von Dohlen, C D; Moran, N A
Homoptera and Heteroptera comprise a large insect assemblage, the Hemiptera. Many of the plant sap-sucking Homoptera possess unusual and complex life histories and depend on maternally inherited, intracellular bacteria to supplement their nutritionally deficient diets. Presumably in connection with their diet and lifestyles, the morphology of many Homoptera has become greatly reduced, leading to major controversies regarding the phylogenetic affiliations of homopteran superfamilies. The most fundamental question concerns whether the Homoptera as a whole are monophyletic. Recent studies based on morphology have argued that the Homoptera Sternorrhyncha (Aphidoidea, Coccoidea, Psylloidea, Aleyrodoidea) is a sister group to a group comprising the Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha (Fulgoroidea, Cicadoidea, Cercopoidea, Cicadelloidea) and the Heteroptera, making the Homoptera paraphyletic. We sequenced the 5' 580-680 base pairs of small-subunit (18S) ribosomal DNA from a selection of Homoptera, Hemiptera, and their putative outgroups, the Thysanoptera and Psocoptera, to apply molecular characters to the problem of Homoptera phylogeny. Parsimony, distance, maximum-likelihood, and bootstrap methods were used to construct trees from sequence data and assess support for the topologies produced. Molecular data corroborate current views of relationships within the Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha based on morphology and strongly support the hypothesis of homopteran paraphyly as stated above. In addition, it was found that Homoptera Sternorrhyncha have extra, GC-rich sequence concentrated in a variable region of the 18S rDNA, which indicates that some unique evolutionary processes are occurring in this lineage.
The fungus Aschersonia basicystison scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidae) is described and illustrated on the basis of the examination of Venezuelan collections, using transmitted light and differential interference contrast optical microscopy.
Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria
Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants. PMID:27324580
Gavrilov-Zimin, Ilya A.; Stekolshchikov, Andrey V.; Gautam, D.C.
Abstract Parallel trends of chromosomal evolution in Aphidococca are discussed, based on the catalogue of chromosomal numbers and genetic systems of scale insects by Gavrilov (2007) and the new catalogue for aphids provided in the present paper. To date chromosome numbers have been reported for 482 species of scale insects and for 1039 species of aphids, thus respectively comprising about 6% and 24% of the total number of species. Such characters as low modal numbers of chromosomes, heterochromatinization of part of chromosomes, production of only two sperm instead of four from each primary spermatocyte, physiological sex determination, "larval" meiosis, wide distribution of parthenogenesis and chromosomal races are considered as a result of homologous parallel changes of the initial genotype of Aphidococca ancestors. From a cytogenetic point of view, these characters separate Aphidococca from all other groups of Paraneoptera insects and in this sense can be considered as additional taxonomic characters. In contrast to available paleontological data the authors doubt that Coccinea with their very diverse (and partly primitive) genetic systems may have originated later then Aphidinea with their very specialised and unified genetic system. PMID:26312130
Kozłowski, Jan; Strażyński, Przemysław; Jaskulska, Monika; Kozłowska, Maria
Lupin plants are frequently damaged by various herbivorous invertebrates. Significant among these are slugs and aphids, which sometimes attack the same plants. Relationships between aphids, slugs and food plant are very interesting. Grazing by these pests on young plants can lead to significant yield losses. There is evidence that the alkaloids present in some lupin plants may reduce grazing by slugs, aphids and other invertebrates. In laboratory study was analyzed the relationships between aphid Aphis craccivora and slug Deroceras reticulatum pests of legumes Lupinus angustifolius. It was found that the presence of aphids significantly reduced slug grazing on the plants. The lupin cultivars with high alkaloid content were found to be less heavily damaged by D. reticulatum, and the development of A. craccivora was found to be inhibited on such plants.
Hafizal, M. M.; Idris, A. B.
The leafhopper (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and planthopper (Homoptera: Cicadelidae) are considered as important rice pest in Asia including Malaysia. As phloem-feeders, they can cause loss to rice growth development and their population abundance is thought to be influenced by rice growth stages. This study was conducted to examine the population of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae between different rice growth stages, i.e. before and after rice planting periods. Monthly sampling was conducted in three sites in Kuala Selangor at before planting, vegetative, reproductive, maturing stages and post-harvest period using sweeping net and light traps. Population abundance of Delphacidae and Cicadelidae were found to be significantly different and positively correlated with different rice growth stages (p<0.05). Delphacidae was most abundance during maturing stages, while the abundance of Cicadelidae peaked during reproductive stage of rice growth. Differences in temporal abundance of the population of these two homopterans indicated adaptive feeding strategy to reduce food competition.
Background Efforts to solve higher-level evolutionary relationships within the class Insecta by using mitochondrial genomic data are hindered due to fast sequence evolution of several groups, most notably Hymenoptera, Strepsiptera, Phthiraptera, Hemiptera and Thysanoptera. Accelerated rates of substitution on their sequences have been shown to have negative consequences in phylogenetic inference. In this study, we tested several methodological approaches to recover phylogenetic signal from whole mitochondrial genomes. As a model, we used two classical problems in insect phylogenetics: The relationships within Paraneoptera and within Holometabola. Moreover, we assessed the mitochondrial phylogenetic signal limits in the deeper Eumetabola dataset, and we studied the contribution of individual genes. Results Long-branch attraction (LBA) artefacts were detected in all the datasets. Methods using Bayesian inference outperformed maximum likelihood approaches, and LBA was avoided in Paraneoptera and Holometabola when using protein sequences and the site-heterogeneous mixture model CAT. The better performance of this method was evidenced by resulting topologies matching generally accepted hypotheses based on nuclear and/or morphological data, and was confirmed by cross-validation and simulation analyses. Using the CAT model, the order Strepsiptera was recovered as sister to Coleoptera for the first time using mitochondrial sequences, in agreement with recent results based on large nuclear and morphological datasets. Also the Hymenoptera-Mecopterida association was obtained, leaving Coleoptera and Strepsiptera as the basal groups of the holometabolan insects, which coincides with one of the two main competing hypotheses. For the Paraneroptera, the currently accepted non-monophyly of Homoptera was documented as a phylogenetic novelty for mitochondrial data. However, results were not satisfactory when exploring the entire Eumetabola, revealing the limits of the phylogenetic
Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...
Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...
F.H. Koch; H.M. Cheshire; H.A. Devine
After causing substantial mortality in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic United States, the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Homoptera: Adelgidae), has recently invaded the southern Appalachian region. Although general estimates of regional spread exist, the landscape level dynamics of A. tsugae invasion are poorly...
Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas
Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this
Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari:Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera:Aphidiae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological c...
Carapelli, Antonio; Vannini, Laura; Nardi, Francesco; Boore,Jeffrey L.; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano; Frati, Francesco
In this study, the nearly complete sequence (14,519 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera) is described. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are in the arrangement known to be ancestral for insects, but three tRNA genes (trnA, trnS(gcu), and trnL(uag)) have transposed to derived positions and there are three tandem copies of trnH, each of which is potentially functional. All of these rearrangements except for that of trnL(uag) is within the short span between nad3 and nad4 and there are numerous blocks of unassignable sequence in this region, perhaps as remnants of larger scale predisposing rearrangements. X. vesparum mtDNA nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward As and Ts, as is typical for insect mtDNAs. There is also significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the J-strand being richer in A than T and in C than G, and the N-strand showing an opposite skew for complementary pairs of nucleotides. The hypothetical secondary structure of the 16S rRNA has also been reconstructed, obtaining a structural model similar to that of other insects.
Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N
Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates--filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates.
Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.
Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with buckyball-shaped submicron proteinaceous secretory particles, called brochosomes. Here, we demonstrate that brochosomal coats, recently shown to be superhydrophobic, act as non-stick coatings and protect leafhoppers from contamination with their own sticky exudates—filtered plant sap. We exposed 137 wings of Alnetoidia alneti (Dahlbom), from half of which brochosomes were removed, to the rain of exudates under a colony of live A. alneti. One hundred and fifty-two droplets became stuck to the bared wings and only three to the intact wings. Inspection of the wings with a scanning electron microscope confirmed that the droplets that had hit the intact wings had rolled or bounced off the brochosomal coats. This is the first experimental study that tested a biological function of the brochosomal coats of leafhopper integuments. We argue that the production of brochosomes in leafhoppers and production of epidermal wax blooms in other sap-sucking hemipterans are alternative solutions, both serving to protect these insects from entrapment by their exudates. PMID:23904586
Doukas, Dimitrios; Payne, Christopher C
The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), is known to respond to UV light (UV). Field studies were conducted to improve our understanding of the behavioral effects and practical implications of using UV-blocking plastic films for the control of whitefly. Adult whiteflies were released in outdoor-located choice-chamber experiments with compartments clad with a range of films that transmitted incident UV to different extents. In release-recapture experiments, a very small proportion of the whiteflies recovered had dispersed into compartments where the entire UV spectrum was blocked, whereas the major proportion preferred compartments with UV. Compartments clad with films that blocked UV below 375 nm attracted significantly more whiteflies than films that blocked UV below 385 nm, whereas the absorption of UV wavelengths above 385 nm did not show any further effect on whitefly numbers. A reduction in the side cladding of the compartments by >20% significantly reduced the advantage of using UV-blocking films. Adult whitefly did not discriminate between direct- and diffused-light environments, as long as the UV-absorbing properties of the films were equivalent. Whitefly dispersal was influenced by the time of the day when adult whitefly were released, with a higher proportion of whitefly avoiding compartments clad with UV-blocking films, at times of the day when light intensities were higher. The future use of UV-blocking films as a potentially highly effective component of integrated pest management systems for the control of whitefly is discussed.
Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard
Cicadas (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae) use acoustic signalling for mate attraction and perceive auditory signals by a tympanal organ in the second abdominal segment. The main structural features of the ear are the tympanum, the sensory organ consisting of numerous scolopidial cells, and the cuticular link between sensory neurones and tympanum (tympanal ridge and apodeme). Here, a first investigation of the postembryonic development of the auditory system is presented. In insects, sensory neurones usually differentiate during embryogenesis, and sound-perceiving structures form during postembryogenesis. Cicadas have an elongated and subterranian postembryogenesis which can take several years until the final moult. The neuroanatomy and functional morphology of the auditory system of the cicada Okanagana rimosa (Say) are documented for the adult and the three last larval stages. The sensory organ and the projection of sensory afferents to the CNS are present in the earliest stages investigated. The cuticular structures of the tympanum, the tympanal frame holding the tympanum, and the tympanal ridge differentiate in the later stages of postembryogenesis. Thus, despite the different life styles of larvae and adults, the neuronal components of the cicada auditory system develop already during embryogenesis or early postembryogenesis, and sound-perceiving structures like tympana are elaborated later in postembryogenesis. The life cycle allows comparison of cicada development to other hemimetabolous insects with respect to the influence of specially adapted life cycle stages on auditory maturation. The neuronal development of the auditory system conforms to the timing in other hemimetabolous insects.
Miao, Jin; Han, Bao-Yu; Zhang, Qing-He
Feeding activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis (Gothe) (Homoptera: Cicadellidae), on resistant and susceptible cultivars of tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) were recorded and analyzed using the direct current electrical penetration graph (EPG) system. Six distinct EPG waveforms characterizing the feeding behavior of the tea green leafhopper, categorized as waveforms A, C, E, S, F, and R, were obtained during the investigation. Duration of passive ingestion, possibly of phloem (E), was the longest among all the probing waveforms on susceptible cultivars, whereas durations of the salivation (S) waveform and stylet work waveform (F) became longer on resistant cultivars. The durations of waveforms S and F on the resistant cultivar Jiandecha were slightly longer than those on the less resistant cultivar Yunguidaye, and both were significantly longer than those on the susceptible cultivars Hangzhoudaye and Zhushan-1. Waveform E was shorter on the resistant cultivar Jiandecha than on the less resistant cultivars Yunguidaye and was significantly shorter than on the susceptible cultivars (Hangzhoudaye and Zhushan-1). It is suggested that E, S, and F are the important waveforms related to leafhopper feeding behavior and tea plant resistance. Based on the results, the resistance levels of tea cultivars against the tea leafhopper can be evaluated quickly by direct current EPG. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
Liu, Qing; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Bo; Fang, Yan; Zheng, Daran; Zhang, Qi; Jarzembowski, Edmund A
A new genus and new species of Saucrosmylinae (Insecta, Neuroptera) is described as Huiyingosmylus bellus gen. et sp. nov., based on a well-preserved forewing from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. Huiyingosmylus gen. nov. is characterized by the large size of forewing, relatively wide R1 space with several rows of cells, anteriorly bent Rs, dense crossveins over the entire wing and undulate outer margin. A key to the genera of Saucrosymylinae is provided.
Larivière, Marie-Claude; Larochelle, André
An updated checklist of the New Zealand Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) is provided as a supplement to the "Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera): catalogue" of Larivière and Larochelle (2004: Fauna of New Zealand 50). A total of 142 genera and 319 species belonging to 28 families are recorded for New Zealand. Changes to the 2004 catalogue are documented. The synonymy and primary type information of taxa described between 2004 and July 2013 are also given. The presence of the anthocorid Macrotrachelia nigronitens in New Zealand is confirmed.
Bella, Salvatore; Cupani, Sebastiano; D'urso, Vera; Laudonia, Stefania; Sinno, Martina; Viggiani, Gennaro
A new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), O. balcluthae Viggiani et Laudonia n. sp., is described as a parasitoid of the eggs of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) associated with crimson fountain grass, Pennisetum setaceum (Poaceae) in Italy. Morphological features and biology of the new species are discussed and illustrated. The 28S-D2 and ITS2 regions were successfully amplified and sequenced.
Will, Kipling W; Liebherr, James K; Maddison, David R; Galián, José
Asymmetrical monorchy, or the complete absence of one testis coupled with the presence of its bilateral counterpart, is reported for 174 species of the carabid beetle tribes Abacetini, Harpalini, and Platynini (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) based on a survey of over 820 species from throughout the family. This condition was not found in examined individuals of any other carabid beetle tribes, or of other adephagan beetle families. One monorchid taxon within Platynini exhibits symmetrical vasa deferentia at the beginning of the pupal stadium, suggesting that developmental arrest of the underdeveloped vas deferens takes place in pupation. The point at which development of the testis is interrupted is unknown. Complete absence of one organ of a bilateral pair--absence asymmetry--is rarely found in any animal clade and among insects is otherwise only known for testes in the minute-sized beetles of the family Ptiliidae, ovaries in Scarabaeinae dung beetles, and ovaries of some aphids. Based on current phylogenetic hypotheses for Carabidae, testis loss has occurred independently at least three times, and up to five origins are possible, given the variation within Abacetini. Clear phylogenetic evidence for multiple independent origins suggests an adaptive or functional cause for this asymmetry. A previously posited taxon-specific hypothesis wherein herbivory in the tribe Harpalini led to testis loss is rejected. Optimal visceral packing of the beetle abdomen is suggested as a general explanation. Specifically, based on the function of various organ systems, we hypothesize that interaction of internal organs and pressure to optimize organ size and space usage in each system led to the multiple origins and maintenance of the monorchid condition. Testes are the only redundant and symmetrically paired structures not thought to be developmentally linked to other symmetrical structures in the abdomen. Among all possible organs, they are the most likely--although the observed
Mukha, D.V.; Sidorenko, A.P.; Lazebnaya, I.V.
General estimation of ribosomal DNA variation within the class Insecta is presented. It is shown that, using blot-hybridization, one can detect differences in the structure of the ribosomal gene cluster not only between genera within an order, but also between species within a genera, including sibling species. Structure of the ribosomal gene cluster of the Coccinellidae family (ladybirds) is analyzed. It is shown that cloned highly conservative regions of ribosomal DNA of Tetrahymena pyriformis can be used as probes for analyzing ribosomal genes in insects. 24 refs., 4 figs.
Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A
Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.
Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem
The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) has gained recognition as a key pest due to its invasive nature throughout the world. The P. solenopsis has a wide range of host plants and damages the cotton crop in various parts of the world. In view of the economic importance of this pest, a study on selection, inheritance and mechanism of spinosad resistance was conducted on P. solenopsis. Selection of field collected P. solenopsis for seven generations with spinosad resulted in a high resistance ratio of 282.45-fold. Genetic studies of spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis indicated that maternal effects are not involved in spinosad resistance; and resistance development is an autosomal and incompletely dominant trait. The number of genes involved in spinosad resistance was determined to be more than one, suggesting that resistance is controlled by multiple loci. The realized heritability (h (2)) value for spinosad resistance was 0.94. Synergism bioassays of spinosad with piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate showed that spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis could be due to esterase only. The study provides the basic information for implementation of effective resistance management strategies to control P. solenopsis.
Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali
The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest in many countries of the world because of its polyphagous nature and has caused huge losses to the cotton crop. The aim of present study was to explore the mode of inheritance and mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in P. solenopsis. After five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315-fold resistance compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The LC50 values of progenies of both reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1') showed no significant difference and degree of dominance values were 0.56 and 0.93 for F1 and F1', respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance and Lande's method revealed that more than one factors were involved in acetamiprid resistance. Realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.58 for acetamiprid resistance. A synergism study of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) with acetamiprid also showed the significant presence of P-450 mono-oxygenase and esterase in the acetamiprid resistance. Hence, acetamiprid resistance in the P. solenopsis was autosomal, incompletely dominant and polygenic. These results are a source of basic information to design and plan fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis.
Lessio, Federico; Alma, Alberto
The spatial distribution of the nymphs of Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera Cicadellidae), the vector of grapevine flavescence dorée (Candidatus Phytoplasma vitis, 16Sr-V), was studied by applying Taylor's power law. Studies were conducted from 2002 to 2005, in organic and conventional vineyards of Piedmont, northern Italy. Minimum sample size and fixed precision level stop lines were calculated to develop appropriate sampling plans. Model validation was performed, using independent field data, by means of Resampling Validation of Sample Plans (RVSP) resampling software. The nymphal distribution, analyzed via Taylor's power law, was aggregated, with b = 1.49. A sample of 32 plants was adequate at low pest densities with a precision level of D0 = 0.30; but for a more accurate estimate (D0 = 0.10), the required sample size needs to be 292 plants. Green's fixed precision level stop lines seem to be more suitable for field sampling: RVSP simulations of this sampling plan showed precision levels very close to the desired levels. However, at a prefixed precision level of 0.10, sampling would become too time-consuming, whereas a precision level of 0.25 is easily achievable. How these results could influence the correct application of the compulsory control of S. titanus and Flavescence dorée in Italy is discussed.
Gingery, Roy E; Anderson, Robert J; Redinbaugh, Margaret G
To determine the most economical and efficient means to maintain cultures of Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) and to screen for host plant resistance to MCDV, we evaluated the effects of temperature, light intensity, daylength, atmospheric pressure, and leafhopper gender on the frequency of transmission of MCDV by Grarminella nigrifrons Forbes (Homoptera: Cicadellidae). Female leafhoppers transmitted at higher frequencies than males under most conditions. In temperature studies, transmission rates for both male and female leafhoppers progressively increased as temperatures rose from 20 to 30 degrees C. At high light intensities, both males and females transmitted at greater frequencies than they did at low. Similarly, longer day lengths were correlated with higher transmission rates for both sexes. No significant differences in transmission rates were observed in response to differences in atmospheric pressure. The results also showed that transmission rates under most conditions are high enough to overcome potential ambiguities caused by inoculated susceptible plants that do not become infected (disease escapes) when screening for resistance.
Zhang, Yu-Bo; Gerken, Sarah; Chen, Xiang-Sheng
A replacement name is proposed for genus Dayus Gerken, 2001 (Crustacea: Peracarida: Cumacea), preoccupied by Dayus Mahmood, 1967 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The following changes are proposed: Jennidayus new replacement name = Dayus Gerken, 2001 (nec Mahmood 1967); Jennidayus pharocheradus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus pharocheradus Gerken, 2001; Jennidayus acanthus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus acanthus Gerken, 2001; Jennidayus makrokolosus (Gerken, 2001), comb. n. = Dayus makrokolosus Gerken, 2001.
Bono, Jeremy M.; Crespi, Bernard J.
Facultative joint colony founding by social insects provides opportunities to analyze the roles of genetic and ecological factors in the evolution of cooperation. Although cooperative nesting is observed in range of social insect taxa, the most detailed studies of this behavior have been conducted with Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps). Here, we show that foundress associations in the haplodiploid social thrips Dunatothrips aneurae (Insecta: Thysanoptera) are most often comprised of close relatives (sisters), though groups with unrelated foundresses are also found. Associations among relatives appear to be facilitated by limited female dispersal, which results in viscous population structure. In addition, we found that per capita productivity declined with increasing group size, sex ratios were female-biased, and some female offspring apparently remained in their natal domicile for some time following eclosion. D. aneurae thus exhibits a suite of similarities with eusocial Hymenoptera, providing evidence for the convergent evolution of associated social and life-history traits in Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera. PMID:26279604
Sweet, Andrew D; Allen, Julie M; Johnson, Kevin P
While parasitic lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) have historically been an important model taxon for understanding host-parasite coevolution, very few molecular markers have been developed for phylogenetic analysis. The current markers are insufficient to resolve many of the deeper nodes in this group; therefore, sequences from additional genetic loci are necessary. Here, we design primers targeting several nuclear protein coding genes based on a complete genome and transcriptome of Pediculus humanus L. plus transcriptomes and modest coverage genomic data from five genera of avian feather lice. These primers were tested on 32 genera of avian feather lice (Ischnocera), including multiple species within some genera. All of the new primer combinations produced sequences for the majority of the genera and had similar or higher divergences than the most widely used nuclear protein-coding gene in lice, EF-1α. These results indicate that these new loci will be useful in resolving phylogenetic relationships among parasitic lice.
Cheng, Xue-Fang; Zhang, Le-Ping; Yu, Dan-Na; Storey, Kenneth B; Zhang, Jia-Yong
Three complete mitochondrial genomes of Blaberidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Gromphadorhina portentosa, Panchlora nivea, Blaptica dubia) and one complete mt genome of Blattidae (Insecta: Blattodea) (Shelfordella lateralis) were sequenced to further understand the characteristics of cockroach mitogenomes and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationship of Blattodea. The gene order and orientation of these four cockroach genomes were similar to known cockroach mt genomes, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The mt genomes of Blattodea exhibited a characteristics of a high A+T composition (70.7%-74.3%) and dominant usage of the TAA stop codon. The AT content of the whole mt genome, PCGs and total tRNAs in G. portentosa was the lowest in known cockroaches. The presence of a 71-bp intergenic spacer region between trnQ and trnM was a unique feature in B. dubia, but absent in other cockroaches, which can be explained by the duplication/random loss model. Based on the nucleotide and amino acid datasets of the 13 PCGs genes, neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and bayesian inference (BI) analyses were used to rebuild the phylogenetic relationship of cockroaches. All phylogenetic analyses consistently placed Isoptera as the sister cluster to Cryptocercidae of Blattodea. Ectobiidae and Blaberidae (Blaberoidea) formed a sister clade to Blattidae. Corydiidae is a sister clade of all the remaining cockroach species with a high value in NJ and MP analyses of nucleotide and amino acid datasets, and ML and BI analyses of the amino acid dataset.
Ejaz, Masood; Ali Shad, Sarfraz
The Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a major agricultural and horticultural pest of crops throughout the world. To develop a better resistance management strategy for P. solenopsis, we conducted a study on life history parameters of different populations of this pest, one selected with spirotetramat (Spiro-SEL), an unselected (UNSEL) population, and their reciprocal crosses. We also studied the cross-resistance and the stability of spirotetramat resistance. The Spiro-SEL of P. solenopsis exhibited a 328.69-fold resistance compared to the susceptible population (Lab-PK). The Spiro-SEL population also displayed a moderate level of cross-resistance to profenofos and bifenthrin and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin. Resistance to spirotetramat in Spiro-SEL was unstable in the absence of selection. The study of life history parameters showed that there was a significant reduction in fitness parameters of Spiro-SEL population with a relative fitness value of 0.14. There was a significant decrease in survival rate, pupal weight, fecundity, egg hatching percentage, male and female generation time, intrinsic rate of population increase of males and females, biotic potential, and mean relative growth rate. It is concluded that selection with spirotetramat had marked effect on resistance development in P. solenopsis and upon removal of selection pressure spirotetramat resistance declined significantly, indicating unstable resistance. Development of resistance led to high fitness costs for the spirotetramat-selected population. Our study may provide the basic information on spirotetramat resistance and its mechanism to help develop the resistance management strategies.
Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and D. barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data
Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica v. virgifera (16,747 bp) and D. barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and...
Seery, David B; Biggins, Dean E; Montenieri, John A; Enscore, Russell E; Tanda, Dale T; Gage, Kenneth L
Burrows within black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, were dusted with deltamethrin insecticide to reduce flea (Insecta: Siphonaptera) abundance. Flea populations were monitored pre- and posttreatment by combing prairie dogs and collecting fleas from burrows. A single application of deltamethrin significantly reduced populations of the plague vector Oropsylla hirsuta, and other flea species on prairie dogs and in prairie dog burrows for at least 84 d. A plague epizootic on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge caused high mortality of prairie dogs on some untreated colonies, but did not appear to affect nearby colonies dusted with deltamethrin.
Fukutomi, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Keiji; Agata, Kiyokazu; Funayama, Noriko; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki
Various organisms have color patterns on their body surfaces, and these color patterns are thought to contribute to physiological regulation, communication with conspecifics, and signaling with the environment. An adult fly of Drosophila guttifera (Insecta: Diptera: Drosophilidae) has melanin pigmentation patterns on its body and wings. Though D. guttifera has been used for research into color pattern formation, how its pupal development proceeds and when the pigmentation starts have not been well studied. In this study, we defined the pupal stages of D. guttifera and measured the pigment content of wing spots from the pupal period to the period after eclosion. Using a transgenic line which carries eGFP connected with an enhancer of yellow, a gene necessary for melanin synthesis, we analyzed the timing at which the yellow enhancer starts to drive eGFP. We also analyzed the distribution of Yellow-producing cells, as indicated by the expression of eGFP during pupal and young adult periods. The results suggested that Yellow-producing cells were removed from wings within 3 h after eclosion, and wing pigmentation continued without epithelial cells. Furthermore, the results of vein cutting experiments showed that the transport of melanin precursors through veins was necessary for wing pigmentation. These results showed the importance of melanin precursors transported through veins and of extracellular factors which were secreted from epithelial cells and left in the cuticle.
Tszydel, M; Zabłotni, A; Wojciechowska, D; Michalak, M; Krucińska, I; Szustakiewicz, K; Maj, M; Jaruszewska, A; Strzelecki, J
Silk products are used in medicine as biomaterials, and are particularly promising as scaffolds in tissue engineering. To date only silkworm and spider silk medical potential has been evaluated, whereas the possible application of the material spun by caddisflies in wet environment has not been examined. Biomedical application of every natural material requires biocompatibility testing and evaluation of unique microbiological and mechanical properties. This article focuses on silk fibers formed in caddisflies cocoons of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera) larvae. Preliminary biological evaluation shows that trichopteran silk is not cytotoxic to human cells. Caddisfly silk itself does not possess antiseptic properties and thus sterilization is indispensable for its application in medicine. Among tested methods of sterilization and disinfection only thermal methods (tyndallization and autoclaving) enabled complete eradication of bacteria and gave fully sterile material. Caddisfly silk appeared to be resistant to high temperature. Fully sterile fibers can be stored without a loss of breaking force and tensile strength. Our work shows that trichopteran silk has a significant potential to be used as a biomaterial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N
Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200-700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165-172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m(-1). By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103-129° and SFEs above 20 mN m(-1). Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates.
Rakitov, Roman; Gorb, Stanislav N.
Leafhoppers (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae) actively coat their integuments with brochosomes, hollow proteinaceous spheres of usually 200–700 nm in diameter, with honeycombed walls. The coats have been previously suggested to act as a water-repellent and anti-adhesive protective barrier against the insect's own exudates. We estimated their wettability through contact angle (CA) measurements of water, diiodomethane, ethylene glycol and ethanol on detached wings of the leafhoppers Alnetoidia alneti, Athysanus argentarius and Cicadella viridis. Intact brochosome-coated integuments were repellent to all test liquids, except ethanol, and exhibited superhydrophobicity, with the average water CAs of 165–172°, and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) estimates not exceeding 0.74 mN m−1. By contrast, the integuments from which brochosomes were removed with a peeling technique using fluid polyvinylsiloxane displayed water CAs of only 103–129° and SFEs above 20 mN m−1. Observations of water-sprayed wings in a cryo-scanning electron microscope confirmed that brochosomal coats prevented water from contacting the integument. Their superhydrophobic properties appear to result from fractal roughness, which dramatically reduces the area of contact with high-surface-tension liquids, including, presumably, leafhopper exudates. PMID:23235705
Hua, Jimeng; Li, Ming; Dong, Pengzhi; Cui, Ying; Xie, Qiang; Bu, Wenjun
Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea) + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea))). PMID:19523246
Smith, David R.; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.
Abstract Background This is the second in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 47 species of "Symphyta" (Insecta: Hymenoptera), 30 of which are new state records for Arkansas: (Argidae) Sterictiphora serotina; (Cimbicidae) Abia americana; (Diprionidae) Monoctenus fulvus; (Orussidae) Orussus terminalis; (Pamphiliidae) Onycholyda luteicornis, Pamphilius ocreatus, P. persicum, P. rileyi; (Pergidae) Acordulecera dorsalis, A. mellina, A. pellucida; (Tenthredinidae) Caliroa quercuscoccineae, Empria coryli, Hoplocampa marlatti, Macrophya cassandra, Monophadnoides conspiculatus, Monophadnus bakeri, Nematus abbotii, Neopareophora litura, Pachynematus corniger, Paracharactus rudis, Periclista marginicollis, Pristiphora banski, P. chlorea, Strongylogaster impressata, S. remota, Taxonus epicera, Thrinax albidopictus, T. multicinctus, Zaschizonyx montana; (Xiphydriidae) Xiphydria tibialis. PMID:27222635
Sweet, Andrew D.; Chesser, R. Terry; Johnson, Kevin P.
Host–parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions. Using molecular sequence data for most phabine species and their lice, we estimated phylogenetic trees for all three groups (pigeons and doves, wing lice and body lice), and compared the phabine (host) tree with both parasite trees using multiple cophylogenetic methods. We found a pattern opposite to that found for New World pigeons and doves, with Australian wing lice showing congruence with their hosts, and body lice exhibiting a lack of congruence. There are no documented records of hippoboscid flies associated with Australian phabines, thus these lice may lack the opportunity to disperse among host species by attaching to hippoboscid flies (phoresis), which could explain these patterns. However, additional sampling for flies is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Large differences in body size among phabine pigeons and doves may also help to explain the congruence of the wing lice with their hosts. It may be more difficult for wing lice than body lice to switch among hosts that vary more dramatically in size. The results from this study highlight how host–parasite coevolutionary histories can vary by region, and how local factors can shape the relationship.
Sweet, Andrew D; Chesser, R Terry; Johnson, Kevin P
Host-parasite coevolutionary histories can differ among multiple groups of parasites associated with the same group of hosts. For example, parasitic wing and body lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) of New World pigeons and doves (Aves: Columbidae) differ in their cophylogenetic patterns, with body lice exhibiting higher phylogenetic congruence with their hosts than wing lice. In this study, we focus on the wing and body lice of Australian phabine pigeons and doves to determine whether the patterns in New World pigeons and doves are consistent with those of pigeons and doves from other regions. Using molecular sequence data for most phabine species and their lice, we estimated phylogenetic trees for all three groups (pigeons and doves, wing lice and body lice), and compared the phabine (host) tree with both parasite trees using multiple cophylogenetic methods. We found a pattern opposite to that found for New World pigeons and doves, with Australian wing lice showing congruence with their hosts, and body lice exhibiting a lack of congruence. There are no documented records of hippoboscid flies associated with Australian phabines, thus these lice may lack the opportunity to disperse among host species by attaching to hippoboscid flies (phoresis), which could explain these patterns. However, additional sampling for flies is needed to confirm this hypothesis. Large differences in body size among phabine pigeons and doves may also help to explain the congruence of the wing lice with their hosts. It may be more difficult for wing lice than body lice to switch among hosts that vary more dramatically in size. The results from this study highlight how host-parasite coevolutionary histories can vary by region, and how local factors can shape the relationship.
Background The gene composition, gene order and structure of the mitochondrial genome are remarkably stable across bilaterian animals. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are a major exception to this genomic stability in that the canonical single chromosome with 37 genes found in almost all other bilaterians has been lost in multiple lineages in favour of multiple, minicircular chromosomes with less than 37 genes on each chromosome. Results Minicircular mt genomes are found in six of the ten louse species examined to date and three types of minicircles were identified: heteroplasmic minicircles which coexist with full sized mt genomes (type 1); multigene chromosomes with short, simple control regions, we infer that the genome consists of several such chromosomes (type 2); and multiple, single to three gene chromosomes with large, complex control regions (type 3). Mapping minicircle types onto a phylogenetic tree of lice fails to show a pattern of their occurrence consistent with an evolutionary series of minicircle types. Analysis of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially-targetted genes inferred from the body louse, Pediculus, suggests that the loss of mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) may be responsible for the presence of minicircles in at least species with the most derived type 3 minicircles (Pediculus, Damalinia). Conclusions Minicircular mt genomes are common in lice and appear to have arisen multiple times within the group. Life history adaptive explanations which attribute minicircular mt genomes in lice to the adoption of blood-feeding in the Anoplura are not supported by this expanded data set as minicircles are found in multiple non-blood feeding louse groups but are not found in the blood-feeding genus Heterodoxus. In contrast, a mechanist explanation based on the loss of mtSSB suggests that minicircles may be selectively favoured due to the incapacity of the mt replisome to synthesize long replicative products without mtSSB and thus the
Cameron, Stephen L; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Whiting, Michael F; Johnson, Kevin P
The gene composition, gene order and structure of the mitochondrial genome are remarkably stable across bilaterian animals. Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) are a major exception to this genomic stability in that the canonical single chromosome with 37 genes found in almost all other bilaterians has been lost in multiple lineages in favour of multiple, minicircular chromosomes with less than 37 genes on each chromosome. Minicircular mt genomes are found in six of the ten louse species examined to date and three types of minicircles were identified: heteroplasmic minicircles which coexist with full sized mt genomes (type 1); multigene chromosomes with short, simple control regions, we infer that the genome consists of several such chromosomes (type 2); and multiple, single to three gene chromosomes with large, complex control regions (type 3). Mapping minicircle types onto a phylogenetic tree of lice fails to show a pattern of their occurrence consistent with an evolutionary series of minicircle types. Analysis of the nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially-targetted genes inferred from the body louse, Pediculus, suggests that the loss of mitochondrial single-stranded binding protein (mtSSB) may be responsible for the presence of minicircles in at least species with the most derived type 3 minicircles (Pediculus, Damalinia). Minicircular mt genomes are common in lice and appear to have arisen multiple times within the group. Life history adaptive explanations which attribute minicircular mt genomes in lice to the adoption of blood-feeding in the Anoplura are not supported by this expanded data set as minicircles are found in multiple non-blood feeding louse groups but are not found in the blood-feeding genus Heterodoxus. In contrast, a mechanist explanation based on the loss of mtSSB suggests that minicircles may be selectively favoured due to the incapacity of the mt replisome to synthesize long replicative products without mtSSB and thus the loss of this gene lead to the
Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu
The modes of diversification of Palaearctic Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) are reconstructed based on data on their host plants and distribution in Russia and the adjacent territories. Macropsinae (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) is originally an Oriental group, which penetrated into the Palaearctic from Southeast Asia. The genus Pediopsoides and species of the genus Macropsis that feed on East Asian oaks have not dispersed beyond broadleaf forests of the Eastern Palaearctic. Apparently, Pediopsis and elm-feeding species of Macropsis initially dispersed throughout the entire broadleaf forest zone. Division of this zone into two widely separated parts in temperate areas of Europe and East Asia (nemoral disjunction), produced closely related vicariant pairs of sister species. The genus Oncopsis and species of Macropsis feeding on Salicaceae dispersed throughout the entire Palaearctic following their host plants. Both lineages penetrated into riparian forests of the foothills and midlands of Central Asia, where they produced endemic species. The Central Asian Macropsis lineage shifted from Salicaceae to trees and shrubs of unrelated families (wild roses, barberry, oleaster, and sea-buckthorn) growing in the same biotopes. Subsequent diversification on those plants produced several separate host-associated species-groups, some of which penetrated following their hosts from riparian forests into arid habitats. One such lineage apparently shifted from shrubs to wormwood species (Artemisia spp.) and thus gave rise to the genus Macropsidius. This genus underwent adaptive radiation on wormwood species in the plains of South Kazakhstan and Central Asia; advancing westward, it formed secondary centres of diversity in Transcaucasia and the Mediterranean. Finally, some lineage of Macropsidius (or its sister-group) switched from feeding on Artemisia to polyphagy, yielding the ancestral form of the genus Hephathus. In general, the evolution of
Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; León-Paniagua, Livia; Rivas, Gerardo
A checklist of 44 species of sucking lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Anoplura) recorded in Mexico, belonging to nine genera in six families is given, together with a list of the 63 species of Mexican wild mammal hosts with which they are associated. Summaries of the known geographical records and host relationships for each louse species are presented for each Mexican state. Data were compiled from published and original records, including three new locality records from the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero.
Jung, Sunghoon; Kim, Junggon; Oh, Sumin; Heiss, Ernst
A list of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) collected from North Korea (mostly by the late Dr. Michail Josifov, Sofia, Bulgaria) acquired earlier by E. Heiss, now donated to and deposited in the insect collections of Chungnam National University (CNU), Deajeon, Korea, is presented. A total of 31 holotypes and 694 paratypes of 41 species and 1 subspecies in 6 families and 9 subfamilies are presented: Miridae (Deraeocorinae, Mirinae, Orthotylinae, Phylinae), Tingidae (Tinginae), Piesmatidae (Piesmatinae), Berytidae (Metacanthinae), Cymidae (Cyminae), Pentatomidae (Asopinae).
Harzsch, S; Walossek, D
In the discussion on arthropod phylogeny, the structural evolution of compound eyes and optic ganglia in Crustacea and Insecta is an important topic. On the one hand, many morphological features as well as developmental aspects of the visual system in Insecta and Crustacea correspond in so much detail that eye design in these two groups is likely to have a common euarthropodan ancestor. On the other hand, however, some authors advocate a convergent evolution of the crustacean and insect visual system founding their arguments on differences in the arrangement of the visual neuropils and the fibre connections between Malacostraca and Entomostraca (the "entomostracan enigma"). Therefore, information about cellular aspects of visual system formation in entomostracan Crustacea is likely to enliven this debate, but is not yet available. To fill this gap, we examined the proliferation of neuronal stem cells in the developing visual system of the tadpole shrimp Triops longicaudatus (LeConte, 1846) (Entomostraca, Branchiopoda, Phyllopoda, Calmanostraca, Notostraca) by in vivo incorporation of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine and subsequent immunohistochemical detection. Our results indicate that in the developing visual system of T. longicaudatus, three band-shaped zones containing neuronal stem cells are present corresponding to the proliferation zones found in Malacostraca. We therefore conclude that the ontogenetic mechanisms of visual-system formation are evolutionarily conserved (homologous) in Branchiopoda, Malacostraca, and Insecta.
Tsai, Jing-Fu; Hsieh, Yi-Xuan; Rédei, Dávid
Abstract The soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma (Herrich-Schäffer, 1847) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhopalidae: Serinethinae), a species native in tropical and subtropical regions of the New World and accidentally introduced to Hawaii, is reported for the first time from Asia (Taiwan). This record represents the first occurrence of the species in Asia. Stable populations composed of hundreds of specimens were found in seven localities of Kaohsiung City and one locality in Tainan City, and a single specimen was observed in Chiayi County. Aggregating adults and larvae fed in large numbers on the sapindacean plants Cardiospermum halicacabum L. and Koelreuteria elegans (Seem.) A. C. Smith ssp. formosana (Hayata) F. G. Meyer. Diagnostic characters of adults and larvae of Jadera haematoloma are discussed. A review of its bionomics and a bibliography are provided. Initial observations on the populations in southern Taiwan are presented. The species is potentially invasive, and further extension of its range is anticipated in Southeast Asia. PMID:23794880
Löwenberg-Neto, Peter; De Carvalho, Claudio J B
Here we provide a geographic database for the Muscidae (Insecta: Diptera) that are endemic to Latin America and the Caribbean and non-synanthropic. We summarize the geographic information provided by specimens from three entomological collections in Brazil (DZUP, MNRJ, and MZUEFS) as well as geographic information we compiled in the literature. The resulting 817 species were linked to their geographic records by country, state/province/department, locality, latitude and longitude, including source reference. When coordinates were not provided in specimens' labels, we used the locality information to search geographic coordinates in online gazetteers. We also separated the species by country for a country-species list. These data comprise 250 years of collections and taxonomic studies of Neotropical Muscidae and we expect that it provides a foundation and serves as guide for future studies of systematics and biogeography of the family.
Martino, N S; Romero, M D; Castro, D C
A detailed redescription of Gyropus parvus (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Amblycera: Gyropidae) is given based on specimens collected from the type host, Ctenomys colburni Allen 1903 , and the type locality, Estancia Huanuluán, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina. We expand and provide new chaetotaxy. New scanning electron microscopy images showing microstructural details of adults and eggs of G. parvus obtained from topotype specimens are included. Sexual dimorphism was mainly shown by differences in body size and abdominal chaetotaxy, with females being 17.5% larger than males and with more setae in each cluster. Significant differences between males and females were also observed in sternal plate measurements. Features described here show homogeneity within type host population. This information contributes to our knowledge of intra- and inter-specific variability for parasite populations. Our investigation constitutes the first collection of G. parvus from the type host and locality since it was described.
Mukhopadhyay, Emon; Mazumdar, Abhijit; Joardar, S N; Saha, Goutam K; Banerjee, Dhriti
Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Insecta : Diptera : Ceratopogonidae) are small nematocerous biological vectors of a wide range of pathogens of veterinary and medical importance. They are distributed worldwide but prefer warm, damp, and muddy areas. Female midges require blood for egg maturation. Studies on taxonomy, proper identification keys, and distribution patterns of these flies across different geographical regions of India of these flies are limited. This article provides an updated checklist of Culicoides spp. from India collected from various scattered publications, along with their synonyms and details on their subgenera, geographical distribution, and type locality. A compiled list of different Culicoides vectors from India has also been included separately in this article, along with the type of the diseases spread.
Kumar, Prabhat; Poehling, H M
Direct and residual toxicity of NeemAzal-T/S (azadirachtin), Success (spinosad), and abamectin was tested against different life stages of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), under air-conditioned laboratory conditions and in a tropical net greenhouse. NeemAzal-T/S and abamectin deterred the settling of adults on tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill (Solanaceae), plants and consequently reduced egg deposition. No such effect was detected for Success. All three pesticides influenced egg hatch. Effects of NeemAzal-T/ S were significantly altered if applied to different-aged eggs (1, 3, and 5 d old). In contrast, abamectin-treated eggs failed to hatch at any given age class. All three products caused heavy mortality of the three nymphal stages of B. tabaci, with the first instars being most susceptible, abamectin-treated nymphs died within 24 h postapplication. In contrast, 100% nymphal mortality with NeemAzal-T/S and Success was reached 6-9 d postapplication. abamectin caused 100% immature mortality at all residue ages (1, 5, 10, and 15 d) in the laboratory and greenhouse as well. Persistence of Success was comparably high in the laboratory, but in the greenhouse a faster decline of activity was evident by increased egg deposition, egg hatch, and reduced rates of immature mortality. Toxicity of NeemAzal-T/S however gradually declined under greenhouse conditions with time (5 d) postapplication. The findings are discussed within the context of integrated management of whitefly under protected cultivation in the humid tropics.
Coleman, J.S.; Jones, C.G.
The effect of acute ozone exposure of eastern cottonwood (populus deltoides Bartr.) on the survivorship, reproduction, and development of the aphid Chaitophorus populicola Thomas (Homoptera: Aphididae) was investigated. Cottonwoods were exposed to 397 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ (0.20 ppm) ozone or charcoal-filtered air and infested with aphids on leaf plastochron index 5, 40 h after fumigation. Aphid performance was not significantly different on plants exposed to ozone compared with charcoal-filtered air-treated control plants. These data do not support the notion that aphid performance will directly increase on air pollution-stressed plants. We also examined settling and feeding preference of aphids for cottonwood leaves of different developmental ages. Aphids significantly preferred leaf plastochron index 5 to all other leaf ages. These data support hypothesis relating aphid leaf preference to stages of leaf development. Reproduction of the cottonwood leaf rust fungus (Melampsora medusae Thum.) and the imported willow leaf beetle (Plagiodera versicolora Laicharting) are reduced on ozone-fumigated plants (reported elsewhere). If aphid populations are affected by competition with these cottonwood pests for leaf resources, then aphid pest potential may actually increase in areas characterized by episodic ozone concentrations because of ozone-induced decreases in populations of M. medusae and P. versicolora.
Otavo, Samuel Eduardo; Parrado-Rosselli, Angela; Noriega, Jorge Ari
Abstract: Scarabaeoidea superfamily (Insecta: Coleoptera) as a bioindicator element of anthropogenic disturbance in an amazon national park. Insects have been recognized to be important indicators of the quality elements of ecosystems, among others, because of their rapid response to environmental variability and ease cost-effective capture. In this work we evaluated whether beetles of the Scarabaeoidea superfamily may be used as bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance of Amazonian terra firme rain forests, in order to provide guidelines for monitoring strategies of the Amacayacu National Park. We considered three different levels of anthropogenic disturbance (i.e. low, medium, high) in 12 transects (four in each intervention level), and caught all beetle species of this superfamily. Three interception traps, two light traps, three pitfalls and four bottle fruit traps were used per transect, as well as manual catch. In total, 593 individuals belonging to 92 species, 44 genera and seven families were collected. Scarabaeidae (n = 232, 27 spp.) and Dynastidae (n = 161, 26 spp.) were the families with the highest number of individuals and species, while Aphodiidae, Cetoniidae and Geotrupidae exhibited the lowest. The most abundant species per family were Ateuchus sp. (33.2%) from Scarabaeidae, Cyclocephala verticalis (55.9%) from Dynastidae, Astaena sp. (75.8%) from Melolonthidae, Ceratocanthus amazonicus (66.7%) from Ceratocanthidae y Chaetodus asuai (96.8%) from Hybosoridae. Results showed that the number of species and individuals increased with the anthropogenic disturbance. The Margalef and Shannon indexes also revealed that the highest richness and equity occurred in the high-disturbed site, respectively. Dynastidae exhibited the highest number of exclusive species per gradient, while Scarabaeidae shared most of its species. Ten species were recorded in the three disturbance levels, 26 species in two and 56 species were exclusive to one level. The most
Castellanos-Moguel, Judith; González-Barajas, Margarita; Mier, Teresa; Reyes-Montes, María Del Rocío; Aranda, Eduardo; Toriello, Conchita
To properly characterize several isolates of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, a fungal entomopathogen of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and other insect pests for biocontrol purposes, virulence towards Trialeurodes vaporariorum, and subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) protease activity during propagule production were investigated in monospore cultures (MCs). The virulence of three MCs towards second instar whiteflies was measured and expressed as lethal median concentration (LC50). Number and widthlength ratio of propagules (blastospores, hyphal bodies, short hyphae, submerged conidia) and extracellular proteolytic activity was determined simultaneously in liquid medium. Total protease activity was assayed with azocasein, Pr1 and Pr2 activity was determined with the substrates N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-p-nitroanilide and N-Benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-pnitroanilide, respectively. Natural variability in virulence, propagule production and cuticle-degrading proteases among isolates was observed. Bioassays showed a LC50 of 1.1 x 1,000, 2.5 x 10,000 and 7.6 x 10,000 conidia/ml for MCs EH-506/3, EH-503/3 and EH-520/3, respectively, EH-506/3 being the most virulent isolate. Isolate EH-503/3 produced the highest yield of propagules (7.7 x 10000000 propagules/ml), followed by EH-520/3 with 6.4 x 10000000 and EH-506/3 with 1.0 x 10000000 propagules/ml. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) and trypsin-like (Pr2) activity was present in the three MCs. Subtilisin-like (Pr1) activity was highest (745.7 UPr1/ml at 120 h) in the most virulent isolate, EH-506/3, pointing at Pr1 as a phenotypic marker of virulence for P. fumosoroseus. EH-506/3 appears to be a good candidate for whitefly biocontrol due to its high virulence, Pr1 concentration and rapid transition to blastospores in submerged liquid medium.
Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).
Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy
In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that
Fondren, K M; McCullough, D G
The balsam twig aphid, Mindarus abietinus Koch (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a major insect pest of balsam and Fraser fir grown for Christmas trees. Our objectives in this study were to 1) monitor the phenology of A. abietinus in fir plantations; 2) assess relationships among M. abietinus density, tree phenology, and damage to tree foliage; and 3) develop an esthetic injury level for M. abietinus on Christmas trees. We monitored phenology of M. abietinus and fir trees on three commercial Christmas tree plantations in central and northern Lower Michigan for 3 yr (1999-2001). Phenology of M. abietinus fundatrices and sexuparae was strongly correlated with accumulated degree-days (DD) base 10 degrees C. Fundatrices matured by approximately 83 DD(10 degrees C) and sexuparae were first observed at approximately 83-111 DD(10 degrees C). Trees that broke bud approximately 1 wk later than other trees in the same field escaped M. abietinus damage and shoot expansion rate in spring was generally positively correlated with M. abietinus damage. Retail customers surveyed at a choose-and-cut Christmas plantation in 2 yr did not consistently differentiate between similarly sized trees with no, light, and moderate M. abietinus damage, but heavy damage (>50% damaged shoots) did affect customer perception. Similarly, when wholesale grades were assigned, the high quality Grade 1 trees had up to 40% shoot damage, whereas Grade 2 trees had 32-62% shoot damage. Two trees ranked as unsaleable had sparse canopies and distorted needles on 42% to almost 100% of the shoots.
Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.
The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.
Dallai, Romano; Mercati, David; Carapelli, Antonio; Nardi, Francesco; Machida, Ryuichiro; Sekiya, Kaoru; Frati, Francesco
Sperm ultrastructure and spermiogenesis of the dipluran Japygidae (Japyx solifugus, Metajapyx braueri and Occasjapyx japonicus) and Campodeidae (Campodea sp.) were studied with the aim of looking for potential characters for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships of basal hexapods. Both Japygidae and Campodeidae share a common sperm axonemal model 9+9+2, provided with nine accessory microtubules. These microtubules, however, after their formation lose the usual position around the 9+2 and migrate between the two mitochondria. In Japygidae, four of these microtubules are very short and were observed beneath the nucleus after negative staining and serial sections. Accessory microtubules have 13 protofilaments in their tubular wall. Diplura have a sperm morphology which is very different from that of the remaining Entognatha (Protura+Collembola). On the basis of the present results, the presence of accessory microtubules suggests that Diplura are the sister-group of the Insecta s.s.. Moreover, Japygidae and Campodeidae differ with regards to the relative position of the sperm components, the former having the axoneme starting from beneath the nucleus (above which sits the short acrosome), while the latter having a long apical acrosome and a nucleus running parallel with the proximal part of the axoneme. The present study also allowed to redescribe the male genital system of Japyx. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bush, B.; Simpson, K.W.; Shane, L.; Koblintz, R.R.
The separation and analysis of the constituents of industrially produced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been almost exclusively performed using techniques involving packed gas chromatographic columns. However, the packed column chromatograms proved to be inadequate with regard to the separation of the many congeners which compose the complex PCB mixtures. Unlike the packed column methods, a separation technique based upon gas capillary technology produces chromatograms with sharp peaks, and hence accurate analysis is possible according to individual congener concentrations. This capability permitted more precise analysis of macroinvertebrates - specifically aquatic insects in the polluted water of the upper Hudson River. This study examines the presence and relative concentration of 74 congeners in water and caddisfly larvae collected from 3 sites in the Hudson River. Caddisfly larvae (Insecta:Trichoptera) usually dominate the macroinvertebrate communities in riffle habitats of the study area. Their relatively large size and abundance facilitated the acquisition of sufficient biomass for analysis (200 mg wet weight). The sampling was carried out on July 6, 1983 and August 15, 1983.
Leggitt, V. Leroy; Loewen, Mark A.
Fossil caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) larval cases are preserved in some Eocene Green River Formation tufa, and well organized arrays of these calcified larval cases have been misidentified as " Oocardium tufa". The arrays of caddisfly larval cases occur as superimposed layers of vertically oriented cases. The cases are parallel to each other, closely packed, equal in size, and are oriented perpendicular to the bedding planes of the tufa. In thin section, the cases are composed of detrital carbonate particles, ooids and quartz grains arranged in a single layer along the walls of the cases. The size and arrangement of the particles in the walls of the fossil caddisfly larval cases compares favorably with modern caddisfly larval cases. Correct identification of the origin of this unique tufa fabric enables us to better understand the important role of metazoans (Trichopteran larvae) in some Eocene Lake Gosiute paleoenvironments. Caddisfly larvae played direct and indirect roles in the deposition and erosion of tufa in Lake Gosiute during the deposition of the Laney Member of the Green River Formation.
Whiteman, Noah Kerness; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Johnson, Kevin P; Parker, Patricia G
Differences in dispersal abilities have been implicated for causing disparate evolutionary patterns between Columbicola and Physconelloides lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera). However, no study has documented straggling (when lice are found on atypical hosts) rates within these lineages. We used the fact that the Galapagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis (Gould) (Falconiformes) feeds on the Galapagos Dove Zenaida galapagoensis Gould (Columbiformes) within an ecologically simplified setting. The Galapagos Dove is the only typical host of Columbicola macrourae (Wilson) and Physconelloides galapagensis (Kellogg and Huwana) in Galapagos. We quantitatively sampled and found these lice on both bird species. A DNA barcoding approach confirmed that stragglers were derived from Galapagos doves. We also collected a Bovicola sp. louse, likely originating from a goat (Capra hircus). On hawks, C. macrourae was significantly more prevalent than P. galapagensis. On doves, the two lice were equally prevalent and abundant. Differences in prevalence on hawks was a function of differences in straggling rate between lice, and not a reflection of their relative representation within the dove population. This provides further evidence that differences in dispersal abilities may drive differences in the degree of cospeciation in Columbicola and Phyconelloides lice, which have become model systems in evolutionary biology.
Takano, Oona M; Mitchell, Preston S; Gustafsson, Daniel R; Adite, Alphonse; Voelker, Gary; Light, Jessica E
Host associations of highly host-specific chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) across multiple avian species remains fairly undocumented in the West African country of Benin. Two hundred and seventeen bird specimens collected from multiple localities across Benin and housed at the Texas A&M University Biodiversity Research and Teaching Collections were examined for lice. Lice were identified and genetic data (mitochondrial COI and nuclear EF-1ÃÂ± genes) were obtained and phylogenetically analyzed. In total, we found 15 host associations, 7 of which were new to science. Genetically, most lice from Benin were unique and could represent new species. Based on host associations and unique genetic lineages, we estimate we discovered a minimum of 4 and possibly as many as 8 new chewing louse species. Given the lack of current data on chewing louse species distributions in Benin, this study adds to the knowledge of host associations, geographic distribution, and genetic variability of avian chewing louse species in West Africa.
Wolf, K W; Joshi, H C
The present study focuses on the restructuring of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton and microtubule-organizing centres (MTOCs) throughout spermatogenesis of a darkling beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera, Insecta). To this end, serial ultrathin sections through male germ cells were studied using transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, spindles and young spermatids were isolated from testes under MT-stabilizing conditions and doubly labeled with antibodies against beta- and gamma-tubulin. The latter is a tubulin isoform detected in MTOCs of a wide variety of species. The observations suggest that microtubules may be nucleated from sites with and without high gamma-tubulin content and that these sites do not necessarily possess canonical centrosomes. In a prominent cytoplasmic MT system of primary spermatocytes in prophase, microtubule nucleation apparently occurs in the absence of immunologically detectable gamma-tubulin. At the poles of meiotic spindles, MTs are directly inserted into gamma-tubulin-containing material and this connection is considered responsible for their nucleation. The interzone spindle MTs of telophase cells contain gamma-tubulin and this may confer stability to them. Finally, manchette MTs of spermatids originate in the vicinity of the acrosome precursor but are not inserted into this body. The acrosome precursor is surrounded by a membrane and is clearly detected by the antibody against gamma-tubulin.
Bai, Ming; Jarvis, Karl; Wang, Shu-Yong; Song, Ke-Qing; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Liang; Li, Wen-Zhu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xing-Ke
Modern grylloblattids are one of the least diverse of the modern insect orders. The thorax changes in morphology might be associated with the changes of the function of the forelegs, wing loss, changes in behavior and adaptation to habitat. As temperature is the main barrier for migration of modern grylloblattids, the range of each species is extremely limited. The potential distribution areas of grylloblattids remain unclear. A second new species of ice crawlers (Insecta: Grylloblattodea), Grylloblattella cheni Bai, Wang et Yang sp. nov., is described from China. The distribution map and key to species of Grylloblattella are given. A comparison of the thorax of extant and extinct Grylloblattodea is presented, with an emphasis on the pronotum using geometric morphometric analysis, which may reflect thorax adaptation and the evolution of Grylloblattodea. Potential global distribution of grylloblattids is inferred. Highly diversified pronota of extinct Grylloblattodea may reflect diverse habitats and niches. The relatively homogeneous pronota of modern grylloblattids might be explained by two hypotheses: synapomorphy or convergent evolution. Most fossils of Grylloblattodea contain an obviously longer meso- and metathorax than prothorax. The length of the meso- and metathorax of modern grylloblattids is normally shorter than the prothorax. This may be associated with the wing loss, which is accompanied by muscle reduction and changes to the thoracic skeleton system. Threats to grylloblattids and several conservation comments are also provided. PMID:20877572
Williams, Nancy E.; Eyles, Nicholas
Southern Ontario, Canada, has late Pleistocene deposits that contain evidence for climatic cooling during the last interglacial/glacial transition and much of the succeeding Wisconsin glaciation. Fossils of lacustrine and riverine caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) are abundant and well-preserved in these deposits. We examined 26 samples from the interglacial section exposed in the Don Valley Brickyard and compared their caddisfly assemblages with those recovered from the overlying early Wisconsin Scarborough Formation deposits at nearby Scarborough Bluffs. Fifty-one caddisfly taxa in 16 families were recovered from the Don Valley site. Fossil abundance and species richness appear related to the storm or fair-weather conditions inferred from the sedimentary facies. Caddisfly fossils were most abundant and species richness highest in fair-weather, peaty, rippled sands. Highest proportions of river species as opposed to lake species were recovered from sands (storm and fair-weather). Assemblages from both sites indicate the presence of a large and productive river flowing into ancestral Lake Ontario. However, the river assemblage appeared to be far more sensitive to environmental change than the relatively stable assemblage representing the thermally buffered lake. Warm temperate river species such as Hydropsyche bidens, Hydropsyche mississippiensis, Macrostemum carolina, and Potamyia flava are present in the lower Don samples but absent from the Scarborough Bluffs deposits, while indicators of cooler than present climatic conditions such as Arctopsyche Indogensis and Hagenella canadensis are present in the Scarborough Bluffs sediments but absent from the lower Don samples. For the interval from about 80,000 to 55,000 yr B.P., we infer a climatic cooling from temperature about 2°C warmer than present to about 3°C cooler than present.
Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P
Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be
Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; Abdel-Razak Soad, I
The San José scale, D. perniciosus (Comstock) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) was noticed on pear trees all the year round in Burg El-Arab area (50 km West of Alexandria). Bio ecology and population fluctuations of this serious scale insect were carried out during the two subsequent seasons of September, 2004 until August, 2006. The calculated infestation rates (%) assured the presence of three peaks in both seasons. The estimated densities of fluctuating individuals of D. perniciosus on the inspected pear trees showed two distinctly prominent peaks, in addition to an overlapping one between them. It means, that the San Josè scale, D. perniciosus had three overlapping annual generations on pear trees in Burg El-Arab area under an irrigation system. The individuals of all stages could be found on trees all over the year. The population of the inspected immature stages; adult females and adult males were recorded and discussed as well as the parasitized individuals by the aphilinid parasitoid, Aphytis diaspidis (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). The population density of the San José scale (SJS) reached its maximum during spring, folLowed by summer, winter, whereas the least percentage was recorded in autumn months. The obtained data showed also variable effects of the prevailing abiotic factors on the dynamical oscillation of (SJS) individuals. The daily mean temperature and the dew point were not the dominant efficient physical factors. On the contrary, it has been proved that there were either significant strong negative or positive relationships between daily relative humidity, wind speed, infestation rate, and population density of this studied insect pest.
Fumigant toxicity of summer savory and lemon balm oil constituents and efficacy of spray formulations containing the oils to B- and neonicotinoid-resistant Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).
Chae, Song-Hwa; Kim, Soon-Il; Yeon, Seong Hum; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Ahn, Young-Joon
An assessment was made of the fumigant toxicity of 36 constituents from lemon balm oil (LBO) and summer savory oil (SSO) and another additional nine previously identified compounds of the oils, as well as of the control efficacy of four experimental spray formulations containing individual oils (0.5 and 0.1% sprays) and spinosad 10% suspension concentrate (SC) to females from B- and neonicotinoid-resistant Q-biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Based on 24-h LC50 values, Q-biotype females (0.20 microg/cm3) were 40 times less susceptible to dichlorvos than B-biotype females (0.005 microg/cm3). Thymol (LC50, 0.35 microg/cm3) and carvacrol (0.56 microg/cm3) were the most toxic compounds toward Q-biotype females, followed by (1S)-(-)-borneol, alpha-terpineol, nerol, linalool, and carvone (1.06-1.38 microg/cm3). The toxicity of these compounds was virtually identical toward both biotype females, indicating that the terpenoids and the insecticides (neonicotinoids and dichlorvos) do not share a common mode of action or elicit cross-resistance. The 0.5% spray of LBO, SSO, and spinosad 10% SC resulted in >90% mortality toward both biotype females. Global efforts to reduce the level of toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on LBO- and SSO-derived materials as potential contact-action fumigants for the control of B. tabaci populations.
Dikow, Rebecca B; Frandsen, Paul B; Turcatel, Mauren; Dikow, Torsten
A high-quality draft genome for Proctacanthus coquilletti (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae) is presented along with transcriptomes for 16 Diptera species from five families: Asilidae, Apioceridae, Bombyliidae, Mydidae, and Tabanidae. Genome sequencing reveals that P. coquilletti has a genome size of approximately 210 Mbp and remarkably low heterozygosity (0.47%) and few repeats (15%). These characteristics helped produce a highly contiguous (N50 = 862 kbp) assembly, particularly given that only a single 2 × 250 bp PCR-free Illumina library was sequenced. A phylogenomic hypothesis is presented based on thousands of putative orthologs across the 16 transcriptomes. Phylogenetic relationships support the sister group relationship of Apioceridae + Mydidae to Asilidae. A time-calibrated phylogeny is also presented, with seven fossil calibration points, which suggests an older age of the split among Apioceridae, Asilidae, and Mydidae (158 mya) and Apioceridae and Mydidae (135 mya) than proposed in the AToL FlyTree project. Future studies will be able to take advantage of the resources presented here in order to produce large scale phylogenomic and evolutionary studies of assassin fly phylogeny, life histories, or venom. The bioinformatics tools and workflow presented here will be useful to others wishing to generate de novo genomic resources in species-rich taxa without a closely-related reference genome.
Surface antigens of Xenorhabdus nematophila (F. Enterobacteriaceae) and Bacillus subtilis (F. Bacillaceae) react with antibacterial factors of Malacosoma disstria (C. Insecta: O. Lepidoptera) hemolymph.
Giannoulis, Paschalis; Brooks, Cory L; Dunphy, Gary B; Niven, Donald F; Mandato, Craig A
Previous research established different interactions of the insect pathogen, Xenorhabdus nematophila and nonpathogen, Bacillus subtilis, with antimicrobial hemocytes and humoral factors of larval Malacosoma disstria [Giannoulis, P., Brooks, C.L., Dunphy, G.B., Mandato, C.A., Niven, D.F., Zakarian, R.J., 2007. Interaction of the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteriaceae) and Bacillus subtilis (Bacillaceae) with the hemocytes of larval Malacosoma disstria (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Lasicocampidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 94, 20-30]. The antimicrobial systems were inhibited by X. nematophila and stimulated by B. subtilis. The bacterial surface antigens participating in these reactions were unknown. Thus, herein the effects of lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) from X. nematophila and lipoteichoic acid from B. subtilis on the larval M. disstria immune factors, the hemocytes and phenoloxidase, were determined. Endotoxin elevated the level of damaged hemocytes limiting the removal of X. nematophila from the hemolymph and enhancing the rapid release of bacteria trapped by nodulation. Similar effects were observed with the lipid A moiety of the endotoxin. The effects of lipopolysaccharide and lipid A on the hemocyte activities were abrogated by polymyxin B (an antibiotic that binds to lipid A) confirming lipopolysaccharide as the hemocytotoxin by virtue of the lipid A moiety. Lipoteichoic acid elicited nodulation and enhanced phenoloxidase activation and/or activity. Although lipoidal endotoxin and lipid A inhibited phenoloxidase activation they enhanced the activity of the enzyme. Apolipophorin-III precluded the effects of lipopolysaccharide, lipid A, and lipoteichoic acid on the hemocytes and prophenoloxidase until the antigens exceeded a critical threshold.
Frandsen, Paul B.; Turcatel, Mauren
A high-quality draft genome for Proctacanthus coquilletti (Insecta: Diptera: Asilidae) is presented along with transcriptomes for 16 Diptera species from five families: Asilidae, Apioceridae, Bombyliidae, Mydidae, and Tabanidae. Genome sequencing reveals that P. coquilletti has a genome size of approximately 210 Mbp and remarkably low heterozygosity (0.47%) and few repeats (15%). These characteristics helped produce a highly contiguous (N50 = 862 kbp) assembly, particularly given that only a single 2 × 250 bp PCR-free Illumina library was sequenced. A phylogenomic hypothesis is presented based on thousands of putative orthologs across the 16 transcriptomes. Phylogenetic relationships support the sister group relationship of Apioceridae + Mydidae to Asilidae. A time-calibrated phylogeny is also presented, with seven fossil calibration points, which suggests an older age of the split among Apioceridae, Asilidae, and Mydidae (158 mya) and Apioceridae and Mydidae (135 mya) than proposed in the AToL FlyTree project. Future studies will be able to take advantage of the resources presented here in order to produce large scale phylogenomic and evolutionary studies of assassin fly phylogeny, life histories, or venom. The bioinformatics tools and workflow presented here will be useful to others wishing to generate de novo genomic resources in species-rich taxa without a closely-related reference genome. PMID:28168115
Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda
The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ (2) = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H' and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin.
Ishadi, Nur Adibah Mohd; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Abdul, Nurul Huda
The hemipteran (Insecta) diversity in the upper part of the Kerian River Basin was low with only 8 families and 16 genera recorded at 4 study sites from 3 rivers. Water bug composition varied among sampling sites (Kruskal-Wallis χ 2 = 0.00, p<0.05) but was not affected by wet-dry seasons (Z = 0.00, p>0.05). All recorded water parameters were weakly associated with generic abundance but the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Water Quality Index (WQI) and heavy metals (zinc and manganese) showed relatively strong positive or negative relations with hemipteran diversity and richness (H’ and R2). Within the ranges of measured water parameters, the WQI was negatively associated with hemipteran diversity and richness, implying the tolerance of the water bugs to the level of pollution encountered in the river basin. Based on its highest abundance and occurrence (ISI), Rhagovelia was the most important genus and along with Rheumatogonus and Paraplea, these genera were common at all study sites. In conclusion, habitat availability and suitability together with some environmental parameters influenced the abundance and composition of hemipterans in this river basin. PMID:27073600
Mäenpää, K; Kukkonen, J V K
The discharge of surfactants, such as 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), into water bodies leads to accumulation of the chemicals in the sediments and may thus pose a problem to benthic organisms. To study the bioaccumulation of surfactants, Oligochaeta worm Lumbriculus variegatus was exposed to sediment-spiked, [14C]-labeled 4-NP and 4-(2-dodecyl)-benzene sulfonate (C12-LAS) in three different sediments (S1-S3). The sediments were characterized for organic carbon (OC) content and particle size distribution. The acute toxicity was examined by exposing L. variegatus and three to four instar Chironomus riparius (Insecta) larvae in water-only exposure to 4-NP and LAS at different concentrations. After 48-h exposure, lethal water concentrations (LC50) and lethal body residues (LBR50) were estimated using liquid scintillation counting. Chronic toxicity was evaluated in two different sediments by exposing first instar C. riparius larvae to sediment-spiked chemicals at different concentrations. After 10 days, the sublethal effects of surfactants were observed by measuring wet weight and head capsule length. Finally, another 10-day test was set up in order to measure the LAS body residues associated with sublethal effects in C. riparius in S2 sediment. The bioaccumulation test revealed that the bioaccumulation of both 4-NP and LAS increased as the sediment organic matter content decreased. It is assumed that the chemical binding to organic material decreased chemical bioavailability. The acute toxicity tests showed that L. variegatus was more tolerant of 4-NP, and C. riparius was more tolerant of LAS when based on water exposure concentration. The LBR-estimates revealed, however, that L. variegatus tolerated clearly higher tissue residues of both chemicals compared with C. riparius. Both chemicals had sublethal effects on C. riparius growth in sediment exposure, reducing larvae wet weight and head capsule size. 4-NP, however, showed an irregular
El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Elgharbawy, Ali A.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al
Abstract The first list of insects of Al-Baha Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was published in 2013 and contained a total of 582 species; an addendum to this list was published in 2015 adding 142 species and bringing the total number recorded from the province to 724 insect species representing 17 orders. The previous two studies excluded Jabal Shada al-A’la Nature Reserve (SANR), so the present study in SANR, as belonging to Al-Baha Province, are complementary to the previous two. The present study presents a preliminary list of Diptera (Insecta) in SANR, with remarks on their zoogeography, and is the first of a series of planned ecological and systematic studies on different insect orders as one of the outputs of a project proposed to study the entire insect fauna of SANR. A total number of 119 Diptera species belonging to 87 genera, 31 tribes, 42 subfamilies, and representing 30 families has been recorded from SANR in the present study. Some species have been identified only to the genus level and listed herein only because this is the first time to record their genera in KSA. Fourteen of the species are recorded for the first time for KSA, namely: Forcipomyia sahariensis Kieffer, 1923 [Ceratopogonidae]; Chaetosciara sp. [Sciaridae]; Neolophonotus sp.1; Neolophonotus sp.2; Promachus sinaiticus Efflatoun, 1934; Saropogon longicornis (Macquart, 1838); Saropogon sp. [Asilidae]; Spogostylum tripunctatum (Pallas in Wiedemann, 1818) [Bombyliidae]; Phycus sp. [Therevidae]; Hemeromyia sp.; Meoneura palaestinensis Hennig, 1937 [Carnidae]; Desmometopa inaurata Lamb, 1914 [Milichiidae]; Stomoxys niger Macquart, 1851 [Muscidae]; and Sarcophaga palestinensis (Lehrer, 1998) [Sarcophagidae]. Zoogeographic affinities of recorded fly species suggest a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region (46%) than to the Palearctic region (23.5%) or the Oriental region (2.5%). This supports the previous studies’ conclusions and emphasizes the fact that parts of the Arabian
There are over 16,000 species of pyraloid or snout moths worldwide and many are pests of crops and stored products. The purpose of this video is twofold: to provide an overview of the current, modern classification of snout moths and to provide tools using morphology to identify adult snout moths t...
The larvae of pyraloid or snout moths are pests to many crops and stored products and rank as among the most destructive pests to graminaceous crops such as corn, sugarcane, and rice. On the other hand, some larvae have been investigated and used for the biological control of noxious terrestrial a...
Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R
As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome
Gillespie, J J; Johnston, J S; Cannone, J J; Gutell, R R
As an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18S, 5.8S, 28S and 5S) and mitochondrial (12S and 16S) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding gene sequences (rDNA) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of Apis mellifera (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Apocrita). Additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rRNA molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to recently published crystal structures of the ribosome. In general, the structures of honey bee rRNAs are in agreement with previously predicted rRNA models from other arthropods in core regions of the rRNA, with little additional expansion in non-conserved regions. Our multiple sequence alignments are made available on several public databases and provide a preliminary establishment of a global structural model of all rRNAs from the insects. Additionally, we provide conserved stretches of sequences flanking the rDNA cistrons that comprise the externally transcribed spacer regions (ETS) and part of the intergenic spacer region (IGS), including several repetitive motifs. Finally, we report the occurrence of retrotransposition in the nuclear large subunit rDNA, as R2 elements are present in the usual insertion points found in other arthropods. Interestingly, functional R1 elements usually present in the genomes of insects were not detected in the honey bee rRNA genes. The reverse transcriptase products of the R2 elements are deduced from their putative open reading frames and structurally aligned with those from another hymenopteran insect, the jewel wasp Nasonia (Pteromalidae). Stretches of conserved amino acids shared between Apis and Nasonia are illustrated and serve as potential sites for primer design, as target amplicons within these R2 elements may serve as novel phylogenetic markers for Hymenoptera. Given the impending completion of the sequencing of the Nasonia genome
Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.
Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species Ptilinus costatus Gyllenhal, 1827, designated herein) syn. nov. of Ptilinus Geoffroy, 1762 (Ptinidae), Paniscus Gistel, 1848 (type species Scarabaeus fasciatus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Trichius Fabricius, 1775 (Scarabaeidae), Phibalus Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela pubescens Linnaeus, 1758, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Omophlus Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrionidae). The following new replacement name is proposed: Gompeliina Bouchard, 2011 nom. nov. for Olotelina Báguena Corella, 1948 (Aderidae). Reversal of Precedence (Article 23.9) is used to conserve usage of the following names (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Perigonini Horn, 1881 nom. protectum over Trechicini Bates, 1873 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Anisodactylina Lacordaire, 1854 nom. protectum over Eurytrichina LeConte, 1848 nom. oblitum (Carabidae), Smicronychini Seidlitz, 1891 nom. protectum over Desmorini LeConte, 1876 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Bagoinae Thomson, 1859 nom. protectum over Lyprinae Gistel 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Aterpina Lacordaire, 1863 nom. protectum over Heliomenina Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Naupactini Gistel, 1848 nom. protectum over Iphiini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Cleonini Schönherr, 1826 nom. protectum over Geomorini Schönherr, 1823 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Magdalidini Pascoe, 1870 nom. protectum over Scardamyctini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Curculionidae), Agrypninae/-ini Candèze, 1857 nom. protecta over Adelocerinae/-ini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblita and Pangaurinae/-ini Gistel, 1856 nom. oblita (Elateridae), Prosternini Gistel, 1856 nom. protectum over Diacanthini Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Elateridae), Calopodinae Costa, 1852 nom. protectum over Sparedrinae Gistel, 1848 nom. oblitum (Oedemeridae), Adesmiini Lacordaire, 1859 nom. protectum over Macropodini Agassiz, 1846 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837 nom. protectum over Eledonini Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Tenebrionidae), Throscidae Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Stereolidae Rafinesque, 1815 nom. oblitum (Throscidae) and Lophocaterini Crowson, 1964 over Lycoptini Casey, 1890 nom. oblitum (Trogossitidae); Monotoma Herbst, 1799 nom. protectum over Monotoma Panzer, 1792 nom. oblitum (Monotomidae); Pediacus Shuckard, 1839 nom. protectum over Biophloeus Dejean, 1835 nom. oblitum (Cucujidae), Pachypus Dejean, 1821 nom. protectum over Pachypus Billberg, 1820 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae), Sparrmannia Laporte, 1840 nom. protectum over Leocaeta Dejean, 1833 nom. oblitum and Cephalotrichia Hope, 1837 nom. oblitum (Scarabaeidae). PMID:21594053
Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.
Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106
Friedemann, Katrin; Beutel, Rolf G
The pretarsal arolium serves as an attachment device in many groups of insects, enabling them to walk efficiently on smooth surfaces, where claws alone do not provide sufficient foothold. The arolia of representatives of all major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha are described and illustrated, mainly using scanning electron microscopy and histology. Glands inside the lumen of the arolia are described for the first time in this group. It is shown that the morphology of arolia within Auchenorrhyncha differs considerably. Some of them are even distinctly bilobed. The cuticle of the contact zone is thickened and formed of branching chitinous rods. In some cases, two layers of rods oriented in different directions were found. An extended definition of "arolium" is proposed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...
Wootton, R J; Kukalová-Peck, J
The use of available morphological characters in the interpretation of the flight of insects known only as fossils is reviewed, and the principles are then applied to elucidating the flight performance and techniques of Palaeozoic palaeopterous insects. Wing-loadings and pterothorax mass/total mass ratios are estimated and aspect ratios and shape-descriptors are derived for a selection of species, and the functional significance of wing characters discussed. Carboniferous and Permian ephemeropteroids ('mayflies') show major differences from modern forms in morphology and presumed flight ability, whereas Palaeozoic odonatoids ('dragonflies') show early adaptation to aerial predation on a wide size-range of prey, closely paralleling modern dragonflies and damselflies in shape and wing design but lacking some performance-related structural refinements. The extensive adaptive radiation in form and flight technique in the haustellate orders Palaeodictyoptera, Megasecoptera, Diaphanopterodea and Permothemistida is examined and discussed in the context of Palaeozoic ecology.
Buschini, M L T; Abuabara, M A P; Petrere-Jr, Miguel
In this research we proposed two mathematical models for Isoptera mound growth derived from the Von Bertalanffy growth curve, one appropriated for Nasutitermes coxipoensis, and a more general formulation. The mean height and the mean diameter of ten small colonies were measured each month for twelve months, from April, 1995 to April, 1996. Through these data, the monthly volumes were calculated for each of them. Then the growth in height and in volume was estimated and the models proposed.
Several Gossypium species and genotypes were evaluated by in field and greehouse tests in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas, for preference to the whitefly. Genotypes with G.hirsutum, G. barabadense, G. herbaceum, and G. arboreum were examined, including commercial and obsolete cultivars,(cultivar...
Kuznetsova, Valentina; Aguin-Pombo, Dora
Abstract A comprehensive review of cytogenetic features is provided for the large hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha, which currently contains approximately 42,000 valid species. This review is based on the analysis of 819 species, 483 genera, and 31 families representing all presently recognized Auchenorrhyncha superfamilies, e.i. Cicadoidea (cicadas), Cercopoidea (spittle bugs), Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers), Myerslopioidea (ground-dwelling leafhoppers), and Fulgoroidea (planthoppers). History and present status of chromosome studies are described, as well as the structure of chromosomes, chromosome counts, trends and mechanisms of evolution of karyotypes and sex determining systems, their variation at different taxonomic levels and most characteristic (modal) states, occurrence of parthenogenesis, polyploidy, B-chromosomes and chromosome rearrangements, and methods used for cytogenetic analysis of Auchenorrhyncha. PMID:26807037
New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca) angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska); Empoasca (Empoasca) ch...
Voegtlin, David; Villalobos, William; Sánchez, Marco Vinicio; Saborio-R, Guido; Rivera, Carmen
This guide is a compilation of limited morphological and biological information on the winged morphs of 60 species of aphids that have been collected in Costa Rica. It should not be viewed as a definitive taxonomic treatise on the aphids of Costa Rica, rather it is a tool that can be used to assist in research on the biology, host plant relationships, taxonomy, and virus transmission capabilities of aphids. Each species is covered in an identical manner. Morphological and biological information is provided in both Spanish and English as well as photographs of slide mounted specimens. Keys are provided to help the user in identifying the species. Most of the specimens examined were taken in traps associated with epidemiological studies. Limited field collecting has generated host records and these have been added to a list of the aphids of Central America that was compiled by Pamela Anderson and appended in the guide with her permission. The authors hope that this book will be useful to entomologists in Costa Rica and Central America.
Tsai, J H; Liu, Y H
The biology of the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama was studied at 25 degrees C on four commonly grown citrus and related plants [rough lemon, Citrus jambhiri Lush; sour orange, C aurantium L.; grapefruit, C. paradisi Macfadyen; and orange jessamine, Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack] in the laboratory. The biological characteristics of each life stage are described. The average egg incubation periods on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange varied very little (4.1-4.2 d). The average nymphal developmental periods on these four host plants were essentially the same except the fifth stadium. Survival of immatures on orange jessamine, grapefruit, rough lemon, and sour orange was 75.4, 84.6, 78.3, and 68.6%, respectively. Female adults lived an average of 39.7, 39.7, 47.6, and 43.7 d on these respective host plants. The average number of eggs laid per female on grapefruit (858 eggs) was significantly more than those on other hosts (P < 0.05). The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) for D. citri on grapefruit was highest. Jackknife estimates of r(m) varied from 0.188 on grapefruit to 0.162 on orange jessamine and rough lemon. The mean population generation time on these hosts ranged from 31.6 to 34.1 d. The continuous flushes produced by orange jessamine could play an important role in maintaining high populations of this vector when the new flushes are not available in the commercial citrus groves.
Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W; Reilly, Charles C
Three species of aphids attack pecan foliage, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, and cause economic damage. We tested a kaolin-based particle film against one of these aphid species, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis). Effect of particle film on host selection, adult mortality, and production of nymphs by M. caryaefoliae was tested on seedling pecans in the laboratory. Fewer M. caryaefoliae adults selected treated foliage compared with untreated foliage. A higher percentage of adults that did select treated foliage were recovered from upper leaf surfaces compared with the percentage of adults recovered from upper leaf surfaces of untreated leaves. Observations with a microscope revealed an accumulation of particle film on aphid body parts, especially on tarsi, and strongly suggests that aphid mobility was restricted. Adult mortality was higher on treated foliage and led to an overall decrease in production of nymphs on those seedlings. In addition, we measured spectral properties of treated seedling pecan foliage. Light reflectance by treated foliage was increased and absorptance decreased compared with control foliage whereas transmittance of light through control and particle film-treated leaves was similar. We did not detect any phytotoxic effect on pecan due to application of particle film.
Strauß, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard
In many insects the first abdominal segment possesses embryonic appendages called pleuropodia. Here we show the embryogenesis of pleuropodial cells of the periodical cicada, Magicicada cassini (Fisher 1851) (Insecta, Homoptera, Cicadidae). An antibody, anti-horseradish perioxidase (HRP), that is usually neuron-specific strongly marked the pleuropodial anlagen and revealed their ectodermal origin shortly after limb bud formation. Thereafter the cells sank into the epidermis and their apical parts enlarged. A globular part protruded from the body wall. Filamentous structures were marked at the stem region and into the apical dilation. In later embryonic stages the pleuropodia degenerated. Despite the binding of anti-HRP the cells had no morphological neuronal characters and cannot be regarded as neurons. The binding indicates that glycosylated cell surface molecules contribute to the adhesion between the presumably glandular pleuropodial cells. In comparison, anti-HRP does not mark the pleuropodia of Orthoptera. PMID:19537987
Strauss, Johannes; Lakes-Harlan, Reinhard
In many insects the first abdominal segment possesses embryonic appendages called pleuropodia. Here we show the embryogenesis of pleuropodial cells of the periodical cicada, Magicicada cassini (Fisher 1851) (Insecta, Homoptera, Cicadidae). An antibody, anti-horseradish perioxidase (HRP), that is usually neuron-specific strongly marked the pleuropodial anlagen and revealed their ectodermal origin shortly after limb bud formation. Thereafter the cells sank into the epidermis and their apical parts enlarged. A globular part protruded from the body wall. Filamentous structures were marked at the stem region and into the apical dilation. In later embryonic stages the pleuropodia degenerated. Despite the binding of anti-HRP the cells had no morphological neuronal characters and cannot be regarded as neurons. The binding indicates that glycosylated cell surface molecules contribute to the adhesion between the presumably glandular pleuropodial cells. In comparison, anti-HRP does not mark the pleuropodia of Orthoptera.
Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru
The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes ( C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.
Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Cornette, Richard; Matsumoto, Tadao; Miura, Toru
The evolution of genome size has been discussed in relation to the evolution of various biological traits. In the present study, the genome sizes of 22 dictyopteran species were estimated by Feulgen image analysis densitometry and 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-based flow cytometry. The haploid genome sizes (C-values) of termites (Isoptera) ranged from 0.58 to 1.90 pg, and those of Cryptocercus wood roaches (Cryptocercidae) were 1.16 to 1.32 pg. Compared to known values of other cockroaches (Blattaria) and mantids (Mantodea), these values are low. A relatively small genome size appears to be a (syn)apomorphy of Isoptera + Cryptocercus, together with their sociality. In some phylogenetic groups, genome size evolution is thought to be influenced by selective pressure on a particular trait, such as cell size or rate of development. The present results raise the possibility that genome size is influenced by selective pressures on traits associated with the evolution of sociality.
Graf, Wolfram; Vitecek, Simon
A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorumsp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorumsp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe - a supposedly well-explored region.
GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON
A new species of the alpine caddisfly genus Consorophylax (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Stenophylacini) and the female of the recently described C. vinconi Graf & Malicky 2015 are described. The new species C. lepontiorum sp. nov. is a microendemic of the South-Western Alps and differs from its congeners in the shape of the superior and inferior appendages and the unique setation of the aedeagus, absent in all other Consorophylax species. The female of C. vinconi is characterized by the unique formation of the anal tube. Potential effects of alpine orogenesis, phenology and climatic oscillation on speciation of aquatic insects inhabiting high-altitude habitats are discussed. The description of C. lepontiorum sp. nov. accentuates the significance of the Western Alps as harbours of aquatic insect biodiversity, and demonstrates the necessity of faunal and taxonomic studies in Europe – a supposedly well-explored region. PMID:27069351
Büsse, Sebastian; Genet, Cécile; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas
Among the winged insects (Pterygota) the Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) are unique for several reasons. Behaviourally they are aerial predators that hunt and catch their prey in flight, only. Morphologically the flight apparatus of Odonata is significantly different from what is found in the remaining Pterygota. However, to understand the phylogenetic relationships of winged insects and the origin and evolution of insect flight in general, it is essential to know how the elements of the odonatan flight apparatus relate to those of the other Pterygota. Here we present a comprehensive, comparative morphological investigation of the thoracic flight musculature of damselflies (Zygoptera). Based on our new data we propose a homologization scheme for the thoracic musculature throughout Pterygota. The new homology hypotheses will allow for future comparative work and especially for phylogenetic analyses using characters of the thoracic musculature throughout all winged insects. This will contribute to understand the early evolution of pterygote insects and their basal phylogenetic relationship.
Büsse, Sebastian; Genet, Cécile; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas
Among the winged insects (Pterygota) the Dragonflies and Damselflies (Odonata) are unique for several reasons. Behaviourally they are aerial predators that hunt and catch their prey in flight, only. Morphologically the flight apparatus of Odonata is significantly different from what is found in the remaining Pterygota. However, to understand the phylogenetic relationships of winged insects and the origin and evolution of insect flight in general, it is essential to know how the elements of the odonatan flight apparatus relate to those of the other Pterygota. Here we present a comprehensive, comparative morphological investigation of the thoracic flight musculature of damselflies (Zygoptera). Based on our new data we propose a homologization scheme for the thoracic musculature throughout Pterygota. The new homology hypotheses will allow for future comparative work and especially for phylogenetic analyses using characters of the thoracic musculature throughout all winged insects. This will contribute to understand the early evolution of pterygote insects and their basal phylogenetic relationship. PMID:23457479
Holzenthal, Ralph W.; Huisman, Jolanda; Thomson, Robin; Rázuri-Gonzales, Ernesto
Background Aquatic insects and other freshwater animals are some of the most threatened forms of life on Earth. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are highly biodiverse in the Neotropics and occupy a wide variety of freshwater habitats. In Andean countries, including Ecuador, knowledge of the aquatic biota is limited, and there is a great need for baseline data on the species found in these countries. Here we present the first list of Trichoptera known from Ecuador, a country that harbors two global biodiversity “hotspots.” Methods We conducted a literature review of species previously reported from Ecuador and supplemented these data with material we collected during five recent field inventories from about 40 localities spanning both hotspots. Using species presence data for each Ecuadorian province, we calculated the CHAO 2 species estimator to obtain the minimum species richness for the country. Results We recorded 310 species, including 48 new records from our own field inventories for the country. CHAO 2 calculations showed that only 54% of the species have been found. Hydroptilidae and Hydropsychidae were the most species rich families. We report the family Xiphocentronidae for the first time from Ecuador as well as several new records of genera from different families. Discussion As in the neighboring Andean countries of Colombia and Peru, it is common to find undescribed species of caddisflies. There are vast areas of Ecuador and the northern Andes that are completely unexplored, and we expect that hundreds of new species are yet to be discovered. PMID:28097062
Karaouzas, Ioannis; Andriopoulou, Argyro; Kouvarda, Theodora; Murányi, Dávid
An overview of the Greek stonefly (Plecoptera) fauna is presented as an annotated index of all available published records. These records have resulted in an updated species list reflecting current taxonomy and species distributions of the Greek peninsula and islands. Currently, a total of 71 species and seven subspecies belonging to seven families and 19 genera are reported from Greece. There is high species endemicity of the Leuctridae and Nemouridae, particularly on the Greek islands. The endemics known from Greece comprise thirty species representing 42% of the Greek stonefly fauna. The remaining taxa are typical Balkan and Mediterranean species.
The world fauna of Xylomyidae is cataloged, which includes 4 valid genera and 132 species. A phylogenetic analysis is presented which is then formalized in a classification of the family that is used to arrange the catalog. Full taxonomic citations, synonymy and geographic distribution data are pr...
Engel, Michael S.; Grimaldi, David A.; Singh, Hukam; Nascimbene, Paul C.
Abstract The family Scelembiidae (Neoembiodea: Embiomorpha: Archembioidea) is recorded from Asia for the first time, based on two individuals preserved in Early Eocene amber from the Cambay Basin, western India. Kumarembia hurleyi Engel & Grimaldi, gen. n. et sp. n., is described, figured, and distinguished from other archembioid genera. The genus shares male genitalic features with scelembiids, otherwise known from South America and Africa. PMID:22287898
Erdenee, Bolortsetseg; Maasri, Alain; Gelhaus, Jon K.; Bayartogtokh, Badamdorj
Abstract Streams in the Mongolian Altai Mountains are mostly fed from glaciers and are extreme conditions for mayflies because of high elevation, low temperatures and low annual precipitation. Previous information about mayflies of Western Mongolia is scarce, but with this study a total of 38 species belonging to 26 genera and subgenera and 8 families of mayflies has been recorded in the Mongolian Altai region. Study material was entirely imagos and collected from 78 sites during expeditions led by the Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Raptobaetopus tenellus, Caenis luctuosa and Caenis rivulorum are recorded as new to the fauna of Mongolia, and there are new distribution records for Ameletus montanus, Baetis (Acentrella) lapponica, Baetis sibiricus, Baetis (Labiobaetis) attrebatinus, Centroptilum luteolum, Procloeon pennulatum, Ephemerella aurivillii, Serratella setigera, Ephemera sachalinensis, Ecdyonurus (Afronurus) abracadabrus, Cinygmula kurenzovi, Ecdyonurus (Afghanurus) vicinus and Epeorus (Belovius) pellucidus from the Mongolian Altai region. Baetis vernus and Ephemerella aurivillii are the most frequently encountered species in this region. PMID:28174499
Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Moreno, Lucila; González-Acuña, Daniel
This study presents a revision of the fleas (Siphonaptera) in Chile, gathered from 1993-2013 in response to a request to update our knowledge of the fauna of this country, as catalogued by Beaucournu & Gallardo in 1991 and 1992. For each taxon we give the depository of the type, the main references concerning it, its general distribution, particularly in Chile, and its known hosts, mainly in this country. Our review of the existing literature on fleas of Chile gives information on a total of 8 families, 11 subfamilies, 31 genera, 9 subgenera and 112 species (with 11 subspecies). The hosts are represented by 21 families of mammals (91 species) and 16 of birds (27 species). In addition we present 21 new reports of fleas for Chile and 165 new localities.
Beaucournu, J C; Kowalski, K
28 species or subspecies are noted; 6 are new for this country [Echidnophaga gallinacea (Westwood, 1875), Xenopsylla blanci Smit, 1957?, Ischnopsyllus intermedius (Rothschild, 1898), I. octactenus (Kolenati, 1856), Nycteridopsylla ancyluris Jordan, 1942 and N. pentactena (Kolenati, 1856)]. A new Caenopsylla is described in another paper.
Kuznetsova, Valentina G; Khabiev, Gadzhimurad N; Krivokhatsky, Victor A
A short review of main cytogenetic features of insects belonging to the sister neuropteran families Myrmeleontidae (antlions) and Ascalaphidae (owlflies) is presented, with a particular focus on their chromosome numbers and sex chromosome systems. Diploid male chromosome numbers are listed for 37 species, 21 genera from 9 subfamilies of the antlions as well as for seven species and five genera of the owlfly subfamily Ascalaphinae. The list includes data on five species whose karyotypes were studied in the present work. It is shown here that antlions and owlflies share a simple sex chromosome system XY/XX; a similar range of chromosome numbers, 2n = 14-26 and 2n = 18-22 respectively; and a peculiar distant pairing of sex chromosomes in male meiosis. Usually the karyotype is particularly stable within a genus but there are some exceptions in both families (in the genera Palpares and Libelloides respectively). The Myrmeleontidae and Ascalaphidae differ in their modal chromosome numbers. Most antlions exhibit 2n = 14 and 16, and Palparinae are the only subfamily characterized by higher numbers, 2n = 22, 24, and 26. The higher numbers, 2n = 20 and 22, are also found in owlflies. Since the Palparinae represent a basal phylogenetic lineage of the Myrmeleontidae, it is hypothesized that higher chromosome numbers are ancestral for antlions and were inherited from the common ancestor of Myrmeleontidae + Ascalaphidae. They were preserved in the Palparinae (Myrmeleontidae), but changed via chromosomal fusions toward lower numbers in other subfamilies.
Grimaldi, David; Engel, Michael S
Fossilized, winged adults belonging to the psocopteran family Liposcelididae are reported in amber from the mid-Cretaceous (ca 100 Myr) of Myanmar (described as Cretoscelis burmitica, gen. et sp. n.) and the Miocene (ca 20 Myr) of the Dominican Republic (Belaphopsocus dominicus sp. n.). Cretoscelis is an extinct sister group to all other Liposcelididae and the family is the free-living sister group to the true lice (order Phthiraptera, all of which are ectoparasites of birds and mammals). A phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships among genera of Liposcelididae, including fossils, reveals perfect correspondence between the chronology of fossils and cladistic rank of taxa. Lice and Liposcelididae minimally diverged 100 Myr, perhaps even in the earliest Cretaceous 145 Myr or earlier, in which case the hosts of lice would have been early mammals, early birds and possibly other feathered theropod dinosaurs, as well as haired pterosaurs. PMID:16537135
Marziali, L.; Lencioni, V.; Rossaro, B.
Benthic communities are used in biological assessment and monitoring in lakes. Chironomids are considered indicators of oxygen level and trophic state. The taxocoenosis of 42 Italian lakes with different volume, depth, annual minimum hypolimnetic oxygen concentration, transparency and phosphorous concentration were investigated. Larvae were collected with a Petersen grab at different depths, pupal exuviae with a drift net near the outlet of lakes and adults with a sweep net along the shore. 334 species were identified: 41 Tanypodinae, 17 Diamesinae, 3 Prodiamesinae, 118 Orthocladiinae, 155 Chironominae (61 Tanytarsini, 93 Chironomini and 1 Pseudochironomini). Drift samples included many more taxa than grab samples, adult samples often included terrestrial species. Lake Garda, Como and Maggiore were the richest in species (78, 72 and 66 respectively), as expected because of their large size. Species richness did not result as good indicator: both oligotrophic (Monate 52 species, Toblino 33) and eutrophic lakes (Annone 57, Pusiano 42) were characterized by similar species numbers. Different species were more suitable indicators of oxygen concentration rather than of nutrients. A comparison of different lakes is preliminary because of: 1. different morphometric and trophic conditions; 2. different sampling effort; 3. lack of knowledge of species optima and tolerance.
Eggermont, H.; Heiri, O.; Russell, J.; Vuille, M.; Audenaert, L.; Klaassen, G.; Verschuren, D.
Reconstruction of Africa's temperature history from natural climate archives such as lake sediments is essential to amend the current scarcity of information on natural tropical climate and ecosystem variability. Chironomids are well-established paleothermometers in north-temperate/boreal regions, but their potential in tropical lakes has never before been assessed. We surveyed sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in surface sediments from 65 lakes and permanent pools in southwestern Uganda and central/southern Kenya, spanning elevations between 489 and 4575 m asl. Using various subsets of lakes and corresponding Surface-Water Temperatures (SWTemp) and Mean Annual Air Temperatures (MATemp), we developed a series of inference models for quantitative paleotemperature reconstruction. Models using both low-, mid- and high-elevation sites suffer to some extent from the small number of samples between 2500 and 3500 m asl, and from the presence of ecologically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable taxa. Models confined to mountain sites produce poorer error statistics, but are less prone to the biogeographical and taxonomic complexities associated with long climatic gradients. Overall, error statistics compare favourably with those of inference models developed for temperate regions, indicating that fossil assemblages of African Chironomidae can be valuable indicators of past temperature change. We subsequently used these models to evaluate whether high-elevation lakes in the Rwenzori Mountains (>3000 m asl) have been impacted by climate warming in recent centuries by comparing temperatures inferred from chironomid assemblages in modern sediments with those derived from chironomid assemblages in sediments deposited within or briefly after the Little Ice Age (1270-1850 AD). Depending on the model used, between 44 and 63% of the 16 lakes studied indicate significantly warmer temperatures in recent times (corresponding with an average MATemp rise of 0.88 ° C, and average SWTemp rise of 1.33 ° C), while all but one of the other lakes show temperature changes that are statistically insignificant. We conclude that chironomid communities in Rwenzori lakes adequately record past temperature changes, with potential for evaluating the impacts of past air temperature variation on the long-term dynamics of the Rwenzori glaciers.
Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi
The Polyneoptera represents one of the earliest insect radiations, comprising the majority of hemimetabolous orders, in which many species have great economic importance. Here, we sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes of the polyneopteran insects by using high throughput pooled sequencing technology, and presented a phylogenetic reconstruction for this group based on expanded mitochondrial genome data. Our analyses included 189 taxa, of which 139 species represent all the major polyneopteran lineages. Multiple results support the monophyly of Polyneoptera, the monophyly of Dictyoptera, and the monophyly of Orthoptera. Sister taxon relationships Plecoptera + Dermaptera, and Zoraptera + Embioptera are also supported by most analyses. Within Dictyoptera, the Blattodea is consistently retrieved as paraphyly due to the sister group relationship of Cryptocercus with Isoptera. In addition, the results demonstrate that model selection, data treatment, and outgroup choice can have significant effects on the reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of Polyneoptera.
Snyman, Louwtjie P.; Sole, Catherine L.; Ohl, Michael
Abstract The genus Afromantispa Snyman & Ohl, 2012 was recently synonymised with Mantispa Illiger, 1798 by Monserrat (2014). Here morphological evidence is presented in support of restoring the genus Afromantispa stat. rev. to its previous status as a valid and morphologically distinct genus. Twelve new combinations (comb. n.) are proposed as species of Afromantispa including three new synonyms. PMID:26478700
Vilenica, Marina; Gattolliat, Jean-Luc; Mihaljević, Zlatko; Sartori, Michel
Abstract Knowledge of the mayfly biodiversity in the Balkan Peninsula is still far from complete. Compared to the neighbouring countries, the mayfly fauna in Croatia is very poorly known. Situated at the crossroads of central and Mediterranean Europe and the Balkan Peninsula, Croatia is divided into two ecoregions: Dinaric western Balkan and Pannonian lowland. Mayflies were sampled between 2003 and 2013 at 171 sites, and a total of 66 species was recorded. Combined with the literature data, the Croatian mayfly fauna reached a total of 79 taxa. Of these, 29 species were recorded for the first time in Croatia while 15 species were not previously recorded in Dinaric western Balkan ecoregion. Based on the mayfly assemblage, sampling sites were first structured by ecoregion and then by habitat type. In comparison with the surrounding countries, the Croatian mayfly fauna is the most similar to the Hungarian and Bosnian fauna. Some morphologically interesting taxa such as Baetis cf. nubecularis Eaton, 1898 and Rhithrogena from the diaphana group were recorded. Ephemera cf. parnassiana Demoulin, 1958, the species previously recorded only from Greece, was also recorded. PMID:26478701
There are over 16,000 species of pyraloid or snout moths worldwide and many are pests of crops and stored products. The purpose of this video is to use a microscope to provide an in-depth look at the tympanal organs or "ears" that the moths use to evade bat predation. The two families of snout mot...
Fraulob, Maximilian; Wipfler, Benjamin; Hünefeld, Frank; Pohl, Hans; Beutel, Rolf G
External and internal structures of the larval abdomen of Nannochorista are described in detail, with emphasis on the posterior segments. The results are compared with conditions found in other groups of Antliophora, especially the mecopteran subgroups Boreidae and Pistillifera. Like the entire postcephalic body, the larval abdomen of Nannochorista is extremely slender and nearly cylindrical. The anterior segments are largely unmodified. The surface is smooth and lacks any protuberances or prolegs. The term "cloaca" for the posterior membranous pouch of Nannochorista sp. is morphologically unjustified. A list of muscles of segments IX and X is presented. The abdominal musculature was partly homologized following Snodgrass. The muscles of segment X are highly modified. They move the membranous pouch, the anal papillae, and the terminal lobes. The presence of these structures is likely an adaptation to the specific aquatic life style of nannochoristid larvae. The anal papillae are possibly homologous to the 4-lobed terminal attachment apparatus of larvae of Caurinus (Boreidae) and Pistillifera (Panorpidae, Bittacidae, Choristidae) but this is uncertain. The specific condition in both groups, i.e. two retractile papillae with tracheae and Malpighian tubules in Nannochoristidae, and a 4-lobed exposed attachment device in Pistillifera + Boreidae (groundplan) are very likely autapomorphic for both groups, respectively. A slender abdomen with smooth surface is very likely plesiomorphic within Antliophora and Mecopterida. This condition is found in Trichoptera (partim), Nannochoristidae, Siphonaptera, and many basal groups of Diptera. An eruciform or scarabaeiform body shape with a soft, largely unsclerotised cuticle is probably a synapomorphy of Boreidae and Pistillifera. The presence of ventral protuberances resembling prolegs on the anterior segments is an autapomorphy of the latter group. The homology of paired or unpaired terminal appendages of segment X is uncertain. However, the specific condition of paired and 3-segmented appendages with hooks in Nannochoristidae is almost certainly autapomorphic for this family. The protracted opening of the hind gut on the membranous pouch is another potential autapomorphy of Nannochoristidae. Aquatic habits of larvae, also very likely an apomorphic condition, have likely evolved several times independently in Antliophora. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peinert, Miriam; Wipfler, Benjamin; Jetschke, Gottfried; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Beutel, Rolf G.; Pohl, Hans
In a few insect groups, males pierce the female’s integument with their penis during copulation to transfer sperm. This so-called traumatic insemination was previously confirmed for Strepsiptera but only in species with free-living females. The more derived endoparasitic groups (Stylopidia) were suggested to exhibit brood canal mating. Further, it was assumed that females mate once and that pheromone production ceases immediately thereafter. Here we examined Stylops ovinae to provide details of the mating behaviour within Stylopidia. By using μCT imaging of Stylops in copula, we observed traumatic insemination and not, as previously suggested, brood canal mating. The penis is inserted in an invagination of the female cephalothorax and perforates its cuticle. Further we show that female Stylops are polyandrous and that males detect the mating status of the females. Compared to other strepsipterans the copulation is distinctly prolonged. This may reduce the competition between sperm of the first mating male with sperm from others. We describe a novel paragenital organ of Stylops females, the cephalothoracic invagination, which we suggest to reduce the cost of injuries. In contrast to previous interpretations we postulate that the original mode of traumatic insemination was maintained after the transition from free-living to endoparasitic strepsipteran females. PMID:27125507
Burks, R A; Heraty, J M
Variation in structures of the posterior surface of the head in Hymenoptera is compared and interpreted according to theories of head capsule evolution, with focus on understanding previously baffling conditions in the superfamily Chalcidoidea. Features are investigated separately without first classifying subforaminal bridges into subcategories. In Proctotrupomorpha (including Chalcidoidea), Ceraphronoidea and some Ichneumonoidea, there are multiple posterior pits associated with the tentorium. In most examined Hymenoptera with a subforaminal bridge, there was a differentiated median area, typically with highly variable microtrichia. This area is elevated in Cephoidea and Pamphilioidea, but is not elevated in other Hymenoptera. Subforaminal bridges in Apocrita previously classified as hypostomal bridges are discussed in the context of A.P. Rasnitsyn's hypothesis that relative importance of adult feeding drives subforaminal bridge evolution.
Imen, Saïd; Christian, Malosse; Virginie, Durier; Colette, Rivault
Chemical communication is necessary to induce aggregation and to maintain the cohesion of aggregates in Periplaneta americana (L.) cockroaches. We aimed to identify the chemical message inducing aggregation in this species. Two types of bioassays were used-binary choice tests in Petri dishes and tests in Y-olfactometer. Papers conditioned by direct contact of conspecifics induce aggregation when proposed in binary choice tests and were attractive in a Y-olfactometer. The identification of the molecules present on these conditioned papers indicated that dichloromethane extracts contained mainly cuticular hydrocarbons whereas methanol extracts contained more volatile molecules. Only a mixture of extracts in both solvents induced aggregation. High concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are necessary to induce aggregation when presented alone. When presented with volatile molecules present in methanol extracts, low concentrations of cuticular hydrocarbons are sufficient to induce aggregation if they are presented in contact. Among volatile molecules collected on filter paper, a mixture of three compounds-hexadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, and pentaethylene glycol-induced aggregation. Our results provide evidence that aggregation processes in P. americana relies on a dual mechanism: attraction over long distances by three volatile molecules and maintenance on site by contact with cuticular hydrocarbons.
Dallai, R; Mercati, D; Mashimo, Y; Machida, R; Beutel, R G
The salivary glands of two species of Zoraptera, Zorotypus caudelli and Zorotypus hubbardi, were examined and documented mainly using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results obtained for males and females of the two species are compared and functional aspects related to ultrastructural features are discussed. The salivary glands are divided into two regions: the secretory cell region and the long efferent duct, the latter with its distal end opening in the salivarium below the hypopharyngeal base. The secretory region consists of a complex of secretory cells provided with microvillated cavities connected by short ectodermal ducts to large ones, which are connected with the long efferent duct. The secretory cell cytoplasm contains a large system of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus producing numerous dense secretions. The cells of the efferent duct, characterized by reduced cytoplasm and the presence of long membrane infoldings associated with mitochondria, are possibly involved in fluid uptaking from the duct lumen.
Kuznetsova, Valentina G.; Khabiev, Gadzhimurad N.; Krivokhatsky, Victor A.
Abstract A short review of main cytogenetic features of insects belonging to the sister neuropteran families Myrmeleontidae (antlions) and Ascalaphidae (owlflies) is presented, with a particular focus on their chromosome numbers and sex chromosome systems. Diploid male chromosome numbers are listed for 37 species, 21 genera from 9 subfamilies of the antlions as well as for seven species and five genera of the owlfly subfamily Ascalaphinae. The list includes data on five species whose karyotypes were studied in the present work. It is shown here that antlions and owlflies share a simple sex chromosome system XY/XX; a similar range of chromosome numbers, 2n = 14-26 and 2n = 18-22 respectively; and a peculiar distant pairing of sex chromosomes in male meiosis. Usually the karyotype is particularly stable within a genus but there are some exceptions in both families (in the genera Palpares and Libelloides respectively). The Myrmeleontidae and Ascalaphidae differ in their modal chromosome numbers. Most antlions exhibit 2n = 14 and 16, and Palparinae are the only subfamily characterized by higher numbers, 2n = 22, 24, and 26. The higher numbers, 2n = 20 and 22, are also found in owlflies. Since the Palparinae represent a basal phylogenetic lineage of the Myrmeleontidae, it is hypothesized that higher chromosome numbers are ancestral for antlions and were inherited from the common ancestor of Myrmeleontidae + Ascalaphidae. They were preserved in the Palparinae (Myrmeleontidae), but changed via chromosomal fusions toward lower numbers in other subfamilies. PMID:26807036
Felsõ, B; Rózsa, L
Avian lice occupy different habitats in the host plumage that the physical environment outside the host body may affect in several ways. Interactions between host plumage and water may be an important source of such effects. Here, we use a comparative approach to examine the effect of a host's diving behavior on the taxonomic richness of its lice. Louse genera richness was significantly lower in clades of diving birds than on their nondiving sister clades. Species richness of host and body mass did not differ significantly between these clades; thus, these factors did not bias our results. This study suggests that the hosts' diving behavior can effectively influence ectoparasite communities.
Covacin, Catherine; Barker, Stephen C
We studied six species of lice from three of the four suborders of lice. These lice were infected with Wolbachia bacteria from supergroups A and F. This is the first report of an infection of supergroup F Wolbachia in lice. To date, Wolbachia from supergroup F have been found in filarial nematodes, Mansonella spp., and, rarely, in insects. We inferred the phylogeny of the Wolbachia from lice and representatives of all Wolbachia supergroups, with nucleotide sequences from the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). There was no evidence of congruence between the taxon of louse and the Wolbachia bacteria that infect lice. There is no evidence that Wolbachia and their louse hosts co-evolved at least at the level of Wolbachia supergroups. We propose a novel mechanism for the horizontal transfer of Wolbachia between different species of lice from birds: transfer of Wolbachia during phoresis by hippoboscid flies.
Song, Nan; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Cai, Wanzhi
The Polyneoptera represents one of the earliest insect radiations, comprising the majority of hemimetabolous orders, in which many species have great economic importance. Here, we sequenced eleven mitochondrial genomes of the polyneopteran insects by using high throughput pooled sequencing technology, and presented a phylogenetic reconstruction for this group based on expanded mitochondrial genome data. Our analyses included 189 taxa, of which 139 species represent all the major polyneopteran lineages. Multiple results support the monophyly of Polyneoptera, the monophyly of Dictyoptera, and the monophyly of Orthoptera. Sister taxon relationships Plecoptera + Dermaptera, and Zoraptera + Embioptera are also supported by most analyses. Within Dictyoptera, the Blattodea is consistently retrieved as paraphyly due to the sister group relationship of Cryptocercus with Isoptera. In addition, the results demonstrate that model selection, data treatment, and outgroup choice can have significant effects on the reconstructed phylogenetic relationships of Polyneoptera. PMID:27782189
There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...
Schneeberg, Katharina; Friedrich, Frank; Courtney, Gregory W; Wipfler, Benjamin; Beutel, Rolf G
Larval head structures of Nymphomyia dolichopeza were examined and described in detail. The conditions are compared to those of other dipteran representatives. Our results support the monophyly of Nymphomyiidae. Potential apomorphies are dimorphic crochets on the abdominal prolegs and the complete loss of the tentorium. Possible synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae and Deuterophlebiidae could be the rows of spatulate macrosetae covering the ventral surface of the labrum-epipharynx, the presence of distinct teeth along the anterior premento-hypopharyngeal margin, the absence of labral microtrichia and some other affinities concerning the life history of the two groups. A clade Blephariceromorpha is also supported by some larval features. Potential synapomorphies of Nymphomyiidae, Deuterophlebiidae and Blephariceridae are the vestigial M. labroepipharyngalis, the absence of a movable premandible, crochet-tipped prolegs, the complete loss of spiracles and non-retractable anal papillae. A clade Nymphomyiidae and Chironomidae is only weakly supported by characters of the larval head. The anteriorly serrate and posteriorly fused hypostoma is a potential apomorphic character. Our results support neither phylogenetic affinities between Nymphomyiidae and Axymyiidae nor a sistergroup relationship between Nymphomyiidae and the remaining Diptera. However, a comprehensive cladistic analysis is not presented in our study.
Dong, Wen-Ge; Guo, Xian-Guo; Jin, Dao-Chao; Xue, Shi-Peng; Qin, Feng; Simon, Song; Stephen, C Barker; Renfu, Shao
Lice are obligate ectoparasites of mammals and birds. Extensive fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes has been found in some louse species in the families Pediculidae, Pthiridae, Philopteridae and Trichodectidae. For example, the mt genomes of human body louse (Pediculus humanus), head louse (Pediculus capitis), and public louse (Pthirus pubis) have 20, 20 and 14 mini-chromosomes, respectively. These mini-chromosomes might be the results of deletion and recombination of mt genes. The factors and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome fragmentation are currently unknown. The fragmentation might be the results of evolutionary selection or random genetic drift or it is probably related to the lack of mtSSB (mitochondrial single-strand DNA binding protein). Understanding the fragmentation of mitochondrial genomes is of significance for understanding the origin and evolution of mitochondria. This paper reviews the recent advances in the studies of mito-chondrial genome fragmentation in lice, including the phenomena of mitochondrial genome fragmentation, characteristics of fragmented mitochondrial genomes, and some factors and mechanisms possibly leading to the mitochondrial genome fragmentation of lice. Perspectives for future studies on fragmented mt genomes are also discussed.
Cornelis, Marcela; Coscarón, María C.
Abstract In Argentina, five genera and 14 species are recorded in the subfamilies Prostemmatinae and Nabinae: Hoplistoscelis sordidus Reuter, Lasiomerus constrictus Champion, Metatropiphorus alvarengai Reuter, Nabis argentinus Meyer-Dür, Nabis (Tropiconabis) capsiformis Germar, Nabis faminei Stål, Nabis paranensis Harris, Nabis punctipennis Blanchard, Nabis roripes Stål, Nabis setricus Harris, Nabis tandilensis Berg, Pagasa (Pagasa) costalis Reuter, Pagasa (Lampropagasa) fuscipennis Reuter and Pagasa (Pagasa) signatipennis Reuter. PMID:24146557
Haddad, Vidal; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; Lupi, Omar; Tyring, Stephen K
Although many tropical insects carry infectious diseases, cutaneous injury can occur by other mechanisms, for example erucism (envenomation by caterpillars) or lepidopterism (dermatitis from moths). Pararama is a unique form of erucism seen in workers in contact with rubber trees in the Amazon, and it is caused by Premolis larvae, resulting in progressive periarticular fibrosis, ankylosis, and the loss of articulation. Ants and aquatic insects of the Belostomatidae family can cause painful bites and stings. Anaphylactic shock and death can result from the venom of bees and wasps. Beetles can cause vesicular dermatitis via cantharidin or paederin. Myiasis results from fly larvae (maggots) feeding on live or necrotic tissue of humans or other hosts, while New World screwworm fly larvae feed only on living tissue and burrow (ie, screw) more deeply when attempts are made to remove them. Tungiasis is characterized by very pruritic and painful papules and ulcers resulting from a Tunga flea penetrating the host's skin. Dermatologists should be able to diagnose and treat the cutaneous manifestations of these tropical insects and educate their patients on prevention.
Abstract An updated checklist of the Atelestidae, Brachystomatidae, Dolichopodidae, Empididae and Hybotidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. The genera with uncertain placement within superfamily Empidoidea (= the Iteaphila group) are also included in this paper. PMID:25337016
Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Holzenthal, Ralph W; Huisman, Jolanda; Thomson, Robin; Rázuri-Gonzales, Ernesto
Aquatic insects and other freshwater animals are some of the most threatened forms of life on Earth. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are highly biodiverse in the Neotropics and occupy a wide variety of freshwater habitats. In Andean countries, including Ecuador, knowledge of the aquatic biota is limited, and there is a great need for baseline data on the species found in these countries. Here we present the first list of Trichoptera known from Ecuador, a country that harbors two global biodiversity "hotspots." We conducted a literature review of species previously reported from Ecuador and supplemented these data with material we collected during five recent field inventories from about 40 localities spanning both hotspots. Using species presence data for each Ecuadorian province, we calculated the CHAO 2 species estimator to obtain the minimum species richness for the country. We recorded 310 species, including 48 new records from our own field inventories for the country. CHAO 2 calculations showed that only 54% of the species have been found. Hydroptilidae and Hydropsychidae were the most species rich families. We report the family Xiphocentronidae for the first time from Ecuador as well as several new records of genera from different families. As in the neighboring Andean countries of Colombia and Peru, it is common to find undescribed species of caddisflies. There are vast areas of Ecuador and the northern Andes that are completely unexplored, and we expect that hundreds of new species are yet to be discovered.
Dursun, Ahmet; Fent, Meral
The Heteroptera (Hemiptera) fauna of the Palaearctic Region is represented by 9365 species belonging to 1632 genera of which 1349 species belonging to 469 genera are also recorded from Turkey. Type localities of 237 species are in Turkey of which 108 species and 4 subspecies are endemic for the Heteroptera fauna of Turkey, indicating the importance of the country as a refugium, genetic hotspot and dispersal centre during pleistocene glaciation. Some heteroptera are important in agriculture as predators used in biological control or as ectoparasits and pests on plants. Most heteropteran species are phytophagous feeding on leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and shoots and cause economic damage. The suborder Heteroptera comprises aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial species.
Pohl, Hans; Niehuis, Oliver; Gloyna, Kai; Misof, Bernhard; Beutel, Rolf G.
Abstract A new species of Mengenilla Hofeneder, 1910 (Strepsiptera, Mengenillidae) from southern Tunisia is described. Mengenilla moldrzyki sp. n. can be distinguished from congeners by a slightly emarginated posterodorsal margin of the head, compound eyes with a light tan dorsal part, mandibles with a narrow distal part, and a v-shaped pronotum. With the description of Mengenilla moldrzyki sp. n., eleven valid species of Mengenilla are currently recognised. Mengenilla moldrzyki sp. n. is the third species of the genus with known females and female puparia. First instar larvae, endoparasitic larval stages, the male puparium and the host are unknown. The new species is also the first strepsipteran with a fully sequenced genome. PMID:22707907
Abstract Background The genus Scaponopselaphus Scheerpeltz was originally described to accommodate the species Trigonopselaphus mutator Sharp. New information In this paper, I review Scaponopselaphus and describe a new species from Colombia as Scaponopselaphus diaspartos n. sp. Illustrations are provided for the identification of specimens and the presence of spatulate setae on first mesotarsomere is shown to be a unique characteristic of Scaponopselaphus within Xanthopygina. PMID:25892923
Slifer, E H; Sekhon, S S
The sense organs on the antennal flagella of five species of winged psocids belonging to two families of Psocoptera, Psocidae and Leptopsocidae, have been examined, All agree in possessing tactile hairs, thick-walled chemoreceptors and long, porous chemoreceptors. Thin-walled chemoreceptors were identified in all species except Metylophorous novaescotiae. Coeloconic chemoreceptors were present in all species except Echmepteryx hageni. Campaniform sense organs were found only in Metylophorus novaescotiae and Psocus leidyi.
Lareschi, Marcela; Sanchez, Juliana; Autino, Analía
The Order Siphonaptera comprises cosmopolitan haematophagous ectoparasites of birds and mammals. More than ten years have past since the last list of species known for Argentina. Herein we provide a review of the fleas from the country, which includes an updated list, host species and geographical distribution for each taxa, as well as some comments. We report 127 species and subspecies belonging to eleven different families; 42 of these species are endemic. Four genera (Adoratopsylla, Cleopsylla, Ctenidiosomus, and Nonnapsylla) and six species and subspecies (Adoratopsylla (Adoratopsylla) antiquorum antiquorum, Agastopsylla pearsoni, Polygenis (Polygenis) roberti beebei, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) silewi, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) wilesi and Tunga terasma) are added to the list for Argentina. Nine species new to science are included, described on the bases of specimens collected from Argentina (Ctenidiosomus austrinus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) lareschiae, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) spiculatus, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) morenoi, Hectopsylla narium, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii, Neotyphloceras crackensis, Neotyphloceras pardinasii and Tunga perforans). Information provided herein contributes to the knowledge of the fleas from Argentina, necessary to a better understanding of their role as parasites themselves and vectors of zoonotic importance.
Houghton, David C
The caddisfly fauna of Minnesota contains at least 277 species within 21 families and 75 genera. These species are based on examination of 312,884 specimens from 2,166 collections of 937 Minnesota aquatic habitats from 1890 to 2007. Included in these totals is my own quantitative sampling of 4 representative habitat types: small streams, medium rivers, large rivers, and lakes, from each of the 58 major Minnesota watersheds from June through September during 1999-2001. All species are illustrated herein, and their known Minnesota abundances, distributions, adult flight periodicities, and habitat affinities presented. Four species: Lepidostoma griseum (Lepidostomatidae), Psilotreta indecisa (Odontoceridae), and Phryganea sayi and Ptilostomis angustipennis (Phryganeidae) are added to the known fauna. An additional 31 dubious species records are removed for various reasons. Of the 5 determined caddisfly regions of the state, species richness per watershed was highest in the Lake Superior and Northern Regions, intermediate in the Southeastern, and lowest in the Northwestern and Southern. Of the 48 individual collections that yielded >40 species, all but 1 were from the Northern Region. Many species, especially within the families Limnephilidae and Phryganeidae, have appeared to decrease in distribution and abundance during the past 75 years, particularly those once common within the Northwestern and Southern Regions. Many species now appear regionally extirpated, and a few have disappeared from the entire state. The loss of species in the Northwestern and Southern Regions, and probably elsewhere, is almost certainly related to the conversion of many habitats to large-scale agriculture during the mid-20th century.
van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira
Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A + T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164 bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade.
Erdenee, Bolortsetseg; Maasri, Alain; Gelhaus, Jon K; Bayartogtokh, Badamdorj
Streams in the Mongolian Altai Mountains are mostly fed from glaciers and are extreme conditions for mayflies because of high elevation, low temperatures and low annual precipitation. Previous information about mayflies of Western Mongolia is scarce, but with this study a total of 38 species belonging to 26 genera and subgenera and 8 families of mayflies has been recorded in the Mongolian Altai region. Study material was entirely imagos and collected from 78 sites during expeditions led by the Mongolian Aquatic Insect Survey in 2008, 2009 and 2010. Raptobaetopus tenellus, Caenis luctuosa and Caenis rivulorum are recorded as new to the fauna of Mongolia, and there are new distribution records for Ameletus montanus, Baetis (Acentrella) lapponica, Baetis sibiricus, Baetis (Labiobaetis) attrebatinus, Centroptilum luteolum, Procloeon pennulatum, Ephemerella aurivillii, Serratella setigera, Ephemera sachalinensis, Ecdyonurus (Afronurus) abracadabrus, Cinygmula kurenzovi, Ecdyonurus (Afghanurus) vicinus and Epeorus (Belovius) pellucidus from the Mongolian Altai region. Baetis vernus and Ephemerella aurivillii are the most frequently encountered species in this region.
Ziese, Stefanie; Dorn, August
In Manduca sexta the germ band is formed 12 h post-oviposition (p.o.) (=10% development completed) and is located above the yolk at the egg surface. The cells show a polar organization. They are engaged in the uptake and degradation of yolk globules, pinched off from the yolk cells. This process can be observed in the integumental cells during the first growth phase of the embryo that lasts until "katatrepsis," an embryonic movement that takes place at 40% development completed. At 37% development completed, the ectoderm deposits a thin membrane at its apical surface, the first embryonic membrane, which detaches immediately before katatrepsis. The second period of embryonic growth--from katatrepsis to 84 h p.o. (70% development completed)--starts with the deposition of a second embryonic membrane that is somewhat thicker than the first one and shows a trilaminar, cuticulin-like structure. Whereas the apical cell surface is largely smooth during the deposition of the first embryonic membrane, it forms microvilli during deposition of the second one. At the same time, uptake of formed yolk material ceases and the epidermal cells now contain clusters of mitochondria below the apical surface. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) increases in the perinuclear region. The second embryonic membrane detaches about 63 h p.o. At 69 h p.o., a new generation of microvilli forms and islands of a typical cuticulin layer indicate the onset of the deposition of the larval cuticle. The third growth phase is characterized by a steady increase in the embryo length, the deposition of the larval procuticle, and by cuticular tanning at about 100 h p.o. Beginning at that stage, electron-lucent vesicles aggregate below the epidermal surface and are apparently released below the larval cuticle. Manduca sexta is the first holometabolous insect in which the deposition of embryonic membranes and cuticles has been examined by electron microscopy. In correspondence with hemimetabolous insects, the embryo of M. sexta secretes three covers at approximately the same developmental stage. A marked difference: the second embryonic cover, which in Hemimetabola clearly exhibits a cuticular organization, has instead a membranous, cuticulin-like structure. We see the difference as the result of an evolutionary reductional process promoted by the redundancy of embryonic covers in the egg shell. Embryonic "molts" also occur in noninsect arthropods; their phylogenetical aspects are discussed. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Houghton, David C.
Abstract The caddisfly fauna of Minnesota contains at least 277 species within 21 families and 75 genera. These species are based on examination of 312,884 specimens from 2,166 collections of 937 Minnesota aquatic habitats from 1890 to 2007. Included in these totals is my own quantitative sampling of 4 representative habitat types: small streams, medium rivers, large rivers, and lakes, from each of the 58 major Minnesota watersheds from June through September during 1999–2001. All species are illustrated herein, and their known Minnesota abundances, distributions, adult flight periodicities, and habitat affinities presented. Four species: Lepidostoma griseum (Lepidostomatidae), Psilotreta indecisa (Odontoceridae), and Phryganea sayi and Ptilostomis angustipennis (Phryganeidae) are added to the known fauna. An additional 31 dubious species records are removed for various reasons. Of the 5 determined caddisfly regions of the state, species richness per watershed was highest in the Lake Superior and Northern Regions, intermediate in the Southeastern, and lowest in the Northwestern and Southern. Of the 48 individual collections that yielded >40 species, all but 1 were from the Northern Region. Many species, especially within the families Limnephilidae and Phryganeidae, have appeared to decrease in distribution and abundance during the past 75 years, particularly those once common within the Northwestern and Southern Regions. Many species now appear regionally extirpated, and a few have disappeared from the entire state. The loss of species in the Northwestern and Southern Regions, and probably elsewhere, is almost certainly related to the conversion of many habitats to large-scale agriculture during the mid-20th century. PMID:22615539
Dallai, R; Fanciulli, P P; Frati, F
A post-zygotic mechanism of sex determination is described in the two symphypleonans Dicyrtomina ornata (Nicolet) and Ptenothrix italica Dallai. The process consists of the loss of two sex chromosomes from the male embryo. At the end of the first meiotic division of spermatogenesis, a second chromosome elimination occurs, allowing half the secondary spermatocytes, later transformed into spermatids, to receive a complete haploid set of chromosomes. The secondary spermatocytes, which receive an incomplete set of chromosomes, degenerate. Males of the two collembolan species, therefore, produce a reduced number (50%) of spermatozoa. Females of D. ornata have 2n = 12 and males 2n = 10 chromosomes; females of P. italica have 2n = 14 and males 2n = 12 chromosomes. In both species, oogenesis proceeds normally and chromosomes pair and form chiasmata in meiotic prophase. The adaptive significance of this post-zygotic mechanism of sex determination is discussed. The mechanism seems to be a characteristic feature of the suborder Symphypleona. The neanurid Arthropleona Anurida maritima (Guérin), which was studied for comparative analysis, has 2n = 8 chromosomes and normal spermatogenesis producing haploid nuclei with four chromosomes. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 285:215-225, 1999.
Miao, Jin; Wu, Kongming; Hopper, Keith R; Li, Guoxun
Field surveys of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, and its natural enemies, as well as natural enemy exclosure experiments, were conducted during 2003 and 2004 in soybean fields near Langfang, China. In 2003, aphid density increased six-fold during 12 d in July from 66+/-12 per 10 plants to a seasonal peak of 401+/-79 per 10 plants. Aphid density remained high for another 10 d and declined during late July and early August. In 2004, aphid density increased 29-fold during 13 d in July from 14+/-2 per 10 plants to a seasonal peak of 375+/-30 per 10 plants. Unlike 2003, aphid density remained relatively high during late July and August, peaking again at 296+/-31 per 10 plants on 24 August. In both years, aphid density remained below economic injury level and seemed to be limited by natural enemies. Exclosure of natural enemies led to increases in A. glycines density in 2003 and 2004. In 2003, peak aphid densities in large- and medium-mesh cages were three- and seven-fold higher, respectively, than densities on uncaged plants. In 2004, peak aphid densities in large- and medium-mesh cages were 2-fold and 30-fold higher, respectively, than densities on uncaged plants in one experiment. In another experiment, peak aphid densities in large-, medium-, and small-mesh cages were 8-fold, 28-fold, and 68-fold higher, respectively, than densities on uncaged plants. Both predators and parasitoids were important in limiting aphid density. We compare our results with those from North America and discuss implications for biological control.
Slosser, J E; Parajulee, M N; Hendrix, D L; Henneberry, T J; Rummel, D R
The study was conducted in the northern Texas Rolling Plains in 1999 to define the relationship between number of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover, and resulting contamination of cotton lint by honeydew. Whole-plot treatments were three furrow irrigation management treatments: cotton grown without supplemental irrigation (dryland), irrigated cotton with last irrigation in mid August, and irrigated cotton with last irrigation in late August. Subplots within each irrigation treatment included an untreated check, a plot treated with lambda-cyhalothrin to stimulate aphid population increase, a plot treated with lambda-cyhalothrin followed by pymetrozine after aphids began to increase, and a plot treated with lambda-cyhalothrin followed by thiamethoxam after aphids began to increase. Cotton aphids were counted on leaves picked from the top and bottom half of the plant. Cotton lint was analyzed for contamination by glucose, fructose, sucrose, and melezitose secreted by cotton aphids, and percentage leaf moisture and nitrogen and leaf sucrose concentrations were determined. The manual sticky cotton thermodetector was used to determine degree of lint stickinesss. There was a significant relationship between thermodetector counts and melezitose contamination on lint, and a melezitose concentration of 90.9 microg/g of lint was associated with a thermodetector count of 10, the threshold for sticky lint problems in textile mills. An equation was developed to estimate melezitose concentration on lint as a function of average numbers of aphids per leaf and the interaction between percentage leaf moisture and nitrogen. The number of aphids per leaf associated with a melezitose concentration of 90.9 microg/g of lint ranged from 11.1 to 50.1, depending on percentage leaf moisture and nitrogen. The threshold for sticky lint problems occurred when aphid numbers ranged between 11.1 and 50.1 per leaf after bolls open.
The prevalent way aphids accomplish colony defense against natural enemies is a mutualistic relationship with ants or the occurrence of a specialised soldier caste typcial for eusocial aphids, or even both. Despite a group-living life style of those aphid species lacking these defense lines, communal defense against natural predators has not yet been observed there. Individuals of Aphis nerii (Oleander aphid) and Uroleucon hypochoeridis, an aphid species feeding on Hypochoeris radicata (hairy cat's ear), show a behavioral response to visual stimulation in the form of spinning or twitching, which is often accompanied by coordinated kicks executed with hind legs. Interestingly, this behaviour is highly synchronized among members of a colony and repetitive visual stimulation caused strong habituation. Observations of natural aphid colonies revealed that a collective twitching and kicking response (CTKR) was frequently evoked during oviposition attempts of the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani and during attacks of aphidophagous larvae. CTKR effectively interrupted oviposition attempts of this parasitoid wasp and even repelled this parasitoid from colonies after evoking consecutive CTKRs. In contrast, solitary feeding A. nerii individuals were not able to successfully repel this parasitoid wasp. In addition, CTKR was also evoked through gentle substrate vibrations. Laser vibrometry of the substrate revealed twitching-associated vibrations that form a train of sharp acceleration peaks in the course of a CTKR. This suggests that visual signals in combination with twitching-related substrate vibrations may play an important role in synchronising defense among members of a colony. In both aphid species collective defense in encounters with different natural enemies was executed in a stereotypical way and was similar to CTKR evoked through visual stimulation. This cooperative defense behavior provides an example of a surprising sociality that can be found in some aphid species that are not expected to be social at all. PMID:20454683
The prevalent way aphids accomplish colony defense against natural enemies is a mutualistic relationship with ants or the occurrence of a specialised soldier caste typical for eusocial aphids, or even both. Despite a group-living life style of those aphid species lacking these defense lines, communal defense against natural predators has not yet been observed there. Individuals of Aphis nerii (Oleander aphid) and Uroleucon hypochoeridis, an aphid species feeding on Hypochoeris radicata (hairy cat's ear), show a behavioral response to visual stimulation in the form of spinning or twitching, which is often accompanied by coordinated kicks executed with hind legs. Interestingly, this behaviour is highly synchronized among members of a colony and repetitive visual stimulation caused strong habituation. Observations of natural aphid colonies revealed that a collective twitching and kicking response (CTKR) was frequently evoked during oviposition attempts of the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani and during attacks of aphidophagous larvae. CTKR effectively interrupted oviposition attempts of this parasitoid wasp and even repelled this parasitoid from colonies after evoking consecutive CTKRs. In contrast, solitary feeding A. nerii individuals were not able to successfully repel this parasitoid wasp. In addition, CTKR was also evoked through gentle substrate vibrations. Laser vibrometry of the substrate revealed twitching-associated vibrations that form a train of sharp acceleration peaks in the course of a CTKR. This suggests that visual signals in combination with twitching-related substrate vibrations may play an important role in synchronising defense among members of a colony. In both aphid species collective defense in encounters with different natural enemies was executed in a stereotypical way and was similar to CTKR evoked through visual stimulation. This cooperative defense behavior provides an example of a surprising sociality that can be found in some aphid species that are not expected to be social at all.
Sanborn, A F
Measurements of body temperature in the field demonstrated that endothermic cicadas regulate body temperature by behavioral mechanisms as well as by endogenous heat production. Regression analysis suggests both endothermic and ectothermic species are thermoregulating. Body temperature of endothermically active cicadas without access to exogenous heat is approximately the same as the body temperature of basking cicadas. Tibicen winnemanna (Davis) raises body temperature in the field with the heat produced in flight or through the activation of the flight musculature without the act of flight. T. chloromerus (Walker) uses solar radiation to elevate body temperature to the level necessary for activity. The thermal responses of each species are related to its activity patterns with minimum flight temperature and shade-seeking temperatures significantly lower in the endothermic T. winnemanna. Heat torpor temperature appears to be related to the environment rather than behavior pattern. Endothermy in cicadas may serve to uncouple reproductive behavior from environmental constraints; to circumvent possible thermoregulatory problems; to permit the utilization of habitats unavailable to strictly ectothermic cicadas; to reduce predation; to optimize broadcast coverage and sound transmission; and to decrease possible acoustic interference.
González, Alex; Labrín, Natalia; Alvarez, Rosa M; Jayaro, Yorman; Gamboa, Carlos; Reyes, Edicta; Barrientos, Venancio
Tagosodes orizicolus is one of the main plagues of rice in tropical America causing two types of damages, the direct one, feeding and oviposition effect, and an indirect one, by the transmission of the "Rice hoja blanca virus". During 2006-2007 we carried out research under greenhouse conditions at Fundaci6n Danac, Venezuela, in order to determine the mechanisms of antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance to T. orizicolus, which could be acting in commercial varieties and advanced lines of the rice genetic breeding programs of INIA and Fundaci6n Danac. The method of free feeding was used for the antixenosis evaluation, whereas the method of forced feeding was used for antibiosis evaluation (effect on survival and oviposition). Additionally, we used the indirect method based on biomass depression to estimate the tolerance. Some of the evaluated traits included: grade of damage, number of insects settling on rice plants, percentage of sogata mortality at the mature state, number of eggs in the leaf midrib and an index of tolerance. The results showed that rice genotypes possess different combinations of resistance mechanisms, as well as different grades of reactions. The susceptible control 'Bluebonnet 50' was consistently susceptible across experiments and the resistant control 'Makalioka' had high antixenosis and high antibiosis based on survival and oviposition. The rest of the genotypes presented lower or higher degrees of antixenosis and antibiosis for survival and oviposition. The genotype 'FD0241-M-17-6-1-1-1-1' was identified with possible tolerance to the direct damage of sogata.
Garcerá, Cruz; Ouyang, Yuling; Scott, Sara J; Moltó, Enrique; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E
Laboratory and field studies were conducted to measure the effects of spirotetramat on life stages of California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell), and a primary parasitoid, Aphytis melinus DeBach. Organophosphate-resistant and -susceptible populations responded similarly to spirotetramat, suggesting there is no cross-resistance between these insecticide classes. First and second instar male and female A. aurantii were 10- and 32-fold more susceptible to spirotetramat (LC50 = 0.1-0.2 ppm) compared with early third (LC50 = 1.5 ppm) and late third instar females (LC50 = 5.3 ppm). The LC99 value indicated that late stage third instar females would not be fully controlled by a field rate of spirotetramat; however, spirotetramat would reduce their fecundity by 89%. Field applications of spirotetramat in two water volumes and using two adjuvants (oil and a nonionic spray adjuvant) showed similar reduction in A. aurantii numbers, even though the higher water volume demonstrated more complete coverage. These data suggest that this foliarly applied systemic insecticide can be applied in as little as 2,340 liters/ha of water volume, minimizing application costs, and that the two adjuvants acted similarly. The endoparasitoid, A. melinus, was unaffected by the field rate of spirotetramat when it was applied to the host when the parasitoid was in the egg or larval stage. Adult A. melinus showed 2 wk of moderate reductions in survival when exposed to leaves with field-weathered residues. Spirotetramat is an integrated pest management compatible insecticide, effective in reducing A. aurantii stages and allowing survival of its primary parasitoid A. melinus.
Bernal, Julio S; Luck, Robert F; Morse, J G
We tested several assumptions and predictions of host-quality-dependent sex allocation theory (Charnov et al. 1981) with data obtained for the parasitoid Metaphycus stanleyi Compere on its host, brown soft scale (Coccus hesperidum L.), in a California citrus grove and in the laboratory. Scales ceased growing after parasitization by M. stanleyi. Thus, M. stanleyi may gauge host quality (=size) at oviposition. Host size positively influenced adult parasitoid size, and parasitoid size in turn influenced adult longevity of M. stanleyi. However, parasitoid fitness gains with host size and adult size were similar in males versus females. Sex allocation to individual hosts by M. stanleyi depended on host size; females consistently emerged from larger hosts than males. Host size was important in a relative sense; the mean host sizes of females versus males, and of solitary versus gregarious parasitoids varied with the available host size distribution. The offspring sex ratio of M. stanleyi reflected the available host size distribution; the sex ratio of emerging parasitoids varied with the available host size distribution. We did not detect a "critical host size" below which males emerged, and above which females emerged; rather, only females emerged from hosts in the upper size range, and a variable ratio of males and females emerged from hosts in the lower size range. We conclude that the sex ratio of field populations of M. stanleyi is driven largely by the available size distribution of C. hesperidum. In addition, we tested predictions resulting from theoretical analyses of sex allocation in autoparasitoids with data obtained on Coccophagus semicircularis (Förster) parasitizing brown soft scale in the field. The sex ratio of C. semicircularis was consistently and strongly female biased (ca. 90% females). Based on available theoretical analyses, we suggest that this sex ratio pattern may have resulted from a very low encounter rate of secondary hosts coupled with a strong time limitation in C. semicircularis females. This explanation was the most plausible given constraints stemming from the detection of secondary hosts, their variable location within primary hosts, and their handling times. Finally, the size of hosts which yielded single versus multiple parasitoids, and the sizes of these parasitoids, were compared. These comparisons suggested that: (1) M. stanleyi females gauge host sizes precisely, and in terms of female offspring; thus a fitness penalty is not incurred by females which share a host, while males benefit from sharing a host, and; (2) instances where multiple C. semicircularis emerged from a single host were probably the result of parasitism by different females, or during different encounters by a single female.
Yang, Xiang-Bing; Liu, Tong-Xian
The development, survivorship, and fecundity of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), fed on eggplant (Solanum melongena L., variety Special Hibush) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L., variety Capsitrano) were studied in the laboratory at 26.7 +/- 2 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH, and at a photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Immature B. cockerelli developed faster (24.1 d) when fed on eggplant than on bell pepper (26.2 d). Survival rates of immature stages from egg to adult emergence were higher on eggplant (50.2%) than on bell pepper (34.6%). The longevity of B. cockerelli female adults fed on bell pepper was similar to that of females fed on eggplant (62.2 versus 55.0 d), but the male adults fed on eggplant lived shorter lives (39.4 d) than those fed on bell pepper (53.9 d). However, the preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, and sex ratio of B. cockerelli fed on eggplant were not different from those fed on bell pepper. The r(m ) value and the finite rate of increase (lambda) of B. cockerelli were higher on eggplant (0.1099 and 1.116, respectively) than on bell pepper (0.0884 and 1.0924, respectively). Mean generation time and doubling time of B. cockerelli were shorter on eggplant (40.4 and 6.3 d, respectively) than on bell pepper (46.1 and 7.8 d, respectively). In contrast, lifetime fecundity of B. cockerelli was greater on bell pepper (227.3 offspring) than on eggplant (186.5 offspring). Based on these life history parameters, we concluded that B. cockerelli performed better on eggplant than on bell pepper.
The nomenclatural problems with the hackberry gall psyllid species names are rectified. The genus Pachypsylla Riley, 1883, type species, Psylla venusta Osten-Sacken, includes 14 nominal species. These are: Pachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861); P. celtidismamma Riley, 1875; P. celtidisgemma Ri...
Emeljanov, Alexander F.; Shcherbakov, Dmitry E.
Abstract Alicodoxa rasnitsyni gen. et sp. n. (Dictyopharinae: Orthopagini) is described based on a nymph from Rovno amber; it also occurs in Baltic amber. A small additional wax plate dorsal to the large wax plate of abdominal tergites VI–VIII is first reported in this and other genera of Dictyopharidae. A lectotype is designated for Pseudophana reticulata Germar & Berendt, 1856 transferred to Protepiptera (Achilidae): Protepiptera reticulata (Germar & Berendt, 1856), comb. n. PMID:22259275
Horowitz, A Rami; Kontsedalov, Svetlana; Ishaaya, Isaac
The dynamics of resistance in the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), to the neonicotinoids acetamiprid and thiamethoxam was studied extensively in cotton fields in Israel during the cotton-growing seasons 1999-2003. Whitefly strains were collected in early and late seasons mainly in three locations in northern, central, and southern Israel. The whiteflies were assayed under laboratory conditions for susceptibility to neonicotinoids, as part of the Israeli cotton insecticide resistance management strategy. Selections to both acetamiprid and thiamethoxam and cross-resistance between them also were conducted in the laboratory. Although no appreciable resistance to acetamiprid was observed up to 2001, a slight increase of approximately five-fold resistance was detected during 2002 and 2003. However, from 2001 to 2003 thiamethoxam resistance increased >100-fold in the Ayalon Valley and Carmel Coast cotton fields. In cross-resistance assays with both neonicotinoids, the strain that had been selected with thiamethoxam for 12 generations demonstrated almost no cross-resistance to acetamiprid, whereas the acetamiprid-selected strain exhibited high cross-resistance of >500-fold to thiamethoxam.
S.L. Clement; D.G. Lester; A. Dan Wilson; K.S. Pike
The behavior and performance of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), on fungal endophyte-infected and endophyte-free perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., was investigated in the laboratory and field. Aphids did not select endophyte-free over endophyte-infected leaf sheaths and stem segments in petri dish preference tests....
Wenhua Lu; Michael E. Montgomery
Scymnus (Neopullus) sinuanodulus Yu et Yao, S. (N.) camptodromusYu et Liu, and Scymnus (Neopullus) n. sp. (in press) were collected in the People's Republic of China from hemlocks infested with the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. To date, 3 of the 14 provinces in China where...
Chang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Yongda; Zhang, Tianshu; Wang, Dongsheng; Du, Xingbin; Wu, Xiangwen; Chen, Haixia; Chen, Yaozhong; Jiao, Yuetong; Teng, Haiyuan
The effects of cycloxaprid (a modified neonicotinoid insecticide) and buprofezin (a thiadiazine insecticide) on mortality of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera, were determined in laboratory assays. Cycloxaprid killed WBPH nymphs and adults but buprofezin killed only nymphs, and cycloxaprid acted faster than buprofezin. One day after infestation, mortality of third-instar nymphs was >65% with cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter(-1) but was <38% with buprofezin at 148 mg liter(-1). By the 4th day after infestation, however, control of nymphs by the two insecticides was similar, and cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter(-1) caused ≥ 80% mortality of adults but buprofezin at 148 mg liter(-1) (the highest rate tested) caused almost no adult mortality. LC50 values for cycloxaprid were lowest with nymphs, intermediate with adult males, and highest with adult females. Although buprofezin was slower acting than cycloxaprid, its LC50 for nymphs 5 d after infestation was 3.79-fold lower than that of cycloxaprid. Mean carboxylesterase (CarE) specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with cycloxaprid and buprofezin was higher than that of control, but there was no significant difference between cycloxaprid and control (no insecticide), and it was significantly higher for buprofezin than those of cycloxaprid and control. For glutathione S-transferase and mixed function oxygenase, the specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with buprofezin was significantly higher than those of cycloxaprid and control, too.
Chang, Xiaoli; Yuan, Yongda; Zhang, Tianshu; Wang, Dongsheng; Du, Xingbin; Wu, Xiangwen; Chen, Haixia; Chen, Yaozhong; Jiao, Yuetong; Teng, Haiyuan
The effects of cycloxaprid (a modified neonicotinoid insecticide) and buprofezin (a thiadiazine insecticide) on mortality of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera, were determined in laboratory assays. Cycloxaprid killed WBPH nymphs and adults but buprofezin killed only nymphs, and cycloxaprid acted faster than buprofezin. One day after infestation, mortality of third-instar nymphs was >65% with cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter−1 but was <38% with buprofezin at 148 mg liter−1. By the 4th day after infestation, however, control of nymphs by the two insecticides was similar, and cycloxaprid at 125 mg liter−1 caused ≥80% mortality of adults but buprofezin at 148 mg liter−1 (the highest rate tested) caused almost no adult mortality. LC50 values for cycloxaprid were lowest with nymphs, intermediate with adult males, and highest with adult females. Although buprofezin was slower acting than cycloxaprid, its LC50 for nymphs 5 d after infestation was 3.79-fold lower than that of cycloxaprid. Mean carboxylesterase (CarE) specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with cycloxaprid and buprofezin was higher than that of control, but there was no significant difference between cycloxaprid and control (no insecticide), and it was significantly higher for buprofezin than those of cycloxaprid and control. For glutathione S-transferase and mixed function oxygenase, the specific activity of nymphal WBPH treated with buprofezin was significantly higher than those of cycloxaprid and control, too. PMID:26175461
The encyrtid koinobiont endoparasitoid Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam and Agarwal) is an imported biological control agent being released in Florida against the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. The eggs and early larvae were found free-floating within the hemocoel. Larvae...
Abstract: Effect of temperature on the biology of Paracoccus marginatus was investigated. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18°, 20°, 25° and 30°C. At 15°, 34° and 35°C eggs hatched, but further development was arrested. Approximately 80 -90% of the eggs survived betw...
Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I
Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.
Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J
Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides.
Rebecca F. Young; Kathleen S. Shields; Graeme P. Berlyn
Stylet bundle insertion site, path traveled, and feeding site were examined for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, on needles from current and previous years of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis Carriere. The stylet bundle is composed of 4 individual stylets--2 outer mandibular stylets and 2 inner maxillary stylets...
Mac A. Callaham; Matt R. Whiles; John M. Blair
In tallgrass prairie, cicadas emerge annually, are abundant and their emergence can be an important flux of energy and nutrients. However, factors influencing the distribution and abundance of these cicadas are virtually unknown. We examined cicada emergence in plots from a long-term (13 y) experimental manipulation involving common tallgrass prairie management...
Hélène, Delatte; Rémy, Baudin; Nathalie, Becker; Anne-Laure, Girard; Traoré, Ramatoulaye Sidebe; Jean-Michel, Lett; Bernard, Reynaud
Bemisia tabaci-transmitted geminiviruses are one of the major threats on cassava and vegetable crops in Africa. However, to date, few studies are available on the diversity of B. tabaci and their associated endosymbionts in Africa. More than 28 species have been described in the complex of B. tabaci cryptic species; among them, 2 are invasive pests worldwide: MED and MEAM1. In order to assess the species diversity of B. tabaci in vegetable crops in Senegal, several samplings in different localities, hosts and seasons were collected and analyzed with nuclear (microsatellite) and mitochondrial (COI) markers. The bacterial endosymbiont community was also studied for each sample. Two species were detected: MED Q1 and MEAM1 B. Patterns of MED Q1 (dominance on most of the samples and sites, highest nuclear and mitochondrial diversity and broader secondary endosymbiont community: Hamiltonella, Cardinium, Wolbachia and Rickettsia), point toward a predominant resident begomovirus vector group for MED Q1 on market gardening crops. Furthermore, the lower prevalence of the second species MEAM1 B, its lower nuclear and mitochondrial diversity and a narrower secondary endosymbiont community (Hamiltonella/Rickettsia), indicate that this genetic group is exotic and results from a recent invasion in this area. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Gavrilov-Zimin, Ilya A.
Abstract A new monotypic genus and species, Komodesia circuliplurima gen. et sp. n., from Flores Is. (Indonesia) and the new species, Antonina diversiglandulosa sp. n., from Southern Thailand are described and illustrated. Chromosomes of these species and also the ones of Antonina purpurea Signoret, 1872 and Antonina thaiensis Takahashi, 1942 are studied for the first time: 2n = 30, 20, 12 and 22+Bs correspondingly; the male embryos of all four species demonstrate Lecanoid paternal heterochromatinization of one haploid set of chromosomes. The karyotypes of three widely distributed species, Antonina pretiosa Ferris, 1953, Antonina graminis (Maskell, 1897) and Chaetococcus bambusae (Maskell, 1893), are studied based on material from other regions in comparison with previously published data. Photographs of the karyotypes are provided for the first time for all seven species. The terminological problems connected with the identification and naming of the three scale insect genetic systems, Lecanoid, Comstockioid and Diaspidoid, are discussed. PMID:28123680
Three vacuum devices were compared for sampling psyllid populations. One was an AC rechargeable, handheld, cordless model and a second was a handheld, DC model powered through a cord connected to a 12V vehicle battery. Each of these devices had a mesh cylinder (substituted for a dust bag) in which...
Three vacuum devices were compared for sampling psyllid populations. One was an AC rechargeable, handheld, cordless model and a second was a handheld, DC model powered through a cord connected to a 12V vehicle battery. Each of these devices had a mesh cylinder (substituted for a dust bag) in which...
Tahir, Aliadi Mohd; Sulaiman, Azman
A total of 31 cicada species in 15 genera under two families (Cicadidae, 27 species in 11 genera; Tibicinidae, four species in three genera) was recorded for Johor National Park, Mount Ledang, Johor. This was based on 666 individuals were obtained through six sampling occasions in November 2012 until October 2013, each time using light trap set in six sampling locations (L1, L2, L3, L4a, L4b, L4c) that were selected based on altitudes. The most common and abundant species in L1 is Pomponia sp1 and recognized as new species that need to be described as new to science. Orientopsaltria saudarapadda Duffles & Zaidi appeared as the most common and abundant species in L2, represented by 21 individuals which covers 34.43 % of the total cicadas specimen in that area. In the location of L3, Dundubia vaginata (Fabricius) appeared as the most abundant species represented by 37 individuals or 26.81% while Abroma maculicollis Guerin appeared as the most common species. Shannon's Species Diversity Index (H') in L3 was the highest (H'=2.28) followed by L4b (H'=2.21), L2 (H'=1.93) L4a (H'=1.92), L4c (H'=1.84) and L1 (H'=1.58), and the evenness index in L1 was the highest (E= 0.88), followed by L4b (E= 0.79), L3 (E= 0.77), L2 (E= 0.75), L4c (E= 0.74) and L4a (E= 0.79). Margalef Species Richness Index in L3 was the highest (R'=3.65), followed by oleh L4b (R'=3.01), L4a (R'=2.97), L2 (R'=2.92), L4c (R'=2.4), and L1 (R'=2.01). Generally shows that L3 at the altitude 350 m appear as the best sampling site for cicadas species in Mount Ledang Johor with the highest value of species diversity and richness index.
Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L., has been targeted as a bioenergy feedstock. However, little is currently known of the mechanisms of insect resistance in this species. Here, two no-choice studies were performed to determine the categories (antibiosis and tolerance) and relative levels of resistanc...
Xue, Y; Bahlai, C A; Frewin, A; Sears, M K; Schaafsma, A W; Hallett, R H
Coccinella septempunctata L. and Harmonia axyridis Pallas are key natural enemies of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, in North America. Third instars, adult females, and adult males of both C. septempunctata and H. axyridis exhibited a type II functional response for predation toward adult soybean aphids at 26 +/- 1 degrees C. In C. septempunctata, the functional response curve of adult males differed from those of third instars and adult females, but there was no difference between third instars and adult females. In H. axyridis, the functional response curves of larvae, adult females, and adult males all differed significantly. Third instars and adult females consumed significantly more soybean aphids than did adult males at prey densities of 150 and 180 aphids per arena for C. septempunctata and at prey densities of 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 aphids per arena for H. axyridis. The theoretical maximum daily predation rate of adult aphids by C. septempunctata was predicted to be 204 per third instar, 277 per adult female, and 166 per adult male, and 244, 156, and 73, respectively, for H. axyridis. Third instars and adult females of both species consumed significantly more aphids than did adult males on soybean plants with the recommended action threshold of 250 soybean aphids per plant. Both C. septempunctata and H. axyridis have high predation capacities and are important in suppressing soybean aphid populations.
Xin, Juan-Juan; Shang, Qing-Li; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xi-Wu
Sitobion avenae is a major agricultural pest of wheat in China. Using microsatellite markers, we studied the potential gene flow, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and genetic structure of seven S. avenae populations from different regions of China (Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Shanxi provinces). The populations from Henan, Shandong, and Jiangsu showed high levels of genic and genotypic diversity. By contrast, the genic diversity in the Beijing and Hebei populations was much lower. Despite this low genic diversity, the genotypic diversity of the Beijing population was higher than that of all of the other populations, except those from Jiangsu and Shandong. Overall, the genetic divergence among the seven S. avenae populations tested was high, though there was almost no differentiation between the Shandong and Henan populations. We observed significant negative correlation between the strength of gene flow and the geographic distances among populations. Based on genetic analysis, the seven S. avenae populations studied can be divided into four distinct clusters; (i) Hubei, (ii) Shanxi, (iii) Beijing and Hebei, and (iv) Shandong, Henan, and Jiangsu. The present results provide a basis for potentially optimizing integrated pest management (IPM) programs in China, through adapting control methods that target biological traits shared by various populations of the same genotype. PMID:25356548
Hubbard, J L; Potter, D A
Seasonal phenology of calico scale, Eulecanium cerasorum (Cockerell), was monitored for 3 yr on various deciduous tree species in central Kentucky. Infestations were found on 16 host species in six plant families. Calico scale is a univoltine parthenogenic species that overwinters as second instars on bark. Nymphs molted to adult females around mid-April and began producing eggs in late April. Mean fecundity ranged from 3,728 to 4,654 eggs per female, depending on host plant species. Date of first crawler hatch in 2001-2003 ranged from 21 to 26 May, corresponding to a mean accumulation of 818 +/- 2 Celsius degree-days (DDC), calculated from 1 January and a base of 4.4 degrees C. This value predicted crawler hatch within 2 d in Lexington, KY, in 2004. Crawler dispersal lasted 2 to 3 wk. Upon hatching, crawlers move to leaves where they feed during summer. Crawlers primarily settled on the abaxial side of leaves and their within-leaf distribution varied between different tree species. Settled crawlers molted in mid-July and second instars remained on leaves until late September through mid-October, when they returned to bark to overwinter. On hackberry, Celtis occidentalis L., they were concentrated toward the basal end of shoots, primarily because leaf flush continued beyond the end of the crawler dispersal period. Crawler distribution did not differ between upper and lower canopy zones. Fourteen species of parasitoids and a coccinellid beetle were reared from individual scales. Monitoring with sticky traps in tree canopies confirmed that targeting crawlers with insecticides during late May or June would not coincide with peak flight activity of the scale's primary parasitoids.
Liu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Pu; Chen, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Dong-Li; Hu, Yan-Hong
To explore the function of small heat shock protein genes (shsps) and hsp70 in Ericerus pela, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequences of hsp21.5, hsp21.7, hsp70, and hsc70 and the genomic sequence of hsc70. Open reading frames of the four hsps were 570, 564, 1,908, and 1,962 base pairs (bp), respectively, which encode proteins with calculated molecular mass of 21.5, 21.7, 69.8, and 71.6 kDa. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed the presence of the conserved Hsp motifs in all four proteins. The genomic DNA of hsc70 had four introns. ep-hsp21.5 was orthologous and ep-hsp21.7 was species specific. Expression of all four transcripts during heat or cold stress and development was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. All four hsps were upregulated during heat or cold stress in female adults, indicating a correlation between the four hsps and heat or cold-stress tolerance in female adults. ep-hsp21.7 and ep-hsp70 were upregulated during heat stress in male larvae, implying a correlation between the two hsps and heat-stress tolerance in male larvae. The four ep-hsps were also upregulated during the developmental process in males, and ep-hsp21.5, ep-hsp70, and ep-hsc70 were upregulated in females, which indicates their possible role in the developmental regulation of E. pela.
Le Roux, Vincent; Saguez, Julien; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe
With the objective to develop a potato, Solanum tuberosum L., resistance program against aphids, we propose a rapid screening method with Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in the laboratory. We aimed to optimize the duration of the whole procedure and to decrease the frequency of measurements. In a first experiment, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) values were compared between adult aphids reared throughout their entire life and adults reared only during a period equivalent to their prereproductive period. No significant differences were observed. In a second experiment, four groups of aphids were distinguished according to the sampling frequency, i.e., those whose biological parameters were evaluated every single, second, third, and fourth day. Except for the fourth-day experiment, the r(m) values estimated on aphids reared on the three potato lines were not significantly different whatever sampling frequency of single, second, or third day used to check aphids. Thus, screening efforts in laboratory can be largely optimized by evaluating adult aphids only during a period equivalent to their prereproductive period and assessing M. persicae populations every third day. Our method is reliable and adapted to screen a large number of potato plants against M. persicae because it allows an average 70% reduction in the time required for the whole experimental process.
Gavrilov-Zimin, Ilya A
A new monotypic genus and species, Komodesia circuliplurimagen. et sp. n., from Flores Is. (Indonesia) and the new species, Antonina diversiglandulosasp. n., from Southern Thailand are described and illustrated. Chromosomes of these species and also the ones of Antonina purpurea Signoret, 1872 and Antonina thaiensis Takahashi, 1942 are studied for the first time: 2n = 30, 20, 12 and 22+Bs correspondingly; the male embryos of all four species demonstrate Lecanoid paternal heterochromatinization of one haploid set of chromosomes. The karyotypes of three widely distributed species, Antonina pretiosa Ferris, 1953, Antonina graminis (Maskell, 1897) and Chaetococcus bambusae (Maskell, 1893), are studied based on material from other regions in comparison with previously published data. Photographs of the karyotypes are provided for the first time for all seven species. The terminological problems connected with the identification and naming of the three scale insect genetic systems, Lecanoid, Comstockioid and Diaspidoid, are discussed.
Popay, Alison J.; Cox, Neil R.
Aploneura lentisci Pass. is endemic to the Mediterranean region where it is holocyclic, forming galls on its primary host, Pistacia lentiscus and alternating over a 2-year period between Pistacia and secondary hosts, principally species of Gramineae. This aphid is widely distributed in Australia and New Zealand on the roots of the common forage grasses, ryegrass (Lolium spp.) and tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) where it exists as permanent, anholocyclic, parthenogenetic populations. Previous studies have indicated that infestations of A. lentisci significantly reduce plant growth and may account for differences in field performance of Lolium perenne infected with different strains of the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae var. lolii. These obligate biotrophs protect their host grasses from herbivory via the production of alkaloids. To confirm the hypothesis that growth of L. perenne is associated with the effect of different endophyte strains on aphid populations, herbage and root growth were measured over time in two pot trials that compared three fungal endophyte strains with an endophyte-free control. In both pot trials, aphid numbers were lowest on plants infected with endophyte strain AR37 at all sampling times. In plants infected with a common toxic strain naturalized in New Zealand, aphid numbers overall were lower than on uninfected plants or those infected with strain AR1, but numbers did not always differ significantly from these treatments. Populations on AR1-infected plants were occasionally significantly higher than those on endophyte-free. Cumulative foliar growth was reduced in AR1 and Nil treatments relative to AR37 in association with population differences of A. lentisci in both trials and root dry weight was reduced in one trial. In four Petri dish experiments survival of A. lentisci on plants infected with AR37 declined to low levels after an initial phase of up to 19 days during which time aphids fed and populations were similar to those on plants without endophyte. Aphids on AR37-infected plants became uncoordinated in their movement and developed tremors before dying suggesting a neurotoxin was responsible for their mortality. Results support the hypothesis that differences in A. lentisci populations due to endophyte infection status and strain affects plant growth. PMID:27695470
Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Ijaz, Mamuna; Farooq, Zahra; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem
Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, is a serious pest of cotton and other crops and infestation by this pest results in yield losses that affect the economy of Pakistan. Various groups of insecticides have been used to control this pest but resistance development is a major factor that inhibits its control in the field. Chlorpyrifos is a common insecticide used against many pests including P. solenopsis. The present experiment was designed to assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance and to develop a better resistance management strategy and assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance. Before selection, the field strain showed 3.1-fold resistance compared to the susceptible strain (CSS). After 8 rounds of selection with chlorpyrifos, a selected population developed a 191.0-fold resistance compared to the CSS. The LC50 values of F1 (CRR ♀ × CSS ♂) and F1(†) (CRR ♂ × CSS ♀) strains were not significantly different and dominance (DLC) values were 0.42 and 0.55. Reciprocal crosses between chlorpyrifos susceptible and resistant strains indicated that resistance was autosomal and incompletely recessive. The monogenic model of fit test and calculation of number of genes segregating in the chlorpyrifos resistant strain demonstrated that resistance is controlled by multiple genes. A value of 0.59 was calculated for realized heritability for chlorpyrifos resistance. Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and S, S, S-butyl phosphorotrithioate showed that chlorpyrifos resistance was associated with microsomal oxidases and esterases. It was concluded that chlorpyrifos resistance in P. solenopsis was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings would be helpful to improve the management of P. solenopsis.
Biotypes of aphids and many other insect pests are defined based on the phenotypic response of host plants to the insect pest without considering their intrinsic characteristics and genotypes. Plant breeders have spent considerable effort to develop aphid-resistant, small grain varieties to limit in...
In 2013 the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a new invasive pest of sorghum in North America, was confirmed on sorghum in four states and 38 counties in the U.S. In 2015, the aphid was reported on sorghum in 17 states and over 400 counties as well as all sorgh...
Weng, Yiqun; Lazar, Mark D; Michels, Gerald J; Rudd, Jackie C
Interactions between biotype E greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., were investigated using resistant and susceptible near isogenic lines of the greenbug resistance gene Gb3. In an antixenosis test, the greenbugs preferred susceptible plants to resistant ones when free choice of hosts was allowed. Aphid feeding resulted in quick and severe damage to susceptible plants, which seemed to follow a general pattern spatially and was affected by the position where the greenbugs were initially placed. Symptom of damage in resistant plants resembled senescence. Within-plant distribution of aphids after infestation was clearly different between the two genotypes. Significantly more greenbugs fed on the first (oldest) leaf than on the stem in resistant plants, but this preference was reversed in the susceptible one. After reaching its peak, aphid population on the susceptible plants dropped quickly. All susceptible plants were dead in 10-14 d after infestation due to greenbug feeding. Aphid population dynamics on resistant plants exhibited a multipeak curve. After the first peak, the greenbug population declined slowly. More than 70% of resistant plants were killed 47 d after infestation. Performance of both biotype E and I greenbugs on several Gb3-related wheat germplasm lines were also examined. It seems that the preference-on-stem that was characteristic of biotype E greenbugs on the susceptible plants was aphid biotype- and host genotype-dependent. Results from this study suggested that antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance in the resistant plants of wheat might all contribute to resistance against greenbug feeding.
Papura, D; Giresse, X; Chauvin, B; Caron, H; Delmotte, F; VAN Helden, M
Eight dinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized within the green leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Goethe) using an enrichment cloning procedure. Primers were tested on 171 individuals collected in the southwest of France from the vine plants. The identified loci were polymorphic, with allelic diversity ranging from two to 18 alleles per locus. Observed heterozygosities were from 0.021 to 0.760. These microsatellite markers should prove to be a useful tool for estimating the population genetic structure, host-plant specialization and migration capacity of this insect. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Michael Montgomery; Hongbin Wang; Defu Yao; Wenhau Lu; Nathan Havill; Guangwu. Li
Information is presented on the occurrence, development, and feeding of Scymnus (Neopullus) ningshanensis Yu et Yao. Information on its biology was collected in the field and laboratory in China and in quarantine in the United States. This lady beetle was found in China only on hemlock infested with ...
Haviland, David R; Bentley, Walter J; Daane, Kent M
Hot-water immersions were tested for control of mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret), on dormant grape cuttings used for nursery stock. A range of hot-water temperatures (47-58 degrees C) were evaluated at immersion periods of 2, 5, 10, or 20 min, by using a total of 353,720 mealybugs across all treatments. A 5-min immersion at 51 degrees C is effective in killing > 99% of P. ficus. At or above this immersion period and temperature, there was no difference in mealybug stage mortality. We evaluated a commercial operation, which used a 5-min immersion in each of three water tanks: preheating (30.0 +/- 3 degrees C), hot-water (52.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C), and cooling (23 +/- 3 degrees C). The commercial procedure provided 99.8-100% mealybug control in each of three separate trials.
Verghese, A; Sreedevi, K
Thrips of late are becoming more resurgent in agro-ecosystems especially in India and South Asian countries. One of the reasons attributed is the development of resistance in them to groups of insecticides of organo phosphates, carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids, etc., which form the core of recommendation for thrips management. The chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood, is no exception and is tending to be an unmanageable pest. In S. dorsalis, besides evidence of resistance, elimination of natural enemies like Orius sp. is evident, which also probably explains the thrips resurgence. Scirtothrips dorsalis is highly polyphagous and of late has become serious on grapes. The damage is manifested as scab on fruit rind, affecting internal and export markets. Fortunately, it does not vector any virus on grapes in India. Farmers have been reporting inefficacy of established chemicals like acephate, dimethoate, monocrotophos, etc. As grapes is an important cash crop of horticulture, management through insecticides, require alternate or new insecticides. So two trials in 2005 on cv. Bangalore Blue following April and October prunings were conducted at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore, S. India to evaluate two doses of a newer molecule viz. Clothianidin [Dantop] on S. dorsalis. Clothianidin 0.006%, Clothianidin 0.008% were compared with monocrotophos 0.05%, dimethoate 0.06% and acephate 0.1125%. There was an untreated check. Each treatment was replicated five times; a vine constituted a replicate. These data were subjected to ANOVA, after arc sine transformation. The critical difference (CD) at p < 0.05 was the test criterion. In the first trial it was found that all the insecticides tried were superior to check and were on par at p < 0.05. However, Clothianidin 0.008% gave the best control with a low mean of 0.26% berry damage/bunch as compared to 4.42% in the unsprayed check. The trend was the same in the second trial also with Clothianidin 0.008% giving the best control with 0.64% berry damage/bunch as compared to 8.49% in the unsprayed check. It was on par with acephate and monocrotophos, but significantly superior to Clothianidin 0.006% and dimethoate.
Granett, J; Omer, A D; Walker, M A
Field experiments were conducted to evaluate population densities and survival, developmental rate, and fecundity of grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch), as influenced by root attachment or detachment from mature, field-grown, Vitis vinifera L. grapevines through the growing season. Experiments were performed using artificial infestations of California biotype A grape phylloxera. Thirty-day bioassays on attached- and detached-roots were repeated monthly from May to September in 1997 (cultivar 'Carignane') and April to September in 1998 (cultivar 'Thompson Seedless'). The bioassays showed that attached roots had lower population densities than detached roots in all months of both years. Densities varied by month, tending to be higher in spring than in summer. Of the population parameters studied, survival was most influenced by attachment condition, being higher on detached than on attached roots by up to 25-fold. These results imply the importance of vine-related mortality factors to grape phylloxera population density. Influence of root attachment condition on developmental rate and fecundity was not uniform across bioassay months for either year; however, in the four out of 21 assays where there was a significant difference it favored detached roots by twofold. Fruit harvest resulted in higher survival in the July assay but not for assays in August and September; however, neither developmental rate nor fecundity was affected by harvest in any ofthe assays. We conclude that mortality rather than nutritional factors are most limiting for field populations on susceptible vines. This work suggests that detachment of roots as occurs with root girdling by root pathogens may increase grape phylloxera populations on infested, susceptible vines. These results imply that excised root bioassays over-estimate grape phylloxera virulence and underestimate rootstock resistance.
Honeydew produced by homopteran insects such as aphids, whiteflies and mealybugs, can be abundant in some crops and may represent an important food resource for spiders and other honeydew feeding natural enemies. Woolly whiteflies are common in south Texas citrus, and spiders consistently make up a...
Win, San San; Muhamad, Rita; Ahmad, Zainal Abidin Mior; Adam, Nur Azura
Survival and fertility characteristics of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens were assessed in the laboratory and field. Life tables and population parameters of the BPH were constructed in an environment with unlimited food supply and that was free of natural enemies. The highest mortality occurred in the immature stage, especially in the first and second instars. The life table analysis showed that the population density of BPH decreased gradually. The survival ratio of male to female was 0.512:0.488. The females lived for a maximum of 20 days. The trend of oviposition showed a peak at around the tenth day of the female life. The highest number of eggs produced per female per day was 9.63. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) in egg production per female per day was 0.0677 and the daily finite of increase (λ) was 1.0688 females per female per day, with a mean generation time (T) of 34.05 days. The net reproductive rate (Ro) of the population was 10.02. The population doubling time (DT) was 10.42 days. PMID:24575207
Xin, Juan-Juan; Shang, Qing-Li; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xi-Wu
Sitobion avenae is a major agricultural pest of wheat in China. Using microsatellite markers, we studied the potential gene flow, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and genetic structure of seven S. avenae populations from different regions of China (Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Shanxi provinces). The populations from Henan, Shandong, and Jiangsu showed high levels of genic and genotypic diversity. By contrast, the genic diversity in the Beijing and Hebei populations was much lower. Despite this low genic diversity, the genotypic diversity of the Beijing population was higher than that of all of the other populations, except those from Jiangsu and Shandong. Overall, the genetic divergence among the seven S. avenae populations tested was high, though there was almost no differentiation between the Shandong and Henan populations. We observed significant negative correlation between the strength of gene flow and the geographic distances among populations. Based on genetic analysis, the seven S. avenae populations studied can be divided into four distinct clusters; (i) Hubei, (ii) Shanxi, (iii) Beijing and Hebei, and (iv) Shandong, Henan, and Jiangsu. The present results provide a basis for potentially optimizing integrated pest management (IPM) programs in China, through adapting control methods that target biological traits shared by various populations of the same genotype.
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is an invasive pest that vectors citrus greening disease. In 2005-2006 mycosed psyllids displaying two phenotypes were collected in central Florida. The major pathogen, identified by morphological and genetic analyses, was a novel isolate related to Hirsute...
McAuslane, Heather J; Chen, Jiang; Carle, R Bruce; Schmalstig, Judy
We investigated the effect of different levels of infestation by whiteflies, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, on the growth and pigment concentrations of seedlings of zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., that differed in their tolerance to squash silverleaf disorder. Genetically similar sister lines that were either tolerant (ZUC76-SLR) or susceptible (ZUC61) to silverleaf disorder exhibited reduced plant height, internode length, plant dry weight, and petiole length in response to whitefly feeding. Similar plant growth responses to whitefly feeding were observed despite that the foliage of ZUC61 silvered severely, whereas the foliage of ZUC76-SLR showed no silvering in a greenhouse experiment conducted in the spring and showed only minimal silvering in a similar greenhouse experiment conducted in the fall. In plants of both sister lines infested with 50 pairs of whiteflies and their progeny, petioles, but not the leaf blades, of uninfested leaves had reduced chlorophyll content. In another experiment, two different genetic sources of tolerance to silverleaf disorder (ZUC33-SLR/PMR and ZUC76-SLR) and a commercial silverleaf-susceptible zucchini hybrid ('Zucchini Elite') responded similarly to whitefly feeding, except the tolerant genotypes did not exhibit leaf silvering. All genotypes, silverleaf tolerant or not, had reduced dry weight, plant height, and internode length that became more pronounced as whitefly infestation increased. All genotypes had reduced levels of chlorophylls and carotenoids in uninfested young leaf blades and petioles from infested plants. Petioles, however, were more affected by feeding than leaf blades, showing a 66% reduction in chlorophylls a+b and carotenoids at the lowest infestation level (30 pairs of whitefly and their progeny), whereas pigments in leaf blades declined more slowly in response to whitefly feeding density, averaging 14-15% less at the highest infestation level (90 pairs of whitefly and their progeny). We conclude that tolerance to silverleaf disorder does not prevent stunting in zucchini seedlings nor does it protect against the systemic loss of photosynthetic and protoprotectant pigments induced by feeding of B. argentifolii whiteflies.
Coleson, Jenifer L; Miller, Ross H
Fifty cultivars of taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Araceae), collected from islands in Micronesia and Polynesia, eight cultivars from the University of Hawaii's taro germplasm collection, and a closely related aroid, Xanthosorna sagittifolium (L.) (Araceae), were screened for antibiosis and antixenosis to Aphis gossypii Clover. Life history data for A. gossypii were collected by assessing survivorship and fecundity of aphids caged on taro leaves in the field. Significant differences in aphid reproductive rate and longevity were observed among the taro cultivars, and cultivars were ranked from most resistant to most susceptible. Antixenosis was assayed in the laboratory in a multiround choice test where A. gossypii were offered four leaf discs excised from different taro cultivars. Additionally, field observations of aphid abundance on taro cultivars were made to corroborate clip cage studies and laboratory experiments. 'Iliuaua','Rumung Mary','Maria', 'Ketan 36', and'Agaga' were the most resistant in terms of reducing aphid fecundity and survivorship, whereas the Iliuana,'Purple', 'TC-83001', and 'Putih 24' were least preferred in aphid choice tests. X. sagittifolium consistently exhibited strong aphid resistance. Resistant cultivars identified in this study may form the basis of breeding programs seeking to combine aphid resistance with other desirable agronomic traits in taro.
Smith, David S.; Littau, Virginia C.
An electron microscopic investigation of the Malpighian tubules of a leaf hopper, Macrosteles fascifrons, shows that these organs comprise three quite distinct cell types, and the structure of these and of the mid- and hindgut epithelial cells is described. In particular, a comparison is made between the organization of the basal and apical surfaces of cells in the Malpighian tubule and in the vertebrate kidney, and it is suggested that similarities between these excretory epithelia reflect functional parallels between them. While the midgut and one region of the Malpighian tubule bear a typical microvillar brush border, elsewhere in the tubule and in the hindgut the apical surface bears cytoplasmic leaflets or lamellae. The sole solid excretory material of these insects consists of the brochosomes, secreted by cells of one region of the Malpighian tubule. The structure, geometry, and development of these unusual bodies, apparently formed within specialized Golgi regions, has been investigated, and histochemical tests indicate that they contain lipid and protein components. PMID:19866568
Gould, W P; McGuire, R G
Hot water immersion and insecticidal coatings were tested to determine if they could be used to disinfest Persian limes, Citrus latifolia Tanaka, of the mealybug pests Planococcus citri Risso and Pseudococcus odermatti Miller & Williams. A 20-min 49 degrees C hot water immersion treatment is effective in killing mealybugs and all other arthropods tested found externally on limes, or under the calyx. No insects or mites were found to survive after the 20-min hot water treatment. In this test, 7,200 limes were treated with 1,308 insects killed and zero survivors. Treatment at 49 degrees C for 20 min did not significantly affect quality when treated fruit were compared with untreated control fruit. Four coatings were tested at a 3% rate: two petroleum-based oils (Ampol and Sunspray oil), a vegetable oil (natural oil), and a soap (Mpede). The coatings gave up to 94% kill (Ampol) of mealybugs, which is not sufficient to provide quarantine security. The coatings might be effective as a postharvest dip before shipment.
Beers, Elizabeth H; Jones, Vincent P
Constant precision sampling plans for the white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee, were developed so that it could be used as an indicator species for system stability as new integrated pest management programs without broad-spectrum pesticides are developed. Taylor's power law was used to model the relationship between the mean and the variance, and Green's constant precision sequential sample equation was used to develop sampling plans. Bootstrap simulations of the sampling plans showed greater precision (D = 0.25) than the desired precision (Do = 0.3), particularly at low mean population densities. We found that by adjusting the Do value in Green's equation to 0.4, we were able to reduce the average sample number by 25% and provided an average D = 0.31. The sampling plan described allows T. pomaria to be used as reasonable indicator species of agroecosystem stability in Washington apple orchards.
Sohani, N Zandi; Shishehbor, P; Kocheili, F
The life history and life table of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius on cucumber was studied under laboratory conditions at 20, 25 and 30 degrees C. The overall developmental time varied from 34.8 days at 20 degrees C to 14.1 days at 30 degrees C. Immature mortality decreased from 45.8 to 17.3% with increasing temperature. The threshold temperatures of egg, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th nymphal stage and a generation were 14.72, 14.36, 10.18, 11.40, 14.36 and 13.07 degrees C whereas the degree-day requirement at each stage was 64.44, 42.39, 49.19, 33.19, 35.46 and 229.52 DD, respectively. Female longevity ranged from 16.8-34.1 days. Mean total fecundity ranged from 150-263 eggs/female. Mean daily fecundity ranged from 4.2-12.7 eggs/female, increasing with increasing temperature. Values for r(m) varied from 0.066 to 0.191 being least at 20 degrees C and greatest at 30 degrees C. Generation times decreased from 43 to 19 days with increasing temperature. The results indicate that B. tabaci is well adapted to high temperatures and may extend its distribution if mean world temperatures increase as a result of global warming.
Jackson, D M; Farnham, M W; Simmons, A M; Van Giessen, W A; Elsey, K D
Fourteen collard entries, Brassica oleraceae L., Acephala group, were evaluated for resistance to natural populations of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring in replicated field plots in Charleston, SC. Glossy-leaf phenotypes ('SC Glaze', 'SC Landrace,' 'Green Glaze') were the most resistant collard entries and had fewer whiteflies than the nonglossy, open-pollinated cultivars. Also, two F1 hybrid cultivars with normal, nonglossy leaves ('Blue Max' and 'Top Bunch') were resistant. In laboratory experiments, there were no differences in the intrinsic rate of growth (rs) of B. argentifolii populations on either glossy or nonglossy collard phenotypes. Over a 2-yr period, there were no differences in the abundance of whiteflies on the glossy phenotype of Green Glaze when it was planted in solid 20-plant plots or when it was alternated (every other plant) with the nonglossy phenotype of Green Glaze. In a similarly designed experiment, there was no difference in the resistance of Blue Max in either solid or mixed planting scheme compared with the susceptible 'Morris Heading'. Higher numbers of whiteflies and parasitoids (primarily Eretmocerus spp.) were collected on yellow sticky cards in the solid plantings of the nonglossy phenotype of Green Glaze than were collected in the solid plantings of the glossy Green Glaze phenotype. Counts on sticky cards in the mixed plots were intermediate. These data show that planting pattern of collard entries is relatively unimportant in the deployment of these sources of host plant resistance. The data also suggest that nonpreference is the primary mode of resistance to whiteflies for certain collard entries.
A laboratory study was conducted to compare phosphine fumigations under the normal and superatmospheric oxygen levels on toxicity against Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphi...
Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use.
Johnson, M.T.; Yang, P.; Huber, J.T.; Jones, V.P.
Parasitism of the leafhopper Sophonia rufofascia (Kuoh and Kuoh), a recent immigrant that has become a widespread pest in Hawaii, was examined in a 1-year survey in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Samples of young leaves of four plant species infested with eggs of S. rufofascia were collected at five sites ranging from 880 to 1190 m in elevation. Leafhopper eggs were parasitized principally by three species of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera): Polynema sp., Schizophragma sp. probably bicolor (Dozier), and Chaetomymar sp. Although parasitism by each species fluctuated at levels usually below 10%, all three were detected consistently across most host plants, sites, and sample periods. Total parasitism differed at a marginally significant level among host plants and sites, but not among sample periods. Total parasitism averaged 14.3% (maximum: 26.3%) on Dodonaea viscosa Jacquin, 10.6% (maximum: 17.5%) on Myrica faya Aiton, 8.7% (maximum: 29.5%) on Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich-Beaupre, and 1.6% (maximum: 4.3%) on Vaccinium reticulatum Smith. Parasitism was generally higher at sites lower in elevation. Further monitoring is recommended to determine whether parasitism will increase to levels that can effectively suppress S. rufofascia populations. The efficacy of natural enemies already present in Hawaii is important because concern over nontarget impacts on endemic leafhoppers makes introduction of new biological control agents difficult. ?? 2001 Academic Press.
Wheat with Russian wheat aphid (RWA) resistance based on the Dn4 gene has been important in managing RWA since 1994. Currently, there are eight biotypes (RWA1 - RWA5) of this aphid that have been described based on their ability to differentially damage RWA resistance genes in wheat. RWA2, RWA4, a...
Huseynov, Elchin F; Jackson, Robert R; Cross, Fiona R
The distinctions between a predator's diet, its prey-choice behaviour and its preference are illustrated in a study of Aelurillus m-nigrum Kulczyn'ski, a salticid spider from Azerbaijan. The natural diet of A. m-nigrum was determined from records of individuals feeding in the field (N=58). Ten arthropod orders were represented. Nine were from the class Insecta (Coleoptera, Collembola, Diptera, Heteroptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Psocoptera) and one from the class Arachnida (Araneae). Of 50 insects among the prey, 21 (42%) were Hymenoptera, with ants (family Formicidae) alone accounting for 31% of all prey records. Although the majority (69%) of the natural prey were not ants, results from prey-choice testing in the laboratory implied that A. m-nigrum preferred ants as prey. However, this preference was evident only when the testing environment included sand and a small stone. Our findings illustrate the importance of not conflating the concept of a predator's preference with the concept of a predator's natural diet and illustrate that physical features of a predator's habitat may be an important factor in influencing how strongly preference is expressed.
Outbreaks of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, have been occurring more frequently in recent years in China. Control of this pest depended heavily on chemical insecticides. The objective of this study was to determine susceptibilities of N. lugens to neonicotinoids and other insecticides in...
Gerami, S; Jahromi, K T; Ashouri, A; Rasoulian, G; Heidari, A
In this study we report the sublethal effects of recommended concentrations of imidacloprid and pymetrozine on cotton aphid's reproduction. Fecundity life table parameters for AG were studied on cucumber under conditions of 25+/-1 degrees C, 70+/-5% RH and photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D). Leaf discs of cucumber immersed in the recommended concentrations of the above mentioned insecticides and controls and the new born female was released on the lower surface of leaf discs. Values of parameters such as adult longevity and daily fecundity rate were recorded. Standard error of population growth parameter was calculated using the Jacknife method. The results show that these two insecticides significantly reduce life table parameters compared with control.
Imidacloprid has been used for many years to control the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in China. To provide resistance assessment for the national insecticide resistance management program, we collected a total of 42 samples of the planthoppers from 27 locations covering 8 provinces t...
BACKGROUND: The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is a serious pest which causes enormous losses to the rice crop in Asia. The genetic basis of imidacloprid resistance was investigated in N. lugens. RESULTS: The resistant strain, selected for imidacloprid resistance from a laboratory pop...
Hogg, Brian N; Moran, Patrick J; Smith, Lincoln
The impacts of weed biological control agents may vary with plant ontogeny. As plants grow, structural and chemical changes can alter plant resistance, which may reduce herbivory via chemical or structural defenses, and plant tolerance, which may enable plants to maintain fitness despite attack. Resistance and tolerance generally increase as plants grow. Nonetheless, prerelease tests of agent efficacy often overlook plant ontogeny. Here, we assess the performance and impacts of a candidate biocontrol agent, the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Loginova), in relation to the age of its host plant, the invasive shrub French broom, Genista monspessulana. We also examined whether the psyllid can consistently kill plants when its densities are sufficiently high. Survival of psyllids to adulthood and the timing of adult emergence did not differ between plant sizes, indicating that performance of nymphs was not influenced by plant size. However, adult psyllid survival was reduced on small plants, suggesting that nymphs and adults responded differently to ontogenetic changes in plant quality. Psyllids affected the growth of small and large plants similarly; all measured plant growth parameters were lower in the presence of psyllids regardless of plant size. In a separate experiment, effects on plant survival depended on psyllid density, as higher realized densities of ∼9 psyllids per cm stem length were necessary to consistently kill plants. Thus, results suggest that the psyllid would be equally effective on a range of plant sizes, particularly at high densities, and show the potential of the psyllid to help control French broom in California. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.
Development, survivorship, longevity, reproduction and life table parameters of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were examined in the laboratory using three host plants, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Chrysanthemum morifolium L. and euonymus (Euonymus japonica Thu...
Salvianti, Francesca; Bettini, Priscilla P; Giordani, Edgardo; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Bellini, Elvio; Buiatti, Marcello
The molecular interaction between pear tree (Pyrus spp.) and the phloem-feeding psylla Cacopsylla pyri (Linnaeus) was investigated through the construction and characterization of cDNA subtracted libraries. Genes expressed upon insect infestation were identified in the susceptible pear cultivar Bartlett and in the resistant selection NY10355. In both interactions, genes involved in the plant defense response were induced, confirming the observed similarity between the response to pathogens and to insects with piercing/sucking mouthparts. However, the two expression profiles were found to be different, with more genes involved in the response to biotic and abiotic stress being activated in the resistant plant than in the susceptible one. Further characterization of the identified genes could lead to the development of molecular markers associated with tolerance/resistance to pear psylla.
Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Fangmei; Coates, Brad; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhou, Xuguo; Cheng, Dengfa
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, particularly during development. In this study, 345 miRNAs were identified from the English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), of which 168 were conserved and 177 were S. avenae-specific. Quantitative comparison of miRNA expression levels indicated that 16 and 12 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in winged and wingless S. avenae small RNA libraries, respectively. Differential expression of these miRNAs was confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR validation. The putative transcript targets for these candidate miRNAs were predicted based on sequences from a model species Drosophila melanogaster and four aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum, Myzus persicae, Toxoptera citricida, and Aphis gosspii. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses shed light on the potential functions of these miRNAs in the regulation of genes involved in the metabolism, development and wing polyphenism of S. avenae. PMID:27762301
Yang, P.; Foote, D.; Alyokhin, A.V.; Lenz, L.; Messing, R.H.
The abundance of mymarid parasitoids attacking the two-spotted leafhopper (Sophonia rufofascia [Kuoh and Kuoh]), a polyphagous pest recently adventive to Hawaii, was monitored using yellow sticky cards deployed in several areas on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii. The yellow cards captured Chaetomymar sp. nr bagicha Narayanan, Subba Rao, & Kaur and Schizophragma bicolor (Dozier), both adventive species, and Polynema sp. Haliday, which is endemic to Hawaii (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). The former two species were most abundant at all sites. On Kauai, there was a negative correlation between the captures of C. sp. nr bagicha and those of Polynema sp. Throughout the season, the increase in parasitoid numbers generally followed the increase in leafhopper numbers. C. sp. nr. bagicha and S. bicolor showed distinct habitat preferences. Removal of Myrica faya Aiton, an invasive weed that is a highly preferred two-spotted leafhopper host, decreased the overall numbers of captured parasitoids, but led to a twofold increase in the ratio of trapped parasitoids/hosts in weed-free areas. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).
Pemphigus fuscicornis (Koch) is a pest of sugar beet root in warm and dry regions of Iran. This belongs to the Middle East and south east of Asia fauna. Nymphs establish colonies in root sutures and feed heavily which cause wilting and yellowing in beet near harvest. This study was conducted to determine infestation indices, damage occurrence and the necessity for control measures of this pest. Nymph colonies were monitored in different experimental fields that were planted with commonly used monogerm variety Afshari and then five infested places were selected. Damaged root specimens were sampled from five foci and ranked for infestation, yield and sugar concentration. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in weight, sugar concentration and impurities between indices 1, 2, 3 and none infested beets. Only the sugar concentration of indices 4 showed significant differences with zero infested beets. In the other hand, no specimens were found with the highest population density index (indices 5). Therefore, the sugar beet root aphid populations did not reach to the level of economic damage in these experimental fields. Thus, the control measures such as chemical application and use of resistant varieties may be used when the colonies density increases to the indices four and five throughout the foci in such fields.
Ejaz, Masood; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Shabbir, Ghulam; Serrão, José Eduardo; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Muhammad, Wali
The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis is an important polyphagous sucking pest of ornamentals, horticultural and fiber crops worldwide. Some P. solenopsis populations have developed insecticide resistance. This study evaluated cross-resistance, stability of insecticide resistance and life history traits affected by chlorpyrifos resistance in P. solenopsis. After nine generations selected with chlorpyrifos, P. solenopsis exhibited a 539.76-fold resistance level compared to an unselected population (UNSEL Pop). Chlorpyrifos selected population (Chlor-SEL Pop) displayed moderate cross-resistance to profenofos, nitenpyram and high cross-resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin. Biological parameters of P. Solenopsis were affected by chlorpyrifos resistance. The Chlor-SEL Pop had a significant reduction in fitness (relative fitness=0.10), along with significant decreases in pupal weight, fecundity, egg hatching %, intrinsic rate of natural population increase, biotic potential, and mean relative growth rate. It is concluded that selection with chlorpyrifos had marked effect on resistance development in P. solenopsis and upon removal of selection pressure chlorpyrifos resistance declined significantly indicating unstable resistance. Development of resistance led to high fitness costs for the chlorpyrifos-selected strain. These findings should be helpful for better and more successful resistance management of P. solenopsis.
S.L. Clement; K.S. Pike; W.J. Kaiser; A. Dan Wilson
Fewer aphids of the Russian wheat aphid, (Mordvilko), were found on tall fescue and perennial ryegrass plants harboring systemic fungal endophytes than on endophyte-free plants in laboratory tests. These results indicate that enhanced resistance in some perennial grasses to D. noxia is associated with the presence of endophytic fungi.
Keskinen, Essi; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno
The aims of this paper have been to describe (1) the general structure of the compound eye of the spittle bug Philaenus spumarius, (2) the eye's post-embryonic development, (3) photomechanical changes upon dark/light adaptation in the eye, and (4) how leaving the semi-aquatic foam bubble and turning into an adult affects the organization of the eye. Spittle bugs, irrespective of size or sex, possess apposition type compound eyes. The eye's major components (i.e. facet, cornea, cone and rhabdom) grow rather isometrically from the smallest nymph to the adult. Photomechanical changes can occur during both nymphal and adult phases and manifest themselves through pigment granules and mitochondria migrating to and away from the rhabdom, and rhabdom diameters varying with time of day and ambient light level. When a nymph transforms into an adult, its compound eyes' dorsoventral axes widen, facet diameters increase, facet shapes turn from circular to pentagonal and hexagonal, the cornea thickens and the rhabdoms become thinner. The agile adults, free from the foam that surrounds the nymphs, can be expected to need their vision more than the nymphs, and the changes in eye structure do, indeed, indicate that the adults have superior visual acuity. A thicker cornea in the adults reduces water loss and protects the compound eye from mechanical and light-induced damage: protection given to the nymphs by their foam bubbles.
Buprofezin has been used for many years to control the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) in China. To provide resistance assessment for national resistance management program, we collected a total of 45 samples of the planthopper from 27 locations across eight provinces for monitoring the...
Schuster, D J
The whitefly Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring is a major pest of tomatoes, causing an irregular ripening disorder characterized externally by incomplete or inhibited reddening of fruit, especially in longitudinal sections, and internally by an increase in the amount of white tissue. Experiments were undertaken during the spring and fall of 1997 and 1998 and the spring of 1999 to develop an action threshold for applying the insect growth regulators (IGRs) buprofezin and pyriproxyfen to manage B. argentifolii and irregular ripening. The IGRs were applied when predetermined thresholds were reached and were compared with a high rate of the systemic insecticide imidacloprid, which was applied at transplanting and provided season-long whitefly control. Only plots treated when the numbers of sessile nymphs (second through fourth instars) reached five per 10 leaflets consistently had both external and internal irregular ripening severity ratings similar to the imidacloprid standard. Results were similar for buprofezin and pyriproxyfen even though the modes of action differ. The five nymphs per 10 leaflets threshold lends itself to field scouting because nymphal counts completed in the field using the unaided eye supplemented with a 10x hand lens were linearly and significantly related to counts completed in the laboratory with a dissecting microscope.
Basit, Muhammad; Saeed, Shafqat; Saleem, Mushtaq Ahmad; Denholm, Ian; Shah, Maqbool
Resistance levels in whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) collections from cotton and sunflower (up to four districts) for five neonicotinoids and two insect growth regulators (IGRs) were investigated for two consecutive years. Based on the LC50(s), all collections showed slight to moderate levels of resistance for the tested insecticides compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The data also indicated that cotton and sunflower collections had similar resistance levels. In comparison (four collections), Vehari collections showed higher resistance for acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram compared with those of others. Average resistance ratios for acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and nitenpyram ranged from 5- to 13-, 4- to 8-, and 9- to 13-fold, respectively. Multan and Vehari collections also exhibited moderate levels (9- to 16-fold) of resistance to buprofezin. Furthermore, toxicity of neonicotinoids against immature stages was equal to that of insect growth regulators. The data also suggested that resistance in the field populations was stable. After selection for four generations with bifenthrin (G1 to G4), resistance to bifenthrin increased to 14-fold compared with the laboratory susceptible population. Selection also increased resistance to fenpropathrin, lambdacyhalothrin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and diafenthuron. Cross-resistance and stability of resistance in the field populations is of some concern. Rotation of insecticides having no cross-resistance and targeting the control against immature stages may control the resistant insects, simultaneously reducing the selection pressure imposed.
Annan, I B; Tingey, W M; Schaefers, G A; Saxena, K N
Membrane feeding studies were conducted to determine the effects of raw juices and chemical extracts of leaves of aphid-resistant (ICV-12) and aphid-susceptible (ICV-1) cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)], on the survival, growth, and reproduction of cowpea aphidAphis craccivora Koch. Life table and demographic statistics of the cohort population and subsequent generations were estimated. Compared to ICV-1, the leaf juices and chemical extracts of ICV-12 exhibited significant (P<-0.05) adveres effects on aphid survival, growth, and reproduction. Raw leaf juice and ethyl acetate extract of ICV-12 in both water and sucrose significantly (P<-0.05) limited aphid performance. The adverse long-term effects were often more extreme than those resulting from a diet of distilled water alone. Methanol extract of ICV-12 showed an intermediate level of adverse effects on aphids, being generally less than that of ethyl acetate but greater than that of hexane. Compared to the other ICV-12 extracts, the hexane extracts in water or sucrose media did not significantly affect the aphid performance. Overall, it was determined that antibiosis was a governing modality of aphid-resistance in ICV-12. Postingestive intoxication was caused by foliage components of seedling plants of that cultivar.
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is a critically important citrus pest in the United States because it vectors the pathogen responsible for citrus greening disease (huanglongbing). The psyllid is attacked in Asia by the encyrtid parasitoid Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis, and it would be de...
Sidumo, Amelia J; Shields, Elson J; Lembo, Arthur
The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), is a circular migratory pest of many crops in the United States that overwinters in the southern states. Northward migrant population arrival to the northern states occurs earlier in the north central states compared with northeastern states. Migrant leafhopper arrival to the north varies from year to year depending on factors influencing the development of spring migrants in the overwintering areas and on timing of weather systems capable of transporting the migrants northward. An estimate of the potato leafhopper minimum temperature survival, the geographic limits of the potato leafhopper overwintering range, leafhopper spring development in the overwintering areas, and the identification of the spring migration initiation northwards can help to predict the leafhopper arrival time in the northern states. In the current study, geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate the potato leafhopper minimum temperature survival and premigrant development. The minimum winter temperature was estimated by overlaying minimum temperature isolines with potato leafhopper collection data taken during the winter, The geographic limits of the overwintering range were estimated using the minimum temperature survival to create a condition-based model by using ArcMap-GIS 8.2. The estimated overwintering range was larger and covered areas further north than previously estimated and included Missouri, Kansas, Kentucky, Virginia, and Maryland. The use of degree-day accumulation to estimate days of first adult emergence in the overwintering areas resulted in earliest adult emergence in the south central region. First adult emergence in south central and southeastern areas occurred before the detection of potato leafhoppers in the north central United States. These data suggested that the difference in population arrival between the north central states and the northeastern states was more dependent on factors affecting the migration and weather conditions encountered along the migration pathway.
Gouyue Yu; Michael E. Montgomery; Defu Yao
Fifty-four species of lady beetles were collected from three Chinese hemlock species, Tsuga dumosa (D. Don) Eichler, T. forrestii Downie and T. chinensis (Franchet) Pritzel, in Yunnan, Sichuan and Shaanxi provinces of China as part of a search for natural enemies of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. Twenty new species are described: Clitostethus...
Kasmi, Abir; Hammami, Majdi; Raoelison, Emmanuel G; Abderrabba, Manef; Bouajila, Jalloul; Ducamp, Christine
Essential oils (EOs) from Schinus molle, Helichrysum gymnocephalum, Cedrelopsis grevei and Melaleuca viridiflora, four aromatic and medicinal plants, are commonly used in folk medicine. EOs were characterized by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionization Detection (GC-FID); then evaluated for their behavioral effects on adults of the green pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) using a Perspex four-armed olfactometer in order to test the compatibility of their use as phytoinsecticides to control this insect pest. Our results showed that the Eos from leaves of S. molle, M. viridiflora and C. grevei did not change aphids' behavior. However, S. molle fruits EO seemed to be attractive while H. gymnocephalum leaves EO exhibited repellency towards aphids at a dose of 10 μl. The major compounds in S. molle fruits EO were 6-epi-shyobunol (16.22%) and d-limonene (15.35%). While, in H. gymnocephalum leaves EO, 1.8 cineole was the main compound (47.4%). The difference in aphids' responses to these two EOs could be attributed to the differences in their compositions. Our findings suggest that these two EOs have potential applications for the integrated pest management (IPM) of A. pisum (Harris). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
S.L. Clement; D.G. Lester; A. Dan Wilson; R.C. Johnson; J.H. Bouton
Experiments were conducted to compare the expression of Russian wheat aphid, Diurnphis noxia (Mordvilko), resistance in 2 genotypes of tall fescue grass, Festucn arundinacea Schreb., harboring different isolates of the endophytic fungus Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones & cams. Aphids did not select...
Several species of Aphelinus have been introduced to the United States from the Old World for biological control of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Modvilko). Reproductive incompatibility has been observed among populations collected from different geographic areas. We examined whether or ...
Flores, Guillermo; Hilje, Luko; Mora, Gerardo A; Carballo, Manuel
Bemisia tabaci is a key pest of vegetables and other crops worldwide, but it is a particularly serious problem in the tropics, due to its ability to transmit several types of viruses, especially begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). Therefore, a preventive approach to deal with viral epidemics may be the deployment of repellents or phagodeterrents at earlier stages of plant development (critical period). Thus, the crude extract and four fractions thereof (water, water: methanol, methanol, and diethyl ether) of wild "tacaco" (Sechium pittieri, Cucurbitaceae), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults under greenhouse conditions, on tomato plants, in Costa Rica. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments showed that the crude extract as well as some fractions exert such effect on the insect. In the former (in sleeve cages), fractions caused deterrence at doses as low as 0.1% (ether) and 0.5% (water and water: methanol), with the methanol fraction showing no activity. However, in the latter (plants exposed in a greenhouse) no one of the fractions performed well, suggesting that the deterrent principles somehow decomposed under the experimental conditions.
Randolph, Terri L; Peairs, Frank B; Kroening, Mary K; Armstrong, John S; Hammon, Robert W; Walker, Cynthia B; Quick, James S
Plant damage and yield response to the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), were evaluated on a susceptible (TAM 107) and a resistant (RWA E1) winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in three Colorado locations in the 1993 and 1994 crop years. Russian wheat aphid was more abundant on TAM 107 than on RWA E1. Russian wheat aphid days per tiller were greater at the higher infestation levels. Yield losses as a result of Russian wheat aphid infestation occurred most of the time with TAM 107 but rarely with RWA E1. Seed densities were reduced at higher infestation levels in TAM 107 at two locations. Russian wheat aphids per tiller had a negative relationship to yield in TAM 107 but not in RWA E1. In TAM 107 yield decreased as aphid densities increased, but yield remained constant regardless of initial aphid abundance on RWA E1 in all environments. Seed densities were reduced at higher infestation levels in TAM 107 at two locations. The resistance conferred by the Dn4 gene seems to be an effective management approach across a range of field conditions.
Munson, M A; Baumann, P; Moran, N A
A portion of the gene coding for the 16S ribosomal RNA from the endosymbionts of three species of mealybugs [Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley)] was cloned, sequenced, and compared to a homologous fragment from bacteria representative of aphid endosymbionts as well as major subdivisions of the Proteobacteria. Parsimony analysis of the sequences indicated that the mealybug endosymbionts are related and belong to the beta-subdivision; in contrast, previous studies showed that aphid endosymbionts are part of the gamma-subdivision. These findings suggest that the endosymbiosis of mealybugs is a consequence of a single bacterial infection and indicate that this ancestor was different from the ancestor involved in aphid endosymbiosis.
Abstract A new species of scale insects, Aclerda pseudozoysiae sp. n., is described and illustrated. The karyotypes and some aspects of reproductive biology and cytogenetics of the new species species and Aclerda takahashiiKuwana, 1932 were studied, representing the first data for the genus Aclerda Signoret, 1874 and the family Aclerdidae as a whole. Aclerda pseudozoysiae sp. n. has 2n=16, bisexual reproduction, and heterochromatinization of one haploid set of chromosomes in male stages of the life cycle, matching either a Lecanoid or a Comstockioid genetic system. Aclerda takahashii demonstrates 2n=18 and unusual type of parthenogenesis with diploid and haploid embryos (inside each gravid female) without heterochromatinization. Both species are ovoviviparous; all stages of embryonic development occur inside the mother’s body. PMID:24260679
English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), show a classic polyphenic wing dimorphism among isogenic adults that is an intriguing model for the study of morphological plasticity in response to the environment. Short non-coding microRNA (miRNA) molecules regulate gene expression by post-transcriptiona...
Wing dimorphism in aphids can be affected by multiple cues including both biotic (nutrition, crowding, interspecific interactions, the presence of natural enemies, maternal and transgenerational effects, and alarm pheromone) and abiotic factors (temperature, humidity, and photoperiod). Virtually al...
Sampson, Blair J; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kirimer, Nes'e; Demirci, Betul; Baser, K Husnu Can; Khan, Ikhlas A; Spiers, James M; Wedge, David E
Essential oils from 23 species of plants comprising 14 genera and 4 plant families were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The major compounds in these essential oils were identified with GC-MS and their insecticidal activity against adult turnip aphids, Lipaphis pseudobrassicae (Davis), tested with dosage-mortality bioassays. We examined mortality only for viviparous adults because sizeable aphid populations on crucifer (Brassicaceae) hosts are largely produced by these wingless, parthenogenic females. Twenty-two of the oils were directly applied to aphid females in randomized blocks at concentrations of 0.0, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg ml(-1). Essential oils mixed with a non-toxic emulsifying agent, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), more easily penetrated the waxy insect cuticle. Probit analysis and LC(50) at three different exposures showed aphids were quickly incapacitated and killed by aliphatic aldehydes, phenols and monocyclic terpenes contained in Bifora and Satureja oils and at applied concentrations as low as 0.3 to 1.0 mg ml(-1). Only enough Pimpinella isaurica oil and its three phenylpropanoid fractions were available for testing at a single concentration of 10 mg ml(-1). We could not spare any additional P. isaurica oil for testing at other concentrations. Phenylpropanoids isolated from P. isaurica oil when recombined or left naturally blended in the oil were highly bioactive against L. pseudobrassicae at 10 mg ml(-1). Copyright 2005 Society of Chemical Industry.
Mesbah, H A; Fata, A A; Moursi, K E; Mourad, A K; Abdel-Razak, S I
Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni) was observed attacking Callistemon lanceolatus at the Experimental Farm of the Agricultural Research Station and Ruscus hypoglossum at Antoniades park in Alexandria Governorate; Egypt. The infestation rate on Ruscus hypoglossum, reached its maximum (98.0%) during autumn months, while the minimum rate 68.3%, was recorded during summer months. The fluctuating population density of F. fioriniae showed three distinct peaks. The first peak of 731.0 individuals/10 branches was recorded in October 1998, the second (734.1) in December 1998, and the third, (506.9) in April 1999. The highest number of counted insects (1991.1/plant) was observed during the autumn season, followed by winter (1467.9), spring (978.2) seasons and the least number (271.6/plant) was recorded in summer. On the contrary, the highest rate of infestation by the immature stages was recorded during the winter season, followed by spring, summer and autumn seasons (42.8, 29, 24.6 and 21.9%) of the total counted insects, respectively. The scale insect has been parasitized with the aphelinid species Encarsia citrina (Aphelinidae) with a maximum rate of 28.1 of the total count during August. The statistical analysis was performed for determining the relationship between the prevailing weather factors of daily mean temperature, daily relative humidity, wind speed and day-light in one hand and the population activity of F. fioriniae on R. hypoglossum plants on the other hand.
Serrano, M S; Backus, E A; Cardona, C
Two methods for estimating the tolerance of common bean genotypes to Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore were compared, using a yield trial carried out at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia, versus stylet penetration tactics measured by AC electronic feeding monitors. A stylet penetration index was devised based on principal component scores of three penetration tactics identified (pulsing laceration, cell rupturing, and lancing sap ingestion), combined with knowledge of the hopperburn symptoms caused by each tactic. Tolerant genotypes, as classified by the CIAT yield index, showed significantly more unprotected yield and lower hopperburn scores than the susceptible control. They also induced performance of less pulsing laceration (the tactic considered most damaging to the plant), and more of the other two, mitigating tactics, especially cell rupturing. When index values were calculated for each genotype, stylet penetration index values matched those of the yield index for three out of five genotypes: two EMP-coded tolerant lines ('EMP 385' and 'EMP 392') and the susceptible control 'BAT 41'. Thus, for these three genotypes, all subsequent hoppereburn symptoms are predictable by the type of feeding behavior performed on them. 'Porrillo Sintético' and 'EMP 84', considered borderline genotypes by the yield index, were overestimated and underestimated respectively, by the stylet penetration index. We postulate that, for these two genotypes, plant physiological responses to feeding (either compensatory or heightened sensitivity, respectively) synergize with type of feeding performed to generate the overall hopperburn condition. This multivariate analysis of electronic monitoring data was successfully used to devise an index of resistance. The implications of using the stylet penetration index and the advantages of using electronic monitoring in a bean-breeding program are discussed.
Xie, Haicui; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Wenqiang; Wang, Zhenying; Ni, Xinzhi; Cai, Wanzhi; He, Kanglai
Biological characteristics of corn leaf aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), on barley, Hordeum vulgare L., were examined for two generations under four different elevated temperature and CO2 combinations. The developmental duration for each life stage was significantly reduced under the elevated temperature (+4 degrees C). The elevated CO2 (700-750 microl/liter) reduced only the development time of fourth-instar nymph. The overall duration of nymphal stage was reduced in the second generation. Thus, the temperature was the dominant factor to development duration of corn leaf aphid. The fecundity of corn leaf aphid was significantly increased under the elevated temperature and CO2, as well as in the later generation. Elevated temperature and CO2 increased the number of alate production, which may enhance the aphid migration or dispersal and the spread of plant viruses. Corn leaf aphid had the highest intrinsic rate of increase under the elevated temperature and CO2 combination in the second generation. These results indicate that the combined effects of both elevated temperature and CO2 on aphid biology may exacerbate aphid damage on barley under the climate change in accompany with elevated temperature and CO2 level.
Sanborn, A F; Maté, S
We investigated the thermoregulatory behavior, thermal responses (minimum flight, maximum voluntary tolerance and heat torpor temperatures) and the effect of body temperature (T(b)) on call parameters in the cicada Diceroprocta olympusa (Walker). Regression of T(b) as a function of ambient (T(a)) or perch temperatures (T(p)) suggests thermoregulation is occurring. Thermoregulation occurs through behavioral changes that alter the uptake of solar radiation. T(p) is a better predictor of T(b) than is T(a). Thermal responses (minimum flight temperature 20.4 degrees C, maximum voluntary tolerance temperature 37 degrees C, and heat torpor temperature 46.7 degrees C) may be related to the humid, grassland habitat of the species. In contrast to other acoustic insects, no significant relationship was found between the temporal parameters of the calling song and T(b) within the population of D. olympusa.
Millar, Jocelyn G; Daane, Kent M; McElfresh, J Steven; Moreira, Jardel A; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha; Guillén, Marta; Bentley, Walt J
The sex pheromone of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus Signoret has been identified as a single component, lavandulyl senecioate. Racemic lavandulyl senecioate was as attractive to male mealybugs as the insect-produced (S)-enantiomer, indicating that the unnatural enantiomer is not inhibitory. Lavandulol, which also was found in extracts from virgin females, antagonized attraction of males at higher doses. Rubber septum lures loaded with 10- to 1,000-microg doses of the pheromone were equally attractive, and lures loaded with 100 microg of racemic pheromone remained attractive for at least 12 wk under field conditions. Delta traps were more effective than double-sided sticky cards and minimized captures of nontarget insects. Pheromone-baited traps had an effective range of at least 50 m. Comparison of visual sampling methods and sampling of males with pheromone-baited traps revealed that trap catches were significantly correlated with the results from visual sampling methods, and with economic damage.
Liu, D; Trumble, J T
The tomato-potato psyllid Bactericera [Paratrioza] cockerelli (Sulc) has recently caused losses exceeding 50% on fresh market tomatoes in California and Baja, Mexico by injecting a toxin that results in a condition known as 'psyllid yellows'. The objectives of this study were to: (i) document oviposition preferences on a range of tomato cultivars; (ii) determine threshold levels for psyllid densities that would cause psyllid yellows on tomatoes within the first three weeks following transplanting; and (iii) identify the most important 'psyllid yellows' symptoms that might be used in surveying and monitoring for this pest. Plant lines tested included the commonly-planted commercial cultivars 'Shady Lady' and 'QualiT 21', an older, previously commercial cultivar '7718 VFN', a common cultivar planted by consumers 'Yellow Pear', and a wild type plant accession, PI 134417. When given a choice, psyllids significantly preferred 'Yellow Pear' and avoided PI 134417 for oviposition. Under no-choice conditions psyllids laid significantly fewer eggs on PI 134417, but all the other plant lines were equally good substrates for laying eggs. Thus, oviposition preference is not likely to provide a functional management strategy in large plantings. On 'Shady Lady', psyllids preferred to oviposit on plants already infested with adults. On both 'Shady Lady' and '7718 VFN' oviposition was significantly greater on plants previously infested by nymphs as compared to uninfested control plants. This suggests that, at least for some cultivars, there is a physiological change in plant attractiveness following psyllid feeding. 'Yellow Pear' and 'QualiT 21' were relatively tolerant of psyllids, requiring 18 nymphs per plant to produce the disease symptoms. Only eight nymphs per plant were needed on 'Shady Lady' and '7718 VFN'. For all cultivars, the pest density showed strong correlations with measurements such as the number of yellowing leaves and leaflets and distorted leaves, which were as good as or better than the first factor extracted from principal component analysis. Therefore, such measurements have the potential to simplify field surveys.
The focus of this study was on quantifying fitness attributes, such as spore density and viability, and determining the virulence level against aphid (Aphis gossypii) nymphs of isolates from the fungal species Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungal isolates were obtained from several insects, including Plutella xylostella, Hypothenemus hampei, Bronstispa longissima, A. gossypii, Tenebrio molitor, and Leptocorisa acuta, that were collected from Indonesian islands, such as Sumatera, Java, and Sulawesi. Third instar aphid nymphs were inoculated via topical application of 10(6) conidia ml(-1) of the entomopathogenic fungal isolates. All of the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates could produce very dense spores. The M. anisopliae isolate MaAg, which was obtained from the aphid, had the highest spore density at 6.70 × 10(8) conidia ml(-1). Among the B. bassiana isolates, the highest conidial viability belonged to isolate CPJW8, which was obtained from Chrysodeixis chalcites, with a 39% average viability. Among the M. anisopliae isolates, the highest viabilities belonged to the isolates MaAg and MaLa, which were obtained from L. acuta, with a 33% and 32% average viabilities, respectively. All of the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates were virulent against aphid nymphs, with mortality rates ranging from 64% to 94%. The three most virulent isolates were BBY715 (94%), MPx (92%), and MaTm (92%), and the least virulent isolate was MaLa (64%). BBY715, the most virulent isolate, had the shortest lethal time median (LT50) against aphid nymphs at 2.97 hours, and MaLa had the longest LT50 at 61.81 hours.
Diaz, B M; Barrios, L; Fereres, A
Knowledge on colonization modes and interplant movement of Nasonovia ribisnigri can contribute to the development of optimal control of this pest. The aim of this study was to determine the spatio-temporal distribution and the mode of spread between adult morphs of Nasonovia ribisnigri, comparing spring and autumn lettuce protected crops. The spatial and temporal pattern was analyzed using the spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE) methodology and other related displacement indices. The population size of N. ribisnigri was greater in the autumn than in the spring growing seasons due to milder temperatures. The percentage of plants colonized by aphids was higher in spring than in autumn, showing the great dispersal potential of this aphid species independent of their population size. Differential propensity for initial displacement from the central plant was observed between adult morphs in spring, resulting in a greater ability of apterous than alate aphids to spread far away from the source plant. In autumn, both adult morphs showed an initial reduced displacement; however, the number of plants infested (≈20%) with at least one aphid at this initial time (seven days) was similar for both adult morphs and both growing seasons. Analysis of the spatial pattern of both adult morphs revealed a predominantly random distribution for both spring and autumn trials. This pattern was achieved by a prevalent random movement over the area (γ≈0.5). These results highlight the ability of the apterous N. ribisnigri to spread within greenhouse lettuce crops early in the spring, suggesting that detection of the pest by deep visual inspection is required after lettuce emergence.
The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an invasive pest of citrus and vector of citrus greening disease. Gamma-butyrolactone failed to lure adult psyllids to sticky traps deployed in infested citrus groves in numbers greater than those captured on non-baited traps....
Mourad, A K; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mesbah, H A; Abdel-Razak Soad, I
This investigation covered a survey of scale insects and mealy bugs infesting ten growing species of deciduous fruit trees in three localities in Alexandria govemorate. These localities were Merghem, Burg El-Arab, and El-Nahda about 50 Km. West of Alexandria under both rain-fed and irrigation system conditions. The common inspected fruit trees were fig, white mulberry, pomegranate, apple, pear, apricot, European plum, peach, almond, and persimmon. It was shown that a group of twenty scale insects and meaty bug species pertaining to fifteen genera belonging to six families of the super family: Coccoidea were collected and identified during the elapsing period from January to December, 2004. Among these species, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) was recorded for the first time in Egypt. In the present study, many insect and non-insect parasitoids and predators were also found associated with these scale insects and mealy bugs on deciduous fruit trees in the three concerned localities throughout this investigation. These natural enemies were identified and recorded.
Hampton, R O; Jensen, A; Hagel, G T
After characterization of the natural spread of necrosis-inducing Bean yellow mosaic potyvirus (family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus, BYMV(N)), nonpersistently transmitted from clover, Trifolium repens L., to an adjacent field of snap bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in western Oregon, we established a study site enabling us to investigate the virus reservoir, to observe en masse transmission of BYMV(N) to bean plants, and to identify aphid species associated with virus spread. Colonies of Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), and Aphis fabae Scopoli associated with virus spread were established in an insectary and shown to vector this virus. Although Nearctaphis bakeri (Cowen) comprised 68% of aphid alatae taken from bean leaves during virus spread, we were unable to show that this species could vector the virus by using the same methods that were successful for the other species. Instead, we found that when two distinct N. bakeri colonies unexpectedly emerged from the roots of T. repens BYMV(N) source plants (WZwc #6 and #11) that were present in the laboratory (insectary), these aphids transmitted BYMVN at rates comparable with those of M. persicae and A. pisum. Transmission of BYMVN also occurred with two other N. bakeri colonies maintained for 4 mo on Trifolium pratense L. (NZwc Sch 3B and Sch 7C) BYMVN source plants. Each of these four BYMVN transmission successes also demonstrated an unprecedented once-only transmission of BYMV(N) by N. bakeri colonies. Our experience with western Oregon N. bakeri colonies was compared with descriptions of this native North American species after its 1960-1980s arrival in France, Germany, and Italy.
Duke, L; Steinkraus, D C; English, J E; Smith, K G
Massospora cicadina Peck is a fungal pathogen of 13- and 17-year periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.). In northwest Arkansas, during the spring 1998 emergence of the 13-year periodical cicada, Magicicada tredecassini (Brood XIX), <1% of emerging cicadas were infected with the conidial stage of M. cicadina, similar to data collected from the same population in 1985. However, in northwest Arkansas plots treated with M. cicadina resting spores collected from infected 17-year Magicicada septendecim cicadas (Brood IV) in 1997 from southern Iowa, 10 months prior to the 1998 emergence in Arkansas, conidial stage infections of M. cicadina in 13-year Arkansas M. tredecassini cicadas increased significantly to 10.6% (7.9% in males and 2.6% in females). These data suggest that M. cicadina resting spores do not require a dormancy of 13 or 17 years between cicada emergences. Instead M. cicadina resting spores appear to be capable of germinating and infecting periodical cicadas after less than 1 year. In addition, M. cicadina resting spores derived from one species (17-year M. septendecim cicadas) were infective for a second species (13-year M. tredecassini cicadas). A mean of 1.4 x 10(6)(SE = 1.8 x 10(5)) mature resting spores were produced per infected male M. septendecim.
Fondren, Kirsten M; McCullough, Deborah G
Pine needle scale, Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch), and Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley are important pests of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L., and other conifers in much of North America. On Christmas tree plantations, these insects are typically controlled by spraying broad-spectrum insecticides when the vulnerable immature stages are present. However, effective control of bivoltine populations can be difficult to achieve due to asynchronous hatch and development of the second generation. Our objectives were to 1) determine the phenology of the second generation of C. heterophyllae in Michigan; 2) characterize the natural enemy complex; and 3) assess the effectiveness of horticultural oil for control of C. heterophyllae on P. sylvestris Christmas tree plantations. We monitored scale populations in three counties in lower Michigan for 3 yr. Scale phenology was consistently associated with cumulative degree-days base 10 degrees C (DD(10 degrees C)). Second-generation egg hatch began at approximately 1230-1300 DD(10 degrees C), and continued for approximately 3 wk. The peak of the second instar coincided with 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees C). Common predators included the coccinellids Chilocorus stigma (Say) and Microweisia misella (LeConte). On average, 70% of the C. heterophyllae population in unsprayed fields was killed by predators in 1999. Two endoparasitic wasps, Encarsia bella Gahan and Marietta mexicana Howard (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), also were recovered. In 2000 and 2001, we applied a highly refined horticultural spray oil with a backpack mist blower at 1500-1600 DD(10 degrees). Scale mortality on trees treated with oil ranged from 66 to 80% and was similar to control achieved using conventional insecticides in both years.
Yin, Haichen; Shi, Qihao; Shakeel, Muhammad; Kuang, Jing; Li, Jianhong
Melanization reflects not only body color variation but also environmental plasticity. It is a strategy that helps insects adapt to environmental change. Different color morphs may have distinct life history traits, e.g., development time, growth rate, and body weight. The green slender planthopper Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura) is the main pest of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia). This insect has two color morphs. The present study explored the influence of photoperiod and its interaction with temperature in nymph stage on adult melanism. Additionally, the longevity, fecundity, mating rate, and hatching rate of S. procerus were examined to determine whether the fitness of the insect was influenced by melanism under different temperature and photoperiod. The results showed that a greater number of melanic morphs occurred if the photoperiod was extremely long. A two-factor ANOVA showed that temperature and photoperiod both have a significant influence on melanism. The percentages of variation explained by these factors were 45.53 and 48.71%, respectively. Moreover, melanic morphs had greater advantages than non-melanic morphs under an environmental regime of high temperatures and a long photoperiod, whereas non-melanic morphs were better adapted to cold temperatures and a short photoperiod. These results cannot be explained by the thermal melanism hypothesis. Thus, it may be unavailable to seek to explain melanism in terms of only one hypothesis. PMID:27672370
Lapis, E B; Borden, J H
In the field, adult psyllids,Heteropsylla cubana Crawford, oriented significantly more towards the caged seedlings of susceptibleLeucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit than to those of the resistant tree species,Leucaena collinsii Britton & Rose, or the nonhostAmaranthus spinosus L. In a dual-choice bioassay using a still-air olfactometer, the females demonstrated a strong positive response to the hexane extract ofL. leucocephala leaves at 1×10(-3) g equivalents (g eq) of leaf material. The females did not orient to leaf extracts ofL. collinsii at high concentrations but responded positively at a lower concentration of 1×10(-4) g eq. Olfactory discrimination byH. cubana between resistant and susceptible host species should be considered in selection and breeding programs.
Elliott, N C; Giles, K L; Royer, T A; Kindler, S D; Tao, F L; Jones, D B; Cuperus, G W
The numbers of greenbugs, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and bird cherry-oat aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi L., per wheat tiller (stem) were estimated in 189 production winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields located throughout Oklahoma. Taylor's power law regressions were calculated from these data and used to construct fixed precision sequential sampling schemes for each species. An evaluation data set was constructed from 240 samples taken during three growing seasons from winter wheat fields at four locations in Oklahoma. Wheat cultivar and growth stage were recorded for each field on the day of sampling. Taylor's power law parameters for evaluation fields differed significantly for both species among growing seasons, locations, and plant growth stages. Median precision achieved using the fixed precision sequential sampling schemes for each species departed <20% from expected precision over the range population intensity in the evaluation data. For the 10% of samples with greatest deviation between observed and expected precision, observed precision was 13.8-81.8% greater than that expected precision depending on aphid species and population intensity. For the greenbug, the distribution of the percentage deviation between observed and expected precision was positively skewed, so that the sampling scheme tended to over-predict precision. For the bird cherry-oat aphid, the distribution was more symmetric. Even though precision observed using the sampling schemes frequently varied from expected precision, because of the inevitable consequence of sampling error and environmental variation, the sampling schemes yielded median observed precision levels close to expected precision levels over a broad range of population intensity.
Butin, Elizabeth; Elkinton, Joseph; Havill, Nathan; Montgomery, Michael
The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, is an introduced pest in North America that is native to Asia, and is causing extensive damage to eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carriere) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Englemann) in the eastern United States. We compared two coccinellids imported for biological control of the adelgid: Scymnus ningshanensis Yu et Yao from China and Pseudoscymnus tsugae Sasaji and McClure from Japan. In a laboratory study, we measured the numerical response of each beetle species to a range of prey densities, and in field studies we examined the reproductive success and ability of the coccinellids to reduce populations of the hemlock woolly adelgid. In the laboratory, S. ningshanensis showed a positive numerical response as hemlock woolly adelgid density increased, and P. tsugae showed a density-independent response. In field cages, the presence of S. ningshanensis resulted in negative hemlock woolly adelgid population growth, in contrast to positive growth in both control cages and cages containing P. tsugae. Both our laboratory and field experiments suggest that S. ningshanensis has good potential as a biological control agent of hemlock woolly adelgid.
Cross-resistance to two fipronil analogs, butene-fipronil and ethiprole were detected in fipronil-resistant field populations and a resistant laboratorial strain of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, although the two analogs have not been used widely in rice-growing areas in China. The resul...
Chen, Jiang; McAuslane, Heather J; Carle, R Bruce; Webb, Susan E
Fruit yield and quality of zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L., plants infested with Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring were evaluated in a screenhouse under spring and fall growing conditions by using closely related sister lines that were either susceptible (ZUC61) or tolerant (ZUC76-SLR) to squash silverleaf disorder. Our objective was to test separately the effects of level of whitefly infestation and expression of silverleaf symptoms on zucchini yield and quality. In a second experiment, yield and quality of fruit produced by silverleaf-tolerant zucchini genotypes incorporating two different sources of tolerance (ZUC76-SLR and ZUC33-SLR/PMR) were compared with that of 'Zucchini Elite', a silverleaf-susceptible commercial hybrid. Zucchini fruit yield was reduced in plants exposed to repeated infestations of whiteflies in spring and fall of both experiments. In addition, fruit grew to harvestable size more slowly under the highest whitefly infestations. Fruit quality was reduced at high infestations because of uneven and reduced pigmentation. The fruit yield and quality of ZUC61 and ZUC76-SLR were similarly affected by whitefly infestation despite differences in their susceptibility to squash silverleaf disorder. Fruit from infested plants showed decreased levels of chlorophyll and carotenoids causing the "blanching" of the fruit that is associated with loss of quality and reduced marketability. Leaves of infested plants of all genotypes had reduced levels of photosynthetic and photoprotectant pigments, possibly leading to reduced photosynthesis and consequently reduced yield. We conclude that feeding by high whitefly populations rather than expression of squash silverleaf disorder is responsible for yield and quality reduction in zucchini.
Li, Xiangrui; Zhang, Fangmei; Coates, Brad; Zhang, Yunhui; Zhou, Xuguo; Cheng, Dengfa
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, particularly during development. In this study, 345 miRNAs were identified from the English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), of which 168 were conserved and 177 were S. avenae-specific. Quantitative comparison of miRNA expression levels indicated that 16 and 12 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in winged and wingless S. avenae small RNA libraries, respectively. Differential expression of these miRNAs was confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR validation. The putative transcript targets for these candidate miRNAs were predicted based on sequences from a model species Drosophila melanogaster and four aphid species Acyrthosiphon pisum, Myzus persicae, Toxoptera citricida, and Aphis gosspii. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses shed light on the potential functions of these miRNAs in the regulation of genes involved in the metabolism, development and wing polyphenism of S. avenae.
Michael E. Montgomery; Suzanne M. Lyon
On eastern hemlock, we found two resident beetles preying on Adelges tsugae Annand. One is a coccinellid native to Europe, Scymnus suturalis Thunberg, that also feeds on Pineus sp. that attack pines. The other is a native derodontid beetle, Laricobius rubidus LeConte. The seasonal life history...
Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás
Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species. PMID:22912691
Kolics, Balázs; Ács, Zoltán; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Orci, Kirill Márk; Qiang, Lo Shun; Kovács, Balázs; Kondorosy, Előd; Decsi, Kincső; Taller, János; Specziár, András; Orbán, László; Müller, Tamás
Twelve of the 13 bushcricket species of the Saga genus are bisexuals and diploids, except the parthenogenetic and tetraploid bush cricket, Saga pedo. Despite a continuous research effort stretching through the 1900s, the taxonomic relationships of the Saga species are still disputed. In this study, our primary aim was to reveal natural relationships of the European Saga species and three of their Asian relatives, with special attention to the problematic taxonomy of two subspecies: S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis. Following a phylogenetic analysis of eight species, a comprehensive study was carried out on the above three taxa by using acoustic and morphometric approaches in parallel. Our phylogenetic data showed that European Saga species evolved from a monophyletic lineage. The geographical transitional species S. cappadocica was positioned between European and Asian lineages supporting the idea that the European Saga lineage originated phylogeographically from the Asian clade. The above results showed better agreement with the morphological data than with earlier ones based either on karyology or acoustic information only. After reviewing our data, we concluded that Saga pedo has most likely evolved from S. c. gracilis and not from S. rammei or S. ephippigera, as proposed by earlier studies. S. c. gracilis shares the same ITS2 haplotype with S. pedo, indicating that the latter could have evolved from populations of the former, probably through whole genome duplication. Based on acoustic and morphometric differences, we propose to elevate the two subspecies, S. campbelli campbelli and S. c. gracilis, to species level status, as Saga gracilis Kis 1962, and Saga campbelli Uvarov 1921. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of Saginae and highlights the need for additional comprehensive analysis involving more Asian Saga species.
Prabhu, K; Murugan, K; Nareshkumar, A; Ramasubramanian, N; Bragadeeswaran, S
Objective To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vector Anopheles stephensi (A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm). Methods M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 100 g of the plant material were extracted with 300 mL of methanol for 8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield 122 mg and 110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) from Arcang amara and Ocimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in 100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e., 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 ppm were prepared. Results Larvicidal activity of M. oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of the A. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were 57.79 ppm and 125.93 ppm for the first instar, 63.90 ppm and 133.07 ppm for the second instar, 72.45 ppm and 139.82 ppm for the third instar, 78.93 ppm and 143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract of M. oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were 67.77 ppm and 141.00 ppm, respectively. Conclusions The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived from M. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs. PMID:23569741
The study of parasitism percentages and contaminations intensity in Ips sexdentatus parasitized by P. ipsophila as well as the examination of the wormholes in the galleries of the bark beetle gave better insight into certain features of nematode biology. Larvae of I. sexdentatus could be infected, whereas pupae could not. Adults were contaminated from initial stages of maturation and throughout preswarming maturation. Following swarming and installation on a new tree, insects were rapidly decontaminated, but recontamination could occur by the end of oviposition. P. ipsophila larvae were found in the mesenteron before they penetrated into the hind gut. Seemingly, the parasite underwent no evolution within its host. All developmental stages of the nematode could be observed in the galleries of the bark beetle as long as the latter was present. No apparent relation exists between parasitism of the digestive tract by P. ipsophila and parasitism of the body or fat body by Parasitaphelenchus or Contortylenchus diplogaster. P. ipsophila exerts very limited effects on I. sexdentatus populations. A slight delay in swarming and initiation of oviposition, and a very low decrease in density of notches of oviposition and of eggs was observed, but the features of the gallery of oviposition (total length, length before the first notch) showed no alteration. No mortality was detected.
Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Kosoy, Michael Y; Harrus, Shimon
Fleas collected from rodents in the Negev Desert in southern Israel were molecularly screened for Bartonella species. A total of 1,148 fleas, collected from 122 rodents belonging to six species, were pooled in 245 pools based on flea species, sex, and rodent host species. Two Bartonella gene fragments, corresponding to RNA polymerase B (rpoB) and citrate synthase (gltA), were targeted, and 94 and 74 flea pools were found positive by PCR, respectively. The Bartonella 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was also targeted, and 66 flea pools were found to be positive by PCR. Sixteen different Bartonella gltA genotypes were detected in 94 positive flea pools collected from 5 different rodent species, indicating that fleas collected from each rodent species can harbor several Bartonella genotypes. Based on gltA analysis, identified Bartonella genotypes were highly similar or identical to strains previously detected in rodent species from different parts of the world. A gltA fragment 100% similar to Bartonella henselae was detected in one flea pool. Another 2 flea pools contained gltA fragments that were closely related to B. henselae (98% similarity). The high sequence similarities to the zoonotic pathogen B. henselae warrant further investigation.
Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md; HassanAhmad, Abu; Nor, Siti Azizah Mohd
The influence of physical and chemical parameters on the abundance and diversity of chironomids was studied in six rivers with moderate to highly polluted water in the Juru River Basin. The rivers: Ceruk Tok Kun (CTKR) as reference site, and polluted rivers of Pasir (PR), Juru (JR), Permatang Rawa (PRR), Ara (AR) and Kilang Ubi (KUR) were sampled over a period of five months (November 2007-March 2008). Nine chirnomid species: Chironimus kiiensis, C. javanus, Polypedilum trigonus, Microchironomus sp., Dicrotendipes sp., Tanytarsus formosanus, Clinotanypus sp., Tanypus punctipennis and Fittkauimyia sp. were identified. Assessment of their relationships with several environmental parameters was performed using the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Tanytarsus formosanus was the most dominant in the relatively clean CTKR and moderately polluted JR with mean densities of 19.66 and 25.32 m(-2), respectively while C. kiiensis was abundant in more polluted rivers. Tanytarsus formosanus, Dicrotendipes sp. and Microchironomus sp. were grouped under moderate to high water temperature, total organic matter (TOM), total suspended solids (TSS), velocity, pH, phosphates and sulphates. However, Tanypus punctipennis, Fittkauimyia sp., and Clinotanypus sp. were associated with high contents of river sediment such as TOM, Zn and Mn and water ammonium-N and nitrate-N and they were associated with higher dissolved oxygen (DO) content in the water. Chironomus kiiensis, C. javanus and P. trigonus showed positive relationships with TOM, ammonium-N and nitrate-N as well as trace metals of Zn, Cu and Mn. These three species could be considered as tolerant species since they have the ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions with low DO and high concentrations of pollutants. Based on the water parameter scores in all rivers, the highest diversity of chironomid larvae was reported in CTKR. With higher concentrations of organic and/or inorganic pollutants as reported in PPR, KUR and AR, the chironomid larval diversity decreased, and the abundance of tolerant species, mainly Chironomus spp., increased.
Zheng, Yan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Xiaoli
Abstract A new genus Maculaprosbole of Tettigarctidae with a new species Maculaprosbole zhengi is described based on a complete fossil forewing from the Mesozoic of northeastern China. Due to its broad costal area and clavus, Maculaprosbole zhengi gen. et sp. n. can be attributed to the subfamily Cicadoprosbolinae. This genus is similar to the genera Sanmai and Hirtaprosbole in coloration pattern and forewing venation, respectively. However, it differs from Hirtaprosbole in crossvein r-m absent and apical CuA section strongly curved, running along the nodal line for a distance, and Sanmai in transverse coloration mainly focusing on the postnodal area. Herein, the prominent coloration pattern of this new taxon is discussed. PMID:27920603
Ghesini, Silvia; Luchetti, Andrea; Marini, Mario; Mantovani, Barbara
The full-length element of the non-LTR retrotransposon R2 is here characterized in three European isopteran species: the more primitive Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), including two highly divergent mitochondrial lineages, and the more derived Reticulitermes lucifugus and R. urbis (Rhinotermitidae). Partial 3' sequences for R. grassei and R. balkanensis were also analyzed. The essential structural features of R2 elements are conserved in termites. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that termite elements belong to the same clade and that their phylogeny is fully compatible with the phylogeny of their host species. The study of the number and the frequency of R2 insertion variants in four R. urbis colonies suggests a greatly reduced, or completely absent, recent element activity.
Iorgu, Ionuț Ștefan; Chobanov, Dragan Petrov; Iorgu, Elena Iulia
Abstract The Balkano-Anatolian genus Parapholidoptera comprises 21 species and the westernmost one, Parapholidoptera castaneoviridis, previously recognized to occur in western Turkey, north-eastern Greece and south-eastern Bulgaria is recorded for the first time from south-eastern Romania, almost 300 km away from the closest known locality. Illustrations and measurements of morphological characters are given and the male calling song from this new, northernmost population is described. PMID:28144178
Holecová, Milada; Rozek, Maria; Lachowska, Dorota
The C-banding patterns of twelve weevil species are presented. The obtained results confirm the existence of two groups of species: with a small or large amount of heterochromatin in the karyotype. The first group comprises seven species (Apionidae: Holotrichapion pisi; Curculionidae: Phyllobius urticae, Ph. pyri, Ph. maculicornis, Tanymecus palliatus, Larinodontes turbinatus, Cionus tuberculosus). In weevils with a small amount of heterochromatin, tiny grains on the nucleus in interphase are visible, afterwards in mitotic and meiotic prophase appearing as dark dots. The absence of C-bands does not indicate a lack of heterochromatin but heterochromatic regions are sometimes so small that the condensation is not visible during the cell cycle. The second group comprises five species (Otiorhynchus niger, O. morio, Polydrusus corruscus, Barypeithes chevrolati, Nedyus quadrimaculatus) which possess much larger heteropicnotic parts of chromosomes visible during all nuclear divisions. The species examined have paracentromeric C-bands on autosomes and the sex chromosome X, except for Otiorhynchus niger, which also has an intercalary bands on one pair of autososomes. All the species examined differ in the size of segments of constitutive heterochromatin. The y heterochromosome is dot-like and wholly euchromatic in all the studied species.
Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I. Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen
The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The ‘p’ values are distinctly different from intraspecific ‘p’ distance (0–0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus – B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962
Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip
Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected ‘p’ distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres (‘p’ = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the ‘p’ distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere (‘p’ = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853
The proturan hindgut consists of two regions, with different ultrastructure. The anterior region is organized into three primary longitudinal folds alternating with three smaller, secondary ones. In Acerentomon each primary fold in a cross section contains one or two cells showing all the structures which are involved in water reabsorption. The cells of the secondary folds do not seem engaged in a similar function. In Eosentomon the primary folds present a more complicated organization. Each of them consists of one central cell concerned with reabsorption and two lateral ones. Beneath these cells, on both sides of the fold there is a longitudinal muscle fiber. The posterior region of the hindgut does not seem capable of modifying the gut contents.
Salur, Ali; Darilmaz, Mustafa Cemal; Bauernfeind, Ernst
The mayfly fauna of Turkey was reviewed including all hitherto known distribution records together with references and a few new records. Additionally, comments on taxonomy, identification and nomenclature are provided. Two species are new for the Turkish fauna: Ephemera romantzovi Kluge, 1988 and Thraulus thraker Jacob, 1988. A list of taxa including their recorded distribution in Turkey (according to provinces) is provided in the annotated catalogue. The type locality is also given for each species originally described from Turkey. According to the literature and the new records, 157 mayfly taxa representing 33 genera and 14 families were described from Turkey. Among them, 24 species are considered endemic to Anatolia.
Dos Santos, Ana Clara Gomes; Rodrigues, Albério Lopes; Dos Santos, Sandra Batista; Lima, Roberto César Araújo; Guerra, Rita de Maria Seabra Nogueira de Candanedo
The objectives were to identify the species of chewing lice (Mallophaga) at different body sites in chickens (Gallus gallus), in isolated and mixed rearing systems, and to determine the dynamics and structure of the louse populations collected. The prevalences were 100 and 35% for chickens in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The species recorded were: Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus, Goniodes gigas, Goniocotes gallinae and Lipeurus caponis. The chickens in the isolated system presented more lice than did the ones in the mixed system. The most prevalent species were M. gallinae (30.58 and 62.31%) and L. caponis (29.12 and 14.49%), in the isolated and mixed systems, respectively. The preferential sites of parasitism were the dorsum, venter and wings among the chickens in the isolated system, while among the ones in the mixed system, the preferential sites were the dorsum and venter. The mean intensity of infestation in the isolated system was 111.4 for males and 19.1 for females, while in the mixed system it was 80 for males and 6.75 for females. The amplitudes of the infestation were 1-226 for males and 1-22 for females in the isolated system, while in the mixed system, the amplitudes were 1-111 and 1-8, respectively. It can be concluded that chickens reared in the isolated system harbor a greater number of lice than do chickens in the mixed system. However, the kind of rearing system does not prevent louse infestations.
Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko
The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens—eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.
Mouro, Lucas D; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C S; Waichel, Breno L
Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian-Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea.
Mouro, Lucas D.; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C.S.; Waichel, Breno L.
Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian–Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea. PMID:26765261
Vilenica, Marina; Brigić, Andreja; Kerovec, Mladen; Gottstein, Sanja; Ternjej, Ivančica
Peat bogs are unique wetland ecosystems of high conservation value all over the world, yet data on the macroinvertebrates (including mayfly assemblages) in these habitats are still scarce. Over the course of one growing season, mayfly assemblages were sampled each month, along with other macroinvertebrates, in the largest and oldest Croatian peat bog and an adjacent stream. In total, ten mayfly species were recorded: two species in low abundance in the peat bog, and nine species in significantly higher abundance in the stream. Low species richness and abundance in the peat bog were most likely related to the harsh environmental conditions and mayfly habitat preferences. In comparison, due to the more favourable habitat conditions, higher species richness and abundance were observed in the nearby stream. Three of the recorded species, Caenis luctuosa from the peat bog, and Eurylophella karelica and Leptophlebia marginata from the stream are new records for the Croatian mayfly fauna. Typical Central European life cycle patterns were confirmed for several species (e.g. Baetis vernus, Nigrobaetis niger, Electrogena ujhelyii), while for several others (e.g. Habrophlebia fusca, Paraleptophlebia submarginata) some discrepancies were observed. Therefore, these results provide new and valuable information on the ecology of mayflies in peat bog habitats.
Metz, Mark A.; Miller, Douglass R.; Dickey, Aaron M.; Bauchan, Gary R.; Ochoa, Ronald; Skvarla, Michael J.; Miller, Gary L.
Abstract We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe-like setae on a species of Phylloxera Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834 (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccidomorpha), the term digitule was ignored by aphid specialists despite being the original taxon for which the term was described. Similar setae occur on many arthropod groups, so the homology is poorly understood even within any superfamily of Hemiptera. We provide the etymology of the term, a proposed explanation for why it was used among scale taxonomists and not aphid taxonomists, and discuss briefly options to progress beyond the confusion between terminology for morphology and homology in Sternorrhyncha. PMID:28769728
Zhang, Weiting; Shih, Chungkun; Labandeira, Conrad C.; Sohn, Jae-Cheon; Davis, Donald R.; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Flint, Oliver; Ren, Dong
Background The early history of the Lepidoptera is poorly known, a feature attributable to an inadequate preservational potential and an exceptionally low occurrence of moth fossils in relevant mid-Mesozoic deposits. In this study, we examine a particularly rich assemblage of morphologically basal moths that contribute significantly toward the understanding of early lepidopteran biodiversity. Methodology/Principal Findings Our documentation of early fossil moths involved light- and scanning electron microscopic examination of specimens, supported by various illumination and specimen contrast techniques. A total of 20 moths were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in Northeastern China. Our principal results were the recognition and description of seven new genera and seven new species assigned to the Eolepidopterigidae; one new genus with four new species assigned to the Mesokristenseniidae; three new genera with three new species assigned to the Ascololepidopterigidae fam. nov.; and one specimen unassigned to family. Lepidopteran assignment of these taxa is supported by apomorphies of extant lineages, including the M1 vein, after separation from the M2 vein, subtending an angle greater than 60 degrees that is sharply angulate at the junction with the r–m crossvein (variable in Trichoptera); presence of a foretibial epiphysis; the forewing M vein often bearing three branches; and the presence of piliform scales along wing veins. Conclusions/Significance The diversity of these late Middle Jurassic lepidopterans supports a conclusion that the Lepidoptera–Trichoptera divergence occurred by the Early Jurassic. PMID:24278142
Tsai, Jing-Fu; Kudo, Shin-ichi; Yoshizawa, Kazunori
Maternal care (egg-nymph guarding behavior) has been recorded in some genera of Acanthosomatidae. However, the origin of the maternal care in the family has remained unclear due to the lack of phylogenetic hypotheses. Another reproductive mode is found in non-caring species whose females smear their eggs before leaving them. They possess pairs of complex organs on the abdominal venter called Pendergrast's organ (PO) and spread the secretion of this organ onto each egg with their hind legs, which is supposed to provide a protective function against enemies. Some authors claim that the absence of PO may be associated with the presence of maternal care. No study, however, has tested this hypothesis of a correlated evolution between the two traits. We reconstructed the molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Acanthosomatinae using five genetic markers sequenced from 44 species and one subspecies with and without maternal care. Eight additional species from the other two acanthosomatid subfamilies were included as outgroups. Our results indicated that maternal care has evolved independently at least three times within Acanthosomatinae and once in the outgroup species. Statistical tests for correlated evolution showed that the presence of maternal care is significantly correlated with the secondary loss or reduction of PO. Ancestral state reconstruction for the node of Acanthosoma denticaudum (a non-caring species in which egg smearing with developed POs occurs) and A. firmatum (a caring species with reduced POs) suggested egg smearing was still present in their most recent common ancestor and that maternal care in A. firmatum has evolved relatively recently. We showed that maternal care is an apomorphic trait that has arisen multiple times from the presence of PO within the subfamily Acanthosomatinae. The acquisition of maternal care is correlated with the reduction or loss of PO, which suggests an evolutionary trade-off between the two traits resulting from physiological costs. This prediction also implies that presence of maternal care can be highly expected for those groups lacking behavioral data, which invariably also lack the organ. No secondary loss of maternal care was detected in the present tree. We suggest that the loss of maternal care may be suppressed due to the vulnerability of the PO-free condition, which thus maintains maternal care.
A comprehensive revision of 981 specimens of fossil cockroaches from the Lower Cretaceous laminated limestones of the Crato Formation of Northeast Brazil shows that they belong to eleven taxa, including Piniblattella limai, P. magna sp. n., Perlucipecta santanensis. sp. n., Raptoblatta waddingtonae; Ocelloblattula santanensis sp. n., Elisama brevis (= E. americana, syn.n.), E. hindwingnii sp. n., Ponopterix axelrodi (= P. maxima syn.n.), Umenopterix burkhardi comb. n., and Cratovitisma oldreadi (Umenocoleidae = Cratovitismidae syn.n. = Ponopterixidae syn.n.). The family Ectobiidae is numerically most abundant in the assemblage of cockroaches of the Crato Formation (83 % of cockroaches), followed by Blattulidae (13 %) and Umenocoleidae (4 %). 79.2 % of specimens are complete and fully articulated. Members of the family Alienopteridae are probably also present. Representatives of a relatively common Mesozoic superfamily Caloblattinoidea are missing. With the exception of the endemic genera Cratovitisma and Raptoblatta and the exclusively Gondwanan genus Ocelloblattula, all other genera were cosmopolitan. Taxonomic richness of cockroaches of the Crato Formation is thus rather low, and consists of geologically long-ranging and geographically-widespread genera, genera restricted to Gondwana, and short-ranging endemic genera found in the Crato Formation only.
Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, H. Eric L.; Hebert, Paul D. N.
DNA barcode reference libraries linked to voucher specimens create new opportunities for high-throughput identification and taxonomic re-evaluations. This study provides a DNA barcode library for about 45% of the recognized species of Canadian Hemiptera, and the publically available R workflow used for its generation. The current library is based on the analysis of 20,851 specimens including 1849 species belonging to 628 genera and 64 families. These individuals were assigned to 1867 Barcode Index Numbers (BINs), sequence clusters that often coincide with species recognized through prior taxonomy. Museum collections were a key source for identified specimens, but we also employed high-throughput collection methods that generated large numbers of unidentified specimens. Many of these specimens represented novel BINs that were subsequently identified by taxonomists, adding barcode coverage for additional species. Our analyses based on both approaches includes 94 species not listed in the most recent Canadian checklist, representing a potential 3% increase in the fauna. We discuss the development of our workflow in the context of prior DNA barcode library construction projects, emphasizing the importance of delineating a set of reference specimens to aid investigations in cases of nomenclatural and DNA barcode discordance. The identification for each specimen in the reference set can be annotated on the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD), allowing experts to highlight questionable identifications; annotations can be added by any registered user of BOLD, and instructions for this are provided. PMID:25923328
Kim, Sungmin; Song, Kyo-Hong; Ree, Han-Il; Kim, Won
Non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) are a diverse population that commonly causes respiratory allergies in humans. Chironomid larvae can be used to indicate freshwater pollution, but accurate identification on the basis of morphological characteristics is difficult. In this study, we constructed a mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)-based DNA barcode library for Korean chironomids. This library consists of 211 specimens from 49 species, including adults and unidentified larvae. The interspecies and intraspecies COI sequence variations were analyzed. Sophisticated indexes were developed in order to properly evaluate indistinct barcode gaps that are created by insufficient sampling on both the interspecies and intraspecies levels and by variable mutation rates across taxa. In a variety of insect datasets, these indexes were useful for re-evaluating large barcode datasets and for defining COI barcode gaps. The COI-based DNA barcode library will provide a rapid and reliable tool for the molecular identification of Korean chironomid species. Furthermore, this reverse-taxonomic approach will be improved by the continuous addition of other speceis’ sequences to the library. PMID:22138764
Salur, Ali; Darilmaz, Mustafa Cemal; Bauernfeind, Ernst
Abstract The mayfly fauna of Turkey was reviewed including all hitherto known distribution records together with references and a few new records. Additionally, comments on taxonomy, identification and nomenclature are provided. Two species are new for the Turkish fauna: Ephemera romantzovi Kluge, 1988 and Thraulus thraker Jacob, 1988. A list of taxa including their recorded distribution in Turkey (according to provinces) is provided in the annotated catalogue. The type locality is also given for each species originally described from Turkey. According to the literature and the new records, 157 mayfly taxa representing 33 genera and 14 families were described from Turkey. Among them, 24 species are considered endemic to Anatolia. PMID:27853408
Vršanský, Peter; Bechly, Günter
We describe a new extinct lineage Manipulatoridae (new family) of cockroaches from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. Manipulator modificaputis gen. et sp. n. is a morphologically unique extinct cockroach that represents the first (of a total of 29 known worldwide) cockroach family reported exclusively from the Myanmar amber. This family represents an early side branch of the stem group of Mantodea (most probably a sister group of Eadiidae within Blattaria/Corydioidea) because it has some synapomorphies with the Mantodea (including the stem group and Eadiidae). This family also retains symplesiomorphies that exclude a position in the crown group, and furthermore has unique autapomorphies that exclude a position as a direct ancestor of Mantodea. The unique adaptations such as strongly elongated extremities and freely movable head on a long neck suggest that these animals were pursuit predators. Five additional specimens (including two immatures) reported from the Myanmar amber suggest that this group was relatively rare but belonged to the indigenous and autochthonous inhabitants of the ancient amber forest of the Myanmar region.
Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J; Whiting, Michael F
Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies.
Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi
Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.
Fungal infections have emerged worldwide. Cockroaches have been proved vectors of medically fungi. A systematic meta-analysis review about cockroach fungal contamination was investigated. Relevant topics were collected between January 2016 and January 2017. After a preliminary review among 392 collected papers, 156 were selected to become part of the detailed systematic meta-analysis review. Cockroaches contaminated to 38 fungi species belonging to 19 families and 12 orders. About 38, 25 and 13 fungal species were recovered from the American, German and brown-banded cockroaches, respectively with a variety of medical importance. Except the fungi isolated from German and brown-banded cockroaches, 15 species have been isolated only from the American cockroaches. The global world mean and trend of cockroach fungal contamination were 84.1 and 50.6-100%, respectively in the human dwelling environments. There is a significant difference between cockroach fungal contamination in the urban and rural environments (P<0.05) without a significant difference between hospital and household environments (P>0.05). The external and internal cockroach fungal contamination is more dangerous than entire surfaces, while the internal is more dangerous than the external surface. The German and brown-banded cockroach fungal contamination are more dangerous than the American cockroaches in the hospital environments. The study indicates that globally cockroach fungal contamination has been increased recognizing as agents of human infections and associating with high morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised patients. These facts, along with insecticide resistance emergence and increasing globally cockroach infestation, reveal importance of cockroaches and need for their control more than ever. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tan, Ming Kai; Choi, Jihea; Shankar, Nivedita
The orthopterans are diverse insects and play important roles in the ecosystem as well as having "love-hate relationship" with humans. Documentation of diversity in Southeast Asia has long history but remains incomplete. Using information of type specimens and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques, we investigated the following questions on new species discovery for the region, specifically: (1) How are new species discoveries of orthopterans distributed in Southeast Asia? (2) How have new species discoveries changed with time? (3) How do new species discoveries relate to the countries of the type depositories? We found that new species discoveries, relative to sampling, are fragmentary in Southeast Asia and changes with different time periods. We also find type depositories tightly linked to the human (colonial) history of Southeast Asian countries. We provide some recommendations and hope that this can help to accelerate the study of orthopteran diversity in the region.
Penati, Fabio; Mariotti, Alberto
Giovanni Gribodo (1846-1924) was an Italian civil engineer who described 377 new taxa of Hymenoptera, 199 of which are still valid and in use today, and proposed 6 replacement names. The present catalog provides a brief biography of Gribodo, a bibliography of his 42 publications and a complete list of the taxa proposed by Gribodo. The catalog lists, for all published names, details on the type series, type locality and collector, present status based on literature, all data labels, relevant references and remarks. A gazetteer of type-localities, a systematical list of Genus- and Species-group names, a chronological list of new names proposed by Giovanni Gribodo, with name-bearing types, and a list of Algerian species and varieties are also given. Furthermore, an unpublished manuscript by Gribodo on hymenopterological fauna of Tunisia, still kept at the Civic Museum of Natural History "Giacomo Doria" (Genoa, Italy), is described, and data on the 57 "new" taxa therein listed are reported, discussing their relevance in order to ascertain the original type series of 27 taxa validly published later. Finally, the problem posed by the enigmatic "disappearance" of a large number of Algerian types, already faced by several entomologists in the past, is analyzed, in order to prevent future mistaken designations of lectotypes and neotypes. The following six nomenclatural acts are proposed here by R. Wahis: Hemipepsis sycophanta Gribodo, 1884 = Hemipepsis bellicosa (Smith, 1873) new synonym; Anospilus sulcithorax (Gribodo, 1924) new combination; Auplopus validus (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Dichragenia quartinae (Gribodo, 1884) new combination; Diplonyx caesar (Gribobo, 1894) new combination; Paracyphononyx melanicrus Gribodo, 1884 status revalidated (resurrected from synonymy with Pompilus ruficrus Klug, 1834). The following four nomenclatural acts are proposed by F. Penati: Parachrysis Gribodo, 1879 [subgenus of Chrysis Linnaeus] = Chrysis Linnaeus, 1760 new synonym; Psammotherma (Mutilla) quartinae Gribodo, 1884 = Psammotherma flabellata (Fabricius, 1804) new synonym; Megascolia (Regiscolia) alecto (Smith, 1858) subspecies vespillo (Gribodo, 1893) new combination; Megachile (Megachile) moutoni Gribodo, 1894 emendated name.
The Palouse or Palouse Prairie is a bioregion consisting primarily of native grasses, shrubs, and forbs that originally covered over 16,000 km2 of central Idaho, southeastern Washington, and northeastern Oregon. Less than 1% of this habitat remains with much of it having been converted to agricultu...
Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...
Mashimo, Yuta; Fukui, Makiko; Machida, Ryuichiro
The egg structure of Paterdecolyus yanbarensis was examined using light, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The egg surface shows a distinct honeycomb pattern formed by exochorionic ridges. Several micropyles are clustered on the ventral side of the egg. The egg membrane is composed of an exochorion penetrated with numerous aeropyles, an endochorion, and an extremely thin vitelline membrane. The endochorion is thickened at the posterior egg pole, probably associated with water absorption. A comparison of egg structure among Orthoptera revealed that the micropylar distribution pattern is conserved in Ensifera and Caelifera and might be regarded as a groundplan feature for each group; in Ensifera, multiple micropyles are clustered on the ventral side of the egg, whereas in Caelifera, micropyles are arranged circularly around the posterior pole of the egg.
Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J
Abstract A recent targeted entomological survey in the Republic of Rwanda has produced two conspecific male and female specimens of an undescribed species of praying mantis (Mantodea). The specimens were collected in Nyungwe National Park in May of 2013. The species is closest morphologically to Dystacta alticeps (Schaum, 1853). Therefore, a new species is described, Dystacta tigrifrutex sp. n., along with the first instar nymphs and ootheca. In addition, the previously monotypic genus Dystacta Saussure, 1871 is re-described to provide a broader definition of the genus group. Habitus images, measurement data, a key to species, natural history information, and locality data are provided. PMID:24899847
Abstract New Mydidae species are described from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions including the first records of this family from several countries in eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda) and Mauritania in western Africa as well as Nepal and Thailand in Asia. The new species are, Leptomydinae: Leptomydas notos sp. n. (south-western India), Leptomydas rapti sp. n. (south-central Nepal), Leptomydas tigris sp. n. (north-central Thailand); Syllegomydinae: Mydaselpidini: Mydaselpis ngurumani sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania), Vespiodes phaios sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya); Syllegomydinae: Syllegomydini: Syllegomydas (Notobates) astrictus sp. n. (Kenya), Syllegomydas (Notobates) heothinos sp. n. (Kenya and Uganda), Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas) elachys sp. n. (northern Zimbabwe). Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas) proximus Séguy, 1928 is recorded from western Mauritania and re-described. Syllegomydas (Notobates) dispar (Loew, 1852), which was previously listed as incertae sedis in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue, is re-described and illustrated based on examination of the type specimens and several additional specimens from Mozambique. Cephalocera annulata Brunetti, 1912 and Syllegomydas bucciferus Séguy, 1928, described from north-eastern India and previously unplaced in the Oriental Diptera catalogue, are newly combined with Leptomydas Gerstaecker, 1868 and together with Leptomydas indianus Brunetti, 1912, also from north-eastern India, placed in Leptomydinae. Comments on the possible synonymy of the genera of Mydaselpidini are made. Illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and future identification. A provisional dichotomous key to Mydidae genera occurring in eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda) and the Oriental Region is provided. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots and high-biodiversity wilderness areas, and seasonal incidence are discussed for all species. PMID:21594024
Cui, Yingying; Béthoux, Olivier; Kondratieff, Boris; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong
The fossil record of Plecoptera (stoneflies) is considered relatively complete, with stem-groups of each of the three major lineages, viz. Antarctoperlaria, Euholognatha and Systellognatha (and some of their families) represented in the Mesozoic. However, the family Pteronarcyidae (the salmonflies; including two genera, Pteronarcys and Pteronarcella) has no fossil record to date, and the family has been suggested to have diverged recently. In this paper, we report on a set of specimens belonging to a new fossil species of stonefly, discovered from the Middle Jurassic Daohugou locality (China). Our comparative analysis of wing venation and body characters demonstrates that the new species belongs to the Pteronarcyidae, and is more closely related to Pteronarcys than to Pteronarcella. However, it differs from all known species of the former genus. It is therefore assigned to a new genus and named Pteroliriope sinitshenkovae gen. et sp. nov. under the traditional nomenclatural procedure. The cladotypic nomenclatural procedure is also employed, with the resulting combination Pteroliriope nec Pteronarcys sinitshenkovae sp. nov. The first discovery of a fossil member of the Pteronarcyidae demonstrates that the corresponding lineage is not a very recent offshoot but was already present ca. 165 million years ago. This discovery concurs with the view that divergence of most stonefly families took place very early, probably in the Triassic, or even in the Permian. This contribution demonstrates the need for (re-)investigations of the systematics of fossil stoneflies to refine divergence date estimates for Plecoptera lineages.
Abstract The southern African assassin-fly genus Anasillomos Londt, 1983 is reviewed. A new species, Anasillomos juergeni sp. n., is described from the Namib desert and represents the second species in the genus. Descriptions/re-descriptions, photographs, and identification keys are provided to aid in the identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence are discussed. PMID:25829862
Alavi, Jalil; Awal, Mehdi Modarres; Fekrat, Lida; Minaei, Kambiz; Manzari, Shahab
Abstract Aeolothrips gundeliae sp. n. is described, and two bicolored species of the same genus, Aeolothrips ericae Bagnall and Aeolothrips albithorax Pelikan are newly reported from northeast of Iran. Diagnostic characters are provided for each species as well as illustrations to distinguish these species. PMID:26884701
Eggermont, Hilde; Heiri, Oliver; Verschuren, Dirk
We surveyed sub-fossil chironomid assemblages in surface sediments of 73 low- to mid-elevation lakes in tropical East Africa (Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia) to develop inference models for quantitative paleosalinity reconstruction. Using a calibration data set of 67 lakes with surface-water conductivity between 34 and 68,800 μS/cm, trial models based on partial least squares (PLS), weighted-averaging (WA), weighted-averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS), maximum likelihood (ML), and the weighted modern analogue technique (WMAT) produced jack-knifed coefficients of determination ( r2) between 0.83 and 0.87, and root-mean-squared errors of prediction (RMSEP) between 0.27 and 0.31 log 10 conductivity units, values indicating that fossil assemblages of African Chironomidae can be valuable indicators of past salinity change. The new inference models improve on previous models, which were calibrated with presence-absence data from live collections, by the much greater information content of the calibration data set, and greater probability of finding good modern analogues for fossil assemblages. However, inferences still suffered to a greater (WA, WMAT) or lesser (WA-PLS, PLS and ML) extent from weak correlation between chironomid species distribution and salinity in a broad range of fresh waters, and apparent threshold response of African chironomid communities to salinity change near 3000 μS/cm. To improve model sensitivity in freshwater lakes we expanded the calibration data set with 11 dilute (6-61 μS/cm) high-elevation lakes on Mt. Kenya (Kenya) and the Ruwenzori Mts. (Uganda). This did not appreciably improve models' error statistics, in part because it introduced a secondary environmental gradient to the faunal data, probably temperature. To evaluate whether a chironomid-based salinity inference model calibrated in East African lakes could be meaningfully used for environmental reconstruction elsewhere on the continent, we expanded the calibration data set with 8 fresh (15-168 μS/cm) lakes in Cameroon, West Africa, and one hypersaline desert lake in Chad. This experiment yielded poorer error statistics, primarily because the need to amalgamate East and West African sister taxa reduced overall taxonomic resolution and increased the mean tolerance range of retained taxa. However, the merged data set constrained better the salinity optimum of several freshwater taxa, and further increased the probability of finding good modern analogues. We then used chironomid stratigraphic data and independent proxy reconstructions from two fluctuating lakes in Kenya to compare the performance of new and previous African salinity-inference models. This analysis revealed significant differences between the various numerical techniques in reconstructed salinity trends through time, due to their different sensitivity to the presence or relative abundance of certain key taxa, combined with the above-mentioned threshold faunal response to salinity change. Simple WA and WMAT produced ecologically sensible reconstructions because their step-like change in inferred conductivity near 3000 μS/cm mirrors the relatively rapid transitions between fresh and saline lake phases associated with climate-driven lake-level change in shallow tropical closed-basin lakes. Statistical camouflaging of this threshold faunal response in WA-PLS and ML models resulted in less trustworthy reconstructions of past salinity in lakes crossing the freshwater-saline boundary. We conclude that selection of a particular inference model should not only be based on statistical performance measures, but consider chironomid community ecology in the study region, and the amplitude of reconstructed environmental change relative to the modern environmental gradient represented in the calibration data set.
Vershinina, A O; Lukhtanov, V A
We employed phylogenetic comparative method to study karyotype evolution in the Agrodiaetus phyllis species complex in which haploid chromosome numbers vary greatly ranging from 10 to 134. We have found that different phylogenetic lineages of the group have different rates of chromosome number changes. Chromosome numbers in the complex posses phylogenetic signal, and their evolutionary transformation is difficult to explain in terms of punctual and gradual evolution.
Shimano, Satoshi; Suzuki, Masahiro
Two major volatiles produced by the mycelia and fruiting bodies of Tricholoma matsutake (1-octen-3-ol and methyl cinnamate) repel a mycophagous collembolan, Proisotoma minuta. Aggregation of the collembolans on their diet was significantly inhibited by exposure to 1 ppm methyl cinnamate or 10 to 100 ppm 1-octen-3-ol. The aggregation activity decreased dose-dependently upon exposure to 1-octen-3-ol at concentrations higher than 0.01 ppm. Aggregation in the presence of methyl cinnamate exhibited three phases: no significant effect at concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 ppm, significant inhibition from 1 to 100 ppm, and strong inhibition at 1,000 ppm. These results may explain why certain collembolan species do not prefer T. matsutake fruiting bodies. PMID:18066606
Qiao, Xiao; Shih, Chung Kun; Petrulevičius, Julian F.; Dong, Ren
Abstract Choristopsychidae, established by Martynov in 1937 with a single isolated forewing, is a little known extinct family in Mecoptera. Since then, no new members of this enigmatic family have been described. Based on 23 well-preserved specimens with complete body and wings from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China, we report one new genus and three new species of Choristopsychidae, two new species of the genus Choristopsyche Martynov, 1937: Choristopsyche perfecta sp. n. and Choristopsyche asticta sp. n.; one new species of Paristopsyche gen. n.: Paristopsyche angelineae sp. n.; and re-describe Choristopsyche tenuinervis Martynov, 1937. In addition, we emend the diagnoses of Choristopsychidae and Choristopsyche. Analyzing the forewing length/width ratios of representative species in Mecoptera, we confirm that choristopsychids have the lowest ratio of forewing length/width, meaning broadest forewings. These findings, the first fossil choristopsychids with well-preserved body structure and the first record of Choristopsychidae in China, shed light on the morphology of these taxa and broaden their distribution from Tajikistan to China, while increasing the diversity of Mesozoic Mecoptera in China. PMID:23950679
The present study provides new data concerning the morphology and distribution of the labial sensilla of 55 species of 12 nepomorphan families (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha) using the scanning electron microscope. On the labial tip, three morphologically distinct types of chemosensilla have been identified: two types of papillae sensilla and one type of peg-in-pit sensilla. Twenty-one morphologically distinct types of the mechanosensilla as well as two types of the trichoid sensilla (contact-chemoreceptive sensillum) have been identified on all labial segments in representatives of subfamilies. In Nepomorpha, morphological ground plan of the labial sensory structures is represented by an apical sensory field with 10–13 pairs of papillae sensilla and the peg-in-pit ones placed more laterally; numerous trichoid sensilla are placed on the IV segment; the chaetica sensilla are present and placed in groups or rows distributed along the labium near the labial groove on the dorsal side, and also several chaetica sensilla are unevenly scattered on the surface of that segment; the cupola and peg sensilla are numerous and evenly scattered on the fourth labial segment; the prioprerecptive sensilla, one pair is positioned on the dorsal side and on the fourth segment of the labium. The new apomorphical characters have been established for the labial sensilla in the Nepomorpha. PMID:23935421
Abstract In Iran, as a result of recent changes in nomenclature 201 species and one species group of the insect Order Thysanoptera, are here listed in 70 genera and five families. In considering species listed previously from this country, the presence of 7 species is considered not confirmed, and 12 species are excluded from the Iranian list. Problems in the study of Iranian Thysanoptera are discussed briefly. PMID:24146555
Coutinho-Silva, R D; Montes, M A; Oliveira, G F; de Carvalho-Neto, F G; Rohde, C; Garcia, A C L
Seasonality is an important aspect associated with population dynamic and structure of tropical insect assemblages. This study evaluated the effects of seasonality on abundance, richness, diversity and composition of an insect group, drosophilids, including species native to the Neotropical region and exotic ones. Three preserved fragments of the northern Atlantic Forest were surveyed, where temperatures are above 20 °C throughout the year and rainfall regimes define two seasons (dry and rainy). As opposed to other studies about arthropods in tropical regions, we observed that abundance of drosophilids was significantly higher in the dry season, possibly due to biological aspects and the colonization strategy adopted by the exotic species in these environments. Contrarily to abundance, we did not observe a seasonal pattern for richness. As for other parts of the Atlantic Forest, the most representative Neotropical species (Drosophila willistoni, D. sturtevanti, D. paulistorum and D. prosaltans) were significantly more abundant in the rainy season. Among the most abundant exotic species, D. malerkotliana, Zaprionus indianus and Scaptodrosophila latifasciaeformis were more importantly represented the dry season, while D. simulans was more abundant in the rainy period. The seasonality patterns exhibited by the most abundant species were compared to findings published in other studies. Our results indicate that exotic species were significantly more abundant in the dry season, while native ones exhibited an opposite pattern.
Asymmetries of bilaterally symmetrical morphological traits in workers of the ant Formica pratensis Retzius were compared at sites with different levels of metal contamination and between mature and pre-mature colonies. Statistical analyses of the right-minus-left differences revealed that their distributions fit assumptions of fluctuating asymmetry (FA). No direct asymmetry or antisymmetry were present. Mean measurement error accounts for a third of the variation, but the maximum measurement error was 65%. Although significant differences of FA in ants were observed, the inconsistent results render uncovering a clear pattern difficult. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in the ants decreased with the distance from the contamination source, but no relation was found between FA and the heavy metal levels. Ants from the premature colonies were more asymmetrical than those from mature colonies but accumulated less metals. The use of asymmetry measures in ecotoxicology and biomonitoring is criticized, but should remain widely applicable if statistical assumptions are complemented by genetic and historical data.
Grimaldi, David A.; Arillo, Antonio; Cumming, Jeffrey M.; Hauser, Martin
Abstract Thirteen species of basal Brachycera (11 described as new) are reported, belonging to nine families and three infraorders. They are preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) of Lebanon, Albian of northern Spain, upper Albian to lower Cenomanian of northern Myanmar, and Late Cretaceous of New Jersey USA (Turonian) and Alberta, Canada (Campanian). Taxa are as follows, with significance as noted: In Stratiomyomorpha: Stratiomyidae (Cretaceogaster pygmaeus Teskey [2 new specimens in Canadian amber], Lysistrata emerita Grimaldi & Arillo, gen. et sp. n. [stem-group species of the family in Spanish amber]), and Xylomyidae (Cretoxyla azari Grimaldi & Cumming, gen. et sp. n. [in Lebanese amber], and an undescribed species from Spain). In Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae (Cratotabanus newjerseyensis Grimaldi, sp. n., in New Jersey amber). In Muscomorpha: Acroceridae (Schlingeromyia minuta Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. and Burmacyrtus rusmithi Grimaldi & Hauser gen. et sp. n., in Burmese amber, the only definitive species of the family from the Cretaceous); Mythicomyiidae (Microburmyia analvena Grimaldi & Cumming gen. et sp. n. and Microburmyia veanalvena Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n., stem-group species of the family, both in Burmese amber); Apsilocephalidae or near (therevoid family-group) (Kumaromyia burmitica Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. [in Burmese amber]); Apystomyiidae (Hilarimorphites burmanica Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n. [in Burmese amber], whose closest relatives are from the Late Jurassic of Kazachstan, the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey, and Recent of California). Lastly, two species belonging to families incertae sedis, both in Burmese amber: Tethepomyiidae (Tethepomyia zigrasi Grimaldi & Arillo sp. n., the aculeate oviscapt of which indicates this family was probably parasitoidal and related to Eremochaetidae); and unplaced to family is Myanmyia asteiformia Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n., a minute fly with highly reduced venation. These new taxa significantly expand the Mesozoic fossil record of rare and phylogenetically significant taxa of lower Brachycera. PMID:22287902
Park, Cynthia N; Overall, Lisa M; Smith, Loren M; Lagrange, Ted; McMurry, Scott
Our objective was to document potential wild pollinating insects in south central Nebraska. This intensively cultivated region is known as the Rainwater Basin and contains some of the most endangered wetland systems in North America. We used blue vane traps to passively collect insects and insect nets to actively collect on flowering plants from April through October in 2014 and 2015. Habitat types included playa wetlands, adjacent mixed and tallgrass prairies, and agricultural fields. Over 112,000 insects were collected; Hymenoptera represented 78% of the total, and the families Apidae and Halictidae comprised 99% of the total melittofauna. Insects from 13 orders were collected, but Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera were the most abundant potential pollinators.
Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S; Fad, Hassan H; El-Torkey, Ashraf M; Elgharbawy, Ali A; Aldryhim, Yousif N; Kondratieff, Boris C; Ansi, Amin N Al; Aldhafer, Hathal M
This study was conducted as a part of a comprehensive baseline survey of insect biodiversity of Rawdhat Khorim National Park (RKNP), Central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). During this study a total of 262 Coleoptera species belong to 182 genera in 35 families were identified, of which 247 are named at a species level. Fifteen species (6.0%) are apparently endemic to KSA. Thirty-eight species are new to the known beetle fauna of KSA, including 25 species reported from the Arabian Peninsula for the first time. The families Tenebrionidae (45 species), Scarabaeidae (34 species), and Carabidae (27 species) were the most species rich families. About 37% of the beetle abundance was represented by species of Scarabaeidae, especially Aphodius ictericus ghardimaouensis Balthasar. Karumia inaequalis Pic (Dascillidae) was also an abundant species. Approximately 43.5% of beetle species collected during this study are considered very rare taxa in RKNP. The RKNP beetle fauna shows more affinity to Sahro-Arabian (36.4%), Afrotropical-Sahro-Arabian (17.4%) and Palaearctic-Sahro-Arabian (10.5%). Twenty-three species (9.3%) are considered cosmopolitan or subcosmopolitan. The data on month of collection, method of collection, and abundance status within RKNP, together with the distribution within KSA and the general distribution (zoogeography) of each species are presented.
Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David
A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.
Nor Aliza, A R; Bedick, J C; Rana, R L; Tunaz, H; Hoback, W W; Stanley, D W
We report on the presence of high proportions of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) in the tissue lipids of adult fireflies, Photinus pyralis. Arachidonic acid typically occurs in very small proportions in phospholipids (PLs) of terrestrial insects, ranging from no more than traces to less than 1% of PL fatty acids, while 20:5n-3 is often missing entirely from insect lipids. Contrarily, 20:4n-6 made up approximately 21% of the PL fatty acids prepared from whole males and females, and from heads and thoraces prepared from males. Proportions of 20:4n-6 associated with PLs varied among tissues, including approximately 8% for male gut epithelia, 13% for testes, and approximately 25% for light organs and body fat from males. Substantial proportions of 20:5n-3 were also associated with PLs prepared from male firefly tissues, including 5% for body fat and 8% for light organs. Because 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3 are precursors for biosynthesis of prostaglandins and other eicosanoids, we considered the possibility that firefly tissues might produce eicosanoids at exceptionally high rates. Preliminary experiments indicated otherwise. Hence, fireflies are peculiar among terrestrial insects with respect to maintaining high proportions of PL 20:4n-6 and 20:5n-3.
Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Bandani, Ali Reza; Dastranj, Mehdi
The digestive enzymes from salivary gland complexes (SGC) of Eurygaster integriceps, and their response to starvation and feeding were studied. Moreover, digestive amylases were partially purified and characterized by ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. The SGC are composed of two sections, the principal glands and accessory glands. The principal glands are further divided into the anterior lobes and posterior lobes. The SGC main enzyme was α-amylase, which hydrolyzed starch better than glycogen. The other carbohydrases were also present in the SGC complexes. Enzymatic activities toward mannose (α/β-mannosidases) were little in comparison to activities against glucose (α/β-glucosidases) and galactose (α/β-galactosidases), the latter being the greatest. Acid phosphatase showed higher activity than alkaline phosphatase. There was no measurable activity for lipase and aminopeptidase. Proteolytic activity was detected against general and specific protease substrates. Activities of all enzymes were increased in response to feeding in comparison to starved insects, revealing their induction and secretion in response to feeding pulse. The SGC amylases eluted in four major peaks and post-electrophoretic detection of the α-amylases demonstrated the existence of at least five isoamylases in the SGC. The physiological implication of these findings in pre-oral digestion of E. integriceps is discussed.
Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan
Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9–20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis – the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5–4.2 kb in size and has 2–6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago. PMID:26617060
Panov, A A
In Thymalus sp. (Peltidae), Melambia tekkensi (Trogositidae), Trichodes apiarius and Thanasimus formicarius (Cleridae), the composition of cerebral neurosecretory cells (NSC) is similar to that found earlier in Meloidae (Panov 1985a) and Tenebrionidae (Melnikova and Panov 1981; Melnikova 1983). 20 type I NSCs, 16 type II NSCs, 4 type III NSCs, several type IV NSCs and 4 type V NSCs are characteristic of their pars intercerebralis. On the other hand, a reduction of type I and II NSC number to 10 and 12 cells, respectively, was revealed in Malachius affinis, Malachius viridis and Malachius bipustulatus (Melyridae). There are 6 large dorsolateral NSCs and 2 lateral ones in each brain hemisphere of most Cleroidea studied. Their retrocerebral endocrine complex is similar to that of most polyphagous coleopterans: a single nervus corporis cardiaci leaves each brain side, the corpora cardiaca are fused with lateral aorta walls and corresponding corpora allata.
Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood Reza; Dettner, Konrad; Boland, Wilhelm; Gäde, Gerd; Dötterl, Steffan
The use of deuterium-labelled cantharidin (CAN-D(2)) to study details of cantharidin transfer in blister beetles indicates that the dynamics of organ-selective cantharidin accumulation may differ over time. Although the accessory glands absorb a high amount of CAN-D(2) in the short term, they ultimately accumulate less than the testes. Confirming previous studies, the last steps in the pathway of biosynthesis of cantharidin occur in the male's body distantly from the reproductive system but the ultimate product, cantharidin, is transported into the male reproductive tract via the membrane of the accessory glands. From there it first transfers preferentially to the epididimis and the vas deferens, followed by final deposition in the testes. Most, if not all, of the cantharidin passes internally within the sexual organs; hemolymph transport is not involved. In female meloids, cantharidin enters the genitalia from the male as a nuptial gift. High amounts are first absorbed by the spermatophoral receptacle followed by spreading through the ovaries and an ultimate accumulation in the eggs. The amount taken up by the ovaries remains considerably lower than that of the receptacle. Over time these two organs stop accumulating cantharidin, while the bursa copulatrix starts to incorporate the gift actively. The accumulated amount taken up by bursa is mainly supplied by the receptacle and ovaries suggesting that an internal transfer of cantharidin is used in females as the main transport route.
Randolf, Susanne; Zimmermann, Dominique; Aspöck, Ulrike
The external and internal head anatomy of Sisyra terminalis is described in detail and compared with data from literature. A salivary pump consisting of a peculiar reservoir and a hitherto unknown muscle, M. ductus salivarii, is newly described for Neuroptera. The upward folded paraglossae form a secondary prolongation of the salivary system. These structures are discussed as functional adaptations for feeding on aphids and desiccated honeydew. In a phylogenetic analysis the basal position of the Sisyridae within Neuroptera is retrieved. The following new synapomorphies are postulated: (1) for Neuropterida, the presence of a M. submentomentalis and prepharyngeal ventral transverse muscles, and the absence of a M. submentopraementalis; (2) for Neuroptera and Sialidae, the presence of a mandibular gland; (3) for Neuroptera, the presence of four scapopedicellar muscles; (4) for Neuroptera exclusive Nevrorthidae and Sisyridae, the weakening of dorsal tentorial arms, the presence of a M. tentoriomandibularis medialis superior and the shifted origin of M. tentoriocardinalis.
Mouro, Lucas D.; Zatoń, Michał; Fernandes, Antonio C. S.; Waichel, Breno L.
Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are small, cosmopolitan insects closely related to the Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). Most caddisflies construct protective cases during their larval development. Although the earliest recognisable caddisflies date back to the early Mesozoic (Early and Middle Triassic), being particularly numerous and diverse during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, the first records of their larval case constructions are known exclusively from much younger, Early to Middle Jurassic non-marine deposits in the northern hemisphere. Here we present fossils from the Early Permian (Asselian–Sakmarian) marine deposits of Brazil which have strong morphological and compositional similarity to larval cases of caddisflies. If they are, which is very probable, these finds not only push back the fossil record of true caddisflies, but also indicate that their larvae constructed cases at the very beginning of their evolution in marine environments. Since modern caddisflies that construct larval cases in marine environments are only known from eastern Australia and New Zealand, we suggest that this marine ecology may have first evolved in western Gondwana during the Early Permian and later spread across southern Pangea.
Luna-Reyes, Mercedes; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge
The Cuenca del Balsas region has significant biodiversity and endemicity of its herpetofauna, avifauna and vascular plants. Despite this, our knowledge of the Papilionoidea of the region is poor. We analyzed the local and temporal distribution of Papilionoidea at 24 localities in the states of Morelos and Puebla. The study sites are situated between 900 and 1300 m. a.s.l., and are composed of dry tropical forest (dtf). We recorded 8790 individuals of 83 genera and 142 species of Papilionoidea (sensu Kristensen, 1975), over 79 days of field work, with 2-4 days at each of the 24 localities. Twenty five species were newly recorded for the state of Puebla. Our data render Morelos and Puebla among the seven richest Mexican states, in terms of Papilionoidea diversity. Our results show that the Sierra de Huautla has the lowest diversity, but the highest standard abundance, compared to other Mexican regions with similar vegetation. Patterns of diversity and seasonal abundance are atypical, in that individuals of many species are unusually abundant during the wet months.
Marques, M M; Barbosa, F A; Callisto, M
Patterns of abundance and distribution of chironomid midges (Diptera, Chironomidae) in the middle Rio Doce basin were analysed. Human activities (mining, steel processing, and Eucalyptus spp. forestry) contribute to environmental degradation and low water quality in this watershed. Physical and chemical water traits (dissolved oxygen, pH, total alkalinity, electric conductivity, phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations) of 20 sampling points were used in a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to establish the best and worst water quality. Sampling points recorded as the most polluted showed low genus richness of Chironomidae, less than five genera from the total 23, and dominance of the genus Chironomus, a bioindicator of environmental stress. Following Chironomus, the second most frequent and abundant genus was Cricotopus, whose distribution could not be related to pollution levels. The Tanypodinae sub-family showed certain sensitivity to low dissolved oxygen concentrations and high nutrients levels, and was not found at points of high pollution levels.
Holzinger, Werner E.; Schlosser, Lydia
Abstract The first overview on the Auchenorrhyncha fauna of peat bogs of the Austrian Bohemian Forest is presented. Seven oligotrophic peat bog sites were studied in 2011 by suction sampler (“G-Vac”) and 93 Auchenorrhyncha species (with 7465 adult specimens) were recorded. Eleven species (about 18 % of the individuals) are tyrphobiontic or tyrphophilous. The relative species abundance plot is not very steep; the six most abundant species represent 50 % of the individuals. The most common species is Conomelus anceps (17 % of the individuals). Compared to the whole Austrian Auchenorrhyncha fauna, the fauna of peat bogs comprises distinctly more univoltine species and more species hibernating in nymphal stage. Densities of adult Auchenorrhyncha in peat bogs are low in spring (about 10–60 individuals per m²) and high in July, with up to 180 (±50) individuals per m². Disturbed peat bogs have higher species numbers and higher Auchenorrhyncha densities in total, but lower numbers and densities in peat bog specialists. PMID:24039517
We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe like setae on a species of Phylloxera (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, ...
Jamil, Norsyarizan; Ismail, Wan Nurainie Wan; Abidin, Siti Shamimi; Amaran, Mazdan Ali; Hazali, Ratnawati
A survey on termite species composition was conducted in Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarawak in February 2015. Overall 19 species of termite belonging to 13 genera and 8 subfamilies was found in the sanctuary. It was recorded the subfamily of Termitinae had the highest number of species (6 species, equal to 31.58% of total species), followed by Nasutermitinae (3 species, 15.79%), Macrotermitinae, Amitermitinae, Rhinotermitinae, Coptotermitinae, (2 species, 10.53% respectively), and Heterotermitinae, Termitogetoninae (1 species, 5.26% respectively). Since this rapid survey is the first termite assemblage representation in Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, the preliminary result may serve as the baseline data for termite composition in the area. Therefore, a whole coverage for the area within this sanctuary would definitely increase the number of termite species found in the sanctuary.
Latorre-Beltrán, Ivonne T; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Favila, Mario E
Trichopterans are considered an important and diverse biotic element in continental aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the assemblages of the order Trichoptera in two subwatersheds with a gradient of disturbance. Four sampling events were conducted in two subwatersheds in the Eastern Mountain Range of the Colombian Andes. For the analysis we used rarefaction curves, Bray-Curtis Index and Partitioning Diversity and total richness and Shannon's diversity as metrics. Although total richness was similar between both subwatersheds, abundance was always highest in streams within the conserved subwatershed. Each subwatershed was dominated by different genera, except Ochrotrichia, which was abundant at all sites. Alpha diversity was similar among streams in the conserved watershed, while a reduction in diversity potentially associated with the disturbance gradient was observed in streams of the disturbed subwatershed. Beta diversity (0Dbeta and 1Dbeta) between subwatersheds and among conserved streams was similar, while in disturbed streams a similar gradient to that of alpha diversity was found. The similitude analysis clustered streams according to their conservation status. Differences found in trichopteran assemblages do confirm that the use of their attributes is adequate to assess the conservation status of stream ecosystems. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (Suppl. 2): 97-110. Epub 2014 April 01.
Corsaro, Daniele; Thomas, Vincent; Goy, Genevieve; Venditti, Danielle; Radek, Renate; Greub, Gilbert
The genus Rickettsiella comprises various intracellular bacterial pathogens of arthropods, exhibiting a chlamydia-like developmental cycle. Species may be divided into two main groups, the R. popilliae-R. grylli group and the R. chironomi group. Previous phylogenetic studies based on the 16S ribosomal RNA encoding gene showed that two Rickettsiella species, one from each group, belong in reality to two distantly related lineages, the gamma-Proteobacteria (R. grylli) and the Chlamydiales ('Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis', a pathogen of terrestrial isopods). In the present work, the 16S rDNA sequence of another Rickettsiella-like species, causing abdominal swelling to its cockroach host Blatta orientalis, was determined and phylogenetic analysis performed. Identical 16S rDNA sequences of 1495 nucleotides were obtained from fat body and ovary tissues of both healthy and diseased cockroach individuals. The sequence shared only 73% of similarity with R. grylli, but 82-87% with most Chlamydiales, and even 96.3% with 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia porcellionis'. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the affiliation of the cockroach pathogen within the order Chlamydiales, and based on ultrastructural characteristics and genetic analyses, we propose its inclusion in the 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia' as a distinct taxon, 'Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia crassificans'. These results extend our knowledge of the phylogenetic diversity of the Chlamydiales.
Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Yalin; Bourgoin, Thierry
A molecular phylogeny of the planthopper family Issidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea) is provided using both Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses. The phylogeny is based on 18S, two parts of 28S, COXI and Cytb genes from 50 genera and 79 ingroup species (including 8 species recently excluded from Issidae). As with the only few previous studies, an important taxonomic impediment is observed with the sampling; however for the first time, all analyses depict several fully supported lineages, which challenge the recent proposed "modern classification" of the family. It also highlights a strong coherence between these lineages and their respective geographical distribution. All previously excluded taxa are confirmed as not being part of the Issidae as recently defined which monophyly is confirmed. Accordingly, a new classification of the family is proposed with 3 subfamilies and 7 tribes as follows. Neotropical issid Thioniini in Thioniinae stat. rev. is re-established as an independent lineage sister to all other Issidae. Palaearctic Issidae are weakly supported as a monophyletic lineage, Issinae stat. nov., including 2 tribes: Issini stat. nov. (genera Issus and Latissus) and Hysteropterini stat. rev. (all other Palaearctic genera). Oriental Issidae form a strongly supported monophyletic subfamily group Hemisphaeriinae stat. rev. including 4 tribes: Kodaianellini trib. nov., Sarimini trib. nov., Parahiraciini Cheng & Yang, 1991, and Hemisphaeriini Melichar, 1906, the latter including 2 subtribes: Mongolianina s.trib. nov., and Hemisphaeriina Melichar, 1906. A Neotropical lineage including the genus Picumna is provisionally placed in incertae sedis within the Hemisphaeriinae stat. nov. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing
The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z-S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.
The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)).
Metz, Mark A; Miller, Douglass R; Dickey, Aaron M; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Skvarla, Michael J; Miller, Gary L
We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe-like setae on a species of Phylloxera Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834 (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccidomorpha), the term digitule was ignored by aphid specialists despite being the original taxon for which the term was described. Similar setae occur on many arthropod groups, so the homology is poorly understood even within any superfamily of Hemiptera. We provide the etymology of the term, a proposed explanation for why it was used among scale taxonomists and not aphid taxonomists, and discuss briefly options to progress beyond the confusion between terminology for morphology and homology in Sternorrhyncha.
Ramírez, Alonso; Delgado, Débora
The taxonomic knowledge about immature stages of the insect order Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) is rather limited in tropical America. Here, the larvae of Epigomphus jannyae Belle, 1993 and E. tumefactus Calvert, 1903 are described, figured, and compared with other described congeners. E. jannyae larva is characterized by 3rd antennomere 1.6 times longer than its widest part; ligula very poorly developed, with ten short, truncate teeth on middle; apical lobe of labial palp rounded and smooth. Lateral margins on abdominal segments (S5–9) serrated, lateral spines on S6–9 small and divergent; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.66; tips of cerci and paraprocts strongly divergent. The larva of E. tumefactus is characterized by 3rd antennomere 2.3 times longer than its widest part, ligula with 6–7 truncate teeth, apical lobe of labial palp acute and finely serrate. Lateral margins of S6–9 serrate, lateral spines on S7–9; male epiproct with a pair of dorsal tubercles at basal 0.50. Differences with other species were found in 3rd antennomere, lateral spines of S7–9, and the caudal appendages. Epigomphus larvae inhabit small, shallow creeks (1st order streams) where they live in fine benthic sediments. When mature, the larva leaves the water in shady places, climbing small rocks at the water’s edge and metamorphosing horizontally on flat rocks. These new descriptions bring the total number of Epigomphus species with known larval stages to eight; only 28% of the species in this genus are known as larva. PMID:27635319
Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Rafinejad, Javad; Nozari, Jamasb; Rassi, Yavar; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Mostafa
Background: Bait-trapping appears to be a generally useful method of studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to construct a new adult flytrap by some modifications in former versions and to evaluate its applicability in a subtropical zone in southern Iran. Methods: The traps were constructed with modification by adding some equipment to a polyethylene container (18× 20× 33 cm) with lid. The fresh sheep meat was used as bait. Totally 27 adult modified traps were made and tested for their efficacies to attract adult flies. The experiment was carried out in a range of different topographic areas of Fars Province during June 2010. Results: The traps were able to attract various groups of adult flies belonging to families of: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, and Faniidae. The species of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) include the majority of the flies collected by this sheep-meat baited trap. Conclusion: This adult flytrap can be recommended for routine field sampling to study diversity and population dynamics of flies where conducting of daily collection is difficult. PMID:23378969
Svenson, Gavin J
The praying mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 occurs only in Central and South America and represents the most diverse genus of Neotropical Liturgusini (Ehrmann 2002). The genus includes bark dwelling species, which live entirely on the trunks and branches of trees and run extremely fast. All species included within the genus Liturgusa are comprehensively revised with a distribution stretching from central Mexico, the island of Dominica to the southeastern regions of Brazil and southern Bolivia. All known species are redescribed to meet the standards of the new treatment of the genus (11 species). Three new genera are described including Fuga gen. n., Velox gen. n., and Corticomantis gen. n. for species previously included in Liturgusa as well as Hagiomantis. Liturgusa mesopoda Westwood, 1889 is moved to within the previously described genus Hagiomantis Audinet Serville, 1838. A total of 19 species are newly described within Liturgusa, Fuga, and Velox including L. algorei sp. n., L. bororum sp. n., L. cameroni sp. n., L. cura sp. n., L. dominica sp. n., L. fossetti sp. n., L. kirtlandi sp. n., L. krattorum sp. n., L. manausensis sp. n., L. maroni sp. n., L. milleri sp. n., L. neblina sp. n., L. purus sp. n., L. stiewei sp. n., L. tessae sp. n., L. trinidadensis sp. n., L. zoae sp. n., F. grimaldii sp. n., and V. wielandi sp. n. Four species names are synonymized: Liturgusa peruviana Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889 and Hagiomantis parva Piza, 1966, syn. n., Liturgusa sinvalnetoi Piza, 1982, syn. n., and Liturgusa parva Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Mantis annulipes Audinet Serville, 1838. Lectotypes are designated for the following two species: Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894 and Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838). A male neotype is designated for Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939. Males for eight species are described for the first time including Liturgusa cayennensis Saussure, 1869, Liturgusa lichenalis Gerstaecker, 1889, Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939, Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894, Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889, Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838), Corticomantis atricoxata (Beier, 1931), and Hagiomantis mesopoda (Westwood, 1889). The female of Fuga fluminensis (Piza, 1965) is described for the first time. Complete bibliographic histories are provided for previously described species. The spelling confusion surrounding Liturgusa/Liturgousa is resolved. Full habitus images for males and females are provided for nearly all species. Habitus and label images of type specimens are provided when possible. Diagnostic illustrations of the head and pronotum for males and females are provided for all species when possible. Illustrations of male genital structures are provided for all species for which males are known. Measurement data, including ranges and averages, are provided for males and females of all species. Combined male and female genus and species level dichotomous keys are provided with a Spanish translation. A complete table of all examined specimens lists label data, museum codes, repositories, and other specimen specific information. A KML file with all georeferenced locality records is downloadable from mantodearesearch.com for viewing in Google Earth. Natural history information is provided for species observed by the author.
De Marmels, Jürg; Neiss, Ulisses Gaspar
The ultimate stadium larva of Neuraeschna claviforcipata is described and illustrated based on an F-0 exuvia of a reared female from northern Amazonas State, Brazil. This larva differs from the other two known larvae of the genus in lacking the spiny lateral prominence of the mandible, and in having only a short spine each side of the median cleft of the prementum; labium is shorter and cercus longer. Noteworthy is the presence of a hair brush on each occipital lobe behind mesal angle of compound eye. The larva was found in a small blackwater pool with abundant leaf litter in an open, "campina"-type habitat, with sandy soil and low, bushy vegetation.
Sharanowski, Barbara J; Robbertse, Barbara; Walker, John; Voss, S Randal; Yoder, Ryan; Spatafora, Joseph; Sharkey, Michael J
Hymenoptera is one of the most diverse groups of animals on the planet and have vital importance for ecosystem function as pollinators and parasitoids. Higher-level relationships among Hymenoptera have been notoriously difficult to resolve with both morphological and traditional molecular approaches. Here we examined the utility of expressed sequence tags for resolving relationships among hymenopteran superfamilies. Transcripts were assembled for 6 disparate Hymenopteran taxa with additional sequences added from public databases for a final dataset of 24 genes for 16 taxa and over 10 kb of sequence data. The concatenated dataset recovered a robust and well-supported topology demonstrating the monophyly of Holometabola, Hymenoptera, Apocrita, Aculeata, Ichneumonoidea, and a sister relationship between the two most closely related proctotrupomorphs in the dataset (Cynipoidea+Proctotrupoidea). The data strongly supported a sister relationship between Aculeata and Proctotrupomorpha, contrary to previously proposed hypotheses. Additionally there was strong evidence indicating Ichneumonoidea as sister to Aculeata+Proctotrupomorpha. These relationships were robust to missing data, nucleotide composition biases, low taxonomic sampling, and conflicting signal across gene trees. There was also strong evidence indicating that Chalcidoidea is not contained within Proctotrupomorpha. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper addresses two much-debated questions, on which evidence is still limited, about the design of molecular phylogenetic studies. The first is whether one can economically improve the resolution of a phylogeny estimate by increasing gene sampling in only a subset of tax, without having the an...
Chesters, Douglas; Zhu, Chao-Dong
Public DNA databases are composed of data from many different taxa, although the taxonomic annotation on sequences is not always complete, which impedes the utilization of mined data for species-level applications. There is much ongoing work on species identification and delineation based on the molecular data itself, although applying species clustering to whole databases requires consolidation of results from numerous undefined gene regions, and introduces significant obstacles in data organization and computational load. In the current paper, we demonstrate an approach for species delineation of a sequence database. All DNA sequences for the insects were obtained and processed. After filtration of duplicated data, delineation of the database into species or molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) followed a three-step process in which (i) the genetic loci L are partitioned, (ii) the species S are delineated within each locus, then (iii) species units are matched across loci to form the matrix L × S, a set of global (multilocus) species units. Partitioning the database into a set of homologous gene fragments was achieved by Markov clustering using edge weights calculated from the amount of overlap between pairs of sequences, then delineation of species units and assignment of species names were performed for the set of genes necessary to capture most of the species diversity. The complexity of computing pairwise similarities for species clustering was substantial at the cytochrome oxidase subunit I locus in particular, but made feasible through the development of software that performs pairwise alignments within the taxonomic framework, while accounting for the different ranks at which sequences are labeled with taxonomic information. Over 24 different homologs, the unidentified sequences numbered approximately 194,000, containing 41,525 species IDs (98.7% of all found in the insect database), and were grouped into 59,173 single-locus MOTUs by hierarchical clustering under parameters optimized independently for each locus. Species units from different loci were matched using a multipartite matching algorithm to form multilocus species units with minimal incongruence between loci. After matching, the insect database as represented by these 24 loci was found to be composed of 78,091 species units in total. 38,574 of these units contained only species labeled data, 34,891 contained only unlabeled data, leaving 4,626 units composed both of labeled and unlabeled sequences. In addition to giving estimates of species diversity of sequence repositories, the protocol developed here will facilitate species-level applications of modern-day sequence data sets. In particular, the L × S matrix represents a post-taxonomic framework that can be used for species-level organization of metagenomic data, and incorporation of these methods into phylogenetic pipelines will yield matrices more representative of species diversity. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Chen, Qing-Xiao; Hua, Bao-Zhen
Mecoptera are unique in holometabolous insects in that their larvae have compound eyes. In the present study the cellular organisation and morphology of the compound eyes of adult individuals of the scorpionfly Panorpa dubia in Mecoptera were investigated by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the compound eyes of adult P. dubia are of the apposition type, each eye comprising more than 1200 ommatidia. The ommatidium consists of a cornea, a crystalline cone made up of four cone cells, eight photoreceptors, two primary pigment cells, and 18 secondary pigment cells. The adult ommatidium has a fused rhabdom with eight photoreceptors. Seven photoreceptors extend from the proximal end of the crystalline cone to the basal matrix, whereas the eighth photoreceptor is shorter, extending from the middle level of the photoreceptor cluster to the basal matrix. The fused rhabdom is composed of the rhabdomeres of different photoreceptors at different levels. The adult ommatidia have the same cellular components as the larval ommatidia, but the tiering scheme is different.
Kogan, Marcos; Cook, Jerry L
A new species of Triozocera from the Brazilian Amazon basin was found in a sample of male Strepsiptera from the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA-Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil). Triozocera buehrheimi sp.n. is described and the status of T. paulistana Kogan, 1958, the first strepsipteran described from Brazil, is reviewed, with additional diagnostic characters used to reinstate the species based on comparative analyses to the other three species occurring in southern US, Mexico, and Central America: T. mexicana Pierce, 1909, T. tecpanensis Brailowsky and Márquez, 1974, and T. vernalis Kifune and Brailowsky, 1987. A key to those species is included.
Pereira, Domingos L V; de Melo, Alan L; Hamada, Neusa
Few studies have been done in Brazil on aquatic and semi-aquatic Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Heteroptera), Minas Gerais being the state where these insects have been studied the most. The present study presents keys for identification of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha adults, thus providing a tool for ecological studies on aquatic insects in Central Amazonia. The specimens used to elaborate the taxonomic keys were collected in Presidente Figueiredo county in streams and artificial lakes and in Manaus county in streams, white-water floodplain (várzea) lakes and Rio Negro black-water flooded forest (igapó). Specimens from the invertebrate collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA) were also examined and included in the keys. Thirty one genera from 13 families of the infra-orders mentioned.
de Paiva, Carina Kaory Sasahara; de Faria, Ana Paula Justino; Calvão, Lenize Batista; Juen, Leandro
The production of oil palm is expected to increase in the Amazon region. However, expansion of oil palm plantation leads to significant changes in the physical structure of aquatic ecosystems, mainly through the reduction of riparian vegetation that is essential for aquatic biodiversity. Here, we evaluated the effects of oil palm on the physical habitat structure of Amazonian stream environments and assemblages of Plecoptera and Trichoptera (PT), both found in these streams. We compared streams sampled in oil palm plantations (n = 13) with natural forest areas ("reference" streams, n = 8), located in the eastern Amazon, Brazil. Our results showed that oil palm streams were more likely to be in close proximity to roads, had higher pH values, and higher amounts of fine substrate deposited in the channel than reference streams. Further, these environmental changes had important effects on the aquatic invertebrate assemblages, reducing the abundance and richness of PT. Nevertheless, the genera composition of the assemblages did not differ between reference and oil palm (PERMANOVA, pseudo-F (1,19) = 1.891; p = 0.111). We conclude that oil palm production has clear negative impacts on aquatic environments and PT assemblages in Amazonian streams. We recommend that oil palm producers invest more in planning of road networks to avoid the construction of roads near to the riparian vegetation. This planning can minimize impacts of oil palm production on aquatic systems in the Amazon.
Faisal, Mohammad; Singh, Sudhir; Yousuf, Mohammad
Clerids are small predacious beetles (Coleoptera) that belong to the family Cleridae. In the National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC) Cleridae is represented by 31 authentically identified specimens including types of 27 species. The type material of Cleridae, deposited in the NFIC, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India), is listed and illustrated with digital automontage photographs. A list of 27 type species of Cleridae, 13 holotypes and 14 paratypes with information on species names, reference of the original publication, all available information on labels of types (country, locality, date of collection, collector name, etc) along with colored photographs of types and the labels that are attached to them, taken with Auto-montage 3-D imaging system, is provided.
Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.
iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.
McMeniman, C J; Barker, S C
We studied inheritance at three microsatellite loci in eight F, and two F2 families of the body (clothes) louse of humans, Pediculus humanus. The alleles of heterozygous female-parents were always inherited in a Mendelian fashion in these families. Alleles from heterozygous male-parents, however, were inherited in two different ways: (i) in a Mendelian fashion and (ii) in a non-Mendelian fashion, where males passed to their offspring only one of their two alleles, that is, 100% nonrandom transmission. In male body lice, where there was non-Mendelian inheritance, the paternally inherited set of alleles was eliminated. We interpret this pattern of inheritance as evidence for extreme transmission ratio distortion of paternal alleles in this species.
Kung, Giar-Ann; Porras, Wendy
Abstract The genus Dohrniphora is a hyperdiverse group of phorid flies, a family whose species are commonly characterized as generalized scavengers. The lifestyle of most species of Dohrniphora is unknown, although one cosmopolitan, synanthropic species, D. cornuta (Bigot) fits the general scavenger mold. Here we show that flies of the D. longirostrata species group exhibit highly specific “headhunting” behavior in which injured Odontomachus ants are decapitated, the heads dragged away, and females either feed on their contents or lay an egg nearby. Since most females studied lacked eggs in their ovaries, we conclude that this bizarrely specialized feeding is necessary to provide nutrients for reproduction in these flies. Our study provides further evidence that injured ants are a common, stable resource in tropical ecosystems that support a wide array of phorid flies. Such narrowly constrained lifestyles, as exemplified by exclusively feeding on and breeding in the head contents of certain ponerine worker ants, could allow the co-existence of a huge community of saprophagous flies. PMID:25709534
Abstract Tettigettalna mariae Quartau & Boulard 1995 is recorded for the first time in Spain. Thought to be endemic to Portugal (occurring in the southern province of Algarve), the present paper adds its distribution to southern Spain, being an Iberian endemism. The acoustic signals of the new specimens collected were recorded in different localities of Huelva province, in Andalusia during August 2012. According to their present known distribution, specimens of Tettigettalna mariae tend to be sparsely distributed in small range populations in southern Iberian Peninsula, favouring wooded areas with Pinus pinea. PMID:24723772
Delorme, Quentin; Mille, Christian; Jourdan, Hervé
Among New Caledonian cicada taxa, the endemic genus Kanakia Distant, 1892 appears as the most spectacular one, especially because of the large size of its species (length up to 50 mm for males). Recent new specimen collections helped to clarify the taxonomy of this spectacular genus. According to morphological characteristics, we were able to redefine and to split the present genus into three distinct genera: Kanakia Distant, 1892, Pseudokanakia Delorme gen. nov. and Panialna Delorme gen. nov. These two new genera are monotypic and have been respectively established from revision of Kanakia flavoannulata (Distant 1920) and Kanakia parva Boulard 1991. Also, the type species, Kanakia typica Distant, 1892, appears to be a complex of cryptic species. New acoustic and morphological observations allowed us to redefine K. typica and to describe four new species in this complex: Kanakia paniensis Delorme sp. nov., Kanakia rana Delorme sp. nov., Kanakia salesnii Delorme sp. nov. and Kanakia fuscocosta Delorme sp. nov. Kanakia gigas Boulard 1988 is also briefly discussed and the female is described. An identification key of the Kanakia species and allied genera is also provided.
Mortazavi, Abdolazim; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza
A new species of mites of the genus Tarsopolipus (Acari: Prostigmata: Podapolipidae) is described from southern Iran. Tarsopolipus husbandi Mortazavi and Hajiqanbar n. sp. is a sub-elytral ectoparasite of the scarabaeid beetle, Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) acuticollis. The new species is closely related to Tarsopolipus corrugatus Berlese 1911, but is distinguished from it by the following characters. Adult female: presence of vestigial setae v(2) and shorter setae sc(2). Adult male: presence of setae v' on tibia IV and shorter setae sc(2) and c(2). Larval female: shorter cheliceral stylets and longer distance between setae v(1) and ch. Species of Tarsopolipus are currently distributed in Afro-tropical, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions and parasitize species in 3 genera of scarabaeid beetles, i.e., Scarabaeus , Kheper, and Drepanopodes, all belonging to the tribe Scarabaeini.
Houghton, David C
Despite the value of aquatic insects in aquatic ecosystem biomonitoring, few studies within North America have addressed relationships between aquatic insect assemblages and landscape-level environmental variables. In this study, over 300,000 adult caddisfly specimens representing 224 species were collected and analyzed from samples of 225 Minnesota aquatic habitats within 58 watersheds. Detrended Correspondence Analysis and a UPGMA dendrogram of caddisfly relative abundance data determined that five regions of caddisfly biodiversity exist within the state. Species richness and diversity were significantly highest in the Lake Superior and Northern regions, lowest in the Northwestern and Southern regions, and intermediate in the Southeastern region. Canonical Correspondence Analysis determined that caddisfly species composition was related to temperature, percentage of disturbed habitat, and stream gradient. Although a strong correlation between temperature and percentage of disturbed habitat made determination of the relative importance of those variables difficult, it is likely that anthropogenic disturbance has decreased caddisfly biodiversity in at least the Northwestern and Southern regions. Now that regions of biodiversity have been established, future changes to the fauna can be evaluated with greater precision and confidence. This study represents the most comprehensive faunal analysis of an aquatic insect order within the Western Hemisphere.
Greenwood, M. T.; Agnew, M. D.; Wood, P. J.
Trichoptera have been utilised infrequently in palaeoecological studies despite their value as environmental indicators of freshwater habitat structure and quality, via their aquatic larvae, and catchment macroclimate conditions, via the aerial adults. Two sites, dated ca. 11 600 14C yr BP, in the middle reaches of the River Trent (England) supported caddisfly (Trichoptera) assemblages indicative of a dynamic braided river with extensive floodplain development. At the first, Barrow-upon-Trent, the caddisfly assemblage was dominated by taxa indicative of a medium to large gravel-bed river (Lepidostoma hirtum, Micrasema setiferum and taxa from the family Hydropsychidae). At the second site, Hemington, the caddisfly fauna was dominated by taxa from the families Limnephilidae and Phryganeidae. These usually occur in slow flowing and standing waters and are indicative of cut-off channels on the floodplain. Micrasema setiferum does not occur in the contemporary UK fauna and has a modern distribution across central Europe and Fennoscandia. A gridded climatology extracted for those geographical areas where M. setiferum occurs today indicated a greater degree of continentality than currently prevailing in the Trent catchment. The value of Trichoptera in palaeoecological studies is explored and a model of channel evolution for the River Trent is presented based on caddisfly data. Copyright
Wang, Yuyu; Liu, Xingyue; Yang, Ding
The Trichoptera (caddisflies) is a holometabolous insect order with 14,300 described species forming the second most species-rich monophyletic group of animals in freshwater. Hitherto, there is no mitochondrial genome reported of this order. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a caddisfly species, Eubasilissa regina (McLachlan, 1871). A phylogenomic analysis was carried out based on the mt genomic sequences of 13 mt protein coding genes (PCGs) and two rRNA genes of 24 species belonging to eight holometabolous orders. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support the sister relationship between Trichoptera and Lepidoptera.
Wang, Yuyu; Liu, Xingyue; Yang, Ding
The Trichoptera (caddisflies) is a holometabolous insect order with 14,300 described species forming the second most species-rich monophyletic group of animals in freshwater. Hitherto, there is no mitochondrial genome reported of this order. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a caddisfly species, Eubasilissa regina (McLachlan, 1871). A phylogenomic analysis was carried out based on the mt genomic sequences of 13 mt protein coding genes (PCGs) and two rRNA genes of 24 species belonging to eight holometabolous orders. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support the sister relationship between Trichoptera and Lepidoptera. PMID:24391451
Evangelista, Dominic A.; Chan, Kimberly; Kaplan, Kayla L.; Wilson, Megan M.; Ware, Jessica L.
Abstract Here we provide a checklist of cockroach species known from areas within the Guiana Shield based on literature records and new field collection. We give records of sixteen species collected in Guyana, eight of which are new records for Guyana and one of which is a new generic record for the entire Guiana Shield. We also provide a description for a geographically disparate species of Calhypnorna Stal, and the new species Xestoblatta berenbaumae. The complete checklist contains 234 species of Blattodea s.s. currently known in the shield. This checklist shows particularly low richness in Guianan Venezuela, Roraima and Amapa Brazil, but this is likely an artifact due to under–sampling. Indeed, based on previously published data and current fieldwork, we believe that most regions of the Guiana Shield are under–sampled for cockroaches. Despite this, French Guiana (151 spp.) and Suriname (136 spp.) rank as the second and sixth most species dense faunas of cockroaches in the neotropics. PMID:25684997
The complete mitogenome of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis nevadensis was reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data with an average coverage of 7052×. The circular genome is 15,444 bp in length, and consists of 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 and ND5 genes with the start codon GTG. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND1) or incomplete stop codon T (COII, ND5 & Cytb), while the others use TAA as their stop codons. The nucleotide composition is asymmetric (45.8% A, 19.8% C, 10.9% G, 23.5% T) with an overall GC content of 30.7%. These data would contribute to the design of novel molecular markers for population and evolutionary studies of this and related termite species.
Shen, Qing-Qing; Wang, Li
The complete mitochondrial genome of the Tiger Longwing Heliconius hecale has been reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina sequencing data with an average coverage of 1507×. The circular genome is 15,338 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 1 D-loop or control region. All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the COI and ND1 genes with CGA and TTG as their start codons, respectively. Three PCGs (COI, COII and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T, the ND3 gene harbors the stop codon TAG, while all the other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (39.5% A, 42.1% T, 7.5% G, and 10.9% C) with an overall GC content of 18.4%.
Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Nalepa, Christine; Lo, Nathan
Isoptera are highly specialized cockroaches and are one of the few eusocial insect lineages. Cryptocercus cockroaches have appeared to many as ideal models for inference on the early evolution of termites, due to their possible phylogenetic relationship and several shared key attributes in life history. Recently, Pellens, Grandcolas, and colleagues have proposed the blaberid cockroach Parasphaeria boleiriana to be an alternative model for the early evolution in termites. We compare the usefulness of Cryptocercus and P. boleiriana as models for termite evolution. Cryptocercus and lower Isoptera (1) can both feed on comparatively recalcitrant wood, (2) have an obligate, rich and unique hypermastigid and oxymonadid fauna in the hindgut, (3) transfer these flagellates to the next generation by anal trophallaxis, (4) have social systems that involve long-lasting biparental care, and, finally, (5) are strongly suggested to be sister groups, so that the key attributes (1)-(4) appear to be homologous between the two taxa. On the other hand, P. boleiriana (1) feeds on soft, ephemeral wood sources, (2) shows no trace of the oxymonadid and hypermastigid hindgut fauna unique to Cryptocercus and lower Isoptera, nor does it have any other demonstrated obligate relationship with hindgut flagellates, (3) is likely to lack anal trophallaxis, (4) has only a short period of uniparental brood care, and (5) is phylogenetically remote from the Cryptocercus+Isoptera clade. These facts would argue against any reasonable usage of P. boleiriana as a model for the early evolution of Isoptera or even of the clade Cryptocercus+Isoptera. Cryptocercus thus remains an appropriate model-taxon-by-homology for early termite evolution. As compared to P. boleiriana, some other Blaberidae (such as the Panesthiinae Salganea) appear more useful as model-taxa-by-homoplasy for the early evolution of the Cryptocercus+Isoptera clade, as their brooding behavior is more elaborate than in P. boleiriana.
Darilmaz, Mustafa Cemal; Salur, Ali; Murányi, Dávid; Vinçon, Gilles
The stoneflies of Turkey are reviewed providing all known distributions and including new records. Additionally, ecological and biogeographical notes are given. The genus Taeniopteryx Pictet 1841 is reported from Turkey for the first time and 12 species new for the Turkish fauna: Leuctra joosti Braasch 1970, L. kopetdaghi Zhiltzova 1972, Protonemura rauschi Theischinger 1975, P. strandschaensis Braasch & Joost 1972, Nemoura asceta Murányi 2007, N. cambrica Stephens 1836, N. uncinata Despax 1934, Taeniopteryx caucasica Zhiltzova 1981, Brachyptera risi (Morton 1896), Pontoperla katherinae (Balinsky 1950), Siphonoperla neglecta (Rostock 1881), and Bulgaroperla mirabilis nigrita Zwick 1978. Protonemura bithynica Aubert 1964 and Nemoura turcica Zwick 1972 are recognized as full species. The previously unknown female of Leuctra marilouae Vinçon & Sivec 2001 is described. The type locality is also given for each species located in Turkey. The distributions of several rare endemic species are augmented by additional new records (Leuctra aculeata Zwick 1982, L. brachyptera Kazancı 1985, L. karcali Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. kurui Kazancı 1983, L. marilouae Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. sipahilerae Vinçon & Sivec 2001, L. theischingeri Vinçon & Sivec 2001, Protonemura bacurianica bacurianica Zhiltzova 1957, P. oreas Martynov 1928, P. spinulata Martynov 1928 (first confirmed records from Anatolia), P. triangulata Martynov 1928, Nemoura dromokeryx Theischinger 1976, N. martynovia Claassen 1936, and Brachyptera berkii Kazancı 2001. Several species previously reported only from females are excluded from the Turkish fauna: Leuctra minuta minuta Zhiltzova 1960, L. svanetica Zhiltzova 1960, P. dilatata Martynov 1928. Other species are also excluded from the Turkish fauna: L. fusca fusca (Linnaeus 1758), N. carpathica Illies 1963, Siphonoperla burmeisteri (Pictet 1841), and S. libanica Alouf, 1992. According to literature and our new faunistic data, 117 stonefly taxa representing 7 families and 24 genera are known from Turkey. Among them, 44 are endemic species from Anatolia.
Tettweiler, Gritta; Kowanda, Michelle; Lasko, Paul; Sonenberg, Nahum; Hernández, Greco
Insects are part of the earliest faunas that invaded terrestrial environments and are the first organisms that evolved controlled flight. Nowadays, insects are the most diverse animal group on the planet and comprise the majority of extant animal species described. Moreover, they have a huge impact in the biosphere as well as in all aspects of human life and economy; therefore understanding all aspects of insect biology is of great importance. In insects, as in all cells, translation is a fundamental process for gene expression. However, translation in insects has been mostly studied only in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We used all publicly available genomic sequences to investigate in insects the distribution of the genes encoding the cap-binding protein eIF4E, a protein that plays a crucial role in eukaryotic translation. We found that there is a diversity of multiple ortholog genes encoding eIF4E isoforms within the genus Drosophila. In striking contrast, insects outside this genus contain only a single eIF4E gene, related to D. melanogaster eIF4E-1. We also found that all insect species here analyzed contain only one Class II gene, termed 4E-HP. We discuss the possible evolutionary causes originating the multiplicity of eIF4E genes within the genus Drosophila. PMID:22745595
Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Matsuo, Yoh
Male animals in several groups have multiple intromittent organs that outnumber the corresponding female gonopore. In Dermaptera (earwigs), males of the family Anisolabididae have paired, elongated male intromittent organs (virgae), while females have a single sperm-storage organ (spermatheca). Several authors have assumed that one of the paired virgae is non-functional, because it points in the "wrong" direction. We investigated the mating success of handicapped males of Euborellia plebeja in which one of their paired virgae was removed experimentally. These handicapped males succeeded in inseminating a mate. Males with genital damage are found in the field, suggesting that the "spare" functions under natural conditions. Based on phylogenetic information on earwigs, we discuss possible evolutionary scenarios for this genital peculiarity.
Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi
Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species – the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of ‘hybrid females’ among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. ‘hybrid females’ from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894
Milani, Liliana; Ghiselli, Fabrizio; Pellecchia, Marco; Scali, Valerio; Passamonti, Marco
Phasmids show noteworthy abilities to overcome species-specific reproductive isolation mechanisms, including hybridization, polyploidy, parthenogenesis, hybridogenesis and androgenesis. From an evolutionary standpoint, such tangled reproductive interactions lead to the complex phyletic relationships known as "reticulate evolution". Moroccan stick insects of the genus Clonopsis include one bisexual (C. felicitatis) and two closely related parthenogenetic forms (C. gallica, C. soumiae), which represent a polyploid series in chromosome number, but with apparent diploid karyotypes. Moreover, two Clonopsis strains of ameiotic males have been described, C. androgenes-35 and C. androgenes-53. As a consequence, Clonopsis stick insects may have experienced complex micro-evolutionary events, which we try to disentangle in this study. Mitochondrial cox2 analysis supports a recent divergence of Clonopsis, while AFLPs evidence genetic differentiation not linked to karyotypes, so that parthenogenetic C. gallica and C. soumiae appear to be a mix of strains of polyphyletic origin rather than single parthenogenetic species. Moreover, an admixed hybrid origin seems to be confirmed for C. androgenes. On the whole, Clonopsis is an intriguing case of reticulate evolution. Actually, complex cladogenetic events should be taken into account to explain the observed genetic structure, including diploidization of polyploid karyotypes, possibly coupled with hybridization and androgenesis. We also proposed a "working hypothesis" to account for the observed data, which deserves further studies, but fits the observed data very well.
Wang, Yuyu; Liu, Xingyue; Winterton, Shaun L.; Yan, Yan; Chang, Wencheng; Yang, Ding
Rapisma McLachlan, 1866 (Neuroptera: Ithonidae) is a rarely encountered genus of lacewings found inmontane tropical or subtropical forests in Oriental Asia. In Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet) of China there are two sympatrically distributed species of Rapisma, i.e. Rapisma xizangense Yang, 1993 and Rapisma zayuanum Yang, 1993, in which R. xizangense is only known as male and has dull brownish body and wing coloration, while R. zayuanum is only known as female and has bright green body and wing coloration. In order to clarify the relationship between these two species, we determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of R. xizangense and R. zayuanum for the first time. The mt genomes are 15,961 and 15,984 bp in size, respectively, and comprised 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). A major noncoding (control) region was 1,167 bp in R. xizangense and 1,193 bp in R. zayuanum with structural organizations simpler than that reported in other Neuropterida species, notably lacking conserved blocks or long tandem repeats. Besides similar mitogenomic structure, the genetic distance between R. xizangense and R. zayuanum based on two rRNAs and 13 protein coding genes (PCGs) as well as the genetic distance between each of these two Tibetan Rapisma species and a Thai Rapisma species (R. cryptunum) based on partial rrnL show that R. xizangense and R. zayuanum are most likely conspecific. Thus, R. zayuanum syn. nov. is herein treated as a junior synonym of R. xizangense. The present finding represents a rare example of distinct sexual dimorphism in lacewings. This comparative mitogenomic analysis sheds new light on the identification of rare species with sexual dimorphism and the biology of Neuroptera. PMID:24391859
Grimaldi, David A; Arillo, Antonio; Cumming, Jeffrey M; Hauser, Martin
Thirteen species of basal Brachycera (11 described as new) are reported, belonging to nine families and three infraorders. They are preserved in amber from the Early Cretaceous (Neocomian) of Lebanon, Albian of northern Spain, upper Albian to lower Cenomanian of northern Myanmar, and Late Cretaceous of New Jersey USA (Turonian) and Alberta, Canada (Campanian). Taxa are as follows, with significance as noted: In Stratiomyomorpha: Stratiomyidae (Cretaceogaster pygmaeus Teskey [2 new specimens in Canadian amber], Lysistrata emerita Grimaldi & Arillo, gen. et sp. n. [stem-group species of the family in Spanish amber]), and Xylomyidae (Cretoxyla azari Grimaldi & Cumming, gen. et sp. n. [in Lebanese amber], and an undescribed species from Spain). In Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae (Cratotabanus newjerseyensis Grimaldi, sp. n., in New Jersey amber). In Muscomorpha: Acroceridae (Schlingeromyia minuta Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. and Burmacyrtus rusmithi Grimaldi & Hauser gen. etsp. n., in Burmese amber, the only definitive species of the family from the Cretaceous); Mythicomyiidae (Microburmyia analvena Grimaldi & Cumming gen. et sp. n. and Microburmyia veanalvena Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n., stem-group species of the family, both in Burmese amber); Apsilocephalidae or near (therevoid family-group) (Kumaromyia burmitica Grimaldi & Hauser, gen. et sp. n. [in Burmese amber]); Apystomyiidae (Hilarimorphites burmanica Grimaldi & Cumming, sp. n. [in Burmese amber], whose closest relatives are from the Late Jurassic of Kazachstan, the Late Cretaceous of New Jersey, and Recent of California). Lastly, two species belonging to families incertae sedis, both in Burmese amber: Tethepomyiidae (Tethepomyia zigrasi Grimaldi & Arillo sp. n., the aculeate oviscapt of which indicates this family was probably parasitoidal and related to Eremochaetidae); and unplaced to family is Myanmyia asteiformia Grimaldi, gen. et sp. n., a minute fly with highly reduced venation. These new taxa significantly expand the Mesozoic fossil record of rare and phylogenetically significant taxa of lower Brachycera.
Kobiałka, Michał; Michalik, Anna; Walczak, Marcin; Junkiert, Łukasz; Szklarzewicz, Teresa
The leafhopper Macrosteles laevis, like other plant sap-feeding hemipterans, lives in obligate symbiotic association with microorganisms. The symbionts are harbored in the cytoplasm of large cells termed bacteriocytes, which are integrated into huge organs termed bacteriomes. Morphological and molecular investigations have revealed that in the bacteriomes of M. laevis, two types of bacteriocytes are present which are as follows: bacteriocytes with bacterium Sulcia and bacteriocytes with Nasuia symbiont. We observed that in bacteriocytes with Sulcia, some cells of this bacterium contain numerous cells of the bacterium Arsenophonus. All types of symbionts are transmitted transovarially between generations. In the mature female, the bacteria Nasuia, bacteria Sulcia, and Sulcia with Arsenophonus inside are released from the bacteriocytes and start to assemble around the terminal oocytes. Next, the bacteria enter the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte. After passing through the follicular cells, the symbionts enter the space between the oocyte and follicular epithelium, forming a characteristic "symbiont ball."
Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna
Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed.
Zaspel, J M; Weller, S J; Epstein, M E
Studies of caterpillar defense strategy evolution typically focus on aposematic coloration, gregarious behavior, and/or chemical defense. In the slug moth family Limacodidae, the evolution of chemical defense is coupled to the life history trait of first instar feeding behaviors. In nettle caterpillars, the first instars fast and molt into a second instar that feeds. In contrast, gelatines and monkey slug larval forms feed in the first instar. This study focused on whether the evolution of fasting associated with the nettle morphology was a derived trait of single or multiple origins. Twenty-nine species of Limacodidae (including one Chrysopolominae) representing 27 genera and four outgroup species with known first and final instar morphologies and behaviors were included. Four out-group species representing Megalopygidae (1 sp), Dalceridae (1 sp) and Aididae (2 sp) were included. These were sequenced for three molecular markers for a total of 4073 bp, mitochondrial COI (∼1500 bp), 18S (∼1900 bp) and the D2 region of 28S (approximately 670 bp). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses were conducted. The resulting phylogeny and comparative analysis of feeding strategy revealed that the nettle caterpillar morphology and behavior of larval fasting may have a single origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Valim, Michel P; Reiley, Bryan M
We examined Swainson's warblers (Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon, 1834), Aves: Parulidae) for lice fauna during 2 yr at three study sites in Arkansas, USA. A total of 66 individuals were examined; eight birds (10.6%) were parasitized with 16 lice of two new species belonging to two genera Myrsidea Waterson, 1915 (Amblycera: Menoponidae) and Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Ischnocera: Philopteridae). Parasitological parameter data are given on the prevalence of lice on Swainson's warblers. Species descriptions and illustrations are provided for Myrsidea bensoni sp. nov. and Brueelia limnothlypiae sp. nov.; including a key for females of the genus Myrsidea that parasitize Parulidae (Passeriformes).
Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Johnson, Kevin P
While it is well known that changes in the general processes of molecular evolution have occurred on a variety of timescales, the mechanisms underlying these changes are less well understood. Parasitic lice ("Phthiraptera") and their close relatives (infraorder Nanopsocetae of the insect order Psocodea) are a group of insects well known for their unusual features of molecular evolution. We examined changes in base composition across parasitic lice and bark lice. We identified substantial differences in percent GC content between the clade comprising parasitic lice plus closely related bark lice (=Nanopsocetae) versus all other bark lice. These changes occurred for both nuclear and mitochondrial protein coding and ribosomal RNA genes, often in the same direction. To evaluate whether correlations in base composition change also occurred within lineages, we used phylogenetically controlled comparisons, and in this case few significant correlations were identified. Examining more constrained sites (first/second codon positions and rRNA) revealed that, in comparison to the other bark lice, the GC content of parasitic lice and close relatives tended towards 50 % either up from less than 50 % GC or down from greater than 50 % GC. In contrast, less constrained sites (third codon positions) in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes showed less of a consistent change of base composition in parasitic lice and very close relatives. We conclude that relaxed selection on this group of insects is a potential explanation of the change in base composition for both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, which could lead to nucleotide frequencies closer to random expectation (i.e., 50 % GC) in the absence of any mutation bias. Evidence suggests this relaxed selection arose once in the non-parasitic common ancestor of Phthiraptera + Nanopsocetae and is not directly related to the evolution of the parasitism in lice.
Yamagishi, Ayaka; Yao, Izumi; Johnson, Kevin P; Yoshizawa, Kazunori
Data from gene sequences and morphological structures were collected for the gull feather lice, Saemundssonia lari, Quadraceps punctatus, and Q. ornatus, parasitizing Larus crassirostris and L. schistisagus. Saemundssonia lari was collected from both gull species, and no detectable morphological and genetic differences were found between lice collected from the two different hosts. In contrast, Q. punctatus was only collected from L. crassirostris, whereas Q. ornatus was only collected from L. schistisagus. The two Quadraceps species were genetically highly divergent, and body-size differences corresponding to the gull's body size (Harrison's rule) were also detected between them. Both Quadraceps species were collected from the interbarb of the remex or rectrix, and a match in body size between the louse and the interbarb space may be important in escape from host preening defenses. In contrast, Saemundssonia is a head louse, inhabiting the finer feathers of the head and neck, which the bird cannot preen. A close match to host body size may be less important for lice in the head microhabitat. The differences in the pattern of host-specificity between Saemundssonia and Quadraceps on the two focal host species of this study were probably due to their different microhabitat preferences. More broadly, comparisons of the gene sequences of S. lari and Q. punctatus to those from other gull hosts showed that genetically almost undifferentiated populations of both species were distributed on wide range of gull species. Frequent interspecific hybridization of gulls is one possible factor that may allow these lice to maintain gene flow across multiple host species.
Shao, Renfu; Barker, Stephen C; Li, Hu; Song, Simon; Poudel, Shreekanta; Su, Yuan
Parasitic lice (order Phthiraptera) infest birds and mammals. The typical animal mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which consists of a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in chewing lice in the suborders Amblycera and Ischnocera. The sucking lice (suborder Anoplura) known, however, have fragmented mt genomes with 9-20 minichromosomes. We sequenced the mt genome of the elephant louse, Haematomyzus elephantis - the first species of chewing lice investigated from the suborder Rhynchophthirina. We identified 33 mt genes in the elephant louse, which were on 10 minichromosomes. Each minichromosome is 3.5-4.2 kb in size and has 2-6 genes. Phylogenetic analyses of mt genome sequences confirm that the elephant louse is more closely related to sucking lice than to the chewing lice in the Amblycera and Ischnocera. Our results indicate that mt genome fragmentation is shared by the suborders Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina. Nine of the 10 mt minichromosomes of the elephant louse differ from those of the sucking lice (Anoplura) known in gene content and gene arrangement, indicating that distinct mt karyotypes have evolved in Anoplura and Rhynchophthirina since they diverged ~92 million years ago.
Covacin, C; Shao, R; Cameron, S; Barker, S C
The arrangement of genes in the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of most insects is the same, or near-identical, to that inferred to be ancestral for insects. We sequenced the entire mt genome of the small pigeon louse, Campanulotes bidentatus compar, and part of the mt genomes of nine other species of lice. These species were from six families and the three main suborders of the order Phthiraptera. There was no variation in gene arrangement among species within a family but there was much variation in gene arrangement among the three suborders of lice. There has been an extraordinary number of gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of lice!
Douglas, H D; Malenke, J R
Distortions of sex ratios and sexual traits from synthetic chemicals have been well documented; however, there is little evidence for such phenomena associated with naturally occurring chemical exposures. We reasoned that chemical secretions of vertebrates could contribute to skewed sex ratios in ectoparasitic insects due to differences in susceptibility among the sexes. For example, among ectoparasitic lice the female is generally the larger sex. Smaller males may be more susceptible to chemical effects. We studied sex ratios of lice on two sympatric species of colonial seabirds. Crested auklets (Aethia cristatella) secrete a strong smelling citrus-like odorant composed of aldehydes while a closely related congener the least auklet (Aethia pusilla) lacks these compounds. Each auklet hosts three species of lice, two of which are shared in common. We found that the sex ratio of one louse species, Quadraceps aethereus (Giebel), was highly skewed on crested auklets 1:69 (males: females), yet close to unity on least auklets (1:0.97). We suggest that a host-specific effect contributes to this difference, such as the crested auklet's chemical odorant.
Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Kalandyk-Kołodziejczyk, Małgorzata; Michalik, Katarzyna; Jankowska, Władysława; Michalik, Anna
The scale insect Puto superbus (Putoidae) lives in mutualistic symbiotic association with bacteria. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed that symbionts of P. superbus belong to the gammaproteobacterial genus Sodalis. In the adult females, symbionts occur both in the bacteriocytes constituting compact bacteriomes and in individual bacteriocytes, which are dispersed among ovarioles. The bacteriocytes also house a few small, rod-shaped Wolbachia bacteria in addition to the numerous large, elongated Sodalis-allied bacteria. The symbiotic microorganisms are transovarially transmitted from generation to generation. In adult females which have choriogenic oocytes in the ovarioles, the bacteriocytes gather around the basal part of the tropharium. Next, the entire bacteriocytes pass through the follicular epithelium surrounding the neck region of the ovariole and enter the space between oocyte and follicular epithelium (perivitelline space). In the perivitelline space, the bacteriocytes assemble extracellularly in the deep depression of the oolemma at the anterior pole of the oocyte, forming a "symbiont ball".
Michalik, Anna; Gołas, Aniela; Kot, Marta; Wieczorek, Karina; Szklarzewicz, Teresa
The aim of this paper was to identify endosymbiotic microorganisms living in the body cavity of a Polish population of an aphid, Adelges (Sacchiphantes) viridis, as well as to describe their ultrastructure and mode of transmission between generations. Molecular data (amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes) indicated that endosymbionts of A. (S.) viridis are Betaproteobacteria of the species "Candidatus Vallotia virida". Endosymbiotic bacteria are rod-shaped and localized in the cytoplasm of specific cells, termed bacteriocytes, of host insects. Endosymbionts sharing the same bacteriocytes differ in the density of their cytoplasm. There are two morphotypes of endosymbiotic bacteria: with electron-dense cytoplasm and electron-translucent cytoplasm. Since only bacteria containing electron-dense cytoplasm were observed in the binary fusion stage, differences in density of the cytoplasm are probably due to changes in the cytoskeleton of bacteria during division. Endosymbionts of A. (S.) viridis are transovarially (i.e. via oocytes) transmitted from the mother to the offspring. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Figueroa, J M Tierno; Trenzado, C E; López-Rodríguez, M J; Sanz, A
The digestive enzymes of two stoneflies species, Hemimelaena flaviventris and Isoperla morenica, were studied for the first time. These species are temporary water inhabitants and exhibit great feeding plasticity. Although they are traditionally referred to as predators, a previous study revealed that H. flaviventris incorporates some diatoms into its diet in addition to feeding usually on several prey, and I. morenica (in that study under the name of I. curtata) only feeds on animals occasionally. The enzymatic activities of digestive amylase, lipase, protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin were determined for each species at the same developmental stage. The results show that H. flaviventris has a greater digestive enzymatic pool and higher relative and absolute protease, lipase and trypsin activities than I. morenica. The latter has a relative higher amylase activity. As higher amylase activity is typical of phytophagous species and higher protease activity typical of carnivorous species; these results reveal that H. flaviventris is a more efficient zoophagous species than I. morenica. The ecological implications of these findings, including the higher secondary production of H. flaviventris in its habitat, are discussed.
Dallavecchia, Daniele Lourinho; da Silva Filho, Renato Geraldo; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães
Large-scale, quality-controlled laboratory production of fly larvae is needed for biotherapy. The objective of this study was to assess the action of glutaraldehyde on the sterilization of Chrysomya putoria eggs by applying pharmaceutical sterility tests. Egg masses with 0.600 g were divided into three parts of 0.200 g, the eggs were separated using sterile distilled water, and the suspensions obtained were mixed with activated 2% glutaraldehyde solution. After 15-min contact, the suspensions were filtered through Whatman filter paper, and the glutaraldehyde residue obtained in the filtrate was neutralized by rinsing with Tryptone Soy Broth. The treated eggs were placed aseptically on Petri dishes containing gauze moistened with sterile saline solution. About 10% of the sterilized mass was transferred to test tubes containing Tryptone Soy Broth and Fluid Thioglycollate Broth. The tubes were incubated, respectively, at 22.5 and 35.0°C for 14 d to verify egg mass sterility. The plates containing the rest of the eggs (90%) were sealed with plastic film and kept in a climatized chamber at 30°C/d, 28°C per night, 60 ± 10% relative humidity, and under a 12-h light period to assess insect viability and survival. Each experiment was carried out in triplicate using a biological class II safety cabinet. No change in color or turgidity was observed with the agent tested, proving the sterility of the product and that there was no trace of contamination. Forty larvae (in three replications) in the periods of 12, 24, and 48 h after sterilization, when transferred to diet, produced larvae, pupae, and total viability similar to the control (larvae without sterilization). However, for the 72-h treatment, larvae and total viability were significantly lower than for the other treatments. There was no significant difference for the pupal stage. The product tested was shown to be efficacious for use as a sterilizer of C. putoria eggs for all the parameters assessed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.
Alborzi, AR; Rahbar, A
Background Hadjelia truncata is a nematode that causes lesions in the gizzard lining of pigeons, which may even lead to death. The aim of this study was to introduce Alphitobius diaperinus as a new intermediate host for Hadjelia truncata. Methods H. truncata infection was identified in a pigeon flock in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, Iran by performing fecal examination and autopsy. Adult and larval stages of beetles were collected from the litter of pigeon houses, and identified morphologically. The beetle larvae were cultured in a medium, containing feces of the infected pigeons. Nematode larval stages from naturally and experimentally (culturally) infected adult beetles were fed to two groups of pigeons Results The collected beetles were identified as Alphitobius diaperinus. Average length and width of the adult beetles were 6.31 mm and 2.88 mm respectively. Infection rates of naturally and experimentally infected beetles with larval stages of the nematode were 66.2% and 45.1% respectively. The adult nematodes collected from gizzards of experimentally infected pigeons were identified as H. truncata. Nematode infection rates in pigeons after feeding the infective larvae collected from naturally and experimentally infected beetles were 44.7% and 32.5% respectively. Conclusion A. diaperinus can serve as a natural intermediate host for H. truncata. PMID:23109952
Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...
Montes de Oca, E; Ball, G E; Spence, J R
This paper documents the existence of carabid assemblages associated with bromeliads on the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. Based on bromeliads sampled over three altitudinal ranges, the assemblages included at least 26 species with an arboreal lifestyle and another 11 species that are not strictly arboreal. Seven species are new to science, urging us to pay attention to the arboreal fauna in forest conservation studies. Composition of carabid assemblages associated with bromeliads changes with altitude. In lowlands, it is comprised almost entirely of species of Lebiini, with the Platynini dominating assemblages found in bromeliads >1,000 m above sea level. Our data suggest that carabids use bromeliads to reduce stresses associated with drought periods, the exact timing of which depends on altitude. The unexpected low diversity of the carabid fauna associated with bromeliads at middle altitude is explained in terms of anthropogenic conversion of the original forest to pastureland. Given the importance of arboreal elements, further fragmentation of subtropical and tropical mountain forest significantly threatens overall carabid diversity.
Zheng, Yan; Chen, Jun; Wang, Xiaoli
A new genus Maculaprosbole of Tettigarctidae with a new species Maculaprosbole zhengi is described based on a complete fossil forewing from the Mesozoic of northeastern China. Due to its broad costal area and clavus, Maculaprosbole zhengigen. et sp. n. can be attributed to the subfamily Cicadoprosbolinae. This genus is similar to the genera Sanmai and Hirtaprosbole in coloration pattern and forewing venation, respectively. However, it differs from Hirtaprosbole in crossvein r-m absent and apical CuA section strongly curved, running along the nodal line for a distance, and Sanmai in transverse coloration mainly focusing on the postnodal area. Herein, the prominent coloration pattern of this new taxon is discussed.
Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...
Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...
Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...
Rodrigues, Higor D. D.; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; Reduciendo Klementová, Barbora; Svitok, Marek
Abstract Background Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera occur on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide variety of habitats, including lentic and lotic water bodies, perennial or temporary. In the Neotropical Region, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the geographical distribution of most represented species, which can only be solved by the collection of specimens in under-studied areas and publication of new records and lists of species. New information New records are presented for eleven species of Gerromorpha and ten Nepomorpha, including first records from Venezuela (Brachymetra lata, Limnogonus hyalinus, Rhagovelia evidis, Tenagobia peruana, Limnocoris burmeisteri, L. fittkaui fittkaui, Placomerus micans, and Martarega gonostyla), the Venezuelan State of Bolívar (Cylindrostethus palmaris, R. elegans, R. tenuipes, and Ambrysus stali), the Brazilian State of Bahia (Martarega bentoi), Peru (Euvelia lata), and the Peruvian Region of Arequipa (Microvelia pulchella). PMID:27226754
Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Grimaldi, David; Beckmann, Felix; Beutel, Rolf G
Fossilization in amber is unique in preserving specimens with microscopic fidelity; however, arthropod inclusions are rarely examined beyond the exoskeleton as this requires destructive sampling when traditional techniques are used. We report the first complete, digital 3D, non-destructive reconstruction of the anatomy of an insect fossil, a specimen of Mengea tertiaria embedded in a 42-Ma Baltic amber. This was made possible using Synchrotron micro-CT. The species belongs to the stem group of the phylogenetically enigmatic and extremely specialized Strepsiptera. Most internal structures of the fossil are preserved, but small parts of the lumen had decayed due to incomplete infiltration of the resin. Data on internal organs provided additional information for resolving phylogenetic relationships. A sister group relationship between Mengea and all extant lineages of the group was confirmed with characters previously not accessible. The newly gained information also yielded some insights in the biology of Mengea and the early evolutionary history of Strepsiptera. The technique has a tremendous potential for a more accurate interpretation of diverse fossil arthropods preserved in ambers from 130 Ma to the present.
Domenico, Marco Di; Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B; Carchini, Gianmaria
The ultimate stadium larva of Gynacantha cylindrata Karsch, 1891 is described and illustrated based on fifteen male and female exuviae from Bundibugyo, Uganda. The larva resembles those of the few described African species of the genus but shows a denser coverage of spine-like setae on body surface and abundance of hair-like setae on mouthparts. The female gonapophyses appear to be the longest described in the genus up to now and similar to those of G. villosa, a species included in the same group of African species.
Garrouste, Romain; Nel, André
The study of a new specimen of Petrolestes hendersoni from the Eocene Green Formation allows a more precise description of the enigmatic damselfly and the diagnosis of the Petrolestini. Petrolestes messelensis sp. nov. is described from the Eocene Messel Formation in Germany, extending the distribution of the Petrolestini to the European Eocene. The new damsel-dragonfly family Pseudostenolestidae is described for the new genus and species Pseudostenolestes bechlyi, from the Eocene Messel Formation. It is the first Cenozoic representative of the Mesozoic clade Isophlebioptera.
Schädel, Mario; Bechly, Günter
The fossil dragonfly Burmalindenia imperfecta gen. et sp. nov. is described from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber as the first record of the odonate suborder Anisoptera for this locality and one of the few records from amber in general. The inclusion comprises two fragments of the two hind wings of a dragonfly. The fossil can be attributed to a new genus and species of the family Gomphidae, presumably in the subfamily Lindeniinae, and features a strange teratological phenomenon in its wing venation.
Mendes, Thiago P; Cabette, Helena S R; Juen, Leandro
Environmental characteristics and spatial distances between sites have been used to explain species distribution in the environment, through Neutral (space) and Niche theory (environment) predictions. We evaluated the effects of spatial and environmental factors on Odonata larvae distribution along the Suiá-Missú River Basin, state of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that (1) the environment is the main factor structuring the community due to its ecophysiological requirements; and (2) the pattern, if present, is clearer for Zygoptera. Samples were made in 12 sites on the Suiá-Missú River Basin in three seasons (2007/2008), with a total of 1.382 Odonata larvae, comprising 10 families, 51 genera and 100 morphospecies. The Anisoptera were more abundant than Zygoptera, comprising 81% of all specimens. The environment affected Zygoptera (R=0.291; p=0.007) and was the main factor structuring the assembly. Thus, Niche theory was confirmed. The absence of this effect on Anisoptera may be due to the ecophysiological adaptations that enable it to occupy different habitats. Zygoptera larvae are indicators of changes in habitat structure. The effects of environmental variables on larvae ecology emphasize the strong relationship between these organisms and environmental integrity.
Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.
Petrov, N B; Aleshin, V V
A relative content of unique and reiterated nucleotide sequences in DNA of eleven dragonfly species was estimated. The degree of intra- and intergenomic divergence of these DNA sequences was determined by means of DNA-DNA hybridization. Species from different genera share 40-45% of the repetitive sequences and those from different families--from 11 to 20% only. Data on the thermostability of homo- and heteroduplexes suggest that new families of the repetitive sequences have arisen repeatedly during dragonflies evolution. The quality of homologous unique sequences in the DNA compared (20-97%) correlates with the taxonomic relationships of species. Phylogenesis of some dragonfly families is discussed in view of the results obtained.
Santos, W E; Alves, A C F; Creão-Duarte, A J
The species richness, abundance and seasonality of Coleoptera fauna associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area were examined. Tray, pitfall and modified Shannon traps were settled together to collect these insects during two seasons (dry and rainy). 4,851 beetles were collected, belonging to 19 families and 88 species. Staphylinidae (2,184) and Histeridae (1,264) were the most abundant families and accounted for 71.1% of the specimens collected. Scarabaeidae (15) showed the highest species richness. The most abundant species were Atheta iheringi Bernhauer, 1908 (Staphylinidae) (1,685), Euspilotus sp. (Histeridae) (461), Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) (Nitidulidae) (394), Xerosaprinus diptychus (Marseul, 1855) (Histeridae) (331) and Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 (Dermestidae). Amongst these species, X. diptychus showed to be strongly influenced by seasonality, since 96.1% of the specimens were collected during the dry season.
Mastore, Maristella; Binda Rossetti, Simona; Giovannardi, Stefano; Scarì, Giorgio; Brivio, Maurizio F
Insects are capable of innate immune responses elicited after microbial infection. In this process, the receptor-mediated recognition of foreign bodies and the subsequent activation of immunocompetent cells lead to the synthesis ex novo of a peptide pool with antimicrobial activity. We investigated the inducible immune response of a coleopteran, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, challenged with both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. After immunization, we evaluated the presence of antimicrobial peptides using either biochemical analyses or microbiological techniques. The antimicrobial properties of the newly synthesized protein pool, detectable in haemolymph fractions of low molecular mass, showed strong antibacterial activity against various bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. OX1, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus). In addition to the preliminary study of the mechanism of action of the pool of antimicrobial peptides, we also investigated its effects on bacterial cell walls by means of fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The data suggest that the main effects seem to be directed at destabilizing and damaging the bacterial wall. This study provides data that help us to understand some aspects of the inducible innate immunity in a system model that lacks anticipatory responses. However, the weevil has finely tuned its defensive strategies to counteract effectively microbial infection. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Background Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas) are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas]), found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA) of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families). Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies) in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained) was supported by statistical tests of codiversification. Codiversification tests also supported concordance of the Sulcia phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts, as well as concordance of planthopper-associated Vidania and Sulcia phylogenies. Conclusions Our results indicate that the Betaproteobacterium Vidania is an ancient endosymbiont that infected the common ancestor of Fulgoroidea at least 130 million years ago. Comparison of our findings with the early light-microscopic surveys conducted by Müller suggests that Vidania is Müller’s x-symbiont, which he hypothesized to have codiversified with most lineages of planthoppers and with the Sulcia endosymbiont. PMID:22697166
Retana Salazar, A P
The genera Pediculus and Pthirus were studied cladistically, although the genus Pedicinus was also taken into account. Morphological characters from the literature, and some established through direct study were analyzed. Using five methods of cladistic analysis, one most parsimonious tree with a c.i. = 0.84 and a length of 38 was obtained ((Pedicinus)+(Paenipediculus+(Parapediculus+(Pedicu lus humanus capitis+Pediculus humanus humanus). A novelty of this study is the inclusion of the subgenus.
Background Among the winged insects (Pterygota) the Odonata (dragon- and damselflies) are special for several reasons. They are strictly aerial predators showing remarkable flight abilities and their thorax morphology differs significantly from that of other Pterygota in terms of the arrangement and number of muscles. Even within one individual the musculature is significantly different between the nymphal and adult stage. Results Here we present a comparative morphological investigation of the thoracic musculature of dragonfly (Anisoptera) nymphs. We investigated representatives of the Libellulidae, Aeshnidae and Cordulegasteridae and found 71 muscles: 19 muscles in the prothorax, 26 in the mesothorax and 27 in the metathorax. Nine of these muscles were previously unknown in Odonata, and for seven muscles no homologous muscles could be identified in the neopteran thorax. Conclusion Our results support and extend the homology hypotheses for the thoracic musculatures of Odonata and Neoptera, thus supplementing our understanding of the evolution of Pterygota and providing additional characters for phylogenetic analyses comprising all subgroups of Pterygota. PMID:24180622
Abstract A cybercatalog to the Apioceridae (apiocerid flies) of the Afrotropical Region is provided. Each taxon entry includes links to open-access, online repositories such as ZooBank, BHL/BioStor/BLR, Plazi, GBIF, Morphbank, EoL, and a research web-site to access taxonomic information, digitized literature, morphological descriptions, specimen occurrence data, and images. Cybercatalogs as the one presented here will need to become the future of taxonomic catalogs taking advantage of the growing number of online repositories, linked data, and be easily updatable. Comments on the deposition of the holotype of Apiocera braunsi Melander, 1907 are made. PMID:26491392
Coronel, María F.; Nowicki, Susana; Nighorn, Alan J.; Villar, Marcelo J.
The biochemical characterization of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and its distribution in the central nervous system (CNS) were studied in the heteropteran bug Triatoma infestans. NOS-like immunoreactivity was found in the brain, subesophageal ganglion, and thoracic ganglia by using immunocytochemistry. In the protocerebrum, NOS-immunoreactive (IR) somata were detected in the anterior, lateral, and posterior soma rinds. In the optic lobe, numerous immunostained somata were observed at the level of the first optic chiasma, around the lobula, and in the proximal optic lobe. In the deutocerebrum, NOS-IR perikarya were mainly observed in the lateral soma rind, surrounding the sensory glomeruli, and a few cell bodies were seen in association with the antennal mechanosensory and motor neuropil. No immunostaining could be detected in the antennal nerve. The subesophageal and prothoracic ganglia contained scattered immunostained cell bodies. NOS-IR somata were present in all the neuromeres of the posterior ganglion. Western blotting showed that a universal NOS antiserum recognized a band at 134 kDa, in agreement with the expected molecular weight of the protein. Analysis of the kinetics of nitric oxide production revealed a fully active enzyme in tissue samples of the CNS of T. infestans. PMID:17235602
Armitage, Brian J.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Wilcox, Douglas A.
Fringing wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes are subject to natural processes, such as water-level fluctuation and wave-induced erosion, and to human alterations. In order to evaluate the quality of these wetlands over space and time, biological communities are often examined. This paper reports on the use of adult caddisflies to evaluate fringing wetlands of Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Lake Superior.
Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko
The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens--eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.
Kumar, Sandeep; Ganji, Purnachandra Nagaraju; Song, Hojun; von Kalm, Laurence; Borst, David W.
Enkephalins play a major role in reproductive physiology in crustaceans; however their role in reproductive development in insects is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of exposure to exogenous leucine-enkephalin (Leu-Enk), methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk), and the opioid antagonist naloxone on gonad development in the Eastern lubber grasshopper, Romalea microptera. Injection of either Leu-Enk or naloxone alone significantly increased the testicular index and testicular follicular diameter in males, and the ovarian index, oocyte length, and oocyte diameter in females. In contrast, injection of Met-Enk inhibited all measures of reproductive development in both sexes. Surprisingly, co-injection of naloxone with either enkephalin enhanced the effect associated with administration of the enkephalin alone. This study clearly demonstrates the ability of enkephalins to disrupt insect sexual development and also suggests the existence of conserved enkephaline-dependent regulatory mechanisms in insects and crustaceans. PMID:23226477
Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane
Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11-14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears the way for in-depth evolutionary hypothesis testing in one of the most speciose clades of predators.
Büsse, Sebastian; Helmker, Benjamin; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata. PMID:26246088
Tollett, V D; Benvenutti, E L; Deer, L A; Rice, T M
Odonate larvae are important organisms in aquatic ecosystems but have been rarely studied in laboratory toxicity tests. Only a few previous studies have been conducted on odonates and their responses to heavy metals. We exposed two species of libellulid larvae (Anisoptera: Libellulidae) to equimolar concentrations of cadmium, lead, or copper in 7-day survival tests. Larvae were tolerant of high concentrations of cadmium and lead, as no significant decrease in survival was observed at exposures as high as 0.893 and 2.232 mM, respectively. In contrast, larvae were more sensitive to copper exposure, demonstrating significantly decreased survival to exposures as low as 2.360 microM. In whole animal samples, larvae accumulated very high concentrations (>1000 microg/g dry weight) of all three metals in an exposure-related manner. Much of this accumulation could probably be attributed to adsorption or accumulation of metal within the exoskeleton, because odonate larvae are known to sequester metals into this material. Our results were generally consistent with previous observations indicating that odonates are tolerant to metal exposures, even in comparison with other aquatic invertebrates. However, there are few studies that have used odonates in toxicity tests and compared these organisms to other aquatic life. Based on their abundance and their simple requirements in the laboratory, we believe that odonate larvae can be useful toxicological model organisms.
Martino, Natalia S; Romero, Mariano D; Malizia, Ana I
Species of South American subterranean rodents belonging to the genus Ctenomys (commonly called tuco-tucos) are widely distributed across the southern Neotropical region. Despite their relatively well-studied biology and reproductive physiology, current knowledge of their ectoparasite fauna is limited to a few ambiguous studies, based on scattered samples from a small number of host individuals. Ctenomys talarum is the most widely distributed species in the genus. Lice (Phthiraptera) were collected from these tuco-tucos throughout their entire coastal range. Two species, one chewing louse (Gyropus parvus), and one sucking louse (Eulinognathus americanus) were collected. The distribution ranges for both louse species were extended with new locality records. No lice were found in two host populations. Furthermore, co-occurrence of both ectoparasites was not detected.
Abstract Background The genus Melaloncha is a large group of species of parasitoid phorid flies that attack Hymenoptera, mostly stingless bees (Meliponinae, Apidae) in the Neotropical Region. New information Two new Brazilian species, Melaloncha (Melaloncha) peacockorum sp. n. and Melaloncha (Udamochiras) nielsi sp. n., are described and their identification clarified. PMID:26929720
Beaucournu, J C; Alcover, J A
The collect of 973 Fleas on various small terrestrial mammals, from December 1987 till May 1988, in the Neuquén Province (Argentina), has given 20 taxa. Hectopsylla pascuali n. sp., Plocopsylla consobrina n. sp., Agastopsylla boxi gibbosa n. ssp., Chiliopsylla allophyla tonnii n. ssp. are described. Plocopsylla diana Beaucournu, Gallardo and Launay, 1986, Ctenoparia inopinata Rothschild, 1909, Neotyphloceras crassispina chilensis Jordan, 1936, Tetrapsyllus satyrus Beaucournu and Torrés-Mura, 1986, Ectinorus martini Lewis, 1976, are new from Argentina.
Büsse, Sebastian; Hörnschemeyer, Thomas
Among the winged insects (Pterygota) the Odonata (dragon- and damselflies) are special for several reasons. They are strictly aerial predators showing remarkable flight abilities and their thorax morphology differs significantly from that of other Pterygota in terms of the arrangement and number of muscles. Even within one individual the musculature is significantly different between the nymphal and adult stage. Here we present a comparative morphological investigation of the thoracic musculature of dragonfly (Anisoptera) nymphs. We investigated representatives of the Libellulidae, Aeshnidae and Cordulegasteridae and found 71 muscles: 19 muscles in the prothorax, 26 in the mesothorax and 27 in the metathorax. Nine of these muscles were previously unknown in Odonata, and for seven muscles no homologous muscles could be identified in the neopteran thorax. Our results support and extend the homology hypotheses for the thoracic musculatures of Odonata and Neoptera, thus supplementing our understanding of the evolution of Pterygota and providing additional characters for phylogenetic analyses comprising all subgroups of Pterygota.
Mantovani, B; Scali, V
The allozymic characterization of several new Croatian, Greek, and Turkish samples thought to belong to different subspecies of Bacillus atticus or to atticus-like taxa is given. Several allelic combinations (zymotypes) were observed among both diploid and triploid samples; the occurrence of highly different levels of heterozygosity for the same locus among populations is also common. The biochemical-genetic features of the numerous zymotypes are interpreted on the basis of the recently assessed cytology of their parthenogenetic reproduction. Biochemical and meiotic features also allow one to suggest that both diploid and triploid cytotypes of B. atticus are more likely interracial hybrids in origin. The new triploid Greek samples show only small genetic distances from the Turkish triploid and diploid ones; also, they do not show clear-cut morphological differences, so that all triploids and Turkish diploid samples are together referred to as B. a. carius. On the other hand, all Croatian, Greek, and Italian diploids appear to belong to the same electrophoretic cluster, biochemically differentiated at a subspecific level from B. a. carious. This newly defined comprehensive group of diploid samples, which also morphologically show gradual patterns of variation, is referred to as B. a. atticus.
Tedrow, Riley; Nathan, Kabanguka; Richard, Nasasira; Svenson, Gavin J
We report the results of two surveys targeting praying mantises in four localities in Rwanda, specifically Akagera National Park, Nyungwe National Park, Volcanoes National Park, and the Arboretum de Ruhande at the National University of Rwanda. Using an assortment of collecting techniques, including metal halide light traps, sweep netting vegetation and general searching, we obtained 387 adult and 352 juvenile specimens, representing 41 species. A total of 28 novel species records for Rwanda are added to the 18 previously recorded species for the country, in addition to 20 novel species records for the broader region, including neighbouring Uganda and Burundi. This study provides high resolution images of the dorsal habitus of both sexes of representative species, both pinned and living. Species distribution records are presented and discussed. With a 155% increase in species recorded from Rwanda, this survey illustrates the need for further taxonomic work in the region.
Wei, Dandan; Liang, Junhui; Ren, Dong
Abstract A new species attributed to the genus Parvifuzia Guo & Ren, 2011, Parvifuzia peregrina sp. n., is described from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou Village, Inner Mongolia, China. This new species, with apex of wing almost reaching the end of the abdomen and forewing venation with 30–32 veins at margin, broadens the diversity of Parvifuzia. This new species, with strongly curved cerci, could tightly clasp female and complete copulation more efficiently, same as other members of the family Fuziidae. PMID:22977342
Fang, Hui; Ren, Dong; Wang, Yongjie
Backgound Saucrosmylids are characterized by the typically large body size, complicated venation and diverse wing markings, which were only discovered in Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Ningcheng county, Inner Mongolia, China. Principal Findings Saucrosmylinae Ren, 2003, originally included as a subfamily in the Osmylidae, was transferred and elevated to family rank based on the definitive synapomorphic character. The updated definition of Saucrosmylidae stat. nov. was outlined in detail: presence of nygma and trichosors; diverse markings on membrane; complicated cross-veins; distal fusion of Sc and R1; expanded space between R1 and Rs having 2–7 rows of cells that should be a synapomorphic character of the family; proximal MP fork. And the previous misuses of Saucrosmylidae are also clarified. Furthermore, a new genus with a new species and an indeterminate species of Saucrosmylidae are described as Ulrikezza aspoeckae gen. et sp. nov. and Ulrikezza sp. from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. A key to genera of Saucrosmylidae is provided. Conclusions/Significance The intriguing group represents a particular lineage of Neuroptera in the Mesozoic Era. The familial status of Saucrosmylidae was firstly advanced that clarified the former incorrect citation and use of the family name. As an extinct clade, many species of the saucrosmylids were erected just based on a single fore- or hindwing, and it should be realized that providing more stable characters is necessary when describing new lacewing taxa just based on an isolated hindwing. It is vital for the systematics of Saucrosmylidae. PMID:26485027
Hernández-Triana, Luis M; Montes De Oca, Fernanda; Prosser, Sean W J; Hebert, Paul D N; Gregory, T Ryan; McMurtrie, Shelley
In this paper, the utility of a partial sequence of the COI gene, the DNA barcoding region, for the identification of species of black flies in the austral region was assessed. Twenty-eight morphospecies were analyzed: eight of the genus Austrosimulium (four species in the subgenus Austrosimulium s. str., three species in the subgenus Novaustrosimulium, and one species unassigned to subgenus), two of the genus Cnesia, eight of Gigantodax, three of Paracnephia, one of Paraustrosimulium, and six of Simulium (subgenera Morops, Nevermannia, and Pternaspatha). The neighbour-joining tree derived from the DNA barcode sequences grouped most specimens according to species or species groups recognized by morphotaxonomic studies. Intraspecific sequence divergences within morphologically distinct species ranged from 0% to 1.8%, while higher divergences (2%-4.2%) in certain species suggested the presence of cryptic diversity. The existence of well-defined groups within S. simile revealed the likely inclusion of cryptic diversity. DNA barcodes also showed that specimens identified as C. dissimilis, C. nr. pussilla, and C. ornata might be conspecific, suggesting possible synonymy. DNA barcoding combined with a sound morphotaxonomic framework would provide an effective approach for the identification of black flies in the region.
Chen, Qing-Xiao; Hua, Bao-Zhen
Mecoptera are unique in holometabolous insects in that their larvae have compound eyes. In the present study the cellular organisation and morphology of the compound eyes of adult individuals of the scorpionfly Panorpa dubia in Mecoptera were investigated by light, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the compound eyes of adult P. dubia are of the apposition type, each eye comprising more than 1200 ommatidia. The ommatidium consists of a cornea, a crystalline cone made up of four cone cells, eight photoreceptors, two primary pigment cells, and 18 secondary pigment cells. The adult ommatidium has a fused rhabdom with eight photoreceptors. Seven photoreceptors extend from the proximal end of the crystalline cone to the basal matrix, whereas the eighth photoreceptor is shorter, extending from the middle level of the photoreceptor cluster to the basal matrix. The fused rhabdom is composed of the rhabdomeres of different photoreceptors at different levels. The adult ommatidia have the same cellular components as the larval ommatidia, but the tiering scheme is different. PMID:27258365
Song, Hojun; Moulton, Matthew J.; Whiting, Michael F.
Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are non-functional fragments of mtDNA inserted into the nuclear genome. Numts are prevalent across eukaryotes and a positive correlation is known to exist between the number of numts and the genome size. Most numt surveys have relied on model organisms with fully sequenced nuclear genomes, but such analyses have limited utilities for making a generalization about the patterns of numt accumulation for any given clade. Among insects, the order Orthoptera is known to have the largest nuclear genome and it is also reported to include several species with a large number of numts. In this study, we use Orthoptera as a case study to document the diversity and abundance of numts by generating numts of three mitochondrial loci across 28 orthopteran families, representing the phylogenetic diversity of the order. We discover that numts are rampant in all lineages, but there is no discernable and consistent pattern of numt accumulation among different lineages. Likewise, we do not find any evidence that a certain mitochondrial gene is more prone to nuclear insertion than others. We also find that numt insertion must have occurred continuously and frequently throughout the diversification of Orthoptera. Although most numts are the result of recent nuclear insertion, we find evidence of very ancient numt insertion shared by highly divergent families dating back to the Jurassic period. Finally, we discuss several factors contributing to the extreme prevalence of numts in Orthoptera and highlight the importance of exploring the utility of numts in evolutionary studies. PMID:25333882
Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Francke, Oscar F; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro
Mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae establish an association with beetles of the family Passalidae known as phoresy. In order to obtain information about this association, we analyzed the relationship between mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae and beetles of the family Passalidae, as adult mites have been exclusively collected from host beetles. We examined 1 150 beetles collected in seven states of the Mexican Republic, and found 19 species of klinckowstroemiid mites associated with 168 passalids, that belong to 28 different species in 15 genera. Host specificity between species of both groups does not exist, as one species of passalid beetle can have several different symbionts; conversely, a given mite species can associate with passalid beetles of different species and even of different genera. This way, Odontotaenius zodiacus has been found associated with mites of seven species of the genus Klinckowstroemia. Besides, Klinckowstroemia valdezi is associated with five species of passalids. Furthermore, two and even three different species of mites have been found on one host beetle (synhospitality). The lack of congruence between the phylogenies of the mites and that of the beetles indicates that a process of co-adaptation by colonization is going on, because the association is due to the resources that passalid beetles can offer to the mites, like transportation, food and refuge. Since these resources are not host-specific, the klinckowstroemiid mites can climb onto virtually any species of passalid beetles occurring on the same habitat.
Wipfler, Benjamin; Pohl, Hans; Predel, Reinhard
Abstract Two new species and two new genera (Pachyphasma, Striatophasma) of Mantophasmatodea are described from Namibia. Pachyphasma brandbergense is endemic to the Brandberg massif; Striatophasma occupies an extensive area south of the region inhabited by Mantophasma. Phylogenetic analyses (see Predel et al. in press) suggest a sistergroup relationship of Striatophasma and the South African Austrophasmatidae. PMID:22328860
Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy
A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality.
Nascimento, Francisco E DE L; Mermudes, José Ricardo M; Bravo, Freddy; Santos-Silva, Antonio
A checklist of Cerambycidae from three Brazilian localities of the Chapada Diamantina mountain range (Catolés, Piatã and Mucugê) is provided. These three localities are considered of great biological importance. A total of 38 species were collected, belonging to 29 genera, 18 tribes and two subfamilies. Ten new records for the state of Bahia are presented, and a new species, Desmiphora (Desmiphora) iwasarai (Desmiphorini, Lamiinae), is described and illustrated.
Ohshima, Issei; Yoshizawa, Kazunori
Recently diverged populations often exhibit incomplete reproductive isolation, with a low level of gene flow continuing between populations. Previous studies have shown that, even under a low level of gene flow, genetic divergence between populations can proceed at the loci governing local adaptation and reproductive isolation but not at other neutral loci. A leaf-mining moth, Acrocercops transecta, consists of Juglans- and Lyonia-associated host races. The two host races differ in host preferences of ovipositing females and in larval adaptation to host plants but mate readily in the laboratory, producing fertile hybrids. The Juglans and Lyonia races are often sympatric in the wild, implying that gene introgression could occur in nature between the two host races. We tested this hypothesis by combining phylogenetic analyses with coalescent simulations, focusing on mitochondrial genes (COI and ND5) and the nuclear Tpi, Per and Ldh genes located on the Z-chromosome. The mitochondrial genes clearly distinguished the Lyonia race from the Juglnas race, whereas the Tpi, Per and Ldh genealogies did not reflect the two host races. Coalescent simulations indicated gene flow at the three Z-linked genes in both directions, whereas there was no introgression in the mitochondrial genes. The lack of introgression in mitochondrial genes suggests that female host preference is the primary force leading to the bifurcation of maternally inherited loci. Thus, the results show that a low level of gene flow coupled with the inflexible female host preference differentiates histories of divergence between maternally and biparentally inherited genes in this host race system.
Mound, Laurence A; Wells, Alice
The thrips fauna of Norfolk Island is a curious mix of endemics and adventives, with notable absences that include one major trophic group. A brief introduction is provided to the history of human settlement and its ecological impact on this tiny land mass in the western Pacific Ocean. The Thysanoptera fauna comprises about 20% endemic and almost 50% widespread invasive species, and shows limited faunal relationships to the nearest territories, Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand. This fauna, comprising 66 species, includes among named species 29 Terebrantia and 33 Tubulifera, with four Tubulifera remaining undescribed. At least 12 species are endemics, of which 10 are mycophagous, and up to 10 further species are possibly native to the island. As with the thrips fauna of most Pacific islands, many species are widespread invasives. However, most of the common thrips of eastern Australia have not been found on Norfolk Island, and the complete absence of leaf-feeding Phlaeothripinae is notable. The following new taxa are described: in the Phlaeothripidae, Buffettithrips rauti gen. et sp. n. and Priesneria akestra sp. n.; and in the Thripidae, Scirtothrips araucariae sp. n. and Thrips merae sp. n.
Wang, Yuan; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Li-Yun; Qiao, Ge-Xia
The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eriosoma lanigerum. However, whether tRNA isomers in aphids exist requires further study. Phylogenetic analyses, using all available protein-coding genes, support Mindarinae as the basal position of Aphididae. Two tribes of Aphidinae were recovered with high statistical significance. Characteristics of the M. keteleerifoliae mitogenome revealed distinct mitogenome structures and provided abundant phylogenetic signals, thus advancing our understanding of insect mitogenomic architecture and evolution. But, because only eight complete aphid mitogenomes, including M. keteleerifoliae, were published, future studies with larger taxon sampling sizes are necessary. PMID:26694371
Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.
Abstract Background This is the third in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction of leaf litter. New information We provide collection records for 54 species of Heteroptera, 11 of which were new state records for Arkansas: (Aradidae) Aradus approximatus, Aradus duzeei, Aradus ornatus, Neuroctenus elongatus, Neuroctenus pseudonymus, Notapictinus aurivilli; (Cydnidae) Sehirus cinctus; (Lygaeidae) Nysius raphanus; (Miridae) Prepops insitivus; (Reduviidae) Zelus tetracanthus; (Rhyparochromidae) Kolenetrus plenus. PMID:27346950
Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R.; Khokhlova, Irina S.; Shenbrot, Georgy I.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Harrus, Shimon
Fleas collected from rodents in the Negev Desert in southern Israel were molecularly screened for Bartonella species. A total of 1,148 fleas, collected from 122 rodents belonging to six species, were pooled in 245 pools based on flea species, sex, and rodent host species. Two Bartonella gene fragments, corresponding to RNA polymerase B (rpoB) and citrate synthase (gltA), were targeted, and 94 and 74 flea pools were found positive by PCR, respectively. The Bartonella 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was also targeted, and 66 flea pools were found to be positive by PCR. Sixteen different Bartonella gltA genotypes were detected in 94 positive flea pools collected from 5 different rodent species, indicating that fleas collected from each rodent species can harbor several Bartonella genotypes. Based on gltA analysis, identified Bartonella genotypes were highly similar or identical to strains previously detected in rodent species from different parts of the world. A gltA fragment 100% similar to Bartonella henselae was detected in one flea pool. Another 2 flea pools contained gltA fragments that were closely related to B. henselae (98% similarity). The high sequence similarities to the zoonotic pathogen B. henselae warrant further investigation. PMID:20802081
Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane
Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11–14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears the way for in-depth evolutionary hypothesis testing in one of the most speciose clades of predators. PMID:23029072
Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip
Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.
Wang, Jiajia; Li, Hu; Dai, Renhuai
Here, we describe the first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of the leafhopper Taharana fasciana (Coelidiinae). The mitogenome sequence contains 15,161 bp with an A + T content of 77.9%. It includes 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and one non-coding (A + T-rich) region; in addition, a repeat region is also present (GenBank accession no. KY886913). These genes/regions are in the same order as in the inferred insect ancestral mitogenome. All protein-coding genes have ATN as the start codon, and TAA or single T as the stop codons, except the gene ND3, which ends with TAG. Furthermore, we predicted the secondary structures of the rRNAs in T. fasciana. Six domains (domain III is absent in arthropods) and 41 helices were predicted for 16S rRNA, and 12S rRNA comprised three structural domains and 24 helices. Phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed that T. fasciana and other members of the Cicadellidae are clustered into a clade, and it identified the relationships among the subfamilies Deltocephalinae, Coelidiinae, Idiocerinae, Cicadellinae, and Typhlocybinae.
Vilenica, Marina; Brigić, Andreja; Kerovec, Mladen; Gottstein, Sanja; Ternjej, Ivančica
Abstract Peat bogs are unique wetland ecosystems of high conservation value all over the world, yet data on the macroinvertebrates (including mayfly assemblages) in these habitats are still scarce. Over the course of one growing season, mayfly assemblages were sampled each month, along with other macroinvertebrates, in the largest and oldest Croatian peat bog and an adjacent stream. In total, ten mayfly species were recorded: two species in low abundance in the peat bog, and nine species in significantly higher abundance in the stream. Low species richness and abundance in the peat bog were most likely related to the harsh environmental conditions and mayfly habitat preferences. In comparison, due to the more favourable habitat conditions, higher species richness and abundance were observed in the nearby stream. Three of the recorded species, Caenis luctuosa from the peat bog, and Eurylophella karelica and Leptophlebia marginata from the stream are new records for the Croatian mayfly fauna. Typical Central European life cycle patterns were confirmed for several species (e.g. Baetis vernus, Nigrobaetis niger, Electrogena ujhelyii), while for several others (e.g. Habrophlebia fusca, Paraleptophlebia submarginata) some discrepancies were observed. Therefore, these results provide new and valuable information on the ecology of mayflies in peat bog habitats. PMID:28138280
Pohl, Hans; Wipfler, Benjamin; Grimaldi, David; Beckmann, Felix; Beutel, Rolf G.
Fossilization in amber is unique in preserving specimens with microscopic fidelity; however, arthropod inclusions are rarely examined beyond the exoskeleton as this requires destructive sampling when traditional techniques are used. We report the first complete, digital 3D, non-destructive reconstruction of the anatomy of an insect fossil, a specimen of † Mengea tertiaria embedded in a 42-Ma Baltic amber. This was made possible using Synchrotron μ-CT. The species belongs to the stem group of the phylogenetically enigmatic and extremely specialized Strepsiptera. Most internal structures of the fossil are preserved, but small parts of the lumen had decayed due to incomplete infiltration of the resin. Data on internal organs provided additional information for resolving phylogenetic relationships. A sister group relationship between † Mengea and all extant lineages of the group was confirmed with characters previously not accessible. The newly gained information also yielded some insights in the biology of † Mengea and the early evolutionary history of Strepsiptera. The technique has a tremendous potential for a more accurate interpretation of diverse fossil arthropods preserved in ambers from 130 Ma to the present.
Suh, Hwa-Jin; Kim, Seong-Ryul; Lee, Kyung-Seok; Park, Shin; Kang, Sun Chul
This study was under taken to evaluate the antioxidant properties of larvae extracts of Allomyrina dichotoma. The antioxidant activities of various larvae extracts of water, methanol, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and hexane were measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anion radical and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). The methanolic larvae extracts displayed the greatest effect in DPPH radical scavenging assay, but the reducing activity of larvae extracts was weaker in the superoxide anion radical assay. However, methanol (ME) and chloroform extracts (CE) could be compared to ascorbic acid in (1)O(2) quenching ability. ME (the concentration of 50% (1)O(2) quenching, QC(50)=0.080mg/ml) and CE (QC(50)=0.051mg/ml) extracts had 1.7, 2.7 times better efficiency than ascorbic acid (QC(50)=0.138mg/ml), respectively. Also the extracts were found to protect biological systems in Escherichia coli and lactate dehydrogenase against detrimental effects of (1)O(2) of type II photosensitization in vitro. The ability of larvae extracts to scavenge free radicals could significantly change contents of GA equivalent, an important factor for the potency of antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that our study may contribute to the development of new bioactive products with potential applications to reduce oxidative stress in living organisms involving reactive oxygen species as well as play a vital role in insect organisms against oxidative damage of undesirable conditions.
R.G. Foottit; H.E.L. Maw; N.P. Havill; R.G. Ahern; M.E. Montgomery
The Adelgidae are relatively small, cryptic insects, exhibiting complex life cycles with parthenogenetic reproduction. Due to these characteristics, the taxonomy of the group is problematic. Here, we test the effectiveness of the standard 658-bp barcode fragment from the 5'-end of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (COI) in...
Jordaens, Kurt; Goergen, Georg; Virgilio, Massimiliano; Backeljau, Thierry; Vokaer, Audrey; De Meyer, Marc
The identification of Afrotropical hoverflies is very difficult because of limited recent taxonomic revisions and the lack of comprehensive identification keys. In order to assist in their identification, and to improve the taxonomy of this group, we constructed a reference dataset of 513 COI barcodes of 90 of the more common nominal species from Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria (W Africa) and added ten publically available COI barcodes from nine nominal Afrotropical species to this (total: 523 COI barcodes; 98 nominal species; 26 genera). The identification accuracy of this dataset was evaluated with three methods (K2P distance-based, Neighbor-Joining (NJ) / Maximum Likelihood (ML) analysis, and using SpeciesIdentifier). Results of the three methods were highly congruent and showed a high identification success. Nine species pairs showed a low (< 0.03) mean interspecific K2P distance that resulted in several incorrect identifications. A high (> 0.03) maximum intraspecific K2P distance was observed in eight species and barcodes of these species not always formed single clusters in the NJ / ML analayses which may indicate the occurrence of cryptic species. Optimal K2P thresholds to differentiate intra- from interspecific K2P divergence were highly different among the three subfamilies (Eristalinae: 0.037, Syrphinae: 0.06, Microdontinae: 0.007–0.02), and among the different general suggesting that optimal thresholds are better defined at the genus level. In addition to providing an alternative identification tool, our study indicates that DNA barcoding improves the taxonomy of Afrotropical hoverflies by selecting (groups of) taxa that deserve further taxonomic study, and by attributing the unknown sex to species for which only one of the sexes is known. PMID:26473612
Svenson, Gavin J.
Abstract The praying mantis genus Liturgusa Saussure, 1869 occurs only in Central and South America and represents the most diverse genus of Neotropical Liturgusini (Ehrmann 2002). The genus includes bark dwelling species, which live entirely on the trunks and branches of trees and run extremely fast. All species included within the genus Liturgusa are comprehensively revised with a distribution stretching from central Mexico, the island of Dominica to the southeastern regions of Brazil and southern Bolivia. All known species are redescribed to meet the standards of the new treatment of the genus (11 species). Three new genera are described including Fuga gen. n., Velox gen. n., and Corticomantis gen. n. for species previously included in Liturgusa as well as Hagiomantis. Liturgusa mesopoda Westwood, 1889 is moved to within the previously described genus Hagiomantis Audinet Serville, 1838. A total of 19 species are newly described within Liturgusa, Fuga, and Velox including L. algorei sp. n., L. bororum sp. n., L. cameroni sp. n., L. cura sp. n., L. dominica sp. n., L. fossetti sp. n., L. kirtlandi sp. n., L. krattorum sp. n., L. manausensis sp. n., L. maroni sp. n., L. milleri sp. n., L. neblina sp. n., L. purus sp. n., L. stiewei sp. n., L. tessae sp. n., L. trinidadensis sp. n., L. zoae sp. n., F. grimaldii sp. n., and V. wielandi sp. n. Four species names are synonymized: Liturgusa peruviana Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889 and Hagiomantis parva Piza, 1966, syn. n., Liturgusa sinvalnetoi Piza, 1982, syn. n., and Liturgusa parva Giglio-Tos, 1914, syn. n. = Mantis annulipes Audinet Serville, 1838. Lectotypes are designated for the following two species: Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894 and Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838). A male neotype is designated for Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939. Males for eight species are described for the first time including Liturgusa cayennensis Saussure, 1869, Liturgusa lichenalis Gerstaecker, 1889, Liturgusa guyanensis La Greca, 1939, Liturgusa maya Saussure & Zehntner, 1894, Liturgusa nubeculosa Gerstaecker, 1889, Fuga annulipes (Audinet Serville, 1838), Corticomantis atricoxata (Beier, 1931), and Hagiomantis mesopoda (Westwood, 1889). The female of Fuga fluminensis (Piza, 1965) is described for the first time. Complete bibliographic histories are provided for previously described species. The spelling confusion surrounding Liturgusa/Liturgousa is resolved. Full habitus images for males and females are provided for nearly all species. Habitus and label images of type specimens are provided when possible. Diagnostic illustrations of the head and pronotum for males and females are provided for all species when possible. Illustrations of male genital structures are provided for all species for which males are known. Measurement data, including ranges and averages, are provided for males and females of all species. Combined male and female genus and species level dichotomous keys are provided with a Spanish translation. A complete table of all examined specimens lists label data, museum codes, repositories, and other specimen specific information. A KML file with all georeferenced locality records is downloadable from mantodearesearch.com for viewing in Google Earth. Natural history information is provided for species observed by the author. PMID:24715776
Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen
The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.
Pohjoismäki, Jaakko; Kahanpää, Jere
Abstract An updated checklist of the superfamilies Oestroidea and Hippoboscoidea recorded from Finland is presented. The checklist covers the following families: Calliphoridae, Rhiniidae, Sarcophagidae, Rhinophoridae, Tachinidae, Oestridae and Hippoboscidae. PMID:25337034
Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Kahanpää, Jere
Abstract A checklist of 112 species of shore flies (Ephydridae, Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. Comparing this to the list of Hackman (1980), 52 changes are made: 25 species are added (all but one recorded after 1980), 18 misidentifications are deleted, 5 junior synonyms are replaced and 5 updated generic combinations are given. PMID:25337031
Gibson, Joshua D; Hunt, Greg J
The complete mitochondrial genome from an Africanized honey bee population (AHB, derived from Apis mellifera scutellata) was assembled and analyzed. The mitogenome is 16,411 bp long and contains the same gene repertoire and gene order as the European honey bee (13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). ND4 appears to use an alternate start codon and the long rRNA gene is 48 bp shorter in AHB due to a deletion in a terminal AT dinucleotide repeat. The dihydrouracil arm is missing from tRNA-Ser (AGN) and tRNA-Glu is missing the TV loop. The A + T content is comparable to the European honey bee (84.7%), which increases to 95% for the 3rd position in the protein coding genes.
Dallai, Romano; Gottardo, Marco; Mercati, David; Machida, Ryuichiro; Mashimo, Yuta; Matsumura, Yoko; Rafael, José Albertino; Beutel, Rolf Georg
The male and female reproductive apparatus of Zorotypus magnicaudelli (Malaysia), Zorotypus huxleyi (Ecuador) and Zorotypus weidneri (Brazil) were examined and documented in detail. The genital apparatus and sperm of the three species show only minor differences. The testes are larger in Z. magnicaudelli. Z. huxleyi lacks the helical appendage in the accessory glands. A long cuticular flagellum is present in Z. magnicaudelli and in the previously studied Zorotypus caudelli like in several other species, whereas it is absent in Z. weidneri, Z. huxleyi, Zorotypus hubbardi, Zorotypus impolitus and Zorotypus guineensis. Characteristic features of the very similar sperm are the presence of: a) two dense arches above the axoneme; b) a 9 + 9+2 axoneme with detached subtubules A and B of doublets 1 and 6; c) the axonemal end degenerating with enlarging accessory tubules; d) accessory tubules with 17 protofilaments; e) three accessory bodies beneath the axoneme; and f) two mitochondrial derivatives of equal shape. The first characteristic (a) is unknown outside of Zoraptera and possibly autapomorphic. The sperm structure differs distinctly in Z. impolitus and Z. hubbardi, which produce giant sperm and possess a huge spermatheca. The presence of the same sperm type in species either provided with a sclerotized coiled flagellum in males or lacking this structure indicates that a different organization of the genital apparatus does not necessarily affect the sperm structure. The flagellum and its pouch has probably evolved within Zoraptera, but it cannot be excluded that it is a groundplan feature and was reduced several times. The fossil evidence and our findings suggest that distinct modifications in the genital apparatus occurred before the fragmentation of the Gondwanan landmass in the middle Cretaceous.
Ramírez-Ponce, Andrés; Garfias-Lozano, Gabriela; Contreras-Ramos, Atilano
The origin and function of exaggerated traits exhibited by a great number of species with sexual dimorphism remain largely unexplored. The usual model considered as the evolutionary mechanism for the development of these structures is sexual selection. The nature of growth of the postocular flange (POF) in three species of the dobsonfly genus Platyneuromus (Megaloptera, Corydalidae, Corydalinae) is analyzed to explore sexual size dimorphism and allometric scaling. Results involve positive allometry of POF in males of two species, and negative allometry in males of one species, in general with a female-biased sexual dimorphism. We suggest an ancestral condition of dual incipient ornamentation in Platyneuromus, with a subsequent departure of size and shape of POF in males, triggered by sexual selection. Different sexual selection intensities may explain the parallel or divergent growth of POF within the scheme of dual ornamentation. Empirical behavioral data as well as a phylogenetic framework are necessary to clarify possible causes of phenotypic development, time of origin, and evolution of the POF.
Ramírez-Ponce, Andrés; Garfias-Lozano, Gabriela; Contreras-Ramos, Atilano
The origin and function of exaggerated traits exhibited by a great number of species with sexual dimorphism remain largely unexplored. The usual model considered as the evolutionary mechanism for the development of these structures is sexual selection. The nature of growth of the postocular flange (POF) in three species of the dobsonfly genus Platyneuromus (Megaloptera, Corydalidae, Corydalinae) is analyzed to explore sexual size dimorphism and allometric scaling. Results involve positive allometry of POF in males of two species, and negative allometry in males of one species, in general with a female-biased sexual dimorphism. We suggest an ancestral condition of dual incipient ornamentation in Platyneuromus, with a subsequent departure of size and shape of POF in males, triggered by sexual selection. Different sexual selection intensities may explain the parallel or divergent growth of POF within the scheme of dual ornamentation. Empirical behavioral data as well as a phylogenetic framework are necessary to clarify possible causes of phenotypic development, time of origin, and evolution of the POF. PMID:28212437
Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing
The folded intersegmental membrane is a structure that interconnects two adjacent abdominal segments; this structure is distributed in the segments of the honey bee abdomen. The morphology of the folded intersegmental membrane has already been documented. However, the ultrastructure of the intersegmental membrane and its assistive role in the telescopic movements of the honey bee abdomen are poorly understood. To explore the morphology and ultrastructure of the folded intersegmental membrane in the honey bee abdomen, frozen sections were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The intersegmental membrane between two adjacent terga has a Z–S configuration that greatly influences the daily physical activities of the honey bee abdomen. The dorsal intersegmental membrane is 2 times thicker than the ventral one, leading to asymmetric abdominal motion. Honey bee abdominal movements were recorded using a high-speed camera and through phase-contrast computed tomography. These movements conformed to the structural features of the folded intersegmental membrane. PMID:27456912
Asiain, Julieta; Márquez, Juan; Irmler, Urlich
Eighteen new national records of nine species of Osoriinae (Staphylinidae) are added for 10 Neotropical countries. Additionally, 17 species of three subfamilies are first recorded from ten States of México. The distributional patterns of the studied species are commented and the congruence with species of different families of Coleoptera and Odonata previously analyzed is discussed. Finally, we conclude that some of these patterns can be proposed as hypothesis of primary biogeographic homology.
Palma, Ricardo L; Peck, Stewart B
We list all described species and subspecies of parasitic lice from the Galápagos Islands, based on literature and specimen records. A total of eight families, 47 genera, and 104 species and subspecies of parasitic lice are listed, of which 26 are new species records and eight are new genus records. Also, we report 17 new host-louse associations. The checklist includes 17 endemic species (16 from birds, one from a mammal), 79 native species and subspecies (78 from birds, one from a mammal), and eight species and subspecies (five from birds, three from mammals) introduced by human agency. Nine species assigned in error to the Galápagos Islands in the literature are discussed and deleted from the fauna. For each valid species and subspecies we give information on its taxonomic history, type material, host associations, geographic distribution, biogeographical status, systematic relationships, and relevant literature references. We also give a brief summary of louse biology, and an account of the history of louse collecting, expeditions, collections, and research relating to Galápagos Islands lice. We include a host-parasite list, and a list of hosts which breed in the Galápagos Islands but without lice recorded from them. Also, we formally designate four lectotypes from the Kellogg Collection.
Giehl, Nubia França da Silva; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro; Batista, Joana Darc; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos
Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity), although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77). The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively). The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include conservation actions, and faunal complementarity and/or inventories. PMID:25083770
Espeland, Marianne; Johanson, Kjell Arne; Hovmöller, Rasmus
The toxic and nutrient poor ultrabasic rock substrate covering one-third of New Caledonia greatly influenced on the biogeography and diversity of plants in the island. Studies on the effect of ultrabasic substrate on fauna are almost entirely absent. In this paper we examine whether the diversification of Trichoptera of the New Caledonian endemic genus Xanthochorema Kimmins, 1953 was related to the presence of ultrabasic substrate. The analysis is based on data from a phylogeny derived from DNA sequences of mitochondrial COX1, COX2 and 16S, and nuclear EF1a genes. The study of the relationships between ancestral species and substrate was carried out using dispersal-vicariance analysis and tracing the history of substrate association with ultrabasic and non-ultrabasic distributions representing the terminals in the fully resolved phylogenetic tree. Our results show that (1) the ancestor of all Xanthochorema species was present on ultrabasic substrate, (2) early speciation events were restricted to ultrabasic substrate, (3) younger ancestral species dispersed into non-ultrabasic substrates, and (4) late speciation events were restricted to non-ultrabasic substrate. These results correspond to the hypothesis that New Caledonia once was more extensively covered by ultrabasic rocks than at present.
Yong, Sheyla; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E
An annotated list of the Cuban fauna of Orthoptera is presented. For each species we include details of valid names, synonyms, type specimens (type category, sex, locality and depository), geographic distribution and bibliographic references. Clarifying notes are added, as well as comments on the species considered doubtful. A total of 140 species included in 62 genera, 31 subfamilies and 12 families make up the known Cuban fauna of Orthoptera. The family Episactidae, the acridid subfamily Ommatolampidinae with 3 unknown genera, 3 unknown genera of Tettigoniidae (Conocephalinae) and 1 undescribed new genus of Tetrigidae (Cladonotinae) are here recorded for the first time from Cuba. Syntypes are designated for Hygronemobius histrionicus Zayas.
Abstract The Mydidae genus Namadytes Hesse, 1969 is reviewed. It is known from five species, primarily occurring in Namibia. The study of newly available material from both Namibia and South Africa deposited in several natural history collections results in the recognition of three species and new synonymy of two, i.e., Namadytes pallidus Hesse, 1972 is a new junior synonym of Namadytes maculiventris (Hesse, 1969) and Namadytes prozeskyi Hesse, 1969: 282 is a new junior synonym of Namadytes vansoni Hesse, 1969: 280. All three species are re-described and comments on sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variation are made, a dichotomous key for their identification is presented, and illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and facilitate future identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence with associated weather and climatic data are discussed for all species. A morphological structure ventral to the halter and posterior to the metathoracic spiracle, the infra-halter sclerite, is here newly termed. PMID:24891827
Duarte, Tácio; Lecci, Lucas S; Calor, Adolfo R
There are 176 species representing eight genera and two families of Plecoptera known from Brazil. However, only ten of these species are recorded from the State of Bahia. In this study, an inventory of stoneflies from the southern region of Bahia State, Serra Bonita, including the municipality of Camacan, was undertaken from 2007-2012. Stoneflies were collected using UV light pan traps, Malaise traps, and aerial nets. One new gripopterygid species, Tupiperla bispoi n. sp., is described and illustrated. Four genera representing ten other species are recorded: Gripopteryx cancellata, G. clemira, G. garbei, G. pinima, Paragripopteryx sp., and Tupiperla tessellata (Gripopterygidae), Kempnyia alterosarum, K. gracilenta, K. jatim, and K. neotropica (Perlidae). With the present study, the number of known species of stoneflies recorded from Bahia State is 17, ten of these recorded from the Serra Bonita region.
Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Barnouin, Thomas; Delnatte, Julien; Moulin, Nicolas; Noblecourt, Thierry; Nusillard, Benoît; Parmain, Guillem; Soldati, Fabien; Bouget, Christophe
Abstract Saproxylic beetles – associated with dead wood or with other insects, fungi and microorganisms that decompose it – play a major role in forest nutrient cycling. They are important ecosystem service providers and are used as key bio-indicators of old-growth forests. In France alone, where the present study took place, there are about 2500 species distributed within 71 families. This high diversity represents a major challenge for specimen sorting and identification. The PASSIFOR project aims at developing a DNA metabarcoding approach to facilitate and enhance the monitoring of saproxylic beetles as indicators in ecological studies. As a first step toward that goal we assembled a library of DNA barcodes using the standard genetic marker for animals, i.e. a portion of the COI mitochondrial gene. In the present contribution, we release a library including 656 records representing 410 species in 40 different families. Species were identified by expert taxonomists, and each record is linked to a voucher specimen to enable future morphological examination. We also highlight and briefly discuss cases of low interspecific divergences, as well as cases of high intraspecific divergences that might represent cases of overlooked or cryptic diversity. PMID:25829855
Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Fad, Hassan H.; El-Torkey, Ashraf M.; Elgharbawy, Ali A.; Aldryhim, Yousif N.; Kondratieff, Boris C.; Ansi, Amin N. Al; Aldhafer, Hathal M.
Abstract This study was conducted as a part of a comprehensive baseline survey of insect biodiversity of Rawdhat Khorim National Park (RKNP), Central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). During this study a total of 262 Coleoptera species belong to 182 genera in 35 families were identified, of which 247 are named at a species level. Fifteen species (6.0%) are apparently endemic to KSA. Thirty-eight species are new to the known beetle fauna of KSA, including 25 species reported from the Arabian Peninsula for the first time. The families Tenebrionidae (45 species), Scarabaeidae (34 species), and Carabidae (27 species) were the most species rich families. About 37% of the beetle abundance was represented by species of Scarabaeidae, especially Aphodius ictericus ghardimaouensis Balthasar. Karumia inaequalis Pic (Dascillidae) was also an abundant species. Approximately 43.5% of beetle species collected during this study are considered very rare taxa in RKNP. The RKNP beetle fauna shows more affinity to Sahro-Arabian (36.4%), Afrotropical-Sahro-Arabian (17.4%) and Palaearctic-Sahro-Arabian (10.5%). Twenty-three species (9.3%) are considered cosmopolitan or subcosmopolitan. The data on month of collection, method of collection, and abundance status within RKNP, together with the distribution within KSA and the general distribution (zoogeography) of each species are presented. PMID:28331393
Dikow, Torsten; Leon, Stephanie
The Mydidae genus Namadytes Hesse, 1969 is reviewed. It is known from five species, primarily occurring in Namibia. The study of newly available material from both Namibia and South Africa deposited in several natural history collections results in the recognition of three species and new synonymy of two, i.e., Namadytespallidus Hesse, 1972 is a new junior synonym of Namadytesmaculiventris (Hesse, 1969) and Namadytesprozeskyi Hesse, 1969: 282 is a new junior synonym of Namadytesvansoni Hesse, 1969: 280. All three species are re-described and comments on sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variation are made, a dichotomous key for their identification is presented, and illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and facilitate future identification. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots sensu Conservation International, and seasonal incidence with associated weather and climatic data are discussed for all species. A morphological structure ventral to the halter and posterior to the metathoracic spiracle, the infra-halter sclerite, is here newly termed.
Mound, Laurence A.; Minaei, Kambiz
Water is important and ubiquitous and surprisingly not understood. Just because is it common, does not mean its understood "Poets say science takes away from the beauty of the stars-mere globs of gas atoms. I too can see the stars on a desert night, and feel them. But do I see less or more? ... What is the pattern, or the meaning, or the why? It does not do harm to the mystery to know a little about it. For far more marvelous is the truth than any artists of the past imagined it." - Richard P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, 1963. (Cited in the introduction to Chapter 3 of "The Snowflake, Winter's Secret Beauty, Text by Kenneth Libbrecht, Photography by Patricia Rasmussen.) 1. Highlight the fact that water is still one of the most active and challenging research areas in chemistry and physics 2. Describe in general terms why water is unique from the point of view of its properties o Large dipole-moment o Very polarizable o Involved in is own chemistry (e.g. auto ionization defining the pH scale) • Atomic view: o Oxygen and Hydrogen. o Hydrogen is a quantum mechanical in nature. Classical physics is no good. o Water’s Charge-charge interaction described by classical physics laws (e.g. Coulomb) o The statistical mechanics of water. Why counting is important. o You need the full arsenal of theoretical methods to understand water • Waters well known bulk properties do not explain waters anomalies o Surface tension, heat capacity • Understanding the microscopic nature of water and how this gives rise to the known bulk quantities is the thrust of state-of-the-art research o Hydrogen bonding o Liquid structure o The so-called “spherical cow” model gets you no where with water o There are 10s-100s of different water models available in the scientific literature. It is a hard business • All of life takes place at the interfaces of solid, liquid, and gas o Biology takes advantage of waters varying properties in different geometries (e.g. confined, surfaces, etc. o Water behaves differently in confined environments • Water is the most abundant greenhouse gas o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of the radiation budget of the earth o How does a microscopic understanding of water impact our knowledge of weather.
Malicky, Hans; Melnitsky, Stanislav I; Ivanov, Vladimir D
Knowledge of caddisflies of the Sunda Islands was insufficiently known until recent times; a survey of the caddis fauna of this area was given by Malicky (2010) and some more data were published recently (Malicky et al. 2011). A summary on the particular features of Trichoptera from 3 adjacent islands, Bali, Lombok, and Java, were given by Malicky et al. 2014. These were the first surveys of the local caddisfly fauna of Lombok, listing 60 species and anticipating that more species should occur there. It was shown that the caddisfly fauna of these islands is largely homogenous and there are not sufficient differences between Bali and Lombok to support the hypothesis of Wallace's line (Malicky et al. 2014). The comparative analysis showed continuous impoverishment of the caddis fauna from the Asian continent over the chain of islands from west to east. Unfortunately, the Trichoptera fauna of the easternmost Sunda Islands, Sumba, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, and the Moluccas is almost unstudied. The Trichoptera fauna of these islands is, according to present knowledge, Asian. Since the previous material from Lombok was collected only once at the end of the wet season, it was necessary to have more data from other seasons. Hence we made another effort to sample caddisflies in this area. As a result, 8 more species were found, 2 of which were new for science. The updated list (Table 1) includes now 68 species.
Gorb, Stanislav N; Gorb, Elena V
Each tarsus of Coreus marginatus L. (Coreidae) bears a pair of smooth flexible pulvilli adapted for attachment to relatively smooth surfaces, such as their host plant Rumex crispus L. (Polygonaceae). This account quantifies insect attachment abilities on smooth surfaces at various stages of ontogenesis. Friction (shear) force (FF) of adults and juvenile insects was measured by the use of a computer controlled centrifugal force tester equipped with a fibre optical sensor. Pad area, body size and body mass were determined individually for each experimental insect. Light microscopy revealed no difference in pulvilli area between different leg pairs. Pulvilli area demonstrated a stronger increase with increasing linear dimensions, as predicted by scaling laws. Since friction coefficient (relationship between FF and body weight) (FC) was always higher than 1, it was concluded that adhesion has strongly contributed to the measured friction. The frictional properties of pulvilli do not change during ontogenesis. Thus, only the growth of pulvilli and, therefore, the increased contact area, contribute to the increasing attachment ability in insects at later larval stages. Due to different scaling of the body mass and area of attachment organs, smaller insects attach relatively more strongly. Both FF and FC were higher in experiments in which higher angular acceleration (AC) was applied. Lateral tenacity determined individually for experimental insects and pooled for all animals and accelerations is 0.097 N m(-2). These data led us to suggest that viscosity of the pad secretion and/or visco-elastic properties of the foam-like material of pulvilli play an important role in the attachment ability of insects.
Bedjanič, M; Conniff, K; Dow, R A; Stokvis, F R; Verovnik, R; Tol, J Van
The 22 Sri Lankan representatives of the family Platystictidae, all endemic to the island and belonging to the distinct endemic subfamily Platystictinae, are revised, and a new reconstruction of the phylogeny based on molecular characters is provided. Five new species are described: Ceylonosticta venusta sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Rambodde Falls, at the tunnel; Nuwara Eliya District, Central Province; N7.0489, E80.6961; 12-vii-2012; to be deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Colombo, Sri Lanka), C. inferioreducta sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Norton Bridge, stream on the B43 road 1.5km WNW of Norton Bridge; Nuwara Eliya District, Central Province; N6.9171, E80.5075; 28-vii-2009; to be deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Colombo, Sri Lanka), C. mirifica sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Uwella, primary forest on the road Uwella-Ratnapura, 11.5km NW of Balangoda; Ratnapura District, Sabaragamuwa Province; N6.6968, E80.6059; 16-vii-2012; to be deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Colombo, Sri Lanka), Platysticta secreta sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Hasalaka; Kandy District, Central Province; N7.3535, E80.9509; 31-v-1975; deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA) and P. serendibica sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Kanneliya; Galle District, Southern Province; N6.2291, E80.3834; 8 & 9-vi-1975; deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA). Additionally, a determination key, figures showing morphological details and coloration in life, as well as distribution maps for all species are presented. Based on molecular analysis of 21 taxa, the phylogeny of Platystictinae is presented and discussed from the zoogeographical and paleogeographical point of view. Sri Lankan species, traditionally placed in the genera Platysticta Selys and Drepanosticta Laidlaw / Ceylonosticta Fraser, separated into distinct clades within the subfamily as presently defined, but the monophyletic nature of the Platystictinae and its Sri Lankan endemicity is confirmed. For the South Indian species, formerly known as Platysticta deccanensis, morphological and molecular analyses demonstrated that it does not belong to the Sri Lankan clade and a new genus Indosticta gen. nov. is erected to accommodate it.
Lindqvist, L.; Block, M.
Insects are important components of most terrestrial environments owing to their great abundance, biomass and diversity. They also make up an important food resource for other animals. Consequently, in many food webs insects constitute important links in metal-transport chains between trophic levels. Therefore trace-metal concentrations in insects have an important influence on the trace-metal distribution in the biosphere. In various insects, Cd, Cu and Zn are usually accumulated to the extent that they reach levels above those of the food, whereas Fe is not. In response to metal pollution, accumulation of nonessential metals was found to increase markedly, whereas essential metals accumulated less owing to regulating mechanisms in the insects. In polluted environments, metal concentrations were found to be higher in predatory invertebrates than in phytophagous ones in studies where insects were analysed in broad categories such as families. However, no such trend was observed when species were treated separately. The pattern of metal accumulation can differ between species. This is true even for species utilizing the same food resource. For instance, concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe differed between four species of sawflies feeding on pine needles from the same locality. It is therefore likely that insects with different food sources accumulate metals differently depending on the concentration and chemical form of the metals in the food. There have been few studies aimed at determining whether patterns of metal accumulation differ between males and females of the same species. In one such study on the sawfly Neodiprion sertifer concentrations of Cd, Cu and Fe tended to be higher in males than in females. However, this pattern was not found in two other sawfly species. Target organs for Cd were found to differ between males and females in the grasshopper Aiolopus thalassinus. The testis accumulated Cd to a higher degree than the ovaries.
Lamer, A; Dorn, A
In Manduca sexta, the blastoderm forms successively and becomes immediately cellularized as the cleavage energids reach the surface of the oocyte. Presumptive serosal cells are large and contain 2 or 4 large polyploid nuclei; presumptive embryonic cells are small and mononuclear. All parts of the blastoderm participate in the uptake and digestion of yolk material. About 10 h post-oviposition, the blastoderm breaks at the amnioserosal fold and the extraembryonic part closes above the germ band and constitutes the serosa (12 h post-oviposition, i.e. 10% development completed). At once, the serosa starts to secrete a cuticle consisting of an epi- and a lamellated endocuticle. Detachment of the serosal cuticle, 22h post-oviposition, is reminiscent of apolysis of larval cuticle. Thereafter, the serosa deposits a membranous structure, the serosal membrane. The sercretory process lasts from 23h to 44h post-oviposition. At first a fine granular layer, then an amorphous, spongy-like, fibrillar layer is secreted via microvilli. This persisting membrane is tough, rubbery and very elastic. It may serve to bolster the serosa during katatrepsis (48h post-oviposition) and later embryonic movements. After detachment of the serosal membrane, 44h post-oviposition, a distinct subcellular reorganization of the serosa takes place. The nuclei become still larger and more irregular. Uptake of yolk granules, but not of lipid droplets, ceases, although interaction of serosa and yolk cells are intense. Serosal cells include many mitochondria, large areas of rER, besides some sER, increasing amounts of lysosomal bodies and prominent Golgi complexes. Most conspicuous is the assembly of spindle-shaped, electron-lucent vesicles below the apical surface. These vesicles may contain metabolic products which are released into the peripheral space. The studies show that the serosa assumes changing functions during embryogenesis: digestion of yolk substances, synthesis of a serosal cuticle and a serosal membrane, which may have a protective function, and excretion.
Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia
Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482
Jamil, Norsyarizan; Ismail, Wan Nurainie Wan; Abidin, Siti Shamimi; Amaran, Mazdan Ali; Hazali, Ratnawati
A survey on termite species composition was conducted in Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Sarawak in February 2015. Overall 19 species of termite belonging to 13 genera and 8 subfamilies was found in the sanctuary. It was recorded the subfamily of Termitinae had the highest number of species (6 species, equal to 31.58% of total species), followed by Nasutermitinae (3 species, 15.79%), Macrotermitinae, Amitermitinae, Rhinotermitinae, Coptotermitinae, (2 species, 10.53% respectively), and Heterotermitinae, Termitogetoninae (1 species, 5.26% respectively). Since this rapid survey is the first termite assemblage representation in Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, the preliminary result may serve as the baseline data for termite composition in the area. Therefore, a whole coverage for the area within this sanctuary would definitely increase the number of termite species found in the sanctuary. PMID:28890771
Kon, Thian-Woei; Bong, Choon-Fah J; King, Jie-Hung P; Leong, Chan-Teck S
Termites are the major decomposers in tropical region but yet their occurrences in oil palm plantation especially in peat soil are generally treated as pest. Study of termite species in peat land was conducted in selected oil palm plantations in North Sarawak with 5-7 years old palms and South Sarawak with 13-15 years old palms with two sites in each area. Results of quadrate (25 x 25 x 30 cm) sampling showed termite was significantly higher in relative density with increasing depth of soil (0-10 = 21.23, 10-20 = 42.52 and 20-30 cm = 81.12%) which could be advantaged from being predated by ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) which were higher in density from soil surface to 10 cm soil depth with relative density of 31.84%. Modified transect sampling (50x6 m) had successfully sampled 18 species of termites from 2 families (Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae), 5 subfamilies (Rhinotermitinae, Coptotermitinae, Termitinae, Macrotermitinae and Nasutitermitinae) and 11 genera (Coptotermes, Schedorhinotermes, Termes, Macrotermes, Nasutitermes, Globitermes, Amitermes, Parrhinotermes, Pericapritermes, Havilanditermes and Prohamitermes). Both plantation sites have termite dominantly feeding on rotten wood as a result of abundant dead woods. However, Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren was identified to feed on the living tissues of oil palm causing damage or death of the tree. Study showed higher encounter of soil-feeding termite in longer established plantation. It indicates the gradually shifting of soil condition towards a stabilized environment which favors the successful settlement of soil feeder termite species. Termite control should be more targets specific to avoid harming beneficial termites.
Jepson, James E; Heads, Sam W
Two new genera and species of Megaloptera are described from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil. Cratocorydalopsis brasiliensis gen. et sp. nov. and Lithocorydalus fuscata gen. et sp. nov. are both placed within the family Corydalidae. The specimens represent the first Cretaceous examples of adult megalopteran body fossils not preserved in amber, and are the first megalopterans to be formally described from the Crato Formation.
Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I Wayan
Zeugodacus caudatus is a pest of pumpkin flowers. It has a Palearctic and Oriental distribution. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of the Malaysian and Indonesian samples of Z. caudatus determined by next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA and determine their taxonomic status as sibling species and phylogeny with other taxa of the genus Zeugodacus. The whole mitogenome of both samples possessed 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes-PCGs, 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes) and a control region. The mitogenome of the Indonesian sample (15,885 bp) was longer than that of the Malaysian sample (15,866 bp). In both samples, TΨC-loop was absent in trnF and DHU-loop was absent in trnS1. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with the two samples of Z. caudatus forming a sister group and the genus Zeugodacus was monophyletic. The Malaysian and Indonesian samples of Z. caudatus have a genetic distance of p = 7.8 % based on 13 PCGs and p = 7.0 % based on 15 mitochondrial genes, indicating status of sibling species. They are proposed to be accorded specific status as members of a species complex.
Wang, Li; Du, Xia-Jin; Li, Xiao-Feng
The complete mitogenome of the Common Mormon Papilio polytes has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. The circular genome is 15,256 bp in length, and consists of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop region. All PCGs are initiated with ATN codons except for the COI gene, which uses the unusual CGA as its start codon. Some PCGs harbor TAG (ND3) or incomplete stop codon T (COI & COII), while all the others use TAA as their stop codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (39.6% A, 41.5% T, 7.5% G, 11.4% C) with an overall GC content of 18.9%.
Tariq, Kaleem; Noor, Mah; Saeed, Shafqat; Zhang, Hongyu
Ultraviolet (UV) light has been used worldwide to monitor and trap insect pests. Whitefly adults show conspicuous positive phototactic behavior toward UV light stimuli; however, knowledge of the effect of UV light exposure on various life-history parameters of Dialeurodes citri remains limited. The present research aimed to investigate the effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV-A; long-wave) exposure on the reproduction and longevity of D. citri adults as well as the development of immature (eggs, larvae, and pupae) flies in the F1 generation. Paired D. citri adults were exposed to UV-A radiation for different periods (0, 1, 4, and 7 h/d) until the end of their life. The results of the experiment revealed that fecundity and oviposition rates increased when adults were irradiated for 1 and 4 h/d, but interestingly, both were significantly decreased compared with those of the controls after the longest exposure time (7 h/d). The longevity of adults of both sexes and the cumulative survival of F1 immatures were decreased with increased exposure time. Exposure to UV-A radiation prolonged the developmental time of immature stages, and a positive correlation was observed with exposure time. Exposure to UV light significantly inhibited egg hatching, larval development, pupation, and adult emergence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing the effect of UV radiation on a homopteran insect pest. This research may provide a foundation for the scientific community to use UV light in the field as an integrated pest management strategy to control this devastating agricultural pest. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Smith, H A; Koenig, R L; McAuslane, H J; McSorley, R
Polyethylene mulch with a reflective silver stripe and a yellow summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L., trap crop were tested alone and in combination as tactics to reduce densities of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring eggs and nymphs, and incidence of bean golden mosaic geminivirus on snap bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L. Egg densities were consistently higher on squash than on bean, but egg densities and virus incidence were not lower on bean grown with squash than on bean grown in monoculture. Silver reflective mulch reduced egg densities compared with bean grown on bare ground during the first week after crop emergence for 2 of the 3 yr that the study was conducted. However, egg suppression by silver mulch was not enhanced by the presence of a squash trap crop when both tactics were combined. The obstacles to suppressing B. argentifolii through the use of trap crops are discussed.
Feng, Ming-Guang; Li, Hui-Ping
Epizootiological features of Zoophthora anhuiensis, a fungal pathogen specific to aphids in southern China, were studied in six aptera colonies of Myzus persicae at 16 regimes of temperature (T = 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C) and relative humidity (H = 90%, 95%, 98% and 100% RH) with initially infected proportion (Ip) of 0.5 in experiment (Expt) 1 or at a fixed regime of 15 degrees C and 100% RH with a variable Ip of 0.17-1.00 in Expt 2. Mycosis-caused mortalities (Mp) varied with aphid densities (D) over time after colony initiation (t) were well fitted to a Gompertz growth model modified to include the variables T, H, Ip and D in the form of Mp = 91.72exp[-5.282exp[-(0.0095T + 0.0128H/T-0.5407D2/H)t
Pre-release assessment of impact on Arundo donax by the candidate biological control agents, Tetramesa romana (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) and Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Homoptera: Diaspididae) under quarantine conditions
Impact by two potential biological control agents, Tetramesa romana Walker and Rhizaspidiotus donacis (Leonardi), on the invasive weed, giant reed, Arundo donax L., was assessed in a quarantine greenhouse before release. Tetramesa romana alone and T. romana plus R. donacis significantly damaged A. ...
The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, has become a serious pest causing severe economic losses to sorghum grown in the southern United States (U.S.). Since its original detection in four states in 2013, M. sacchari on sorghum has now, for 2016, spread to 19 states. The presence of one or multip...
Mesbah, H A; Moursi Khadiga, S; Mourad, A K; Abdel-Razak Soad, I
The greedy scale, Hemiberlisia rapax (Comstock) causes economic damage on pear trees under irrigation system in Burg El-Arab area (50 Km. West of Alexandria). The infestation rate of H. rapax reached its first maximum rate during August to October, and the second one occurred from January to March. The 1st highest peak of insect population occurred during September and October; the second was during January and February, and the third one corresponded to April for the 1st and the 2nd successive seasons. The statistical analysis was performed to determine the relationship among the weather factors of mean daily temperature, daily relative humidity, wind speed, and dew point in relation to the population activity of Hemiberlisia rapax. The immature stages had two peaks of fluctuation during October to November and July to August. The adult females reached their maximum rates during winter and spring months. Adult males appeared in late March in few numbers. The insect was parasitized by Aphytis diaspidis (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in maximum numbers in June and July. This parasitoid had three overlapping generations all the year round. The first in September-October; the second extended from March to May; while the third one lasted from July to September.
Insecticide resistance in Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) could compromise the sustainability of malaria vector control strategies in West Africa.
Gnankiné, Olivier; Bassolé, Imael H N; Chandre, Fabrice; Glitho, Isabelle; Akogbeto, Martin; Dabiré, Roch K; Martin, Thibaud
Insecticides from the organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid (PY) chemical families, have respectively, been in use for 50 and 30 years in West Africa, mainly against agricultural pests, but also against vectors of human disease. The selection pressure, with practically the same molecules year after year (mainly on cotton), has caused insecticide resistance in pest populations such as Bemisia tabaci, vector of harmful phytoviruses on vegetables. The evolution toward insecticide resistance in malaria vectors such as Anopheles gambiae sensus lato (s.l.) is probably related to the current use of these insecticides in agriculture. Thus, successful pest and vector control in West Africa requires an investigation of insect susceptibility, in relation to the identification of species and sub species, such as molecular forms or biotypes. Identification of knock down resistance (kdr) and acetylcholinesterase gene (Ace1) mutations modifying insecticide targets in individual insects and measure of enzymes activity typically involved in insecticide metabolism (oxidase, esterase and glutathion-S-transferase) are indispensable in understanding the mechanisms of resistance. Insecticide resistance is a good example in which genotype-phenotype links have been made successfully. Insecticides used in agriculture continue to select new resistant populations of B. tabaci that could be from different biotype vectors of plant viruses. As well, the evolution of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae threatens the management of malaria vectors in West Africa. It raises the question of priority in the use of insecticides in health and/or agriculture, and more generally, the question of sustainability of crop protection and vector control strategies in the region. Here, we review the susceptibility tests, biochemical and molecular assays data for B. tabaci, a major pest in cotton and vegetable crops, and An. gambiae, main vector of malaria. The data reviewed was collected in Benin and Burkina Faso between 2008 and 2010 under the Corus 6015 research program. This review aims to show: (i) the insecticide resistance in B. tabaci as well as in An. gambiae; and (ii) due to this, the impact of selection of resistant populations on malaria vector control strategies. Some measures that could be beneficial for crop protection and vector control strategies in West Africa are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vacas, S; Alfaro, C; Navarro-Llopis, V; Primo, J
Semiochemical-based pest management programs have been increasingly used to provide environmentally friendly methods for the control of major insect pests. The efficacy of the mating disruption technique has been demonstrated for several moth pests. Unfortunately, not many experiments on mating disruption to control diaspididae species have been documented. In this work, biodegradable dispensers for mating disruption with increasing pheromone loads were used in order to study the potential of this technique for the control of Aonidiella aurantii Maskell. Field trial results demonstrated that dispensers loaded with 50 mg (a.i.) (20 g ha-1) and 100 mg (a.i.) (40 g ha-1) of sex pheromone were the most suitable, achieving significant reductions in male catches, compared to an untreated plot. In treated plots, virtually a 70% reduction in damage to fruit was recorded. Pheromone release profiles of all the dispensers were also studied under field conditions. We found that emission values >250 microg day-1 were the most suitable. This study suggests a new biodegradable dispenser capable of interfering with normal A. aurantii chemical communication. The use of mating disruption as a control method against A. aurantii is discussed.
Berthiaume, Richard; Hébert, Christian; Cloutier, Conrad
The exotic coccinellid Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) recently expanded its range into eastern Canada and elsewhere in North America. We hypothesized that this coccinellid should be less well adapted to the prey Mindarus abietinus Koch. on balsam fir trees than the native coccinellid Anatis mali (Say), which evolved in close association with aphids on conifers in North America. We compared, under field conditions, prey use by both species by collecting data on their synchrony with M. abietinus, their prey searching and predation behaviors, life stage distribution in fir canopy, and their overall reproductive success in this system. The seasonal life cycle of A. mali was better synchronized with that of M. abietinus compared with that of H. axyridis. In spring, A. mali adults appeared nearly 2 wk earlier on trees than H. axyridis and were active predators of the aphid fundatrices. A. mali oviposition thus began before the aphid population started to grow, and its larvae were most active during peak aphid colonies. Behavioral observations showed that both adults and larvae of the native A. mali searched for prey more actively than those of H. axyridis. Distribution of life stages also showed that eggs and pupae had different distributions on trees and that the adult-to-adult net reproductive rate of A. mali was three times higher than that of H. axyridis. Thus, the native A. mali was better adapted than H. axyridis to prey on M. abietinus, possibly because it evolved for a much longer period of time with this prey in conifer habitats.
Fenton, B; Kasprowicz, L; Malloch, G; Pickup, J
The population of peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), in Scotland comprises large numbers of a few superclones with much smaller numbers of other clones, and the reason for their differential success has yet to be elucidated. In the current study, the reproduction of lineages derived from these clones was measured by counting the numbers of offspring produced by a one-day-old nymph after 15 days. This was measured on four plant species, including local agricultural hosts and at two different temperatures (14 and 18 degrees C). There were significant differences in clonal lineage reproduction on different hosts and at different temperatures and amongst clonal lineages on the same hosts at the same temperature. Lineages of local insecticide sensitive clones did not have the best reproductive potential; instead, a recently introduced clonal lineage carrying MACE insecticide resistance was the best reproducer. The clonal lineage with the lowest reproductive potential also carried insecticide resistance, but this was kdr. A lineage from a local insecticide-sensitive clone was the least affected by reduced temperature. There was evidence of host plant specialisation in some of the clonal lineages.
Toscano, N C; Prabhaker, N; Castle, S J; Henneberry, T J
A survey of 53 Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring populations from different agricultural regions in California and Arizona was conducted from 1997 to 1999 to establish baseline toxicological responses to buprofezin and pyriproxyfen. Although both compounds proved to be highly toxic even in minute quantities to specific stages, geographical and temporal differences in responses were detected using a leaf spray bioassay technique. Monitoring for three years revealed that six to seven populations had higher LC50 values but not greater survival when exposed to these two insecticides. A significant difference in relative susceptibility to buprofezin was first observed in late season 1997 in San Joaquin Valley populations with LC50s ranging from 16 to 22 microg (AI)/liter(-1) compared with IC50s of 1 to 3 mg (AI)/liter(-1) in Imperial, Palo Verde Valley and Yuma populations. Whiteflies collected in subsequent years from these and other locations showed an increase in susceptibility to buprofezin. Regional differences in susceptibilities to pyriproxyfen were minimal within the same years. Three years of sampling revealed consistently higher LC50s to pyriproxyfen in populations from Palo Verde Valley, CA, compared with whiteflies from Imperial, San Joaquin Valley or Yuma. As was the case with buprofezin, a decline in LC50s to pyriproxyfen was observed in whiteflies from all locations sampled in 1999. However, no correlation was observed between buprofezin and pyriproxyfen toxicity in any of the strains. The variable toxicities observed to both compounds over a period of 3 yr may be due principally to inherent differences among geographical populations or due to past chemical use which may confer positive or negative cross-resistance to buprofezin or pyriproxyfen.
Dunkelblum, E; Mendel, Z; Gries, G; Gries, R; Zegelman, L; Hassner, A; Mori, K
The predator Elatophilus hebraicus is closely associated with its prey, the pine bast scale, Matsucoccus josephi, and utilizes the M. josephi sex pheromone as a kairomone. Kairomonal activity of E. hebraicus was studied by GC-EAD and field bioassays. The sex pheromone of M. josephi [2E,5R,6E,8E)-5,7-dimethyl-2,6,8-decatrien-4-one [(R)-E-M.j.] elicited a strong EAD response and attracted large numbers of the predator. The sex pheromone of two allopatric Matsucoccus spp., Matsucoccus feytaudi, (3S,7R,8E,10E)-3,7,9-trimethyl-8,10-dodecadien-6-one [(S,R)-E-M.f.] and Matcucossus matsumurae, (2E, 4E,6R,10R)-4,6,10,12-tetramethyl-2,4-tridecadien-7-one [(R,R)-E-M.m.], were also EAD-active and attracted significant numbers of E. hebraicus in the forest. Increasing the lure load of (S,R)-E-M.f. and (R,R)-E-M.m., in order to compensate for their lower volatility relative to (R)-E-M.j., resulted in similar attraction of E. hebraicus to each of the three pheromones. Other Matsucoccus pheromone stereoisomers displayed no behavioral activity. There was a significant difference in the activity of sex pheromone analogues, (6E/Z,8E)-5,7-dimethyl-6,8-decadien-4-one (52% E + 48% Z, ANLG 1) and (6E/Z,8E)-2,4,6-trimethyl- 1,6,8-nonatrien-3-one (60% E + 40% Z, ANLG 2). The (E) isomer of ANLG 1 evoked a strong EAD response from E. hebraicus and the mixture of E/Z ANLG 1 attracted the predator in moderate numbers, whereas ANLG 2 was inactive both in EAD and field tests. Conversely, M. josephi males were not attracted to M. feytaudi and M. matsumurae pheromones or pheromone analogues. Cross-activity of E. hebraicus to M. feytaudi and M. matsumurae pheromones may be based on structural similarity of the compounds. Alternatively, E. hebraicus may respond specifically to the pheromones of two allopatric Matsucoccus spp. If true, kairomonal attraction of E. hebraicus to these pheromones may have evolved during speciation of Matsucoccidae and may have been preserved despite the allopatry of M. josephi, M feytaudi and matsumurae.
Zamanian, H; Mehdipour, M; Ghaemi, N
Psalmocharias alhageos is an important pest of vine in most parts of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, southern areas of Russia, Turkey and Iraq. This cicada is spread in most provinces in Iran such as Esfahan, Hamedan, Qazvin, Markazi, Lorestan, Qom, Kerman, Tehran and Kordestan. In addition to vine, this insect damages some other fruit trees, such as apple, sour cherry, quince, peach, pomegranate and pear trees and some non-fruit trees, namely white poplar, ash, elm, eglantine, silk and black poplar trees. The nymphs of cicada damage the trees by feeding on root, adult insects on young bud and by oviposition under branch barks. Nourishing root by nymph leads to the weakness of the tree and hinder its growth. The high density oviposition of adult insects inside young barks causes withering of branches. The resulted damage on vine products is 40% which is one of the most important factors in product reduction in vineyard. This research was conducted in Takestan in Qazvin. It was conducted for the first time to study the behaviors of the mates of this vine cicada in order to manage it. Two systems were used to record the sound of male cicada called analog voice-recorder and digital voice recorder. To analyze the recorded sound of the male cicada we used of spectrum analyzer, digital storage oscilloscope and protens 7 computer softwares. We could call the attention of natural enemies an disturb the male insect's attracting sound by producing natural and artificial sound in the range of 1-6 kHz in two different ripeness status of the fruits and could prevent mating and oviposition of female cicadas.
Insect growth regulator effects of azadirachtin and neem oil on survivorship, development and fecundity of Aphis glycines (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its predator, Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
Kraiss, Heidi; Cullen, Eileen M
Aphis glycines Matsumura, an invasive insect pest in North American soybeans, is fed upon by a key biological control agent, Harmonia axyridis Pallas. Although biological control is preferentially relied upon to suppress insect pests in organic agriculture, approved insecticides, such as neem, are periodically utilized to reduce damaging pest populations. The authors evaluated direct spray treatments of two neem formulations, azadirachtin and neem seed oil, under controlled conditions for effects on survivorship, development time and fecundity in A. glycines and H. axyridis. Both azadirachtin and neem seed oil significantly increased aphid nymphal mortality (80 and 77% respectively) while significantly increasing development time of those surviving to adulthood. First-instar H. axyridis survival to adulthood was also significantly reduced by both neem formulations, while only azadirachtin reduced third-instar survivorship. Azadirachtin increased H. axyridis development time to adult when applied to both instars, while neem oil only increased time to adult when applied to first instar. Neither neem formulation affected the fecundity of either insect. Results are discussed within the context of future laboratory and field studies aimed at clarifying if neem-derived insecticides can be effectively integrated with biological control for soybean aphid management in organic soybeans. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.
Bagnarello, Gina; Hilje, Luko; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Cartín, Victor; Calvo, Marco
Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agricola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phagodeterrence are several sesquiterpenic lactones, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and saponins.
S.M. Lyon; M.E. Montgomery
Scymnus (Pullus) suturalis Thunberg is a Palearctic species that occurs on conifers, where it is reported to feed on aphids (I. Hodek. 1973. Biology of Coccinellidae. Academia, Czechoslovak Academy of Science. Prague). The occurrence of S. suturalis in North America was first reported by R.D. Gordon (1982. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash...
Saxena, R C; Okech, S H
Rice plant volatiles extracted as steam distillates significantly affected the behavior and biology of the brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Stål). In a multichoice test, more females settled and fed on tillers of a susceptible rice variety "Taichung Native 1" (TN1), sprayed with its own extract or acetone than on TN1 tillers sprayed with the extract of the resistant variety "ARC6650" or "Ptb33." In another test,N. lugens females ingested significantly more of a 10% sucrose solution mixed with TN1 steam distillate extract than of plain sucrose solution or that mixed with extracts of resistant varieties. Topical application of the extracts of resistant varieties "Mudgo," "ASD7," "Rathu Heenati," "Babawee," Ptb33, and ARC6650 caused significantly higher mortality of females than did the TN1 extract. Likewise, significantly more first-instar nymphs died when they were caged on susceptible TN1 plants sprayed with the extracts of resistant varieties than on plants sprayed with TN1 extract. The extract of 60-day-old resistant plants was more toxic than the extract of 30-, 45-, or 100-day-old plants. However, toxicity of the extract from susceptible TN1 remained low at all plant growth stages.
Effects of plant protease inhibitors, oryzacystatin I and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor, on the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Homoptera, Aphididae) and its parasitoid Aphelinus abdominalis (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae).
Azzouz, H; Cherqui, A; Campan, E D M; Rahbé, Y; Duport, G; Jouanin, L; Kaiser, L; Giordanengo, P
Transgenic plants expressing protease inhibitors (PIs) have emerged in recent years as an alternative strategy for pest control. Beneficial insects such as parasitoids may therefore be exposed to these entomotoxins either via the host or by direct exposure to the plant itself. With the objective of assessing the effects of PIs towards aphid parasitoids, bioassays using soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor (SbBBI) or oryzacystatin I (OCI) on artificial diet were performed on Macrosiphum euphorbiae-Aphelinus abdominalis system. OCI significantly reduced nymphal survival of the potato aphid M. euphorbiae and prevented aphids from reproducing. This negative effect was much more pronounced than with other aphid species. On the contrary, SbBBI did not affect nymphal viability but significantly altered adult demographic parameters. Enzymatic inhibition assays showed that digestive proteolytic activity of larvae and adults of Aphelinus abdominalis predominantly relies on serine proteases and especially on chymotrypsin-like activity. Immunoassays suggested that OCI bound to aphid proteins and accumulated in aphid tissues, whereas SbBBI remained unbound in the gut. Bioassays using M. euphorbiae reared on artificial diets supplemented with both OCI and SbBBI showed a fitness impairment of Aphelinus abdominalis that developed on intoxicated aphids. However, only SbBBI was detected in parasitoid larvae, while no PI could be detected in adult parasitoids that emerged from PI-intoxicated aphids. The potential impact of PI-expressing plants on aphid parasitoids and their combined efficiency for aphid control are discussed.
Mora, Rebeca; Ibarra, Jorge E; Espinoza, Ana M
A reliable bioassay procedure was developed to test ingested Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins on the rice delphacid Tagosodes orizicolus. Initially, several colonies were established under greenhouse conditions, using rice plants to nurture the insect. For the bioassay, an in vitro feeding system was developed for third to fourth instar nymphs. Insects were fed through Parafilm membranes on sugar (10 % sucrose) and honey bee (1:48 vol/vol) solutions, observing a natural mortality of 10-15 % and 0-5 %, respectively. Results were reproducible under controlled conditions during the assay (18+/-0.1 degrees C at night and 28+/-0.1 degrees C during the day, 80 % RH and a 12:12 day:light photoperiod). In addition, natural mortality was quantified on insect colonies, collected from three different geographic areas of Costa Rica, with no significant differences between colonies under controlled conditions. Finally, bioassays were performed to evaluate the toxicity of a Bt collection on T. orizicolus. A preliminary sample of twenty-seven Bt strains was evaluated on coarse bioassays using three loops of sporulated colonies in 9 ml of liquid diet, the strains that exhibited higher percentages of T. orizicolus mortality were further analyzed in bioassays using lyophilized spores and crystals (1 mg/ml). As a result, strains 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43-S-d and 23-O-to isolated from homopteran insects showed mortalities of 74, 96, 44 and 82% respectively while HD-137, HD-1 and Bti showed 19, 83 and 95% mortalities. Controls showed mortalities between 0 and 10% in all bioassays. This is the first report of a reliable bioassay procedure to evaluate per os toxicity for a homopteran species using Bacillus thuringiensis strains.
The only non-rutaceous plant on which D. citri has been found breeding in Texas is the edible fig, Ficus carica (Moraceae). In the summer of 2010, we discovered D. citri nymphs on a dooryard fig tree. Fig has its own species of psyllid, Homatoma ficus, but both adults and nymphs of that species ar...
Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu
Illustrated descriptions and data on host plants and distribution for 21 species of Oncopsis of Russia and adjacent countries are given, and O. abdykulovi sp. n. from Central Asia is described. Conspecificity of O. planiscuta from East Siberia and Sakhalin,of O. tristis from Moscow Area, Alati Mts., and Sakhalin, and of O. burjatica from East Siberia and Sakhalin is corroborated by male calling signal analysis.
Persad, A.B.; Hoy, M.A.; Ru Nguyen
The parasitoid Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introduced as L. scutellaris Mackauer) was imported from Guam, evaluated in quarantine, mass reared, and released into citrus groves in Florida in a classical biological control program directed against the brown citrus aphid, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Releases of 20,200, 12,100, and 1,260 adults of L. oregmae were made throughout Florida during 2000, 2001, and 2002, respectively. To determine if L. oregmae had successfully established, surveys were conducted throughout the state beginning in the summer of 2001 and continuing through the summer of 2003. Parasitism during 2001 and 2002 was evaluated by holding brown citrus aphids in the laboratory until parasitoid adults emerged. Lipolexis oregmae was found in 10 sites in 7 counties and 4 sites in 3 counties with parasitism rates ranging from 0.7 to 3.3% in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Laboratory tests indicated that high rates of mortality occurred if field-collected parasitized aphids were held in plastic bags, so a molecular assay was used that allowed immature L. oregmae to be detected within aphid hosts immediately after collection. The molecular assay was used in 2003 with the brown citrus aphids and with other aphid species collected from citrus, weeds, and vegetables near former release sites; immatures of L. oregmae were detected in black citrus aphids, cowpea aphids, spirea aphids, and melon aphids, as well as in the brown citrus aphid, in 4 of 8 counties sampled, with parasitism ranging from 2.0 to 12.9%, indicating that L. oregmae is established and widely distributed. Samples taken in Polk County during Oct 2005 indicated that L. oregmae has persisted. The ability of L. oregmae to parasitize other aphid species on citrus, and aphids on other host plants, enhances the ability of L. oregmae to persist when brown citrus aphid populations are low. (author) [Spanish] El parasitoide Lipolexis oregmae Gahan (introducido como L. scutellaris Mackauer) fue importado de Guam, evaluado en cuarentena, criado en masa y liberado en huertos de citricos en un programa de control biologico clasico dirigido contra el afido pardo de citricos, Toxoptera citricida Kirkaldy. Se hicieron liberaciones de 20,200, 12,100, y 1,260 adultos de L. oregmae a traves de la Florida durante los anos de 2000, 2001, y 2002, respectivamente. Para determinar si L. oregmae ha logrado en establecer, se realizaron sondeos a traves del estado empezando en el verano del 2001 y continuando hasta el final del verano del 2003. El parasitismo durante 2001 y 2002 fue evaluado con el mantenimiento de individuos del afido pardo de los citricos en el laboratorio hasta que los adultos emergieron. Lipolexis oregmae fue encontrado en 10 sitios en 7 condados y con tasas de parasitismo en 4 sitios en 3 condados entre 0.7 a 3.3% en el 2001 y 2002, respectivamente. Las pruebas del laboratorio indicaron que las tasas altas de mortalidad fueron posibles si los afidos con parasitos recolectados en el campo fueron mantenidos en bolsas plasticas, entonces un ensayo molecular fue usado con lo que permitio la deteccion de inmaduros de L. oregmae dentro de los hospederos de afidos inmediatamente despues de la recoleccion. El ensayo molecular fue usado en el 2003 con individuos del afido pardo de los citricos y con otras especies de afidos recolectados sobre citricos, malezas y hortalizas cerca de los sitios donde los parasitoides fueron liberados anteriormente; inmaduros de L. oregmae fueron detectados en individuos del afido negro de los citricos, el afido del caupi, el afido spirea y el afido del melon, ademas del afido pardo de los citricos en 4 de los 8 condados muestreados, con la tasa del parasitismo entre 2.0 a12.9%, indicando que L. oregmae estaba estabecido y ampliamente distribuido. Las muestras tomadas en el Condado de Polk durante octobre del 2005 indicaron que L. oregmae ha persistido. La capacidad de L. oregmae para parasitar otras especies de afidos sobre citricos y otros afidos sobre otras plantas hospederas, incrementa la capacidad de L. oregmae para persistir cuando las poblaciones del afido pardo de los citricos estan bajas. (author)
Wang, Hong-Tao; Xue, Ming; Chen, Hui-Na; Zhou, Fang-Yuan
To understand the effects of the defense responses of tobacco plants induced by the infesting of B-biotype Bemisia tabaci to Spodoptera litura, and to explore the mechanisms of the interspecific interactions between B-biotype B. tabaci and S. litura, a laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effects of tobacco plants after infested by B-biotype B. tabaci on the adult oviposition selection and the larvae feeding, anti-feeding, and other feeding behaviors of S. litura. Comparing with that on control plants, the egg number oviposited by adult S. litura on the infested plants decreased by 40.9%. The plant leaves infested had great repellent effect to the newly-hatched S. litura larvae, while the middle leaves and the leaves with systemic damage symptom (white-vein) had definite attractive effect. Unexpanded terminal leaves had no effects on the host selection of S. litura larvae. The S. litura larvae had significant anti-feeding behavior on the leaves infested, being more notable than that on the leaves with white-vein. On the leaves infested and with white-vein, the feeding times per unit duration or the feeding percentage of S. litura larvae decreased, the time of initiating feeding prolonged, and the total feeding area declined significantly, compared with the control. In conclusion, the tobacco plants after infested by B-biotype B. tabaci had negative effects on the adult oviposition and larvae feeding of S. litura, and the results of the study would be useful in understanding the population dynamics of tobacco pests and their management.
Eigenbrode, Sanford D; Ding, Hongjian; Neufeld, Jeffrey; Duetting, Patrick
Hydrophobic and hydrophilic kaolin-based particle films are effective for control of insect pests in certain agricultural crops. How these products interact with potential biological control agents is not well documented. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the hydrophobic (M96-018) and hydrophilic (Surround WP) kaolin-based particle films (Engelhard Corporation, Iselin, NJ) on pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), on peas (Pisum spp.), and on the fungal aphid pathogen Pandora neoaphidis (Remaudière and Hennebert) Humber. Over two field seasons (2001 and 2002) in northern Idaho, applications of M96-018 significantly reduced the rate of pea aphid increase on pea, but Surround WP, tested only in 2001, did not reduce aphid population growth rate. Neither particle film treatment was as effective as a standard application of esfenvalerate (DuPont Asana). In the laboratory, particle films suppressed pea aphid populations by up to 30%. M96-018 seemed to have some repellent activity based on aphid distributions after treating plants. When applied along with P. neoaphidis conidia, M96-018 but not Surround WP caused higher percentage of infection mortality of pea aphids by P. neoaphidis than occurred on controls treated only with P. neoaphidis conidia. P. neoaphidis conidia deposited on glass slides coated with M96-018, produced more germ tubes and secondary conidia than those deposited on untreated glass slides or slides treated with Surround WP. This result suggests that greater infection of pea aphids on plants treated with M96-018 is in part a result of a direct enhancement of fungal germination by the particle film.
Büscher, Thies H.; Gorb, Stanislav N.
Abstract The euplantulae of species from all five genera of the Prisopodinae Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893 were examined using scanning electron microscopy with the aim to reveal the significance of attachment pads regarding their phylogenetic relationships. The split into the conventional two sister groups is supported by the two-lobed structure of the euplantulae with a smooth surface in the Prisopodini and a nubby surface microstructure in the Paraprisopodini. The two lineages are well distinguishable by this feature, as well as by the shape of the euplantulae themselves. The functional importance of the attachment pad surface features is discussed. PMID:28228663
Coelho, Luci B. N.; Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio F.
Abstract Gypona reversa DeLong & Martinson, 1972 has its ovipositor described and illustrated based on the examination of specimens from its type locality. This is the first species of Gypona Germar, 1821 to have the female genitalia detailed description published. PMID:25589876
Sultan, K; Khalafalla, R E
Heterodoxus spiniger is a rare chewing louse; infest dogs and occasionally cats with expanding geographical distribution. This preliminary report is aimed to record infestation of stray dogs in Kafr El-Sheikh city, Egypt by H. spiniger. Two dogs out of 10 were naturally infected with H. spiniger. This report is the first to demonstrate H. spiniger infestation on dogs in northern regions of Nile-delta of Egypt.
Rodrigues, Lucas; Carrasco, Daiane; Proietti, Maíra
Estuaries and salt marshes are important coastal ecosystems that present unique characteristics in terms of nutrient cycling, salinity, habitats, flora and fauna. Despite their ecological importance, there is scarce knowledge on the occupation, distribution and ecology of insects, including Tipuloidea, in these environments. This study aimed to evaluate the composition, seasonality and effect of abiotic factors on the abundance, diversity and structure of a Tipuloidea assemblage at the Patos Lagoon salt marshes, located at the south of the Neotropical region. We sampled crane-flies from three zones along the estuary by installing two Malaise traps at the low and high vegetation strata of each zone. Sampling was conducted uninterruptedly every fifteen days between August/2015 and July/2016, and collected insects were identified morphologically based on specific literature. 5248 crane-flies were identified covering six species and twenty-five morphospecies. Abundance and frenquency of occurrence of species revealed a gap in the presence of constant species at the middle estuary. Dicranomyia, Gonomyia, Teucholabis and Zelandotipula species were additional (accessory) species only in the upper estuary, while Symplecta cana only in the lower estuary. This shows that different species prefer distinct points along the estuary. Higher abundance of crane-flies was correlated with elevated temperature and humidity. Symplecta pilipes was an exception, presenting increase in abundance under lower temperatures. Seasonal change in Tipuloidea species composition was observed, with higher evenness of Dicranomyia, Geranomyia, Rhipidia domestica and Symplecta cana (15-20%) during summer, and dominance of Symplecta pilipes in winter (80%). The gap at the middle estuary can possibly be due to stress caused by large fluctuations in salinity in the zone. In addition, the seasonal differences can have significant ecological consequences such as the modification of the Tipuloid species that compose the detritivorous and/or succivorous trophic guild, and consequently influence the upper trophic levels of the salt marsh environment.
Krivosheina, N P
The composition of seven dipteran families from the complex of larvae dwelling in sandy soils of the southeastern Karakum Desert, represented by both free-living soil forms and endobionts ecologically dependent mainly on herbaceous plants, is analyzed. In the surface horizons of the soil, at a depth of up to 20 cm, free-living soil-dwellers form a stable complex, which includes saprophagous coleopteran larvae and their constant companions, the obligatorily predaceous dipteran larvae. Previously unknown data on the lifestyle of the larvae of five therevid genera are given.
Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Masaru; Lee, Chow-Yang
The earwig (Dermaptera) fauna of Penang Island, Malaysia, was evaluated by means of an extensive field survey together with revision of the few published data. Based on the results of the field survey, 31 species are recognized (2 Diplatyidae, 3 Pygidicranidae, 5 Anisolabididae, 2 Labiduridae, 14 Spongiphoridae, 4 Chelisochidae, 1 Forficulidae). Fifteen of these taxa are new to Peninsular Malaysia (=West Malaysia): Diplatys annandalei Burr, 1911, Diplatys mutiara n. sp., Euborellia philippinensis Srivastava, 1979, Metisolabis punctata (Dubrony, 1879), Pseudovostox brindlei Srivastava, 2003, Chaetospania anderssoni Brindle, 1971, Chaetospania javana Borelli, 1926, Chaetospania huisiangi n. sp., Paralabellula boettcheri (Borelli, 1923), Paralabellula rotundifrons (Hincks, 1954), Nesogaster amoenus (Stål, 1855), Hamaxas crassus Borelli, 1926, Proreus coalescens (Borelli, 1927), Hypurgus humeralis (Kirby, 1891), and an unidentified Echinosoma sp. Species composition of the island are compared with the dermapteran fauna of Thailand. Descriptions of females (or female genitalia) are given for some species for the first time.
Scavariello, Claudia; Luchetti, Andrea; Martoni, Francesco; Bonandin, Livia; Mantovani, Barbara
Horizontal transfer (HT) is an event in which the genetic material is transferred from one species to another, even if distantly related, and it has been demonstrated as a possible essential part of the lifecycle of transposable elements (TEs). However, previous studies on the non-LTR R2 retrotransposon, a metazoan-wide distributed element, indicated its vertical transmission since the Radiata-Bilateria split. Here we present the first possible instances of R2 HT in stick insects of the genus Bacillus (Phasmida). Six R2 elements were characterized in the strictly bisexual subspecies B. grandii grandii, B. grandii benazzii and B. grandii maretimi and in the obligatory parthenogenetic taxon B. atticus. These elements were compared with those previously retrieved in the facultative parthenogenetic species B. rossius. Phylogenetic inconsistencies between element and host taxa, and age versus divergence analyses agree and support at least two HT events. These HT events can be explained by taking into consideration the complex Bacillus reproductive biology, which includes also hybridogenesis, gynogenesis and androgenesis. Through these non-canonical reproductive modes, R2 elements may have been transferred between Bacillus genomes. Our data suggest, therefore, a possible role of hybridization for TEs survival and the consequent reshaping of involved genomes. PMID:28165062
Ware, Jessica L; Grimaldi, David A; Engel, Michael S
Among insects, eusocial behavior occurs in termites, ants, some bees and wasps. Isoptera and Hymenoptera convergently share social behavior, and for both taxa its evolution remains poorly understood. While dating analyses provide researchers with the opportunity to date the origin of eusociality, fossil calibration methodology may mislead subsequent ecological interpretations. Using a comprehensive termite dataset, we explored the effect of fossil placement and calibration methodology. A combined molecular and morphological dataset for 42 extant termite lineages was used, and a second dataset including these 42 taxa, plus an additional 39 fossil lineages for which we had only morphological data. MrBayes doublet-model analyses recovered similar topologies, with one minor exception (Stolotermitidae is sister to the Hodotermitidae, s.s., in the 42-taxon analysis but is in a polytomy with Hodotermitidae and (Kalotermitidae + Neoisoptera) in the 81-taxon analysis). Analyses using the r8s program on these topologies were run with either minimum/maximum constraints (analysis a = 42-taxon and analysis c = 81-taxon analyses) or with the fossil taxon ages fixed (ages fixed to be the geological age of the deposit from which they came, analysis b = 81-taxon analysis). Confidence intervals were determined for the resulting ultrametric trees, and for most major clades there was significant overlap between dates recovered for analyses A and C (with exceptions, such as the nodes Neoisoptera, and Euisoptera). With the exception of isopteran and eusiopteran node ages, however, none of the major clade ages overlapped when analysis B is compared with either analysis A or C. Future studies on Dictyoptera should note that the age of Kalotermitidae was underestimated in absence of kalotermitid fossils with fixed ages.
Norrbom, Allen L.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Chen, Xiao-Lin; David, King J.; De Meyer, Marc; Freidberg, Amnon; Han, Ho-Yeon; Steck, Gary J.; Thompson, F. Christian; White, Ian M.; Zucchi, Roberto A.
The purpose of this application, under Article 23.9.3, is to conserve current usage of the well-established genus-group name Cryptodacus Hendel, 1914 for a genus of Neotropical fruit flies by suppression of the earlier, unused name Crypto- dacus Gundlach, 1862, currently a junior synonym of Arrhyton Günther, 1858, a genus of snakes, under the plenary power of the Commission, in the interest of nomenclatural stability. Cryptodacus Gundlach has not been used as a valid name since 1883, whereas Cryptodacus Hendel has been used in a significant body of literature relating to fruit fly systematics, morphology and phylogeny and is the currently used name in various name and molecular databases.
Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chow, Wan-Loo; Eamsobhana, Praphathip
The whole mitochondrial genome of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera arecae was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 15,900 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The control region (952 bp) was flanked by rrnS and trnI genes. The start codons included 6 ATG, 3 ATT and 1 each of ATA, ATC, GTG and TCG. Eight TAA, two TAG, one incomplete TA and two incomplete T stop codons were represented in the protein-coding genes. The cloverleaf structure for trnS1 lacked the D-loop, and that of trnN and trnF lacked the TΨC-loop. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 protein-coding genes was concordant with 37 mitochondrial genes, with B. arecae having closest genetic affinity to B. tryoni. The subgenus Bactrocera of Dacini tribe and the Dacinae subfamily (Dacini and Ceratitidini tribes) were monophyletic. The whole mitogenome of B. arecae will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26472633
Ma, Yue; He, Kun; Yu, Panpan; Yu, Danna; Cheng, Xuefang; Zhang, Jiayong
The order Archaeognatha was an ancient group of Hexapoda and was considered as the most primitive of living insects. Two extant families (Meinertellidae and Machilidae) consisted of approximately 500 species. This study determined 3 complete mitochondrial genomes and 2 nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the bristletail. The size of the 5 mitochondrial genome sequences of bristletail were relatively modest, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and one control region. The gene orders were identical to that of Drosophila yakuba and most bristletail species suggesting a conserved genome evolution within the Archaeognatha. In order to estimate archaeognathan evolutionary relationships, phylogenetic analyses were conducted using concatenated nucleotide sequences of 13 protein-coding genes, with four different computational algorithms (NJ, MP, ML and BI). Based on the results, the monophyly of the family Machilidae was challenged by both datasets (W12 and G12 datasets). The relationships among archaeognathan subfamilies seemed to be tangled and the subfamily Machilinae was also believed to be a paraphyletic group in our study. PMID:25635855
Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz
The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the world's biological diversity hotspots, and is increasingly threatened by the rapid destruction and fragmentation of its natural areas. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Itatiaia massif, an Atlantic Forest highland area, are inventoried and cataloged here. The catalog is based on examination of bibliographies, field work on many localities of Itatiaia massif (including Parque Nacional do Itatiaia — PNI), and the entomological collection Professor José Alfredo Pinheiro Dutra (DZRJ), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. A total of 92 species are recorded, representing about 17% of the known Brazilian Trichoptera fauna. Leptoceridae, Hydropsychidae, and Philopotamidae are the families most represented. The high species richness, as well as the remarkable patterns of species distribution, may be related to the characteristics of Mantiqueira mountain range. PMID:22958122
Shreve, Scott M; Johnson, Kevin P
The scaly-winged bark louse, Echmepteryx hageni, exhibits a unique pattern of co-existence of apparently differnt reproductive modes. Unisexuality is widespread in eastern North America, while sexual populations are restricted to isolated rock out-croppings in southern Illinois and eastern Kentucky. Three of the four nuclear loci examined show greater genetic diversity in the unisexual form compared to the sexual form of E. hageni, in accordance with the pattern previously shown in mitochondrial genetic data. Neutrality tests of the nuclear loci indicate a consistent signal of demographic expansion in asexual populations, but not in sexual populations. There was evidence of inbreeding in the isolated sexual populations at three of the nuclear loci, and one locus had signs of gene specific balancing selection. However, there is no significant genetic differentiation between bisexual and unisexual populations, possibly due to the greater effective population size of nuclear loci relative to mitochondrial loci. The mitochondrial differentiation of E. hageni populations in the northwestern part of their range (Minnesota and Wisconsin) was also not reflected in the nuclear data. We present three hypotheses that may explain the disparity in observed nuclear and mitochondrial genetic diversity between the reproductive forms of E. hageni.
Soledad Leonardi, Maria; Palma, Ricardo Luis
We present a literature review of the sucking louse family Echinophthiriidae, its five genera and twelve species parasitic on pinnipeds (fur seals, sea lions, walruses, true seals) and the North American river otter. We give detailed synonymies and published records for all taxonomic hierarchies, as well as hosts, type localities and repositories of type material; we highlight significant references and include comments on the current taxonomic status of the species. We provide a summary of present knowledge of the biology and ecology for eight species. Also, we give a host-louse list, and a bibliography to the family as complete as possible.
Napoleão, K S; Mello-Patiu, C A; Oliveira-Costa, J; Takiya, D M; Silva, R; Moura-Neto, R S
Sarcophagidae, or flesh flies, are of great importance in forensic entomology, but their effective application requires precise taxonomic identification, which relies almost exclusively on characteristics of the male genitalia. Given that female flies and larvae are most abundant in animal carcasses or on corpses, precise morphological identification can be difficult; therefore, DNA sequencing can be an additional tool for use in taxonomic identification. This paper analyzes part of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from three Sarcophagidae species of forensic importance in the City of Rio de Janeiro: Oxysarcodexia fluminensis, Peckia chrysostoma, and Peckia intermutans. COI fragments of 400 bp from 36 specimens of these three species were sequenced. No intraspecific differences were found among specimens of O. fluminensis, but P. chrysostoma and P. intermutans each had two haplotypes, ranging from 0 to 0.7%. The interspecific divergence was 8.5-11.6%, corroborating previously reported findings.
The purpose of this application, under Article 23.9.3 of the Code, is to conserve the widely used specific name Metochus abbreviatus Scott, 1874, for a species of rhyparochromid bugs from East Asia. The name is threatened by the senior subjective synonym Metochus erosus (Walker, 1872), which has bee...
de Carvalho, Adenomar Neves
Paraportanus longispinus,, a new leafhopper species from Roraima and Amazonas States, North Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new species can be recognized by the male genital features, especially the distal third of ventral margin of the pygofer with a dentiform short process; plates distinctly longer than pygofer, extending posteriorly beyond pygofer by approximately 1/3 of their length and aedeagus with one pair of spiniform process long crossed and directed ventrally. A checklist and key to males of all known Paraportanus species is provided.
Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Delgado, Juan A
Two new species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 collected from hygropetric habitats in eastern Cuba are described: Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) blancae sp. nov. from the Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa mountain range, and Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) matthiasi sp. nov. from the Sierra Maestra mountain range. Both species, especially the latter, are closely related to Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) franklyni Deler-Hernández & Delgado, 2012. Diagnostic characters for both new species are provided and illustrated; habitat information and distributional data are also included. An updated key to Cuban species of Hydraena is provided. With this study, the number of species of Hydraena known from Cuba raises to six.