in one of the most speciose clades of predators. PMID:23029072
Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip
Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.
Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing
The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z–S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. PMID:27456912
Giehl, Nubia França da Silva; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro; Batista, Joana Darc; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos
Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity), although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77). The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively). The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation actions, and faunal complementarity and/or inventories. PMID:25083770
Dikow, Torsten; Leon, Stephanie
The Mydidae genus Namadytes Hesse, 1969 is reviewed. It is known from five species, primarily occurring in Namibia. The study of newly available material from both Namibia and South Africa deposited in several natural history collections results in the recognition of three species and new synonymy of two, i.e., Namadytespallidus Hesse, 1972 is a new junior synonym of Namadytesmaculiventris (Hesse, 1969) and Namadytesprozeskyi Hesse, 1969: 282 is a new junior synonym of Namadytesvansoni Hesse, 1969: 280. All three species are re-described and comments on sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variation are made, a dichotomous key for their identification is presented, and illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and facilitate future identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence with associated weather and climatic data are discussed for all species. A morphological structure ventral to the halter and posterior to the metathoracic spiracle, the infra-halter sclerite, is here newly termed.
Jepson, James E; Heads, Sam W
Two new genera and species of Megaloptera are described from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil. Cratocorydalopsis brasiliensis gen. et sp. nov. and Lithocorydalus fuscata gen. et sp. nov. are both placed within the family Corydalidae. The specimens represent the first Cretaceous examples of adult megalopteran body fossils not preserved in amber, and are the first megalopterans to be formally described from the Crato Formation.
Saxena, R C; Okech, S H
Rice plant volatiles extracted as steam distillates significantly affected the behavior and biology of the brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). In a multichoice test, more females settled and fed on tillers of a susceptible rice variety "Taichung Native 1" (TN1), sprayed with its own extract or acetone than on TN1 tillers sprayed with the extract of the resistant variety "ARC6650" or "Ptb33." In another test,N. lugens females ingested significantly more of a 10% sucrose solution mixed with TN1 steam distillate extract than of plain sucrose solution or that mixed with extracts of resistant varieties. Topical application of the extracts of resistant varieties "Mudgo," "ASD7," "Rathu Heenati," "Babawee," Ptb33, and ARC6650 caused significantly higher mortality of females than did the TN1 extract. Likewise, significantly more first-instar nymphs died when they were caged on susceptible TN1 plants sprayed with the extracts of resistant varieties than on plants sprayed with TN1 extract. The extract of 60-day-old resistant plants was more toxic than the extract of 30-, 45-, or 100-day-old plants. However, toxicity of the extract from susceptible TN1 remained low at all plant growth stages.
Zamanian, H; Mehdipour, M; Ghaemi, N
Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect's attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas.
Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Ding, Hongjian; Neufeld, Jeffrey; Duetting, Patrick
Hydrophobic and hydrophilic kaolin-based particle films are effective for control of insect pests in certain agricultural crops. How these products interact with potential biological control agents is not well documented. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the hydrophobic (M96-018) and hydrophilic (Surround WP) kaolin-based particle films (Engelhard Corporation, Iselin, NJ) on pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), on peas (Pisum spp.), and on the fungal aphid pathogen Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudière and Hennebert) Humber. Over two field seasons (2001 and 2002) in northern Idaho, applications of M96-018 significantly reduced the rate of pea aphid increase on pea, but Surround WP, tested only in 2001, did not reduce aphid population growth rate. Neither particle film treatment was as effective as a standard application of esfenvalerate (DuPont Asana). In the laboratory, particle films suppressed pea aphid populations by up to 30%. M96-018 seemed to have some repellent activity based on aphid distributions after treating plants. When applied along with P. neoaphidis conidia, M96-018 but not Surround WP caused higher percentage of infection mortality of pea aphids by P. neoaphidis than occurred on controls treated only with P. neoaphidis conidia. P. neoaphidis conidia deposited on glass slides coated with M96-018, produced more germ tubes and secondary conidia than those deposited on untreated glass slides or slides treated with Surround WP. This result suggests that greater infection of pea aphids on plants treated with M96-018 is in part a result of a direct enhancement of fungal germination by the particle film.
Bagnarello, Gina; Hilje, Luko; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Cartín, Victor; Calvo, Marco
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agricola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phagodeterrence are several sesquiterpenic lactones, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and saponins.
Zhang, Gui-Fen; Wan, Fang-Hao; Murphy, Sean T; Guo, Jian-Ying; Liu, Wan-Xue
Transgenic Bt cotton, engineered to continuously produce activated delta-endotoxins of the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, holds great promise in controlling Helicoverpa armigera and other lepidopteran pests. However, it also may impact the invertebrate community, which needs to be clarified. The effects of Bt cotton on two nontarget insects, Aphis gossypii and Orius sauteri, were assessed under semifield and laboratory conditions. Mean total duration of nymphal stages of A. gossypii was shorter (5.9 versus 6.3 d), and rm was higher (0.418 versus 0.394) on conventional Simian 3 (the most frequently planted non-Bt cotton in northern China) than on Bt transgenic NuCOTN 33B (the first Bt cotton commercially planted in China). Mean duration of fourth-instar O. sauteri was significantly longer on transgenic GK-12 (3.7 d) than on NuCOTN 33B (3.2 d), but no different from Simian 3. Mean total mortality was significantly lower on Simian 3 (3.7%) than on GK-12 (14.8%). During the fourth instar, the predator consumed a significantly higher number of prey on Simian 3 (202.3 prey) than on NuCOTN 33B (159.0), whereas the mean total number of A. gossypii prey consumed during the nymphal stage was significantly higher on Simian 3 (336.8 prey) and GK-12 (330.3 prey) than on NuCOTN 33B (275.7). No detrimental effects were detected on development (nymphs, adults, and progeny eggs), fecundity, longevity, and egg viability of O. sauteri on Bt cotton aphids compared with non-Bt cotton aphids. These results suggest that Bt cotton cultivars GK-12 and NuCOTN 33B have no direct effect on nontargets A. gossypii and O. sauteri. Germplasm divergence may account for the negative effects observed on A. gossypii and O. sauteri when reared on NuCOTN 33B or NuCOTN 33B-fed aphids. The biological meanings of the small difference observed between GK-12 and Simian 3 on survival of O. sauteri will require close monitoring over longer time periods.
Guo, Jian-Ying; Wan, Fang-Hao; Dong, Liang; Lövei, Gábor L; Han, Zhao-Jun
Tri-trophic impacts of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton GK12 and NuCOTN 99B were studied using a predator, the great lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Rambur), and its prey, the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, in laboratory feeding experiments. The parental nontransgenic cotton cultivar of GK12 was used as control. The predator was fed with uniform (aphids from a single cultivar) or mixed prey (aphids from the three cotton cultivars provided on alternate days). Mortality and development of the immature stages, pupal body mass, adult sex ratio, fecundity, and egg viability of C. pallens were measured. When fed GK12-originated aphid prey, pupal body mass of C. pallens was significantly higher than that of the control, more females emerged, and these females laid significantly more eggs. Other parameters were not impacted. Females emerging from larvae maintained on NuCOTN 99B-originated prey laid fewer eggs than those maintained on GK12. Other measurements did not differ significantly between the two Bt cotton cultivars. Compared with the control, mixed feeding significantly prolonged pupal development time and increased pupal body mass and percentage of females but did not affect other parameters. These results indicate that C. pallens is sensitive to aphid prey from different cotton cultivars. Transgenic Bt cotton GK12-originated aphid prey has no adverse impact on survival, development, and fecundity of C. pallens. Between the two Bt cotton cultivars, NuCOTN 99B-originated aphid prey provided to C. pallens in the larval stage may lower female fecundity. Mixed feeding of C. pallens with the two Bt cotton-originated prey and non-Bt prey may have some adverse impacts on pupal development.
Tariq, Kaleem; Noor, Mah; Saeed, Shafqat; Zhang, Hongyu
Ultraviolet (UV) light has been used worldwide to monitor and trap insect pests. Whitefly adults show conspicuous positive phototactic behavior toward UV light stimuli; however, knowledge of the effect of UV light exposure on various life-history parameters of Dialeurodes citri remains limited. The present research aimed to investigate the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV-A; long-wave) exposure on the reproduction and longevity of D. citri adults as well as the development of immature (eggs, larvae, and pupae) flies in the F1 generation. Paired D. citri adults were exposed to UV-A radiation for different periods (0, 1, 4, and 7 h/d) until the end of their life. The results of the experiment revealed that fecundity and oviposition rates increased when adults were irradiated for 1 and 4 h/d, but interestingly, both were significantly decreased compared with those of the controls after the longest exposure time (7 h/d). The longevity of adults of both sexes and the cumulative survival of F1 immatures were decreased with increased exposure time. Exposure to UV-A radiation prolonged the developmental time of immature stages, and a positive correlation was observed with exposure time. Exposure to UV light significantly inhibited egg hatching, larval development, pupation, and adult emergence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing the effect of UV radiation on a homopteran insect pest. This research may provide a foundation for the scientific community to use UV light in the field as an integrated pest management strategy to control this devastating agricultural pest.
Mora, Rebeca; Ibarra, Jorge E; Espinoza, Ana M
A reliable bioassay procedure was developed to test ingested Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins on the rice delphacid Tagosodes orizicolus. Initially, several colonies were established under greenhouse conditions, using rice plants to nurture the insect. For the bioassay, an in vitro feeding system was developed for third to fourth instar nymphs. Insects were fed through Parafilm membranes on sugar (10 % sucrose) and honey bee (1:48 vol/vol) solutions, observing a natural mortality of 10-15 % and 0-5 %, respectively. Results were reproducible under controlled conditions during the assay (18+/-0.1 degrees C at night and 28+/-0.1 degrees C during the day, 80 % RH and a 12:12 day:light photoperiod). In addition, natural mortality was quantified on insect colonies, collected from three different geographic areas of Costa Rica, with no significant differences between colonies under controlled conditions. Finally, bioassays were performed to evaluate the toxicity of a Bt collection on T. orizicolus. A preliminary sample of twenty-seven Bt strains was evaluated on coarse bioassays using three loops of sporulated colonies in 9 ml of liquid diet, the strains that exhibited higher percentages of T. orizicolus mortality were further analyzed in bioassays using lyophilized spores and crystals (1 mg/ml). As a result, strains 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43-S-d and 23-O-to isolated from homopteran insects showed mortalities of 74, 96, 44 and 82% respectively while HD-137, HD-1 and Bti showed 19, 83 and 95% mortalities. Controls showed mortalities between 0 and 10% in all bioassays. This is the first report of a reliable bioassay procedure to evaluate per os toxicity for a homopteran species using Bacillus thuringiensis strains.
Effects of plant protease inhibitors, oryzacystatin I and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor, on the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Homoptera, Aphididae) and its parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae).
Azzouz, H; Cherqui, A; Campan, E D M; Rahbé, Y; Duport, G; Jouanin, L; Kaiser, L; Giordanengo, P
Transgenic plants expressing protease inhibitors (PIs) have emerged in recent years as an alternative strategy for pest control. Beneficial insects such as parasitoids may therefore be exposed to these entomotoxins either via the host or by direct exposure to the plant itself. With the objective of assessing the effects of PIs towards aphid parasitoids, bioassays using soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (SbBBI) or oryzacystatin I (OCI) on artificial diet were performed on Macrosiphum euphorbiae-Aphelinus abdominalis system. OCI significantly reduced nymphal survival of the potato aphid M. euphorbiae and prevented aphids from reproducing. This negative effect was much more pronounced than with other aphid species. On the contrary, SbBBI did not affect nymphal viability but significantly altered adult demographic parameters. Enzymatic inhibition assays showed that digestive proteolytic activity of larvae and adults of Aphelinus abdominalis predominantly relies on serine proteases and especially on chymotrypsin-like activity. Immunoassays suggested that OCI bound to aphid proteins and accumulated in aphid tissues, whereas SbBBI remained unbound in the gut. Bioassays using M. euphorbiae reared on artificial diets supplemented with both OCI and SbBBI showed a fitness impairment of Aphelinus abdominalis that developed on intoxicated aphids. However, only SbBBI was detected in parasitoid larvae, while no PI could be detected in adult parasitoids that emerged from PI-intoxicated aphids. The potential impact of PI-expressing plants on aphid parasitoids and their combined efficiency for aphid control are discussed.
Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu
Illustrated descriptions and data on host plants and distribution for 21 species of Oncopsis of Russia and adjacent countries are given, and O. abdykulovi sp. n. from Central Asia is described. Conspecificity of O. planiscuta from East Siberia and Sakhalin,of O. tristis from Moscow Area, Alati Mts., and Sakhalin, and of O. burjatica from East Siberia and Sakhalin is corroborated by male calling signal analysis.
Feng, Ming-Guang; Li, Hui-Ping
Epizootiological features of Zoophthora anhuiensis, a fungal pathogen specific to aphids in southern China, were studied in six aptera colonies of Myzus persicae at 16 regimes of temperature (T = 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C) and relative humidity (H = 90%, 95%, 98% and 100% RH) with initially infected proportion (Ip) of 0.5 in experiment (Expt) 1 or at a fixed regime of 15 degrees C and 100% RH with a variable Ip of 0.17-1.00 in Expt 2. Mycosis-caused mortalities (Mp) varied with aphid densities (D) over time after colony initiation (t) were well fitted to a Gompertz growth model modified to include the variables T, H, Ip and D in the form of Mp = 91.72exp[-5.282exp[-(0.0095T + 0.0128H/T-0.5407D2/H)t
Pre-release assessment of impact on Arundo donax by the candidate biological control agents, Tetramesa romana (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) and Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Homoptera: Diaspididae) under quarantine conditions
Impact by two potential biological control agents, Tetramesa romana Walker and Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Leonardi), on the invasive weed, giant reed, Arundo donax L., was assessed in a quarantine greenhouse before release. Tetramesa romana alone and T. romana plus R. donacis significantly damaged A. ...
Toscano, N C; Prabhaker, N; Castle, S J; Henneberry, T J
A survey of 53 Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring populations from different agricultural regions in California and Arizona was conducted from 1997 to 1999 to establish baseline toxicological responses to buprofezin and pyriproxyfen. Although both compounds proved to be highly toxic even in minute quantities to specific stages, geographical and temporal differences in responses were detected using a leaf spray bioassay technique. Monitoring for three years revealed that six to seven populations had higher LC50 values but not greater survival when exposed to these two insecticides. A significant difference in relative susceptibility to buprofezin was first observed in late season 1997 in San Joaquin Valley populations with LC50s ranging from 16 to 22 microg (AI)/liter(-1) compared with IC50s of 1 to 3 mg (AI)/liter(-1) in Imperial, Palo Verde Valley and Yuma populations. Whiteflies collected in subsequent years from these and other locations showed an increase in susceptibility to buprofezin. Regional differences in susceptibilities to pyriproxyfen were minimal within the same years. Three years of sampling revealed consistently higher LC50s to pyriproxyfen in populations from Palo Verde Valley, CA, compared with whiteflies from Imperial, San Joaquin Valley or Yuma. As was the case with buprofezin, a decline in LC50s to pyriproxyfen was observed in whiteflies from all locations sampled in 1999. However, no correlation was observed between buprofezin and pyriproxyfen toxicity in any of the strains. The variable toxicities observed to both compounds over a period of 3 yr may be due principally to inherent differences among geographical populations or due to past chemical use which may confer positive or negative cross-resistance to buprofezin or pyriproxyfen.
Yin, Haichen; Shakeel, Muhammad; Kuang, Jing; Li, Jianhong
Melanism is a common polymorphism in many insect species that also influences immune function. According to the thermal melanin hypothesis, ectothermic individuals from cooler environments have darker cuticles and higher polyphenol oxidase (PO) levels, which represent a better immunocompetence. In this study, the links among environmental temperature, melanism, and PO activity of Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura) were examined. Most S. procerus have a black spot on their forewings at high temperatures in the field and in the laboratory. In PO activity assay, a positive association between PO level and temperature was found. Our results showed that a diversification of melanism occurred under different temperatures and that melanism in S. procerus presented an opposite pattern to the one proposed by the thermal hypothesis. PMID:26024474
Berthiaume, Richard; Hébert, Christian; Cloutier, Conrad
The exotic coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) recently expanded its range into eastern Canada and elsewhere in North America. We hypothesized that this coccinellid should be less well adapted to the prey Mindarus abietinus Koch. on balsam fir trees than the native coccinellid Anatis mali (Say), which evolved in close association with aphids on conifers in North America. We compared, under field conditions, prey use by both species by collecting data on their synchrony with M. abietinus, their prey searching and predation behaviors, life stage distribution in fir canopy, and their overall reproductive success in this system. The seasonal life cycle of A. mali was better synchronized with that of M. abietinus compared with that of H. axyridis. In spring, A. mali adults appeared nearly 2 wk earlier on trees than H. axyridis and were active predators of the aphid fundatrices. A. mali oviposition thus began before the aphid population started to grow, and its larvae were most active during peak aphid colonies. Behavioral observations showed that both adults and larvae of the native A. mali searched for prey more actively than those of H. axyridis. Distribution of life stages also showed that eggs and pupae had different distributions on trees and that the adult-to-adult net reproductive rate of A. mali was three times higher than that of H. axyridis. Thus, the native A. mali was better adapted than H. axyridis to prey on M. abietinus, possibly because it evolved for a much longer period of time with this prey in conifer habitats.
Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa.
Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imael H N; Chandre, Fabrice; Glitho, Isabelle; Akogbeto, Martin; Dabiré, Roch K; Martin, Thibaud
Insecticides from the organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PY) chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year (mainly on cotton), has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato (s.l.) is probably related to the current use of these insecticides in agriculture. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes. Identification of knock down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace1) mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase) are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance. Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. tabaci that could be from different biotype vectors of plant viruses. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae threatens the management of malaria vectors in West Africa. It raises the question of priority in the use of insecticides in health and/or agriculture, and more generally, the question of sustainability of crop protection and vector control strategies in the region. Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. tabaci, a major pest in cotton and vegetable crops, and An. gambiae, main vector of malaria. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina Faso between 2008 and 2010 under the Corus 6015 research program. This review aims to show: (i) the insecticide resistance in B. tabaci as well as in An. gambiae; and (ii) due to this, the impact of selection of resistant populations on malaria vector control strategies. Some measures that could be beneficial for crop protection and vector control strategies in West Africa are proposed.
Persad, A.B.; Hoy, M.A.; Ru Nguyen
The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introduced as L. scutellaris Mackauer) was imported from Guam, evaluated in quarantine, mass reared, and released into citrus groves in Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Releases of 20,200, 12,100, and 1,260 adults of L. oregmae were made throughout Florida during 2000, 2001, and 2002, respectively. To determine if L. oregmae had successfully established, surveys were conducted throughout the state beginning in the summer of 2001 and continuing through the summer of 2003. Parasitism during 2001 and 2002 was evaluated by holding brown citrus aphids in the laboratory until parasitoid adults emerged. Lipolexis oregmae was found in 10 sites in 7 counties and 4 sites in 3 counties with parasitism rates ranging from 0.7 to 3.3% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Laboratory tests indicated that high rates of mortality occurred if field-collected parasitized aphids were held in plastic bags, so a molecular assay was used that allowed immature L. oregmae to be detected within aphid hosts immediately after collection. The molecular assay was used in 2003 with the brown citrus aphids and with other aphid species collected from citrus, weeds, and vegetables near former release sites; immatures of L. oregmae were detected in black citrus aphids, cowpea aphids, spirea aphids, and melon aphids, as well as in the brown citrus aphid, in 4 of 8 counties sampled, with parasitism ranging from 2.0 to 12.9%, indicating that L. oregmae is established and widely distributed. Samples taken in Polk County during Oct 2005 indicated that L. oregmae has persisted. The ability of L. oregmae to parasitize other aphid species on citrus, and aphids on other host plants, enhances the ability of L. oregmae to persist when brown citrus aphid populations are low. (author) [Spanish] El parasitoide Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introducido como L. scutellaris Mackauer) fue importado de Guam, evaluado en cuarentena, criado en masa y liberado en huertos de citricos en un programa de control biologico clasico dirigido contra el afido pardo de citricos, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Se hicieron liberaciones de 20,200, 12,100, y 1,260 adultos de L. oregmae a traves de la Florida durante los anos de 2000, 2001, y 2002, respectivamente. Para determinar si L. oregmae ha logrado en establecer, se realizaron sondeos a traves del estado empezando en el verano del 2001 y continuando hasta el final del verano del 2003. El parasitismo durante 2001 y 2002 fue evaluado con el mantenimiento de individuos del afido pardo de los citricos en el laboratorio hasta que los adultos emergieron. Lipolexis oregmae fue encontrado en 10 sitios en 7 condados y con tasas de parasitismo en 4 sitios en 3 condados entre 0.7 a 3.3% en el 2001 y 2002, respectivamente. Las pruebas del laboratorio indicaron que las tasas altas de mortalidad fueron posibles si los afidos con parasitos recolectados en el campo fueron mantenidos en bolsas plasticas, entonces un ensayo molecular fue usado con lo que permitio la deteccion de inmaduros de L. oregmae dentro de los hospederos de afidos inmediatamente despues de la recoleccion. El ensayo molecular fue usado en el 2003 con individuos del afido pardo de los citricos y con otras especies de afidos recolectados sobre citricos, malezas y hortalizas cerca de los sitios donde los parasitoides fueron liberados anteriormente; inmaduros de L. oregmae fueron detectados en individuos del afido negro de los citricos, el afido del caupi, el afido spirea y el afido del melon, ademas del afido pardo de los citricos en 4 de los 8 condados muestreados, con la tasa del parasitismo entre 2.0 a12.9%, indicando que L. oregmae estaba estabecido y ampliamente distribuido. Las muestras tomadas en el Condado de Polk durante octobre del 2005 indicaron que L. oregmae ha persistido. La capacidad de L. oregmae para parasitar otras especies de afidos sobre citricos y otros afidos sobre otras plantas hospederas, incrementa la capacidad de L. oregmae para persistir cuando las poblaciones del afido pardo de los citricos estan bajas. (author)
Krajicek, Jan; Havlikova, Martina; Bursova, Miroslava; Ston, Martin; Cabala, Radomir; Exnerova, Alice; Stys, Pavel; Bosakova, Zuzana
The true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) have evolved a system of well-developed scent glands that produce diverse and frequently strongly odorous compounds that act mainly as chemical protection against predators. A new method of non-lethal sampling with subsequent separation using gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection was proposed for analysis of these volatile defensive secretions. Separation was performed on Rtx-200 column containing fluorinated polysiloxane stationary phase. Various mechanical irritation methods (ultrasonics, shaking, pressing bugs with plunger of syringe) were tested for secretion sampling with a special focus on non-lethal irritation. The preconcentration step was performed by sorption on solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers with different polarity. For optimization of sampling procedure, Pyrrhocoris apterus was selected. The entire multi-parameter optimization procedure of secretion sampling was performed using response surface methodology. The irritation of bugs by pressing them with a plunger of syringe was shown to be the most suitable. The developed method was applied to analysis of secretions produced by adult males and females of Pyrrhocoris apterus, Pyrrhocoris tibialis and Scantius aegyptius (all Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae). The chemical composition of secretion, particularly that of alcohols, aldehydes and esters, is species-specific in all three pyrrhocorid species studied. The sexual dimorphism in occurrence of particular compounds is largely limited to alcohols and suggests their epigamic intraspecific function. The phenetic overall similarities in composition of secretion do not reflect either relationship of species or similarities in antipredatory color pattern. The similarities of secretions may be linked with antipredatory strategies. The proposed method requires only a few individuals which remain alive after the procedure. Thus secretions of a number of species including even the rare ones can be analyzed and broadly conceived comparative studies can be carried out. PMID:27997627
Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Masaru; Lee, Chow-Yang
The earwig (Dermaptera) fauna of Penang Island, Malaysia, was evaluated by means of an extensive field survey together with revision of the few published data. Based on the results of the field survey, 31 species are recognized (2 Diplatyidae, 3 Pygidicranidae, 5 Anisolabididae, 2 Labiduridae, 14 Spongiphoridae, 4 Chelisochidae, 1 Forficulidae). Fifteen of these taxa are new to Peninsular Malaysia (=West Malaysia): Diplatys annandalei Burr, 1911, Diplatys mutiara n. sp., Euborellia philippinensis Srivastava, 1979, Metisolabis punctata (Dubrony, 1879), Pseudovostox brindlei Srivastava, 2003, Chaetospania anderssoni Brindle, 1971, Chaetospania javana Borelli, 1926, Chaetospania huisiangi n. sp., Paralabellula boettcheri (Borelli, 1923), Paralabellula rotundifrons (Hincks, 1954), Nesogaster amoenus (Stål, 1855), Hamaxas crassus Borelli, 1926, Proreus coalescens (Borelli, 1927), Hypurgus humeralis (Kirby, 1891), and an unidentified Echinosoma sp. Species composition of the island are compared with the dermapteran fauna of Thailand. Descriptions of females (or female genitalia) are given for some species for the first time.
Krivosheina, N P
The composition of seven dipteran families from the complex of larvae dwelling in sandy soils of the southeastern Karakum Desert, represented by both free-living soil forms and endobionts ecologically dependent mainly on herbaceous plants, is analyzed. In the surface horizons of the soil, at a depth of up to 20 cm, free-living soil-dwellers form a stable complex, which includes saprophagous coleopteran larvae and their constant companions, the obligatorily predaceous dipteran larvae. Previously unknown data on the lifestyle of the larvae of five therevid genera are given.
Li, Hu; Barker, Stephen C.
Fragmented mitochondrial (mt) genomes have been reported in 11 species of sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) that infest humans, chimpanzees, pigs, horses, and rodents. There is substantial variation among these lice in mt karyotype: the number of minichromosomes of a species ranges from 9 to 20; the number of genes in a minichromosome ranges from 1 to 8; gene arrangement in a minichromosome differs between species, even in the same genus. We sequenced the mt genome of the guanaco louse, Microthoracius praelongiceps, to help establish the ancestral mt karyotype for sucking lice and understand how fragmented mt genomes evolved. The guanaco louse has 12 mt minichromosomes; each minichromosome has 2–5 genes and a non-coding region. The guanaco louse shares many features with rodent lice in mt karyotype, more than with other sucking lice. The guanaco louse, however, is more closely related phylogenetically to human lice, chimpanzee lice, pig lice, and horse lice than to rodent lice. By parsimony analysis of shared features in mt karyotype, we infer that the most recent common ancestor of sucking lice, which lived ∼75 Ma, had 11 minichromosomes; each minichromosome had 1–6 genes and a non-coding region. As sucking lice diverged, split of mt minichromosomes occurred many times in the lineages leading to the lice of humans, chimpanzees, and rodents whereas merger of minichromosomes occurred in the lineage leading to the lice of pigs and horses. Together, splits and mergers of minichromosomes created a very complex and dynamic mt genome organization in the sucking lice. PMID:28164215
Multi-partite mitochondrial genomes are very rare in animals but have been found previously in two insect orders with highly rearranged genomes, the Phthiraptera (parasitic lice), and the Psocoptera (booklice/barklice). We provide the first report of a multi-partite mitochondrial genome architecture...
DeWalt, R. Edward; Cao, Yong; Tweddale, Tari; Grubbs, Scott A.; Hinz, Leon; Pessino, Massimo; Robinson, Jason L.
Abstract Ohio is an eastern USA state that historically was >70% covered in upland and mixed coniferous forest; about 60% of it glaciated by the Wisconsinan glacial episode. Its stonefly fauna has been studied in piecemeal fashion until now. The assemblage of Ohio stoneflies was assessed from over 4,000 records accumulated from 18 institutions, new collections, and trusted literature sources. Species richness totaled 102 with estimators Chao2 and ICE Mean predicting 105.6 and 106.4, respectively. Singletons and doubletons totaled 18 species. All North American families were represented with Perlidae accounted for the highest number of species at 34. The family Peltoperlidae contributed a single species. Most species had univoltine–fast life cycles with the vast majority emerging in summer, although there was a significant component of winter stoneflies. Nine United States Geological Survey hierarchical drainage units level 6 (HUC6) were used to stratify specimen data. Species richness was significantly related to the number of unique HUC6 locations, but there was no relationship with HUC6 drainage area. A nonparametric multidimensional scaling analysis found that larger HUC6s in the western part of the state had similar assemblages with lower species richness that were found to align with more savanna and wetland habitat. Other drainages having richer assemblages were aligned with upland deciduous and mixed coniferous forests of the east and south where slopes were higher. The Ohio assemblage was most similar to the well–studied fauna of Indiana (88 spp.) and Kentucky (108 spp.), two neighboring states. Many rare species and several high quality stream reaches should be considered for greater protection. PMID:22539876
Cordero Rivera, A; Andrés, J A; Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Utzeri, C
Postmating sexual selection theory predicts that in allopatry reproductive traits diverge rapidly and that the resulting differentiation in these traits may lead to restrictions to gene flow between populations and, eventually, reproductive isolation. In this paper we explore the potential for this premise in a group of damselflies of the family Calopterygidae, in which postmating sexual mechanisms are especially well understood. Particularly, we tested if in allopatric populations the sperm competition mechanisms and genitalic traits involved in these mechanisms have indeed diverged as sexual selection theory predicts. We did so in two different steps. First, we compared the sperm competition mechanisms of two allopatric populations of Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis (one Italian population studied here and one Spanish population previously studied). Our results indicate that in both populations males are able to displace spermathecal sperm, but the mechanism used for sperm removal between both populations is strikingly different. In the Spanish population males seem to empty the spermathecae by stimulating females, whereas in the Italian population males physically remove sperm from the spermathecae. Both populations also exhibit differences in genital morphometry that explain the use of different mechanisms: the male lateral processes are narrower than the spermathecal ducts in the Italian population, which is the reverse in the Spanish population. The estimated degree of phenotypic differentiation between these populations based on the genitalic traits involved in sperm removal was much greater than the differentiation based on a set of other seven morphological variables, suggesting that strong directional postmating sexual selection is indeed the main evolutionary force behind the reproductive differentiation between the studied populations. In a second step, we examined if a similar pattern in genital morphometry emerge in allopatric populations of this and other three species of the same family (Calopteryx splendens, C. virgo and Hetaerina cruentata). Our results suggest that there is geographic variation in the sperm competition mechanisms in all four studied species. Furthermore, genitalic morphology was significantly divergent between populations within species even when different populations were using the same copulatory mechanism. These results can be explained by probable local coadaptation processes that have given rise to an ability or inability to reach and displace spermathecal sperm in different populations. This set of results provides the first direct evidence of intraspecific evolution of genitalic traits shaped by postmating sexual selection.
Luther, P; Otto, D; Köhler, W; Fischer, G
The agglutinins against human blood cells described in caterpillars of Mamestra brassicae L. were not demonstrable when feeding the animals with a semisynthetic food. After injection or oral intake of certain bacteria (E. coli or streptococci of group C) or even Pope's broth the "antibody-like substances" known from feeding with natural food are being formed, and they agglutinated all human blood cells. The individual animals showed differences regarding the strength of agglutinin formation. The immune reactions observed possibly indicate the existence of a primitive immune system in these species (arthropods).
Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla
Abstract Hystrignathus dearmasi sp. n. (Oxyurida: Hystrignathidae) is described from an unidentified passalid beetle (Coleoptera: Passalidae) from Panama. It resembles Hystrignathus cobbi Travassos & Kloss, 1957 from Brazil, by having a similar form of the cephalic end, extension of cervical spines and absence of lateral alae. It differs from the latter species by having the body shorter, the oesophagus and tail comparatively larger, the vulva situated more posterior and the eggs ridged. This species constitutes the first record of a nematode parasitizing a Panamanian passalid. PMID:21594186
Kot, Marta; Büning, Jürgen; Jankowska, Władysława; Drohojowska, Jowita; Szklarzewicz, Teresa
The development and organization of the ovaries of ten species from four Psylloidea families (Psyllidae, Triozidae, Aphalaridae and Liviidae) have been investigated. The ovaries of the last larval stage (i.e. fifth instar) of all examined species are filled with numerous clusters of cystocytes which undergo synchronous incomplete mitotic division. Cystocytes of the given cluster are arranged into a rosette with polyfusome in the centre. These clusters are associated with single somatic cells. At the end of the fifth instar, the clusters begin to separate from each other, forming spherical ovarioles which are surrounded by a single layer of somatic cells. In the ovarioles of very young females all cystocytes enter the prophase of meiosis and differentiate shortly thereafter into oocytes and trophocytes (nurse cells). Meanwhile, somatic cells differentiate into cells of the inner epithelial sheath surrounding the trophocytes and into the prefollicular cells that encompass the oocytes. During this final differentiation, the trophocytes lose their cell membranes and become syncytial. Oocytes remain cellular and most of them (termed arrested oocytes) do not grow. In the ovarioles of older females, one oocyte encompassed by its follicle cells starts growing, still connected to the syncytial tropharium by a nutritive cord. After the short phase of previtellogenesis alone, the oocyte enters its vitellogenic the growth phase in the vitellarium. At that time, the second oocyte may enter the vitellarium and start its previtellogenic growth. In the light of the obtained results, the phylogeny of psyllids, as well as phylogenetic relationships between taxa of Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha are discussed.
Delorme, Quentin; Jourdan, Hervé; Mille, Christian
Poviliana dayubiikii Delorme sp. nov. and Poviliana montrouzieri Delorme sp. nov. are described from New Caledonia. They are respectively found in mid altitude rain forest on Mont Panié (570 m) and Col des Roussettes (300 m). Male calling songs of the two new species are described from the field recordings. A key to the species of Poviliana is also provided.
Delorme, Quentin; Mille, Christian; Jourdan, Hervé
The new genus Murmurillana Delorme gen. nov., is described within the tribe Cicadettini Buckton, 1889, designating Murmurillana inaudibilis Delorme sp. nov., as the type species. Murmurillana inaudibilis Delorme sp. nov. and Murmurillana paenetacita Delorme sp. nov. are described from New Caledonia. They are respectively found in mid altitude dense Niaouli shrub (Melaleuca quinquenervia, Myrtaceae) vegetation, mixed with dense fern cover (Pteridium sp., Dennstaedtiaceae) on the Massif of Aoupinié (800 m) and on foothills of the Mont Panié (570 m). Male calling songs of the two new species are described from field recordings. These calling songs exhibit unusually high dominant frequencies. A key to the species of Murmurillana Delorme gen. nov., is also provided.
Calderón-Martínez, Nadia R; González-Obando, Ranulfo; Aldrete, Alfonso N García
The results of a survey on the species diversity of the families Cladiopsocidae and Dolabellopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Psocomorpha: Epipsocetae) in Valle del Cauca and in the National Natural Park (NNP) Gorgona, Colombia, are presented. The specimens studied were collected in the context of two scientific projects, in which 12 species in the two families were identified, five in Cladiopsocidae and seven in Dolabellopsocidae. In the first family, Cladiopsocus presented a new record in the country and four new species; in the latter, two genera were identified, Dolabellopsocus, with three new species and two new records, and Isthmopsocus, with two new species. This study presents the description of the nine new species from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, the new records for Colombia and identification keys to the neotropical species of both families.
Calhau, Julia; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo
Gauromydas Wilcox, Papavero & Pimentel, 1989 are giant flies, and include the largest fly known, G. heros (Perty, 1833). This genus was originally erected to group four Neotropical species, namely G. apicalis (Wiedemann, 1830), G. autuorii (d'Andretta, 1951), G. heros, and G. mystaceus (Wiedemann, 1830). As with most of the remaining Mydidae, adults of Gauromydas are very rarely collected. We here describe two new species of Gauromydas (G. mateus sp. nov. and G. papaveroi sp. nov.) discovered in entomological collections, including specimens unstudied for up to eight decades. We also provide revised diagnoses for the remaining four species of Gauromydas, along with a new key and new distribution records for the genus.
Norrbom, Allen L.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Chen, Xiao-Lin; David, King J.; De Meyer, Marc; Freidberg, Amnon; Han, Ho-Yeon; Steck, Gary J.; Thompson, F. Christian; White, Ian M.; Zucchi, Roberto A.
The purpose of this application, under Article 23.9.3, is to conserve current usage of the well-established genus-group name Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 for a genus of Neotropical fruit flies by suppression of the earlier, unused name Crypto- dacus Gundlach, 1862, currently a junior synonym of Arrhyton Günther, 1858, a genus of snakes, under the plenary power of the Commission, in the interest of nomenclatural stability. Cryptodacus Gundlach has not been used as a valid name since 1883, whereas Cryptodacus Hendel has been used in a significant body of literature relating to fruit fly systematics, morphology and phylogeny and is the currently used name in various name and molecular databases.
Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chow, Wan-Loo; Eamsobhana, Praphathip
The whole mitochondrial genome of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera arecae was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 15,900 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The control region (952 bp) was flanked by rrnS and trnI genes. The start codons included 6 ATG, 3 ATT and 1 each of ATA, ATC, GTG and TCG. Eight TAA, two TAG, one incomplete TA and two incomplete T stop codons were represented in the protein-coding genes. The cloverleaf structure for trnS1 lacked the D-loop, and that of trnN and trnF lacked the TΨC-loop. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 protein-coding genes was concordant with 37 mitochondrial genes, with B. arecae having closest genetic affinity to B. tryoni. The subgenus Bactrocera of Dacini tribe and the Dacinae subfamily (Dacini and Ceratitidini tribes) were monophyletic. The whole mitogenome of B. arecae will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26472633
Dong, Jia-Jia; Guan, De-Long; Xu, Sheng-Quan
The complete mitogenome of Oxya intricate (Stål.) has been reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data with an average coverage of 294×. The circular genome is 15,466 bp in length, and consists of 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons, and are terminated with TAR codons except for ND5 with the incomplete stop codon T. The nucleotide composition is asymmetric (42.5%A, 14.6%C, 10.6%G, 32.3%T) with an overall GC content of 25.2%. These data would contribute to the design of novel molecular markers for population and evolutionary studies of this and related orthopteran species.
Gao, Taiping; Shih, Chungkun; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P.; Ren, Dong
Background Large body size of an insect, in general, enhances its capability of predation, competition, and defense, resulting in better survivability and reproduction. Hymenopterans, most being phytophagous or parasitic, have a relatively small to medium body size, typically under 50.0 mm in body length. Principal Findings Herein, we describe Hoplitolyda duolunica gen. et sp. nov., assigned to Praesiricidae, from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China. This new species is the largest fossil hymenopteran hitherto with body estimated >55.0 mm long and wing span >92.0 mm. H. duolunica is, to our knowledge, the only sawfly with Sc present in the hind wing but not in the forewing. Its Rs1 and M1 meeting each other at 145° angle represents an intermediate in the transition from “Y” to “T” shapes. Even though Hoplitolyda differs significantly from all previously described genera in two subfamilies of Praesricidae, we leave the new genus unplaced in existing subfamilies, pending discovery of material with more taxonomic structure. Conclusions/Significance Hoplitolyda has many unique and interesting characters which might have benefitted its competition, survival, and reproduction: large body size and head with robust and strong mandibles for defense and/or sexual selection, unique wing venation and setal arrangements for flight capability and mobility, dense hairs on body and legs for sensing and protection, etc. Considering the reported ferocious predators of feathered dinosaurs, pterosaurs, birds, and mammals coexisting in the same eco-system, Hoplitolyda is an interesting case of “survival of the fittest” in facing its evolutionary challenges. PMID:23671596
McMahon, Dino P.; Hayward, Alexander; Kathirithamby, Jeyaraney
A comprehensive model of evolution requires an understanding of the relationship between selection at the molecular and phenotypic level. We investigate this in Strepsiptera, an order of endoparasitic insects whose evolutionary biology is poorly studied. We present the first molecular phylogeny of Strepsiptera, and use this as a framework to investigate the association between parasitism and molecular evolution. We find evidence of a significant burst in the rate of molecular evolution in the early history of Strepsiptera. The evolution of morphological traits linked to parasitism is significantly correlated with the pattern in molecular rate. The correlated burst in genotypic-phenotypic evolution precedes the main phase of strepsipteran diversification, which is characterised by the return to a low and even molecular rate, and a period of relative morphological stability. These findings suggest that the transition to endoparasitism led to relaxation of selective constraint in the strepsipteran genome. Our results indicate that a parasitic lifestyle can affect the rate of molecular evolution, although other causal life-history traits correlated with parasitism may also play an important role. PMID:21738621
Lafontaine, J Donald; Schmidt, B Christian
A total of 115 additions and corrections are listed and discussed for the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico published in 2010. Thirty-two of these are changes in authorship and/or date of publication or spelling. Taxonomic changes are 33 new or revised synonymies, three new combinations, and six revisions in status from synonymy to valid species.
Stecher, Nadine; Stowasser, Annette; Stahl, Aaron; Buschbeck, Elke K
Stemmata, the larval eyes of holometabolous insects are extremely diverse, ranging from full compound eyes, to a few ommatidial units as are typical in compound eyes, to sophisticated and functionally specialized image-forming camera-type eyes. Stemmata evolved from a compound eye ommatidial ancestor, an eye type that is morphologically well conserved in regards to cellular composition, and well studied in regards to development. However, despite this evolutionary origin it remains largely unknown how stemmata develop. In addition, it is completely unclear how development is altered to give rise to some of the functionally most complex stemmata, such as those of the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus. In this study, we used histological methods to investigate the embryonic development of the functionally complex principal stemmata Eye 1 and Eye 2 of the larval visual system of T. marmoratus. To gain insights into how cellular components of their sophisticated camera-type eyes might have evolved from the cellular components of ommatidial ancestors, we contrast our findings against known features of ommatidia development, which are particularly well understood in Drosophila. We find many similarities, such as the early presence of a pseudostratified epithelium, and the order in which specific cell types are recruited. However, in Thermonectus each cell type is represented by a large number of cells from early on and major tissue re-orientation occurs as eye development progresses. This study provides insights into the timing of morphological features and represents the basis for future molecular studies.
Schneider, M; Dorn, A
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida show a profound differential infectivity after inoculation in Oncopeltus fasciatus. Whereas P. putida has no significant impact on nymphs, P. aeruginosa kills all experimental animals within 48 h. Both Pseudomonas species, however, induce the same four hemolymph peptides in O. fasciatus. Also injection of saline solution and injury induced these peptides. In general peptide induction was stronger in nymphs than in adult males. A significantly higher number of nymphs survived a challenge with P. aeruginosa when an immunization with P. putida preceded. The antibacterial properties of the hemolymph were demonstrated in inhibition experiments with P. putida. Two of the four inducible peptides (peptides 1 and 4) could be partially sequenced after Edman degradation and were compared with known antibacterial peptides. Peptide 1, of 15 kDa, showed 47.1% identity with the glycine-rich hemiptericin of Pyrrhocoris apterus. Peptide 4, of 2 kDa, had a 77.8% identity with the proline-rich pyrrhocoricin of P. apterus and a 76.9% identity with metalnikowin 1 of Palomena prasina. Peptides 2 and 3 are also small, with molecular weights of 8 and 5 kDa.
Pampiglione, S; Fioravanti, M L; Gustinelli, A; Onore, G; Rivasi, F; Trentini, M
This paper deals with some internal anatomical features observed in histological sections and freshly dissected mounts of Tunga trimamillata, a Siphonaptera recently discovered in Andean regions of Ecuador from several mammals, including man. It was possible to study in males and also non-gravid and gravid females, the location and anatomy of several organs not previously described for this species: the testes, epididymis, ganglia, Malpighian tubules, eyes, rectal ampulla with one of its pads and structures which could be interpreted as midgut diverticula, whose presence has not been recorded in the Siphonaptera. The process of neosomy in the female during pregnancy is illustrated by photographs of the consecutive developmental phases, taken at the stereomicroscope. Furthermore, some details of the exoskeleton, spermatheca during different phases of pregnancy of the gravid female and the presence of a foreign body (parasite?) within the haemocoel have been displayed in specimens cleared with Hoyer's medium.
Leal, Afonso Henrique; Mejdalani, Gabriel; Creão-Duarte, Antonio J
Rotigonalia regina sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on a male specimen from Pasco, Peru. The holotype of R. regina is rather large in comparison with other specimens of the genus, but the inflated clypeus and the shape of the paraphyses support its inclusion in Rotigonalia Young, 1977. A key to males of the five known species of Rotigonalia is given.
The female terminalia of 12 sharpshooter species are described and illustrated: Aulacizes basalis, A. conspersa, A. insistans, A. obsoleta, A. quadripunctata, Cicciana latreillei, Pseudometopia amblardii, Stictoscarta sulcicollis, Tretogonia bergi, T. cribata, T. dentalis, and T. notatifrons. A key to the identification of the Argentinean Proconiini genera including male and female characters is provided.
Kumar, A Naresh; Jeyalalitha, T; Murugan, K; Madhiyazhagan, P
Mosquito-borne diseases in India, e.g., malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, and Japanese encephalitis cause thousands of deaths per year. Mosquito control is to enhance the health and quality of life of county residents and visitors through the reduction of mosquito populations. Mosquito control is of serious concern in developing countries like India due to the lack of general awareness, development of resistance, and socioeconomic reasons. Noble metal nanoparticles have been used because of their unique optical properties; especially gold and silver have a broad absorption band in the visible region of electromagnetic spectrum. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Cymbopogan citratus is an ecofriendly approach for safer environment. C. citratus leaf broth was a good reducing agent that converted chloroauric acid (HAuCl(4)) to metal gold and further heating converted it into nanoparticles. Characterization using UV spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, particle size analyzer, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the particles are gold nanoparticles ranging between 10 and 110 nm with an average particles size of 20 nm. Further biosynthesized gold nanoparticles and Anthocephalus cadamba were experimented for the larvicidal effect on the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Results showed that the gold nanoparticles are much toxic than the plant extract. Observed lethal concentrations (LC(50) and LC(90)) were 1.08 and 2.76 ppm for gold nanoparticles and 21.82 and 79.52 ppm for the third instar of C. quinquefasciatus.
Lafontaine, J. Donald; Schmidt, B. Christian
Abstract A total of 124 additions and corrections are listed and discussed for the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico published in 2010. Twenty-eight species are added to the list, 16 through new species descriptions, eight as a result of taxonomic splits, and four based on newly recorded species. Forty-eight species are deleted from the list, 41 through synonymy, and seven that were based on misidentifications. Twelve changes are corrections in the spelling of names, or changes in parentheses on dates of publication. Twenty-seven are changes in taxonomy of names where no species are added or deleted; eight changes involve the renumbering of existing species for better taxonomic arrangement. Within the text 2 stat. n., 10 stat. rev., 27 syn. n., 5 syn. rev., and 1 comb. n. are proposed for the first time. PMID:26692790
Mastitsky, Sergey E.; Samoilenko, Vera M.
The paper includes data on species composition of chironomid larvae which were encountered in the mantle cavity of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) within 7 waterbodies in the Republic of Belarus. All were found to be free-living species commonly present in periphyton and/or benthos. A long-term study of the seasonal dynamics of these larvae in Dreissena did not reveal any typical pattern. Our data suppose that chironomids do not have an obligate association with zebra mussels and possibly enter their mantle cavity inadvertently.
Gorb, S N
The ultrastructure of the porous channels (PC) of the postcervical sclerite (SPC), which provides additional head fixation to the neck in adult odonates, was studied using TEM and high resolution SEM microscopy. Single chitin-protein microfibrils, about 0.14 micron thick, are arranged into channels with cylinder-like shapes. The axial rod of the chitin fiber (0.04 micron thick) is located in the center of the cylinder. The orientation of the axial rods was three-dimensionally demonstrated after dissolving the protein cover with NaOH. The PCs are arranged vertically to the surface and pass from the epidermal cells through all the cuticular layers to the surface of the cuticle. In the exo- and endocuticle, the PCs are usually oval in cross-section and about 0.3 micron thick. In the endocuticle, the cross-sectional area of the PCs varies widely, from 0.01-0.15 micron2. The shape of the PC is determined by the macromolecular organization of the chitin-protein microfibrils: the long axis of the channel is orientated parallel to the axis of the preferred orientation of the cuticular microfibrils. The microfibrils tend to follow the line of the channel very closely. In fractures orientated perpendicular to the surface, the PC resembles a ribbon-like construction, which was clearly demonstrated by casts. The strongly parallel orientation of PCs in the deep layers of the cuticle changes within the microtrichia (MT), and they begin to be curved. Numerous PCs pass through the microtrichium, and most of them end on its side wall. PCs usually contain channel filaments about 0.09 micron thick. Usually, a single channel contained one filament, but channels located in the deep layers of the endocuticle have from one to five single filaments. The filaments were observed in the intact cuticle and in the cuticle enzymatically treated with chitinase, while in the cuticle treated with NaOH filaments were absent. The porous channel system of the odonate arrester is interpreted as a device transporting adhesive excretions from the epidermal cells to the cuticular surface.
Nenadić, M; Soković, M; Glamočlija, J; Ćirić, A; Perić-Mataruga, V; Tešević, V; Vujisić, L; Todosijević, M; Vesović, N; Ćurčić, S
The antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion released by adult individuals of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus (Pristonychus) punctatus (Dejean, 1828), applying microdilution method with the aim to detect minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal bactericidal concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration, has been investigated. In addition, morphology of the pygidial glands is observed. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens - eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples have showed antimicrobial properties against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Micrococcus flavus proved to be more resistant compared with other bacterial strains. More significant antimicrobial properties of the secretion are observed against Escherichia coli, which proved to be the most sensitive bacteria. Aspergillus fumigatus proved to be the most resistant, while Penicillium ochrochloron and Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium the most sensitive micromycetes. Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and antimycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as positive controls, showed higher antibacterial properties for all bacterial and fungal strains, except for P. ochrochloron, which proved to be more resistant on Ketoconazole compared with the pygidial gland secretion of L. (P.) punctatus. Apart from the role in ecological aspects, the antimicrobial properties of the tested secretion possibly might have medical significance in the future.
Mosquitoes are the single most important group of insects in terms of public health significance and causing diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis and other fevers. There has been an outbreak of Chikungunya and dengue all over the India from 2006 – 2009. Aedes ae...
Background Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the decision to leave a habitat patch in favour of another, and connectivity of occupied habitat. Thus, dispersal of species that are highly specialised to a certain habitat is limited by habitat availability. Species inhabiting very stable environments may also adopt a sedentary life-style. Both factors should lead to strong genetic differentiation in highly specialised species inhabiting stable environments. These two factors apply to our model species Rhyacophila pubescens a highly specialised freshwater insect that occurs in tufa springs, a very stable habitat. Results We examined the genetic population structure and phylogeography using range-wide mtCOI sequence and AFLP data from 333 individuals of R. pubescens. We inferred the location of Pleistocene refugia and postglacial colonisation routes of R. pubescens, and examined ongoing local differentiation. Our results indicate intraregional differentiation with a high number of locally endemic haplotypes, that we attributed to habitat specificity and low dispersal rates of R. pubescens. We observed high levels of genetic diversity south of the Alps and genetic impoverishment north of the Alps. Estimates of migrants placed the refugium and the source of the colonisation in the Dauphiné Alps (SW Alps). Conclusions This is the first example of an aquatic insect with a colonisation route along the western margin of the Alps to the Central European highlands. The study also shows that specialisation to a stable environment may have promoted a behavioural shift to decreased dispersal rates, leading to stronger local population differentiation than in less specialised aquatic insects. Alternatively, the occurrence of highly specialised tufa spring habitats may have been more widespread in the past, leading to range regression and fragmentation among present day R. pubescens populations. PMID:21569621
The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) and Mexican corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera zeae) are significant agricultural pests. For the northern corn rootworm, and to a lesser extent, the Mexican corn rootworm, high resolution molecular markers are needed. Here we pres...
Simakova, Anastasia V; Tokarev, Yuri S; Issi, Irma V
The ultrastructure of a new microsporidian, Pankovaia semitubulata gen. et sp. n. (Microsporidia: Tuzetiidae), from the fat body of Cloeon dipterum (L.) (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) is described. The species is monokaryotic throughout the life cycle, developing in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm. Sporogonial plasmodium divides into 2-8 sporoblasts. Each sporoblast, then spore, is enclosed in an individual sporophorous vesicle. Fixed and stained spores of the type species P. semitubulata are 3.4 x 1.9microm in size. The polaroplast is bipartite (lamellar and vesicular). The polar filament is isofilar, possessing 6 coils in one row. The following features distinguish the genus Pankovaia from other monokaryotic genera of Tuzetiidae: (a) exospore is composed of multiple irregularly laid tubules with a lengthwise opening, referred to as "semitubules"; (b) episporontal space of sporophorous vesicle (SPV) is devoid of secretory formations; (c) SPV envelope is represented by a thin fragile membrane.
Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Stocks, Ian C
A probably adventive mealybug species, Paracoccus gillianae sp. n. is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely to have been via the horticultural trade of Agave spp. (Liliales: Agavaceae) and other host plants in the family Agavaceae. Illustrations of the adult female and male, and diagnosis from congeners in the New World and from other Paracoccus species known to feed on Agavaceae, are provided.
Bachmann, Axel O; Chani-Posse, Mariana; Guala, Mariel E; Newton, Alfred F
The type specimens (all current categories) of Staphylinidae deposited in this Museum are listed; names are recorded, most of them represented by name-bearing types (primary types). The specific and subspecific names are alphabetically ordered in a single list, followed by the generic names (and subgeneric ones, if they were stated) spelled as they were published; later combinations and/ or current binomina are mentioned insofar these are known to the authors. Two lists are added: 2. Specimens labeled as types of names not found in the literature and probably never published, or published as nomina nuda; and 3. Specimens labeled as types, but not originally designated as such. An appendix provides a systematically arranged list of all names discussed, with indication of where they are discussed in the text.
Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-Fu
A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera), belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysisbicolor Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysiscomparata Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysisdives Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysispumila Klug, 1845; Chrysissuccincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrumbidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysisaequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisanalis Spinola, 1808; Chrysisassimilis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisbihamata Spinola, 1838; Chrysischilensis Spinola, 1851; Chrysisdichroa Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisdistinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisepiscopalis Spinola, 1838; Chrysisgrohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisincrassata Spinola, 1838; Chrysispallidicornis Spinola, 1838; Chrysispulchella Spinola, 1808; Chrysisramburi Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisrefulgens Spinola, 1806; Chrysissplendens Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysissuccinctula Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysisversicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampusgayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrumcaerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; Hedychrumchloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; Hedychrumdifficile Spinola, 1851; Hedychrumvirens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopygajanthina Dahlbom, 1854; Holopygaluzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysisbicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984); Chrysiscalimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965); Chrysiselegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991)); Hedychrumchloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986); Hedychrumrutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984). Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrumintermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopygafervida (Fabricius, 1781); Chrysissicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysiselegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysissuccinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysisgermari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysisdistinguenda Spinola, 1838, and Chrysiscoronata Spinola, 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrumalterum Lepeletier, 1806, and Hedychrumaulicum Spinola, 1843, are considered nomina oblita. Hedychrumrutilans Dahlbom, 1854, and Hedychrumniemelai Linsenmaier, 1959, are retained as nomina protecta. The first available name for Chrysissuccinctula sensu Linsenmaier is Chrysistristicula Linsenmaier, 1959, (stat. n.) The current status and validity of some types in the Spinola collection are discussed. Photographs of fifty-three types are given.
Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Ming; Li, Zijuan; Pape, Thomas
The twenty-nine species-group names of Sarcophagidae proposed by Chien-ming Chao and Xue-zhong Zhang are reviewed. Of these names, twenty-four are available, while five are unavailable nomina nuda. Of the twenty-four available names, nine are considered valid, fifteen as invalid: thirteen junior synonyms, one unnecessary replacement name and one junior primary homonym. Holotypes of all species, and allotypes when available, are photographed and the species redescribed based on the type material. Eight new synonyms are proposed: Miltogramma tibita Chao & Zhang, 1988, syn. n. of Miltogramma taeniata Meigen, 1824; Sphenometopa luridimacula Chao & Zhang, 1988, syn. n. of Sphenometopa stackelbergiana Rohdendorf, 1967; Sphenometopa mesomelaenae Chao & Zhang, 1988, syn. n. of Sphenometopa stelviana (Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891); Sphenometopa altajica Rohdendorf, 1971, syn. n. of Sphenometopa stelviana (Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891); Sarcophila mongolica Chao & Zhang, 1988, syn. n. of Sarcophila latifrons (Fallén, 1817); Wohlfahrtia brevicornis Chao & Zhang, 1996, syn. n. of Wohlfahrtia grunini Rohdendorf, 1969; Wohlfahrtia hirtiparafacialis Chao & Zhang, 1996, syn. n. of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner, 1862); and Wohlfahrtiodes mongolicus Chao & Zhang, 1988, syn. n. of Asiosarcophila kaszabi Rohdendorf & Verves, 1978. The genus Asiosarcophila Rohdendorf & Verves, 1978 is herewith reported from China for the first time, along with the five species A. kaszabi, M. taeniata, S. stackelbergiana, S. stelviana and W. grunini.
Predatory insects and spiders were collected from apple orchards in two geographic regions of Central Washington State to assess seasonal phenology and diversity of the generalist predator community. Arthropods were collected from orchard canopy every 3-7 d over two growing seasons (March-October) ...
Muzón, Javier; Pessacq, Pablo; Lozano, Federico
Patagonia is a vast landmass with a distinctive environmental and biotic heterogeneity. Its Odonata biodiversity is the best known of South America, and it is composed of 36 species, of which more than 50% are endemic. We summarize the main taxonomic, distributional and biological information including illustrated keys for adults and known larvae, and distributional maps.
de Boer, Muriel E; de Boer, Tjalf E; Mariën, Janine; Timmermans, Martijn JTN; Nota, Benjamin; van Straalen, Nico M; Ellers, Jacintha; Roelofs, Dick
Background Genomic studies measuring transcriptional responses to changing environments and stress currently make their way into the field of evolutionary ecology and ecotoxicology. To investigate a small to medium number of genes or to confirm large scale microarray studies, Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (QRT-PCR) can achieve high accuracy of quantification when key standards, such as normalization, are carefully set. In this study, we validated potential reference genes for their use as endogenous controls under different chemical and physical stresses in two species of soil-living Collembola, Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta. Treatments for F. candida were cadmium exposure, phenanthrene exposure, desiccation, heat shock and pH stress, and for O. cincta cadmium, desiccation, heat shock and starvation. Results Eight potential reference genes for F. candida and seven for O. cincta were ranked by their stability per stress factor using the programs geNorm and Normfinder. For F. candida the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA) and eukaryotic transcription initiation factor 1A (ETIF) genes were found the most stable over the different treatments, while for O. cincta, the beta actin (ACTb) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAZ) genes were the most stable. Conclusion We present a panel of reference genes for two emerging ecological genomic model species tested under a variety of treatments. Within each species, different treatments resulted in differences in the top stable reference genes. Moreover, the two species differed in suitable reference genes even when exposed to similar stresses. This might be attributed to dissimilarity of physiology. It is vital to rigorously test a panel of reference genes for each species and treatment, in advance of relative quantification of QRT-PCR gene expression measurements. PMID:19486513
Espinoza, Bertha; Martínez-Ibarra, Jose Alejandro; Villalobos, Guiehdani; De La Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando
The triatomines vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi are principal factors in acquiring Chagas disease. For this reason, increased knowledge of domestic transmission of T. cruzi and control of its insect vectors is necessary. To contribute to genetic knowledge of North America Triatominae species, we studied genetic variations and conducted phylogenetic analysis of different triatomines species of epidemiologic importance. Our analysis showed high genetic variations between different geographic populations of Triatoma mexicana, Meccus longipennis, M. mazzottii, M. picturatus, and T. dimidiata species, suggested initial divergence, hybridation, or classifications problems. In contrast, T. gerstaeckeri, T. bolivari, and M. pallidipennis populations showed few genetics variations. Analysis using cytochrome B and internal transcribed spacer 2 gene sequences indicated that T. bolivari is closely related to the Rubrofasciata complex and not to T. dimidiata. Triatoma brailovskyi and T. gerstaeckeri showed a close relationship with Dimidiata and Phyllosoma complexes. PMID:23249692
Komatsu, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Yukimasa
The egg morphology and successive changes of developing embryos of the whirligig beetle, Dineutus mellyi (Adephaga: Gyrinidae) are described from observations based on light and scanning electron microscopy. The egg surface is characterized by minute conical projections covering the entire egg surface, a stalk-like micropylar projection at the anterior pole of the egg, and a longitudinal split line along which the chorion is cleaved during the middle embryonic stages. The germ band or embryo is formed on the ventral egg surface, and develops on the surface throughout the egg period; thus, the egg is a superficial type, as is the case in most coleopteran species. A pair of lateral tracheal gills (LTGs) of the first abdominal segment originates from appendage-like projections arising at the lateral side of pleuropodia, and the LTGs of the second to ninth abdominal segments are arranged in a row with that of the first segment. Therefore, LTGs are structures with serial homology. The paired dorsal tracheal gills (DTGs) of the ninth abdominal segment are formed on the regions just latero-dorsal to the LTGs of this segment. Regarding the pleuropodia as the structures being homologous with thoracic legs, neither the LTGs nor DTGs are homologous with thoracic legs, but originate in the more lateral region corresponding to the future pleura of the thoracic segments. The last (10th) abdominal segment in the larva is formed by the fusion of the embryonic 10th and 11th abdominal segments. Four terminal hooks at the end of the last abdominal segment originate from two pairs of swellings on the posterior end of the embryonic 11th abdominal segment. It is proposed that the terminal hooks possibly correspond to the claws of medially fused cerci of the embryonic 11th abdominal segment.
Osswald, Judith; Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf Georg
Thoracic structures of the extremely small first instar larva of the strepsipteran species Mengenilla chobauti (ca. 200 microm) were examined, described and reconstructed 3-dimensionally. The focus is on the skeletomuscular system. The characters were compared to conditions found in other insect larvae of very small (Ptiliidae) or large (Dytiscus) size (both Coleoptera) and features of "triungulin" larvae, first instar larvae of Rhipiphoridae, Meloidae (both Coleoptera), and Mantispidae (Neuroptera). The specific lifestyle and the extreme degree of miniaturisation result in numerous thoracic modifications. Many sclerites of the exo- and endoskeleton are reduced. Cervical sclerites, pleural ridges, furcae and spinae are absent. Most of the longitudinal muscles are connected within the thorax, and a pair of ventral longitudinal muscles is present in the pleural region of the meso- and metathorax. This results in a high intersegmental flexibility. Due to the size reduction and the correlated shift of the brain to the thorax, with 94 identified muscles the thoracic musculature appears highly compact. Compared to larger larvae the number of both the individual muscles and the muscle bundles are distinctly reduced. The thorax of the first instar larvae displays many additional strepsipteran autapomorphies. At least partly due to the highly specialised condition, potential synapomorphies with other groups were not found.
Scavariello, Claudia; Luchetti, Andrea; Martoni, Francesco; Bonandin, Livia; Mantovani, Barbara
Horizontal transfer (HT) is an event in which the genetic material is transferred from one species to another, even if distantly related, and it has been demonstrated as a possible essential part of the lifecycle of transposable elements (TEs). However, previous studies on the non-LTR R2 retrotransposon, a metazoan-wide distributed element, indicated its vertical transmission since the Radiata-Bilateria split. Here we present the first possible instances of R2 HT in stick insects of the genus Bacillus (Phasmida). Six R2 elements were characterized in the strictly bisexual subspecies B. grandii grandii, B. grandii benazzii and B. grandii maretimi and in the obligatory parthenogenetic taxon B. atticus. These elements were compared with those previously retrieved in the facultative parthenogenetic species B. rossius. Phylogenetic inconsistencies between element and host taxa, and age versus divergence analyses agree and support at least two HT events. These HT events can be explained by taking into consideration the complex Bacillus reproductive biology, which includes also hybridogenesis, gynogenesis and androgenesis. Through these non-canonical reproductive modes, R2 elements may have been transferred between Bacillus genomes. Our data suggest, therefore, a possible role of hybridization for TEs survival and the consequent reshaping of involved genomes. PMID:28165062
Ware, Jessica L; Grimaldi, David A; Engel, Michael S
Among insects, eusocial behavior occurs in termites, ants, some bees and wasps. Isoptera and Hymenoptera convergently share social behavior, and for both taxa its evolution remains poorly understood. While dating analyses provide researchers with the opportunity to date the origin of eusociality, fossil calibration methodology may mislead subsequent ecological interpretations. Using a comprehensive termite dataset, we explored the effect of fossil placement and calibration methodology. A combined molecular and morphological dataset for 42 extant termite lineages was used, and a second dataset including these 42 taxa, plus an additional 39 fossil lineages for which we had only morphological data. MrBayes doublet-model analyses recovered similar topologies, with one minor exception (Stolotermitidae is sister to the Hodotermitidae, s.s., in the 42-taxon analysis but is in a polytomy with Hodotermitidae and (Kalotermitidae + Neoisoptera) in the 81-taxon analysis). Analyses using the r8s program on these topologies were run with either minimum/maximum constraints (analysis a = 42-taxon and analysis c = 81-taxon analyses) or with the fossil taxon ages fixed (ages fixed to be the geological age of the deposit from which they came, analysis b = 81-taxon analysis). Confidence intervals were determined for the resulting ultrametric trees, and for most major clades there was significant overlap between dates recovered for analyses A and C (with exceptions, such as the nodes Neoisoptera, and Euisoptera). With the exception of isopteran and eusiopteran node ages, however, none of the major clade ages overlapped when analysis B is compared with either analysis A or C. Future studies on Dictyoptera should note that the age of Kalotermitidae was underestimated in absence of kalotermitid fossils with fixed ages.
Coelho, Luci B. N.; Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio F.
Abstract Gypona reversa DeLong & Martinson, 1972 has its ovipositor described and illustrated based on the examination of specimens from its type locality. This is the first species of Gypona Germar, 1821 to have the female genitalia detailed description published. PMID:25589876
Sultan, K; Khalafalla, R E
Heterodoxus spiniger is a rare chewing louse; infest dogs and occasionally cats with expanding geographical distribution. This preliminary report is aimed to record infestation of stray dogs in Kafr El-Sheikh city, Egypt by H. spiniger. Two dogs out of 10 were naturally infected with H. spiniger. This report is the first to demonstrate H. spiniger infestation on dogs in northern regions of Nile-delta of Egypt.
Todorović, Dajana; Mirčić, Dejan; Ilijin, Larisa; Mrdaković, Marija; Vlahović, Milena; Prolić, Zlatko; Mataruga, Vesna Perić
This study aimed to determine the effect of magnetic fields on the antioxidative defense and fitness-related traits of Baculum extradentatum. Following exposure to magnetic fields, antioxidative defense (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities, and total glutathione (GSH) content) and fitness-related traits (egg mortality, development dynamics, and mass of nymphs) were monitored in nymphs. The experimental groups were: control (kept out of influence of the magnets), a group exposed to a constant magnetic field (CMF) of 50 mT, and a group exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) of 50 Hz, 6 mT. We found increased SOD and CAT activities in animals exposed to constant and AMFs, whereas GSH activity was not influenced by experimental magnetic fields. No differences were found in egg mortality between control and experimental groups. Significant differences in the time of development between the control and the CMF group were observed, as well as between the CMF and the AMF group. No differences were found in the mass of the nymphs between the three experimental groups. In conclusion, CMF and AMF have the possibility to modulate the antioxidative defense and some of the fitness-related traits in B. extradentatum.
GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON; PREVIŠIĆ, ANA; MALICKY, HANS
New species are described from the following genera: Consorophylax and Anisogamus, (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). Additionally the larvae of the genus Anisogamus, and the larval stages of Anisogamus waringeri nov. sp. and A. difformis (McLachlan 1867) are described. The new species Consorophylax vinconi sp. nov. is a microendemic from the Southern Alps and differs distinctly from its congeners in the shape of the parameres, which are distinctly straitened in the distal quarter in the new species. The new species Anisogamus waringeri sp. nov. represents the second species in the hitherto monospecific genus Anisogamus. Compared to Anisogamus difformis, A. waringeri sp. nov. develops more slender superior appendages; a more rounded basal plate of the intermediate appendages, lacking pointed protuberances; and parameres shorter than the aedaegus, proximally with one dorsal and several ventral tines. Further, the two species are disjunctly distributed in the European mountain ranges (A. difformis: Alps, A. waringeri sp. nov.: Pyrenees). Larvae of the genus Anisogamus are characterized by the lack of a dorsal protuberance on the 1st abdominal segment, a unique feature among Limnephilidae. Anisogamus difformis and A. waringeri sp. nov. larvae differ in pronotum shape. The recovery of two new species demonstrates the significance of taxonomic studies in Europe, and the importance of adequate training for young scientists in order to assess a biodiversity under threat of extinction that has yet to be fully described. PMID:25661619
Gulii, Vladislav; Dunphy, Gary B; Mandato, Craig A
Invertebrate intracellular hemocyte signaling pathways affecting cellular-antigen responses, although defined for molluscs and some arthropods including dipteran insects, is less known for lepidopterans. Hemocytic-antigen responses of the arboreal pest lepidopteran Malacosoma disstria are linked to cAMP-dependent protein kinase A implicating cAMP in cellular hemocyte immune responses. The purpose in the present study was to determine intracellular cAMP effects on larval M. disstria hemocytes adhering to slides and bacteria. Altering adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase activities as well as cAMP levels in vitro and in vivo changed hemocyte responses to antigens. Quiescent hemocytes had high cAMP levels due to adenylate cyclase activity and possibly low phosphodiesterase (type 4) activity. Antigen contact diminished hemocytic cAMP levels. Inhibiting adenylate cyclase increased hemocyte-antigen and hemocyte-hemocyte adhesion, the latter producing nodules in vivo without bacterial antigens. Inhibiting phosphodiesterase type 4 produced the reverse effects. Pharmacologically increasing intracellular cAMP in attached hemocytes caused many of the cells to detach. Diminished intracellular cAMP changed hemograms in vivo in bacteria-free larvae comparable to changes induced by the bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, by producing nodules. Lowering cAMP enhanced also the removal of Xenorhabdus nematophila and B. subtilisin vivo.
Rosa, Paolo; Xu, Zai-fu
Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of the ninety-six type specimens of Chrysididae (Hymenoptera), belonging to sixty-seven species, housed in the insect collection of Maximilian Spinola is given. The neotypes of six species are designated: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis comparata Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis dives Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis pumila Klug, 1845; Chrysis succincta Linnaeus, 1767; Hedychrum bidentulum Lepeletier, 1806. The lectotypes of twenty-four species are designated: Chrysis aequinoctialis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis analis Spinola, 1808; Chrysis assimilis Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis bihamata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis chilensis Spinola, 1851; Chrysis dichroa Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis distinguenda Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis episcopalis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis grohmanni Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis incrassata Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pallidicornis Spinola, 1838; Chrysis pulchella Spinola, 1808; Chrysis ramburi Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis refulgens Spinola, 1806; Chrysis splendens Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854; Chrysis versicolor Spinola, 1808; Elampus gayi Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum caerulescens Lepeletier, 1806; Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854; Hedychrum difficile Spinola, 1851; Hedychrum virens Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga janthina Dahlbom, 1854; Holopyga luzulina Dahlbom, 1854. Previous lectotype designations of five species are set aside: Chrysis bicolor Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Morgan 1984); Chrysis calimorpha Mocsáry, 1882 (designated by Móczár 1965); Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806 (designated by Bohart (in Kimsey and Bohart 1991)); Hedychrum chloroideum Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Kimsey 1986); Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854 (designated by Morgan 1984). Three new synonymies are proposed: Hedychrum intermedium Dahlbom, 1845, syn. n. of Holopyga fervida (Fabricius, 1781); Chrysis sicula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis elegans Lepeletier, 1806; Chrysis succinctula Dahlbom, 1854, syn. n. of Chrysis germari Wesmael, 1839. Chrysis distinguenda Spinola, 1838, and Chrysis coronata Spinola, 1808, are considered nomina dubia. Hedychrum alterum Lepeletier, 1806, and Hedychrum aulicum Spinola, 1843, are considered nomina oblita. Hedychrum rutilans Dahlbom, 1854, and Hedychrum niemelai Linsenmaier, 1959, are retained as nomina protecta. The first available name for Chrysis succinctula sensu Linsenmaier is Chrysis tristicula Linsenmaier, 1959, (stat. n.) The current status and validity of some types in the Spinola collection are discussed. Photographs of fifty-three types are given. PMID:25632245
Liu, Yujia; Zhang, Weiting; Yao, Yunzhi; Ren, Dong
Background Acisarcuatus variradius gen. et sp. nov., an extinct new species representing a new genus, is described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper, we revised the diagnosis of Necrotauliidae Handlirsch, 1906. One new genus and species of Necrotauliidae is described. An analysis based on the fossil morphological characters clarified the taxonomic status of the new taxa. Conclusions/Significance New fossil evidence supports the viewpoint that the family Necrotauliidae belongs to the Integripalpia. PMID:25494387
Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz
The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia — PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range. PMID:22958122
Yoon, Young-Il; Chung, Mi Yeon; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Han, Myung Sae; Goo, Tae-Won; Yun, Eun-Young
To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL), we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA). In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD) for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1) NFD; (2) HFD; (3) HFD and 100 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; (4) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL; or (5) HFD and 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control). ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.
Zhang, J F
Three extinct new species from the Callovian or Oxfordian (uppermost Middle Jurassic or lowermost Upper Jurassic) Daohugou beds in Inner Mongolia, China is described as Mesosciophila abstracta sp. n., Mesosciophilodes synchrona sp. n. and Paramesosciophilodes eximia sp. n. (Family Mesosciophilidae). All the records of mesosciophilid gnats are briefly reviewed.
Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A; Botero, Juan P; Carelli, Allan
The descriptions of two species of Lamiinae, Lepturges (Lepturges) batesi sp. nov. (Acanthocinini) and Onocephala chicomendes sp. nov. (Onocephalini) and an addendum of Cerambycinae and Lamiinae to the list of species of Cerambycidae in the Itatiaia National Park are presented. The data are based on fieldwork conducted over the last six years. Eighteen species of Cerambycinae and 21 of Lamiinae are recorded, with a total of 39 new distribution records.
Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.
Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.
Wang, Xing; Wang, Min; Zolotuhin, Vadim V; Hirowatari, Toshiya; Wu, Shipher; Huang, Guo-Hua
Seventy-seven species of family Bombycidae s. lat., belonging to 25 genera in three subfamilies, that have been recorded from China are listed and described, with illustrations of the adults, preimaginal stages (if available), and their genitalia. Keys to subfamilies and genera are provided. Two new genera and four new species are described, two subgenera are raised to generic status, seven new combinations are made, and one genus and six species are newly recorded from China. The new taxa are as follows: Rotunda Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, gen. nov., Comparmustilia Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, gen. nov., Triuncina daii Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, sp. nov., Triuncina xiongi Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, sp. nov., Gnathocinara boi Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, sp. nov. and Promustilia yajiangensis Wang, X. & Zolotuhin, sp. nov. The taxa newly recorded for China are: Sesquiluna Forbes, 1955; Trilocha friedeli Dierl, 1978; Bivincula kalikotei Dierl, 1978; Sesquiluna forbesi Zolotuhin & Witt, 2009; Mustilizans lepusa Zolotuhin, 2007; Smerkata brechlini (Zolotuhin, 2007) and Mustilia castanea Moore, 1879. The seven new combinations are: Rotunda rotundapex (Miyata & Kishida, 1990), comb. nov., Triuncina nitida (Chu & Wang, L.Y., 1993), comb. nov., Gunda sesostris (Vuillot, 1893), comb. nov., Smerkata fusca (Kishida, 1993), comb. nov., Comparmustilia sphingiformis (Moore, 1879), comb. nov., Comparmustilia semiravida (Yang, 1995), comb. nov., Comparmustilia gerontica (West, 1932), comb. nov.. The two subgenera raised to generic level are: Promustilia Zolotuhin, 2007, stat. nov. and Smerkata Zolotuhin, 2007, stat. nov.. The distributions of the species in China were determined and distributional maps provided. All type specimens of the new species described here are deposited in the College of Plant Protection, Hunan Agricultural University, China (HUNAU); Department of Entomology, South China Agricultural University, China (SCAU); Kyushu University Museum, Kyushu University, Japan (KUM), and Entomological Museum Thomas J. Witt, Munich, Germany (MWM).
Büscher, Thies H.; Gorb, Stanislav N.
Abstract The euplantulae of species from all five genera of the Prisopodinae Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893 were examined using scanning electron microscopy with the aim to reveal the significance of attachment pads regarding their phylogenetic relationships. The split into the conventional two sister groups is supported by the two-lobed structure of the euplantulae with a smooth surface in the Prisopodini and a nubby surface microstructure in the Paraprisopodini. The two lineages are well distinguishable by this feature, as well as by the shape of the euplantulae themselves. The functional importance of the attachment pad surface features is discussed. PMID:28228663
Napoleão, K S; Mello-Patiu, C A; Oliveira-Costa, J; Takiya, D M; Silva, R; Moura-Neto, R S
Sarcophagidae, or flesh flies, are of great importance in forensic entomology, but their effective application requires precise taxonomic identification, which relies almost exclusively on characteristics of the male genitalia. Given that female flies and larvae are most abundant in animal carcasses or on corpses, precise morphological identification can be difficult; therefore, DNA sequencing can be an additional tool for use in taxonomic identification. This paper analyzes part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from three Sarcophagidae species of forensic importance in the City of Rio de Janeiro: Oxysarcodexia fluminensis, Peckia chrysostoma, and Peckia intermutans. COI fragments of 400 bp from 36 specimens of these three species were sequenced. No intraspecific differences were found among specimens of O. fluminensis, but P. chrysostoma and P. intermutans each had two haplotypes, ranging from 0 to 0.7%. The interspecific divergence was 8.5-11.6%, corroborating previously reported findings.
Gustafsson, Daniel R; Tsurumi, Miyako; Bush, Sarah E
The chewing louse fauna of pigeons and doves in Japan is reviewed based on published records and new collections. An updated checklist of the chewing lice of Japanese pigeons and doves is provided, and 3 new species are described: Columbicola asukae n. sp. and Coloceras nakamurai n. sp., both from Columba janthina Temminck, 1830 (Japanese wood pigeon), and Columbicola lemoinei n. sp. from Treron formosae permagnus Stejneger, 1887, and Treron formosae medioximus (Bangs, 1901) (whistling green-pigeons). This checklist includes data on the first records of Coloceras chinense (Kellogg and Chapman, 1902), Coloceras piriformis ( Tendeiro, 1969 ), and Columbicola guimaraesi Tendeiro, 1965, in Japan. New host records of Hohorstiella sp. from Columba janthina and Treron formosae permagnus, and Coloceras sp. from Treron sieboldii sieboldii (Temminck, 1835) (white-bellied green-pigeon) are provided.
Enout, Alexandre Magno Junqueira; Lobato, Débora Nogueira Campos; Diniz, Francisco Carvalho; Antonini, Yasmine
The association of chewing lice and feather mites with wild birds of riparian forest was investigated in the Cerrado biome, Tocantins State, Brazil. The birds were captured with mist nets between July 2008 and March 2009. Ectoparasites were collected by the dust-ruffling technique. Infestation rates were determined by the sampling prevalence, abundance, and mean intensity of ectoparasites. A total of 1,479 chewing lice were collected that were distributed in 3 families and 18 genera, of which 15 taxa were identified to the species level. Sixteen genera of feather mites were found, and 10 species were identified. A high prevalence rate of chewing lice and feather mites was found in non-Passeriformes (66.7 and 50.0%) and Passeriformes (57.8 and 75.6%) birds. New host-parasite associations were registered for two species of chewing lice and for four species of feather mites, thus expanding the geographical distribution in Brazil of six chewing lice species. This is the first study of the ectoparasites of wild birds to be conducted in this region of Brazil.
O’Hara, James E.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo
Abstract The Tachinidae of the Afrotropical Region are catalogued and seven genera and eight species are newly described. There are 237 genera and 1126 species recognized, of which 101 genera and 1043 species are endemic to the region. The catalogue is based on examination of the primary literature comprising about 525 references as well as numerous name-bearing types and other specimens housed in collections. Taxa are arranged hierarchically and alphabetically under the categories of subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus (where recognized), species, and rarely subspecies. Nomenclatural information is provided for all genus-group and species-group names, including lists of synonyms (mostly restricted to Afrotropical taxa) and name-bearing type data. Species distributions are recorded by country within the Afrotropical Region and by larger geographical divisions outside the region. Additional information is given in the form of notes, numbering about 300 in the catalogue section. Seven genera and eight species are described as new: Afrophylax Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Sturmia aureiventris Villeneuve, 1910, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Austrosolieria Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Austrosolieria londti Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa) and Austrosolieria freidbergi Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Malawi) (Tachininae, Leskiini); Carceliathrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n. (Exoristinae, Eryciini); Filistea Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Viviania aureofasciata Curran, 1927, gen. n. and Filistea verbekei Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (Cameroon, D.R. Congo, Uganda) (Exoristinae, Blondeliini); Mesnilotrix Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Dexiotrix empiformis Mesnil, 1976, gen. n. (Dexiinae, Dexiini); Myxophryxe Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938, gen. n., Myxophryxe murina Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), Myxophryxe regalis Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa), and Myxophryxe satanas Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa) (Exoristinae, Goniini); and Stiremania Cerretti & O’Hara with type species Stiremania karoo Cerretti & O’Hara, gen. n. and sp. n. (South Africa), and Stiremania robusta Cerretti & O’Hara, sp. n. (South Africa) (Exoristinae, Goniini). Paraclara Bezzi, 1908 is transferred from the Cylindromyiini to the Hermyini, comb. n. Sarrorhina Villeneuve, 1936 is transferred from the Minthoini to the Graphogastrini, comb. n. Three genera are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region: Madremyia Townsend, 1916 (Eryciini); Paratrixa Brauer & Bergenstamm, 1891 (Blondeliini); and Simoma Aldrich, 1926 (Goniini). Three genera previously recorded from the Afrotropical Region are no longer recognized from the region: Calozenillia Townsend, 1927 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); Eurysthaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); and Trixa Meigen, 1824 (Palaearctic and Oriental regions). Two species are newly recorded from the Afrotropical Region: Amnonia carmelitana Kugler, 1971 (Ethiopia, Kenya); and Simoma grahami Aldrich, 1926 (Namibia). Three species previously recorded from the Afrotropical Region are no longer recognized from the region: Euthera peringueyi Bezzi, 1925 (Oriental Region); Hamaxia incongrua Walker, 1860 (Palaearctic, Oriental and Australasian regions); Leucostoma tetraptera (Meigen, 1824) (Palaearctic Region). New replacement names are proposed for five preoccupied names of Afrotropical species: Billaea rubida O’Hara & Cerretti for Phorostoma rutilans Villeneuve, 1916, preoccupied in the genus Billaea Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 by Musca rutilans Fabricius, 1781, nom. n.; Cylindromyia braueri O’Hara & Cerretti for Ocyptera nigra Villeneuve, 1918, preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Glossidionophora nigra Bigot, 1885, nom. n.; Cylindromyia rufohumera O’Hara & Cerretti for Ocyptera scapularis Villeneuve, 1944, preoccupied in the genus Cylindromyia Meigen, 1803 by Ocyptera scapularis Loew, 1845, nom. n.; Phytomyptera longiarista O’Hara & Cerretti for Phytomyzoneura aristalis Villeneuve, 1936, preoccupied in the genus Phytomyptera Rondani, 1845 by Phasiostoma aristalis Townsend, 1915, nom. n.; and Siphona (Siphona) pretoriana O’Hara & Cerretti for Siphona laticornis Curran, 1941, preoccupied in the genus Siphona Meigen, 1803 by Actia laticornis Malloch, 1930, nom. n. New type species fixations are made under the provisions of Article 70.3.2 of the ICZN Code for two genus-group names: Lydellina Villeneuve, 1916, type species newly fixed as Lydellina villeneuvei Townsend, 1933 (valid genus name); and Sericophoromyia Austen, 1909, type species newly fixed as Tachina quadrata Wiedemann, 1830 (synonym of Winthemia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830). Lectotypes are designated for the following nine nominal species based on examination of one or more syntypes of each: Degeeria crocea Villeneuve, 1950; Degeeria semirufa Villeneuve, 1950; Erycia brunnescens Villeneuve, 1934; Exorista oculata Villeneuve, 1910; Kiniatilla tricincta Villeneuve, 1938; Myxarchiclops caffer Villeneuve, 1916; Ocyptera linearis Villeneuve, 1936; Peristasisea luteola Villeneuve, 1934; and Phorocera crassipalpis Villeneuve, 1938. The following four genus-group names that were previously treated as junior synonyms or subgenera are recognized as valid generic names: Bogosiella Villeneuve, 1923, status revived; Dyshypostena Villeneuve, 1939, status revived; Perlucidina Mesnil, 1952, status revived; and Thelymyiops Mesnil, 1950, status n. The following six species-group names that were previously treated as junior synonyms are recognized as valid species names: Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908, status revived; Degeeria cinctella Villeneuve, 1950, status revived (as Medina cinctella (Villeneuve)); Nemoraea miranda intacta Villeneuve, 1916, status revived (as Nemoraea intacta Villeneuve); Succingulum exiguum Villeneuve, 1935, status revived (as Trigonospila exigua (Villeneuve)); Wagneria rufitibia abbreviata Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia abbreviata (Mesnil)); and Wagneria rufitibia nudinerva Mesnil, 1950, status n. (as Periscepsia nudinerva (Mesnil)). The following 25 new or revived combinations are proposed: Afrophylax aureiventris (Villeneuve, 1910), comb. n.; Blepharella orbitalis (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Bogosiella pomeroyi Villeneuve, 1923, comb. revived; Brachychaetoides violacea (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Carceliathrix crassipalpis (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Charitella whitmorei (Cerretti, 2012), comb. n.; Dyshypostena edwardsi (van Emden, 1960), comb. n.; Dyshypostena tarsalis Villeneuve, 1939, comb. revived; Estheria buccata (van Emden, 1947), comb. n.; Estheria surda (Curran, 1933), comb. n.; Filistea aureofasciata (Curran, 1927), comb. n.; Madremyia setinervis (Mesnil, 1968), comb. n.; Mesnilotrix empiformis (Mesnil, 1976), comb. n.; Myxophryxe longirostris (Villeneuve, 1938), comb. n.; Nealsomyia chloronitens (Mesnil, 1977), comb. n.; Nealsomyia clausa (Curran, 1940), comb. n.; Nilea longicauda (Mesnil, 1970), comb. n.; Paratrixa aethiopica Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Paratrixa stammeri Mesnil, 1952, comb. revived; Perlucidina africana (Jaennicke, 1867), comb. n.; Perlucidina perlucida (Karsch, 1886), comb. revived; Prolophosia retroflexa (Villeneuve, 1944), comb. n.; Sturmia profana (Karsch, 1888), comb. n.; additionally, Ceromasia rufiventris Curran, 1927 is treated as an unplaced species of Goniini, comb. n. and Hemiwinthemia stuckenbergi Verbeke, 1973 is treated as an unplaced species of Leskiini, comb. n. New or revived generic and specific synonymies are proposed for the following nine names: Afrosturmia Curran, 1927 with Blepharella Macquart, 1851, syn. n.; Archiphania van Emden, 1945 with Catharosia Rondani, 1868, syn. revived; Besseria longicornis Zeegers, 2007 with Besseria fossulata Bezzi, 1908 (current name Besseria fossulata), syn. n.; Dexiomera Curran, 1933 with Estheria Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, syn. n.; Hemiwinthemia francoisi Verbeke, 1973 with Nemoraea capensis Schiner, 1868 (current name Smidtia capensis), syn. n.; Kinangopana van Emden, 1960 with Dyshypostena Villeneuve, 1939, syn. n.; Metadrinomyia Shima, 1980 with Charitella Mesnil, 1957, syn. n.; Phorocera majestica Curran, 1940 with Phorocera longirostris Villeneuve, 1938 (current name Myxophryxe longirostris), syn. n.; and Podomyia discalis Curran, 1939 with Antistasea fimbriata Bischof, 1904 (current name Antistasea fimbriata), syn. n. PMID:27110184
Leo, N P; Hughes, J M; Yang, X; Poudel, S K S; Brogdon, W G; Barker, S C
Little is known about the population genetics of the louse infestations of humans. We used microsatellite DNA to study 11 double infestations, that is, hosts infested with head lice and body lice simultaneously. We tested for population structure on a host, and for population structure among seven hosts that shared sleeping quarters. We also sought evidence of migration among louse populations. Our results showed that: (i) the head and body lice on these individual hosts were two genetically distinct populations; (ii) each host had their own populations of head and body lice that were genetically distinct to those on other hosts; and (iii) lice had migrated from head to head, and from body to body, but not between heads and bodies. Our results indicate that head and body lice are separate species.
Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Gosling, William D; Coe, Angela L; Bush, Mark; Mayle, Francis E; Axford, Yarrow; Brooks, Stephen J
To predict the response of aquatic ecosystems to future global climate change, data on the ecology and distribution of keystone groups in freshwater ecosystems are needed. In contrast to mid- and high-latitude zones, such data are scarce across tropical South America (Neotropics). We present the distribution and diversity of chironomid species using surface sediments of 59 lakes from the Andes to the Amazon (0.1-17°S and 64-78°W) within the Neotropics. We assess the spatial variation in community assemblages and identify the key variables influencing the distributional patterns. The relationships between environmental variables (pH, conductivity, depth, and sediment organic content), climatic data, and chironomid assemblages were assessed using multivariate statistics (detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis). Climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) were most significant in describing the variance in chironomid assemblages. Temperature and precipitation are both predicted to change under future climate change scenarios in the tropical Andes. Our findings suggest taxa of Orthocladiinae, which show a preference to cold high-elevation oligotrophic lakes, will likely see range contraction under future anthropogenic-induced climate change. Taxa abundant in areas of high precipitation, such as Micropsectra and Phaenopsectra, will likely become restricted to the inner tropical Andes, as the outer tropical Andes become drier. The sensitivity of chironomids to climate parameters makes them important bio-indicators of regional climate change in the Neotropics. Furthermore, the distribution of chironomid taxa presented here is a vital first step toward providing urgently needed autecological data for interpreting fossil chironomid records of past ecological and climate change from the tropical Andes.
Based on the examination of 3,457 pinned specimens, we document 263 species of leaf-roller moths (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from the Commonwealth of Virginia. The vast majority of specimens examined are from five unrelated efforts: a survey of George Washington Memorial Parkway National Park, Fairfa...
Li, Longfeng; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong
New Anomopterella Rasnitsyn, 1975, wasps from the Jiulongshan Formation (Bathonian/Callovian) at Daohugou (Inner Mongolia of China), with well-preserved wings, body, antennae and tarsi, document relationship among species and enhance our understanding of the morphology of the extinct family Anomopterellidae Rasnitsyn, 1975. Based on eight well-preserved specimens, we describe, A. pygmea sp. n. and A. brevis sp. n., describe new materials of A. ovalis Li, Rasnitsyn, Shih & Ren, 2013, and A. ampla Li, Rasnitsyn, Shih & Ren, 2013, emend the genus in Anomopterellidae (A. pygmea sp. n. with toruli and eyes), and provide a determination key to species of the genus, including four specimens outside the formal classification.
Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A.
Abstract An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken. PMID:23794915
Li, Min; Tian, Ying; Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun
Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic.
Raupach, Michael J.; Hannig, Karsten; Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars
Abstract As molecular identification method, DNA barcoding based on partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences has been proven to be a useful tool for species determination in many insect taxa including ground beetles. In this study we tested the effectiveness of DNA barcodes to discriminate species of the ground beetle genus Bembidion and some closely related taxa of Germany. DNA barcodes were obtained from 819 individuals and 78 species, including sequences from previous studies as well as more than 300 new generated DNA barcodes. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BIN and traditionally recognized species for 69 species (89%). Low interspecific distances with maximum pairwise K2P values below 2.2% were found for three species pairs, including two species pairs with haplotype sharing (Bembidion atrocaeruleum/Bembidion varicolor and Bembidion guttula/Bembidion mannerheimii). In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with distinct lineages were revealed for two species (Bembidion geniculatum/Ocys harpaloides). Our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of the analyzed ground beetles species and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for the Carabidae in Germany and Central Europe as well. PMID:27408547
Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Grozeva, Snejana M.; Hartung, Viktor; Anokhin, Boris A.
Abstract Telomeric repeats are general and significant structures of eukaryotic chromosomes. However, nothing is known about the molecular structure of telomeres in the enigmatic hemipteran suborder Coleorrhyncha (moss bugs) commonly considered as the sister group to the suborder Heteroptera (true bugs). The true bugs are known to differ from the rest of the Hemiptera in that they display an inverted sequence of sex chromosome divisions in male meiosis, the so-called sex chromosome post-reduction. To date, there has been no information about meiosis in Coleorrhyncha. Here we report a cytogenetic observation of Peloridium pomponorum, a representative of the single extant coleorrhynchan family Peloridiidae, using the standard chromosome staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a (TTAGG)n telomeric probe. We show that Peloridium pomponorum displays 2n = 31 (30A + X) in males, the classical insect (TTAGG)n telomere organization and sex chromosome post-reduction during spermatocyte meiosis. The plesiomorphic insect-type (TTAGG)n telomeric sequence is suggested to be preserved in Coleorrhyncha and in a basal heteropteran infraorder Nepomorpha, but absent (lost) in the advanced heteropteran lineages Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha. The telomere structure in other true bug infraorders is currently unknown. We consider here the inverted sequence of sex chromosome divisions as a synapomorphy of the group Coleorrhyncha + Heteroptera. PMID:26753072
Ma, Yue; He, Kun; Yu, Panpan; Yu, Danna; Cheng, Xuefang; Zhang, Jiayong
The order Archaeognatha was an ancient group of Hexapoda and was considered as the most primitive of living insects. Two extant families (Meinertellidae and Machilidae) consisted of approximately 500 species. This study determined 3 complete mitochondrial genomes and 2 nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the bristletail. The size of the 5 mitochondrial genome sequences of bristletail were relatively modest, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The gene orders were identical to that of Drosophila yakuba and most bristletail species suggesting a conserved genome evolution within the Archaeognatha. In order to estimate archaeognathan evolutionary relationships, phylogenetic analyses were conducted using concatenated nucleotide sequences of 13 protein-coding genes, with four different computational algorithms (NJ, MP, ML and BI). Based on the results, the monophyly of the family Machilidae was challenged by both datasets (W12 and G12 datasets). The relationships among archaeognathan subfamilies seemed to be tangled and the subfamily Machilinae was also believed to be a paraphyletic group in our study. PMID:25635855
Marescalchi, O; Scali, V
Bacillus stick insects have proved adequate for studying a wide array of reproductive modes: sexual, parthenogenetic, hybridogenetic, androgenetic. Hybridogenetic strains (B. rossius-grandii) were thought to discard the paternal "grandii" haploset during first meiotic division and keep the "rossius" hemiclone, whereas the clonal B. whitei (=rossius/grandii) would maintain its hybrid structure by fusing back two nonsister nuclei-each derived from previously segregated heterospecific complements-by the end of the 2(nd) meiotic division. New investigations on laid eggs and ovariole squashes, either DAPI stained or FISH labeled, revealed that in hybridogens the "grandii" set is excluded from the germ line prior to meiosis and that a DNA extra-synthesis should occur to produce hemiclonal eggs after two cytologically normal meiotic divisions. On the other hand, in B. whitei eggs no genome segregation appears to occur and an intrameiotic DNA extra-synthesis must take place to produce 2n tetrachromatidic oocytes I; these divide twice and give unreduced clonal eggs. The new findings bring hybridogenetic oogenesis of Bacillus to be coincident with that of the known hemiclonal organisms and point to an independent onset of B. whitei from hemiclonal strains. In addition, B. whitei gains a closer resemblance to B. lynceorum owing to the sharing of a cytologically identical egg maturation mechanism, of the same maternal ancestor and of peculiar chromosomal features. It is here suggested that B. lynceorum originated from the incorporation of an "atticus" genome into a B. whitei egg, according to a pathway of repeated hybridization often occurred with other polyploid hybrids.
Dehghani, R; Limoee, M; Ahaki, A R
The sucking lice including the head, body and pubic louse infest humans and so they are of high hygienic importance. Pubic lice are transmitted during sexual contact in adults. Thus, infestation of children with pubis louse is very rare. A case of infestation with pubic louse (Pthirus pubis) in a family in Kashan was seen. On examination of family members, the parasites were collected and observed under the light microscope. Infestation of eyelashes with P. pubis lice was confirmed. Since this parasite can be observed on the skin, infestation with this louse has always been one of the concerns of human communities. Pthiriasis has frequently been reported in many parts of the world; however, there are few reports on this infestation in Iran, especially familial infestation with this louse. Hence, this article could be the first report on the familial infestation with P. pubis in Iran and it can be suggested that infestation with pubic lice occurs in sporadic form in all over the country.
Cicconardi, Francesco; Di Marino, Daniele; Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C.; Steiner, Florian M.
Chemoreception is essential for survival. Some chemicals signal the presence of nutrients or toxins, others the proximity of mating partners, competitors, or predators. Chemical signal transduction has therefore been studied in multiple organisms. In Drosophila species, a number of odorant receptor genes and various other types of chemoreceptors were found. Three main gene families encode for membrane receptors and one for globular proteins that shuttle compounds with different degrees of affinity and specificity towards receptors. By sequencing the genome of Drosophila nigrosparsa, a habitat specialist restricted to montane/alpine environment, and combining genomics and structural biology techniques, we characterised odorant, gustatory, ionotropic receptors and odorant binding proteins, annotating 189 loci and modelling the protein structure of two ionotropic receptors and one odorant binding protein. We hypothesise that the D. nigrosparsa genome experienced gene loss and various evolutionary pressures (diversifying positive selection, relaxation, and pseudogenisation), as well as structural modification in the geometry and electrostatic potential of the two ionotropic receptor binding sites. We discuss possible trajectories in chemosensory adaptation processes, possibly enhancing compound affinity and mediating the evolution of more specialized food, and a fine-tuned mechanism of adaptation. PMID:28256589
Mäenpää, Kimmo A; Sormunen, Arto J; Kukkonen, Jussi V K
The benthic macroinvertebrates Lumbriculus variegatus and Chironomus riparius were used in toxicity and bioaccumulation tests to determine the toxic concentrations and accumulation potential of sediment associated herbicides. The tested chemicals were ioxynil, bentazone, and pendimethalin. The bioaccumulation tests with L. variegatus were performed in four different sediments, each having different characteristics. Water-only LC(50) tests were performed with both L. variegatus and C. riparius. A sublethal effect of model compounds in sediments was assessed by a C. riparius larvae growth-inhibition test. Of the model compounds, ioxynil appeared to be the most toxic, with LC(50) values 1.79 and 2.79 mgL(-1) for L. variegatus and C. riparius, respectively. The LC(50) water concentrations for bentazone were 79.11 and 62.31 mgL(-1) for L. variegatus and C. riparius, respectively. Similarly, ioxynil revealed the highest bioaccumulation potential in bioaccumulation tests. The most important characters affecting chemical fate in the sediment seemed to be the organic matter content and the particle size fraction. The sediments with low organic material and coarse particle size consistently showed high bioaccumulation potential and vice versa. In C. riparius growth tests bentazone had a statistically significant effect on larval growth at sediment concentrations of 1160 and 4650 mgkg(-1) (P<0.05). It is noteworthy that standard deviations tend to be greater at high chemical concentrations, which addresses the fact that part of the individuals started to suffer. Ioxynil had an effect on the larval growth in other test sediment at the highest concentration (15.46 mgkg(-1)dw), in which head capsule length correlated with larval weight, decreasing toward higher exposure concentrations. The current results show the importance of sediment organic matter as a binding site of xenobiotics.
Lafontaine, J Donald; Schmidt, B Christian
A total of 124 additions and corrections are listed and discussed for the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico published in 2010. Twenty-eight species are added to the list, 16 through new species descriptions, eight as a result of taxonomic splits, and four based on newly recorded species. Forty-eight species are deleted from the list, 41 through synonymy, and seven that were based on misidentifications. Twelve changes are corrections in the spelling of names, or changes in parentheses on dates of publication. Twenty-seven are changes in taxonomy of names where no species are added or deleted; eight changes involve the renumbering of existing species for better taxonomic arrangement. Within the text 2 stat. n., 10 stat. rev., 27 syn. n., 5 syn. rev., and 1 comb. n. are proposed for the first time.
Mariño-Pérez, Ricardo; Mayén-Estrada, Rosaura; Dovgal, Igor V
A new species of suctorian in the genus Periacineta, epibiotic on aquatic bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Nepomorpha), is described on the basis of morphological characteristics of the cell body, lorica, tentacular placement, and stalk, and its 18S rRNA partial sequence gene. Periacineta mexicana n. sp. is a loricate suctorian with elongate body and rounded apical region; tentacles are distributed randomly over apical region and not grouped into fascicles. Macronucleus in adult is elongate and located centrally. The suctorian usually forms closely aggregated pseudocolonies. We provide morphological data based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. A comparison with similar congeners, and emended diagnosis of the genus Periacineta also are provided. The ciliates were found attached to the first two pairs of legs of Mexican notonectids Buenoa pallens and Buenoa spp. (backswimmers).
Shreve, Scott M; Johnson, Kevin P
The scaly-winged bark louse, Echmepteryx hageni, exhibits a unique pattern of co-existence of apparently differnt reproductive modes. Unisexuality is widespread in eastern North America, while sexual populations are restricted to isolated rock out-croppings in southern Illinois and eastern Kentucky. Three of the four nuclear loci examined show greater genetic diversity in the unisexual form compared to the sexual form of E. hageni, in accordance with the pattern previously shown in mitochondrial genetic data. Neutrality tests of the nuclear loci indicate a consistent signal of demographic expansion in asexual populations, but not in sexual populations. There was evidence of inbreeding in the isolated sexual populations at three of the nuclear loci, and one locus had signs of gene specific balancing selection. However, there is no significant genetic differentiation between bisexual and unisexual populations, possibly due to the greater effective population size of nuclear loci relative to mitochondrial loci. The mitochondrial differentiation of E. hageni populations in the northwestern part of their range (Minnesota and Wisconsin) was also not reflected in the nuclear data. We present three hypotheses that may explain the disparity in observed nuclear and mitochondrial genetic diversity between the reproductive forms of E. hageni.
Soledad Leonardi, Maria; Palma, Ricardo Luis
We present a literature review of the sucking louse family Echinophthiriidae, its five genera and twelve species parasitic on pinnipeds (fur seals, sea lions, walruses, true seals) and the North American river otter. We give detailed synonymies and published records for all taxonomic hierarchies, as well as hosts, type localities and repositories of type material; we highlight significant references and include comments on the current taxonomic status of the species. We provide a summary of present knowledge of the biology and ecology for eight species. Also, we give a host-louse list, and a bibliography to the family as complete as possible.
Periplaneta americana, Blatta orientalis, Blattella germanica and Supella longipalpa are the most common worldwide cockroaches that mentioned in the "22 common pest" or "22 dirty" species named as "group I". They are able to infest any type of buildings. A meta-analysis review was conducted between January 2015 and July 2016 on any literature published about infestation of cockroaches. Scientific reports and papers about infestation of cockroaches and relevant topics were collected from various specific scientific websites such as PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Springer, Elsevier, Scopus, and Google Scholar. About 271 scientific reports and papers were collected and after a preliminary review, 63 were selected to become part of the detailed synthesis review and meta-analysis. Results showed that the global world mean infestation trend of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species ranged 49.0-55.0, 40.0-70.0 and 60.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches, and B. germanica and P. americana cockroach species were 52.3, 55.2 and 65.4, respectively. There was a significant difference between the global world mean infestation of cockroaches and P. americana cockroach species (P=0.019). The global mean infestation trend of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world ranged 55.0-65.0 and 50.0-70.0%, respectively suggests that their infestation trend are increasing. The global world mean infestation of cockroaches in the human dwelling environments and world were 60.4 and 57.7%, respectively. Although some factors affect the infestation of cockroaches and the sanitation and quality structure of the buildings are also being improved. While as present study reveal that the globally the world infestation trend of cockroaches are being increased and recent studies also indicate that the prevalence of asthma has increased dramatically over the decades suggest that infestation of cockroaches can directly affect the development of asthma.
Votýpka, Jan; Suková, Eva; Kraeva, Natalya; Ishemgulova, Aygul; Duží, Ivana; Lukeš, Julius; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav
To further investigate the diversity of Trypanosomatidae we have examined the species present within the flea (Siphonaptera) population in the Czech Republic. Out of 1549 fleas, 239 were found to be infected by trypanosomatids. Axenic cultures were established from 90 infected specimens and 29 of them were further characterized. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the SL RNA, gGAPDH, and SSU rRNA genes revealed a striking diversity within this group and analyzed isolates were classified into 16 Typing units (TUs) of which 15 typified new species. In addition to one Trypanosoma species, two TUs grouped within the sub-family Leishmaniinae, two clustered together with Herpetomonas, wheras 11 TUs formed a novel clade branching off between Trypanosoma spp. and remaining trypanosomatids. We propose to recognize this clade as a new genus Blechomonas and a new subfamily Blechomonadinae, and provide molecular and morphological description of 11 TUs representing this genus. Our finding of such an ancient host-specific group sheds new light at the origin of Trypanosomatidae and the roots of dixenous parasitism. The strict host restriction of Blechomonas to Siphonaptera with adult fleas' dependence on blood meal may reflect passing of parasites from larvae through pupae to adults and implies potential transmission to the warm-blooded vertebrates.
Gamerschlag, Sara; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Heukelbach, Jörg; Feldmeier, Hermann; D'Haese, Jochen
Different Tunga penetrans isolates from various hosts obtained from South America (Fortaleza. Brazil) have been studied by nucleotide sequence comparison of the first and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, ITS2) of the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) and part of the mitochondrial 16S rDNA. Results show no significant host-dependent sequence differences. No indication for intraindividual and intraspecific polymorphisms could be detected. Comparing the ITS1 spacer region of T. penetrans from South America with that from Africa (Togo, Cameroon), distinct length variations have been observed caused by a repetitive sequence motif of 99 bp. The ITS1 from the South American T. penetrans contain two tandemly repeated copies, whereas four of these units are present in the spacer of the African T. penetrans. The absence of homogenization of these units indicates a recent separation of both populations. However, the different number of repetitions together with two base substitutions put the evolutionary distance of only 135 years as postulated for the transfer of T. penetrans from South America to Africa into question. Repetitive sequences could also be detected within the ITS1 rDNA region of other flea species Ctenocephalides felis, Echidnophaga gallinacea, Pulex irritans, Spilopsyllus cuniculi, and Xenopsylla cheopis. The repeat units with lengths from 10 to 99 bp are arranged in pure tandem or interspersed. The repetitive elements observed in the ITS1 of various flea species may serve as a valuable tool for phylogeographic studies.
Tinti, F; Scali, V
Among Sicilian stick insects, two hybridogenetic complexes have been discovered: Bacillus rossius-grandii benazzii and B. rossius-grandii grandii, which also produce androgenetic offspring. The egg maturation of the former is analyzed here through DAPI fluorometry, which, besides the assessment of the meiotic stages, also allows their DNA measurements and the analysis of sperm-head evolution into male pronuclei in these polyspermic eggs. Hybridogenetic eggs undergo an extrasynthesis of chromosomes, because two groups of n autobivalents (4C each) are segregated at metaphase 1st; the two groups must correspond to the pure parental species haplosets. Then the grandii chromosomes degenerate (1st polar body), while the rossius chromosomes divide further to produce two groups of n autodiads (2C each); one of them degenerates (2nd polar body), and the other is ready to perform syngamy (female pronucleus). Meanwhile, several B. grandii sperm evolve into male pronuclei by doubling their DNA (from 1C to 2C content) and assuming an interphase nucleus appearance. If regular mixis occurs, the F1 hybrid constitution is restored but, if it fails, a fusion between two sperms may occur, originating fully paternal descendants (natural androgenesis). The genome exclusion mechanism of stick-insect hybridogens appears to be more primitive than those observed in the already known hybridogenetic complexes of Poeciliopsis and Rana esculenta. Unfertilized eggs of hybridogens are capable of self-activation, but the cytology of the related clonally reproducing B. whitei indicates that its parthenogenetic mechanism stems from the hybridization event (hybrid theory) rather than from tychoparthenogenetic potentialities (spontaneous theory).
Suzuki, Tomoya; Kitano, Tadashi; Tojo, Koji
Appasus japonicus and A. major, two belostomatid species of the giant water bug found in parts of East Asia, have very similar morphological characteristics and ecological niches, and also overlapping habitats. However, the results of our previous published study utilizing molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed extensive genetic differences, which indicated that the possibility of inter-specific hybridization was extremely unlikely. We collected A. japonicus and A. major from the Japanese Archipelago, Korean Peninsula, and Russian Far East, and conducted molecular analyses of mitochondrial DNA COI and 16S rRNA to compare phylogenetic relationships between these species. Three major clades were recognized within A. japonicus. Specimens from the Korean population constituted a monophyletic clade, and were a sister group of the western region of the Japanese Archipelago. The Eastern Japanese clade was clearly differentiated. Four major clades were recognized within A. major. Specimens from the Japanese and Korean populations revealed two distinct monophyletic clades. Significant differentiation was clearly observed between their genetic structures. Furthermore, the results of mismatch distribution and Bayesian skyline plot analyses suggested the possibility of a bottleneck effect or founder effect in two of the A. major clades. Collectively, these results demonstrated both similarities and differences in these two species even though their distribution widely overlaps in East Asia, with their morphological characteristics and ecological niches being very similar. These differences in genetic structures are considered to be due to their evolutionary history.
Roy, Sukhendu; Hazra, Niladri
Coriophagus calcaneus n. sp. (Coriophaginae) and Halictophagus prominens n. sp. (Halictophaginae) are described from India. Coriophagus calcaneus is the first record of the genus Coriophagus Kinzelbach from India. The genus Coriophagus is restricted in the Gondwanaland, while Halictophagus Curtis has a cosmopolitan distribution.
Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz
The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia - PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range.
Sartiami, Dewi; Mound, Laurence A
An illustrated identification key is provided to 49 species of Thysanoptera, Terebrantia that have been found in association with cultivated plants in Java. This is the first published identification system to this group of insects from Indonesia, and includes 15 species not previously recorded from Indonesia, and a further three species not previously recorded from Java. A table is provided indicating the plants from which thrips were taken.
Lyons, Kathleen M; Dikow, Torsten
The Afrotropical Mydidae genera Ectyphus Gerstaecker, 1868 and Parectyphus Hesse, 1972 are revised. Six species of Ectyphus are recognised (Ectyphus abdominalis Bezzi, 1924, Ectyphus armipes Bezzi, 1924, Ectyphus capillatus Hesse, 1969, Ectyphus pinguis Gerstaecker, 1868, and Ectyphus pretoriensis Bezzi, 1924), of which one is newly described from Kenya, Ectyphus amboselisp. n. Two species, Ectyphus bitaeniatus Hesse, 1969 and Ectyphus flavidorsalis Hesse, 1969, are newly synonymised with Ectyphus pinguis. The monotypic genus Parectyphus Hesse, 1972 and the male of its type species Parectyphus namibiensis Hesse, 1972 are re-described while the female is described for the first time. Comments on the distribution of all species within biodiversity hotspots are given. A dichotomous identification key to the genera and species of world Ectyphinae is provided and illustrated keys to the world Ectyphinae are made available online in both dichotomous and multi-access, matrix-based formats.
Doweld, Alexander B
The genus Protochrysis (type species P. succinalis Bischoff, 1916, by monotypy) was established by Bischoff (1916: 139) for distinctive fossil insect remains of Eocene (Lutetian) age from the former Königsberg outskirts of East Prussia (now Kalinigrad, Russian Federation), referred at present to the Chrysididae (Hymenoptera) (Brues 1933; Carpenter 1985, 1992). However, an identical generic name Protochrysis had previously been proposed by Pascher (1911: 191) for a living protist (Cryptomonada). Bischoff's (1916) name is therefore an invalid junior homonym. Carpenter (1985: 577) proposed a new replacement name for the fossil genus, but overlooked the fact that his newly proposed generic name Protochrysidis was also preoccupied, again by the name of another protist genus, Protochrysidis [Protista: Chrysomonada] described by Skvortzov (1969: 346) from Harbin (China). In fact, the protistan genus Protochrysidis had initially been published as chrysophyte algae following the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants (McNeill et al. 2012) by Skvortzov (1961: 4) who had failed to designate holotype of the species, but later fulfilled all conditions for valid publication in 1969 by providing necessary typification and reference to formerly published description and illustrations. At present chrysophyte algae are still maintained as Chrysomonada in protozoology due to a continued somewhat archaic tradition (Preisig & Anderson 2002). Protochrysidis Skvortzov, 1969 remained little studied since the time of its first description and is currently treated as an incertae sedis protistan taxon.
The purpose of this application under Articles 78.1, 80.2.2, and 81.2.1 is to conserve current usage of the well-established genus-group name Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 for a genus of Neotropical fruit flies by suppression of the earlier name Cryptodacus Gundlach, 1862, currently a junior synonym of A...
Martínez-Hernandez, Fernando; Martínez-Ibarra, Jose A.; Catalá, Silvia; Villalobos, Guiehdani; de la Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan P.; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Espinoza, Bertha
The nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome B gene and the antennal phenotypes were analyzed for the following triatomine species: Triatoma longipennis, Triatoma pallidipennis, and Triatoma picturata, which belong to the Phyllosoma complex. These species inhabit sympatric areas from Talpa de Allende, Autlan de Navarro, and Teocuitatlan de Corona in Jalisco, Mexico. Molecular marker analysis showed that the sympatric individuals are the natural crossbred descendents of different individuals living in close proximity in these natural areas that resulted in mixed populations. The antennal phenotype results are coincident with these genetic findings, which point to the high similitude between all Phyllosoma complex populations analyzed. These data support the hypothesis that these species are morphotypes with chromatic and genetic varieties, which preserves the possibility of natural breeding with fertile descent. In conclusion, our results strongly support the hypothesis that T. pallidipennis, T. longipennis, and T. picturata are subspecies of the Phyllosoma complex. PMID:20064999
Bang, Kyeongrin; Park, Sujin; Yoo, Ji Yeon; Cho, Saeyoull
To isolate antimicrobial-related genes from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, we performed GeneFishing, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based differential display technique. An attacin-like complementary DNA (cDNA) including a 3'-untranslated region was identified from among 18 over-expressed genes in microbial-infected larvae. The full-length attacin cDNA from S. exigua cDNA (Seattacin) was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR. The attacin-like cDNA transcript was 765 nucleotides in length, and the predicted polypeptide was 254 amino acids in length with a calculated molecular mass of 27.6 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.44. The protein sequence of the attacin-like cDNA showed high identity to that of Trichoplusia ni (61.2%). The amino acid sequence identity of Seattacin to the orthologous proteins in Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Hlicoverpa armigera, Hyphantria cunea, Hyalophora cecropia, and Drosophila melanogaster was 61.2, 46.1, 44.5, 42.2, 39.5, 45.1, and 24.0%, respectively. To examine possible immune functions of the attacin-like cDNA, its expression was investigated by reverse transcriptase PCR analysis after challenging S. exigua with microorganisms. The attacin-like cDNA was expressed at high levels 12 h post-infection, and its expression was slightly induced 4-8 h post-infection compared to control larvae inoculated with sterile water. Furthermore, induced Seattacin showed biological activity against several bacteria including Escherichia coli DH5α, Pseudomonas cichorii, Bacillus subtilis, and Listeria monocytogenes. These results suggest that the attacin-like cDNA of S. exigua codes for antimicrobial peptides.
Ricci, Marco; Luchetti, Andrea; Bonandin, Livia; Mantovani, Barbara
The repetitive DNA content of the stick insect species Bacillus rossius (facultative parthenogenetic), Bacillus grandii (gonochoric), and Bacillus atticus (obligate parthenogenetic) was analyzed through the survey of random genomic libraries roughly corresponding to 0.006% of the genome. By repeat masking, 19 families of transposable elements were identified (two LTR and six non-LTR retrotransposons; 11 DNA transposons). Moreover, a de novo analysis revealed, among the three libraries, the first MITE family observed in polyneopteran genomes. On the whole, transposable element abundance represented 23.3% of the genome in B. rossius, 22.9% in B. atticus, and 18% in B. grandii. Tandem repeat content in the three libraries is much lower: 1.32%, 0.64%, and 1.86% in B. rossius, B. grandii, and B. atticus, respectively. Microsatellites are the most abundant in all species. Minisatellites were only found in B. rossius and B. atticus, and five monomers belonging to the Bag320 satellite family were detected in B. atticus. Assuming the survey provides adequate representation of the relative genome, the obligate parthenogenetic species (B. atticus), compared with the other two species analyzed, does not show a lower transposable element content, as expected from some theoretical and empirical studies.
Lyu, Zhou; Wan, Li-Hua; Yang, Yong-Qiang; Tang, Rui; Xu, Lyu-Zi
Examining the succession pattern of carrion insects on vertebrate carcasses is widely accepted as an effective method to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of decayed bodies. Investigation of the community of sarcosaprophagous insects, especially flies and beetles, is the foundation of the succession pattern study. This study aimed to investigate the sarcosaprophagous beetles succession on animal carcasses in the suburban area of southwestern China and to establish a basic catalog for forensic application. The present study was conducted in 2013 in a mountain in Chongqing municipality with modified Schoenly traps. Carcasses of miniature pig were used to simulate human bodies. For most carcasses, five decomposition stages were observed. A total of 2108 adult coleopterans belonging to at least 61 species and 18 families were collected in the study, and most of the specimens occurred at the advanced decay stage. Omosita colon (Linnaeus, 1758), Necrodes nigricornis (Harold, 1875), Necrobia ruficollis (Fabricius, 1775) and Neosilusa ceylonica (Kraatz, 1857) were the dominant species.
Shobrak, Mohammed; Alahmed, Azzam; Palma, Ricardo; Almalki, Mohammed; Nasser, Mohamed Gamal El-Den
Six species of terns, which breed on the Arabian Peninsula, were examined for head chewing lice of the genus Saemundssonia in four different islands around the coasts of Saudi Arabia, both in the Red Sea and in the Arabian Gulf. Four louse species were collected: Saemundssonia laticaudata, Saemundssonia melanocephalus, Saemundssonia meridiana and Saemundssonia sternae, of which three are recorded for the first time from this region. Also, we record three new host-louse associations for the world-Saemundssonia laticaudata and Saemundssonia sternae from white-cheeked terns and Saemundssonia melanocephalus from Saunders's terns-including a host-switch event of Saemundssonia laticaudata on white-cheeked terns in the Karan Island population. Gene bank data for the COI gene from seven species of Saemundssonia that infest marine birds were used to propose evolutionary trees using two different statistical methods: maximum parsimony (MP) and neighbour joining (NJ). The result indicated that the tree which was produced by NJ is likely to be more accurate as it appeared more compatible with hosts' phylogeny. The trees indicate relationships between tern Saemundssonia and congeneric species from other marine birds, especially from gulls. An ANOVA was also conducted to test the mean parasite load for each tern species studied, and results indicate that there is a relation between louse loads and colonization behaviour of the hosts. Data from lice examined and illustrations of lice and their hosts are also included.
Nieto, Julián Alexander Mendivil; Aldrete, Alfonso Neri García; Obando, Ranulfo González
Seven species of Loneura from natural areas of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, are described and illustrated. The female of L. andina is described for the first time. Two additional species, known only from the National Natural Park Gorgona (Cauca), are also recorded in Valle del Cauca. The new species are assigned to the infrageneric groups known in the genus. An identification key to males of Loneura is included.
In the mega-diverse insect order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths; 165,000 species total), 98% of the species fall in the clade Ditrysia, relationships within which are little understood. As the first step in a long-term study of ditrysian phylogeny, we tested the ability of maximum likelihood ana...
Clulow, F V; Davé, N K; Lim, T P; Cloutier, N R
Radium-226 levels in samples from an inactive U tailings site at Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada, were: 9,140 +/- 500 mBq g-1 dry weight in the substrate; 62 +/- 1 mBq g-1 dry weight in rye, Secale cereale, and less than 3.7 mBq g-1 dry weight in oats, Avena sativa, the dominant species established by revegetation of the tailings; and 117 +/- 7 mBq g-1 dry weight in washed and unwashed black cutworm larvae. Concentration ratios were: vegetation to tailings 0.001-0.007; black cutworms to vegetation 3.6 and black cutworms to tailings 0.01. The values are considered too low to be considered a hazard to herring gulls, Larus argentatus, which occasionally feed on cutworms.
Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Iorgu, Elena Iulia; Puskás, Gellért; Ivković, Slobodan; Borisov, Simeon; Gavril, Viorel Dumitru; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov
Abstract Described from the steppe zones north of the Black Sea, Caucasus, and central Asia, Gryllotalpa stepposa Zhantiev was recently recorded from a few localities in Greece, R. Macedonia, and Bulgaria. In May 2015, several specimens were collected from Ivrinezu Mare in Romania, which suggested a continuous distribution area of the species, stretching from the central Balkans to central Asia. Thus, to reveal its actual range of occurrence, a survey of several Orthoptera collections became mandatory and, as expected, a large number of misidentified specimens of Gryllotalpa stepposa were discovered, providing new data on the species distribution in south-eastern Europe, including also the first records of this mole cricket in Serbia and Hungary. Here a full locality list is presented of this species west of Ukraine and Moldova and the current geographic distribution of the genus Gryllotalpa in the Balkans is revised. A key for distinguishing the mole crickets in south-eastern Europe and a distribution map for this region are presented. PMID:27551213
Tian, Mingyi; Huang, Sunbin; Wang, Xinhui; Tang, Mingruo
Abstract Recent discoveries reveal that southern China’s karsts hold the most diverse and morphologically modified subterranean trechine beetles in the world, albeit the first troglobitic blind beetle was only reported in the early 1990’s. In total, 110 species belonging to 43 genera of cavernicolous trechines have hitherto been recorded from the karsts of southern China, including the following five new genera proposed below: Shiqianaphaenops Tian, gen. n., to contain two species: Shiqianaphaenops majusculus (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops majusculus Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), the type species from Cave Feng Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou, and Shiqianaphaenops cursor (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops cursor Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), from Cave Shenxian Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou; and the monotypic Dianotrechus Tian, gen. n. (the type species: Dianotrechus gueorguievi Tian, sp. n., from Cave Dashi Dong, Kunming, Yunnan), Tianeotrechus Tian & Tang, gen. n. (the type species: Tianeotrechus trisetosus Tian & Tang, sp. n., from Cave Bahao Dong, Tian’e County, Guangxi), Huoyanodytes Tian & Huang, gen. n. (the type species: Huoyanodytes tujiaphilus Tian & Huang, sp. n., from Longshan, Hunan) and Wanhuaphaenops Tian & Wang, gen. n. (the type species: Wanhuaphaenops zhangi Tian & Wang, sp. n., from Cave Songjia Dong, Chenzhou, Hunan). PMID:27081334
Luis-Martínez, Armando; Covarrubias, Arturo Arellano; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge
We list and illustrate Papilionoidea (s. l.) type specimens deposited in the Museo de Zoología "Alfonso L. Herrera" of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. The 36 type specimens belong to 29 genera, 14 subfamilies, and five families. We note locality data for each type, and illustrate 23 holotypes, 8 allotypes and 13 paratypes. The names were published between 1984 and 2013.
Kučinić, Mladen; Previšić, Ana; Mihoci, Iva; Krpač, Vladimir; Živić, Ivana; Stojanović, Katarina; Vojvoda, Ana Mrnjavčić; Katušić, Luka
Abstract A description of the larva of Drusus plicatus Radovanović is given for the first time. The most important diagnostic characters enabling separation from larvae of the other Drusinae from the southeast Europe are listed. Molecular, ecological, and ethological features and distribution patterns of the species are given. Additionally, information on the sympatric caddisfly species of the three springs where larvae and adults of Drusus plicatus were found and presented. PMID:27408591
Silva, Daniela Santos Martins; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Domenico, Fernando Campos De; Sperber, Carlos Frankl
Herein we describe a new species of Copiocerinae, Zygoclistron ruschii Silva n. sp., from Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil, collected from the Reserva Biológica Augusto Ruschi in the Santa Teresa municipality, Espírito Santo state, Brazil. The diagnosis of this new species is based on phallic complex and terminalia characters.
Yang, Qianqian; Zhao, Shuo; Kucerová, Zuzana; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George; Qin, Meng; Cao, Yang; Li, Fujun; Li, Zhihong
Psocids are serious storage pests, and their control is hampered by the fact that different species respond differently to insecticides used for the control of stored-product insect pests. Additionally, psocids of genus Liposcelis that are commonly associated with stored-products are difficult to identify using morphological characteristics. The goal of this study was to validate molecular identification of stored-product psocids of genus Liposcelis based on 16S rDNA and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) DNA barcoding. Unidentified liposcelids (Liposcelis DK) imported from Denmark to China were compared with 14 population samples of seven common species (L. bostrychophila, L. brunnea, L. corrodens, L. decolor, L. entomophila, L. mendax, and L. paeta). The explored species (DK) liposcelids shared >98% sequence similarity for both the 16S rDNA and COI genes with the reference L. corrodens samples (98.32 and 98.94% for 16S rDNA and COI, respectively). A neighbor-joining tree revealed that the explored DK sample and the reference L. corrodens samples belong to the same clade. These molecular results were verified by morphological identification of DK specimens, facilitated by SEM microphotography. The DNA barcoding method and the neighbor-joining phylogenetic analyses indicated that both the 16S rDNA and COI genes were suitable for Liposcelis species identification. DNA barcoding has great potential for use in fast and accurate liposcelid identification.
Cassis, Gerasimos; Symonds, Celia L
Megadrymus brigalow n. sp., a new species of seed bug, is described from semi-evergreen vine thicket in the Brigalow Belt region of Queensland, Australia. This species has the smallest body in the genus Megadrymus Gross and has a number of vestigial characters.
Dayaram, Anisha; Potter, Kristen A; Pailes, Roberta; Marinov, Milen; Rosenstein, Dana D; Varsani, Arvind
Next generation sequencing and metagenomic approaches are commonly used for the identification of circular replication associated protein (Rep)-encoding single stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses circulating in various environments. These approaches have enabled the discovery of some CRESS DNA viruses associated with insects. In this study we identified and recovered 31 viral genomes which represent 24 distinct CRESS DNA viruses from seven dragonfly species (Rhionaeschna multicolor, Erythemis simplicicollis, Erythrodiplax fusca, Libellula quadrimaculata, Libellula saturata, Pachydiplax longipennis, and Pantala hymenaea) and two damselfly species (Ischnura posita, Ischnura ramburii) sampled in various locations in the states of Arizona and Oklahoma of the United States of America (USA). We also identified Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus-1 (SsHADV-1) in P. hymenaea, E. simplicicollis and I. ramburii sampled in Oklahoma, which is the first report of SsHADV-1 in the New World. The genome architectures of the CRESS DNA viruses recovered vary, but they all have at least two major open reading frames (ORFs) that have either a bidirectional or unidirectional arrangement. Four of the viral genomes recovered, in addition to the three isolates of SsHADV-1, show similarities to viruses of the proposed gemycircularvirus group. Analysis of the Rep encoded by the remaining 24 viral genomes reveals that these are highly diverse and allude to the fact that they represent novel CRESS DNA viruses.
Erwin, Terry L.; Zamorano, Laura S.
Abstract This synopsis provides an identification key to the genera of Tribe Lachnophorini of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres including five genera previously misplaced in carabid classifications. The genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 is revised with 23 new species added and four species reassigned from Eucaerus LeConte, 1853 to Asklepia Liebke, 1938. In addition, a new genus is added herein to the Tribe: Peruphorticus gen. n. with its type species P. gulliveri sp. n. from Perú. Five taxa previously assigned to other tribes have adult attributes that make them candidates for classification in the Lachnophorini: Homethes Newman, Aeolodermus Andrewes, Stenocheila Laporte de Castelnau, Diplacanthogaster Liebke, and Selina Motschulsky are now considered to belong to the Lachnophorini as genera incertae sedis. Three higher level groups are proposed to contain the 18 recognized genera: the Lachnophorina, Eucaerina, and incertae sedis. Twenty-three new species of the genus Asklepia are described and four new combinations are presented. They are listed with their type localities as follows: (geminata species group) Asklepia geminata (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil; (hilaris species group) Asklepia campbellorum Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia demiti Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., circa Rio Demiti, Brazil, Asklepia duofos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia hilaris (Bates, 1871), comb. n, São Paulo de Olivença, Brazil, Asklepia grammechrysea Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Pithecia, Cocha Shinguito, Perú, Asklepia lebioides (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia laetitia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Leticia, Colombia, Asklepia matomena Zamorano & Erwin, sp.n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil; (pulchripennis species group) Asklepia adisi Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia asuncionensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Asunción, Río Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia biolat Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia bracheia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Explornapo Camp, Río Napo, Cocha Shimagai, Perú, Asklepia cuiabaensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Cuiabá, Brazil, Asklepia ecuadoriana Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Limoncocha, Ecuador, Asklepia kathleenae Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Belém, Brazil, Asklepia macrops Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Concordia, Río Uruguay, Argentina, Asklepia marchantaria Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia marituba Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Marituba, Ananindeua, Brazil, Asklepia paraguayensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., San Lorenzo, Rio Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia pakitza Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia pulchripennis (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia samiriaensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú, Asklepia stalametlitos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Guayamer, Río Mamoré, Bolivia, Asklepia strandi Liebke, 1938, Guyana, Asklepia surinamensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., l’Hermitage, Surinam River, Surinam, Asklepia vigilante Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú. Images of adults of all 18 genera are provided. PMID:25152663
Three species belonging to the genus Thalerosphyrus Eaton, 1881 are reported from Java and Sumatra. The nymphs of Th. determinatus (Walker, 1853) from Java, Th. sinuosus (Navás, 1933) from Java and Sumatra and Th. lamuriensis Sartori, 2014 from Sumatra are redescribed. The egg morphology of the three species is also presented for the first time. A key to the nymphs is proposed. General considerations on the composition of the genus Thalerosphyrus in the Oriental Realm are given. The distribution of the genus is greatly expended, and currently ranges over the Himalaya and Sumbawa in the Sunda Islands.
van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Geertsema, Henk
Abstract A grapevine leafminer found recently in table grape orchards and vineyards in the Paarl region (Western Cape, South Africa) is described as Holocacista capensis sp. n. It has also been found on native Rhoicissus digitata and bred on that species in the laboratory. It is closely related to Holocacista salutans (Meyrick, 1921), comb. n. (from Antispila), described from Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, but widespread in southern Africa and a native leafminer of various Vitaceae: Rhoicissus tomentosa, Rhoicissus digitata, Rhoicissus tridentata and Cissus cornifolia. Holocacista capensis has been found on Vitis vinifera both in Gauteng and Western Cape, the earliest record being from 1950 in Pretoria. The initial host shift from native Vitaceae to Vitis must have occurred much earlier. The species is sometimes present in high densities, but hitherto no sizeable damage to the crops has been noted. The genus Holocacista Walsingham & Durrant, 1909, previously known from the single European grapevine leafminer Holocacista rivillei (Stainton, 1855), is expanded and redescribed and for the first time reported from Africa, East and South-East Asia and Australia. It comprises seven named species and at least 15 unnamed species. The following species are also recombined with Holocacista: transferred from Antispilina: South-African Holocacista varii (Mey, 2011), comb. n., feeding on Pelargonium, transferred from Antispila: the Indian species Holocacista micrarcha (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. and Holocacista pariodelta (Meyrick, 1929), comb. n., both feeding on Lannea coromandelica, and Holocacista selastis (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. on Psychotria dalzelii. We also remove the following from Antispila: Heliozela anna (Fletcher, 1920), comb. n. and Heliozela argyrozona (Meyrick, 1918), comb. n., whereas the following Indian Vitaceae feeding species are confirmed to belong in Antispila s. str.: Antispila argostoma Meyrick, 1916 and Antispila aristarcha Meyrick, 1916. Holocacista salutans and Holocacista varii are redescribed and diagnosed against Holocacista capensis and other South African Heliozelidae. DNA barcodes are provided for 13 species of Holocacista. PMID:26155071
Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Regier, Jerome C.; Mitter, Charles; Davis, Donald; Landry, Jean-François; Zwick, Andreas; Cummings, Michael P.
Background Yponomeutoidea, one of the early-diverging lineages of ditrysian Lepidoptera, comprise about 1,800 species worldwide, including notable pests and insect-plant interaction models. Yponomeutoids were one of the earliest lepidopteran clades to evolve external feeding and to extensively colonize herbaceous angiosperms. Despite the group’s economic importance, and its value for tracing early lepidopteran evolution, the biodiversity and phylogeny of Yponomeutoidea have been relatively little studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Eight nuclear genes (8 kb) were initially sequenced for 86 putative yponomeutoid species, spanning all previously recognized suprageneric groups, and 53 outgroups representing 22 families and 12 superfamilies. Eleven to 19 additional genes, yielding a total of 14.8 to 18.9 kb, were then sampled for a subset of taxa, including 28 yponomeutoids and 43 outgroups. Maximum likelihood analyses were conducted on data sets differing in numbers of genes, matrix completeness, inclusion/weighting of synonymous substitutions, and inclusion/exclusion of “rogue” taxa. Monophyly for Yponomeutoidea was supported very strongly when the 18 “rogue” taxa were excluded, and moderately otherwise. Results from different analyses are highly congruent and relationships within Yponomeutoidea are well supported overall. There is strong support overall for monophyly of families previously recognized on morphological grounds, including Yponomeutidae, Ypsolophidae, Plutellidae, Glyphipterigidae, Argyresthiidae, Attevidae, Praydidae, Heliodinidae, and Bedelliidae. We also assign family rank to Scythropiinae (Scythropiidae stat. rev.), which in our trees are strongly grouped with Bedelliidae, in contrast to all previous proposals. We present a working hypothesis of among-family relationships, and an informal higher classification. Host plant family associations of yponomeutoid subfamilies and families are non-random, but show no trends suggesting parallel phylogenesis. Our analyses suggest that previous characterizations of yponomeutoids as predominantly Holarctic were based on insufficient sampling. Conclusions/Significance We provide the first robust molecular phylogeny for Yponomeutoidea, together with a revised classification and new insights into their life history evolution and biogeography. PMID:23383061
Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Reared Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Glyptapanteles Ashmead 1904 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) Associated with Lepidoptera in India.
Gupta, Ankita; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; More, Ravi P
Glyptapanteles Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a cosmopolitan group of hyperdiverse parasitic wasps. The genus remains taxonomically challenging in India due to its highly speciose nature, morphological similarity amongst species and negligible host records. The Indian fauna is one of the most diverse and also the least studied. The present study is based on 60 populations reared from 35 host species, 100+ individual caterpillar rearings (1100 wasp specimens pinned and 2000 in alcohol) and from 12 different geographical locations of the country (11 states and one Union territory) that represent 26 provisional Glyptapanteles species within 8 species-groups. Out of 60 populations, phylogenetic analyses were performed on 38 based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods displayed three and four major discrete Glyptapanteles clades, respectively. In clade A very few Indian species were grouped along with Neotropical and Thailand species. The other clades B and C grouped the majority of the Indian species and showed considerable host specificity in both the trees. All parasitic wasp species were gregarious in nature, except for two populations. Three different sets of data (morphology, host records, and COI) were integrated in order to generate accurate boundaries between species/species-groups. Illustrations of all parasitized caterpillars/cocoons and 42 habitus views of Glyptapanteles spp., distributional information, and GenBank accession numbers, are presented. The present study, perhaps the most comprehensive done to date in India, suggests the presence of several additional Glyptapanteles species, which were previously unrecognized.
Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Johnson, Kevin P
Phthiraptera (chewing and sucking lice) and Psocoptera (booklice and barklice) are closely related to each other and compose the monophyletic taxon Psocodea. However, there are two hypotheses regarding their phylogenetic relationship: (1) monophyletic Psocoptera is the sister group of Phthiraptera or (2) Psocoptera is paraphyletic, and Liposcelididae of Psocoptera is the sister group of Phthiraptera. Each hypothesis is supported morphologically and/or embryologically, and this problem has not yet been resolved. In the present study, the phylogenetic position of Phthiraptera was examined using mitochondrial 12S and 16S rDNA sequences, with three methods of phylogenetic analysis. Results of all analyses strongly supported the close relationship between Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae. Results of the present analyses also provided some insight into the elevated rate of evolution in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in Phthiraptera. An elevated substitution rate of mtDNA appears to originate in the common ancestor of Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae, and directly corresponds to an increased G+C content. Therefore, the elevated substitution rate of mtDNA in Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae appears to be directional. A high diversity of 12S rDNA secondary structure was also observed in wide range of Phthiraptera and Liposcelididae, but these structures seem to have evolved independently in different clades.
Martoni, Francesco; Eickbush, Danna G; Scavariello, Claudia; Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara
R2 is an extensively investigated non-LTR retrotransposon that specifically inserts into the 28S rRNA gene sequences of a wide range of metazoans, disrupting its functionality. During R2 integration, first strand synthesis can be incomplete so that 5' end deleted copies are occasionally inserted. While active R2 copies repopulate the locus by retrotransposing, the non-functional truncated elements should frequently be eliminated by molecular drive processes leading to the concerted evolution of the rDNA array(s). Although, multiple R2 lineages have been discovered in the genome of many animals, the rDNA of the stick insect Bacillus rossius exhibits a peculiar situation: it harbors both a canonical, functional R2 element (R2Brfun) as well as a full-length but degenerate element (R2Brdeg). An intensive sequencing survey in the present study reveals that all truncated variants in stick insects are present in multiple copies suggesting they were duplicated by unequal recombination. Sequencing results also demonstrate that all R2Brdeg copies are full-length, i. e. they have no associated 5' end deletions, and functional assays indicate they have lost the active ribozyme necessary for R2 RNA maturation. Although it cannot be completely ruled out, it seems unlikely that the degenerate elements replicate via reverse transcription, exploiting the R2Brfun element enzymatic machinery, but rather via genomic amplification of inserted 28S by unequal recombination. That inactive copies (both R2Brdeg or 5'-truncated elements) are not eliminated in a short term in stick insects contrasts with findings for the Drosophila R2, suggesting a widely different management of rDNA loci and a lower efficiency of the molecular drive while achieving the concerted evolution.
Letsch, Harald; Gottsberger, Brigitte; Ware, Jessica L
Ecological diversification of aquatic insects has long been suspected to have been driven by differences in freshwater habitats, which can be classified into flowing (lotic) waters and standing (lentic) waters. The contrasting characteristics of lotic and lentic freshwater systems imply different ecological constraints on their inhabitants. The ephemeral and discontinuous character of most lentic water bodies may encourage dispersal by lentic species in turn reducing geographical isolation among populations. Hence, speciation probability would be lower in lentic species. Here, we assess the impact of habitat use on diversification patterns in dragonflies (Anisoptera: Odonata). Based on the eight nuclear and mitochondrial genes, we inferred species diversification with a model-based evolutionary framework, to account for rate variation through time and among lineages and to estimate the impact of larval habitat on the potentially nonrandom diversification among anisopteran groups. Ancestral state reconstruction revealed lotic fresh water systems as their original primary habitat, while lentic waters have been colonized independently in Aeshnidae, Corduliidae and Libellulidae. Furthermore, our results indicate a positive correlation of speciation and lentic habitat colonization by dragonflies: speciation rates increased in lentic Aeshnidae and Libellulidae, whereas they remain mostly uniform among lotic groups. This contradicts the hypothesis of inherently lower speciation in lentic groups and suggests species with larger ranges are more likely to diversify, perhaps due to higher probability of larger areas being dissected by geographical barriers. Furthermore, larger range sizes may comprise more habitat types, which could also promote speciation by providing additional niches, allowing the coexistence of emerging species.
Hörnschemeyer, Thomas; Fischer, Christian
Spinning is a phenomenon not only present in spiders, but also in many other arthropods. The functional morphology and complexity of spinning organs is often poorly understood. Their elements are minute and studying them poses substantial methodological difficulties. This study presents a three-dimensional reconstruction of a silk gland of Embia sp. on cellular level, based on serial sections acquired with serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) to showcase the power of this method. Previous studies achieved either high resolution to elucidate the ultrastructure or satisfying three-dimensional representations. The high-resolution achieved by SBFSEM can be easily used to reconstruct the three-dimensional ultrastructural organization of cellular structures. The herein investigated spinning apparatus of Embioptera can be taken as an example demonstrating the potential of this method. It was possible to reconstruct a multinucleated silk gland containing 63 nuclei. We focused on the applicability of this method in the field of morphological research and provide a step-by-step guide to the methodology. This will help in applying the method to other arthropod taxa and will help significantly in adapting the method to other animals, animal parts and tissues. PMID:27853574
Carvalho-Filho, Fernando Da Silva; Almeida, Flávio Roberto De Albuquerque; Esposito, Maria Cristina
The nomen nudum Liriomyza flagellae is formerly described in this paper as Liriomyza valladaresae sp. nov., based on male and female specimens collected in the Brazilian Amazon and reared from leaves of Alternanthera tenella and Amaranthus viridis (Amaranthaceae). Information on the puparium and the biology of this new species are provided. The species Liriomyza blechi, previously recorded from the U.S.A., Guadeloupe and Dominican Republic, is newly recorded from Brazil, reared from leaves of Blechum pyramidatum (Acanthaceae) and Spigelia anthelmia (Loganiaceae).
Hamid, Suhaila Ab; Md Rawi, Che Salmah
A field study was performed to describe the functional feeding groups (FFGs) of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) in the Tupah, Batu Hampar and Teroi Rivers in the Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve (GJFR), Kedah, Malaysia. Twenty-nine genera belonging to 19 families were identified. The EPTs were classified into five FFGs: collector-gatherers (CG), collector-filterers (CF), shredders (SH), scrapers (SC) and predators (P). In this study, CG and CF were the dominant groups inhabiting all three rivers. Ephemeroptera dominated these rivers due to their high abundance, and they were also the CG (90.6%). SC were the lowest in abundance among all groups. Based on the FFGs, the Teroi River was suitable for CG, whereas the Tupah and Batu Hampar Rivers were suitable for CG and CF. The distribution of FFGs differed among the rivers (CG, χ(2) = 23.6, p = 0.00; SH, χ(2) = 10.02, p = 0.007; P, χ(2) = 25.54, p = 0.00; CF, χ(2) = 21.95, p = 0.00; SC, χ(2) = 9.31, p = 0.01). These findings indicated that the FFGs found in rivers of the GJFR represent high river quality.
Giannoulis, Paschalis; Brooks, Cory L; Dunphy, Gary B; Mandato, Craig A; Niven, Donald F; Zakarian, Robert J
Malacosoma disstria larvae are a pest of deciduous trees. Little is known on the interaction of bacteria with the immediate hemocytic antimicrobial responses of these insects. Incubating dead Xenorhabdus nematophila and Bacillus subtilis with a mixture of serum-free granular cells and plasmatocytes in vitro revealed differential bacterial-hemocyte adhesion and differential discharge of lysozyme and phenoloxidase but not total protein. Although active phenoloxidase adhered equally to both bacterial species, X. nematophila limited enzyme activation whereas B. subtilis enhanced activation. Serum with active phenoloxidase (as opposed to tropolone-inhibited phenoloxidase) and purified insect lysozyme increased bacterial-hemocyte adhesion of both bacterial species. An apolipophorin-III-like protein when incubated with hemocytes, limited their responses to glass slides and bacterial adhesion. However, initial binding of the protein to both bacteria increased granular cell levels with bacteria while lowering the plasmatocyte levels with adhering procaryotes. The protein also increased lysozyme and phenoloxidase activities. Although B. subtilis in vivo elicited a nodulation-based decline in total hemocyte counts and did not affect hemocyte viability, dead X. nematophila elevated hemocyte counts and damaged the hemocytes as lipopolysaccharide levels increased and X. nematophila emerged into the hemolymph. Apolipophorin-III-like protein once bound to the bacteria slowed their removal from the hemolymph.
Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Reared Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Glyptapanteles Ashmead 1904 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) Associated with Lepidoptera in India
Gupta, Ankita; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; More, Ravi P.
Glyptapanteles Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) is a cosmopolitan group of hyperdiverse parasitic wasps. The genus remains taxonomically challenging in India due to its highly speciose nature, morphological similarity amongst species and negligible host records. The Indian fauna is one of the most diverse and also the least studied. The present study is based on 60 populations reared from 35 host species, 100+ individual caterpillar rearings (1100 wasp specimens pinned and 2000 in alcohol) and from 12 different geographical locations of the country (11 states and one Union territory) that represent 26 provisional Glyptapanteles species within 8 species-groups. Out of 60 populations, phylogenetic analyses were performed on 38 based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) nucleotide sequences. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods displayed three and four major discrete Glyptapanteles clades, respectively. In clade A very few Indian species were grouped along with Neotropical and Thailand species. The other clades B and C grouped the majority of the Indian species and showed considerable host specificity in both the trees. All parasitic wasp species were gregarious in nature, except for two populations. Three different sets of data (morphology, host records, and COI) were integrated in order to generate accurate boundaries between species/species-groups. Illustrations of all parasitized caterpillars/cocoons and 42 habitus views of Glyptapanteles spp., distributional information, and GenBank accession numbers, are presented. The present study, perhaps the most comprehensive done to date in India, suggests the presence of several additional Glyptapanteles species, which were previously unrecognized. PMID:26942740
Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Masaru; Lee, Chow-Yang
Abstract The pygidicranid earwigs (Dermaptera) of Penang Island, Peninsular Malaysia were re-examined based on material collected in extensive field surveys in 2012–2013 and 2015. Echinosoma roseiventre Kamimura & Nishikawa, sp. n. is described and illustrated, and Cranopygia pallidipennis (de Haan, 1842) is reported from the island for the first time. The taxonomic and nomenclatural problems of the genus Cranopygia sensu Hincks (1959) [A Systematic Monograph of the Dermaptera of the World. Part II. Pygidicranidae excluding Diplatyinae. British Museum (Natural History)] are also discussed. For the members of the subfamily Pygidicraninae from Indo-Austral and Oriental regions, the system, definitions of genera, and key of Hincks (1959) are followed. The genus Mucrocranopygia Steinmann, 1986 is synonymized with Cranopygia Burr, 1908. A key to the males of small Echinosoma from the Oriental region is provided. PMID:27917064
Rosa, Paolo; Wiśniowski, Bogdan; Xu, Zai-fu
Abstract A critical and annotated catalogue of 183 types of Hymenoptera Chrysididae belonging to 124 taxa housed in the Radoszkowski collection is given. Radoszkowski type material from other institutes has also been checked. Six lectotypes are designated in Kraków (ISEA-PAN): Chrysis acceptabilis Radoszkowski, 1891; Chrysis persica Radoczkowsky, 1881; Chrysis daphnis Mocsáry, 1889; Chrysis lagodechii Radoszkowski, 1889; Chrysis remota Mocsáry, 1889 and Chrysis vagans Radoszkowski, 1877. The lectotype of Brugmoia pellucida Radoszkowski, 1877 is designated in Moscow (MMU). Four new combinations are proposed: Philoctetes araraticus (Radoszkowski, 1890), comb. n.; Pseudomalus hypocrita (du Buysson, 1893), comb. n.; Chrysis eldari (Radoszkowski, 1893), comb. n.; and Chrysura mlokosewitzi (Radoszkowski, 1889), comb. n.. Ten new synonyms are given: Chrysis auropunctata Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. of Chrysis angolensis Radoszkovsky, 1881; Chrysis chrysochlora Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. and Chrysis viridans Radoszkowski, 1891, syn. n. of Chrysis keriensis Radoszkowski, 1887; Chrysis angustifrons var. ignicollis Trautmann, 1926, syn. n. of Chrysis eldari (Radoszkowski, 1893); Chrysis maracandensis var. simulatrix Radoszkowski, 1891, syn. n. of Chrysis maracandensis Radoszkowski, 1877; Chrysis pulchra Radoszkovsky, 1880, syn. n. of Spinolia dallatorreana (Mocsáry, 1896); Chrysis rubricollis du Buysson, 1900, syn. n. of Chrysis eldari (Radoszkowski, 1893); Chrysis subcoerulea Radoszkowski, 1891, syn. n. of Chrysis chlorochrysa Mocsáry, 1889; Chrysis therates Mocsáry, 1889, syn. n. of Chrysis principalis Smith, 1874; and Notozus komarowi Radoszkowski, 1893, syn. n. of Elampus obesus (Mocsáry, 1890). One species is revaluated: Chrysis chalcochrysa Mocsáry, 1887. Chrysis kizilkumiana Rosa is the new name for Chrysis uljanini Radoszkowski & Mocsáry, 1889 nec Radoszkowski, 1877. Pictures of seventy-seven type specimens are given. PMID:25829848
Nascimento, Francisco E De L; Botero, Juan Pablo; Bravo, Freddy
A list of Cerambycidae species from three municipalities of central Bahia (Milagres, Maracás and Iaçu) is presented. A total of 108 species are registered, 17 of which are new geographical records for the state, are listed, including two new species of Aerenicini (Lamiinae), Suipinima flavumtuberculata sp. nov. and Aereniphaula bandana sp. nov. which are described and illustrated. A key to the species of Suipinima and taxonomic notes on Suipinima eccentrica (Galileo & Martins, 1992) are provided.
Kobayashi, Yukimasa; Niikura, Kazuhiro; Oosawa, Yuuki; Takami, Yasuoki
The egg morphology and successive changes in the developing embryos of the carabid ground beetle Carabus insulicola (Carabidae) are described based on light and scanning electron microscopy observations. Newly laid eggs of this species are ellipsoid and measure approximately 6.1 × 2.9 mm, before increasing to 6.6 × 3.4 mm at hatching. The egg period is about 11 days at 23°C. The egg shell is characterized by a thin fragile chorion covering a hard serosal cuticle. The embryo forms on the ventral egg surface, where it develops for the duration of the egg period. During the process of thoracic leg formation, two subcoxal rings, subcoxae-1 and 2, are clearly discernible at the basalmost region of the leg rudiments, and these subcoxae participate in the formation of the larval pleura and sterna. The result thus provides tangible evidence for the subcoxal theory, that is, that thoracic pleura and sterna are derived from subcoxal regions. Despite the complete absence of abdominal appendages in the larvae of this species, two pairs of appendage-like swellings, the medial and lateral ones, temporarily arise in the first eight abdominal segments during the middle of embryonic development. The medial swellings are assumed to be serially homologous with the coxal part of the thoracic leg, and they later flatten out and participate in the formation of the larval pleura (hypopleurites). In the light of the serially homologous relationships among gnathal appendages, thoracic legs, and abdominal appendage-like swellings, we identified the subcoxal regions in both the gnathal and abdominal segments. Although, the lateral swellings soon degenerate and disappear, it is considered that the swellings originate in the abdominal subcoxae-2 and may be homologous to the tracheal gills of larvae of Gyrinidae. Based on the embryological results, new interpretations for the constituent of gnathal appendages are proposed.
Rosa, B F J V; Dias-Silva, M V D; Alves, R G
This study describes the structure of the Chironomidae community associated with bryophytes in a first-order stream located in a biological reserve of the Atlantic Forest, during two seasons. Samples of bryophytes adhered to rocks along a 100-m stretch of the stream were removed with a metal blade, and 200-mL pots were filled with the samples. The numerical density (individuals per gram of dry weight), Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index, the dominance index (DI), and estimated richness were calculated for each collection period (dry and rainy). Linear regression analysis was employed to test the existence of a correlation between rainfall and the individual's density and richness. The high numerical density and richness of Chironomidae taxa observed are probably related to the peculiar conditions of the bryophyte habitat. The retention of larvae during periods of higher rainfall contributed to the high density and richness of Chironomidae larvae. The rarefaction analysis showed higher richness in the rainy season related to the greater retention of food particles. The data from this study show that bryophytes provide stable habitats for the colonization by and refuge of Chironomidae larvae, mainly under conductions of faster water flow and higher precipitation.
Chaboo, Caroline S; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K; Weeks, Andrea
The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San ("Bushmen") arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called 'click languages' in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|'hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|'hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|'hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes.
Valim, Michel P; Silveira, Luís F
We report the first records of chewing lice from an isolated population of the solitary tinamou (formerly known as Tinamus solitarius pernambucensis Berla, 1946) in the Pernambuco Centre of Endemism (PCE), Brazil. All louse records previously published from the solitary tinamou came from the populations south of the São Francisco River, formerly known as Tinamus solitarius solitarius (Vieillot, 1819). Five known species of the family Heptapsogasteridae were identified from the northern population of this host: Heptarthrogaster grandis Carriker, 1936; Ornicholax alienus (Giebel, 1874); Pterocotes solitarius Guimarães & Lane, 1937; Rhopaloceras oniscus (Nitzsch [in Giebel], 1866); and Strongylocotes wernecki Guimarães & Lane, 1937. Also, the new species Heptagoniodes guimaraesi is described and illustrated from the northern population of this host, and a key for identification of all the species of Heptagoniodes Carriker, 1936 is included. The discovery of H. guimaraesi is the first Brazilian example of a bird ectoparasite represented by two different species of the same genus living on two distinct populations of the same host species. Records of eight louse species and 31 new localities from the southern population of the solitary tinamou in Brazil are given, and an updated list of all the chewing lice known from both host populations [subspecies] is included.
Vas, Zoltán; Csorba, Gábor; Rózsa, Lajos
The taxonomic richness of lice (Phthiraptera) varies considerably among their avian and mammalian hosts. Previous studies explored some factors shaping louse diversity; however, the so-called Eichler's rule-according to which taxonomic richness of parasites co-varies with that of their hosts-has never been tested. Our study incorporates all families of birds and mammals and the whole order of lice to test this co-variation, thus we present the widest taxonomic range to test any correlates of louse richness. Louse richness data were controlled for uneven sampling effort. We used the method of independent contrasts to control for phylogenetic effects. We found a strong correlation between the species richness of avian and mammalian families and generic richness of their lice. We discuss some alternative macroevolutionary and macroecological hypotheses that may explain this phenomenon that may well be a general feature of parasitism and it seems possible that this effect contribute considerably to global biodiversity.
González-Acuña, D; Corvalan, F; Barrientos, C; Doussang, D; Mathieu, C; Nilsson, L; Casanueva, M E; Palma, R L
A total of 1,177 lice of four species were collected from 124 kelp gulls (Larus dominicanus) and 137 lice of the same four species from 60 Franklin's gulls (Larus pipixcan). The louse Saemundssonia lari (O Fabricius) (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) was the most numerous on both gull species, with infestation rates of 4.9 on kelp gulls and 1.8 on Franklin's gulls. The second most abundant louse was Quadraceps punctatus (Burmeister), with a high infestation rate but low prevalence on kelp gulls; those parameters were much lower among lice from Franklin's gulls. The composition and community structure of the lice were similar on both host species, but not their infestation rates. In addition, the feather mite Zachvatkinia larica Mironov (Acari: Avenzoariidae) is recorded from kelp gulls and Franklin's gulls for the first time, while the gamasid mite Larinyssus sp. is recorded from kelp gulls, also for the first time. The population parameters of all species of ectoparasites are discussed.
Three new species of chewing lice of the genus Emersoniella Tendeiro, 1965 (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) from Papua New Guinean kingfishers and kookaburras (Aves: Coraciiformes: Alcedinidae).
Gustafsson, Daniel R; Bush, Sarah E
Three new species of the ischnoceran louse genus Emersoniella (Phthiraptera) are described from four species of New Guinean kingfishers and kookaburras (Coraciiformes: Alcedinidae: Halcyoninae). They are: Emersoniella crassicarina n. sp. ex Dacelo gaudichaud Quoy & Gaimard (rufous-bellied kookaburra) and Dacelo leachii intermedia Salvadori (blue-winged kookaburra); E. reninoda n. sp. ex Melidora macrorrhina macrorhina Lesson (hook-billed kingfisher); and E. persei n. sp. ex Tanysiptera danae Sharpe (brown-headed paradise-kingfisher). In addition, we illustrate Emersoniella regis Emerson & Price, Emersoniella halcyonis Tendeiro, and the male genitalia of Emersoniella galateae Emerson & Price, as well as provide a complete host-louse checklist, and an updated key to all seven species of this genus.
Petrulevičius, Julián F.; Popov, Yuri A.
Abstract A new genus and species of Discocephalini, Acanthocephalonotum martinsnetoi gen. n. et sp. n. is described from Río Pichileufú, middle Eocene of Patagonia, Argentina at palaeolatitude ~ 46°S. The new species is the first fossil representative of the Discocephalinae. This taxon is extant in equatorial to subtropical America, and some species reach warm temperate latitudes (Buenos Aires province). The new genus is distinguished from the other genera of Discocephalini by the combination of these characters: interocular width greater than head length; head massive and quadrangular with the anterior margin almost straight; juga touching each other; labrum thick and curved; triangular ante-ocular process extending beyond the eye; broad spine-like antero-lateral process of the pronotum; pronotum explanate and bean shaped; scutellum triangular with a circular tongue reaching the anterior side of abdominal segment 7; and wings well developed with membrane just surpassing end of abdomen. PMID:25061387
Bacteriomes of the corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott, 1923) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) harbor Sulcia symbiont: molecular characterization, ultrastructure, and transovarial transmission.
Brentassi, María Eugenia; Franco, Ernesto; Balatti, Pedro; Medina, Rocío; Bernabei, Franco; Marino de Remes Lenicov, Ana M
In this study, we surveyed the bacteriome-associated microbiota of the corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis by means of histological, ultrastructural, and molecular analyses. Amplification and sequencing of 16S rDNA genes revealed that the endosymbiont "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" (Phylum Bacteroidetes) resides in bacteriomes of D. maidis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence was closely allied to others found in representatives of the subfamily Deltocephalinae. We failed to amplify other sequences as "Candidatus Nasuia deltocephalinicola," a co-primary symbiont frequently associated to deltocephaline leafhoppers. In addition, a metagenetic analysis carried out in order to investigate the presence of other bacteriome-associated bacteria of D. maidis showed that the sequence of Sulcia accounted for 98.56 % of all the sequences. Histological and ultrastructural observations showed that microorganisms harbored in bacteriomes (central syncytium and cytoplasm of uninucleate bacteriocytes) look like others Sulcia described in hemipteran species and they were transovarially transmitted from mother to offspring which is typical of obligate endosymbionts. The only presence of Sulcia in the bacteriomes of D. maidis was discussed.
Erwin, Terry L; Zamorano, Laura S
This synopsis provides an identification key to the genera of Tribe Lachnophorini of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres including five genera previously misplaced in carabid classifications. The genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 is revised with 23 new species added and four species reassigned from Eucaerus LeConte, 1853 to Asklepia Liebke, 1938. In addition, a new genus is added herein to the Tribe: Peruphorticus gen. n. with its type species P. gulliveri sp. n. from Perú. Five taxa previously assigned to other tribes have adult attributes that make them candidates for classification in the Lachnophorini: Homethes Newman, Aeolodermus Andrewes, Stenocheila Laporte de Castelnau, Diplacanthogaster Liebke, and Selina Motschulsky are now considered to belong to the Lachnophorini as genera incertae sedis. Three higher level groups are proposed to contain the 18 recognized genera: the Lachnophorina, Eucaerina, and incertae sedis. Twenty-three new species of the genus Asklepia are described and four new combinations are presented. They are listed with their type localities as follows: ( geminata species group) Asklepia geminata (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil; ( hilaris species group) Asklepia campbellorum Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia demiti Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., circa Rio Demiti, Brazil, Asklepia duofos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia hilaris (Bates, 1871), comb. n, São Paulo de Olivença, Brazil, Asklepia grammechrysea Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Pithecia, Cocha Shinguito, Perú, Asklepia lebioides (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia laetitia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Leticia, Colombia, Asklepia matomena Zamorano & Erwin, sp.n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil; ( pulchripennis species group) Asklepia adisi Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia asuncionensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Asunción, Río Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia biolat Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia bracheia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Explornapo Camp, Río Napo, Cocha Shimagai, Perú, Asklepia cuiabaensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Cuiabá, Brazil, Asklepia ecuadoriana Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Limoncocha, Ecuador, Asklepia kathleenae Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Belém, Brazil, Asklepia macrops Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Concordia, Río Uruguay, Argentina, Asklepia marchantaria Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia marituba Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Marituba, Ananindeua, Brazil, Asklepia paraguayensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., San Lorenzo, Rio Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia pakitza Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia pulchripennis (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia samiriaensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú, Asklepia stalametlitos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Guayamer, Río Mamoré, Bolivia, Asklepia strandi Liebke, 1938, Guyana, Asklepia surinamensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., l'Hermitage, Surinam River, Surinam, Asklepia vigilante Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú. Images of adults of all 18 genera are provided.
Jbilou, R; Amri, H; Bouayad, N; Ghailani, N; Ennabili, A; Sayah, F
Bioinsecticidal effects of methanol extracts from seven plant species on Tribolium castaneum were investigated. Centaurium erythraea, Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Aristolochia baetica, Pteridium aquilinum and Raphanus raphanistrum extracts inhibit growth of larvae. C. erythraea was the most toxic with 63% mortality 10 days after treatment, followed by P. harmala with 58%. C. erythraea and P. aquilinum reduce the emergence rate respectively of 66% and 19%. The duration of larval period was shortened by Launaea arborescens, P. aquilinum and A. iva extracts, whereas R. raphanistrum and P. harmala extracts extend the larval period when compared to the control. Extracts of C. erythraea, P. harmala, A. iva and A. baetica inhibited F1 progeny production. Larvae possess three alpha-amylase isoforms as determined by SDS-PAGE. Larvae fed on treated diet had lower alpha-amylase activity than larvae feed on untreated diet. C. erythraea and P. harmala are the most potent extracts. These plant extracts could be useful to reduce seed damage caused by this pest species.
Johnson, Arthur A; Kleve, Maurice G
Two new species of Strelkovimermis are described from chironomid imagoes eclosing from northern Minnesota glacial lakes. The 2 species are distinguished from the other 12 species in the genus by terminal mouths, rounded or nippled posterior ends, short buccal funnels, short terminal limbs of the S-shaped vagina, and presence of a bursal sleeve. Strelkovimermis rubtsovi n. sp. is distinguished from S. ozawindibi n. sp. by the presence of a dorsal protractor. Procladius (Psilotanypus) bellus (Loew) is the host of S. rubtsovi. The chironomid host of S. ozawindibi has not been determined. An artificial key is provided to distinguish the 14 species of the genus.
Senthil Nathan, Sengottayan; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Chung, Paul Gene; Murugan, Kadarkarai
Neem is derived from the neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae), and its primary insecticidal component is the tetranortriterpenoid azadirachtin and other limonoids. The effect of neem limonoids azadirachtin, salannin, deacetylgedunin, gedunin, 17-hydroxyazadiradione and deacetylnimbin on enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity of the rice leaffolder (RLF) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae was investigated. There was a decrease in enzyme activity relative to the control at all concentrations tested. When fed a diet of rice leaves treated with neem limonoids in bioassays, gut tissue enzyme, LDH levels in rice leaffolder larvae are affected. These results indicate neem limonoids affect LDH activity. These effects are most pronounced in early instar larvae. Azadirachtin was the most potent in of all the limonoids in all experiments indicating strong enzyme inhibition. Clear dose-response relationships were established with respect to LDH activity.
Stonis, Jonas Rimantas; Diskus, Arūnas
We describe Tischeria gouaniae sp. n. from the tropical forests of Belize. The new species is a leaf-miner of Gouania polygama (Rhamnaceae). Together with the related T. bifurcata Braun, it is among the most striking representatives of Tischeria. Both species possess a pseudognathos and very broad aedeagus fused with extremely long lateral processes of the juxta. The new species differs from T. bifurcata in the broadly rounded vinculum, spiny juxta, and slender apical processes of the aedeagus, and in its host plant. The external features and male genitalia of Tischeria gouaniae sp. n. are figured and described. A checklist and distribution map for all nine currently known Tischeria species from North and South America are given. Most American species are known from USA, but others are now known from tropical forest habitats of Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana. Host-plants are known for five of the nine species reviewed here, belonging to four genera and two plant families (Fagaceae and Rhamnaceae).
Stonis, Jonas Rimantas; Diskus, Arūnas
Two new species are described from the tropical forest of Belize: Coptotriche singularis (host-plant unknown) and C. forsteroniae (leaf-miner on Forsteronia myriantha, Apocynaceae). The external features and male genitalia are figured and described for both species. A checklist of Coptotriche species comprising 31 species currently known from the Americas is given. Most of the species are known from mainland USA and Canada, and only a few from the Neotropics (the Caribbean and Belize).
Schoville, Sean D; Slatyer, Rachel A; Bergdahl, James C; Valdez, Glenda A
For many terrestrial species, habitat associations and range size are dependent on physiological limits, which in turn may influence large-scale patterns of species diversity. The temperature range experienced by individuals is considered to shape the breadth of the thermal niche, with species occupying temporally and/or geographically stable climates tolerating a narrow temperature range. High-elevation environments experience large temperature fluctuations, with frequent periods below 0 °C, but Grylloblatta (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) occupy climatically stable microhabitats within this region. Here we test critical thermal limits and supercooling points for five Grylloblatta populations from across a large geographic area, to examine whether the stable microhabitats of this group are associated with a narrow thermal niche and assess their capacity to tolerate cold conditions. Thermal limits are highly conserved in Grylloblatta, despite substantial genetic divergence among populations spanning 1500 m elevation and being separated by over 500 km. Further, Grylloblatta show exceptionally narrow thermal limits compared to other insect taxa with little capacity to improve cold tolerance via plasticity. In contrast, upper thermal limits were significantly depressed by cold acclimation. Grylloblatta maintain coordinated movement until they freeze, and they die upon freezing. Convergence of the critical thermal minima, supercooling point and lower lethal limits point to adaptation to a cold but, importantly, constant thermal environment. These physiological data provide an explanation for the high endemism and patchy distribution of Grylloblatta, which relies on subterranean retreats to accommodate narrow thermal limits. These retreats are currently buffered from temperature fluctuations by snow cover, and a declining snowpack thus places Grylloblatta at risk of exposure to temperatures beyond its tolerance capacity.
Mally, Richard; Korycinska, Anastasia; Agassiz, David J. L.; Hall, Jayne; Hodgetts, Jennifer; Nuss, Matthias
Abstract The larvae of the Old World genera Leucinodes Guenée, 1854 and Sceliodes Guenée, 1854 are internal feeders in the fruits of Solanaceae, causing economic damage to cultivated plants like Solanum melongena and Solanum aethiopicum. In sub-Saharan Africa five nominal species of Leucinodes and one of Sceliodes occur. One of these species, the eggplant fruit and shoot borer Leucinodes orbonalis Guenée, 1854, is regarded as regularly intercepted from Africa and Asia in Europe, North and South America and is therefore a quarantine pest on these continents. We investigate the taxonomy of African Leucinodes and Sceliodes based on morphological characters in wing pattern, genitalia and larvae, as well as mitochondrial DNA, providing these data for identification of all life stages. The results suggest that both genera are congeneric, with Sceliodes syn. n. established as junior subjective synonym of Leucinodes. Leucinodes orbonalis is described from Asia and none of the samples investigated from Africa belong to this species. Instead, sub-Saharan Africa harbours a complex of eight endemic Leucinodes species. Among the former nominal species of Leucinodes (and Sceliodes) from Africa, only Leucinodes laisalis (Walker, 1859), comb. n. (Sceliodes) is confirmed, with Leucinodes translucidalis Gaede, 1917, syn. n. as a junior subjective synonym. The other African Leucinodes species were unknown to science and are described as new: Leucinodes africensis sp. n., Leucinodes ethiopica sp. n., Leucinodes kenyensis sp. n., Leucinodes malawiensis sp. n., Leucinodes pseudorbonalis sp. n., Leucinodes rimavallis sp. n. and Leucinodes ugandensis sp. n. An identification key based on male genitalia is provided for the African Leucinodes species. Most imports of Leucinodes specimens from Africa into Europe refer to Leucinodes africensis, which has been frequently imported with fruits during the last 50 years. In contrast, Leucinodes laisalis has been much less frequently recorded, and Leucinodes pseudorbonalis as well as Leucinodes rimavallis only very recently in fruit imports from Uganda. Accordingly, interceptions of Leucinodes from Africa into other continents will need to be re-investigated for their species identity and will likely require, at least in parts, revisions of the quarantine regulations. The following African taxa are excluded from Leucinodes: Hyperanalyta Strand, 1918, syn. rev. as revised synonym of Analyta Lederer, 1863; Analyta apicalis (Hampson, 1896), comb. n. (Leucinodes); Lygropia aureomarginalis (Gaede, 1916), comb. n. (Leucinodes); Syllepte hemichionalis Mabille, 1900, comb. rev., Syllepte hemichionalis idalis Viette, 1958, comb. rev. and Syllepte vagans (Tutt, 1890), comb. n. (Aphytoceros). Deanolis iriocapna (Meyrick, 1938), comb. n. from Indonesia is originally described and misplaced in Sceliodes, and Leucinodes cordalis (Doubleday, 1843), comb. n. (Margaritia) from New Zealand, Leucinodes raondry (Viette, 1981), comb. n. (Daraba) from Madagascar as well as Leucinodes grisealis (Kenrick, 1912), comb. n. (Sceliodes) from New Guinea are transferred from Sceliodes to Leucinodes. While Leucinodes is now revised from Africa, it still needs further revision in Asia. PMID:25632252
Golub, Natalia V; Nokkala, Seppo; Kuznetsova, Valentina G
The pattern of nucleolus attachment and C-heterochromatin distribution and molecular composition in the karyotypes of psocid species Psococerastis gibbosa (2n = 16+X), Blaste conspurcata (2n = 16+X) and Amphipsocus japonicus (2n = 14+neo-XY) were studied by C-banding, silver impregnation and sequence specific fluorochromes CMA3 and DAPI. Every species was found to have a single nucleolus in male meiosis. In P. gibbosa the nucleolus is attached to an autosomal bivalent; in B. conspurcata to the X-chromosome; in A. japonicus to the neo-XY bivalent. The species show a rather small amount of constitutive heterochromatin, C-blocks demonstrating telomeric localization with rare exceptions. P. gibbosa is characterized by a polymorphism for C-blocks occurrence and distribution. In the autosomes of this species, C-heterochromatin consists of AT-rich DNA except for the nucleolus organizing region, which is also GC-rich; the X-chromosome shows both AT- and GC-rich clusters. In A. japonicus and B. conspurcata, C-heterochromatin of the autosomes and sex chromosomes consists of both GC-rich and AT-rich DNA clusters, which are largely co-localized.
Raupach, Michael J.; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M.; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M.
During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance <2.2% within 21 species pairs (39 species). For ten of these species pairs (18 species), minimum pairwise distances were zero. In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with maximum pairwise distances >2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)). PMID:25203616
Ibrahimi, Halil; Kučinić, Mladen; Gashi, Agim; Grapci-Kotori, Linda
Adult caddisflies were collected from 12 stations in the Black Sea basin in Kosovo using UV light traps. Sixty-five of the seventy-six species reported in this paper are first records for the Kosovo caddisfly fauna. The unexpected discovery of several species during this investigation: Agapetus delicatulus McLachlan, 1884, Psychomyia klapaleki Malicky, 1995, Tinodes janssensi Jacquemart, 1957, Hydropsyche emarginata Navas, 1923, Drusus botosaneanui Kumanski, 1968, Potamophylax rotundipennis (Brauer, 1857), Potamophylax schmidi Marinković-Gospodnetić, 1970, Ceraclea albimacula (Rambur, 1842), Helicopsyche bacescui Orghidan & Botosaneanu, 1953, Adicella filicornis (Pictet, 1834), Beraea maurus (Curtis, 1834) and Beraeamyia hrabei Mayer, 1937 illustrates that collections from poorly investigated areas in Europe will almost certainly revise the existing knowledge on the distribution of these and other species.
Kučinić, Mladen; Szivák, Ildikó; Pauls, Steffen U.; Bálint, Miklós; Delić, Antun; Vučković, Ivan
Abstract We describe a new autumnal caddisfly species Chaetopteryx bucari sp. n. from 8 localities in the Banovina region of Croatia. We also present molecular, taxonomic and ecological notes (emergence, sex ratio and seasonal dynamics) on the new species and discuss the distribution of Chaetopteryx species in general and the Chaetopteryx rugulosa group in particular. Based on Bayesian phylogenetic analysis Chaetopteryx rugulosa schmidi was separated from the clade containing the other subspecies of Chaetopteryx rugulosa. Thus the subspecies Chaetopteryx rugulosa schmidi is here raised to species level, Chaetopteryx schmidi, as it was described originally. We further present distribution data on rare species in the genus Chaetopteryx in Croatia. PMID:23950680
Rodrigues, Luiz G.; Gonçalves, Ana Clara; Mejdalani, Gabriel
Abstract A new species of Euragallia Oman, 1938 from Peru (Pasco Department) is described and illustrated. Euragallia batmani sp. n. can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by the very posteriorly pronounced male pygofer, with an apical hook-like projection, and by the well-developed dorsal area of the aedeagal base, resembling the open wings of a bat. With the addition of Euragallia batmani sp. n., the number of Euragallia species is increased to 21. Only one additional species of the genus is recorded from Peru (Euragallia prion Kramer, 1976). A comparison between the new species and Euragallia prion is provided. A conspicuous structure, which connects the subgenital plates to the styles, is described in detail and named. PMID:22539879
Hamid, Suhaila Ab; Md Rawi, Che Salmah
A field study was performed to describe the functional feeding groups (FFGs) of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) in the Tupah, Batu Hampar and Teroi Rivers in the Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve (GJFR), Kedah, Malaysia. Twenty-nine genera belonging to 19 families were identified. The EPTs were classified into five FFGs: collector-gatherers (CG), collector-filterers (CF), shredders (SH), scrapers (SC) and predators (P). In this study, CG and CF were the dominant groups inhabiting all three rivers. Ephemeroptera dominated these rivers due to their high abundance, and they were also the CG (90.6%). SC were the lowest in abundance among all groups. Based on the FFGs, the Teroi River was suitable for CG, whereas the Tupah and Batu Hampar Rivers were suitable for CG and CF. The distribution of FFGs differed among the rivers (CG, χ2 = 23.6, p = 0.00; SH, χ2 = 10.02, p = 0.007; P, χ2 = 25.54, p = 0.00; CF, χ2 = 21.95, p = 0.00; SC, χ2 = 9.31, p = 0.01). These findings indicated that the FFGs found in rivers of the GJFR represent high river quality. PMID:25210588
Lafontaine, J Donald; Schmidt, B Christian
A total of 64 additions and corrections are listed and discussed for the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico published in 2010. One family-group name is inserted, four are changed in rank, one is deleted, one is changed in name, and three are changed in authorship. Taxonomic changes to species are six new or revised synonymies, one new combination, and one revision in status from species to subspecies.
Jurenka, R; Nusawardani, T
The pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN) family of G-protein-coupled receptors and their ligands have been identified in various insects. Physiological functions of pyrokinin peptides include muscle contraction, whereas PBAN regulates, among other functions, pheromone production in moths which indicates the pleiotropic nature of these peptides. Based on the alignment of annotated genomic sequences, the pyrokinin/PBAN family of receptors have similarity with the corresponding structures of the capa or periviscerokinin receptors of insects and the neuromedin U receptors of vertebrates. In our study, evolutionary trace (ET) analysis on the insect receptor sequences was conducted to predict the putative ligand recognition and binding sites. The ET analysis of four class-specific receptors indicated several amino acid residues that are conserved in the transmembrane domains. The receptor extracellular domains exhibit several class-specific amino acid residues, which could indicate putative domains for activation of these receptors by ligand recognition and binding.
Chaboo, Caroline S.; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K.; Weeks, Andrea
Abstract The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San (“Bushmen”) arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called ‘click languages’ in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|’hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|’hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|’hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes. PMID:27006594
Laudisoit, A; Beaucournu, J C
We recently described two new taxa of Siphonaptera (Ctenophthalmus (Ethioctenophthalmus) teucqoe teucqaoe et C. (E.) teucqae shumeensis Laudisoit & Beaucournu, 2007) from Lushoto plague focus (West Usambara mountains, Tanzania). A new taxa is here being studied, Ctenophthalmus kemmelberg, an original flea, not only for its genitalia, but also for original structures appearing, and that have not been described yet, at our knowledge, in any Mecopteroid. These are visible in females only. We suggest the name "Teucq's organs" for those remarkable structures.
Pijnacker, L P; Ferwerda, M A
The eggs of the parthenogenetic stick insect Carausius morosus, which remain arrested in first meiotic metaphase until oviposition, must be activated in order to develop. The activating agent is oxygen from the air, which enters the egg cell through the micropyle. An exposure shorter than one minute is sufficient to release the blockage. In non-activated (micropyle-less) eggs the first metaphase chromsomes either degenerate or change into an interphase nucleus. This nucleus polyploidizes by endoreduplication, and then either degenerates or multiplies by amitosis. Similarly more generations of nuclei may arise resulting in a chaotic development. These nuclei survive better in the anterior region of the egg. The question of whether the cytoplasmic factors which control nuclear behaviour, also operate in eggs of C. morosus is discussed.
Jeyaprakash, Ayyamperumal; Hoy, Marjorie A; Allsopp, Michael H
High-fidelity PCR of 16S rRNA sequences was used to identify bacteria associated with worker adults of the honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera capensis and Apis mellifera scutellata. An expected approximately 1.5-kb DNA band, representing almost the entire length of the 16S rRNA gene, was amplified from both subspecies and cloned. Ten unique sequences were obtained: one sequence each clustered with Bifidobacterium (Gram-positive eubacteria), Lactobacillus (Gram-positive eubacteria), and Gluconacetobacter (Gram-negative alpha-proteobacteria); two sequences each clustered with Simonsiella (beta-proteobacteria) and Serratia (gamma-proteobacteria); and three sequences each clustered with Bartonella (alpha-proteobacteria). Although the sequences relating to these six bacterial genera initially were obtained from either A. m. capensis or A. m. scutellata or both, newly designed honeybee-specific 16S rRNA primers subsequently amplified all sequences from all individual workers of both subspecies. Attempts to amplify these sequences from eggs have failed. However, the wsp primers designed to amplify Wolbachia DNA from arthropods, including these bees, consistently produced a 0.6-kb DNA band from individual eggs, indicating that amplifiable bacterial DNA was present. Hence, the 10 bacteria could have been acquired orally from workers or from other substrates. This screening of 16S rRNA sequences from A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata found sequences related to Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium which previously had been identified from other honeybee subspecies, as well as sequences related to Bartonella, Gluconacetobacter, Simonsiella/Neisseria, and Serratia, which have not been identified previously from honeybees.
Raupach, Michael J; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M
During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance <2.2% within 21 species pairs (39 species). For ten of these species pairs (18 species), minimum pairwise distances were zero. In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with maximum pairwise distances >2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)).