Science.gov

Sample records for creating baseload wind

  1. Optimizing Baseload Power of Interconnected Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobrin, B. H.

    2010-12-01

    Interconnecting wind farms has been proposed as a way to reduce the natural unreliability of wind power caused by the intermittency of winds. In a previous study, the benefits of interconnecting up to 19 sites in the Midwestern United States were evaluated with the assumption that the same number of turbines would be installed at each site. The goal of this study was to avoid this assumption and examine the advantages of optimizing the ratio of turbines at each site. An optimization algorithm based on the gradient method was used to maximize the baseload power, or guaranteed power 87.5% of the year, using hourly wind speed data for the same 19 sites. The result was a significant improvement in the reliability of the array, increasing the baseload power by 38% compared to the array with equally-weighted sites. Further analysis showed that the turbines were generally distributed according to the average wind power at each site and the wind correlation among sites. In addition to optimizing the average baseload of the array, this study examined the benefits of optimizing the baseload for peak usage time (between noon and 7 p.m), and thus a simplified model was created to analyze how interconnecting wind farms could increase correlation with energy consumption. Optimization for peak usage hours, however, provided no additional benefit over the original optimized array because the variation of average hourly wind speeds was well-correlated among the sites.

  2. Replacing baseload power plants with wind plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    Baseload nuclear power plants supply about 21 percent of the electricity consumed in the United States today, and as these plants are retired over the next 10 to 25 years, they will not be replicated. This will open a vast market for new generating facilities which should, if possible, be non-fossil fueled. Wind energy baseload systems are able to equal or exceed the technical performance of these nuclear plants at a delivered cost of energy of less than $0.05/kWh in wind class 4 regions. However, unless a new externality (the cost of maintaining the security of fossil fuel supply) is factored in to the extremely low market price of fossil fuels, wind and other renewable energy resources will not be able to compete with these fuels on the basis of simple economics over the next 20 to 30 years.

  3. Utility scale baseload wind energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1997-09-01

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload power supply cost-effectively by taking advantage of the fundamental properties of wind and by the efficient utilization of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. A utility scale wind-CAES-transmission system can have a 95% capacity factor at a cost of delivered electricity that is about 15% greater than a conventional wind energy system with a 34% capacity factor. This approach has several compelling advantages. It is based on existing technology and makes best use of costly transmission lines. It produces electricity that is the technical equivalent of that from fossil fuel or nuclear power stations. It minimizes greenhouse gas and other fossil fuel pollution, and is an industrial scale system. And in many cases, the increased value of the plant output will more than compensate for the added cost of the storage system.

  4. Emissions and energy efficiency assessment of baseload wind energy systems.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Paul; Kulcinski, Gerald L; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-03-15

    The combination of wind energy generation and energy storage can produce a source of electricity that is functionally equivalent to a baseload coal or nuclear power plant. A model was developed to assess the technical and environmental performance of baseload wind energy systems using compressed air energy storage. The analysis examined several systems that could be operated in the midwestern United States under a variety of operating conditions. The systems can produce substantially more energy than is required from fossil or other primary sources to construct and operate them. By operation at a capacity factor of 80%, each evaluated system achieves an effective primary energy efficiency of at least five times greater than the most efficient fossil combustion technology, with greenhouse gas emission rates less than 20% of the least emitting fossil technology currently available. Life-cycle emission rates of NOx and SO2 are also significantly lower than fossil-based systems.

  5. Transforming intermittent wind energy to a baseload power supply economically

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload power supply cost-effectively by taking advantage of the fundamental properties of wind and by the efficient utilization of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. A utility scale wind-CAES-transmission system can have a 95 percent capacity factor at a cost of delivered electricity that is about 15 percent greater than a conventional wind energy system with a 34 percent capacity factor. This approach has several compelling advantages. It is based on existing technology and makes best use of costly transmission lines. It produces electricity that is the technical equivalent of that from fossil fuel or nuclear power stations. It minimizes greenhouse gas and other fossil fuel pollution, and is an industrial scale system that could cover a significant fraction of total electrical demand in regions such as the US, Mexico, China or Europe.

  6. Compressed air energy storage system reservoir size for a wind energy baseload power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload resource using an oversized wind farm in conjunction with a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. The size of the storage reservoir for the CAES system (solution mined salt cavern or porous media) as a function of the wind speed autocorrelation time (C) has been examined using a Monte Carlo simulation for a wind class 4 (wind power density 450 W m{sup -2} at 50 m hub height) wind regime with a Weibull k factor of 2.5. For values of C typically found for winds over the US Great Plains, the storage reservoir must have a 60 to 80 hour capacity. Since underground reservoirs account for only a small fraction of total system cost, this larger storage reservoir has a negligible effect on the cost of energy from the wind energy baseload system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Baseload, industrial-scale wind power: An alternative to coal in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.J.; Williams, R.H.; Xie Shaoxiong; Zhang Shihui

    1996-12-31

    This report presents a novel strategy for developing wind power on an industrial-scale in China. Oversized wind farms, large-scale electrical storage and long-distance transmission lines are integrated to deliver {open_quotes}baseload wind power{close_quotes} to distant electricity demand centers. The prospective costs for this approach to developing wind power are illustrated by modeling an oversized wind farm at Huitengxile, Inner Mongolia. Although storage adds to the total capital investment, it does not necessarily increase the cost of the delivered electricity. Storage makes it possible to increase the capacity factor of the electric transmission system, so that the unit cost for long-distance transmission is reduced. Moreover, baseload wind power is typically more valuable to the electric utility than intermittent wind power, so that storage can be economically attractive even in instances where the cost per kWh is somewhat higher than without storage. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Baseload power production from wind turbine arrays coupled to compressed air energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succar, Samir

    An analysis is presented of compressed air energy storage (CAES) and its potential for mitigating the intermittency of wind power, facilitating access to remote wind resources and transforming wind into baseload power. Although CAES has traditionally served other grid support applications, it is also well suited for wind balancing applications due its ability to provide long duration storage, its fast ramp rates and its high part load efficiencies. In addition, geologies potentially suitable for CAES appear to be abundant in regions with high-quality wind resources. This is especially true of porous rock formations, which have the potential to be the least costly air storage option for CAES. The characteristics of formations suitable for CAES storage and the challenges associated with using air as a storage fluid are discussed. An optimization framework is developed for analyzing the cost of baseload plants comprised of wind turbine arrays backed by natural gas-fired generating capacity and/or CAES. The optimization model analyzes changes to key aspects of the system configuration such as the wind turbine rating, the relative capacities of the system components, the size of the CAES storage reservoir and the wind turbine spacing. The response of the optimal system configuration to changes in natural gas price, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions price, capital cost, and wind resource is also considered. Wind turbine rating is given focused attention because of its substantial impact on system configuration and output behavior. The generation cost of baseload wind is compared to that of other baseload options. To highlight the carbon-mitigation potential of baseload wind, the competition with coal power (with and without CO2 capture and storage, CCS) is given prominent attention. The ability of alternative options to compete under dispatch competition is explored thereby clarifying the extent to which baseload wind can defend high capacity factors in the market. This

  9. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This is a listing of 221 baseload power plant units currently in the planning stage. The list shows the plant owner, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, major equipment suppliers (steam generator, turbogenerator, and flue gas desulfurization system), partner, and date the plant is to be online. This data is a result of a survey by the journal of power plant owners.

  10. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This is a tabulation of the results of this magazines survey of current plans for new baseload power plants. The table lists the unit name, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, suppliers for steam generator, turbine generator and flue gas desulfurization equipment, date due on-line, and any non-utility participants. The table includes fossil-fuel plants, nuclear plants, geothermal, biomass and hydroelectric plants.

  11. Utilities expand baseload power plant plans

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.

    1993-04-01

    This article examines the plans being made by electric utilities to expand the number of baseload plants to accommodate increasing power demands. The results of a survey of utility's construction plans is presented. The topics include current construction, construction planning in the Southeast, current baseload technology, nuclear potential, and incorporation of environmental externalities impact in planning.

  12. How do horizontal neutral winds create vertical plasma flows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliunas, V. M.

    2012-12-01

    The neutral-wind dynamo process produces a configuration of plasma flow that in general (particularly at low magnetic latitudes) includes vertical bulk flow components, even when the neutral winds are assumed to be purely horizontal at all altitudes. Conventionally the plasma flow is described as the E × B drift from the dynamo electric field, the vertical flow component being ascribed to the meridional component of E crossed with the horizontal component of B. This relation between the plasma flow and the electric field, however, merely states a necessary condition for the assumed quasi-steady state; it says nothing about how the quasi-steady state was created, or how either of the two quantities was produced. It has been shown (Buneman, 1992; Vasyliūnas, 2001) that, in a plasma sufficiently dense so that {VA2<create a plasma bulk flow, linear momentum must be added to the plasma, by some force acting on it. In the ionospheric dynamo process, linear momentum is carried by the neutral wind, but it can be transferred to the plasma only by plasma-neutral collisions; with the plasma initially at rest and the neutral wind assumed to flow horizontally everywhere, collisions cannot add vertical linear momentum to the plasma. The Lorentz force J × B, as long as J is described by the conventional ionospheric Ohm's law, simply balances the collisional frictional force (from plasma-neutral velocity difference) and does not add any net momentum to the plasma. In a time-dependent calculation of neutral-wind dynamo evolution (steady neutral wind imposed on an initially stationary plasma), a transient initial current appears, which does not obey the conventional ionospheric Ohm's law but produces an unbalanced J × B force that accelerates the plasma. The vertical component of this force can create the vertical plasma flows that exist in the asymptotic quasi-steady-state configuration. (The low

  13. LPG-recovery processes for baseload LNG plants examined

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, C.H.

    1997-11-24

    With demand on the rise, LPG produced from a baseload LNG plant becomes more attractive as a revenue-earning product similar to LNG. Efficient use of gas expanders in baseload LNG plants for LPG production therefore becomes more important. Several process variations for LPG recovery in baseload LNG plants are reviewed here. Exergy analysis (based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics) is applied to three cases to compare energy efficiency resulting from integration with the main liquefaction process. The paper discusses extraction in a baseload plant, extraction requirements, process recovery parameters, extraction process variations, and exergy analysis.

  14. 75 FR 57271 - Creating an Offshore Wind Industry in the United States: A National Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Creating an Offshore Wind Industry in the United States: A... Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Wind and Water Power Program, is planning a series of public events to exchange information on the development of offshore wind energy...

  15. Lightweight power bus for a baseload nuclear reactor in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Lowell D.; Hoffman, Dennis J.; Oberly, Charles E.

    Metallic superconductors requiring refrigeration in the range of 4 to 10 K are of no benefit to the baseload space power system bus because the refrigeration and insulation constraints are too severe. The ceramic superconductors that can operate in the range of 20 to 100 K alleviate a great deal of the refrigeration problem and can compete with conventional hot bus distribution systems on the basis of mass for a bus exceeding a few meters in length. The ultimate benefit of the superconducting bus to the space power system will not be the mass savings. The great benefit of the superconducting bus will be the enormous reduction in bus voltage requirements due to the zero voltage drop along the bus. Low bus voltage (less than 100 Vdc) will permit a conventional dielectric insulation technology to be utilized as baseload powers are forced above 10 kW on spacecraft.

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic generator scaling analysis for baseload commercial powerplants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swallom, D. W.; Pian, C. C. P.

    1983-08-01

    MHD generator channel scaling analyses have been performed to definitize the effect of generator size and oxygen enrichment on channel performance. These studies have shown that MHD generator channels can be designed to operate efficiently over the range of 250 to 2135 thermal megawatts. The optimum design conditions for each of the thermal inputs were established by investigating various combinations of electrical load parameters, pressure ratios, magnetic field profiles, and channel lengths. These results provide design flexibility for the baseload combined cycle MHD/steam power plant.

  17. Putting baseload to work on the night shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy storage systems to make use of baseload electric generating capacity during times of peak demand and thus conserve the more expensive fossil fuels generally employed for peak power generation is discussed. Means for storing baseload electricity generated from coal or nuclear plants are examined, with attention given to pumped water storage both above and below ground, compressed air storage and advanced-technology batteries. Systems of end-use storage, where electricity generated by the utility at night and available at lower rates is stored at the place of utilization to provide daytime space heating, hot water and even air conditioning and vehicle power, are considered, and the storage of solar energy is presented as an illustration of ways in which utility and customer energy storage can complement one another. It is concluded that the range of applications, potential benefits and technological potential of energy storage at the utility and consumer levels will ensure an important future role for this technology.

  18. Cost effective seasonal storage of wind energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.; Keck, M.B.

    1995-09-01

    Seasonal variation of the wind electric potential on the Great Plains could be a significant obstacle to the large scale utilization of wind generated electricity. Wind power densities usually are greatest during the spring, and decrease by at least 30 percent relative to the annual average in many areas during the summer months, when demand is highest. This problem can be overcome by using an oversized wind farm and a compressed air energy storage system (a baseload wind energy system). A minimum volume storage reservoir is needed to transform intermittent wind energy to baseload power, while a larger reservoir can be used to store excess power produced during the spring for either peak power or baseload output during the summer. The yearly average cost of energy increases by about 3 percent for the largest storage reservoir, indicating the seasonal storage of wind energy is economically as well as technically feasible.

  19. Sowing the Seeds for a Bountiful Harvest: Shaping the Rules and Creating the Tools for Wisconsin's Next Generation of Wind Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Vickerman, Michael Jay

    2012-03-29

    Project objectives are twofold: (1) to engage wind industry stakeholders to participate in formulating uniform permitting standards applicable to commercial wind energy installations; and (2) to create and maintain an online Wisconsin Wind Information Center to enable policymakers and the public to increaser their knowledge of and support for wind generation in Wisconsin.

  20. Flexible Coal: Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.; Lew, D.; Kumar, N.

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  1. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler

  2. Recent tax law changes create new opportunities for leasing wind energy property

    SciTech Connect

    Schutzer, George J.

    2010-01-15

    Recent changes in tax law make leveraged lease transactions far more attractive on paper than they were before the changes. However, changes in the economy and the financial industry and other changes in law counterbalance the favorable tax law changes and make it uncertain whether lease transactions will be used to finance new wind facilities. (author)

  3. Comparison Between Vortices Created and Evolving During Fixed and Dynamic Solar Wind Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collado-Vega, Yaireska M.; Kessel, R. L.; Sibeck, David Gary; Kalb, V. L.; Boller, R. A.; Rastaetter, L.

    2013-01-01

    We employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to examine the creation and evolution of plasma vortices within the Earth's magnetosphere for steady solar wind plasma conditions. Very few vortices form during intervals of such solar wind conditions. Those that do remain in fixed positions for long periods (often hours) and exhibit rotation axes that point primarily in the x or y direction, parallel (or antiparallel) to the local magnetospheric magnetic field direction. Occasionally, the orientation of the axes rotates from the x direction to another direction. We compare our results with simulations previously done for unsteady solar wind conditions. By contrast, these vortices that form during intervals of varying solar wind conditions exhibit durations ranging from seconds (in the case of those with axes in the x or y direction) to minutes (in the case of those with axes in the z direction) and convect antisunward. The local-time dependent sense of rotation seen in these previously reported vortices suggests an interpretation in terms of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. For steady conditions, the biggest vortices developed on the dayside (about 6R(E) in diameter), had their rotation axes aligned with the y direction and had the longest periods of duration. We attribute these vortices to the flows set up by reconnection on the high latitude magnetopause during intervals of northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) orientation. This is the first time that vortices due to high-latitude reconnection have been visualized. The model also successfully predicts the principal characteristics of previously reported plasma vortices within the magnetosphere, namely their dimension, flow velocities, and durations.

  4. Effects of the canopy created velocity inflection in the wake development in a large wind turbine array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, Oxana; Avramenko, Anna; Chaudhari, Ashvinkumar; Hellsten, Antti

    2016-09-01

    Large Eddy Simulations (LES) are carried out using OpenFOAM to investigate the canopy created velocity inflection in the wake development of a large wind turbine array. Simulations are performed for two cases with and without forest separately. Results of the simulations are further compared to clearly show the changes in the wake and turbulence structure due to the forest. Moreover, the actual mechanical shaft power produced by a single turbine in the array is calculated for both cases. Aerodynamic efficiency and power losses due to the forest are discussed as well.

  5. Deep Chandra Observations of the Pulsar Wind Nebula Created by PSR B0355+54

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, Noel; Rangelov, Blagoy; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.; Romani, Roger W.; Posselt, Bettina; Slane, Patrick; Temim, Tea; Ng, C.-Y.; Bucciantini, Niccolò; Bykov, Andrei; Swartz, Douglas A.; Buehler, Rolf

    2016-12-01

    We report on Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) observations of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) associated with PSR B0355+54 (eight observations with a 395 ks total exposure, performed over an eight month period). We investigated the spatial and spectral properties of the emission coincident with the pulsar, compact nebula (CN), and extended tail. We find that the CN morphology can be interpreted in a way that suggests a small angle between the pulsar spin axis and our line of sight, as inferred from the radio data. On larger scales, emission from the 7\\prime (≈ 2 pc) tail is clearly seen. We also found hints of two faint extensions nearly orthogonal to the direction of the pulsar’s proper motion. The spectrum extracted at the pulsar position can be described with an absorbed power-law + blackbody model. The nonthermal component can be attributed to magnetospheric emission, while the thermal component can be attributed to emission from either a hot spot (e.g., a polar cap) or the entire neutron star surface. Surprisingly, the spectrum of the tail shows only a slight hint of cooling with increasing distance from the pulsar. This implies either a low magnetic field with fast flow speed, or particle reacceleration within the tail. We estimate physical properties of the PWN and compare the morphologies of the CN and the extended tail with those of other bow shock PWNe observed with long CXO exposures.

  6. Sulfur Based Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Bunsen

    2014-11-01

    This project investigates the engineering and economic feasibility of supplying baseload power using a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant integrated with sulfur based thermochemical heat storage. The technology stores high temperature solar heat in the chemical bonds of elemental sulfur. Energy is recovered as high temperature heat upon sulfur combustion. Extensive developmental and design work associated with sulfur dioxide (SO2) disproportionation and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) decomposition chemical reactions used in this technology had been carried out in the two completed phases of this project. The feasibility and economics of the proposed concept was demonstrated and determined.

  7. Near-infrared polarimetric adaptive optics observations of NGC 1068: a torus created by a hydromagnetic outflow wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Packham, C.; Jones, T. J.; Nikutta, R.; McMaster, L.; Mason, R. E.; Elvis, M.; Shenoy, D.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Ramírez, E.; González Martín, O.; Hönig, S. F.; Levenson, N. A.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Perlman, E.

    2015-09-01

    We present J' and K' imaging linear polarimetric adaptive optics observations of NGC 1068 using MMT-Pol on the 6.5-m MMT. These observations allow us to study the torus from a magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) framework. In a 0.5 arcsec (30 pc) aperture at K', we find that polarization arising from the passage of radiation from the inner edge of the torus through magnetically aligned dust grains in the clumps is the dominant polarization mechanism, with an intrinsic polarization of 7.0 ± 2.2 per cent. This result yields a torus magnetic field strength in the range of 4-82 mG through paramagnetic alignment, and 139^{+11}_{-20} mG through the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method. The measured position angle (P.A.) of polarization at K' is found to be similar to the P.A. of the obscuring dusty component at few parsec scales using infrared interferometric techniques. We show that the constant component of the magnetic field is responsible for the alignment of the dust grains, and aligned with the torus axis on to the plane of the sky. Adopting this magnetic field configuration and the physical conditions of the clumps in the MHD outflow wind model, we estimate a mass outflow rate ≤0.17 M⊙ yr-1 at 0.4 pc from the central engine for those clumps showing near-infrared dichroism. The models used were able to create the torus in a time-scale of ≥105 yr with a rotational velocity of ≤1228 km s-1 at 0.4 pc. We conclude that the evolution, morphology and kinematics of the torus in NGC 1068 can be explained within a MHD framework.

  8. Development and Demonstration of an Innovative Thermal Energy Storage System for Baseload Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, D. Yogi

    2012-09-04

    The objective of this project is to research and develop a thermal energy storage system (operating range 300°C - 450°C) based on encapsulated phase change materials (PCM) that can meet the utility-scale base-load concentrated solar power plant requirements at much lower system costs compared to the existing thermal energy storage (TES) concepts. The major focus of this program is to develop suitable encapsulation methods for existing low-cost phase change materials that would provide a cost effective and reliable solution for thermal energy storage to be integrated in solar thermal power plants. This project proposes a TES system concept that will allow for an increase of the capacity factor of the present CSP technologies to 75% or greater and reduce the cost to less than $20/kWht.

  9. Potential for concentrating solar power to provide baseload and dispatchable power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfenninger, Stefan; Gauché, Paul; Lilliestam, Johan; Damerau, Kerstin; Wagner, Fabian; Patt, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the possibility of maintaining a reliable electric power system with high shares of renewables, but only assuming the deployment of specific technologies in precise ratios, careful demand-side management, or grid-scale storage technologies. Any scalable renewable technology that could provide either baseload or dispatchable power would allow greater flexibility in planning a balanced system, and therefore would be especially valuable. Many analysts have suggested that concentrating solar power (CSP) could do just that. Here we systematically test this proposition for the first time. We simulate the operation of CSP plant networks incorporating thermal storage in four world regions where CSP is already being deployed, and optimize their siting, operation and sizing to satisfy a set of realistic demand scenarios. In all four regions, we show that with an optimally designed and operated system, it is possible to guarantee up to half of peak capacity before CSP plant costs substantially increase.

  10. Quantification of hourly variability in NO(x) emissions for baseload coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Amr; Frey, H Christopher

    2003-11-01

    The objectives of this paper are to (1) quantify variability in hourly utility oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission factors, activity factors, and total emissions; (2) investigate the autocorrelation structure and evaluate cyclic effects at short and long scales of the time series of total hourly emissions; (3) compare emissions for the ozone (O3) season versus the entire year to identify seasonal differences, if any; and (4) evaluate interannual variability. Continuous emissions monitoring data were analyzed for 1995 and 1998 for 32 units from nine baseload power plants in the Charlotte, NC, airshed. Unit emissions have a strong 24-hr cycle attributable primarily to the capacity factor. Typical ranges of the coefficient of variation for emissions at a given hour of the day were from 0.2 to 0.45. Little difference was found when comparing weekend emissions with the entire week or when comparing the O3 season with the entire year. There were substantial differences in the mean and standard deviation of emissions when comparing 1995 and 1998 data, indicative of the effect of retrofits of control technology during the intervening time. The wide range of variability and its autocorrelation should be accounted for when developing probabilistic utility emission inventories for analysis of near-term future episodes.

  11. Flexible Coal: An Example Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  12. Flexible Coal: An Example Evolution from Baseload to Peaking Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-first century power systems, with higher penetration levels of low-carbon energy, smart grids, and other emerging technologies, will favor resources that have low marginal costs and provide system flexibility (e.g., the ability to cycle on and off to follow changes in variable renewable energy plant output). Questions remain about both the fate of coal plants in this scenario and whether they can cost-effectively continue to operate if they cycle routinely. The experience from the CGS plant demonstrates that coal plants can become flexible resources. This flexibility - namely the ability to cycle on and off and run at lower output (below 40% of capacity) - requires limited hardware modifications but extensive modifications to operational practice. Cycling does damage the plant and impact its life expectancy compared to baseload operations. Nevertheless, strategic modifications, proactive inspections and training programs, among other operational changes to accommodate cycling, can minimize the extent of damage and optimize the cost of maintenance. CGS's cycling, but not necessarily the associated price tag, is replicable. Context - namely, power market opportunities and composition of the generation fleet - will help determine for other coal plants the optimal balance between the level of cycling-related forced outages and the level of capital investment required to minimize those outages. Replicating CGS's experience elsewhere will likely require a higher acceptance of forced outages than regulators and plant operators are accustomed to; however, an increase in strategic maintenance can minimize the impact on outage rates.

  13. Erosion: Wind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion refers to the detachment, transport and deposition of sediment by wind. It is a dynamic, physical process where loose, dry, bare soils are transported by strong winds. Wind erosion is a soil degrading process that affects over 500 million ha of land worldwide and creates between 500 an...

  14. Development of novel sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion with gelatin and HPMC: physicochemical characterization and pharmacokinetics in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Tae; Balakrishnan, Prabagar; Oh, Dong Hoon; Joe, Kwan Hyung; Kim, Young Ran; Hwang, Doo Hyung; Lee, Yong-Bok; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2010-09-15

    To develop a novel sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion with enhanced solubility and bioavailability, various solid dispersions were prepared using a spray drying technique with hydrophilic polymers such as gelatin, HPMC and citric acid. Their solubility, thermal characteristics and crystallinity were investigated. The dissolution and pharmacokinetics of the sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion were then compared with a sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate-loaded commercial product (Reductil). The solid dispersions prepared with gelatin gave higher drug solubility than those prepared without gelatin, irrespective of the amount of polymer. The sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersions containing hydrophilic polymer and citric acid showed higher drug solubility compared to sibutramine base and sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate. Among the formulations tested, the solid dispersion composed of sibutramine base/gelatin/HPMC/citric acid at the weight ratio of 1/0.8/0.2/0.5 gave the highest solubility of 5.03+/-0.24 mg/ml. Our DSC and powder X-ray diffraction results showed that the drug was present in an altered amorphous form in this solid dispersion. The difference factor (f(1)) values between solid dispersion and commercial product were 2.82, 6.65 and 6.31 at pH 1.2, 4.0 and 6.8, respectively. Furthermore, they had the similarity factor (f(2)) value of 65.68, 53.43 and 58.97 at pH 1.2, 4.0 and 6.8, respectively. Our results suggested that the solid dispersion and commercial product produced a similar correlation of dissolution profiles at all pH ranges. The AUC, C(max) and T(max) of the parent drug and metabolite I and II from the solid dispersion were not significantly different from those of the commercial product, suggesting that the solid dispersion might be bioequivalent to the commercial product in beagle dogs. Thus, the sibutramine base-loaded solid dispersion prepared with gelatin, HPMC and citric acid is a promising candidate for improving the

  15. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  16. Preliminary estimates of wind power potential at the Nevada test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, H. G.

    1981-07-01

    An assessment of the potential for the useful conversion of wind power to electrical power is given for a Nevada test site. Annual wind power availability was estimated to be sufficient. The percentage of low wind hours was found to be high, and the persistence of favorably strong winds for periods of several days at a time was low. There was a pronounced diurnal cycle in wind power availability. It is concluded that baseload electrical power requirements would require alternate energy sources. Cost effectiveness of this configuration would have to be determined.

  17. The coal-wind connection

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-01-15

    The USA now has more than 10,000 MW of wind capacity and more wind farms are expected to be built. However transmissions constraints are great, especially in the Northwest and upper Midwest, where abundant wind resources span sparsely populated regions. These areas also hold major deposits of coal. Partnerships are being developed to share transmission to accommodate both new wind and new coal-fired capacity. Wyoming may well be the epicentre of the issue. Another idea, in wind-prone Texas, is to further integrate wind with baseload fossil power resources by creation of competitive renewable energy zones (CREZs). New transmission corridors will be set up linking the renewable energy zones to power markets in ERCOT, the Electric Reliability Council of Texas. There are problems of co-developing coal and wind capacity with common transmission. If coal gasification technology emerges on a commercial scale there would be a good opportunity for integrated gasification combined cycle which can cycle to firm up variable wind generation. Several coal companies in Wyoming are considering gasifying coal and putting it into the pipeline. 2 photos.

  18. Integration Costs: Are They Unique to Wind and Solar Energy? Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B.; Clark, C.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest in assessing wind integration costs. This is understandable because wind energy does increase the variability and uncertainty that must be managed on a power system. However, there are other sources of variability and uncertainty that also must be managed in the power system. This paper describes some of these sources and shows that even the introduction of base-load generation can cause additional ramping and cycling. The paper concludes by demonstrating that integration costs are not unique to wind and solar, and should perhaps instead be assessed by power plant and load performance instead of technology type.

  19. Betting Big on Baseload

    SciTech Connect

    Gabaldon, Daniel; Spiegel, Eric; Van den Berg, Joe

    2006-08-15

    Some risks are unavoidable. Rather than pretending to forecast the future, successful companies will need to learn from other cyclical, capital-intensive industries: investing wisely, learning to build asset portfolios consonant with their owners' appetite for risk, and relentlessly seeking opportunities to improve efficiency. (author)

  20. Supplying Reliable Electricity and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, C. L.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2007-12-01

    Wind is the world's fastest growing electric energy source. Because it is intermittent, though, wind is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid is a simple and effective way of reducing deliverable wind power swings caused by wind intermittency. As more farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does the probability that all sites experience the same wind regime at the same time. Consequently, the array behaves more and more similarly to a single farm with steady wind speed and thus steady deliverable wind power. In this study, benefits of interconnecting wind farms were evaluated for 19 sites, located in the Midwestern United States, with annual average wind speeds at 80 m above ground, the hub height of modern wind turbines, greater than 6.9 m/s (class 3 or greater). It was found that an average of 33% and a maximum of 47% of yearly-averaged wind power from interconnected farms can be used as reliable, baseload electric power. Equally significant, interconnecting multiple wind farms to a common point, then connecting that point to a far-away city can allow the long-distance portion of transmission capacity to be reduced, for example, by 20% with only a 1.6% loss of energy. Although most parameters, such as intermittency, improved less than linearly as the number of interconnected sites increased, no saturation of the benefits was found. Thus, the benefits of interconnection continue to increase with more and more interconnected sites.

  1. Wind power generator

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, F.

    1980-08-26

    A wind power generator comprises element opposing the force of the wind pivotally mounted and extending radially from the pivot. A counterweight also mounts to the pivot and extends radially from the same. The wind opposing element also mounts to another pivot between a first and second portion thereof. A second weight aids the turning of the wind opposing element about the first pivot to create a rocking motion of the counterweight.

  2. Radiation damping of near-shore oscillations created by sudden wind set-down: a new approach with non-linear analysis of run-up and run-down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeren, M. S.; Postacioglu, N.; Canli, U.

    2012-12-01

    In this study we are developing an analytical approach to the radiation damping of the oscillations created due to sudden cessation of the wind blowing from the coast towards the open ocean . For the shoreline slope we follow Carrier-Greenspan approach to treat the non-linear problem. This approach is based on a particular hodograph transformation of the shallow water equations using two auxiliary variables, both function of time and space. This analysis is valid over a constant slope in one-dimensional propagation. In the far-field, the wave equation is linearized. A matching between the linear solution off-shore and the non-linear solution near the shore is performed at the point of bathymetric discontinuity where the constant-slope part of the bathymetry reaches its deepest point. Our aim is to quantify the radiation damping, namely the energy loss of the system due to the waves propagating towards open-ocean as a function of the magnitude of bathymetric discontinuity. We calculate the response to a wind forcing that is logarithmic in space and periodic in time using Green's functions. A sudden cessation of the forcing is a linear combination of these type of excitations. The radiation condition off-shore renders the natural frequencies of oscillations of the system complex. Accordingly, the integration over the continuous frequency spectrum becomes a series of complex residues. We calculate these residues numerically. Solutions indicate that the radiation damping can be significant if the bathymetric discontinuity is negligible. However when the non-dimensional discontinuity is 20 (all depths are normalized using the deepest point at the end of the constant-slope part) the amplitude of the oscillations is reduced about 20% over one period of oscillation.

  3. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Tim; Preus, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  4. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Homicz, Greg

    2002-04-01

    Blade fatigue life is an important element in determining the economic viability of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). VAWT-SAL Vertical Axis Wind Turbine- Stochastic Aerodynamic Loads Ver 3.2 numerically simulates the stochastic (random0 aerodynamic loads of the Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) created by the atomspheric turbulence. The program takes into account the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and assumed turbulence properties.

  5. Wind at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Stephen

    1998-01-01

    Describes a project in which students create wind machines to harness the wind's power and do mechanical work. Demonstrates kinetic and potential energy conversions and makes work and power calculations meaningful. Students conduct hands-on investigations with their machines. (DDR)

  6. Global assessment of high-altitude wind power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, C. L.; Caldeira, K.

    2008-12-01

    Wind speed generally increases with altitude to the tropopause; hence, the power available in high-altitude winds is enormous, especially near the jet streams. We assess for the first time the available wind power resource worldwide at altitudes between 500 and 12,000 m. The highest wind power densities are found near 10,000 m over Japan and eastern China, the eastern coast of the United States, southern Australia, and north-eastern Africa. Below 1000 m, the best locations are the southern tip of South America, the coasts along the northern Pacific and Atlantic oceans, the central-eastern coast of Africa, and the north-eastern coast of South America. Because jet streams vary locally and seasonally, however, the high-altitude wind power resource is less steady than needed for baseload power. However, dynamically reaching the height with the highest winds, increasing the area covered with high-altitude devices, and using batteries for storage can effectively reduce intermittency. When high-altitude wind power devices are distributed uniformly throughout the entire atmosphere, numerical simulations show negligible effects on the global climate for low densities, but surface cooling, decreased precipitation, and greater sea ice cover for high densities.

  7. Wind farm electrical system

    DOEpatents

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  8. Using Encapsulated Phase Change Material in Thermal Energy Storage for Baseload Concentrating Solar Power (EPCM-TES)

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Anoop

    2013-12-15

    Terrafore successfully demonstrated and optimized the manufacturing of capsules containing phase-changing inorganic salts. The phase change was used to store thermal energy collected from a concentrating solar-power plant as latent heat. This latent heat, in addition to sensible heat increased the energy density (energy stored per unit weight of salt) by over 50%, thus requiring 40% less salt and over 60% less capsule container. Therefore, the cost to store high-temperature thermal energy collected in a concentrating solar power plant will be reduced by almost 40% or more, as compared to conventional two-tank, sensible-only storage systems. The cost for thermal energy storage (TES) system is expected to achieve the Sun Shot goal of $15 per kWh(t). Costs associated with poor heat-transfer in phase change materials (PCM) were also eliminated. Although thermal energy storage that relies on the latent heat of fusion of PCM improves energy density by as much as 50%, upon energy discharge the salt freezes and builds on the heat transfer surfaces. Since these salts have low thermal conductivity, large heat-transfer areas, or larger conventional heat-exchangers are needed, which increases costs. By encapsulating PCM in small capsules we have increased the heat transfer area per unit volume of salt and brought the heat transfer fluid in direct contact with the capsules. These two improvements have increased the heat transfer coefficient and boosted heat transfer. The program was successful in overcoming the phenomenon of melt expansion in the capsules, which requires the creation of open volume in the capsules or shell to allow for expansion of the molten salt on melting and is heated above its melting point to 550°C. Under contract with the Department of Energy, Terrafore Inc. and Southwest Research Institute, developed innovative method(s) to economically create the open volume or void in the capsule. One method consists of using a sacrificial polymer coating as the

  9. Improving the Technical, Environmental, and Social Performance of Wind Energy Systems Using Biomass-Based Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.

    2006-01-01

    A completely renewable baseload electricity generation system is proposed by combining wind energy, compressed air energy storage, and biomass gasification. This system can eliminate problems associated with wind intermittency and provide a source of electrical energy functionally equivalent to a large fossil or nuclear power plant. Compressed air energy storage (CAES) can be economically deployed in the Midwestern US, an area with significant low-cost wind resources. CAES systems require a combustible fuel, typically natural gas, which results in fuel price risk and greenhouse gas emissions. Replacing natural gas with synfuel derived from biomass gasification eliminates the use of fossil fuels, virtually eliminating net CO{sub 2} emissions from the system. In addition, by deriving energy completely from farm sources, this type of system may reduce some opposition to long distance transmission lines in rural areas, which may be an obstacle to large-scale wind deployment.

  10. Analysis methods for wind turbine control and electrical system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinrichsen, E. N.

    1995-01-01

    The integration of new energy technologies into electric power systems requires methods which recognize the full range of dynamic events in both the new generating unit and the power system. Since new energy technologies are initially perceived as small contributors to large systems, little attention is generally paid to system integration, i.e. dynamic events in the power system are ignored. As a result, most new energy sources are only capable of base-load operation, i.e. they have no load following or cycling capability. Wind turbines are no exception. Greater awareness of this implicit (and often unnecessary) limitation is needed. Analysis methods are recommended which include very low penetration (infinite bus) as well as very high penetration (stand-alone) scenarios.

  11. Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 6.9, Longitude 69.4 East (290.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon

  12. Wind Energy Teachers Guide

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-01-01

    This guide, created by the American Wind Association, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is a learning tool about wind energy targeted toward grades K-12. The guide provides teacher information, ideas for sparking children's and students' interest, suggestions for activities to undertake in and outside the classroom, and research tools for both teachers and students. Also included is an additional resources section.

  13. Wind Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2008-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that provides an hourly simulation of a wind energy system, which includes a calculation of wind turbine output as a power-curve fit of wind speed.

  14. Wind Erosion in Tithonium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    30 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows wind-eroded sedimentary rocks in Tithonium Chasma, one of the troughs of the Valles Marineris system. The winds responsible for the majority of the erosion blew from the northeast (upper right), creating yardangs (wind erosion ridges) with their tapered ends pointing downwind.

    Location near: 4.6oS, 88.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  15. Meteorology (Wind)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Wind speed at 50 m (m/s) The average and percent difference minimum and ... are given.   Percent of time for ranges of wind speed at 50 m (percent) Percentage [frequency] of time that wind ... be adjusted to heights from 10 to 300 meters using the Gipe power law. Wind speeds may be adjusted for different terrain by selecting from ...

  16. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  17. Wind Energy Ordinance Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    F. Oteri

    2010-09-01

    Due to increasing energy demands in the United States and more installed wind projects, rural communities and local governments with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to create ordinances to regulate wind turbine installations. Ordinances are laws, often found within municipal codes that provide various degrees of control to local governments. These laws cover issues such as zoning, traffic, consumer protection, and building codes. Wind energy ordinances reflect local needs and wants regarding wind turbines within county or city lines and aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. Since 2008 when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory released a report on existing wind energy ordinances, many more ordinances have been established throughout the United States, and this trend is likely to continue in the near future as the wind energy industry grows. This fact sheet provides an overview of elements found in typical wind energy ordinances to educate state and local government officials, as well as policy makers.

  18. Wind Energy Ordinances (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Due to increasing energy demands in the United States and more installed wind projects, rural communities and local governments with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to create ordinances to regulate wind turbine installations. Ordinances are laws, often found within municipal codes that provide various degrees of control to local governments. These laws cover issues such as zoning, traffic, consumer protection, and building codes. Wind energy ordinances reflect local needs and wants regarding wind turbines within county or city lines and aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. Since 2008 when the National Renewable Energy Laboratory released a report on existing wind energy ordinances, many more ordinances have been established throughout the United States, and this trend is likely to continue in the near future as the wind energy industry grows. This fact sheet provides an overview of elements found in typical wind energy ordinances to educate state and local government officials, as well as policy makers.

  19. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  20. Tornado type wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Ch.-T.

    1984-06-05

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  1. Creating a Health Journal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Resources Healthcare Management Working With Your Doctor Creating a Personal Health Journal (Health Diary) Creating a Personal Health Journal (Health Diary) Healthcare ManagementWorking ...

  2. Amplified wind turbine apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An invention related to the utilization of wind energy and increasing the effects thereof for power generation is described. Amplified wind turbine apparatus is disclosed wherein ambient inlet air is prerotated in a first air rotation chamber having a high pressure profile increasing the turbulence and Reynolds number thereof. A second rotation chamber adjacent and downstream of the turbine has a low pressure core profile whereby flow across the turbine is accelerated and thereafter exits the turbine apparatus through a draft anti-interference device. Interference with ambient winds at the outlet of the turbine apparatus is thus eliminated. Pivotable vanes controlled in response to prevailing wind direction admit air to the chambers and aid in imparting rotation. A central core may be utilized for creating the desired pressure profile in the chamber.

  3. Economic Development Impacts of 20% Wind (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.; Tegen, S.

    2007-06-01

    Meeting 20% of the nation's electricity demand with wind energy will require enourmous investment in wind farms, manufacturing, and infrastructure. This investment will create substantial economic development impacts on local, regional, and national levels. This conference poster for Windpower 2007 outlines the various economic development impacts from a 20% wind scenario.

  4. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing

  5. WARP{trademark} solar/wind power: Green, user-friendly and cost effective for the new millennium international power markets

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrich, A.L.; Rainey, D.L.; Olson, P.W.

    1999-11-01

    The Wind Amplified Rotor Platform (WARP{trademark}) system is a highly effective and versatile modular wind amplifier power design. WARP is intended to enhance use of proven wind turbines, albeit with lower risk and more reliability, using much simpler, smaller size and lower cost turbines. Hence, WARP systems can be easily packaged to any power size by virtue of its modular amplifier building blocks. Plus, WARP can operate integrally and synergistically in baseload fashion with fossil fired power plants like gas turbines, micro-turbines and diesels while reducing fuel consumption--hence pollutants--by over 50% to 70%. In other words, this renewable power technology is not intended as an us (renewable) versus them (fossil) power system; rather it is a complementary technology with excellent economy and environmentally green characteristics to serve a variety of markets.

  6. Moist wind relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The equations describing the temporal and spatial behavior of the kinematic moisture and heat flux are described. In these nonlinear equations, the contribution by diabatic processes to the large-scale flux is composed of two parts. One part is associated with a Rayleigh damping term while the other arises from temporal and spatial changes in the pressure gradient term. It was found that the influence of diabatic processes on large-scale moisture fluxes depends greatly on the degree of balance between forcing and damping terms in the governing kinematic flux equations. The existence of a near balance requires a reduction in the large-scale horizontal geostrophic wind speed. Based on an examination of the moisture flux equations, it is argued that reductions in the large-scale horizontal wind speed observed within major cumulus cloud systems help conserve large-scale moisture fluxes. The deviation of the wind from geostrophic conditions is easily estimated for a near balanced state. This wind modification induces secondary vertical circulations that contribute to convergence, creating or supporting long-lived mesoscale flows. We believe this process to be a major supporter of the mesoscale circulations observed in severe storms and squall lines. In the tropics the wind modification has an antitriptic relationship. These diagnostic findings suggest possible modifications to the wind field in the application of a cumulus parameterization, and may be important in diabatic initialization of numerical weather prediction models.

  7. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein; Madden, Frank

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  8. Mass customization of WARP{trademark} wind power plant design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrich, A.L.; Rainey, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    Steady development of wind power technology and the accumulation of extensive operating experience with large clusters of electric utility connected turbines and have resulted in the emergence of wind power as a viable and attractive source of electricity for utilities, particularly in developing nations. A highly effective modular wind power technology, the Wind Amplified rotor Platforms (WARP{trademark}) System, which utilizes many identical vertically integrated Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP{trademark}) Windframe{trademark} building block modules with standard micro-turbines, forms the basis for mass customization (capacity and configuration) in power plant design and construction. WARP wind power brings the fundamentals of mass production as well as economies of scale to power plant design and construction. It can blend well with progressive engineering and construction (E and C) firm approaches which are predicated on a family of standardized designs to reduce cost, improve schedule and quality of units deployed. Since electricity has become the new world commodity with an imperative of low-cost, high-quality and environmentally responsible energy, WARP Systems designs have been proposed to meet these objectives through its inherent efficiency, mass customization and mass production features. WARP system`s ability to integrally operate with photovoltaics, gas turbines or gas diesels, provides also the opportunity to generate baseload power in an environmentally responsible manner.

  9. Enabling Technologies for High Penetration of Wind and Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.

    2011-01-01

    High penetration of variable wind and solar electricity generation will require modifications to the electric power system. This work examines the impacts of variable generation, including uncertainty, ramp rate, ramp range, and potentially excess generation. Time-series simulations were performed in the Texas (ERCOT) grid where different mixes of wind, solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power provide up to 80% of the electric demand. Different enabling technologies were examined, including conventional generator flexibility, demand response, load shifting, and energy storage. A variety of combinations of these technologies enabled low levels of surplus or curtailed wind and solar generation depending on the desired penetration of renewable sources. At lower levels of penetration (up to about 30% on an energy basis) increasing flexible generation, combined with demand response may be sufficient to accommodate variability and uncertainty. Introduction of load-shifting through real-time pricing or other market mechanisms further increases the penetration of variable generation. The limited time coincidence of wind and solar generation presents increasing challenges as these sources provide greater than 50% of total demand. System flexibility must be increased to the point of virtually eliminating must-run baseload generators during periods of high wind and solar generation. Energy storage also becomes increasingly important as lower cost flexibility options are exhausted. The study examines three classes of energy storage - electricity storage, including batteries and pumped hydro, hybrid storage (compressed-air energy storage), and thermal energy storage. Ignoring long-distance transmission options, a combination of load shifting and storage equal to about 12 hours of average demand may keep renewable energy curtailment below 10% in the simulated system.

  10. Wind sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. B.; Laue, E. G. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus is described for sensing the temperature, velocity, and direction of the wind, including four temperature-dependent crystal oscillators spaced about an axis, a heater centered on the axis, and a screen through which the wind blows to pass over the crystals. In one method of operation, the frequency of the oscillators is taken when the heater is not energized, to obtain the temperature of the wind, and the frequencies of the oscillators are taken after the heater is energized to determine the direction and velocity of the wind. When the heater is energized, the wind causes the downwind crystals to achieve a higher temperature than the upwind crystals, and with the magnitude of the difference indicating the velocity of the wind.

  11. Hot planetary winds near a star: dynamics, wind-wind interactions, and observational signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan; Frank, Adam; Liu, Baowei; Quillen, Alice C.; Blackman, Eric G.; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Signatures of 'evaporative' winds from exoplanets on short (hot) orbits around their host star have been observed in a number of systems. In this paper, we present global adaptive mesh refinement simulations that track the launching of the winds, their expansion through the circumstellar environment, and their interaction with a stellar wind. We focus on purely hydrodynamic flows including the anisotropy of the wind launching and explore the orbital/fluid dynamics of the resulting flows in detail. In particular, we find that a combination of the tidal and Coriolis forces strongly distorts the planetary 'Parker' wind creating 'up-orbit' and 'down-orbit' streams. We characterize the flows in terms of their orbital elements that change depending on their launch position on the planet. We find that the anisotropy in the atmospheric temperature leads to significant backflow on to the planet. The planetary wind interacts strongly with the stellar wind creating instabilities that may cause eventual deposition of planetary gas on to the star. We present synthetic observations of both transit and absorption line-structure for our simulations. For our initial conditions, we find that the orbiting wind material produces absorption signatures at significant distances from the planet and substantial orbit-to-orbit variability. Lyα absorption shows red- and blueshifted features out to 70 km s-1. Finally, using semi-analytic models we constrain the effect of radiation pressure, given the approximation of uniform stellar absorption.

  12. Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ganley, Jason; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-03-15

    Wind energy is a variable and uncertain renewable resource that has long been used to produce mechanical work, and has developed into a large producer of global electricity needs. As renewable sources of energy and feedstocks become more important globally to produce sustainable products, many different processes have started adopting wind power as an energy source. Many times this is through a conversion to hydrogen through electrolysis that allows for a more continuous process input. Other important pathways include methanol and ammonia. As the demand for sustainable products and production pathways increases, and wind power capital costs decrease, the role of wind power in chemical and energy production seems poised to increase significantly.

  13. Development of the WTS-4 wind turbine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasbrouck, T. M.; Divalentin, E.

    Design features, developmental aspects, and financial projections for the WTS-4 4 MW wind turbine are presented. The WTS-4 is a horizontal axis, downwind, two-bladed, variable pitch machine. Start-up is at 7 m/s, rated power is reached at 15 m/s, and shut-down is set at 27 m/s, with all controls operating in a stand-alone mode by means of microprocessors. Each blade is 125 ft long, constructed of filament wound fiberglass reinforced epoxy, and attached at the root to a teetered steel alloy hub, which compensates for the shear caused by the tower shadow. Pitch is controlled by an electrohydraulic mechanism, and can be effected at a rate of 5 deg/s. Details of the nacelle components and costruction are provided, together with features of the system controller and design trade-offs. Cost comparisons with utility scale coal and oil baseload generation plants indicate that wind turbines will become cost competitive by 1985 and are favored thereafter.

  14. Validation of Power Output for the WIND Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.; Clifton, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    Renewable energy integration studies require wind data sets of high quality with realistic representations of the variability, ramping characteristics, and forecast performance for current wind power plants. The Wind Integration National Data Set (WIND) Toolkit is meant to be an update for and expansion of the original data sets created for the weather years from 2004 through 2006 during the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study and the Eastern Wind Integration Study. The WIND Toolkit expands these data sets to include the entire continental United States, increasing the total number of sites represented, and it includes the weather years from 2007 through 2012. In addition, the WIND Toolkit has a finer resolution for both the temporal and geographic dimensions. Three separate data sets will be created: a meteorological data set, a wind power data set, and a forecast data set. This report describes the validation of the wind power data set.

  15. Wind for Schools (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.

    2007-06-01

    Schools are key to achieving the goal of producing 20% of the nation's electricity demand. Most significantly, schools are training the scientists, technicians, businesspeople, decisionmakers, and teachers of the future. What students learn and believe about wind energy will impact the United States' ability to create markets and policy, develop and improve technology, finance and implement projects, and create change in all of our public and private institutions. In the nearer term, school districts have large facility costs, electrical loads, and utility costs. They are always in search of ways to reduce costs or obtain revenue to improve educational programs. Schools value teaching about the science and technology of renewable energy. They are important opinion leaders, particularly in rural communities. And their financial structures are quite different from other institutions (funding, incentives, restrictions, etc.). Learning objectives: The presentation will use case studies, project experience, and discussion with the audience to convey the current status of wind energy applications and education in U.S. schools and understanding of the elements that create a successful school wind energy project. The presentation will provide attendees with a background in the current level of knowledge and generate discussion on several themes.

  16. ELECTRONIC BIVANE WIND DIRECTION INDICATOR

    DOEpatents

    Moses, H.

    1961-05-01

    An apparatus is described for determining and recording three dimensional wind vectors. The apparatus comprises a rotatably mounted azimuthal wind component sensing head and an elevational wind component sensing head mounted to the azimuthal head and adapted to rotate therewith in the azimuthal plane and independently in the elevational plane. A heat source and thermocouples disposed thereabout are mounted within each of the sensing heads, the thermocouples providing electrical signals responsive to the temperature differential created by the passage of air through the sensing tuhes. The thermocouple signals are applied to drive mechanisms which position the sensing heads to a null wind position. Recording means are provided responsive to positional data from the drive mechanisms which are a measurement of the three dimensional wind vectors.

  17. Wind Integration Datasets from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Wind Integration Datasets provide time-series wind data for 2004, 2005, and 2006. They are intended to be used by energy professionals such as transmission planners, utility planners, project developers, and university researchers, helping them to perform comparisons of sites and estimate power production from hypothetical wind plants. NREL cautions that the information from modeled data may not match wind resource information shown on NREL;s state wind maps as they were created for different purposes and using different methodologies.

  18. Wind energy.

    PubMed

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented.

  19. The value of improved wind power forecasting: Grid flexibility quantification, ramp capability analysis, and impacts of electricity market operation timescales

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Florita, Anthony R.; ...

    2016-11-11

    The value of improving wind power forecasting accuracy at different electricity market operation timescales was analyzed by simulating the IEEE 118-bus test system as modified to emulate the generation mixes of the Midcontinent, California, and New England independent system operator balancing authority areas. The wind power forecasting improvement methodology and error analysis for the data set were elaborated. Production cost simulation was conducted on the three emulated systems with a total of 480 scenarios, considering the impacts of different generation technologies, wind penetration levels, and wind power forecasting improvement timescales. The static operational flexibility of the three systems was comparedmore » through the diversity of generation mix, the percentage of must-run baseload generators, as well as the available ramp rate and the minimum generation levels. The dynamic operational flexibility was evaluated by the real-time upward and downward ramp capacity. Simulation results show that the generation resource mix plays a crucial role in evaluating the value of improved wind power forecasting at different timescales. In addition, the changes in annual operational electricity generation costs were mostly influenced by the dominant resource in the system. Lastly, the impacts of pumped-storage resources, generation ramp rates, and system minimum generation level requirements on the value of improved wind power forecasting were also analyzed.« less

  20. The value of improved wind power forecasting: Grid flexibility quantification, ramp capability analysis, and impacts of electricity market operation timescales

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Florita, Anthony R.; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-11-11

    The value of improving wind power forecasting accuracy at different electricity market operation timescales was analyzed by simulating the IEEE 118-bus test system as modified to emulate the generation mixes of the Midcontinent, California, and New England independent system operator balancing authority areas. The wind power forecasting improvement methodology and error analysis for the data set were elaborated. Production cost simulation was conducted on the three emulated systems with a total of 480 scenarios, considering the impacts of different generation technologies, wind penetration levels, and wind power forecasting improvement timescales. The static operational flexibility of the three systems was compared through the diversity of generation mix, the percentage of must-run baseload generators, as well as the available ramp rate and the minimum generation levels. The dynamic operational flexibility was evaluated by the real-time upward and downward ramp capacity. Simulation results show that the generation resource mix plays a crucial role in evaluating the value of improved wind power forecasting at different timescales. In addition, the changes in annual operational electricity generation costs were mostly influenced by the dominant resource in the system. Lastly, the impacts of pumped-storage resources, generation ramp rates, and system minimum generation level requirements on the value of improved wind power forecasting were also analyzed.

  1. Final Report on the Creation of the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit and API: October 1, 2013 - September 30, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-04-08

    The primary objective of this work was to create a state-of-the-art national wind resource data set and to provide detailed wind plant output data for specific sites based on that data set. Corresponding retrospective wind forecasts were also included at all selected locations. The combined information from these activities was used to create the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND), and an extraction tool was developed to allow web-based data access.

  2. Create a Logo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchen, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson that introduced students to graphic art as a career path. Explains that the students met a graphic artist and created a logo for a pretend client. Explains that the students researched logos. (CMK)

  3. Creating physics stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Korea has begun an ambitious 5bn plan to create 50 new institutes dedicated to fundamental research. Michael Banks meets physicist Se-Jung Oh, president of the Institute for Basic Science, to find out more.

  4. Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, Stan

    A "stellar wind" is the continuous, supersonic outflow of matter from the surface layers of a star. Our sun has a solar wind, driven by the gas-pressure expansion of the hot (T > 106 K) solar corona. It can be studied through direct in situ measurement by interplanetary spacecraft; but analogous coronal winds in more distant solar-type stars are so tenuous and transparent that that they are difficult to detect directly. Many more luminous stars have winds that are dense enough to be opaque at certain wavelengths of the star's radiation, making it possible to study their wind outflows remotely through careful interpretation of the observed stellar spectra. Red giant stars show slow, dense winds that may be driven by the pressure from magnetohydrodyanmic waves. As stars with initial mass up to 8 M ⊙ evolve toward the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), a combination of stellar pulsations and radiative scattering off dust can culminate in "superwinds" that strip away the entire stellar envelope, leaving behind a hot white dwarf stellar core with less than the Chandrasekhar mass of ˜ ​​ 1. 4M ⊙. The winds of hot, luminous, massive stars are driven by line-scattering of stellar radiation, but such massive stars can also exhibit superwind episodes, either as Red Supergiants or Luminous Blue Variable stars. The combined wind and superwind mass loss can strip the star's hydrogen envelope, leaving behind a Wolf-Rayet star composed of the products of earlier nuclear burning via the CNO cycle. In addition to such direct effects on a star's own evolution, stellar winds can be a substantial source of mass, momentum, and energy to the interstellar medium, blowing open large cavities or "bubbles" in this ISM, seeding it with nuclear processed material, and even helping trigger the formation of new stars, and influencing their eventual fate as white dwarves or core-collapse supernovae. This chapter reviews the properties of such stellar winds, with an emphasis on the various

  5. Solar and Wind Site Screening Decision Trees

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and NREL created a decision tree to guide state and local governments and other stakeholders through a process for screening sites for their suitability for future redevelopment with solar photovoltaic (PV) energy and wind energy.

  6. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains Wind Power, LLC v. Xcel...

  7. Western Wind Strategy: Addressing Critical Issues for Wind Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Larson; Thomas Carr

    2012-03-30

    The goal of the Western Wind Strategy project was to help remove critical barriers to wind development in the Western Interconnection. The four stated objectives of this project were to: (1) identify the barriers, particularly barriers to the operational integration of renewables and barriers identified by load-serving entities (LSEs) that will be buying wind generation, (2) communicate the barriers to state officials, (3) create a collaborative process to address those barriers with the Western states, utilities and the renewable industry, and (4) provide a role model for other regions. The project has been on the forefront of identifying and informing state policy makers and utility regulators of critical issues related to wind energy and the integration of variable generation. The project has been a critical component in the efforts of states to push forward important reforms and innovations that will enable states to meet their renewable energy goals and lower the cost to consumers of integrating variable generation.

  8. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.; Kelley, N.; Jonkman, B.; Frehlich, R.

    2012-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems that are designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed the validity of physicist G.I. Taylor's 1938 frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) 5-megawatt turbine model to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution was applied to a frozen wind field that was used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements were also evaluated using a large eddy simulation (LES) of a stable boundary layer that was provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The LIDAR measurement scenario investigated consists of a hub-mounted LIDAR that scans a circle of points upwind of the turbine in order to estimate the wind speed component in the mean wind direction. Different combinations of the preview distance that is located upwind of the rotor and the radius of the scan circle were analyzed. It was found that the dominant source of measurement error for short preview distances is the detection of transverse and vertical wind speeds from the line-of-sight LIDAR measurement. It was discovered in previous studies that, in the absence of wind evolution, the dominant source of error for large preview distances

  9. Creating Dialogue by Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passila, Anne; Oikarinen, Tuija; Kallio, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to develop practice and theory from Augusto Boal's dialogue technique (Image Theatre) for organisational use. The paper aims to examine how the members in an organisation create dialogue together by using a dramaturgical storytelling framework where the dialogue emerges from storytelling facilitated by…

  10. Creating Photo Illustrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Explains the uses of photo illustrations. Notes that the key to developing a successful photo illustration is collaborative planning. Outlines the following guidelines for photo illustrations: never set up a photograph to mimic reality; create only abstractions with photo illustrations; clearly label photo illustrations; and never play photo…

  11. Looking, Writing, Creating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzive, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a middle school language arts teacher makes analyzing and creating visual art a partner to reading and writing in her classroom. Describes a project on art and Vietnam which shows how background information can add to and influence interpretation. Describes a unit on Greek mythology and Greek vases which leads to a related visual…

  12. [Teenagers creating art].

    PubMed

    Ahovi, Jonathan; Viverge, Agathe

    Teenagers need to interpret the world around them, sometimes in a completely different way to that in which, as children, they represented external reality. Some like drawing. They can use it to express their thoughts on death, sexuality or freedom. Their creative capacities are immense: they are creating art.

  13. Creating a Classroom Makerspace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivas, Luz

    2014-01-01

    What is a makerspace? Makerspaces are community-operated physical spaces where people (makers) create do-it-yourself projects together. These membership spaces serve as community labs where people learn together and collaborate on projects. Makerspaces often have tools and equipment like 3-D printers, laser cutters, and soldering irons.…

  14. Creating a Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazimirski, J.; And Others

    The second in a series of programmed books, "Creating a Market" is published by the International Labour Office as a manual for persons studying marketing. This manual was designed to meet the needs of the labor organization's technical cooperation programs and is primarily concerned with consumer goods industries. Using a fill-in-the-blanks and…

  15. Creating Quality Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Administrators, Arlington, VA.

    This booklet presents information on how total quality management can be applied to school systems to create educational improvement. Total quality management offers education a systemic approach and a new set of assessment tools. Chapter 1 provides a definition and historical overview of total quality management. Chapter 2 views the school…

  16. Creating Special Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  17. Creating an Assessments Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg; Gilbert, Jacqueline; Mackenzie, Mary; Meulener, Carol; Smith, Martin; Yetman, Beatrice; Zeppieri, Rosanne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the steps taken over three years (2003-2006) by the Consortium for Assessing Performance Standards, a New Jersey Grant Project to create a database of thematically organized, integrated performance assessment tasks at the benchmark levels of proficiency, novice-mid, intermediate-low and pre-advanced as defined by the ACTFL…

  18. Creating Historical Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassler, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Describes creating for the National Archives Public Education Department a historical drama, "Second in the Realm," based on the story of the Magna Carta. Demonstrates the effectiveness of historical drama as a teaching tool. Explains the difficulties of writing such dramas and provides guidelines for overcoming these problems. (NL)

  19. Creating dedicated bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy is one of the current mechanisms of producing renewable energy to reduce our use of nonrenewable fossil fuels and to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Humans have been using bioenergy since we first learned to create and control fire - burning manure, peat, and wood to cook food...

  20. Creating a Virtual Gymnasium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorentino, Leah H.; Castelli, Darla

    2005-01-01

    Physical educators struggle with the challenges of assessing student performance, providing feedback about motor skills, and creating opportunities for all students to engage in game-play on a daily basis. The integration of technology in the gymnasium can address some of these challenges by improving teacher efficiency and increasing student…

  1. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  2. Creating a Classroom Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Kathleen, Ed.; McClain-Ruelle, Leslie, Ed.

    Based on the premise that students can learn a great deal by reading and writing a newspaper, this book was created by preservice instructors to teach upper elementary students (grades 3-5) newspaper concepts, journalism, and how to write newspaper articles. It shows how to use newspaper concepts to help students integrate knowledge from multiple…

  3. Light-created chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, Rostislav F.; Tsaplev, Yuri B.

    2006-11-01

    The results of studies of light-created chemiluminescence are described systematically. Conditions for the transformation of a dark chemical reaction into a chemiluminescence reaction are considered. Examples of photosensitised and photoinduced processes as well as of analytical applications are given.

  4. Creating Motivating Job Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison

    1993-01-01

    Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…

  5. Creating Collaborative Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxham, Chris, Ed.

    Although interorganizational collaboration is becoming increasingly significant as a means of achieving organizational objectives, it is not an easy process to implement. Drawing on the work of authors with extensive experience, an accessible introduction to the theory and practice of creating collaborative advantage is presented in this volume.…

  6. How Banks Create Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Lyndi

    This teaching module explains how the U.S. banking system uses excess reserves to create money in the form of new deposits for borrowers. The module is part of a computer-animated series of four-to-five-minute modules illustrating standard concepts in high school economics. Although the module is designed to accompany the video program, it may be…

  7. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development... 385.207, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind...

  8. Galactic Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    Galactic winds have become arguably one of the hottest topics in extragalactic astronomy. This enthusiasm for galactic winds is due in part to the detection of winds in many, if not most, high-redshift galaxies. Galactic winds have also been invoked by theorists to (1) suppress the number of visible dwarf galaxies and avoid the "cooling catastrophe" at high redshift that results in the overproduction of massive luminous galaxies, (2) remove material with low specific angular momentum early on and help enlarge gas disks in CDM + baryons simulations, (3) reduce the dark mass concentrations in galaxies, (4) explain the mass-metallicity relation of galaxies from selective loss of metal-enriched gas from smaller galaxies, (5) enrich and "preheat" the ICM, (6) enrich the IGM without disturbing the Lyαforest significantly, and (7) inhibit cooling flows in galaxy clusters with active cD galaxies. The present paper highlights a few key aspects of galactic winds taken from a recent ARAA review by Veilleux, Cecil, &Bland-Hawthorn (2005; herafter VCBH). Readers interested in a more detailed discussion of this topic are encouraged to refer to the original ARAA article.

  9. Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney Lane

    2011-12-20

    As the Department of Energy stated in its 20% Wind Energy by 2030 report, there will need to be enhanced outreach efforts on a national, state, regional, and local level to communicate wind development opportunities, benefits and challenges to a diverse set of stakeholders. To help address this need, PennFuture was awarded funding to create the Mid-Atlantic Regional Wind Energy Institute to provide general education and outreach on wind energy development across Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Over the course of the two-year grant period, PennFuture used its expertise on wind energy policy and development in Pennsylvania and expanded it to other states in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture accomplished this through reaching out and establishing connections with policy makers, local environmental groups, health and economic development organizations, and educational institutions and wind energy developers throughout the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture conducted two regional wind educational forums that brought together wind industry representatives and public interest organizations from across the region to discuss and address wind development in the Mid-Atlantic region. PennFuture developed the agenda and speakers in collaboration with experts on the ground in each state to help determine the critical issue to wind energy in each location. The sessions focused on topics ranging from the basics of wind development; model ordinance and tax issues; anti-wind arguments and counter points; wildlife issues and coalition building. In addition to in-person events, PennFuture held three webinars on (1) Generating Jobs with Wind Energy; (2) Reviving American Manufacturing with Wind Power; and (3) Wind and Transmission. PennFuture also created a web page for the institute (http://www.midatlanticwind.org) that contains an online database of fact sheets, research reports, sample advocacy letters, top anti-wind claims and information on how to

  10. Wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  11. Wind Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  12. Creating bulk nanocrystalline metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenburg, D. Anthony; Saldana, Christopher J.; Gill, David D.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Roemer, Timothy John; Vogler, Tracy John; Yang, Pin

    2008-10-01

    Nanocrystalline and nanostructured materials offer unique microstructure-dependent properties that are superior to coarse-grained materials. These materials have been shown to have very high hardness, strength, and wear resistance. However, most current methods of producing nanostructured materials in weapons-relevant materials create powdered metal that must be consolidated into bulk form to be useful. Conventional consolidation methods are not appropriate due to the need to maintain the nanocrystalline structure. This research investigated new ways of creating nanocrystalline material, new methods of consolidating nanocrystalline material, and an analysis of these different methods of creation and consolidation to evaluate their applicability to mesoscale weapons applications where part features are often under 100 {micro}m wide and the material's microstructure must be very small to give homogeneous properties across the feature.

  13. The Impact of Variable Wind Shear Coefficients on Risk Reduction of Wind Energy Projects.

    PubMed

    Corscadden, Kenneth W; Thomson, Allan; Yoonesi, Behrang; McNutt, Josiah

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of wind speed at proposed hub heights is typically achieved using a wind shear exponent or wind shear coefficient (WSC), variation in wind speed as a function of height. The WSC is subject to temporal variation at low and high frequencies, ranging from diurnal and seasonal variations to disturbance caused by weather patterns; however, in many cases, it is assumed that the WSC remains constant. This assumption creates significant error in resource assessment, increasing uncertainty in projects and potentially significantly impacting the ability to control gird connected wind generators. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge relating to the evaluation and assessment of wind speed, with particular emphasis on the development of techniques to improve the accuracy of estimated wind speed above measurement height. It presents an evaluation of the use of a variable wind shear coefficient methodology based on a distribution of wind shear coefficients which have been implemented in real time. The results indicate that a VWSC provides a more accurate estimate of wind at hub height, ranging from 41% to 4% reduction in root mean squared error (RMSE) between predicted and actual wind speeds when using a variable wind shear coefficient at heights ranging from 33% to 100% above the highest actual wind measurement.

  14. The Impact of Variable Wind Shear Coefficients on Risk Reduction of Wind Energy Projects

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Allan; Yoonesi, Behrang; McNutt, Josiah

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of wind speed at proposed hub heights is typically achieved using a wind shear exponent or wind shear coefficient (WSC), variation in wind speed as a function of height. The WSC is subject to temporal variation at low and high frequencies, ranging from diurnal and seasonal variations to disturbance caused by weather patterns; however, in many cases, it is assumed that the WSC remains constant. This assumption creates significant error in resource assessment, increasing uncertainty in projects and potentially significantly impacting the ability to control gird connected wind generators. This paper contributes to the body of knowledge relating to the evaluation and assessment of wind speed, with particular emphasis on the development of techniques to improve the accuracy of estimated wind speed above measurement height. It presents an evaluation of the use of a variable wind shear coefficient methodology based on a distribution of wind shear coefficients which have been implemented in real time. The results indicate that a VWSC provides a more accurate estimate of wind at hub height, ranging from 41% to 4% reduction in root mean squared error (RMSE) between predicted and actual wind speeds when using a variable wind shear coefficient at heights ranging from 33% to 100% above the highest actual wind measurement. PMID:27872898

  15. Creating Geoscience Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskop, J.; Buskop, W.

    2013-12-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization recognizes 21 World Heritage in the United States, ten of which have astounding geological features: Wrangell St. Elias National Park, Olympic National Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Canyon, Glacier National Park, Carlsbad National Park, Mammoth Cave, Great Smokey Mountains National Park, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, and Everglades National Park. Created by a student frustrated with fellow students addicted to smart phones with an extreme lack of interest in the geosciences, one student visited each World Heritage site in the United States and created one e-book chapter per park. Each chapter was created with original photographs, and a geological discovery hunt to encourage teen involvement in preserving remarkable geological sites. Each chapter describes at least one way young adults can get involved with the geosciences, such a cave geology, glaciology, hydrology, and volcanology. The e-book describes one park per chapter, each chapter providing a geological discovery hunt, information on how to get involved with conservation of the parks, geological maps of the parks, parallels between archaeological and geological sites, and how to talk to a ranger. The young author is approaching UNESCO to publish the work as a free e-book to encourage involvement in UNESCO sites and to prove that the geosciences are fun.

  16. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests.

  17. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  18. Guide to Using the WIND Toolkit Validation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman-Cribbin, W.; Draxl, C.; Clifton, A.

    2014-12-01

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy's goal of using 20% wind energy by 2030, the Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit was created to provide information on wind speed, wind direction, temperature, surface air pressure, and air density on more than 126,000 locations across the United States from 2007 to 2013. The numerical weather prediction model output, gridded at 2-km and at a 5-minute resolution, was further converted to detail the wind power production time series of existing and potential wind facility sites. For users of the dataset it is important that the information presented in the WIND Toolkit is accurate and that errors are known, as then corrective steps can be taken. Therefore, we provide validation code written in R that will be made public to provide users with tools to validate data of their own locations. Validation is based on statistical analyses of wind speed, using error metrics such as bias, root-mean-square error, centered root-mean-square error, mean absolute error, and percent error. Plots of diurnal cycles, annual cycles, wind roses, histograms of wind speed, and quantile-quantile plots are created to visualize how well observational data compares to model data. Ideally, validation will confirm beneficial locations to utilize wind energy and encourage regional wind integration studies using the WIND Toolkit.

  19. Creating new growth platforms.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Donald L; Doz, Yves L; Sheer, Claude P

    2006-05-01

    Sooner or later, most companies can't attain the growth rates expected by their boards and CEOs and demanded by investors. To some extent, such businesses are victims of their own successes. Many were able to sustain high growth rates for a long time because they were in high-growth industries. But once those industries slowed down, the businesses could no longer deliver the performance that investors had come to take for granted. Often, companies have resorted to acquisition, though this strategy has a discouraging track record. Over time, 65% of acquisitions destroy more value than they create. So where does real growth come from? For the past 12 years, the authors have been researching and advising companies on this issue. With the support of researchers at Harvard Business School and Insead, they instituted a project titled "The CEO Agenda and Growth". They identified and approached 24 companies that had achieved significant organic growth and interviewed their CEOs, chief strategists, heads of R&D, CFOs, and top-line managers. They asked, "Where does your growth come from?" and found a consistent pattern in the answers. All the businesses grew by creating new growth platforms (NGPs) on which they could build families of products and services and extend their capabilities into multiple new domains. Identifying NGP opportunities calls for executives to challenge conventional wisdom. In all the companies studied, top management believed that NGP innovation differed significantly from traditional product or service innovation. They had independent, senior-level units with a standing responsibility to create NGPs, and their CEOs spent as much as 50% of their time working with these units. The payoff has been spectacular and lasting. For example, from 1985 to 2004, the medical devices company Medtronic grew revenues at 18% per year, earnings at 20%, and market capitalization at 30%.

  20. Creating healthy camp experiences.

    PubMed

    Walton, Edward A; Tothy, Alison S

    2011-04-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics has created recommendations for health appraisal and preparation of young people before participation in day or resident camps and to guide health and safety practices for children at camp. These recommendations are intended for parents, primary health care providers, and camp administration and health center staff. Although camps have diverse environments, there are general guidelines that apply to all situations and specific recommendations that are appropriate under special conditions. This policy statement has been reviewed and is supported by the American Camp Association.

  1. Creating a practice website.

    PubMed

    Downes, P K

    2007-05-26

    A website is a window to the outside world. For a dental practice, it may be the first point of contact for a prospective new patient and will therefore provide them with their 'first impression'; this may be days or weeks before actually visiting the practice. This section considers the different ways of creating a dental practice website and lists some of the main dental website design companies. It also describes what factors make a successful website and offers advice on how to ensure that it complies with current regulations and recommendations.

  2. Flexible reserve markets for wind integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Alisha R.

    reserve market, identifying the operational constraints that inhibit a multi-purpose dam facility to meet the desired flexible energy demand. The second study transitions from the hydroelectric facility as the decision maker providing flex reserve services to the wind plant as the decision maker purchasing these services. In this second study, methods for allocating the costs of flex reserve services under different wind policy scenarios are explored that aggregate farms into different groupings to identify the least-cost strategy for balancing the costs of hourly day-ahead forecast errors. The least-cost strategy may be different for an individual wind plant and for the system operator, noting that the least-cost strategy is highly sensitive to cost allocation and aggregation schemes. The latter may also cause cross-subsidies in the cost for balancing wind forecast errors among the different wind farms. The third study builds from the second, with the objective to quantify the amount of flex reserves needed for balancing future forecast errors using a probabilistic approach (quantile regression) to estimating future forecast errors. The results further examine the usefulness of separate flexible markets PJM could use for balancing oversupply and undersupply events, similar to the regulation up and down markets used in Europe. These three studies provide the following results and insights to large-scale wind integration using actual PJM wind farm data that describe the markets and generators within PJM. • Chapter 2 provides an in-depth analysis of the valuable, yet highly-constrained, energy services multi-purpose hydroelectric facilities can provide, though the opportunity cost for providing these services can result in large deviations from the reservoir policies with minimal revenue gain in comparison to dedicating the whole of dam capacity to providing day-ahead, baseload generation. • Chapter 3 quantifies the system-wide efficiency gains and the distributive

  3. Creating corporate advantage.

    PubMed

    Collis, D J; Montgomery, C A

    1998-01-01

    What differentiates truly great corporate strategies from the merely adequate? How can executives at the corporate level create tangible advantage for their businesses that makes the whole more than the sum of the parts? This article presents a comprehensive framework for value creation in the multibusiness company. It addresses the most fundamental questions of corporate strategy: What businesses should a company be in? How should it coordinate activities across businesses? What role should the corporate office play? How should the corporation measure and control performance? Through detailed case studies of Tyco International, Sharp, the Newell Company, and Saatchi and Saatchi, the authors demonstrate that the answers to all those questions are driven largely by the nature of a company's special resources--its assets, skills, and capabilities. These range along a continuum from the highly specialized at one end to the very general at the other. A corporation's location on the continuum constrains the set of businesses it should compete in and limits its choices about the design of its organization. Applying the framework, the authors point out the common mistakes that result from misaligned corporate strategies. Companies mistakenly enter businesses based on similarities in products rather than the resources that contribute to competitive advantage in each business. Instead of tailoring organizational structures and systems to the needs of a particular strategy, they create plain-vanilla corporate offices and infrastructures. The company examples demonstrate that one size does not fit all. One can find great corporate strategies all along the continuum.

  4. Entanglement Created by Dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    Alharbi, Abdullah F.; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2011-10-27

    A technique for entangling closely separated atoms by the process of dissipative spontaneous emission is presented. The system considered is composed of two non-identical two-level atoms separated at the quarter wavelength of a driven standing wave laser field. At this atomic distance, only one of the atoms can be addressed by the laser field. In addition, we arrange the atomic dipole moments to be oriented relative to the inter-atomic axis such that the dipole-dipole interaction between the atoms is zero at this specific distance. It is shown that an entanglement can be created between the atoms on demand by tuning the Rabi frequency of the driving field to the difference between the atomic transition frequencies. The amount of the entanglement created depends on the ratio between the damping rates of the atoms, but is independent of the frequency difference between the atoms. We also find that the transient buildup of an entanglement between the atoms may differ dramatically for different initial atomic conditions.

  5. Wind Erosion in Tithonium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 July 2004 The processes that have eroded and exposed sedimentary rock outcrops in many of the Valles Marineris troughs are unclear. However, this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from western Tithonium Chasma that is unambiguous. The ridges are yardangs, an erosional form created by wind. To acquire the characteristic shape of a yardang, the material being eroded must contain some amount of sand. As weathering processes loosen sand grains from the outcrop, they become available to be picked up and transported away by wind. In the case shown here, the dominant, rock-eroding winds came from the top/upper right (north). This view of eroded sedimentary rock in western Valles Marineris is located near 4.6oS, 89.1oW. At 1.5 meters (5 feet) per pixel, this image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide, and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  6. Wind farm induced changes in wind speed and surface fluxes over the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Fabien; van Lipzig, Nicole; Meyers, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Offshore wind farm deployment in the North Sea is foreseen to expand dramatically in the coming years. The strong expansion of offshore wind parks is likely to affect the regional climatology on the North Sea. We assess this impact by conducting a regional climate model simulation over future wind farms built near the German coast. In order to achieve this, the wind farm parameterisation of Fitch et al. 2012, where wind farms are parameterised as elevated sources of turbulent kinetic energy and sinks of momentum ( Blahak et al 2010 and Fitch et al 2012) is implemented in COSMO-CLM at a 1.5 km resolution. As a first step, COSMO-CLM's ability to reproduce wind profiles over the North Sea is evaluated using wind speed data from the FINO1 meteorological mast, toghether with QuikScat scatterometer data, for a time period of 2000-2008. Subsequently, the impact of windfarms on the regional climate over a period of ten years (1999-2008) is assessed. A large scale wind farm can create wakes which depending on the wind direction could affect the power production of a neighbouring farm. Furthermore, wind farms decelerate the flow and create a vertical circulation in the inflow region. As a result, changes in vertical fluxes of moisture are observed. This leads to enhanced low level cloud cover which may trigger changes in precipitation.

  7. Integrated roof wind energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suma, A. B.; Ferraro, R. M.; Dano, B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  8. Creating virtual ARDS patients.

    PubMed

    Das, Anup; Haque, Mainul; Chikhani, Marc; Wenfei Wang; Hardman, Jonathan G; Bates, Declan G

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the methodology used in patient-specific calibration of a novel highly integrated model of the cardiovascular and pulmonary pathophysiology associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). We focus on data from previously published clinical trials on the static and dynamic cardio-pulmonary responses of three ARDS patients to changes in ventilator settings. From this data, the parameters of the integrated model were identified using an optimization-based methodology in multiple stages. Computational simulations confirm that the resulting model outputs accurately reproduce the available clinical data. Our results open up the possibility of creating in silico a biobank of virtual ARDS patients that could be used to evaluate current, and investigate novel, therapeutic strategies.

  9. Creating With Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A subsidiary of SI Diamond Technology, Inc., Applied Nanotech, of Austin, Texas, is creating a buzz among various technology firms and venture capital groups interested in the company s progressive research on carbon-related field emission devices, including carbon nanotubes, filaments of pure carbon less than one ten-thousandth the width of human hair. Since their discovery in 1991, carbon nanotubes have gained considerable attention due to their unique physical properties. For example, a single perfect carbon nanotube can range from 10 to 100 times stronger than steel, per unit weight. Recent studies also indicate that the nanotubes may be the best heat-conducting material in existence. These properties, combined with the ease of growing thin films or nanotubes by a variety of deposition techniques, make the carbon-based material one of the most desirable for cold field emission cathodes.

  10. Creating Griffith Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Griffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since it began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as being the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift became reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffith began drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of Los Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Mt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made freely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. Wilson Observatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, in 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and establishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be appropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in 1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating Griffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the project were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged in creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A Scientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist Edward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help from artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth. Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the Observatory and become its

  11. Creating the living brand.

    PubMed

    Bendapudi, Neeli; Bendapudi, Venkat

    2005-05-01

    It's easy to conclude from the literature and the lore that top-notch customer service is the province of a few luxury companies and that any retailer outside that rarefied atmosphere is condemned to offer mediocre service at best. But even companies that position themselves for the mass market can provide outstanding customer-employee interactions and profit from them, if they train employees to reflect the brand's core values. The authors studied the convenience store industry in depth and focused on two that have developed a devoted following: QuikTrip (QT) and Wawa. Turnover rates at QT and Wawa are 14% and 22% respectively, much lower than the typical rate in retail. The authors found six principles that both firms embrace to create a strong culture of customer service. Know what you're looking for: A focus on candidates' intrinsic traits allows the companies to hire people who will naturally bring the right qualities to the job. Make the most of talent: In mass-market retail, talent is generally viewed as a commodity, but that outlook becomes a self-fulfilling prophesy. Create pride in the brand: Service quality depends directly on employees' attachment to the brand. Build community: Wawa and QT have made concerted efforts to build customer loyalty through a sense of community. Share the business context: Employees need a clear understanding of how their company operates and how it defines success. Satisfy the soul: To win an employee's passionate engagement, a company must meet his or her needs for security, esteem, and justice.

  12. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Short, David

    2008-01-01

    This report describes work done by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in predicting peak winds at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron requested the AMU develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network , Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) surface observations, and CCAFS sounding s from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created mul tiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence , the temperature inversion depth and strength, wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft.

  13. Using Machine Learning to Create Turbine Performance Models (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, A.

    2013-04-01

    Wind turbine power output is known to be a strong function of wind speed, but is also affected by turbulence and shear. In this work, new aerostructural simulations of a generic 1.5 MW turbine are used to explore atmospheric influences on power output. Most significant is the hub height wind speed, followed by hub height turbulence intensity and then wind speed shear across the rotor disk. These simulation data are used to train regression trees that predict the turbine response for any combination of wind speed, turbulence intensity, and wind shear that might be expected at a turbine site. For a randomly selected atmospheric condition, the accuracy of the regression tree power predictions is three times higher than that of the traditional power curve methodology. The regression tree method can also be applied to turbine test data and used to predict turbine performance at a new site. No new data is required in comparison to the data that are usually collected for a wind resource assessment. Implementing the method requires turbine manufacturers to create a turbine regression tree model from test site data. Such an approach could significantly reduce bias in power predictions that arise because of different turbulence and shear at the new site, compared to the test site.

  14. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  15. Creating alternatives in science.

    PubMed

    Gravagna, Nicole G

    2009-04-01

    Traditional scientist training at the PhD level does not prepare students to be competitive in biotechnology or other non-academic science careers. Some universities have developed biotechnology-relevant doctoral programmes, but most have not. Forming a life science career club makes a statement to university administrators that it is time to rework the curriculum to include biotechnology-relevant training. A career club can supplement traditional PhD training by introducing students to available career choices, help them develop a personal network and teach the business skills that they will need to be competitive in science outside of academia. This paper is an instructional guide designed to help students create a science career club at their own university. These suggestions are based on the experience gained in establishing such a club for the Graduate School at the University of Colorado Denver. We describe the activities that can be offered, the job descriptions for the offices required and potential challenges. With determination, a creative spirit, and the guidance of this paper, students should be able to greatly increase awareness of science career options, and begin building the skills necessary to become competitive in non-academic science.

  16. Creating new market space.

    PubMed

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1999-01-01

    Most companies focus on matching and beating their rivals. As a result, their strategies tend to take on similar dimensions. What ensues is head-to-head competition based largely on incremental improvements in cost, quality, or both. The authors have studied how innovative companies break free from the competitive pack by staking out fundamentally new market space--that is, by creating products or services for which there are no direct competitors. This path to value innovation requires a different competitive mind-set and a systematic way of looking for opportunities. Instead of looking within the conventional boundaries that define how an industry competes, managers can look methodically across them. By so doing, they can find unoccupied territory that represents real value innovation. Rather than looking at competitors within their own industry, for example, managers can ask why customers make the trade-off between substitute products or services. Home Depot, for example, looked across the substitutes serving home improvement needs. Intuit looked across the substitutes available to individuals managing their personal finances. In both cases, powerful insights were derived from looking at familiar data from a new perspective. Similar insights can be gleaned by looking across strategic groups within an industry; across buyer groups; across complementary product and service offerings; across the functional-emotional orientation of an industry; and even across time. To help readers explore new market space systematically, the authors developed a tool, the value curve, that can be used to represent visually a range of value propositions.

  17. Creating Heliophysics Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, N. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.; Mendez, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Center for Science Education at University of California Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory is creating concept maps for Heliophysics and would like to get input from scientists. The purpose of this effort is to identify key concepts related to Heliophysics and map their progression to show how students' understanding of Heliophysics might develop from Kindergarten through higher education. These maps are meant to tie into the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy and National Science Education Standards. It is hoped that the results of this effort will be useful for curriculum designers developing Heliophysics-related curriculum materials and classroom teachers using Heliophysics materials. The need for concept maps was identified as a result of product analysis undertaken by the NASA Heliophysics Forum Team. The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have as two of their goals to improve the characterization of the contents of the Science Mission Directorate and Public Outreach (SMD E/PO) portfolio (Objective 2.1) and assist SMD in addressing gaps in the portfolio of SMD E/PO products and project activities (Objective 2.2). An important part of this effort is receiving feedback from solar scientists regarding the inclusion of key concepts and their progression in the maps. This session will introduce the draft concept maps and elicit feedback from scientists.

  18. Highly reliable wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator operating in a wide wind speed range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Hyungseok; Chung, Jihoon; Choi, Dukhyun; Jung, Daewoong; Cho, Minhaeng; Lee, Sangmin

    2016-09-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators are aspiring energy harvesting methods that generate electricity from the triboelectric effect and electrostatic induction. This study demonstrates the harvesting of wind energy by a wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator (WR-TENG). The WR-TENG generates electricity from wind as a lightweight dielectric sphere rotates along the vortex whistle substrate. Increasing the kinetic energy of a dielectric converted from the wind energy is a key factor in fabricating an efficient WR-TENG. Computation fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is introduced to estimate the precise movements of wind flow and to create a vortex flow by adjusting the parameters of the vortex whistle shape to optimize the design parameters to increase the kinetic energy conversion rate. WR-TENG can be utilized as both a self-powered wind velocity sensor and a wind energy harvester. A single unit of WR-TENG produces open-circuit voltage of 11.2 V and closed-circuit current of 1.86 μA. Additionally, findings reveal that the electrical power is enhanced through multiple electrode patterns in a single device and by increasing the number of dielectric spheres inside WR-TENG. The wind-rolling TENG is a novel approach for a sustainable wind-driven TENG that is sensitive and reliable to wind flows to harvest wasted wind energy in the near future.

  19. Highly reliable wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator operating in a wide wind speed range.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hyungseok; Chung, Jihoon; Choi, Dukhyun; Jung, Daewoong; Cho, Minhaeng; Lee, Sangmin

    2016-09-22

    Triboelectric nanogenerators are aspiring energy harvesting methods that generate electricity from the triboelectric effect and electrostatic induction. This study demonstrates the harvesting of wind energy by a wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator (WR-TENG). The WR-TENG generates electricity from wind as a lightweight dielectric sphere rotates along the vortex whistle substrate. Increasing the kinetic energy of a dielectric converted from the wind energy is a key factor in fabricating an efficient WR-TENG. Computation fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is introduced to estimate the precise movements of wind flow and to create a vortex flow by adjusting the parameters of the vortex whistle shape to optimize the design parameters to increase the kinetic energy conversion rate. WR-TENG can be utilized as both a self-powered wind velocity sensor and a wind energy harvester. A single unit of WR-TENG produces open-circuit voltage of 11.2 V and closed-circuit current of 1.86 μA. Additionally, findings reveal that the electrical power is enhanced through multiple electrode patterns in a single device and by increasing the number of dielectric spheres inside WR-TENG. The wind-rolling TENG is a novel approach for a sustainable wind-driven TENG that is sensitive and reliable to wind flows to harvest wasted wind energy in the near future.

  20. Highly reliable wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator operating in a wide wind speed range

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Hyungseok; Chung, Jihoon; Choi, Dukhyun; Jung, Daewoong; Cho, Minhaeng; Lee, Sangmin

    2016-01-01

    Triboelectric nanogenerators are aspiring energy harvesting methods that generate electricity from the triboelectric effect and electrostatic induction. This study demonstrates the harvesting of wind energy by a wind-rolling triboelectric nanogenerator (WR-TENG). The WR-TENG generates electricity from wind as a lightweight dielectric sphere rotates along the vortex whistle substrate. Increasing the kinetic energy of a dielectric converted from the wind energy is a key factor in fabricating an efficient WR-TENG. Computation fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is introduced to estimate the precise movements of wind flow and to create a vortex flow by adjusting the parameters of the vortex whistle shape to optimize the design parameters to increase the kinetic energy conversion rate. WR-TENG can be utilized as both a self-powered wind velocity sensor and a wind energy harvester. A single unit of WR-TENG produces open-circuit voltage of 11.2 V and closed-circuit current of 1.86 μA. Additionally, findings reveal that the electrical power is enhanced through multiple electrode patterns in a single device and by increasing the number of dielectric spheres inside WR-TENG. The wind-rolling TENG is a novel approach for a sustainable wind-driven TENG that is sensitive and reliable to wind flows to harvest wasted wind energy in the near future. PMID:27653976

  1. Overview of Existing Wind Energy Ordinances

    SciTech Connect

    Oteri, F.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increased energy demand in the United States, rural communities with limited or no experience with wind energy now have the opportunity to become involved in this industry. Communities with good wind resources may be approached by entities with plans to develop the resource. Although these opportunities can create new revenue in the form of construction jobs and land lease payments, they also create a new responsibility on the part of local governments to ensure that ordinances will be established to aid the development of safe facilities that will be embraced by the community. The purpose of this report is to educate and engage state and local governments, as well as policymakers, about existing large wind energy ordinances. These groups will have a collection of examples to utilize when they attempt to draft a new large wind energy ordinance in a town or county without existing ordinances.

  2. BNL Direct Wind Superconducting Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, B.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; Ghosh, A.; Jain, A.; Marone, A.; Muratore, A.; Wanderer, P.

    2011-09-12

    BNL developed Direct Wind magnet technology is used to create a variety of complex multi-functional multi-layer superconducting coil structures without the need for creating custom production tooling and fixturing for each new project. Our Direct Wind process naturally integrates prestress into the coil structure so external coil collars and yokes are not needed; the final coil package transverse size can then be very compact. Direct Wind magnets are produced with very good field quality via corrections applied during the course of coil winding. The HERA-II and BEPC-II Interaction Region (IR) magnet, J-PARC corrector and Alpha antihydrogen magnetic trap magnets and our BTeV corrector magnet design are discussed here along with a full length ILC IR prototype magnet presently in production and the coils that were wound for an ATF2 upgrade at KEK. A new IR septum magnet design concept for a 6.2 T combined-function IR magnet for eRHIC, a future RHIC upgrade, is introduced here.

  3. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Traudt, R.F.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a wind turbine device having a main rotatable driven shaft, elongated blades operatively mounted on the main shaft for unitary rotation with the main shaft. The blade extends substantially radially away from the main shaft and is adapted to fold downwind under naturally occurring forces and simultaneously feather in direct response to the folding movement. A means associated with the blades is included for increasing the rate of fold relative to the rate of feather as the speed of rotation increases.

  4. Careers in Wind Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…

  5. Prospecting for Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a…

  6. Cerberus Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 May 2002) The Science Cerberus is a dark region on Mars that has shrunk down from a continuous length of about 1000 km to roughly three discontinuous spots a few 100 kms in length in less than 20 years. There are two competing processes at work in the Cerberus region that produce the bright and dark features seen in this THEMIS image. Bright dust settles out of the atmosphere, especially after global dust storms, depositing a layer just thick enough to brighten the dark surfaces. Deposition occurs preferentially in the low wind 'shadow zones' within craters and downwind of crater rims, producing the bright streaks. The direction of the streaks clearly indicates that the dominant winds come from the northeast. Dust deposition would completely blot out the dark areas if it were not for the action of wind-blown sand grains scouring the surface and lifting the dust back into the atmosphere. Again, the shadow zones are protected from the blowing sand, preserving the bright layer of dust. Also visible in this image are lava flow features extending from the flanks of the huge Elysium volcanoes to the northwest. Two shallow channels and a raised flow lobe are just barely discernable. The lava channel in the middle of the image crosses the boundary of the bright and dark surfaces without any obvious change in its morphology. This demonstrates that the bright dust layer is very thin in this location, perhaps as little as a few millimeters. The Story Mars is an ever-changing land of spectacular contrasts. This THEMIS image shows the Cerberus region of Mars, a dark area located near the Elysium volcanoes and fittingly named after the three-headed, dragon-tailed dog who guards the door of the underworld. Two opposing processes are at work here: a thin layer of dust falling from the atmosphere and/or dust storms creating brighter surface areas (e.g. the top left portion of this image) and dust being scoured away by the action of the Martian wind disturbing the sand

  7. The Colorado Solar Wind Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsat, Tobin; Han, Jia; Horanyi, Mihaly; Ulibarri, Zach; Wang, Xu; Yeo, Lihsia

    2016-10-01

    The Colorado Solar Wind Experiment (CSWE) is a new device developed at the Institute for Modeling Plasma, Atmospheres, and Cosmic Dust (IMPACT) at the University of Colorado. This large ion source is for studies of the interaction of solar wind plasma with planetary surfaces and cosmic dust, and for the investigation of plasma wake physics. With a plasma beam diameter of 12 cm at the source, ion energies of up to 1 keV, and ion flows of up to 1 mA/cm2, a large cross-section Kaufman Ion Source is used to create steady state plasma flow to model the solar wind in an experimental vacuum chamber. Chamber pressure can be reduced to 3e-5 Torr under operating conditions to suppress ion-neutral collisions and create a uniform ion velocity distribution. Diagnostic instruments such as a double Langmuir probe and an ion energy analyzer are mounted on a two-dimensional translation stage that allow the beam to be characterized throughout the chamber. Early experiments include the measurement of dust grain charging from the interaction with flowing plasma, and measurements of the plasma sheath created by the interaction of the flowing plasma impinging on a surface with a dipole magnetic field. This poster will describe the facility and the scientific results obtained to date.

  8. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 285.207 (2009), Alta Wind I, LLC, Alta Wind...

  9. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon II, E. H.

    1985-10-15

    A wind turbine, having at least one pair of sail means, each said sail means having upper and lower portions hingedly connected together to permit said portions to move away from and towards each other to thus open and close, respectively, said sail means being in the shape of an airfoil; a vertical shaft; a support; means mounting said vertical shaft in said support for rotation about the vertical axis of said shaft; and means mounting said sail means to said shaft, said sail means being disposed to move under the action of the wind in a plane about said vertical axis; said mounting means for said sail means including means for opening and closing one sail means of each pair of sail means while the other sail means of said pair is closed and opened, respectively, as said sail means moves about said vertical axis in said plane, said mounting means for said sail means being operable to dispose said plane at a predetermined angle to the horizontal and being adjustable to change said angle as desired.

  10. Wind motor

    SciTech Connect

    Biscomb, L. I.

    1985-07-09

    A spider-like carrier having at least three generally horizontal arms has a hub mounted to the vertical, rotary-axis input shaft of a load. Each arm has at least one horizontal cross-arm secured to it near its radially outer end, which is supported from the ground by a low-friction support device such as a wheel or set of wheels. Mounted on each arm at the cross-arm or cross-arms is at least one sail, vane, airfoil or similar working member which is erected or spread generally normally to the wind when the respective arm is located for the working member to be blown downwind and is feathered or headed to the wind when the respective arm is located for the working member to be driven upwind. Horizontal axis and vertical axis journalling options for the working members and various sail shapes are shown, including a concave/convex sail and motor-oriented airfoil shape which provides lift when being driven upwind are shown.

  11. Researchers Create Artificial Mouse 'Embryo'

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163881.html Researchers Create Artificial Mouse 'Embryo' Experiment used two types of gene-modified stem ... they've created a kind of artificial mouse embryo using stem cells, which can be coaxed to ...

  12. Creating Chemigrams in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhin, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art activity in which students create "chemigrams" using exposed photo paper to create designs. Explains that this activity can be used with middle and high school students as an introduction to photography or use of chemicals. (CMK)

  13. Creating a Toilet Training Plan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Email Print Share Creating a Toilet Training Plan Page Content Article Body These are the tools ... will need to create your own toilet-training plan and implement it at the best time for ...

  14. Creating a Family Health History

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Creating a Family Health History Why Create a Family Health History? Click for more information A Family Tree for ... Click for more information What a Family Health History May Reveal You can use a family health ...

  15. Final Report - Certifying the Performance of Small Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, Larry

    2015-08-28

    The Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC) created a successful accredited certification program for small and medium wind turbines using the funding from this grant. SWCC certifies small turbines (200 square meters of swept area or less) to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) Small Wind Turbine Performance and Safety Standard (AWEA Standard 9.1 – 2009). SWCC also certifies medium wind turbines to the International Electrical Commission (IEC) Power Performance Standard (IEC 61400-12-1) and Acoustic Performance Standard (IEC 61400-11).

  16. Transition Marshall Space Flight Center Wind Profiler Splicing Algorithm to Launch Services Program Upper Winds Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2014-01-01

    NASAs LSP customers and the future SLS program rely on observations of upper-level winds for steering, loads, and trajectory calculations for the launch vehicles flight. On the day of launch, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) monitor the upper-level winds and provide forecasts to the launch team via the AMU-developed LSP Upper Winds tool for launches at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. This tool displays wind speed and direction profiles from rawinsondes released during launch operations, the 45th Space Wing 915-MHz Doppler Radar Wind Profilers (DRWPs) and KSC 50-MHz DRWP, and output from numerical weather prediction models.The goal of this task was to splice the wind speed and direction profiles from the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) 915-MHz Doppler radar Wind Profilers (DRWPs) and KSC 50-MHz DRWP at altitudes where the wind profiles overlap to create a smooth profile. In the first version of the LSP Upper Winds tool, the top of the 915-MHz DRWP wind profile and the bottom of the 50-MHz DRWP were not spliced, sometimes creating a discontinuity in the profile. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch (NE) created algorithms to splice the wind profiles from the two sensors to generate an archive of vertically complete wind profiles for the SLS program. The AMU worked with MSFC NE personnel to implement these algorithms in the LSP Upper Winds tool to provide a continuous spliced wind profile.The AMU transitioned the MSFC NE algorithms to interpolate and fill data gaps in the data, implement a Gaussian weighting function to produce 50-m altitude intervals in each sensor, and splice the data together from both DRWPs. They did so by porting the MSFC NE code written with MATLAB software into Microsoft Excel Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). After testing the new algorithms in stand-alone VBA modules, the AMU replaced the existing VBA code in the LSP Upper Winds tool with the new

  17. Wind resources of Somalia

    SciTech Connect

    Pallabazzer, R. ); Gabow, A.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The results of wind energy research in Somalia are presented. The wind resource appears to be suitable for power production on 85% of the country, very intense on 10% and uniform on 70%, being regular throughout. Two areas of different wind regimes have been identified and characterized; the wind-distribution characteristics of 11 sites are presented and discussed, together with the territorial maps of the wind intensity and of the wind energy.

  18. The New European Wind Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    2013-04-01

    The New European Wind Atlas 1. European wind resource assessment through a ERA-NET Plus project 1.1 The new EU Atlas The Commission decided earlier this year to issue an ERA-NET Plus call for the creation and publication of a new EU wind atlas. The atlas will cover Member states as well as Member states' exclusive economic zones, both onshore and offshore. It involved the launch of a single joint call for proposals by promoters of national and/or regional programmes, thereby allowing a more efficient use of existing financial resources. Therefore the funding scheme is that of ERA-NET Plus which implies that at least 5 MS shall commit at least 1 million Euros each and the Commission tops up with on third of the MS contribution. Basically it is the MS research programmes that will execute the project but an important part of the project is to create "open project development platforms" with associated protocols allowing a wider range of scientists worldwide to contribute. The project has a duration of 5 years. The decision on the new wind atlas was taken after several years of work by the European Wind Energy Technology Platform and the European Energy Research Alliances' Joint programme for Wind Energy. 2. Structure of the project The project will be structured around three areas of work, to be implemented in parallel: 2.1 Creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form, which will include the underlying data and a new EU wind climate database. The database will at a minimum include: Wind resources and their associated uncertainty; Extreme wind; Turbulence characteristics; Adverse weather conditions; Predictability for short term prediction; Guidelines. 2.2 Development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and open-source models. The developed downscaling methodologies and models will be fully documented and made public available and will be used to produce overview maps of wind resources and relevant data at several heights and a horizontal

  19. The virtual wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, Steve; Levit, Creon

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to the design and implementaion of a virtual environment linked to a graphics workstation for the visualization of complex fluid flows. The user wears a stereo head-tracked display which displays 3D information and an instrumented glove to intuitively position flow-visualization tools. The idea is to create for the user an illusion that he or she is actually in the flow manipulating visualization tools. The user's presence does not disturb the flow so that sensitive flow areas can be easily investigated. The flow is precomputed and can be investigated at any length scale and with control over time. Particular attention is given to the visualization structures and their interfaces in the virtual environment, hardware and software, and the performance of the virtual wind tunnel using flow past a tapered cylinder as an example.

  20. Wind energy bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This bibliography is designed to help the reader search for information on wind energy. The bibliography is intended to help several audiences, including engineers and scientists who may be unfamiliar with a particular aspect of wind energy, university researchers who are interested in this field, manufacturers who want to learn more about specific wind topics, and librarians who provide information to their clients. Topics covered range from the history of wind energy use to advanced wind turbine design. References for wind energy economics, the wind energy resource, and environmental and institutional issues related to wind energy are also included.

  1. Wind for Schools (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2010-05-01

    As the United States dramatically expands wind energy deployment, the industry is challenged with developing a skilled workforce and addressing public resistance. Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools project addresses these issues by developing Wind Application Centers (WACs) at universities; WAC students assist in implementing school wind turbines and participate in wind courses, by installing small wind turbines at community "host" schools, by implementing teacher training with interactive curricula at each host school. This poster provides an overview of the first two years of the Wind for Schools project, primarily supporting activities in Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, Montana, and Idaho.

  2. Periodic solar wind density structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, Nicholeen Mary

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation addresses a specific aspect of the Sun-Earth connection: we show that coronal activity creates periodic density structures in the solar wind which convect radially outward and interact with Earth's magnetosphere. First, we analyze 11 years (1995-2005) of in situ solar wind density observations from the Wind spacecraft and find that periodic density structures occur at particular sets of radial length-scales more often than others. This indicates that these density fluctuations, which have radial length-scales of hundreds of megameters, cannot be attributed entirely to turbulence. Next, we analyze their effect on Earth's magnetosphere. Though these structures are not waves in the solar wind rest frame, they appear at discrete frequencies in Earth's reference frame. They compress the magnetosphere as they convect past, driving global magnetospheric oscillations at the same discrete frequencies as the periodic density structures. Last, we investigate source regions and mechanisms of the periodic solar wind density structures. We analyze the alpha particle to proton abundance ratio during events of periodic density structures. In many events, the proton and alpha density fluctuations are anti- correlated, which strongly argues for either temporally or spatially varying coronal source plasma. We examine white light images of the solar wind taken with SECCHI HI1 on the STEREO spacecraft and find periodic density structures as near to the Sun as 15 solar radii. The smallest resolvable periodic structures that we identify are of comparable length to those found at 1 AU, providing further evidence that at least some periodic density structures are generated in the solar corona as the solar wind is formed. Guided by the properties observed during previous studies and the characteristics established through the work presented here, we examine possible candidate mechanisms in the solar corona that can form periodic density structures. We conclude that

  3. FoilSim: Basic Aerodynamics Software Created

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Ruth A.

    1999-01-01

    FoilSim is interactive software that simulates the airflow around various shapes of airfoils. The graphical user interface, which looks more like a video game than a learning tool, captures and holds the students interest. The software is a product of NASA Lewis Research Center s Learning Technologies Project, an educational outreach initiative within the High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP).This airfoil view panel is a simulated view of a wing being tested in a wind tunnel. As students create new wing shapes by moving slider controls that change parameters, the software calculates their lift. FoilSim also displays plots of pressure or airspeed above and below the airfoil surface.

  4. CWEX: Crop/wind-energy experiment: Observations of surface-layer, boundary-layer and mesoscale interactions with a wind farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large wind turbines perturb mean and turbulent wind characteristics, which modify fluxes between the vegetated surface and the lower boundary layer. While simulations have suggested that wind farms could create significant changes in surface fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture, and CO2 over hundreds ...

  5. Experimental evaluation of pedestrian-level winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, Sadek Wahba

    The presence of tall buildings has in many cases created uncomfortable and dangerous wind conditions at pedestrian level. Here a successful simple methodology was established to evaluate pedestrian level winds in a built-up urban terrain. Experiments were conducted using a 1:300 geometric scale model of the University of Minnesota hospital complex (UOMHC) and its surroundings, known for their unpleasant wind conditions. The UOMHC model was exposed to an accurately simulated atmospheric boundary layer in the SAFL wind tunnel. The modeling criteria for wind tunnel simulation of atmospheric flows and the applicability of the simulation to the experimental study are presented and discussed. The comparison between the available prototype data and the corresponding wind tunnel data showed in general good agreement for the two tested wind directions; west and northwest. Velocity measurements underneath Unit B indicated that the pedestrian access to the PWB and Unit B buildings is the worst location along the street for a door. A combination of sand scour tests, fog flow visualization, and tests using the oil film technique was applied to determine the wind environment in the UOMHC model. Sand scour tests supplied contour lines for the relative wind speeds. The scour technique can be used to estimate wind speed. The results using fine sand indicated that the scour contours most closely reflect the mean wind speeds measured by hot-film anemometers close to the ground. Fog flow visualization allowed good insight into the movement of the airstream. The average direction of the wind at ground level was shown clearly by the oil film technique. All the three visualization techniques indicated high pedestrian level winds under Unit B. The use of various combinations of wind barriers to alleviate the problems of pedestrian discomfort induced by wind effects at the UOMHC were proposed and investigated. The results of a barrier, installed as a canopy at Unit B, indicated its

  6. Offshore Wind Balance-of-System Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Maness, Michael; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Mone, Christopher

    2015-09-29

    Offshore wind balance-of-system (BOS) costs contribute up to 70% of installed capital costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand the impact of these costs on project economics as well as potential cost trends for new offshore wind technology developments. As a result, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and recently updated a BOS techno-economic model using project cost estimates created from wind energy industry sources.

  7. TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Bertha on Aug. 1 was created from TRMM satellite data. It shows (from the south) intense thunderstor...

  8. Detection of nocturnal coherent turbulence in the US Great Plains and effects on wind turbine fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, M. J.; Wiersema, D. J.; Zhou, B.; Chow, F. K.

    2012-12-01

    Strong low-level jet winds that develop in the nocturnal stable boundary layer (SBL) create some of the most energetic wind energy resources in Great Plains of North America. These stratified flows, however, can cause strong wind shear and veer across wind turbine rotors. Additionally, turbulent bursting events triggered by strong vertical wind shear can lead to fatigue and damage of wind turbine blades and components, increasing maintenance costs and reducing wind turbine power production. Coherent structures which are the signature of turbulent bursting events can be observed in heavily instrumented wind farms and in high-resolution simulations. Large-scale adoption of wind energy will benefit from the ability to predict these turbulence events with limited in-situ data. By identifying signatures of these bursting events, new turbine control technologies could be used to reduce wind turbine damage and increase overall wind farm energy yield (for example using algorithms with the ability to proactively and independently pitch blades). This research analyzes SBL turbulence in the Great Plains to develop methods to identify these structures at wind farms. Nested large-eddy simulations down to about 20m horizontal resolution are performed and compared to high-resolution Doppler wind LIDAR data (1 Hz) to determine if the model is able to create similar wind and turbulence conditions. Wavelet analysis of the LIDAR and model wind fields is used to detect coherent turbulent structures at frequencies that could be potentially damaging for wind turbines and provide guidance for design of turbine control technologies.

  9. SMES for wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul Antony, Anish

    Renewable energy sources are ubiquitous, wind energy in particular is one of the fastest growing forms of renewable energy, yet the stochastic nature of wind creates fluctuations that threaten the stability of the electrical grid. In addition to stability with increased wind energy, the need for additional load following capability is a major concern hindering increased wind energy penetration. Improvements in power electronics are required to increase wind energy penetration, but these improvements are hindered by a number of limitations. Changes in physical weather conditions, insufficient capacity of the transmission line and inaccurate wind forecasting greatly stymie their effect and ultimately lead to equipment damage. With this background, the overall goal of this research effort is to pitch a case for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) by (1) optimally designing the SMES to be coupled with wind turbines thus reducing wind integration challenges and (2) to help influence decision makers in either increasing superconducting wire length/fill factor or improving superconducting splice technology thereby increasing the storage capacity of the SMES. Chapter 1 outlines the scope of this thesis by answering the following questions (1) why focus on wind energy? (2) What are the problems associated with increasing wind energy on the electric grid? (3) What are the current solutions related to wind integration challenges and (4) why SMES? Chapter 2, presents a detailed report on the study performed on categorizing the challenges associated with integrating wind energy into the electric grid. The conditions under which wind energy affected the electric grid are identified both in terms of voltage stability and excess wind generation. Chapter 3, details a comprehensive literature review on the different superconducting wires. A technology assessment of the five selected superconductors: [Niobium Titanium (NbTi), Niobium Tin (Nb3Sn), Bismuth strontium calcium

  10. Global Wind Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes a new global wind-power map that has quantified global wind power and may help planners place turbines in locations that can maximize power from the winds and provide widely available low-cost energy. The researchers report that their study can assist in locating wind farms in regions known for strong and consistent…

  11. Emergency wind erosion control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    February through May is the critical time for wind erosion in Kansas, but wind erosion can happen any time when high winds occur on smooth, wide fields with low vegetation and poor soil structure. The most effective wind erosion control is to ensure a protective cover of residue or growing crop thro...

  12. An efficient method for distributing wind speeds over heterogeneous terrain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High spatial variability of wind over mountain landscapes can create strong gradients in mass and in energy fluxes at the scale of tens of meters. Variable winds are often cited as the cause of high heterogeneity in snow distribution in non-forested mountain locations. Distributed models capable o...

  13. Wind Power Outlook 2004

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2004-01-01

    The brochure, expected to be updated annually, provides the American Wind Energy Association's (AWAE's) up-to-date assessment of the wind industry. It provides a summary of the state of wind power in the U.S., including the challenges and opportunities facing the industry. It provides summary information on the growth of the industry, policy-related factors such as the federal wind energy production tax credit status, comparisons with natural gas, and public views on wind energy.

  14. Wind power. [electricity generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  15. Wind Resource Maps (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides high-resolution wind maps and estimates of the wind resource potential that would be possible from development of the available windy land areas after excluding areas unlikely to be developed. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to Wind Powering America's online wind energy resource maps.

  16. Assessing the Impacts of Low Level Jets' Negative Wind Shear over Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Walter; Ruiz-Columbie, Arquimedes; Tutkun, Murat; Castillo, Luciano

    2016-11-01

    Nocturnal Low Level Jets (LLJs) are defined as relative maxima in the vertical profile of the horizontal wind speed at the top of the stable boundary layer. Such peaks constitute major power resources, since they are observed at altitudes within the heights of commercial-size wind turbines. However, a wind speed maximum implies a transition from a positive wind shear below the maximum height to a negative one above. The effect that such transition inflicts on wind turbines has not been thoroughly studied. Here we focused on the impacts that the LLJ negative wind shears have over commercial size wind turbines. Using actual atmospheric LLJ data of high frequency as input for the NREL aeroelastic simulator FAST, different scenarios were created varying the LLJ maximum height with respect to the wind turbine hub height. We found only slight changes in the deflection and load averages for those scenarios, whereas the corresponding variances appear to decrease when a larger portion of the wind turbine sweeping area is affected by the negative shear. The exception was observed in the junction between the tower top and the nacelle, where a deflection maximum was detected that might reveal a critical structural point. The authors gratefully acknowledge the following Grants for this research: NSFCBET #1157246, NSFCMMI #1100948, NSFOISE1243482.

  17. Background: What the States Created

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Prior to 2003, virtual universities were being created at a rate that would question the usual perception that higher education rarely changed, or changed (if at all) at a glacial speed. No comprehensive study of what was actually being created had been done; nor had anyone tapped the experiences of the developers in the states to see what was…

  18. Effects of Changing Atmospheric Conditions on Wind Turbine Performance (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, A.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-megawatt, utility-scale wind turbines operate in turbulent and dynamic winds that impact turbine performance in ways that are gradually becoming better understood. This poster presents a study made using a turbulent flow field simulator (TurbSim) and a Turbine aeroelastic simulator (FAST) of the response of a generic 1.5 MW wind turbine to changing inflow. The turbine power output is found to be most sensitive to wind speed and turbulence intensity, but the relationship depends on the wind speed with respect to the turbine's rated wind speed. Shear is found to be poorly correlated to power. A machine learning method called 'regression trees' is used to create a simple model of turbine performance that could be used as part of the wind resource assessment process. This study has used simple flow fields and should be extended to more complex flows, and validated with field observations.

  19. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Boezaart, Arnold; Edmonson, James; Standridge, Charles; Pervez, Nahid; Desai, Neel; Williams, Bruce; Clark, Aaron; Zeitler, David; Kendall, Scott; Biddanda, Bopi; Steinman, Alan; Klatt, Brian; Gehring, J. L.; Walter, K.; Nordman, Erik E.

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the

  20. An Icelandic wind atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawri, Nikolai; Nína Petersen, Gudrun; Bjornsson, Halldór; Arason, Þórður; Jónasson, Kristján

    2013-04-01

    While Iceland has ample wind, its use for energy production has been limited. Electricity in Iceland is generated from renewable hydro- and geothermal source and adding wind energy has not be considered practical or even necessary. However, adding wind into the energy mix is becoming a more viable options as opportunities for new hydro or geothermal power installation become limited. In order to obtain an estimate of the wind energy potential of Iceland a wind atlas has been developed as a part of the Nordic project "Improved Forecast of Wind, Waves and Icing" (IceWind). The atlas is based on mesoscale model runs produced with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and high-resolution regional analyses obtained through the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The wind atlas shows that the wind energy potential is considerable. The regions with the strongest average wind are nevertheless impractical for wind farms, due to distance from road infrastructure and power grid as well as harsh winter climate. However, even in easily accessible regions wind energy potential in Iceland, as measured by annual average power density, is among the highest in Western Europe. There is a strong seasonal cycle, with wintertime power densities throughout the island being at least a factor of two higher than during summer. Calculations show that a modest wind farm of ten medium size turbines would produce more energy throughout the year than a small hydro power plants making wind energy a viable additional option.

  1. Wind Energy Technology: Training a Sustainable Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Kimberly W.; Graham, Bruce; Underbakke, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Through innovative teaching and technology, industry and educational institution partnerships, Cloud County Community College is preparing a qualified workforce for the emerging wind industry estimated to create 80,000 jobs by 2020. The curriculum blends on-campus, on-line and distance learning, land-lab, and field training opportunities for…

  2. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Like conventional power plants, wind power plants must provide the power quality required to ensure the stability and reliability of the power system it is connected to and to satisfy the customers connected to the same grid. When wind energy development began, wind power plants were very small, ranging in size from under one megawatt to tens megawatts with less than 100 turbines in each plant. Thus, the impact of wind power plant on the grid was very small, and any disturbance within or created by the plant was considered to be in the noise level. In the past 30 years, the size of wind turbines and the size of wind power plants have increased significantly. Notably, in Tehachapi, California, the amount of wind power generation has surpassed the infrastructure for which it was designed. At the same time, the lack of rules, standards, and regulations during early wind development has proven to be an increasing threat to the stability and power quality of the grid connected to a wind power plant. Fortunately, many new wind power plants are equipped with state of the art technology, which enables them to provide good service while producing clean power for the grid. The advances in power electronics have allowed many power system applications to become more flexible and to accomplish smoother regulation. Applications such as reactive power compensation, static transfer switches, energy storage, and variable-speed generations are commonly found in modern wind power plants. Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper, focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality. In general, the voltage and frequency must be kept as stable as possible. The voltage and current distortions created by harmonics will also be discussed in this paper as will self-excitation, which may occur in a wind power plant due to loss of line.

  3. Mesoscale to microscale wind farm flow modeling and evaluation: Mesoscale to Microscale Wind Farm Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Chávez Arroyo, Roberto Aurelio; Moriarty, Patrick; Churchfield, Matthew; Kosović, Branko; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Hahmann, Andrea; Mirocha, Jeffrey D.; Rife, Daran

    2016-08-31

    The increasing size of wind turbines, with rotors already spanning more than 150 m diameter and hub heights above 100 m, requires proper modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) from the surface to the free atmosphere. Furthermore, large wind farm arrays create their own boundary layer structure with unique physics. This poses significant challenges to traditional wind engineering models that rely on surface-layer theories and engineering wind farm models to simulate the flow in and around wind farms. However, adopting an ABL approach offers the opportunity to better integrate wind farm design tools and meteorological models. The challenge is how to build the bridge between atmospheric and wind engineering model communities and how to establish a comprehensive evaluation process that identifies relevant physical phenomena for wind energy applications with modeling and experimental requirements. A framework for model verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification is established to guide this process by a systematic evaluation of the modeling system at increasing levels of complexity. In terms of atmospheric physics, 'building the bridge' means developing models for the so-called 'terra incognita,' a term used to designate the turbulent scales that transition from mesoscale to microscale. This range of scales within atmospheric research deals with the transition from parameterized to resolved turbulence and the improvement of surface boundary-layer parameterizations. The coupling of meteorological and wind engineering flow models and the definition of a formal model evaluation methodology, is a strong area of research for the next generation of wind conditions assessment and wind farm and wind turbine design tools. Some fundamental challenges are identified in order to guide future research in this area.

  4. The role of turbulent mixing in wind turbine wake recovery and wind array performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruh, Wolf-Gerrit; Creech, Angus; Maguire, Eoghan

    2014-05-01

    The effect of wind turbine wakes in large offshore wind energy arrays can be a substantial factor in affecting the performance of turbines inside the array. Turbulent mixing plays a key role in the wake recovery, having a significant effect on the length over which the wake is strong enough to affect the performance other turbines significantly. We aim to highlight how turbulence affects wind turbine wakes, first by examining a high resolution CFD model of a single turbine wake validated by LIDAR measurements [1], and secondly with a much larger CFD simulation of Lillgrund offshore wind farm, validated with SCADA data [2]. By comparing the decay rates behind single turbines in environments of different surrounding surface features, ranging from ideal free-slip wind tunnels to mixed-vegetation hills, we suggest that the decay rate of turbine wakes are enhanced by free-stream turbulence, created by topography and ground features. In the context of Lillgrund wind farm, observations and computational results suggest that the wakes created by the turbines in the leading row facing the wind decay much slower than those in second row, or further into the turbine array. This observation can be explained by the diffusive action of upwind turbulence breaking up the wake generated by a turbine rotor. Angus CW Creech, Wolf-Gerrit Früh, Peter Clive (2012). Actuator volumes and hradaptive methods for threedimensional simulation of wind turbine wakes and performance. Wind Energy Vol.15, 847 - 863. Angus C.W. Creech, Wolf-Gerrit Früh, A. Eoghan Maguire (2013). High-resolution CFD modelling of Lillgrund Wind farm. Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal, Vol. 11

  5. International wind farm markets: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Rackstraw, K.

    1996-12-31

    More wind energy capacity was installed in 1995 than in any previous year. Two markets, Germany and India, accounted for nearly two-thirds of those installations, while the largest single market in the world historically, the US, ground nearly to a halt. Market supports in Germany and India, however, are vulnerable to political forces largely beyond the control of the wind industry. This paper examines the growth of international wind farm markets worldwide and notes that future markets will be more broadly based, leaving the industry less vulnerable to political changes. The paper also concludes that an additional 18,500 MW could be installed by the year 2005 even without assuming a dire ecological scenario that would create environmental drivers to accelerate wind market growth. 4 figs.

  6. Sampling Bias on Cup Anemometer Mean Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, L.; Hansen, O. F.; Højstrup, J.

    2003-10-01

    The cup anemometer signal can be sampled in several ways to obtain the mean wind speed. Here we discuss the sampling of series of mean wind speeds from consecutive rotor rotations, followed by unweighted and weighted averaging. It is shown that the unweighted averaging creates a positive bias on the long-term mean wind speed, which is at least one order of magnitude larger than the positive bias from the weighted averaging, also known as the sample-and-hold method. For a homogeneous, neutrally stratified flow the first biases are 1%-2%. For comparison the biases due to fluctuations of the three wind velocity components and due to calibration non-linearity are determined under the same conditions. The largest of these is the v-bias from direction fluctuations. The calculations pertain to the Risø P2546A model cup anemometer.

  7. Design and Study of a Low-Cost Laboratory Model Digital Wind Power Meter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radhakrishnan, Rugmini; Karthika, S.

    2010-01-01

    A vane-type low-cost laboratory model anemometer cum power meter is designed and constructed for measuring low wind energy created from accelerating fluids. The constructed anemometer is a device which records the electrical power obtained by the conversion of wind power using a wind sensor coupled to a DC motor. It is designed for its…

  8. Wind speed forecasting for wind energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    With more wind energy being integrated into our grid systems, forecasting wind energy has become a necessity for all market participants. Recognizing the market demands, a physical approach to site-specific hub-height wind speed forecasting system has been developed. This system is driven by the outputs from the Canadian Global Environmental Multiscale (GEM) model. A simple interpolation approach benchmarks the forecasting accuracy inherited from GEM. Local, site specific winds are affected on a local scale by a variety of factors including representation of the land surface and local boundary-layer process over heterogeneous terrain which have been a continuing challenge in NWP models like GEM with typical horizontal resolution of order 15-km. In order to resolve these small scale effects, a wind energy industry standard model, WAsP, is coupled with GEM to improve the forecast. Coupling the WAsP model with GEM improves the overall forecasts, but remains unsatisfactory for forecasting winds with abrupt surface condition changes. Subsequently in this study, a new coupler that uses a 2-D RANS model of boundary-layer flow over surface condition changes with improved physics has been developed to further improve the forecasts when winds coming from a water surface to land experience abrupt changes in surface conditions. It has been demonstrated that using vertically averaged wind speeds to represent geostrophic winds for input into the micro-scale models could reduce forecast errors. The hub-height wind speed forecasts could be further improved using a linear MOS approach. The forecasting system has been evaluated, using a wind energy standard evaluation matrix, against data from an 80-m mast located near the north shore of Lake Erie. Coupling with GEM-LAM and a power conversion model using a theoretical power curve have also been investigated. For hub-height wind speeds GEM appears to perform better with a 15-Ian grid than the high resolution GEM-2.5Ian version at the

  9. Are local wind power resources well estimated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib; Jørgensen, Hans E.; Mann, Jakob

    2013-03-01

    project is structured around three areas of work, to be implemented in parallel. Creation and publication of a European wind atlas in electronic form [2], which will include the underlying data and a new EU wind climate database which will as a minimum include: wind resources and their associated uncertainty; extreme wind and uncertainty; turbulence characteristics; adverse weather conditions such as heavy icing, electrical storms and so on together with the probability of occurrence; the level of predictability for short-term forecasting and assessment of uncertainties; guidelines and best practices for the use of data especially for micro-siting. Development of dynamical downscaling methodologies and open-source models validated through measurement campaigns, to enable the provision of accurate wind resource and external wind load climatology and short-term prediction at high spatial resolution and covering Europe. The developed downscaling methodologies and models will be fully documented and made publicly available and will be used to produce overview maps of wind resources and other relevant data at several heights and at high horizontal resolution. Measurement campaigns to validate the model chain used in the wind atlas. At least five coordinated measurement campaigns will be undertaken and will cover complex terrains (mountains and forests), offshore, large changes in surface characteristics (roughness change) and cold climates. One of the great challenges to the project is the application of mesoscale models for wind resource calculation, which is by no means a simple matter [3]. The project will use global reanalysis data as boundary conditions. These datasets, which are time series of the large-scale meteorological situation covering decades, have been created by assimilation of measurement data from around the globe in a dynamical consistent fashion using large-scale numerical models. For wind energy, the application of the reanalysis datasets is as a long

  10. Wind Energy Stakeholder Outreach and Education

    SciTech Connect

    Bob Lawrence; Craig Cox; Jodi Hamrick; DOE Contact - Keith Bennett

    2006-07-27

    Since August of 2001, Bob Lawrence and Associates, Inc. (BL&A) has applied its outreach and support services to lead a highly effective work effort on behalf of Wind Powering America (WPA). In recent years, the company has generated informative brochures and posters, researched and created case studies, and provided technical support to key wind program managers. BL&A has also analyzed Lamar, Colorado’s 162MW wind project and developed a highly regarded 'wind supply chain' report and outreach presentation. BL&A’s efforts were then replicated to characterize similar supply chain presentations in New Mexico and Illinois. Note that during the period of this contract, the recipient met with members of the DOE Wind Program a number of times to obtain specific guidance on tasks that needed to be pursued on behalf of this grant. Thus, as the project developed over the course of 5 years, the recipient varied the tasks and emphasis on tasks to comply with the on-going and continuously developing requirements of the Wind Powering America Program. This report provides only a brief summary of activities to illustrate the recipient's work for advancing wind energy education and outreach from 2001 through the end of the contract period in 2006. It provides examples of how the recipient and DOE leveraged the available funding to provide educational and outreach work to a wide range of stakeholder communities.

  11. Wind-driven pyroelectric energy harvesting device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Mengying; Zabek, Daniel; Bowen, Chris; Abdelmageed, Mostafa; Arafa, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    Pyroelectric materials have recently received attention for harvesting waste heat owing to their potential to convert temperature fluctuations into useful electrical energy. One of the main challenges in designing pyroelectric energy harvesters is to provide a means to induce a temporal heat variation in a pyroelectric material autonomously from a steady heat source. To address this issue, we propose a new form of wind-driven pyroelectric energy harvester, in which a propeller is set in rotational motion by an incoming wind stream. The speed of the propeller’s shaft is reduced by a gearbox to drive a slider-crank mechanism, in which a pyroelectric material is placed on the slider. Thermal cycling is obtained as the reciprocating slider moves the pyroelectric material across alternative hot and cold zones created by a stationary heat lamp and ambient temperature, respectively. The open-circuit voltage and closed-circuit current are investigated in the time domain at various wind speeds. The device was experimentally tested under wind speeds ranging from 1.1 to 1.6 m s-1 and charged an external 100 nF capacitor through a signal conditioning circuit to demonstrate its effectiveness for energy harvesting. Unlike conventional wind turbines, the energy harvested by the pyroelectric material is decoupled from the wind flow and no mechanical power is drawn from the transmission; hence the system can operate at low wind speeds (<2 m s-1).

  12. Wind power today

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOE`s Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication.

  13. Wind energy information guide

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development.

  14. Wind Power Career Chat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies.

  15. Creating and Nurturing Strong Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kaye M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ways to create and sustain strong teaching teams, including matching curriculum goals, complementary professional strengths, and exercise of autonomy. Elaborates the administrator's role in nurturing and supporting teamwork. (JPB)

  16. Creating a family health history

    MedlinePlus

    Family health history; Create a family health history; Family medical history ... Many factors affect your health. These include your: Genes Diet and exercise habits Environment Family members tend to share certain behaviors, genetic traits, and habits. ...

  17. Creating and Exploring Simple Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Miles J.

    2007-01-01

    Students manipulate data algebraically, and statistically to create models applied to a falling ball. They also borrow tools from arithmetic progressions to examine the relationship between the velocity and the distance the ball falls. (Contains 2 tables and 5 figures.)

  18. Creating visual explanations improves learning.

    PubMed

    Bobek, Eliza; Tversky, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Many topics in science are notoriously difficult for students to learn. Mechanisms and processes outside student experience present particular challenges. While instruction typically involves visualizations, students usually explain in words. Because visual explanations can show parts and processes of complex systems directly, creating them should have benefits beyond creating verbal explanations. We compared learning from creating visual or verbal explanations for two STEM domains, a mechanical system (bicycle pump) and a chemical system (bonding). Both kinds of explanations were analyzed for content and learning assess by a post-test. For the mechanical system, creating a visual explanation increased understanding particularly for participants of low spatial ability. For the chemical system, creating both visual and verbal explanations improved learning without new teaching. Creating a visual explanation was superior and benefitted participants of both high and low spatial ability. Visual explanations often included crucial yet invisible features. The greater effectiveness of visual explanations appears attributable to the checks they provide for completeness and coherence as well as to their roles as platforms for inference. The benefits should generalize to other domains like the social sciences, history, and archeology where important information can be visualized. Together, the findings provide support for the use of learner-generated visual explanations as a powerful learning tool.

  19. Anisotropy of solar wind fluctuations: fast wind vs slow wind.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasso, S.; Milano, L. J.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Smith, C. W.

    2004-12-01

    The fluctuations in the solar wind are often modeled in terms of two distinct populations: (a) a 'wave-like' population with quasi-parallel wavenumbers and (b) a quasi-two dimensional 'turbulent-like' fluctuations with perpendicular wavenumbers. Here the qualification "quasi-parallel" or "quasi-2D" means that nearby wavevectors are grouped together in an idealzed way, for simplicity. The relative abundance of these two populations is important in gaining insight on the dynamics of waves or turbulence in the solar wind, and also in understanding the transport of energetic particle populations, as turbulence geometry has a major impact on scattering. It has been established in the literature that turbulence is, generally speaking, more developed in the slow solar wind, with power spectra closer to the kolmogorov value at 1AU, while the fast solar wind is more "Alfvenic", typically with higher values of the cross helicity. It seems natural therefore to investigate the anisotropy structure of solar wind fluctuations as a function of wind speed. We present here our preliminary results in this regard, obtained from magnetic and plasma data from the ACE specraft, at 1AU, essentially in the ecliptic plane. We also discuss possible implications for the modeling the evolution of waves and turbulence in the solar wind.

  20. Stator for a rotating electrical machine having multiple control windings

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Manoj R.; Lewandowski, Chad R.

    2001-07-17

    A rotating electric machine is provided which includes multiple independent control windings for compensating for rotor imbalances and for levitating/centering the rotor. The multiple independent control windings are placed at different axial locations along the rotor to oppose forces created by imbalances at different axial locations along the rotor. The multiple control windings can also be used to levitate/center the rotor with a relatively small magnetic field per unit area since the rotor and/or the main power winding provides the bias field.

  1. Wind Turbine Wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Maniaci, David Charles; Resor, Brian R.

    2015-10-01

    The total energy produced by a wind farm depends on the complex interaction of many wind turbines operating in proximity with the turbulent atmosphere. Sometimes, the unsteady forces associated with wind negatively influence power production, causing damage and increasing the cost of producing energy associated with wind power. Wakes and the motion of air generated by rotating blades need to be better understood. Predicting wakes and other wind forces could lead to more effective wind turbine designs and farm layouts, thereby reducing the cost of energy, allowing the United States to increase the installed capacity of wind energy. The Wind Energy Technologies Department at Sandia has collaborated with the University of Minnesota to simulate the interaction of multiple wind turbines. By combining the validated, large-eddy simulation code with Sandia’s HPC capability, this consortium has improved its ability to predict unsteady forces and the electrical power generated by an array of wind turbines. The array of wind turbines simulated were specifically those at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Testbed (SWiFT) site which aided the design of new wind turbine blades being manufactured as part of the National Rotor Testbed project with the Department of Energy.

  2. 2008 Wind Energy Projects, Wind Powering America (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-01-01

    The Wind Powering America program produces a poster at the end of every calendar year that depicts new U.S. wind energy projects. The 2008 poster includes the following projects: Stetson Wind Farm in Maine; Dutch Hill Wind Farm in New York; Grand Ridge Wind Energy Center in Illinois; Hooper Bay, Alaska; Forestburg, South Dakota; Elbow Creek Wind Project in Texas; Glacier Wind Farm in Montana; Wray, Colorado; Smoky Hills Wind Farm in Kansas; Forbes Park Wind Project in Massachusetts; Spanish Fork, Utah; Goodland Wind Farm in Indiana; and the Tatanka Wind Energy Project on the border of North Dakota and South Dakota.

  3. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy related projects which are underway in Indonesia. The first is a USAID/Winrock Wind for Island and Nongovernmental Development (WIND) project. The objectives of this project are to train local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. Then to install up to 20 wind systems to provide electric power for productive end uses while creating micro-enterprises which will generate enough revenue to sustain the wind energy systems. The second project is a joint Community Power Corporation/PLN (Indonesian National Electric Utility) case study of hybrid power systems in village settings. The objective is to evaluate the economic viability of various hybrid power options for several different situations involving wind/photovoltaics/batteries/diesel. The third project is a World Bank/PLN preliminary market assessment for wind/diesel hybrid systems. The objective is to estimate the size of the total potential market for wind/diesel hybrid power systems in Indonesia. The study will examine both wind retrofits to existing diesel mini-grids and new wind-diesel plants in currently unelectrified villages.

  4. Solar Wind Five

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Topics of discussion were: solar corona, MHD waves and turbulence, acceleration of the solar wind, stellar coronae and winds, long term variations, energetic particles, plasma distribution functions and waves, spatial dependences, and minor ions.

  5. WindWaveFloat

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Alla

    2011-11-01

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review includes in which principal investigator Alla Weinstein discusses project progress in development of a floating offshore wind structure - the WindFloat - and incorporation therin of a Spherical Wave Energy Device.

  6. Wind Development in the United States: A Comprehensive Policy Framework for Effective Wind Development as Framed by PJM Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Courtney A.

    Wind energy has been lauded as a resource for the United States to lessen its dependency on foreign fuels, reduce carbon output, and potentially create millions of jobs. Accordingly, wind energy is in the forefront of many government officials' minds throughout the United States; however, there are several barriers to wind farm development. This research reviews the social and political barriers to wind farm development and examines the successful renewable energy policies that have been used throughout Europe and the United States. This research consists of interviews with various stakeholders in the PJM region who compare and contrast renewable energy policies in Europe from those in the United States. The resulting information from the interviews creates a comprehensive policy framework that policy makers at all levels of government can utilize and refer to when discussing and drafting wind energy legislation.

  7. Effect of wind averaging time on wind erosivity estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) and Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) are widely used for estimating the wind-induced soil erosion at a field scale. Wind is the principal erosion driver in the two models. The wind erosivity, which describes the capacity of wind to cause soil erosion is ...

  8. Wind turbine apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, J.

    1985-10-08

    Wind turbine apparatus includes a plurality of sail elements secured to a circular frame rotatable in response to wind reacting with the sail elements and a control system for the sail elements includes a weight having cables extending from the weight to the sail elements. Movement of the weight in response to wind velocity results in a change in the sail elements exposed to the wind.

  9. Solar wind models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leer, Egil; Sandbaek, Ornulf

    1991-01-01

    The understanding of the solar wind is based upon Parker's (1958) description of a thermally driven subsonic - supersonic outflow from a fully ionized electron-proton corona. The basic physical processes of thermally driven solar wind models are discussed. Also studied are the effect of alpha particles in the corona on the solar wind proton flux. The acceleration of the solar wind by Alfven waves is discussed.

  10. Energy from the Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelka, David G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The large-scale generation of electrical power by wind turbine fields is discussed. It is shown that the maximum power that can be extracted by a wind turbine is 16/27 of the power available in the wind. (BB)

  11. The winds of change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind-based power generation has been growing steadily in the United States and around the world, and this growth will continue—and accelerate—in the future, as the following background statistics demonstrate. The U.S. wind industry installed 8,358 megawatts (MW) of new wind generating capacity in 20...

  12. Large wind turbine generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Donovon, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The development associated with large wind turbine systems is briefly described. The scope of this activity includes the development of several large wind turbines ranging in size from 100 kW to several megawatt levels. A description of the wind turbine systems, their programmatic status and a summary of their potential costs is included.

  13. Wind Economic Development (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the economic development benefits of wind energy. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the economic development benefits section on the Wind Powering America website.

  14. Wind power soars

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  15. Power from the Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2004-01-01

    Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,…

  16. Wind power outlook 2006

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2006-04-15

    This annual brochure provides the American Wind Energy Association's up-to-date assessment of the wind industry in the United States. This 2006 general assessment shows positive signs of growth, use and acceptance of wind energy as a vital component of the U.S. energy mix.

  17. Wind Power Now!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  18. Comet Borrelly Slows Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Over 1300 energy spectra taken on September 22, 2001 from the ion and electron instruments on NASA's Deep Space 1 span a region of 1,400,000 kilometers (870,000 miles) centered on the closest approach to the nucleus of comet Borrelly. A very strong interaction occurs between the solar wind (horizontal red bands to left and right in figure) and the comet's surrounding cloud of dust and gas, the coma. Near Deep Space 1's closest approach to the nucleus, the solar wind picked up charged water molecules from the coma (upper green band near the center), slowing the wind sharply and creating the V-shaped energy structure at the center.

    Deep Space 1 completed its primary mission testing ion propulsion and 11 other advanced, high-risk technologies in September 1999. NASA extended the mission, taking advantage of the ion propulsion and other systems to undertake this chancy but exciting, and ultimately successful, encounter with the comet. More information can be found on the Deep Space 1 home page at http://nmp.jpl.nasa.gov/ds1/ .

    Deep Space 1 was launched in October 1998 as part of NASA's New Millennium Program, which is managed by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The California Institute of Technology manages JPL for NASA.

  19. Effect of wind turbine wakes on summer-time wind profiles in the US Great Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, M. E.; Lundquist, J. K.; Aitken, M.

    2011-12-01

    Wind energy is steadily becoming a significant source of grid electricity in the United States, and the Midwestern United States provides one of the nation's richest wind resources. This study examines the effect of wind turbine wakes on the wind profile in central Iowa. Data were collected using a coherent Doppler LiDAR system located approximately 2.5 rotor diameters north of a row of modern multi-MW wind turbine generators. The prevailing wind direction was from the South allowing the LiDAR to capture wind turbine wake properties; however, a number of periods existed where the LiDAR captured undisturbed flow. The LiDAR system reliably obtained readings up to 200 m above ground level (AGL), spanning the entire rotor disk (~40 m to 120 m AGL) which far surpasses the information provided by traditional wind resource assessment instrumentation. We extract several relevant parameters from the lidar data including: horizontal wind speed, vertical velocity, horizontal turbulence intensity, wind shear, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). Each time period at a particular LiDAR measurement height was labeled "wake" or "undisturbed" based on the wind direction at that height. Wake and undisturbed data were averaged separately to create a time-height cross-section averaged day for each parameter. Significant differences between wake and undisturbed data emerge. During the day, wake conditions experience larger values of TKE within the altitudes of the turbine rotor disk while TKE values above the rotor disk are similar between waked and undisturbed conditions. Furthermore, the morning transition of TKE in the atmospheric boundary layer commences earlier during wake conditions than in undisturbed conditions, and the evening decay of TKE persists longer during wake conditions. Waked wind shear is consistently greater than undisturbed periods at the edges of the wind turbine rotor disk (40m & 120m AGL), but especially so during the night where wind shear values during wake

  20. Wind Turbine Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A workshop on wind turbine structural dynamics was held to review and document current United States work on the dynamic behavior of large wind turbines, primarily of the horizontal-axis type, and to identify and discuss other wind turbine configurations that may have lower cost and weight. Information was exchanged on the following topics: (1) Methods for calculating dynamic loads; (2) Aeroelasticity stability (3) Wind loads, both steady and transient; (4) Critical design conditions; (5) Drive train dynamics; and (6) Behavior of operating wind turbines.

  1. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  2. Utilization of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, J. D.

    1984-01-31

    A wind energy device comprising a first airfoil having a leading edge, a trailing edge and a tip, means supporting the airfoil above a surface, the airfoil being adapted, when traversed by a prevailing wind, to generate a vortex at its tip, an air deflector associated with the airfoil and arranged so as to deflect prevailing wind traversing the deflector into the vortex to augment the energy of the vortex, means to vary the orientation of the airfoil relative to the prevailing wind, and a rotary device located in the path of the vortex and adapted to be driven by the wind in the vortex.

  3. Wind energy applications guide

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2001-01-01

    The brochure is an introduction to various wind power applications for locations with underdeveloped transmission systems, from remote water pumping to village electrification. It includes an introductory section on wind energy, including wind power basics and system components and then provides examples of applications, including water pumping, stand-alone systems for home and business, systems for community centers, schools, and health clinics, and examples in the industrial area. There is also a page of contacts, plus two specific example applications for a wind-diesel system for a remote station in Antarctica and one on wind-diesel village electrification in Russia.

  4. Creating Time for Equity Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renée, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Iin urban communities across the nation, a broad range of partners have committed to reinventing educational time together to ensure equitable access to rich learning opportunities for all young people. Across the nation, education partners are using their creativity, commitment, and unique resources to create new school and system designs that…

  5. Creating a Global Perspective Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braskamp, Larry A.

    2011-01-01

    The author has written this Guidebook to assist users interested in creating a campus that will be more global in its mission, programs, and people. His approach is to focus on the views and contributions of the people who are engaged in higher education. Thus it has a "person" emphasis rather than a structural or policy point of view. The author…

  6. Creating a Positive Work Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The author believes happy staff make for happy classrooms and happy classrooms make for happy children. However, with all the pressures facing child care programs--from the economy to state requirements--creating and maintaining a positive work environment becomes tougher and tougher. In this article, the author discusses the importance of…

  7. Can Children Really Create Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereiter, Carl; Scardamalia, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    Can children genuinely create new knowledge, as opposed to merely carrying out activities that resemble those of mature scientists and innovators? The answer is yes, provided the comparison is not to works of genius but to standards that prevail in ordinary research communities. One important product of knowledge creation is concepts and tools…

  8. Creating Adult Basic Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Dolores M.

    Adult basic education programs must teach the "social living skills" disadvantaged adults need, as well as basic literacy skills. In creating an ABE program, one must first assess the needs of the target population--through surveys, group meetings, an advisory council of members of the target population, demographic studies, and consideration of…

  9. Creating a New Professional Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Reading and Learning, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This position paper investigates the merits and potential benefits of creating a new, more comprehensive professional association for members of the learning assistance and developmental education profession. This was the task assigned to the College Reading and Learning Association/National Association for Developmental Education (CRLA/NADE)…

  10. Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpe, Norm

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…

  11. Creating Presentations on ICT Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on the creation of presentations on ICT classes. The first part highlights the most important steps when creating a presentation. The main idea is, that the computer presentation shouldn't consist only from the technological part, i.e. the editing of the presentation in a computer program. There are many steps before and after…

  12. Creating Frameworks for Reflective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2007-01-01

    The task of creating organizational policies and systems that promote and support reflective teaching is multifaceted and seldom enumerated in early childhood professional literature. One of the best overviews the author has found comes from Carol Brunson Phillips and Sue Bredekamp (1998). The author opines that if the early childhood profession…

  13. Creating Highlander Wherever You Are

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan; Mullett, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Highlander Research and Education Center serves as a catalyst for grassroots organizing and movement building. This article focuses on an interview with education coordinator Susan Williams who has worked at Highlander for 26 years. We discuss how others can and do create powerful popular education experiences anywhere, whether they have a…

  14. Creating Space for Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As teachers struggle to balance the needs of their students with the requirements of commercial reading materials, educators need to consider how teachers will create space for children's literature in today's classrooms. In this article, 10 practical recommendations for incorporating children's literature in the reading instructional framework…

  15. Creating Great Overheads with Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribas, Cyndy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Steps in preparing effective overhead projector transparencies for college instruction are outlined, using the PowerPoint program for Windows. They include thinking analogically in translating from concept to visual form; using the features of the presentation program to create a polished product; and assuring readability (visibility, typeface…

  16. Creating an Innovative Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how to create an innovative learning (iLearning) organization. It begins by discussing the life cycle of knowledge in an organization, followed by a description of the theoretical foundation for iLearning. Next, the article presents an example of iLearning, followed by a description of the distributed nature of work, the…

  17. Creating Valuable Class Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Even those teachers with the best intentions of taking advantage of the Internet to support learning may have obstacles before them. In researching the problem, the author has heard their complaints and understands some of the difficulties. However, creating a classroom Web site is not as difficult as one might think. In this article, the author…

  18. Piezoelectric wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, Ravi Anant; Priya, Shashank

    2013-03-01

    In past few years, there has been significant focus towards developing small scale renewable energy based power sources for powering wireless sensor nodes in remote locations such as highways and bridges to conduct continuous health monitoring. These prior efforts have led to the development of micro-scale solar modules, hydrogen fuel cells and various vibration based energy harvesters. However, the cost effectiveness, reliability, and practicality of these solutions remain a concern. Harvesting the wind energy using micro-to-small scale wind turbines can be an excellent solution in variety of outdoor scenarios provided they can operate at few miles per hour of wind speed. The conventional electromagnetic generator used in the wind mills always has some cogging torque which restricts their operation above certain cut-in wind speed. This study aims to develop a novel piezoelectric wind turbine that utilizes bimorph actuators for electro-mechanical energy conversion. This device utilizes a Savonius rotor that is connected to a disk having magnets at the periphery. The piezoelectric actuators arranged circumferentially around the disk also have magnets at the tip which interacts with the magnetic field of the rotating disk and produces cyclical deflection. The wind tunnel experiments were conducted between 2-12 mph of wind speeds to characterize and optimize the power output of the wind turbine. Further, testing was conducted in the open environment to quantify the response to random wind gusts. An attempt was made towards integration of the piezoelectric wind turbine with the wireless sensor node.

  19. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenbacher, Don

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  20. Thermally driven winds

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1993-04-01

    This presentation will summarize the present state of knowledge on slope and valley wind systems, emphasizing physical concepts and recent gains in understanding from observational programs in various parts of the world. The presentation will begin with a discussion of terminology and a summary of the characteristics and relevant physics of slope and valley wind systems. The interrelationships between slope and valley wind systems will be covered as well as the cyclical development of the wind systems during the morning transition, daytime, evening transition, and nighttime periods. The discussion will focus on key physical factors including topography, temperature structure, surface energy budgets, atmospheric heat budgets, strength of overlying flows, etc. that produce variations in wind system behavior from one topographic and climatic setting to another. Deviant wind system behavior and winds associated with special topographic features will also be discussed.

  1. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  2. Wind energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  3. On the impact of non-Gaussian wind statistics on wind turbines - an experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schottler, Jannik; Reinke, Nico; Hoelling, Agnieszka; Whale, Jonathan; Peinke, Joachim; Hoelling, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The effect of intermittent and Gaussian inflow conditions on wind energy converters is studied experimentally. Two different flow situations were created in a wind tunnel using an active grid. Both flows exhibit nearly equal mean velocity values and turbulence intensities, but strongly differ in their two point uτ = u (t + τ) - u (t) on a variety of time scales τ, one being Gaussian distributed, the other one being strongly intermittent. A horizontal axis model wind turbine is exposed to both flows, isolating the effect of the differences not captured by mean values and turbulence intensities on the turbine. Thrust, torque and power data were recorded and analyzed, showing that the model turbine does not smooth out intermittency. Intermittent inflow is converted to similarly intermittent turbine data on all scales considered, reaching down to sub-rotor scales in space, indicating that it is not correct to assume a smoothing of wind speed fluctuations below the size of the rotor.

  4. Probabilistic Hazard Curves for Tornadic Winds, Wind Gusts, and Extreme Rainfall Events

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.H.

    1999-07-29

    'This paper summarizes a study carried on at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for determining probabilistic hazard curves for tornadic winds, wind gusts, and extreme rainfall events. DOE Order 420.1, Facility Safety, outlines the requirements for Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) mitigation for new and existing DOE facilities. Specifically, NPH include tornadic winds, maximum wind gusts, and extreme rainfall events. Probabilistic hazard curves for each phenomenon indicate the recurrence frequency, and these hazard curves must be updated at least every 10 years to account for recent data, improved methodologies, or criteria changes. Also, emergency response exercises often use hypothetical weather data to initiate accident scenarios. The hazard curves in these reports provide a means to use extreme weather events based on models and measurements rather than scenarios that are created ad hoc as is often the case.'

  5. Creating catastrophes in the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Thommy

    2013-04-01

    Buildings, infrastructure and human life are being destroyed by wind and landslides. To interest and motivate pupils and to help them understand abstract knowledge, a practical experiment could be useful. These experiments will show why strong winds circulate around tropical cyclones and how fluvial geological processes affect nature and communities. The experiments are easy to set up and the equipment is not expensive. Experiment 1: Exogenic processes of water are often slow processes. This experiment will simulate water processes that can take thousands of years, in less than 40 minutes. This experiment can be presented for and understood by pupils at all levels. Letting the pupils build up the scenery will make them more curious about the course of events. During that time they will see the geomorphological genesis of landforms such as landslides, sandurs, deltas, canyons sedimentations, selective erosions. Placing small houses, bridges etc. we can lead to discussions about natural catastrophes and community planning. Material needed for the experiment is a water bucket, erosion gutter, clay (simulating rock), sand and smaller pebbles (simulating the soil), houses of "Monopoly" size and tubes. By using a table with wheels it is easy to reuse the result for other lessons. Installation of a pump can make the experiment into a closed loop system. This installation can be used for presentations outside the classroom. Experiment 2: The Coriolis Effect explains why the wind (moving objects) deflects when moving. In the northern hemisphere the deflection is clockwise and anti-clockwise in the southern hemisphere. This abstract effect is often hard for upper secondary pupils to understand. This experiment will show the effect and thus make the theory real and visible. Material needed for this experiment is a bucket, pipes, a string. At my school we had cooperation with pupils from the Industrial Technology programme who made a copper pipe construction. During the

  6. Infrasound emission generated by wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Aerodynamic noise emissions from the continuously growing number of wind turbines in Germany are creating increasing problems for infrasound recording systems. Such systems are equipped with highly sensitive micro pressure sensors, which are accurately measuring acoustic signals in a frequency range inaudible to humans. At infrasound station IGADE, north of Bremen, a constantly increasing background noise has been observed throughout the years since its installation in 2005. The spectral peaks are reflecting well the blade passing harmonics, which vary with prevailing wind speeds. Overall, a decrease is noted for the infrasound array's detection capability. This aspect is particularly important for the other two sites of the German infrasound stations I26DE in the Bavarian Forest and I27DE in Antarctica, because plans for installing wind turbines near these locations are being under discussion. These stations are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and have to meet stringent specifications with respect to infrasonic background noise. Therefore data obtained during a field experiment with mobile micro-barometer stations for measuring the infrasonic pressure level of a single horizontal-axis wind turbine have been revisited. The results of this experiment successfully validate a theoretical model which estimates the generated sound pressure level of wind turbines and makes it possible to specify the minimum allowable distance between wind turbines and infrasound stations for undisturbed recording. Since the theoretical model also takes wind turbine design parameters into account, suitable locations for planned infrasound stations outside the determined disturbance range can be found, which will be presented; and vice versa, the model calculations' results for fixing the minimum distance for wind turbines planned for installation in the vicinity of an existing infrasound array.

  7. Solar Wind Ablation of Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas Earle; Fok, Mei-Ching H.; Delcourt, Dominique C.

    2009-01-01

    Internal plasma sources usually arise in planetary magnetospheres as a product of stellar ablation processes. With the ignition of a new star and the onset of its ultraviolet and stellar wind emissions, much of the volatiles in the stellar system undergo a phase transition from gas to plasma. Condensation and accretion into a disk is replaced by radiation and stellar wind ablation of volatile materials from the system- Planets or smaller bodies that harbor intrinsic magnetic fields develop an apparent shield against direct stellar wind impact, but UV radiation still ionizes their gas phases, and the resulting internal plasmas serve to conduct currents to and from the central body along reconnected magnetic field linkages. Photoionization and thermalization of electrons warms the ionospheric topside, enhancing Jeans' escape of super-thermal particles, with ambipolar diffusion and acceleration. Moreover, observations and simulations of auroral processes at Earth indicate that solar wind energy dissipation is concentrated by the geomagnetic field by a factor of 10-100, enhancing heavy species plasma and gas escape from gravity, and providing more current carrying capacity. Thus internal plasmas enable coupling with the plasma, neutral gas and by extension, the entire body. The stellar wind is locally loaded and slowed to develop the required power. The internal source plasma is accelerated and heated, inflating the magnetosphere as it seeks escape, and is ultimately blown away in the stellar wind. Bodies with little sensible atmosphere may still produce an exosphere of sputtered matter when exposed to direct solar wind impact. Bodies with a magnetosphere and internal sources of plasma interact more strongly with the stellar wind owing to the magnetic linkage between the two created by reconnection.

  8. Mars ionospheric response to solar wind variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opgenoorth, H. J.; Andrews, D. J.; Fränz, M.; Lester, M.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Morgan, D.; Duru, F.; Witasse, O.; Williams, A. O.

    2013-10-01

    planets with induced magnetospheres, the coupling between the ionosphere, the weak draped magnetosphere, and the solar wind is very direct in comparison to Earth. The weak induced magnetosphere itself is created by the prevailing Solar wind conditions and therefore in its shape and strength dynamically depending on it. In early 2010, Mars was located behind Earth in the Solar wind; thus, we can use coordinated data from multiple near-Earth spacecraft (Stereo, Wind) to evaluate what kind of Solar wind disturbances have passed by Earth and might consecutively hit Mars, and when. We employ plasma data from the ESA Mars-Express mission, the ASPERA-3 particle instrument, and the MARSIS Active Ionospheric Sounder (AIS) to investigate, for a number of isolated events in March and April 2010, how the ionosphere and the induced magnetosphere at Mars develop and decay in response to Solar wind variability in the magnetic field, density, and velocity. In a dedicated campaign mode, we use frequent long-duration MARSIS AIS operations for several consecutive orbits, to monitor for the first time the long-term development of the Martian plasma environment during solar wind disturbances. We find that the magnetosphere and ionosphere of Mars can become considerably compressed by solar wind dynamic pressure variations, which usually are also associated with changes in the magnetic draping of the interplanetary magnetic field around the planet. These are typically associated with corotating interaction regions and coronal mass ejections, and can last for several days. During such episodes of compression, we see signatures of increased plasma transport over the terminator and enhanced ion outflow from the upper atmosphere.

  9. Creating a climate for excellence.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, J

    1985-01-01

    Some people are motivated to achieve in a manner consistent with the goals of their organization while others pursue individual goals. The attitudes people hold determine their behavior. Therefore, the manager is charged with creating an environment that fosters employee commitment to organizational goals. To create a climate for achievement, managers must recognize that all employees want recognition. Employees perform more effectively when they understand the goals of the organization, know what is expected of them, and are part of a system that includes feedback and reinforcement. Generally, people perform more effectively in an environment with minimal threat and punishment; individual responsibility should be encouraged, rewards based on results, and a climate of trust and open communication should prevail.

  10. Creating a Mobile Library Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Tom C.; Blake, Lindsay; Bandy, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    The overwhelming results were iPhones and Android devices. Since the library wasn't equipped technologically to develop an in-house application platform and because we wanted the content to work across all mobile platforms, we decided to focus on creating a mobile web-based platform. From the NLM page of mobile sites we chose the basic PubMed/…

  11. New Multiplatform Ocean Surface Wind Product Available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardizzone, Joseph; Atlas, Robert; Hoffman, Ross N.; Jusem, Juan Carlos; Leidner, S. Mark; Moroni, David F.

    2009-07-01

    A new cross-calibrated, multiplatform (CCMP) ocean surface wind product with wide-ranging research applications in meteorology and oceanography became available at the Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DACC) in May 2009. Data sets at three different levels of processing may be downloaded from http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/DATA_CATALOG/ccmpinfo.html. The principal data set, denoted as level 3.0, has global ocean coverage (except for the Arctic Ocean) with 25-kilometer resolution every 6 hours for more than 20 years, beginning in July 1987. Applying an enhanced variational analysis method (VAM) to multiple input data sources creates the level 3.0 data set. The VAM performs quality control and optimally combines wind observations from several individual satellite microwave radiometer and scatterometer sensors along with available conventional ship and buoy wind observations and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses.

  12. Optimal recovery from microburst wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.

    1993-01-01

    Severe low-altitude wind variability represents an infrequent but significant hazard to aircraft taking off or landing. During the period from 1964 to 1985, microburst wind shear was a contributing factor in at least 26 civil aviation accidents involving nearly 500 fatalities and over 200 injuries. A microburst is a strong localized downdraft that strikes the ground, creating winds that diverge radially from the impact point. The physics of microbursts have only been recently understood in detail, and it has been found that effective recovery from inadvertent encounters may require piloting techniques that are counter-intuitive to flight crews. The goal of this work was to optimize the flight path of a twin-jet transport aircraft encountering a microburst during approach to landing. The objective was to execute an escape maneuver that maintained safe ground clearance and an adequate stall margin during the climb-out portion of the trajectory.

  13. SERI Wind Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  14. Session: Offshore wind

    SciTech Connect

    Gaarde, Jette; Ram, Bonnie

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of two presentations. Due to time constraints, a discussion period was not possible. The session addressed the current state of offshore wind energy development. The first presentation ''Monitoring Program and Results: Horns Rev and Nysted'' by Jette Gaarde summarized selected environmental studies conducted to date at operating offshore wind turbine projects in Denmark and lessons from other offshore wind developments in Europe. Wildlife impacts studies from the Danish sites focused on birds, fish, and mammals. The second presentation ''What has the U.S. Wind Industry Learned from the European Example'' by Bonnie Ram provided an update on current permit applications for offshore wind developments in the U.S. as well as lessons that may be drawn from the European experience.

  15. NASA World Wind: A New Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, P.; Gaskins, T.; Bailey, J. E.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Globes are well into their first generation, providing increasingly rich and beautiful visualization of more types and quantities of information. However, they are still mostly single and proprietary programs, akin to a web browser whose content and functionality are controlled and constrained largely by the browser's manufacturer. Today Google and Microsoft determine what we can and cannot see and do in these programs. NASA World Wind started out in nearly the same mode, a single program with limited functionality and information content. But as the possibilities of virtual globes became more apparent, we found that while enabling a new class of information visualization, we were also getting in the way. Many users want to provide World Wind functionality and information in their programs, not ours. They want it in their web pages. They want to include their own features. They told us that only with this kind of flexibility, could their objectives and the potential of the technology be truly realized. World Wind therefore changed its mission: from providing a single information browser to enabling a whole class of 3D geographic applications. Instead of creating one program, we create components to be used in any number of programs. World Wind is NASA open source software. With the source code being fully visible, anyone can readily use it and freely extend it to serve any use. Imagery and other information provided by the World Wind servers is also free and unencumbered, including the server technology to deliver geospatial data. World Wind developers can therefore provide exclusive and custom solutions based on user needs.

  16. Solar Wind Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields originate as coronal fields that are converted into space by the supersonic, infinitely conducting, solar wind. On average, the sun's rotation causes the field to wind up and form an Archimedes Spiral. However, the field direction changes almost continuously on a variety of scales and the irregular nature of these changes is often interpreted as evidence that the solar wind flow is turbulent.

  17. Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Technological advancements and tax incentives have driven a global expansion in the development of renewable energy resources. Wind energy , in...particular, is now often cited as the fastest growing commercial energy source in the world. Currently, all U.S. wind energy facilities are based on land...authority to permit and regulate offshore wind energy development within the zones of the oceans under its jurisdiction. The federal government and coastal

  18. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, Zayas; Michael, Derby; Patrick, Gilman; Ananthan, Shreyas; Lantz, Eric; Cotrell, Jason; Beck, Fredic; Tusing, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  19. Fighting wind shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A “coherent and sustained program” of improved radar detection of weather, pilot training, and better communication between pilots and air controllers can greatly reduce the risk of wind shear to airplanes landing or taking off, according to a National Research Council (NRC) committee.Wind shear, characterized by winds rapidly changing direction and speed, has caused several serious accidents in recent years; among the most notable is the July 8, 1982, crash of a Pan American World Airlines jetliner at the New Orleans International Airport, which killed 153 persons. Following the accident, Congress directed the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to contract with the NRC to study wind shear.

  20. Wind turbine means

    SciTech Connect

    Kennon, W.A.

    1980-12-02

    A turbine wheel is described which includes a housing for enclosing the electrical generating apparatus, and track structure which engages and rotatably drives the generator or the like, i.e., through suitable coupling structure. Shroud structure is disposed in an operable exterior proximity with the turbine wheel for varying the effectiveness of the wind as it is acting upon the turbine wheel, i.e., in infinite variable stages commensurate with changing velocity of the wind. The speed of the turbine wheel is automatically controlled so as to remain substantially constant throughout a wide variance of normal wind velocity and irrespective of the direction of the wind.

  1. Offshore Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Strach-Sonsalla, Mareike; Stammler, Matthias; Wenske, Jan; Jonkman, Jason; Vorpahl, Fabian

    2016-07-27

    In 1991, the Vindeby Offshore Wind Farm, the first offshore wind farm in the world, started feeding electricity to the grid off the coast of Lolland, Denmark. Since then, offshore wind energy has developed from this early experiment to a multibillion dollar market and an important pillar of worldwide renewable energy production. Unit sizes grew from 450 kW at Vindeby to the 7.5 MW-class offshore wind turbines (OWT ) that are currently (by October 2014) in the prototyping phase. This chapter gives an overview of the state of the art in offshore wind turbine (OWT) technology and introduces the principles of modeling and simulating an OWT. The OWT components -- including the rotor, nacelle, support structure, control system, and power electronics -- are introduced, and current technological challenges are presented. The OWT system dynamics and the environment (wind and ocean waves) are described from the perspective of OWT modelers and designers. Finally, an outlook on future technology is provided. The descriptions in this chapter are focused on a single OWT -- more precisely, a horizontal-axis wind turbine -- as a dynamic system. Offshore wind farms and wind farm effects are not described in detail in this chapter, but an introduction and further references are given.

  2. Wind turbine acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  3. Vertical axis wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  4. Wind Advisory System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curto, Paul A. (Inventor); Brown, Gerald E. (Inventor); Zysko, Jan A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a two-part wind advisory system comprising a ground station at an airfield and an airborne unit placed inside an aircraft. The ground station monitors wind conditions (wind speed, wind direction, and wind gust) at the airfield and transmits the wind conditions and an airfield ID to the airborne unit. The airborne unit identifies the airfield by comparing the received airfield ID with airfield IDs stored in a database. The airborne unit also calculates the headwind and crosswind for each runway in both directions at the airfield using the received wind conditions and runway information stored in the database. The airborne unit then determines a recommended runway for takeoff and landing operations of the aircraft based on th runway having the greatest headwind value and displays the airfield ID, wind conditions, and recommended runway to the pilot. Another embodiment of the present invention includes a wireless internet based airborne unit in which the airborne unit can receive the wind conditions from the ground station over the internet.

  5. Wind power prediction models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  6. Wind/Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.

  7. Creating a digital medical illustration.

    PubMed

    Culley, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This paper covers the steps required to complete a medical illustration in a digital format using Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. The project example is the surgical procedure for the release of the glenohumeral joint for the condition known as 'frozen shoulder'. The purpose is to demonstrate one method which an artist can use within digital media to create a colour illustration such as the release of the glenohumeral joint. Included is a general overview as how to deal with the administration of a medical illustration commission through the experience of a professional freelance artist.

  8. Creating an environment for learning.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-03-16

    This article, the third in a series of 11, provides guidance to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence that meets the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice (SSLAP). The importance of developing a high quality practice placement is discussed in relation to the fifth domain of the SSLAP, 'creating an environment for learning'. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements of this domain.

  9. Wind turbulence characterization for wind energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, L. L.; Gower, G. L.; Morris, V. R.; Tomich, S. D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of its support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Wind Energy Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has initiated an effort to work jointly with the wind energy community to characterize wind turbulence in a variety of complex terrains at existing or potential sites of wind turbine installation. Five turbulence characterization systems were assembled and installed at four sites in the Tehachapi Pass in California, and one in the Green Mountains near Manchester, Vermont. Data processing and analyses techniques were developed to allow observational analyses of the turbulent structure; this analysis complements the more traditional statistical and spectral analyses. Preliminary results of the observational analyses, in the rotating framework or a wind turbine blade, show that the turbulence at a site can have two major components: (1) engulfing eddies larger than the rotor, and (2) fluctuating shear due to eddies smaller than the rotor disk. Comparison of the time series depicting these quantities at two sites showed that the turbulence intensity (the commonly used descriptor of turbulence) did not adequately characterize the turbulence at these sites.

  10. Wind turbulence characterization for wind energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Wendell, L.L.; Gower, G.L.; Morris, V.R.; Tomich, S.D.

    1991-09-01

    As part of its support of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Wind Energy Program, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has initiated an effort to work jointly with the wind energy community to characterize wind turbulence in a variety of complex terrains at existing or potential sites of wind turbine installation. Five turbulence characterization systems were assembled and installed at four sites in the Tehachapi Pass in California, and one in the Green Mountains near Manchester, Vermont. Data processing and analyses techniques were developed to allow observational analyses of the turbulent structure; this analysis complements the more traditional statistical and spectral analyses. Preliminary results of the observational analyses, in the rotating framework or a wind turbine blade, show that the turbulence at a site can have two major components: (1) engulfing eddies larger than the rotor, and (2) fluctuating shear due to eddies smaller than the rotor disk. Comparison of the time series depicting these quantities at two sites showed that the turbulence intensity (the commonly used descriptor of turbulence) did not adequately characterize the turbulence at these sites. 9 refs., 10 figs.,

  11. A wind chart to characterize potential offshore wind energy sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Jesus, F.; Menéndez, M.; Guanche, R.; Losada, I. J.

    2014-10-01

    Offshore wind industry needs to improve wind assessment in order to decrease the uncertainty associated to wind resource and its influence on financial requirements. Here, several features related to offshore wind resource assessment are discussed, such as input wind data, estimation of long-term and extreme wind statistics, the wind profile and climate variations. This work proposes an analytical method to characterize wind resource. Final product is a wind chart containing useful wind information that can be applied to any offshore sites. Using long-term time series of meteorological variables (e.g. wind speed and direction at different heights), the methodology is applied to five pilot sites in different countries along European Atlantic corridor and it is used to describe and compare offshore wind behavior.

  12. Multifractal Behavior of Wind Speed and Wind Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerasinghe, R. M.; Pannila, A. S.; Jayananda, M. K.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of temporal variation of wind speed and wind direction recorded at 10 min intervals are presented. The measurements were carried out at Hambanthota, a site located in the southern coastal belt of Sri Lanka which has a high potential for wind power generation. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis was used to analyze the temporal scaling properties of wind speeds and wind directions. The analysis was carried out for seasonal variation of wind speed and wind direction. It was observed that the scaling behavior of wind speed in Hambanthota is similar to the scaling behavior observed in previous studies which were carried out in other parts of the world. The seasonal wind and wind direction change exhibits different scaling behavior. No difference in scaling behavior was observed with heights. The degree of multifractality is high for wind direction when compared with wind speed for each season.

  13. Regional Wind Energy Assessment Program. Appendix: Wind statistics summaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, R. W.; Wade, J. E.; Wittrup, R. J.

    1985-02-01

    The wind statistics given include summarized spectrum analyzer data, speed frequency distributions, and occurrences of winds of 50 mph or greater. Also mapped is the wind power prospecting flight path, with site locations numbered.

  14. GIS Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in California and Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, R. K.; Snow, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Energy efficiency coupled with renewable energy technologies can provide most of the U.S. carbon emissions reductions needed to contain atmospheric carbon concentrations at 450-500 parts per million, considered by many to be a tipping point in mitigating climate change. Among the leaders in the alternative energy sector is wind power, which is now one of the largest sources of new power generation in the U.S. creating jobs and revenue for rural communities while powering our economy with an emissions-free source of energy. In 2006, wind turbines capable of generating more than 2,400 megawatts of electricity were installed in the U.S. and by 2007 this number had risen to 3,000 megawatts. The U.S. generated 31 billion kilowatt-hours of wind power in 2007, which is enough electricity to power the equivalent of nearly 3 million average homes. It is estimated that generating the same amount of electricity would require burning 16 million tons of coal or 50 million barrels of oil. This study examines the wind power potential of sites near populated areas in Florida and California to determine the practicability of installing wind turbines at these locations. A GIS was developed in order to conduct a spatial analysis of these sites based on mean annual wind speed measured in meters per second and wind power density ratings measured in watts per square meter. The analysis indicates that coastal areas of Cocoa Beach, Key West, Hollywood, and West Palm Beach, respectively, possess the greatest potential for wind energy in Florida with mean annual wind speeds of 4.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 171 w/m2 peaking at Cocoa Beach followed by wind speeds of 4.64 m/s and wind power ratings of 115 w/m2 at Key West. California wind energy potential is even greater than that of Florida with Fairfield exhibiting mean annual wind speeds of 5.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 327 w/m2 followed by the Mojave and Palmdale areas with mean annual wind speeds of

  15. Onshore Wind Farms: Value Creation for Stakeholders in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burinskienė, Marija; Rudzkis, Paulius; Kanopka, Adomas

    With the costs of fossil fuel consistently rising worldwide over the last decade, the development of green technologies has become a major goal in many countries. Therefore the evaluation of wind power projects becomes a very important task. To estimate the value of the technologies based on renewable resources also means taking into consideration social, economic, environmental, and scientific value of such projects. This article deals with economic evaluation of electricity generation costs of onshore wind farms in Lithuania and the key factors that have influence on wind power projects and offer a better understanding of social-economic context behind wind power projects. To achieve these goals, this article makes use of empirical data of Lithuania's wind power farms as well as data about the investment environment of the country.Based on empirical data of wind power parks, the research investigates the average wind farm generation efficiency in Lithuania. Employing statistical methods the return on investments of wind farms in Lithuania is calculated. The value created for every party involved and the total value of the wind farm is estimated according to Stakeholder theory.

  16. Creating your own leadership brand.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2002-01-01

    Building equity in a brand happens through many encounters. The initial attraction must be followed by the meeting of expectations. This creates a loyalty that is part of an emotional connection to that brand. This is the same process people go through when they first meet a leader and decide if this is a person they want to buy into. People will examine your style, your competence, and your standards. If you fail on any of these fronts, your ability to lead will be severely compromised. People expect more of leaders now, because they know and recognize good leaders. And, predictably, people are now more cynical of leaders because of the well-publicized excess of a few leaders who advanced their own causes at the expense of their people and their financial future. This will turn out to be a good thing, because it will create a higher standard of leadership that all must aspire to achieve. When the bar is raised for us, our standards of performance are also raised.

  17. Creating Cross-disciplinary Courses

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Elaine R.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its focus on the biological underpinnings of action and behavior, neuroscience intersects with many fields of human endeavor. Some of these cross-disciplinary intersections have been long standing, while others, such as neurotheology or neuroeconomics, are more recently formed fields. Many undergraduate institutions have sought to include cross-disciplinary courses in their curriculum because this style of pedagogy is often seen as applicable to real world problems. However, it can be difficult for faculty with specialized training within their discipline to expand beyond their own fields to offer cross-disciplinary courses. I have been creating a series of multi- or cross-disciplinary courses and have found some strategies that have helped me successfully teach these classes. I will discuss general strategies and tools in developing these types of courses including: 1) creating mixed experience classrooms of students and contributing faculty 2) finding the right tools that will allow you to teach to a mixed population without prerequisites 3) examining the topic using multiple disciplinary perspectives 4) feeding off student experience and interest 5) assessing the impact of these courses on student outcomes and your neuroscience program. This last tool in particular is important in establishing the validity of this type of teaching for neuroscience students and the general student population. PMID:23494491

  18. WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.; Song, L. M.

    2013-05-10

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L{sub x}<- E-dot{sub rot} may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  19. Mars Ionospheric Response to Solar Wind Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opgenoorth, H. J.; Edberg, N.; Lester, M.; Williams, A.; Fränz, M.; Witasse, O.; Duru, F.; Morgan, D.

    2011-10-01

    At planets with induced magnetospheres the coupling between the ionosphere, the small draped magnetosphere and the solar wind is in a way much more direct than at Earth. On the other hand it is also much more complicated as the magnetosphere itself is created and in its total shape and strength dynamically depending on the prevailing Solar wind conditions. In early 2010 Mars was located behind Earth in the Solar wind. In this study we have utilized coordinated data from multiple near-Earth spacecraft (Stereo, ACE, Cluster, and even Earth groundbased data) to evaluate what kind of Solar wind disturbances have passed by Earth and might hit Mars consecutively (and when). We use plasma data from the ESA Mars- Express mission (mainly from the ASPERA particle instrument and the MARSIS topside ionospheric sounder) to investigate what kind of ionospheric and magnetospheric response is triggered at Mars in response to Solar wind variability in the magnetic field, density and velocity for a number of isolated events in March and April 2010.

  20. Large-Eddy Simulation of Wind-Plant Aerodynamics: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Moriarty, P. J.; Martinez, L. A.; Leonardi, S.; Vijayakumar, G.; Brasseur, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we present results of a large-eddy simulation of the 48 multi-megawatt turbines composing the Lillgrund wind plant. Turbulent inflow wind is created by performing an atmospheric boundary layer precursor simulation and turbines are modeled using a rotating, variable-speed actuator line representation. The motivation for this work is that few others have done wind plant large-eddy simulations with a substantial number of turbines, and the methods for carrying out the simulations are varied. We wish to draw upon the strengths of the existing simulations and our growing atmospheric large-eddy simulation capability to create a sound methodology for performing this type of simulation. We have used the OpenFOAM CFD toolbox to create our solver.

  1. Wind Turbine Wake-Redirection Control at the Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M.; Fleming, P.; Bulder, B.; White, S.

    2015-05-06

    In this paper, we will present our work towards designing a control strategy to mitigate wind turbine wake effects by redirecting the wakes, specifically applied to the Fishermen’s Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW), proposed for deployment off the shore of Atlantic City, New Jersey. As wind turbines extract energy from the air, they create low-speed wakes that extend behind them. Full wake recovery Full wake recovery to the undisturbed wind speed takes a significant distance. In a wind energy plant the wakes of upstream turbines may travel downstream to the next row of turbines, effectively subjecting them to lower wind speeds, meaning these waked turbines will produce less power.

  2. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2012-10-01

    This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base.

  3. Fixture for winding transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, M. T.

    1980-01-01

    Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held.

  4. Oregon's first wind park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The bringing on-line of the 1.25 MW wind park at Whiskey Run, Oregon, is reported. The park features twenty-five 50 KW wind turbine generators and is expected to produce about three million kilowatt-hours per year for the Pacific Power and Light system.

  5. Written on the Wind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Steve

    1990-01-01

    The study of aerodynamics using a wind tunnel helps students develop an understanding of the basic scientific concepts of lift, drag, and stability and their applications. Directions for building a wind tunnel in the classroom and activities for using the tunnel are provided. (KR)

  6. Small Wind Information (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative maintains a website section devoted to information about small wind turbines for homeowners, ranchers, and small businesses. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource.

  7. Wind Program Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Wind Program

    2012-05-24

    This fact sheet describes some of the accomplishments of DOE's Wind Program through its investments in technology development and market barrier reduction, and how those accomplishments are supporting the advancement of renewable energy generated using the United States' abundant wind resources.

  8. Wind Energy Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  9. Wind driven air pump

    SciTech Connect

    Beisel, V.A.

    1983-05-31

    An improved pump for lifting water from an underground source utilizes a wind motor for driving an oil-less air compressor eliminating oil contamination of ground water which is forced to the surface. The wind motor is movable to face the wind by means of a novel swivel assembly which also eliminates the formation and freezing of condensate within the airline from the compressor. The propeller blades of the wind motor and the tail section are formed from a pair of opposed convex air foil shaped surfaces which provide the propeller blades and the tail section with fast sensitivity to slight changes in wind direction and speed. A novel well tower for supporting the wind motor and compressor and for lifting the water from the underground source is an optional modification which requires no welding and eliminates the problem of condensate freezing in the airline going to the well. The wind driven air pump disclosed is lightweight, can be easily installed, is relatively inexpensive to produce and is virtually maintenance-free and capable of operating in winds exceeding 100 miles per hour.

  10. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    SciTech Connect

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2010-07-21

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  11. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    ScienceCinema

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2016-07-12

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  12. Alcoa wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ai, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly.

  13. Can the Universe create itself?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gott, J. Richard, III; Li, Li-Xin

    1998-07-01

    The question of first-cause has troubled philosophers and cosmologists alike. Now that it is apparent that our universe began in a big bang explosion, the question of what happened before the big bang arises. Inflation seems like a very promising answer, but as Borde and Vilenkin have shown, the inflationary state preceding the big bang could not have been infinite in duration-it must have had a beginning also. Where did it come from? Ultimately, the difficult question seems to be how to make something out of nothing. This paper explores the idea that this is the wrong question-that that is not how the Universe got here. Instead, we explore the idea of whether there is anything in the laws of physics that would prevent the Universe from creating itself. Because spacetimes can be curved and multiply connected, general relativity allows for the possibility of closed timelike curves (CTCs). Thus, tracing backwards in time through the original inflationary state we may eventually encounter a region of CTCs-giving no first-cause. This region of CTCs may well be over by now (being bounded toward the future by a Cauchy horizon). We illustrate that such models-with CTCs-are not necessarily inconsistent by demonstrating self-consistent vacuums for Misner space and a multiply connected de Sitter space in which the renormalized energy-momentum tensor does not diverge as one approaches the Cauchy horizon and solves Einstein's equations. Some specific scenarios (out of many possible ones) for this type of model are described. For example, a metastable vacuum inflates producing an infinite number of (big-bang-type) bubble universes. In many of these, either by natural causes or by action of advanced civilizations, a number of bubbles of metastable vacuum are created at late times by high energy events. These bubbles will usually collapse and form black holes, but occasionally one will tunnel to create an expanding metastable vacuum (a baby universe) on the other side of the

  14. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-10-01

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  15. Credit Trading and Wind Power: Issues and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Rackstraw, John Palmisano

    2001-01-15

    OAK-B135 This paper focuses on credits that are derived from wind energy technology, but the same concepts apply to other renewable energy technologies as well. Credit trading can be applied to a wide variety of policies, programs and private market activities and represents a means of tapping into revenue streams that heretofore have largely excluded wind and other renewables. In addition, credit trading can help to ''create'' new revenue streams for wind and other renewables by helping to grow new markets.

  16. Weather Incorporated for Needs Development (W.I.N.D.)

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Gunderson; Melinda Martin; Jay Johnson

    2012-01-30

    The OSHA Power Generation Standard states that power generation employees shall be trained in specific applications of the standard that apply to individual job requirements. The intent of the project objective, then, is to create a tailored course that identifies standard requirements that apply to wind energy technicians.The purpose of this project is to develop an OSHA Power Generation Standard (1910.269) training course for both college based wind energy technician students and for continued workforce training of already employed wind technicians.

  17. Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES) for Offshore Wind - Mock-Up of ERES, Fiscal Year 2010 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Richard M.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.

    2010-11-01

    The Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES) has been created to set priorities among the environmental risks from offshore wind development. This report follows the conceptual design for ERES and shows what the system would look like, using a web interface created as part of a Knowledge Management System (KMS) for offshore wind. The KMS, called Zephyrus, and ERES for offshore wind, will be populated and made operational in a later phase of the project.

  18. Effects of Offshore Wind Turbines on Ocean Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimer, Nicholas; Churchfield, Matthew; Hamlington, Peter

    2014-11-01

    Wakes from horizontal axis wind turbines create large downstream velocity deficits, thus reducing the available energy for downstream turbines while simultaneously increasing turbulent loading. Along with this deficit, however, comes a local increase in the velocity around the turbine rotor, resulting in increased surface wind speeds. For offshore turbines, these increased speeds can result in changes to the properties of wind-induced waves at the ocean surface. In this study, the characteristics and implications of such waves are explored by coupling a wave simulation code to the Simulator for Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The wave simulator and SOWFA are bi-directionally coupled using the surface wind field produced by an offshore wind farm to drive an ocean wave field, which is used to calculate a wave-dependent surface roughness that is fed back into SOWFA. The details of this combined framework are outlined. The potential for using the wave field created at offshore wind farms as an additional energy resource through the installation of on-site wave converters is discussed. Potential negative impacts of the turbine-induced wave field are also discussed, including increased oscillation of floating turbines.

  19. Complex terrain experiments in the New European Wind Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Angelou, N.; Callies, D.; Cantero, E.; Arroyo, R. Chávez; Courtney, M.; Cuxart, J.; Dellwik, E.; Gottschall, J.; Ivanell, S.; Kühn, P.; Lea, G.; Matos, J. C.; Palma, J. M. L. M.; Peña, A.; Rodrigo, J. Sanz; Söderberg, S.; Vasiljevic, N.; Rodrigues, C. Veiga

    2017-01-01

    The New European Wind Atlas project will create a freely accessible wind atlas covering Europe and Turkey, develop the model chain to create the atlas and perform a series of experiments on flow in many different kinds of complex terrain to validate the models. This paper describes the experiments of which some are nearly completed while others are in the planning stage. All experiments focus on the flow properties that are relevant for wind turbines, so the main focus is the mean flow and the turbulence at heights between 40 and 300 m. Also extreme winds, wind shear and veer, and diurnal and seasonal variations of the wind are of interest. Common to all the experiments is the use of Doppler lidar systems to supplement and in some cases replace completely meteorological towers. Many of the lidars will be equipped with scan heads that will allow for arbitrary scan patterns by several synchronized systems. Two pilot experiments, one in Portugal and one in Germany, show the value of using multiple synchronized, scanning lidar, both in terms of the accuracy of the measurements and the atmospheric physical processes that can be studied. The experimental data will be used for validation of atmospheric flow models and will by the end of the project be freely available. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Wind energy in complex terrains’. PMID:28265025

  20. Complex terrain experiments in the New European Wind Atlas.

    PubMed

    Mann, J; Angelou, N; Arnqvist, J; Callies, D; Cantero, E; Arroyo, R Chávez; Courtney, M; Cuxart, J; Dellwik, E; Gottschall, J; Ivanell, S; Kühn, P; Lea, G; Matos, J C; Palma, J M L M; Pauscher, L; Peña, A; Rodrigo, J Sanz; Söderberg, S; Vasiljevic, N; Rodrigues, C Veiga

    2017-04-13

    The New European Wind Atlas project will create a freely accessible wind atlas covering Europe and Turkey, develop the model chain to create the atlas and perform a series of experiments on flow in many different kinds of complex terrain to validate the models. This paper describes the experiments of which some are nearly completed while others are in the planning stage. All experiments focus on the flow properties that are relevant for wind turbines, so the main focus is the mean flow and the turbulence at heights between 40 and 300 m. Also extreme winds, wind shear and veer, and diurnal and seasonal variations of the wind are of interest. Common to all the experiments is the use of Doppler lidar systems to supplement and in some cases replace completely meteorological towers. Many of the lidars will be equipped with scan heads that will allow for arbitrary scan patterns by several synchronized systems. Two pilot experiments, one in Portugal and one in Germany, show the value of using multiple synchronized, scanning lidar, both in terms of the accuracy of the measurements and the atmospheric physical processes that can be studied. The experimental data will be used for validation of atmospheric flow models and will by the end of the project be freely available.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  1. Insuring wind energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an insurance contract that the supplier of wind energy may subscribe in order to immunize the production of electricity against the volatility of the wind speed process. The other party of the contract may be any dispatchable energy producer, like gas turbine or hydroelectric generator, which can supply the required energy in case of little or no wind. The adoption of a stochastic wind speed model allows the computation of the fair premium that the wind power supplier has to pay in order to hedge the risk of inadequate output of electricity at any time. Recursive type equations are obtained for the prospective mathematical reserves of the insurance contract and for their higher order moments. The model and the validity of the results are illustrated through a numerical example.

  2. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    SciTech Connect

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  3. Creating genetic resistance to HIV.

    PubMed

    Burnett, John C; Zaia, John A; Rossi, John J

    2012-10-01

    HIV/AIDS remains a chronic and incurable disease, in spite of the notable successes of combination antiretroviral therapy. Gene therapy offers the prospect of creating genetic resistance to HIV that supplants the need for antiviral drugs. In sight of this goal, a variety of anti-HIV genes have reached clinical testing, including gene-editing enzymes, protein-based inhibitors, and RNA-based therapeutics. Combinations of therapeutic genes against viral and host targets are designed to improve the overall antiviral potency and reduce the likelihood of viral resistance. In cell-based therapies, therapeutic genes are expressed in gene modified T lymphocytes or in hematopoietic stem cells that generate an HIV-resistant immune system. Such strategies must promote the selective proliferation of the transplanted cells and the prolonged expression of therapeutic genes. This review focuses on the current advances and limitations in genetic therapies against HIV, including the status of several recent and ongoing clinical studies.

  4. Creating an effective poster presentation.

    PubMed

    Taggart, H M; Arslanian, C

    2000-01-01

    One way to build knowledge in nursing is to share research findings or clinical program outcomes. The dissemination of these findings is often a difficult final step in a project that has taken months or years to complete. One method of sharing findings in a relaxed and informal setting is a poster presentation. This method is an effective form for presenting findings using an interactive approach. The milieu of a poster presentation enables the presenters to interact and dialogue with colleagues. Guidelines for size and format require that the poster is clear and informative. Application of design helps to create visually appealing posters. This article summarizes elements of designing and conducting a poster presentation.

  5. Creating breakthroughs at 3M.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, E; Thomke, S; Sonnack, M

    1999-01-01

    Most senior managers want their product development teams to create break-throughs--new products that will allow their companies to grow rapidly and maintain high margins. But more often they get incremental improvements to existing products. That's partly because companies must compete in the short term. Searching for breakthroughs is expensive and time consuming; line extensions can help the bottom line immediately. In addition, developers simply don't know how to achieve breakthroughs, and there is usually no system in place to guide them. By the mid-1990s, the lack of such a system was a problem even for an innovative company like 3M. Then a project team in 3M's Medical-Surgical Markets Division became acquainted with a method for developing breakthrough products: the lead user process. The process is based on the fact that many commercially important products are initially thought of and even prototyped by "lead users"--companies, organizations, or individuals that are well ahead of market trends. Their needs are so far beyond those of the average user that lead users create innovations on their own that may later contribute to commercially attractive breakthroughs. The lead user process transforms the job of inventing breakthroughs into a systematic task of identifying lead users and learning from them. The authors explain the process and how the 3M project team successfully navigated through it. In the end, the team proposed three major new product lines and a change in the division's strategy that has led to the development of breakthrough products. And now several more divisions are using the process to break away from incrementalism.

  6. A GIS wind resource map with tabular printout of monthly and annual wind speeds for 2,000 towns in Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, M.C.; Factor, T.

    1997-12-31

    The Iowa Wind Energy Institute, under a grant from the Iowa Energy Center, undertook in 1994 to map wind resources in Iowa. Fifty-meter met towers were erected at 13 locations across the state deemed promising for utility-scale wind farm development. Two years of summarized wind speed, direction, and temperature data were used to create wind resource maps incorporating effects of elevation, relative exposure, terrain roughness, and ground cover. Maps were produced predicting long-term mean monthly and annual wind speeds on a one-kilometer grid. The estimated absolute standard error in the predicted annual average wind speeds at unobstructed locations is 9 percent. The relative standard error between points on the annual map is estimated to be 3 percent. These maps and tabular data for 2,000 cities and towns in Iowa are now available on the Iowa Energy Center`s web site (http.//www.energy.iastate.edu).

  7. Create a Pint-Sized Photo Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathright, Pat

    2003-01-01

    Explains a project, which involves creating a book using digital images. Notes that teachers can create books with samples of their work. Provides other suggestions for using this project, such as teaching scanning, creating a photo portfolio as a semester exam project, or creating introduction pieces for yearbook or newspaper staffers. (PM)

  8. A case study of the effects of random errors in rawinsonde data on computations of ageostrophic winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    Data input for the AVE-SESAME I experiment are utilized to describe the effects of random errors in rawinsonde data on the computation of ageostrophic winds. Computer-generated random errors for wind direction and speed and temperature are introduced into the station soundings at 25 mb intervals from which isentropic data sets are created. Except for the isallobaric and the local wind tendency, all winds are computed for Apr. 10, 1979 at 2000 GMT. Divergence fields reveal that the isallobaric and inertial-geostrophic-advective divergences are less affected by rawinsonde random errors than the divergence of the local wind tendency or inertial-advective winds.

  9. Wind Fins: Novel Lower-Cost Wind Power System

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Morris; Dr. Will D. Swearingen

    2007-10-08

    This project evaluated the technical feasibility of converting energy from the wind with a novel “wind fin” approach. This patent-pending technology has three major components: (1) a mast, (2) a vertical, hinged wind structure or fin, and (3) a power takeoff system. The wing structure responds to the wind with an oscillating motion, generating power. The overall project goal was to determine the basic technical feasibility of the wind fin technology. Specific objectives were the following: (1) to determine the wind energy-conversion performance of the wind fin and the degree to which its performance could be enhanced through basic design improvements; (2) to determine how best to design the wind fin system to survive extreme winds; (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of the best wind fin designs compared to state-of-the-art wind turbines; and (4) to develop conclusions about the overall technical feasibility of the wind fin system. Project work involved extensive computer modeling, wind-tunnel testing with small models, and testing of bench-scale models in a wind tunnel and outdoors in the wind. This project determined that the wind fin approach is technically feasible and likely to be commercially viable. Project results suggest that this new technology has the potential to harvest wind energy at approximately half the system cost of wind turbines in the 10kW range. Overall, the project demonstrated that the wind fin technology has the potential to increase the economic viability of small wind-power generation. In addition, it has the potential to eliminate lethality to birds and bats, overcome public objections to the aesthetics of wind-power machines, and significantly expand wind-power’s contribution to the national energy supply.

  10. Creating experimental color harmony map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamaret, Christel; Urban, Fabrice; Lepinel, Josselin

    2014-02-01

    Starting in the 17th century with Newton, color harmony is a topic that did not reach a consensus on definition, representation or modeling so far. Previous work highlighted specific characteristics for color harmony on com- bination of color doublets or triplets by means of a human rating on a harmony scale. However, there were no investigation involving complex stimuli or pointing out how harmony is spatially located within a picture. The modeling of such concept as well as a reliable ground-truth would be of high value for the community, since the applications are wide and concern several communities: from psychology to computer graphics. We propose a protocol for creating color harmony maps from a controlled experiment. Through an eye-tracking protocol, we focus on the identification of disharmonious colors in pictures. The experiment was composed of a free viewing pass in order to let the observer be familiar with the content before a second pass where we asked "to search for the most disharmonious areas in the picture". Twenty-seven observers participated to the experiments that was composed of a total of 30 different stimuli. The high inter-observer agreement as well as a cross-validation confirm the validity of the proposed ground-truth.

  11. Creating a urine black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.

  12. Creating Effective K-12 Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J.

    2011-12-01

    Grant opportunities require investigators to provide 'broader impacts' for their scientific research. For most researchers this involves some kind of educational outreach for the K-12 community. I have been able to participate in many different types of grant funded science teacher professional development programs. The most valuable have been outreach where the research seamlessly integrated with my classroom curriculum and was sustainable with my future classes. To accomplish these types of programs, the investigators needed to research the K-12 community and identify several key aspects of the K-12 environment where their expertise would benefit me and my students. There are a lot of different K-12 learning environments, so researchers need to be sure to match up with the right grade level and administrative environment. You might want to consider non-main stream school settings, such as magnet programs, STEM academies, and distance learning. The goal is to try to make your outreach seem natural and productive. This presentation will illustrate how researchers can create an educational outreach project that will be a win-win situation for everyone involved.

  13. Wind Energy at NREL's National Wind Technology Center

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    It is a pure, plentiful natural resource. Right now wind is in high demand and it holds the potential to transform the way we power our homes and businesses. NREL is at the forefront of wind energy research and development. NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) is a world-class facility dedicated to accelerating and deploying wind technology.

  14. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  15. Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind LIDAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y. (Inventor); Koch, Grady J. (Inventor); Kavaya, Michael J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems, methods, and devices of the present invention enable airborne Doppler Wind LIDAR system measurements and INS/GPS measurements to be combined to estimate wind parameters and compensate for instrument misalignment. In a further embodiment, the wind speed and wind direction may be computed based on two orthogonal line-of-sight LIDAR returns.

  16. Ground winds and winds aloft Edwards AFB, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Brown, S. C.

    1977-01-01

    Ground level runway wind statistics cover crosswind, tailwind, and headwind reversal percentage frequencies with respect to month and hour for the two major runways. Also presented are bivariate normal wind statistics for a 90 degree flight azimuth for altitudes 0 through 27 km. Wind probability distributions, synthetic vector wind profiles, and statistics for any rotation of axes are computed from five given parameters.

  17. Wind Energy Program: Top 10 Program Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-18

    Brochure on the top accomplishments of the Wind Energy Program, including the development of large wind machines, small machines for the residential market, wind tunnel testing, computer codes for modeling wind systems, high definition wind maps, and successful collaborations.

  18. Modelling of a chaotic load of wind turbines drivetrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielecki, Andrzej; Barszcz, Tomasz; Wójcik, Mateusz

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a model of the load of the wind turbine gears for simulation of real, varying operational conditions for modelling of wind turbine vibration. The characteristics of the wind, which generates chaotically varying loads on the drivetrain components generating load in teeth and bearings of gears during torque transfer, are discussed. A generator of variable load of wind turbines drivetrain is proposed. Firstly, the module for generation of wind speed is designed. It is based on the approach in which the wind speed was considered as a time series approximated by the Weierstrass function. Secondly, the rotational speed of the main shaft is proposed as a function of the wind speed value. The function depends on a few parameters that are fitted by using a genetic algorithm. Finally, the model of torque of the main shaft is introduced. This model has been created by using a multi-layer artificial neural network. The results show that the proposed approach yields a very good fit for the experimental data. The fit brings about the proper reproducing of all the aspects of the load that are crucial for causing fatigue and, as a consequence, damaging of gears of the wind turbines.

  19. Wind Powering America - Outreach in Priority States (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M.; Flowers, L.

    2009-04-01

    WPA works with 33 State Wind Working Groups to educate stakeholders on wind energy topics and to achieve the basics needed for effective wind development in a state. WPA has accelerated outreach and communication efforts with 13 priority states: Alaska, Arizona, Indiana, Maryland, Massachussetts, Michigan, Nebraska, Nevada, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, Utah, and Virginia. These states have the potential to contribute substantially to the national portfolio of wind energy but do not yet have large amounts of wind energy applications on the ground. This is often due to barriers in in-state knowledge and understanding of wind energy issues and potential that impact the policy environment and the market environment. There are common regional issues among the states, and important learning opportunities can be gained by cross-training and sharing experiences. The Regional Wind Energy Institutes (RWEIs) are train-the-trainer organizations that work to develop a cadre of in-state outreach specialists who reach out to audiences of decisionmakers (e.g., the ag community, state and local officials, utilities, regulatory bodies) to build understanding, create public acceptance, take advantage of regional synergies, and eventually to impact polices and the market environment for effective wind implementation.

  20. Impact of Estimating Thermal Manikin Derived Wind Velocity Coefficients on Physiological Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    addressing the wind velocity effect on insulation and evaporative resistance includes conducting standardized thermal manikin testing followed by...tests (i.e., 3 for insulation and 3 for evaporative resistance). This process seeks to create a set of measures to produce the gradient effect of wind...in order to obtain associated coefficients. This report outlines mathematical methods for determining reasonable estimates of wind velocity effect on

  1. Wind Tunnel and Propulsion Test Facilities: An Assessment of NASA's Capabilities to Serve National Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, Philip S.; Gritton, Eugene C.; Mesic, Richard; Steinberg, Paul; Johnson, Dana J.

    2004-01-01

    This monograph reveals and discusses the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) wind tunnel and propulsion test facility management issues that are creating real risks to the United States' competitive aeronautics advantage.

  2. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hine, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T.S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin W.; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  3. Interplanetary shocks and solar wind extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vats, Hari

    The interplanetary shocks have a very high correlation with the annual sunspot numbers during the solar cycle; however the correlation falls very low on shorter time scale. Thus poses questions and difficulty in the predictability. Space weather is largely controlled by these interplanetary shocks, solar energetic events and the extremes of solar wind. In fact most of the solar wind extremes are related to the solar energetic phenomena. It is quite well understood that the energetic events like flares, filament eruptions etc. occurring on the Sun produce high speed extremes both in terms of density and speed. There is also high speed solar wind steams associated with the coronal holes mainly because the magnetic field lines are open there and the solar plasma finds it easy to escape from there. These are relatively tenuous high speed streams and hence create low intensity geomagnetic storms of higher duration. The solar flares and/or filament eruptions usually release excess coronal mass into the interplanetary medium and thus these energetic events send out high density and high speed solar wind which statistically found to produce more intense storms. The other extremes of solar wind are those in which density and speed are much lower than the normal values. Several such events have been observed and are found to produce space weather consequences of different kind. It is found that such extremes are more common around the maximum of solar cycle 20 and 23. Most of these have significantly low Alfven Mach number. This article is intended to outline the interplanetary and geomagnetic consequences of observed by ground based and satellite systems for the solar wind extremes.

  4. Behavior of bats at wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Cryan, Paul. M.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Diehl, Robert H.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hayman, David T. S.; Fricker, Paul D.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines. PMID:25267628

  5. Behavior of bats at wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Cryan, Paul M; Gorresen, P Marcos; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Diehl, Robert H; Huso, Manuela M; Hayman, David T S; Fricker, Paul D; Bonaccorso, Frank J; Johnson, Douglas H; Heist, Kevin; Dalton, David C

    2014-10-21

    Wind turbines are causing unprecedented numbers of bat fatalities. Many fatalities involve tree-roosting bats, but reasons for this higher susceptibility remain unknown. To better understand behaviors associated with risk, we monitored bats at three experimentally manipulated wind turbines in Indiana, United States, from July 29 to October 1, 2012, using thermal cameras and other methods. We observed bats on 993 occasions and saw many behaviors, including close approaches, flight loops and dives, hovering, and chases. Most bats altered course toward turbines during observation. Based on these new observations, we tested the hypotheses that wind speed and blade rotation speed influenced the way that bats interacted with turbines. We found that bats were detected more frequently at lower wind speeds and typically approached turbines on the leeward (downwind) side. The proportion of leeward approaches increased with wind speed when blades were prevented from turning, yet decreased when blades could turn. Bats were observed more frequently at turbines on moonlit nights. Taken together, these observations suggest that bats may orient toward turbines by sensing air currents and using vision, and that air turbulence caused by fast-moving blades creates conditions that are less attractive to bats passing in close proximity. Tree bats may respond to streams of air flowing downwind from trees at night while searching for roosts, conspecifics, and nocturnal insect prey that could accumulate in such flows. Fatalities of tree bats at turbines may be the consequence of behaviors that evolved to provide selective advantages when elicited by tall trees, but are now maladaptive when elicited by wind turbines.

  6. Dust in the Quasar Wind (Artist Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Dusty grains -- including tiny specks of the minerals found in the gemstones peridot, sapphires and rubies -- can be seen blowing in the winds of a quasar, or active black hole, in this artist's concept. The quasar is at the center of a distant galaxy.

    Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that such quasar winds might have forged these dusty particles in the very early universe. The findings are another clue in an ongoing cosmic mystery: where did all the dust in our young universe come from?

    Dust is crucial for efficient star formation as it allows the giant clouds where stars are born to cool quickly and collapse into new stars. Once a star has formed, dust is also needed to make planets and living creatures. Dust has been seen as far back as when the universe was less than a tenth of its current age, but how did it get there? Most dust in our current epoch forms in the winds of evolved stars that did not exist when the universe was young.

    Theorists had predicted that winds from quasars growing in the centers of distant galaxies might be a source of this dust. While the environment close to a quasar is too hot for large molecules like dust grains to survive, dust has been found in the cooler, outer regions. Astronomers now have evidence that dust is created in these outer winds.

    Using Spitzer's infrared spectrograph instrument, scientists found a wealth of dust grains in a quasar called PG2112+059 located at the center of a galaxy 8 billion light-years away. The grains - including corundum (sapphires and rubies); forsterite (peridot); and periclase (naturally occurring in marble) - are not typically found in galaxies without quasars, suggesting they might have been freshly formed in the quasar's winds.

  7. On the Effect of Offshore Wind Parks on Ocean Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludewig, E.; Pohlmann, T.

    2012-12-01

    being hundred times bigger than the wind park itself. The emerged vertical structure is generated due to a newly created geostrophic balance resulting in a redistribution of the ocean mass field. A number of additional upwelling and downwelling cells around the wind park support an intensified vertical dispersion through all layers and incline the thermocline which also influences the lower levels. The disturbances of mass show a dipole structure across the main wind direction with a maximum change in thermocline depth of some meters close to the OWP. Diffusion, mostly driven by direct wind induced surface shear is also modified by the wind turbines and supports a further modification of the vertical patterns. Considering that wind turbines operate only in a special window of wind speed, i.e. wind turbines will stop in case of too weak or too strong wind speeds as well as in case of technical issues, the averaged dimension and intensity of occurring vertical cells depend on the number of rotors and expected wind speeds. Finally we will focus on scenario runs for the North Sea under fully realistic conditions to estimate possible changes in ocean dynamics due to OWPs in future and these results will be further used for process analyzes of the ecosystem. If we assume a continuous operation of North Sea's OWPs in future we expect a fundamental constant change in ocean dynamics and moreover in the ecosystem in its vicinity.

  8. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market in 2010. The report analyzes trends in wind power capacity, industry, manufacturing, turbines, installed project costs, project performance, and wind power prices. It also describes trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers, and discusses financing issues.

  9. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  10. Basics of the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    2012-09-01

    Preface; 1. The wind from the sun: an introduction; 2. Toolkit for space plasma physics; 3. Anatomy of the sun; 4. The outer solar atmosphere; 5. How does the solar wind blow?; 6. Structure and perturbations; 7. Bodies in the wind: dust, asteroids, planets and comets; 8. The solar wind in the universe; Index.

  11. Wind Electrolysis: Hydrogen Cost Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Saur, G.; Ramsden, T.

    2011-05-01

    This report describes a hydrogen production cost analysis of a collection of optimized central wind based water electrolysis production facilities. The basic modeled wind electrolysis facility includes a number of low temperature electrolyzers and a co-located wind farm encompassing a number of 3MW wind turbines that provide electricity for the electrolyzer units.

  12. Wind Plant Ramping Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kemper, J.

    2009-12-01

    With the increasing wind penetrations, utilities and operators (ISOs) are quickly trying to understand the impacts on system operations and planning. This report focuses on ramping imapcts within the Xcel service region.

  13. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    SciTech Connect

    Takle, Gene

    2010-01-01

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  14. Distributed Wind Market Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

    2007-11-01

    Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

  15. Winds over saltcedar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hylckama, T. E. A.

    1970-01-01

    An analysis of hourly wind speeds above and within a stand of saltcedar near Buckeye, Arizona, reveals that in 90% of all observed cases, the wind profiles above the stand can be represented by the simple logarithmic equation: uz = u* k 1n ( z z0) where uz is the velocity at height z. The roughness length (z0), (disregarding zero displacement), varies with a stability ratio similar to Richardson's number. The friction velocity, u*, depends on the wind speeds above the vegetation. Von Karman's constant, k, equals 0.41. Within the thickets there is considerable turbulence, and irregular wind inversions occur during daylight hours. The results are important for estimating water losses by evapotranspiration by either the energy-budget or the mass-transfer formulae. ?? 1970.

  16. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  17. Wind Turbines Benefit Crops

    ScienceCinema

    Takle, Gene

    2016-07-12

    Ames Laboratory associate scientist Gene Takle talks about research into the effect of wind turbines on nearby crops. Preliminary results show the turbines may have a positive effect by cooling and drying the crops and assisting with carbon dioxide uptake.

  18. Airborne Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Makani Power is developing an Airborne Wind Turbine (AWT) that eliminates 90% of the mass of a conventional wind turbine and accesses a stronger, more consistent wind at altitudes of near 1,000 feet. At these altitudes, 85% of the country can offer viable wind resources compared to only 15% accessible with current technology. Additionally, the Makani Power wing can be economically deployed in deep offshore waters, opening up a resource which is 4 times greater than the entire U.S. electrical generation capacity. Makani Power has demonstrated the core technology, including autonomous launch, land, and power generation with an 8 meter wingspan, 20 kW prototype. At commercial scale, Makani Power aims to develop a 600 kW, 28 meter wingspan product capable of delivering energy at an unsubsidized cost competitive with coal, the current benchmark for low-cost power.

  19. EDITORIAL: Wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jakob; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Morthorst, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Wind energy is rapidly growing. In 2006 the installed generating capacity in the world increased by 25%, a growth rate which has more or less been sustained during the last decade. And there is no reason to believe that this growth will slow significantly in the coming years. For example, the United Kingdom's goal for installed wind turbines by 2020 is 33 GW up from 2 GW in 2006, an average annual growth rate of 22% over that period. More than half of all turbines are installed in Europe, but United States, India and lately China are also rapidly growing markets. The cradle of modern wind energy was set by innovative blacksmiths in rural Denmark. Now the wind provides more than 20% of the electrical power in Denmark, the industry has professionalized and has close ties with public research at universities. This focus issue is concerned with research in wind energy. The main purposes of research in wind energy are to: decrease the cost of power generated by the wind; increase the reliability and predictability of the energy source; investigate and reduce the adverse environmental impact of massive deployment of wind turbines; build research based educations for wind energy engineers. This focus issue contains contributions from several fields of research. Decreased costs cover a very wide range of activities from aerodynamics of the wind turbine blades, optimal site selection for the turbines, optimization of the electrical grid and power market for a fluctuating source, more efficient electrical generators and gears, and new materials and production techniques for turbine manufacturing. The United Kingdom recently started the construction of the London Array, a 1 GW off-shore wind farm east of London consisting of several hundred turbines. To design such a farm optimally it is necessary to understand the chaotic and very turbulent flow downwind from a turbine, which decreases the power production and increases the mechanical loads on other nearby turbines. Also

  20. Early stages of wind wave and drift current generation under non-stationary wind conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Generation and amplification mechanisms of ocean waves are well understood under constant wind speed or limited fetch conditions. Under these situations, the momentum and energy transfers from air to water are also quite well known. However during the wind field evolution over the ocean, we may observe sometime high wind acceleration/deceleration situations (e.g. Mexican Tehuano or Mediterranean Mistral wind systems). The evolution of wave systems under these conditions is not well understood. The purpose of these laboratory experiments is to better understand the early stages of water-waves and surface-drift currents under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine the balance between transfers creating waves and surface currents during non-equilibrium situations. The experiments were conducted in the Institut Pythéas wind-wave facility in Marseille-France. The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. We used 11 different resistive wave-gauges located along the tank. The momentum fluxes in the air column were estimated from single and X hot-film anemometer measurements. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. Water-current measurements were performed with a profiling velocimeter. This device measures the first 3.5 cm of the water column with a frequency rate of 100Hz. During the experiments, the wind intensity was abruptly modified with a constant acceleration and deceleration over time. We observed that wind drag coefficient values for accelerated wind periods are lower than the ones reported in previous studies for constant wind speed (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2010; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). This is probably because the turbulent boundary layer is not completely developed during the increasing-wind sequence. As it was reported in some theoretical studies (Miles 1957; Phillips 1957; Kahma and Donelan 1988), we

  1. Summertime wind climate in Yerevan: valley wind systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgyan, Artur

    2017-03-01

    1992-2014 wind climatology analysis in Yerevan is presented with particular focus given to the summertime thermally induced valley wind systems. Persistence high winds are observed in Yerevan during July-August months when the study region is strongly affected by a heat-driven plain-plateau circulation. The local valley winds arrive in Yerevan in the evening hours, generally, from 1500 to 1800 UTC, leading to rapid enhancement of wind speeds and dramatic changes in wind direction. Valley-winds significantly impact the local climate of Yerevan, which is a densely populated city. These winds moderate evening temperatures after hot and dry weather conditions observed during summertime afternoons. On the other hand, valley winds result in significantly higher nocturnal temperatures and more frequent occurrence of warm nights (tn90p) in Yerevan due to stronger turbulent mixing of boundary layer preventing strong surface cooling and temperature drop in nighttime and morning hours. The applied WRF-ARW limited area model is able to simulate the key features of the observed spatial pattern of surface winds in Armenia associated with significant terrain channeling, wind curls, etc. By contrast, ECMWF EPS global model fails to capture mesoscale and local wind systems over Armenia. However, the results of statistical verification of surface winds in Yerevan showed that substantial biases are present in WRF 18-h wind forecasts, as well as, the temporal variability of observed surface winds is not reproduced adequately in WRF-ARW model.

  2. Landmark Report Analyzes Current State of U.S. Offshore Wind Industry (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    New report assesses offshore wind industry, offshore wind resource, technology challenges, economics, permitting procedures, and potential risks and benefits. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently published a new report that analyzes the current state of the offshore wind energy industry, Large-Scale Offshore Wind Power in the United States. It provides a broad understanding of the offshore wind resource, and details the associated technology challenges, economics, permitting procedures, and potential risks and benefits of developing this clean, domestic, renewable resource. The United States possesses large and accessible offshore wind energy resources. The availability of these strong offshore winds close to major U.S. coastal cities significantly reduces power transmission issues. The report estimates that U.S. offshore winds have a gross potential generating capacity four times greater than the nation's present electric capacity. According to the report, developing the offshore wind resource along U.S. coastlines and in the Great Lakes would help the nation: (1) Achieve 20% of its electricity from wind by 2030 - Offshore wind could supply 54 gigawatts of wind capacity to the nation's electrical grid, increasing energy security, reducing air and water pollution, and stimulating the domestic economy. (2) Provide clean power to its coastal demand centers - Wind power emits no carbon dioxide (CO2) and there are plentiful winds off the coasts of 26 states. (3) Revitalize its manufacturing sector - Building 54 GW of offshore wind energy facilities would generate an estimated $200 billion in new economic activity, and create more than 43,000 permanent, well-paid technical jobs in manufacturing, construction, engineering, operations and maintenance. NREL's report concludes that the development of the nation's offshore wind resources can provide many potential benefits, and with effective research, policies, and commitment, offshore wind energy can

  3. World's Largest Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    NASA's National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex, which houses two of the world's largest wind tunnels and has been used for testing experimental aircraft since 1944, is presented. This video highlights the structure and instrumentation of the 40 x 80 foot and 80 x 120 foot wind tunnels and documents their use in testing full scale aircraft, NASA's Space Shuttle and the XV-15 Tiltrotor aircraft.

  4. Flank solar wind interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Stewart L.; Greenstadt, Eugene W.; Coroniti, Ferdinand V.

    1994-01-01

    In this report we will summarize the results of the work performed under the 'Flank Solar Wind Interaction' investigation in support of NASA's Space Physics Guest Investigator Program. While this investigation was focused on the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind as observed by instruments on the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3 spacecraft, it also represents the culmination of decades of research performed by scientists at TRW on the rich phenomenology of collisionless shocks in space.

  5. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, G.B.; Brynsvold, G.V.; Jahns, T.M.

    1989-08-22

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium are disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet. 4 figs.

  6. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, Gerald B.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Jahns, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium is disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet.

  7. Floating wind turbine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  8. Winds in the Thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killeen, T. L.; Burns, A. G.

    2005-12-01

    T. L. Killeen and A. G. Burns Studies of thermospheric dynamics began in the middle 1960s, when King suggested that winds would flow from the hot afternoon sector into the cooler morning region. Later work showed that winds were also driven by the high latitude ion convection pattern and by waves propagating upwards from the lower atmosphere. Ground based Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs) were soon developed that could measure these winds. These interferometers have been deployed successfully both at a variety of ground based locations and in space. Other types of instruments, such as the DE-FPI, WATS and the WINDII instruments, have been deployed successfully in space. The development of thermospheric general circulation models (GCMs) has also greatly increased our understanding of the dynamics of the thermosphere and the way that these dynamics develop as forcing changes. Recent developments include thermosphere-ionosphere GCMs that are coupled with the magnetosphere and improved empirical wind models. In this presentation we summarize the history of thermospheric dynamics. In addition, we discuss current developments with reference to some new, coupled model results that show a number of unexpected features such as strong vertical gradients of horizontal winds in certain conditions and a complex morphology of the dawn convection pattern. Lastly, we suggest some future directions for investigations of the winds in the thermosphere.

  9. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Bingman, Verner

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  10. Wind Energy Workforce Development & Jobs

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, Suzanne

    2016-11-08

    The United States needs a skilled and qualified wind energy workforce to produce domestic clean power. To assist with wind energy workforce development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are engaged with several efforts.This presentation by Suzanne Tegen describes these efforts, including a wind industry survey, DOE's Wind Career Map, the DOE Wind Vision report, and an in-depth discussion of the Jobs & Economic Development Impacts Model.

  11. Aquarius Scatterometer Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh, S. H.; Fore, A.; Freedman, A. P.; Neumann, G.; Tang, W.; Brown, S.; Chaubell, M. J.; Jones, L.; Lagerloef, G. S.; LeVine, D.; Dinnat, E. P.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F. J.; Vandemark, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, the global water cycle, and climate. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 km and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis. The measurement principle is based on the response of the L-band (1.413 GHz) sea surface brightness temperatures to sea surface salinity. To achieve the required 0.2 psu accuracy, the impact of sea surface roughness (e.g. wind-generated ripples and waves), along with several additional factors impacting the observed brightness temperature, must be corrected to better than a few tenths of a degree Kelvin. To this end, Aquarius includes a scatterometer to help correct for this surface roughness effect. The Aquarius/SACD was launched successfully on June 10, 2011, and the instrument is expected to be turned on in August. The prelaunch tests of Aquarius showed that the instrument should be extremely stable at the week-to-month time scale with drift of less than 0.1 K for the radiometer and 0.1 dB for the scatterometer. The current baseline algorithm for Aquarius is to use the scatterometer data in conjunction with the NCEP wind direction to derive the ocean surface wind speed and then a radiometer roughness correction. The pre-launch simulations predict 1 m/s wind speed accuracy. This will be tested using the Aquarius data collected in the coming few months. To quantify the benefits of combining passive and active microwave sensors for ocean salinity remote sensing, the Passive/Active L-band Sensor (PALS) was used to acquire data over a wide range of ocean surface wind conditions during the High Ocean Wind (HOW) Campaign in 2009. The PALS brightness

  12. Scientists Create Mosquitoes Resistant to Dengue Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163019.html Scientists Create Mosquitoes Resistant to Dengue Virus Hope is to eventually make the bugs ... say they have created mosquitoes resistant to the dengue virus, which might eventually help control the spread ...

  13. The Art of Gymnastics: Creating Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovegno, Inez

    1988-01-01

    Offering students opportunities for creating movement sequences in gymnastics allows them to understand the essence of gymnastics, have creative experiences, and learn about themselves. The process of creating sequences is described. (MT)

  14. Understanding the unbalanced-voltage problem in wind turbine generation

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Batan, T.; Yildirim, D.

    2000-02-28

    Most wind turbines are equipped with line-connected induction generators. Induction generators are very attractive as wind turbine generators due to their low cost, ruggedness and the need for little or no maintenance. At constant frequency, the induction generator operates in a small range of speeds and, therefore, it operated with a small range of slips with respect to synchronous speed. Compared to a synchronous generator, an induction generator provides lower stiffness, thus alleviating the mechanical stress. In a weak power system network, an unbalanced load at the distribution lines can cause unbalanced voltage conditions. If an induction generator is connected to an unbalanced voltage, the resulting stator current will be unbalanced. The unbalanced current creates unequal heating (hot spots) on the stator winding. The heat may increase the winding temperature, which degrades the insulation of the winding, i.e., the life expectancy of the winding. Unbalanced currents also create torque pulsation on the shaft resulting in audible noise and extra mechanical stress. This paper explores the unbalanced voltage problem in induction generators. The levels of unbalance and the loads are varied. Experimental and predicted results are presented in this paper.

  15. 75 FR 47301 - Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...; EG10-36-000; EG10-37-000; EG10-38-000] Cedro Hill Wind LLC; Butler Ridge Wind Energy Center, LLC; High Majestic Wind Energy Center, LLC; Wessington Wind Energy Center, LLC; Juniper Canyon Wind Power LLC; Loraine Windpark Project, LLC; White Oak Energy LLC; Meadow Lake Wind Farm III LLC; Meadow Lake Wind...

  16. Implications of L1 observations for slow solar wind formation by solar reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepko, L.; Viall, N. M.; Antiochos, S. K.; Lepri, S. T.; Kasper, J. C.; Weberg, M.

    2016-05-01

    While the source of the fast solar wind is known to be coronal holes, the source of the slow solar wind has remained a mystery. Long time scale trends in the composition and charge states show strong correlations between solar wind velocity and plasma parameters, yet these correlations have proved ineffective in determining the slow wind source. We take advantage of new high time resolution (12 min) measurements of solar wind composition and charge state abundances at L1 and previously identified 90 min quasiperiodic structures to probe the fundamental timescales of slow wind variability. The combination of new high temporal resolution composition measurements and the clearly identified boundaries of the periodic structures allows us to utilize these distinct solar wind parcels as tracers of slow wind origin and acceleration. We find that each 90 min (2000 Mm) parcel of slow wind has near-constant speed yet exhibits repeatable, systematic charge state and composition variations that span the entire range of statistically determined slow solar wind values. The classic composition-velocity correlations do not hold on short, approximately hourlong, time scales. Furthermore, the data demonstrate that these structures were created by magnetic reconnection. Our results impose severe new constraints on slow solar wind origin and provide new, compelling evidence that the slow wind results from the sporadic release of closed field plasma via magnetic reconnection at the boundary between open and closed flux in the Sun's atmosphere.

  17. Establishment of Small Wind Regional Test Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Forsyth, T.; Huskey, A.; Mendoza, I.; Sinclair, K.; Smith, J.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growth of the small wind turbine (SWT) market is attracting numerous entrants. Small wind turbine purchasers now have many options, but often lack information (such as third-party certification) to select a quality turbine. Most SWTs do not have third-party certification due to the expense and difficulty of the certification process. Until recently, the only SWT certification bodies were in Europe. In North America, testing has been limited to a small number of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) subsidized tests conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) under the ongoing Independent Testing Project. During the past few years, DOE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and some states have worked with the North American SWT industry to create a SWT certification infrastructure. The goal is to increase the number of certified turbines and gain greater consumer confidence in SWT technology. The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) released the AWEA Small Wind Turbine Performance and Safety Standard, AWEA Standard 9.1 - 2009, in December 2009. The Small Wind Certification Council (SWCC) and Intertek, North American SWT certification bodies, began accepting applications for certification to the AWEA standard in 2010. To reduce certification testing costs, DOE and NREL are providing financial and technical assistance for an initial round of tests at four SWT test sites, which were selected through a competitive solicitation. The four organizations selected are Windward Engineering (Utah), The Alternative Energy Institute at West Texas A and M (Texas), a consortium consisting of Kansas State University and Colby Community College (Kansas), and Intertek (New York). Each organization will test two small wind turbines as part of their respective subcontracts with DOE and NREL. The testing results will be made publically available. The goal is to establish a lower-cost U.S. small wind testing

  18. The origin of the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axford, W. I.; McKenzie, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    efficiently transferred to the ions within a few solar radii of the base of the corona, favoring heavy species and creating stable, fast solar wind.

  19. Wind energy: Program overview, FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The DOE Wind Energy Program assists utilities and industry in developing advanced wind turbine technology to be economically competitive as an energy source in the marketplace and in developing new markets and applications for wind systems. This program overview describes the commercial development of wind power, wind turbine development, utility programs, industry programs, wind resources, applied research in wind energy, and the program structure.

  20. Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Mesh Generator

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-24

    VAWTGen is a mesh generator for creating a finite element beam mesh of arbitrary vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT). The software accepts input files specifying tower and blade structural and aerodynamic descriptions and constructs a VAWT using a minimal set of inputs. VAWTs with an arbitrary number of blades can be constructed with or without a central tower. Strut connections between the tower and blades can be specified in an arbitrary manner. The software also facilitates specifying arbitrary joints between structural components and concentrated structural tenns (mass and stiffness). The output files which describe the VAWT configuration are intended to be used with the Offshore Wind ENergy Simulation (OWENS) Toolkit software for structural dynamics analysis of VAWTs. Furthermore, VAWTGen is useful for visualizing output from the OWENS analysis software.

  1. Wind Powering America Podcasts, Wind Powering America (WPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    Wind Powering America and the National Association of Farm Broadcasters produce a series of radio interviews featuring experts discussing wind energy topics. The interviews are aimed at a rural stakeholder audience and are available as podcasts. On the Wind Powering America website, you can access past interviews on topics such as: Keys to Local Wind Energy Development Success, What to Know about Installing a Wind Energy System on Your Farm, and Wind Energy Development Can Revitalize Rural America. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource for podcast episodes.

  2. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) toolkit (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Caroline Draxl: NREL

    2014-01-01

    Regional wind integration studies require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high penetration scenarios. The wind datasets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as being time synchronized with available load profiles.As described in this presentation, the WIND Toolkit fulfills these requirements by providing a state-of-the-art national (US) wind resource, power production and forecast dataset.

  3. Wind Regimes in Complex Terrain of the Great Valley of Eastern Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Birdwell, Kevin R.

    2011-05-01

    flowed on-axis only 40% of the time. The Great Smoky Mountains helped create down-valley pressure-driven winds, downslope mountain breezes, and divergent air flow. The Cumberland Mountains and Plateau were associated with wind speed reductions in the Central Great Valley, Emory Gap Flow, weak thermally-driven winds, and northwesterly down sloping. Ridge-and-valley terrain enhanced wind direction reversals, pressure-driven winds, as well as locally and regionally produced thermally-driven flow.

  4. Modeling solar wind with boundary conditions from interplanetary scintillations

    DOE PAGES

    Manoharan, P.; Kim, T.; Pogorelov, N. V.; ...

    2015-09-30

    Interplanetary scintillations make it possible to create three-dimensional, time- dependent distributions of the solar wind velocity. Combined with the magnetic field observations in the solar photosphere, they help perform solar wind simulations in a genuinely time-dependent way. Interplanetary scintillation measurements from the Ooty Radio Astronomical Observatory in India provide directions to multiple stars and may assure better resolution of transient processes in the solar wind. In this paper, we present velocity distributions derived from Ooty observations and compare them with those obtained with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model. We also present our simulations of the solar wind flow from 0.1 AUmore » to 1 AU with the boundary conditions based on both Ooty and WSA data.« less

  5. Modeling solar wind with boundary conditions from interplanetary scintillations

    SciTech Connect

    Manoharan, P.; Kim, T.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Arge, C. N.

    2015-09-30

    Interplanetary scintillations make it possible to create three-dimensional, time- dependent distributions of the solar wind velocity. Combined with the magnetic field observations in the solar photosphere, they help perform solar wind simulations in a genuinely time-dependent way. Interplanetary scintillation measurements from the Ooty Radio Astronomical Observatory in India provide directions to multiple stars and may assure better resolution of transient processes in the solar wind. In this paper, we present velocity distributions derived from Ooty observations and compare them with those obtained with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model. We also present our simulations of the solar wind flow from 0.1 AU to 1 AU with the boundary conditions based on both Ooty and WSA data.

  6. Environmental impact of wind energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, J.; Teilmann, J.

    2013-09-01

    One purpose of wind turbines is to provide pollution-free electric power at a reasonable price in an environmentally sound way. In this focus issue the latest research on the environmental impact of wind farms is presented. Offshore wind farms affect the marine fauna in both positive and negative ways. For example, some farms are safe havens for porpoises while other farms show fewer harbor porpoises even after ten years. Atmospheric computer experiments are carried out to investigate the possible impact and resource of future massive installations of wind turbines. The following questions are treated. What is the global capacity for energy production by the wind? Will the added turbulence and reduced wind speeds generated by massive wind farms cool or heat the surface? Can wind farms affect precipitation? It is also shown through life-cycle analysis how wind energy can reduce the atmospheric emission of eight air pollutants. Finally, noise generation and its impact on humans are studied.

  7. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  8. Extensible Wind Towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinagra, Marco; Tucciarelli, Tullio

    The diffusion of wind energy generators is restricted by their strong landscape impact. The PERIMA project is about the development of an extensible wind tower able to support a wind machine for several hundred kW at its optimal working height, up to more than 50 m. The wind tower has a telescopic structure, made by several tubes located inside each other with their axis in vertical direction. The lifting force is given by a jack-up system confined inside a shaft, drilled below the ground level. In the retracted tower configuration, at rest, tower tubes are hidden in the foundation of the telescopic structure, located below the ground surface, and the wind machine is the only emerging part of the system. The lifting system is based on a couple of oleodynamic cylinders that jack-up a central tube connected to the top of the tower by a spring, with a diameter smaller than the minimum tower diameter and with a length a bit greater than the length of the extended telescopic structure. The central tube works as plunger and lifts all telescopic elements. The constraint between the telescopic elements is ensured by special parts, which are kept in traction by the force of the spring and provide the resisting moment. The most evident benefit of the proposed system is attained with the use of a two-blade propeller, which can be kept horizontal in the retracted tower configuration.

  9. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  10. Doppler wind profile experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    The data collection phase of a Doppler wind measurement experiment supported by high-resolution Jimsphere/FPS-16 wind data and Windsonde data was carried out at the Kennedy Space Center in February, March and early April of 1985. The Doppler wind measurements were made using a hybrid doppler profiler put in place by the Johnson Space Center and a SOUSY profiler operated by Radian Corporation. Both systems operated at 50 Mhz. Although the doppler profiler systems were located 10 km apart to enable concurrent operation of the systems for data comparison, little concurrent data were obtained due to set-up delays with the SOUSY system, and system problems with the WPL system during the last month of the test. During the test period, special serial Jimsphere soundings were taken at two-hour intervals on six days in March and April in addition to balloon soundings taken in support of the Shuttle launch operations. In addition, there is temperature, moisture and wind information available from the daily morning Radiosonde sounding taken at the Kennedy site. The balloon release point was at the same location as the SOUSY profiler. Vertical resolution of the SOUSY profiler was 150 M to approximately 20 km. The vertical resolution of the WPL profiler was 290 M to 10 km and 870 M to 17 km. Winds determined form the Jimsphere balloon have a vertical resolution of 30 M.

  11. Wind field model-based estimation of Seasat scatterometer winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, David G.

    1993-01-01

    A model-based approach to estimating near-surface wind fields over the ocean from Seasat scatterometer (SASS) measurements is presented. The approach is a direct assimilation technique in which wind field model parameters are estimated directly from the scatterometer measurements of the radar backscatter of the ocean's surface using maximum likelihood principles. The wind field estimate is then computed from the estimated model parameters. The wind field model used in this approach is based on geostrophic approximation and on simplistic assumptions about the wind field vorticity and divergence but includes ageostrophic winds. Nine days of SASS data were processed to obtain unique wind estimates. Comparisons in performance to the traditional two-step (point-wise wind retrieval followed by ambiguity removal) wind estimate method and the model-based method are provided using both simulated radar backscatter measurements and actual SASS measurements. In the latter case the results are compared to wind fields determined using subjective ambiguity removal. While the traditional approach results in missing measurements and reduced effective swath width due to fore/aft beam cell coregistration problems, the model-based approach uses all available measurements to increase the effective swath width and to reduce data gaps. The results reveal that the model-based wind estimates have accuracy comparable to traditionally estimated winds with less 'noise' in the directional estimates, particularly at low wind speeds.

  12. A Full Body Steerable Wind Display for a Locomotion Interface.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Sandip D; Fisher, Charles J; Lefler, Price; Desai, Aditya; Chakravarthy, Shanthanu; Pardyjak, Eric R; Minor, Mark A; Hollerbach, John M

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the Treadport Active Wind Tunnel (TPAWT)-a full-body immersive virtual environment for the Treadport locomotion interface designed for generating wind on a user from any frontal direction at speeds up to 20 kph. The goal is to simulate the experience of realistic wind while walking in an outdoor virtual environment. A recirculating-type wind tunnel was created around the pre-existing Treadport installation by adding a large fan, ducting, and enclosure walls. Two sheets of air in a non-intrusive design flow along the side screens of the back-projection CAVE-like visual display, where they impinge and mix at the front screen to redirect towards the user in a full-body cross-section. By varying the flow conditions of the air sheets, the direction and speed of wind at the user are controlled. Design challenges to fit the wind tunnel in the pre-existing facility, and to manage turbulence to achieve stable and steerable flow, were overcome. The controller performance for wind speed and direction is demonstrated experimentally.

  13. Offshore Wind Power Integration in severely fluctuating Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bremen, L.

    2010-09-01

    Strong power fluctuations from offshore wind farms that are induced by wind speed fluctuations pose a severe problem to the save integration of offshore wind power into the power supply system. Experience at the first large-scale offshore wind farm Horns Rev showed that spatial smoothing of power fluctuations within a single wind farm is significantly smaller than onshore results suggest when distributed wind farms of 160 MW altogether are connected to a single point of common-coupling. Wind power gradients larger than 10% of the rated capacity within 5 minutes require large amount of regulation power that is very expensive for the grid operator. It must be noted that a wind speed change of only 0.5m/s result in a wind power change of 10% (within the range of 9-11 m/s where the wind power curve is steepest). Hence, it is very important for the grid operator to know if strong fluctuations are likely or not. Observed weather conditions at the German wind energy research platform FINO1 in the German bight are used to quantify wind fluctuations. With a standard power curve these wind fluctuations are transfered to wind power. The aim is to predict the probability of exceedence of certain wind power gradients that occur in a time interval of e.g. 12 hours. During 2006 and 2009 the distribution of wind power fluctuations looks very similar giving hope that distinct atmospheric processes can be determined that act as a trigger. Most often high wind power fluctuations occur in a range of wind speeds between 9-12 m/s as can be expected from the shape of the wind power curve. A cluster analysis of the 500 hPa geopotential height to detect predominant weather regimes shows that high fluctuations are more likely in north-western flow. It is shown that most often high fluctuations occur in non-stable atmospheric stratification. The description of stratification by means of the vertical gradient of the virtual potential temperature is chosen to be indicative for convection, i

  14. Mushrooms use convectively created airflows to disperse their spores

    PubMed Central

    Dressaire, Emilie; Yamada, Lisa; Song, Boya; Roper, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of basidiomycete fungal species rely on mushroom spores to spread across landscapes. It has long been thought that spores depend on favorable winds for dispersal—that active control of spore dispersal by the parent fungus is limited to an impulse delivered to the spores to carry them clear of the gill surface. Here we show that evaporative cooling of the air surrounding the pileus creates convective airflows capable of carrying spores at speeds of centimeters per second. Convective cells can transport spores from gaps that may be only 1 cm high and lift spores 10 cm or more into the air. This work reveals how mushrooms tolerate and even benefit from crowding and explains their high water needs. PMID:26929324

  15. SeaWinds Global Coverage with Detail of Hurricane Floyd

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of ocean surface winds over the Atlantic Ocean, based on September 1999 data from NASA's SeaWinds instrument on the QuikScat satellite, shows wind direction (white streamlines) at a resolution of 25 kilometers (15.5 miles), superimposed on the color image indicating wind speed.

    Over the ocean, the strong (seen in violet) trade winds blow steadily from the cooler subtropical oceans to warm waters just north of the equator. The air rises over these warm waters and sinks in the subtropics at the horse latitudes. Low wind speeds are indicated in blue. In the mid-latitudes, the high vorticity caused by the rotation of the Earth generates the spirals of weather systems. The North Atlantic is dominated by a high-pressure system, whose anti-cyclonic (clockwise) flow creates strong winds blowing parallel to the coast of Spain and Morocco. This creates strong ocean upwelling and cold temperature. Hurricane Floyd, with its high winds (yellow), is clearly visible west of the Bahamas. Tropical depression Gert is seen as it was forming in the tropical mid-Atlantic (as an anti-clockwise spiral); it later developed into a full-blown hurricane.

    Because the atmosphere is largely transparent to microwaves, SeaWinds is able to cover 93 percent of the global oceans, under both clear and cloudy conditions, in a single day, with the capability of a synoptic view of the ocean. The high resolution of the data also gives detailed description of small and intense weather systems, like Hurricane Floyd. The image in the insert is based on data specially produced at 12.5 kilometers (7.7 miles). In the insert, white arrows of wind vector are imposed on the color image of wind speed. The insert represents a 3-degree area occupied by Hurricane Floyd. After these data were acquired, Hurricane Floyd turned north. Its strength and proximity to the Atlantic coast of the U.S. caused the largest evacuation of citizens in U.S. history. Its landfall on September 16, 1999

  16. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2010-01-01

    again by six years, from October 1996 to April 2002, by interpolating 1000-ft sounding data to 100-ft increments. The Phase II developmental data set included observations for the cool season months of October 1996 to February 2007. The AMU calculated 68 candidate predictors from the XMR soundings, to include 19 stability parameters, 48 wind speed parameters and one wind shear parameter. Each day in the data set was stratified by synoptic weather pattern, low-level wind direction, precipitation and Richardson Number, for a total of 60 stratification methods. Linear regression equations, using the 68 predictors and 60 stratification methods, were created for the tool's three forecast parameters: the highest peak wind speed of the day (PWSD), 5-minute average speed at the same time (A WSD), and timing of the PWSD. For PWSD and A WSD, 30 Phase II methods were selected for evaluation in the verification data set. For timing of the PWSD, 12 Phase\\I methods were selected for evaluation. The verification data set contained observations for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The data set was used to compare the Phase I and II forecast methods to climatology, model forecast winds and wind advisories issued by the 45 WS. The model forecast winds were derived from the 0000 and 1200 UTC runs of the 12-km North American Mesoscale (MesoNAM) model. The forecast methods that performed the best in the verification data set were selected for the Phase II version of the tool. For PWSD and A WSD, linear regression equations based on MesoNAM forecasts performed significantly better than the Phase I and II methods. For timing of the PWSD, none of the methods performed significantly bener than climatology. The AMU then developed the Microsoft Excel and MIDDS GUls. The GUIs display the forecasts for PWSD, AWSD and the probability the PWSD will meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. Since none of the prediction methods for timing of the PWSD performed significantly better

  17. Accuracy of Wind Prediction Methods in the California Sea Breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumers, B. D.; Dvorak, M. J.; Ten Hoeve, J. E.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the accuracy of measure-correlate-predict (MCP) algorithms and log law/power law scaling using data from two tall towers in coastal environments. We find that MCP algorithms accurately predict sea breeze winds and that log law/power law scaling methods struggle to predict 50-meter wind speeds. MCP methods have received significant attention as the wind industry has grown and the ability to accurately characterize the wind resource has become valuable. These methods are used to produce longer-term wind speed records from short-term measurement campaigns. A correlation is developed between the “target site,” where the developer is interested in building wind turbines, and a “reference site,” where long-term wind data is available. Up to twenty years of prior wind speeds are then are predicted. In this study, two existing MCP methods - linear regression and Mortimer’s method - are applied to predict 50-meter wind speeds at sites in the Salinas Valley and Redwood City, CA. The predictions are then verified with tall tower data. It is found that linear regression is poorly suited to MCP applications as the process produces inaccurate estimates of the cube of the wind speed at 50 meters. Meanwhile, Mortimer’s method, which bins data by direction and speed, is found to accurately predict the cube of the wind speed in both sea breeze and non-sea breeze conditions. We also find that log and power law are unstable predictors of wind speeds. While these methods produced accurate estimates of the average 50-meter wind speed at both sites, they predicted an average cube of the wind speed that was between 1.3 and 1.18 times the observed value. Inspection of time-series error reveals increased error in the mid-afternoon of the summer. This suggests that the cold sea breeze may disrupt the vertical temperature profile, create a stable atmosphere and violate the assumptions that allow log law scaling to work.

  18. Harvesting the wind

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, R.D.

    1984-11-01

    This paper describes the wind farms in the Altamont Pass, the Tehachapi Mountains, and the San Gorgonio pass, all in California. The threat by Congress to eliminate federal tax credits could put the fledgling industry in the doldrums. The author shows how the selection of the right wind site can make the difference between a profitable venture and an expensive kinetic sculpture. To improve reliability wind-farm developers have turned to more durable Danish turbines from Zond, Windmatic, and Bonus. Recent research under DOE sponsorship has studied large-scale MOD-2 machines built by Boeing, several of which are now operating at a PGandL site north of San Francisco. The result of recent new standards may require the filing of quarterly reports on machine capacity, performance, and the amounts of electricity produced from the installation.

  19. Elysium Mons Wind Streak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-556, 26 November 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a wind streak formed behind a meteor impact crater on the lower north flank of the volcano, Elysium Mons. Winds blow down the volcano slope, toward the northeast (toward upper right), causing a tail of uneroded dust to be captured behind the crater. Thin, filamentary dark streaks (resembling pencil scratches in this image) can be seen on the surface of the bright wind streak; these may have formed by disruption of surface dust by passing dust devils. This picture is located near 27.7oN, 212.7oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide, and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  20. Wind measurements by parachute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordstroem, S.

    1982-01-01

    Tests used the 8 cm Lotta grenade as well as 12 cm M/70 and 10.5 m/62 grenades, released at altitudes between 2000 and 6400 meters. The parachutes were tracked by AP and RFK. In later experiments wind data were also obtained for comparison by tracking hydrogen filled balloons in part with the CORA system, in part with radar. Generally radar picked up the objects without visual assistance. Wind measurements from parachutes correlated well with those obtained by balloon. Even when the radar locked on to a part of a grenade, descending faster than the parachute, some of the measurements obtained were good. Bodies with a greater rate of descent than parachutes, with less or no tendency toward drift and with sufficient, surface for radar tracking, ought to provide reliable results. The existence of vertically well defined winds of jet stream type at low altitudes was established.

  1. Time dependent wind fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chelton, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    Two tasks were performed: (1) determination of the accuracy of Seasat scatterometer, altimeter, and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer measurements of wind speed; and (2) application of Seasat altimeter measurements of sea level to study the spatial and temporal variability of geostrophic flow in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The results of the first task have identified systematic errors in wind speeds estimated by all three satellite sensors. However, in all cases the errors are correctable and corrected wind speeds agree between the three sensors to better than 1 ms sup -1 in 96-day 2 deg. latitude by 6 deg. longitude averages. The second task has resulted in development of a new technique for using altimeter sea level measurements to study the temporal variability of large scale sea level variations. Application of the technique to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current yielded new information about the ocean circulation in this region of the ocean that is poorly sampled by conventional ship-based measurements.

  2. Wind abrasion on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Aeolian activity was predicted for Mars from earth based observations of changing surface patterns that were interpreted as dust storms. Mariner 9 images showed conclusive evidence for aeolian processes in the form of active dust storms and various aeolian landforms including dunes and yardangs. Windspeeds to initiate particle movement are an order of magnitude higher on Mars than on Earth because of the low atmospheric density on Mars. In order to determine rates of abrasion by wind blown particles, knowledge of three factors is required: (1) particle parameters such as numbers and velocities of windblown grains as functions of windspeeds at various heights above the surface; (2) the susceptibility to abrasion of various rocks and minerals; and (3) wind frequencies and speeds. For estimates appropriate to Mars, data for the first two parameters can be determined through lab and wind tunnel tests; data for the last two factors are available directly from the Viking Lander meteorology experiments for the two landing sites.

  3. Advancements in Wind Integration Study Data Modeling: The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Draxl, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Jones, W.; Searight, K.; Getman, D.; Harrold, S.; McCaa, J.; Cline, J.; Clark, C.

    2013-10-01

    Regional wind integration studies in the United States require detailed wind power output data at many locations to perform simulations of how the power system will operate under high-penetration scenarios. The wind data sets that serve as inputs into the study must realistically reflect the ramping characteristics, spatial and temporal correlations, and capacity factors of the simulated wind plants, as well as be time synchronized with available load profiles. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit described in this paper fulfills these requirements. A wind resource dataset, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts from a numerical weather prediction model run on a nationwide 2-km grid at 5-min resolution will be made publicly available for more than 110,000 onshore and offshore wind power production sites.

  4. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-12-01

    This brochure serves as an introduction to Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project, including a description of the project, the participants, funding sources, and the basic configurations of the project.

  5. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project (Alaska) (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    This brochure provides an overview of Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project, including a description of the project, the participants, funding sources, the basic configurations, and how interested parties can become involved.

  6. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Baring-Gould, I.

    2009-08-01

    This brochure provides an overview of Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project, including a description of the project, the participants, funding sources, the basic configurations, and how interested parties can become involved.

  7. Wind Powering America Webinar Series (Postcard), Wind Powering America (WPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    Wind Powering America offers a free monthly webinar series that provides expert information on today?s key wind energy topics. This postcard is an outreach tool that provides a brief description of the webinars as well as the URL.

  8. Wind Turbines Adaptation to the Variability of the Wind Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulianov, Yuriy; Martynenko, Gennadii; Misaylov, Vitaliy; Soliannikova, Iuliia

    2010-05-01

    WIND TURBINES ADAPTATION TO THE VARIABILITY OF THE WIND FIELD The subject of our scientific research is wind power turbines (WPT) with the horizontal axis which were now common in the world. Efficient wind turbines work is largely determined by non-stationarity of the wind field, expressed in its gustiness, the presence of vertical and horizontal shifts of wind speed and direction. At critical values of the wind parameters WPT has aerodynamic and mechanical overload, leading to breakdowns, premature wear and reduce the life of the wind turbine. To prevent accidents at the peak values of wind speed it is used the regulatory system of windwheels. WPT control systems provide a process orientation of the wind turbine rotor axis in the line of the mean wind. Wind turbines are also equipped with braking device used to protect against breakdowns when a significant increase in the wind. In general, all these methods of regulation are not always effective. Thus, in practice there may be situations when the wind speed is many times greater than the stated limit. For example, if there are microbursts in the atmospheric boundary layer, low-level wind shears caused by its gust front, storms, etc. It is required for a wind power turbine adaptation to intensive short-term wind impulses and considerable vertical wind shifts that the data about them shall be obtained ahead of time. To do this it is necessary to have the information on the real structure of the wind field in the area of the blade sweep for the minimum range against the wind that is determined by the mean speed and the system action time. The implementation of acoustic and laser traditional wind sounding systems is limited by ambient acoustic noise, by heavy rain, snowfall and by fog. There are free of these disadvantages the inclined radioacoustic sounding (IRASS) technique which works for a system of remote detection and control of wind gusts. IRASS technique is realized as low-potential Doppler pulse radar

  9. Wind Energy Status and Future Wind Engineering Challenges: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Thresher, R.; Schreck, S.; Robinson, M.; Veers, P.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the current status of wind energy technology, the potential for future wind energy development and the science and engineering challenges that must be overcome for the technology to meet its potential.

  10. Offshore wind resource estimation from satellite SAR wind field maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasager, C. B.; Nielsen, M.; Astrup, P.; Barthelmie, R.; Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N. O.; Jørgensen, B. H.; Pryor, S. C.; Rathmann, O.; Furevik, B. R.

    2005-10-01

    A wind resource estimation study based on a series of 62 satellite wind field maps is presented. The maps were retrieved from imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The wind field maps were used as input to the software RWT, which calculates the offshore wind resource based on spatial averaging (footprint modelling) of the wind statistic in each satellite image. The calculated statistics can then be input to the program WAsP and used in lieu of in-situ observations by meteorological instruments. A regional wind climate map based on satellite SAR images delineates significant spatial wind speed variations. The site of investigation was Horns Rev in the North Sea, where a meteorological time series is used for comparison. The advantages and limitations of these new techniques, which seem particularly useful for mapping of the regional wind climate, are discussed. Copyright

  11. Winds over Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Before World War II, weather forecasters had little knowledge of upper-air wind patterns above 20000 feet. Data were seldom avai able at these heights, and the need was not great because commercial aircraft seldom flew at these altitudes. The war in the Pacific changed all that. Wind forecasts for 30000 feet plus became urgent to support the XXI Bomber Command in its bombing mission over Japan.The U.S. Army Air Force Pacific Ocean Area (AAFPOA) placed a Weather Central in the Marianas Islands in 1944 (Saipan in 1944 and Guam in 1945) to provide forecasting support for this mission. A forecasting procedure was put into operation that combined the elements known as "single-station forecasting" and an advanced procedure that used "altirmeter corrections" to analyze upper-airdata and make prognoses. Upper-air charts were drawn for constant pressure surfaces rather than constant height surfaces. The constant pressure surfaces were tied together by means of the atmospheric temperature field represented by specific temperature anomalies between pressure surfaces. Wind forecasts over the Marianas-Japan route made use of space cross sections that provided the data to forecast winds at each 5000-ft level to 35000 ft along the mission flight path. The new procedures allowed the forecaster to construct internally consistent meteorological charts in three dimensions in regions of sparse data.Army air force pilots and their crews from the Marianas were among the first to experience the extreme wind conditions now known as the "jet stream". Air force forecasters demonstrated that, with experience, such winds could reasonably be forecast under difficult operational conditions.

  12. Piezoelectric Wind-Energy-Harvesting Device with Reed and Resonant Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jun; Kong, Fanrang; He, Liangguo; Guan, Qingchun; Feng, Zhihua

    2010-05-01

    A wind-energy-harvesting device utilizing the principle of a harmonica was created. A reed in a resonant cavity vibrated efficiently with the blowing wind, and a piezoelectric element stuck on the reed generated electricity. The dimensions of the wind inlet were approximately 30×20 mm2. The device was investigated with a wind speed ranging from 2.8 to 10 m/s. An output power of 0.5-4.5 mW was obtained with a matching load of 0.46 MΩ. The energy conversion efficiency of the device could reach up to 2.4%.

  13. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    Over the past three decades the Town of Hull, MA has solidified its place in U.S. wind energy history through its leadership in community-based generation. This is illustrated by its commissioning of the first commercial-scale wind turbine on the Atlantic coastline, the first suburban-sited turbine in the continental United States, pursuit of community-based offshore wind, and its push toward creating an energy independent community. The town's history and demographics are briefly outlined, followed by experience in projects to provide wind power, including pre-construction and feasibility efforts, financial aspects, and market/industry factors.

  14. Calibrated Blade-Element/Momentum Theory Aerodynamic Model of the MARIN Stock Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Goupee, A.; Kimball, R.; de Ridder, E. J.; Helder, J.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.

    2015-04-02

    In this paper, a calibrated blade-element/momentum theory aerodynamic model of the MARIN stock wind turbine is developed and documented. The model is created using open-source software and calibrated to closely emulate experimental data obtained by the DeepCwind Consortium using a genetic algorithm optimization routine. The provided model will be useful for those interested in validating interested in validating floating wind turbine numerical simulators that rely on experiments utilizing the MARIN stock wind turbine—for example, the International Energy Agency Wind Task 30’s Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continued, with Correlation project.

  15. Wind-Eroded Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    5 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dust-mantled, wind-eroded landscape in the Medusae Sulci region of Mars. Wind eroded the bedrock in this region, and then, later, windblown dust covered much of the terrain.

    Location near: 5.7oS, 160.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Spring

  16. TMCC WIND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Turtle Mountain Community College

    2003-12-30

    North Dakota has an outstanding resource--providing more available wind for development than any other state. According to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) studies, North Dakota alone has enough energy from good wind areas, those of wind power Class 4 and higher, to supply 36% of the 1990 electricity consumption of the entire lower 48 states. At present, no more than a handful of wind turbines in the 60- to 100-kilowatt (kW) range are operating in the state. The first two utility-scale turbines were installed in North Dakota as part of a green pricing program, one in early 2002 and the second in July 2002. Both turbines are 900-kW wind turbines. Two more wind turbines are scheduled for installation by another utility later in 2002. Several reasons are evident for the lack of wind development. One primary reason is that North Dakota has more lignite coal than any other state. A number of relatively new minemouth power plants are operating in the state, resulting in an abundance of low-cost electricity. In 1998, North Dakota generated approximately 8.2 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of electricity, largely from coal-fired plants. Sales to North Dakota consumers totaled only 4.5 million MWh. In addition, the average retail cost of electricity in North Dakota was 5.7 cents per kWh in 1998. As a result of this surplus and the relatively low retail cost of service, North Dakota is a net exporter of electricity, selling approximately 50% to 60% of the electricity produced in North Dakota to markets outside the state. Keeping in mind that new electrical generation will be considered an export commodity to be sold outside the state, the transmission grid that serves to export electricity from North Dakota is at or close to its ability to serve new capacity. The markets for these resources are outside the state, and transmission access to the markets is a necessary condition for any large project. At the present time, technical assessments of the transmission network indicate

  17. Wind Erosion in Aeolis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    09 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the effects of severe wind erosion of layered sedimentary rock in the Aeolis region of Mars. The sharp ridges formed by wind movement from the lower left (southwest) toward top/upper right (northeast) are known as yardangs. The dark patches in the lower half of the image are sand dunes. This scene is located near 5.0oS, 203.7oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the terrain from the left/upper left.

  18. Wind power machine

    SciTech Connect

    Denehi, D.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes wind powered apparatus for producing electricity. It comprises: an endless chain trained over and movable in a continuous path about two substantially spaced-apart sprockets, a plurality of sails fixedly attached to the chain, guide means positioned adjacent the chain and operable, a rotary electrical generator; means connecting at least one of the sprockets to the generator to rotate the latter in response to movement of the chain by wind acting upon the sail flaps when in the first, open position thereof.

  19. Flank solar wind interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Stewart L.; Greenstadt, Eugene W.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first 12 months of our program to study the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the solar wind on the far flanks of the bow shock. This study employs data from the ISEE-3 spacecraft during its traversals of the Earth's magnetotail and correlative data from spacecraft monitoring the solar wind upstream. Our main effort to date has involved assembling data sets and developing new plotting programs. Two talks were given at the Spring Meeting of the American Geophysical Union describing our initial results from analyzing data from the far flank foreshock and magnetosheath. The following sections summarize our results.

  20. Instrumentation in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, K.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements in designing instrumentation systems and measurements of various physical quantities in wind tunnels are surveyed. Emphasis is given to sensors used for measuring pressure, temperature, and angle, and the measurements of air turbulence and boundary layers. Instrumentation in wind tunnels require accuracy, fast response, diversity and operational simplicity. Measurements of force, pressure, attitude angle, free flow, pressure distribution, and temperature are illustrated by a table, and a block diagram. The LDV (laser Doppler velocimeter) method for measuring air turbulence and flow velocity and measurement of skin friction and flow fields using laser holograms are discussed. The future potential of these techniques is studied.

  1. Electrodynamics, wind and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    This RTOP provides for correlative meteorological wind and temperature measurements with atmospheric electrodynamic measurements. Meteorological rocketsondes were launched as part of a number of electrodynamic investigations in Alaska, Norway, Peru, Sweden, and at the Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia. Measurements obtained as part of the MAC/Epsilon campaign during October 1987 from Andoya, Norway, were in conjunction with electric field, ion mobility, conductivity, and energy deposition studies. The measurements obtained between 30 and 90 km are to evaluate and correlate changes in the atmospheric electrical structure caused by the neutral wind and temperature, or changes in the neutral atmosphere resulting from electrical anomalies.

  2. Wind Tails Near Chimp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the rock 'Chimp' was taken by the Sojourner rover's right front camera on Sol 72 (September 15). Fine-scale texture on Chimp and other rocks is clearly visible. Wind tails, oriented from lower right to upper left, are seen next to small pebbles in the foreground. These were most likely produced by wind action.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  3. Wind Turbine Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thresher, R. W. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in the analysis and prediction of the dynamic behavior of wind turbine generators is discussed. The following areas were addressed: (1) the adequacy of state of the art analysis tools for designing the next generation of wind power systems; (2) the use of state of the art analysis tools designers; and (3) verifications of theory which might be lacking or inadequate. Summaries of these informative discussions as well as the questions and answers which followed each paper are documented in the proceedings.

  4. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cyrus, Jack D.; Kadlec, Emil G.; Klimas, Paul C.

    1985-01-01

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the ends thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby inducing stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  5. Jet spoiler arrangement for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cyrus, J.D.; Kadlec, E.G.; Klimas, P.C.

    1983-09-15

    An air jet spoiler arrangement is provided for a Darrieus-type vertical axis wind-powered turbine. Air is drawn into hollow turbine blades through air inlets at the end thereof and is ejected in the form of air jets through small holes or openings provided along the lengths of the blades. The air jets create flow separation at the surfaces of the turbine blades, thereby including stall conditions and reducing the output power. A feedback control unit senses the power output of the turbine and controls the amount of air drawn into the air inlets accordingly.

  6. Wind Technology Advancements and Impacts on Western Wind Resources (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-09-01

    Robi Robichaud made this presentation at the Bureau of Land Management West-wide Wind Opportunities and Constraints Mapping (WWOCM) Project public meeting in Denver, Colorado in September 2014. This presentation outlines recent wind technology advancements, evolving turbine technologies, and industry challenges. The presentation includes maps of mean wind speeds at 50-m, 80-m, and 100-m hub heights on BLM lands. Robichaud also presented on the difference in mean wind speeds from 80m to 100m in Wyoming.

  7. Wind Forcing of the Pacific Ocean Using Scatterometer Wind Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Kathryn A.

    1999-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research was an understanding of the wind-forced ocean circulation, particularly for the Pacific Ocean. To determine the ocean's response to the winds, we first needed to generate accurate maps of wind stress. For the ocean's response to wind stress we examined the sea surface height (SSH) both from altimeters and from numerical models for the Pacific Ocean.

  8. Wind motor applications for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Lysenko, G.P.; Grigoriev, B.V.; Karpin, K.B.

    1996-12-31

    Motion equation for a vehicle equipped with a wind motor allows, taking into account the drag coefficients, to determine the optimal wind drag velocity in the wind motor`s plane, and hence, obtain all the necessary data for the wind wheel blades geometrical parameters definition. This optimal drag velocity significantly differs from the flow drag velocity which determines the maximum wind motor power. Solution of the motion equation with low drag coefficients indicates that the vehicle speed against the wind may be twice as the wind speed. One of possible transportation wind motor applications is its use on various ships. A ship with such a wind motor may be substantially easier to steer, and if certain devices are available, may proceed in autonomous control mode. Besides, it is capable of moving within narrow fairways. The cruise speed of a sailing boat and wind-motored ship were compared provided that the wind velocity direction changes along a harmonic law with regard to the motion direction. Mean dimensionless speed of the wind-motored ship appears to be by 20--25% higher than that of a sailing boat. There was analyzed a possibility of using the wind motors on planet rovers in Mars or Venus atmospheric conditions. A Mars rover power and motor system has been assessed for the power level of 3 kW.

  9. 77 FR 40608 - Notice of Petition for Enforcement and Declaratory Order; Exelon Wind 1, LLC; Exelon Wind 2, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Petition for Enforcement and Declaratory Order; Exelon Wind 1, LLC; Exelon Wind 2, LLC; Exelon Wind 3, LLC; Exelon Wind 4, LLC; Exelon Wind 5, LLC; Exelon Wind 6, LLC; Exelon Wind 7, LLC; Exelon Wind 8, LLC; Exelon Wind 9, LLC; Exelon Wind 10, LLC; Exelon Wind 11,...

  10. Blowing in the Wind: A Review of Wind Power Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of wind as a replenishable energy resource has come back into favour in recent decades. It is much promoted as a viable, clean energy option that will help towards reducing CO[subscript 2] emissions in the UK. This article examines the history of wind power and considers the development of wind turbines, together with their economic,…

  11. Wind Measurements from Arc Scans with Doppler Wind Lidar

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Clifton, Andy; ...

    2015-11-25

    When defining optimal scanning geometries for scanning lidars for wind energy applications, we found that it is still an active field of research. Our paper evaluates uncertainties associated with arc scan geometries and presents recommendations regarding optimal configurations in the atmospheric boundary layer. The analysis is based on arc scan data from a Doppler wind lidar with one elevation angle and seven azimuth angles spanning 30° and focuses on an estimation of 10-min mean wind speed and direction. When flow is horizontally uniform, this approach can provide accurate wind measurements required for wind resource assessments in part because of itsmore » high resampling rate. Retrieved wind velocities at a single range gate exhibit good correlation to data from a sonic anemometer on a nearby meteorological tower, and vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed, though derived from range gates located on a conical surface, match those measured by mast-mounted cup anemometers. Uncertainties in the retrieved wind velocity are related to high turbulent wind fluctuation and an inhomogeneous horizontal wind field. Moreover, the radial velocity variance is found to be a robust measure of the uncertainty of the retrieved wind speed because of its relationship to turbulence properties. It is further shown that the standard error of wind speed estimates can be minimized by increasing the azimuthal range beyond 30° and using five to seven azimuth angles.« less

  12. Wind Measurements from Arc Scans with Doppler Wind Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Clifton, Andy; Pryor, S. C.

    2015-11-25

    When defining optimal scanning geometries for scanning lidars for wind energy applications, we found that it is still an active field of research. Our paper evaluates uncertainties associated with arc scan geometries and presents recommendations regarding optimal configurations in the atmospheric boundary layer. The analysis is based on arc scan data from a Doppler wind lidar with one elevation angle and seven azimuth angles spanning 30° and focuses on an estimation of 10-min mean wind speed and direction. When flow is horizontally uniform, this approach can provide accurate wind measurements required for wind resource assessments in part because of its high resampling rate. Retrieved wind velocities at a single range gate exhibit good correlation to data from a sonic anemometer on a nearby meteorological tower, and vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed, though derived from range gates located on a conical surface, match those measured by mast-mounted cup anemometers. Uncertainties in the retrieved wind velocity are related to high turbulent wind fluctuation and an inhomogeneous horizontal wind field. Moreover, the radial velocity variance is found to be a robust measure of the uncertainty of the retrieved wind speed because of its relationship to turbulence properties. It is further shown that the standard error of wind speed estimates can be minimized by increasing the azimuthal range beyond 30° and using five to seven azimuth angles.

  13. Can dead zones create structures like a transition disk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinilla, Paola; Flock, Mario; Ovelar, Maria de Juan; Birnstiel, Til

    2016-12-01

    Context. Regions of low ionisation where the activity of the magneto-rotational instability is suppressed, the so-called dead zones, have been suggested to explain gaps and asymmetries of transition disks. Dead zones are therefore a potential cause for the observational signatures of transition disks without requiring the presence of embedded planets. Aims: We investigate the gas and dust evolution simultaneously assuming simplified prescriptions for a dead zone and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind acting on the disk. We explore whether the resulting gas and dust distribution can create signatures similar to those observed in transition disks. Methods: We imposed a dead zone and/or an MHD wind in the radial evolution of gas and dust in protoplanetary disks. For the dust evolution, we included the transport, growth, and fragmentation of dust particles. To compare with observations, we produced synthetic images in scattered optical light and in thermal emission at mm wavelengths. Results: In all models with a dead zone, a bump in the gas surface density is produced that is able to efficiently trap large particles (≳ 1 mm) at the outer edge of the dead zone. The gas bump reaches an amplitude of a factor of 5, which can be enhanced by the presence of an MHD wind that removes mass from the inner disk. While our 1D simulations suggest that such a structure can be present only for 1 Myr, the structure may be maintained for a longer time when more realistic 2D/3D simulations are performed. In the synthetic images, gap-like low-emission regions are seen at scattered light and in thermal emission at mm wavelengths, as previously predicted in the case of planet-disk interaction. Conclusions: Main signatures of transition disks can be reproduced by assuming a dead zone in the disk, such as gap-like structure in scattered light and millimetre continuum emission, and a lower gas surface density within the dead zone. Previous studies showed that the Rossby wave instability can

  14. Value of Wind Power Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.

    2011-04-01

    This study, building on the extensive models developed for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), uses these WECC models to evaluate the operating cost impacts of improved day-ahead wind forecasts.

  15. Wind/water energy converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulkovich, J.

    1979-01-01

    Device will convert wind, water, tidal or wave energy into electrical or mechanical energy. Is comprised of windmill-like paddles or blades synchronously geared to orient themselves to wind direction for optimum energy extraction.

  16. Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, John; Johnson, Kathryn; Haynes, Todd; Seifert, Gary

    2009-01-31

    This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho.

  17. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  18. DOE Wind Program Update: June 4, 2006;

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    The DOE Wind Program Update provides WindPower Conference attendees with information about recent DOE events, including Assistant Secretary Karsner, a wind turbine blade test facility CRADA, and 2005 Wind Energy Award recipients.

  19. Wind Technologies and Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robi Robichaud

    2014-03-01

    This presentation provides an overview of wind energy research being conducted at the National Wind Technology Center, market and technology trends in wind energy, and opportunities for wind technology.

  20. Global analysis of ocean surface wind and wind stress using a general circulation model and Seasat scatterometer winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalnay, E.; Atlas, R.

    1986-01-01

    Instantaneous and 15-day time-averaged fields of surface wind, wind stress, curl of the wind stress, and wind divergence are presented. These fields are derived from the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres four-dimensional analysis/forecast cycle, for the period September 6-30, 1978, using conventional data, satellite temperature soundings, cloud-track winds, and subjectively dealiased Seasat scatterometer winds.

  1. The Winds of B Supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, D.; Fullerton, A. W.; Prinja, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    This quarterly report is comprised of a paper, "Rotational Modulation of B Supergiant Winds" presented at the ESO workshop "Cyclical Variability in Stellar Winds." Presented is a 30-day IUE time series of the BO Ia HD 91969, a member of the Carina open cluster NGC 3293, which showed, among other things, that wind lines that probe more deeply into the wind vary more regularly.

  2. The Winds of B Supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fullerton, A. W.; Massa, D. L.; Prinja, R. K.; Owocki, S. P.; Cranmer, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the work conducted under the program "The Winds of B Supergiants," conducted by Raytheon STX Corporation. The report consists of a journal article "Wind variability in B supergiants III. Corotating spiral structures in the stellar wind of HD 64760." The first step in the project was the analysis of the 1996 time series of 2 B supergiants and an O star. These data were analyzed and reported on at the ESO workshop, "Cyclical Variability in Stellar Winds."

  3. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  4. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  5. Wind Power Generation Design Considerations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    sites. have low starting torques, operate at high tip-to- wind speeds, and generate high power output per turbine weight. 5 The Savonius rotor operates...DISTRIBUTION 4 I o ....................................... . . . e . * * TABLES Number Page I Wind Turbine Characteristics II 0- 2 Maximum Economic Life II 3...Ratio of Blade Tip Speed to Wind Speed 10 4 Interference with Microwave and TV Reception by Wind Turbines 13 5 Typical Flow Patterns Over Two

  6. Wind power freshens water

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlor, V.; Sidorov, V.

    1981-01-01

    A wind-powered lighthouse water-freshening installation was installed at lighthouse locations along the Caspian Sea's coast and at one of the collective farms in the Moldavian SSR. From sea water containing up to 36 grams of salts per liter, fresh water with up to 1 gram per liter was produced. Output was 60 liters per hour.

  7. Wind Tunnel Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P; Norton, F H

    1920-01-01

    Report embodies a description of the balance designed and constructed for the use of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at Langley Field, and also deals with the theory of sensitivity of balances and with the errors to which wind tunnel balances of various types are subject.

  8. Wind Energy Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, David

    The booklet, intended for students and other visitors to the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), explains how windmills work and their economic and environmental advantages. The history of windmills in Europe and Asia is briefly described, as well as the history of windmills and wind generators (for electricity)…

  9. Wind-energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    Program SIMWEST can model wind energy storage system using any combination of five types of storage: pumped hydro, battery, thermal, flywheel, and pneumatic. Program is tool to aid design of optional system for given application with realistic simulation for further evaluation and verification.

  10. Ocean Spray Lubricates Winds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a new study by two University of California, Berkeley, mathematicians and their Russian colleague, the water droplets kicked up by rough seas serve to lubricate the swirling winds of hurricanes and cyclones, letting them build to speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Without the lubricating effect of the spray, the mathematicians…

  11. Dry wind tunnel system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ping-Chih (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a ground flutter testing system without a wind tunnel, called Dry Wind Tunnel (DWT) System. The DWT system consists of a Ground Vibration Test (GVT) hardware system, a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) force controller software, and a real-time unsteady aerodynamic force generation software, that is developed from an aerodynamic reduced order model (ROM). The ground flutter test using the DWT System operates on a real structural model, therefore no scaled-down structural model, which is required by the conventional wind tunnel flutter test, is involved. Furthermore, the impact of the structural nonlinearities on the aeroelastic stability can be included automatically. Moreover, the aeroservoelastic characteristics of the aircraft can be easily measured by simply including the flight control system in-the-loop. In addition, the unsteady aerodynamics generated computationally is interference-free from the wind tunnel walls. Finally, the DWT System can be conveniently and inexpensively carried out as a post GVT test with the same hardware, only with some possible rearrangement of the shakers and the inclusion of additional sensors.

  12. Wind chime physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forinash, Kyle; Richie, John P.; Jones, Tim

    1990-01-01

    The construction of a set of wind chimes tuned to specific pitches is described. A method for the determination of Young's modulus based on the measured frequencies of vibration of the sample is employed in the construction of the chimes. Some complications dealing with the perception of musical pitch are also discussed.

  13. Erosion by Wind: Environmental Effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion is the movement and loss of soil resulting from the interaction of a bare, loose, dry soil surface with wind. Wind erosion is a soil degrading process that reduces soil productivity, damages crops, and may, in extreme cases, result in burial of fertile soil horizons and structures. Th...

  14. Wet Winding Improves Coil Encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Wet-winding process encapsulates electrical coils more uniformily than conventional processes. Process requires no vacuum pump and adapts easily to existing winding machines. Encapsulant applied to each layer of wire as soon as added to coil. Wet-winding process eliminates voids, giving more uniformly encapsulated coil.

  15. Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

  16. CAT LIDAR wind shear studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goff, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The studies considered the major meteorological factors producing wind shear, methods to define and classify wind shear in terms significant from an aircraft perturbation standpoint, the significance of sensor location and scan geometry on the detection and measurement of wind shear, and the tradeoffs involved in sensor performance such as range/velocity resolution, update frequency and data averaging interval.

  17. Wind height distribution influence on offshore wind farm feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassai, Guido; Della Morte, Renata; Matarazzo, Antonio; Cozzolino, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The economic feasibility of offshore wind power utilization depends on the favourable wind conditions offshore as compared to sites on land. The higher wind speeds have to compensate the additional cost of offshore developments. However, not only the mean wind speed is different, but the whole flow regime, as can be seen in the vertical wind speed profile. The commonly used models to describe this profile have been developed mainly for land sites, so they have to be verified on the basis of field data. Monin-Obukhov theory is often used for the description of the wind speed profile at a different height with respect to a measurement height. Starting from the former, , the profile is predicted using two parameters, Obukhov length and sea surface roughness. For situations with near-neutral and stable atmospheric stratification and long (>30km) fetch, the wind speed increase with height is larger than what is predicted from Monin-Obukhov theory. It is also found that this deviation occurs at wind speeds important for wind power utilization, mainly at 5-9 ms-1. In the present study the influence of these aspects on the potential site productivity of an offshore wind farm were investigated, namely the deviation from the theory of Monin-Obukhov due to atmospheric stability and the influence of the fetch length on the Charnock model. Both these physical effects were discussed and examined in view of a feasibility study of a site for offshore wind farm in Southern Italy. Available data consisted of time histories of wind speeds and directions collected by National Tidegauge Network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale) at the height of 10m a.s.l. in ports. The theory of Monin-Obukhov was used to extrapolate the data to the height of the wind blades, while the Charnock model was used to extend the wind speed on the sea surface from the friction velocity on the ground. The models described were used to perform calculations for a feasibility study of an offshore wind farm in Southern

  18. Creating an Evidence-Based Dentistry Culture at Baylor College of Dentistry: The Winds of Change

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, Robert J.; Dechow, Paul C.; Abdellatif, Hoda; Jones, Daniel L.; McCann, Ann L.; Schneiderman, Emet D.; D’Souza, Rena

    2011-01-01

    In the early years of the new millennium, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health began funding Oral Health Research Education Grants using the R25 mechanism to promote the application of basic and clinical research findings to clinical training and to encourage students to pursue careers in oral health research. This report describes the impact of an R25 grant awarded to the Texas A&M Health Science Center’s Baylor College of Dentistry (BCD) on its curriculum and faculty development efforts. At BCD, the R25 grant supports a multipronged initiative that employs clinical research as a vehicle for acquainting both students and faculty with the tools of evidence-based dentistry (EBD). New coursework and experiences in all four years of the curriculum plus a variety of faculty development offerings are being used to achieve this goal. Progress on these fronts is reflected in a nascent EBD culture characterized by increasing participation and buy-in by students and faculty. The production of a new generation of dental graduates equipped with the EBD skill set as well as a growing nucleus of faculty members who can model the importance of evidence-based practice is of paramount importance for the future of dentistry. PMID:21368252

  19. Investigating Green: Creating Surveys to Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Being green means different things to different people. Some suggest that being green means saving energy, not wasting paper towels, going solar, harnessing wind, using less fertilizer, or buying products that are organically grown. Given that being green can mean a lot of things, what does "being green" or "going green" mean to both you and your…

  20. Caribbean Regional Security: The Challenges to creating Formal Military Relationships in the English-Speaking Caribbean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-31

    regional security mechanism for the Caribbean will need to take account of the prevailing winds from the north. Until now though, collective security in the...defines will be later examined. Thus, it is necessary to vigorously pursue the creation of a viable cohesive security mechanism that can contribute to...achieve the goal of creating a viable regional security mechanism . 11 Assumptions The assumptions below will be made in this research effort: 1. The United

  1. Direct-Drive Contactless Wind Generator with Concentrated Winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, N.; Pugachov, V.; Orlova, S.

    2012-01-01

    A clear trend has emerged in the field of wind power industry concerning the creation of low-, medium-, and even high-power direct-drive wind turbines without the use of gearboxes. Such generators are usually multipolar and mostly excited from permanent magnets. In the low-speed performance, multipolarity means a higher specific torque and reliability as well as lower operating costs, which in the case of high-speed generators is hindered by gearboxes. Multipolarity with a high specific torque can be achieved mainly through the use of permanent magnets of high-energy materials (such as NdFeB) and through design solutions for the armature winding. The authors compare two most common types of wind generator's armature windings: the distributed one, which contains a coil embracing several teeth, and the concentrated armature winding - with one coil for one stator tooth. The comparison (along with the experience in developing the wind turbines) shows that the con-centrated winding version has a number of advantages, the main of them being the multipolarity. This means that the generator with a concentrated winding can be more acceptable for the direct-drive wind turbines, is easier to make and simpler to operate. Another very important advantage of concentrated windings shown in this work is that they allow achievement of a higher specific electromagnetic torque, which means smaller size and weight of such a generator in the low-speed version.

  2. Baseload coal investment decisions under uncertain carbon legislation.

    PubMed

    Bergerson, Joule A; Lave, Lester B

    2007-05-15

    More than 50% of electricity in the U.S. is generated by coal. The U.S. has large coal resources, the cheapest fuel in most areas. Coal fired power plants are likely to continue to provide much of U.S. electricity. However, the type of power plant that should be built is unclear. Technology can reduce pollutant discharges and capture and sequester the CO2 from coal-fired generation. The U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides incentives for large scale commercial deployment of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems (e.g., loan guarantees and project tax credits). This analysis examines whether a new coal plant should be Pulverized Coal (PC) or IGCC. Do stricter emissions standards (PM, SO2, NOx, Hg) justify the higher costs of IGCC over PC? How does potential future carbon legislation affect the decision to add carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology? Finally, can the impact of uncertain carbon legislation be minimized? We find that SO2, NOx, PM, and Hg emission standards would have to be far more stringent than twice current standards to justify the increased costs of the IGCC system. A C02 tax less than $29/ton would lead companies to continuing to choose PC, paying the tax for emitted CO2. The earlier a decision-maker believes the carbon tax will be imposed and the higher the tax, the more likely companies will choose IGCC w/CCS. Having government announce the date and level of a carbon tax would promote more sensible decisions, but government would have to use a tax or subsidy to induce companies to choose the technology that is best for society.

  3. Baseload coal investment decisions under uncertain carbon legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Joule A. Bergerson; Lester B. Lave

    2007-05-15

    More than 50% of electricity in the U.S. is generated by coal. The U.S. has large coal resources, the cheapest fuel in most areas. Coal fired power plants are likely to continue to provide much of U.S. electricity. However, the type of power plant that should be built is unclear. Technology can reduce pollutant discharges and capture and sequester the CO{sub 2} from coal-fired generation. The U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides incentives for large scale commercial deployment of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems (e.g., loan guarantees and project tax credits). This analysis examines whether a new coal plant should be pulverized coal (PC) or IGCC. Do stricter emissions standards (PM, SO{sub 2}, NOx, Hg) justify the higher costs of IGCC over PC? How does potential future carbon legislation affect the decision to add carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology? Finally, can the impact of uncertain carbon legislation be minimized? We find that SO{sub 2}, NOx, PM, and Hg emission standards would have to be far more stringent than twice current standards to justify the increased costs of the IGCC system. A CO{sub 2} tax less than $29/ton would lead companies to continuing to choose PC, paying the tax for emitted CO{sub 2}. The earlier a decision-maker believes the carbon tax will be imposed and the higher the tax, the more likely companies will choose IGCC with CCS. Having government announce the date and level of a carbon tax would promote more sensible decisions, but government would have to use a tax or subsidy to induce companies to choose the technology that is best for society. 14 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Brayton-Cycle Baseload Power Tower CSP System

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Bruce

    2013-12-31

    The primary objectives of Phase 2 of this Project were:1. Engineer, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing on a low-pressure, air-heating solar receiver capable of powering a microturbine system to produce 300kWe while the sun is shining while simultaneously storing enough energy thermally to power the system for up to 13 hours thereafter. 2. Cycle-test a high-temperature super alloy, Haynes HR214, to determine its efficacy for the system’s high-temperature heat exchanger. 3. Engineer the thermal energy storage system. This Phase 2 followed Wilson’s Phase 1, which primarily was an engineering feasibility study to determine a practical and innovative approach to a full Brayton-cycle system configuration that could meet DOE’s targets. Below is a summary table of the DOE targets with Wilson’s Phase 1 Project results. The results showed that a Brayton system with an innovative (low pressure) solar receiver with ~13 hours of dry (i.e., not phase change materials or molten salts but rather firebrick, stone, or ceramics) has the potential to meet or exceed DOE targets. Such systems would consist of pre-engineered, standardized, factory-produced modules to minimize on-site costs while driving down costs through mass production. System sizes most carefully analyzed were in the range of 300 kWe to 2 MWe. Such systems would also use off-the-shelf towers, blowers, piping, microturbine packages, and heliostats. Per DOE’s instructions, LCOEs are based on the elevation and DNI levels of Daggett, CA, for a 100 MWe power plant following 2 GWe of factory production of the various system components.

  5. Potential for solar-powered base-load capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Brady; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In 2010 nuclear power accounted for 27% of electricity production in Japan. The March 2011 disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi power station resulted in the closure of all of Japans nuclear power plants and it remains an open question as to how many will reopen. Even before the loss of nuclear capacity there were efforts in Japan to foster the use of renewable energy, including large-scale solar power. Nuclear power plants in Japan operated beyond base load with excess energy being stored in large scale pumped hydroelectric storage systems. Here we show how coupling these storage systems to rooftop solar systems in Tokyo could compensate for the loss of nuclear power. Data from a study of rooftop space, and a 34-year data set of average daily irradiance in the Tokyo metropolitan area were used. If current generation PV systems were placed on the available rooftop space in greater Tokyo, this coupled system could provide for 20% of Toyo's nuclear capacity with a capacity factor of 0.99. Using pumped hydroelectric storage with six times this rooftop area could completely provide for TEPCO's nuclear capacity with a capacity factor of 0.98.

  6. Learning by Doing: Creating Engaging Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Liz; Glass, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of a Learning-by-Doing Instructional model to create an innovative language course. The authors describe the structure of the course, the instructional strategies implemented, and the Learning Management System tools used to create an engaging learning experience.

  7. Creating a Gender and Communication Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley-Long, Kathleen; Smith, Karen

    In an attempt to create interdisciplinary study at one college, a gender and communications class was created by professors from psychology and communications. Although the class was made-up of students who were white, middle-class, and heterosexual, the class attempted to discuss issues about race, class, ability, and sexual preference…

  8. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  9. Using Technology to Create Safer Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Arthur J.; Martinez, Kenneth

    1995-01-01

    Although classes to create student self-esteem and antigang programs are gaining in popularity, most school districts have not used available technology to help create safer campuses. Increased availability of telephones and two-way radios would enhance school security, along with incorporation of newer technologies such as computers, digitized…

  10. Educating Managers to Create Healthy Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbreath, Brad

    2012-01-01

    This article provides management educators with a comprehensive, research-based set of concepts they can use to enrich students' understanding of how to create healthy workplaces. To assist with that endeavor, learning objectives related to creating healthy workplaces are provided. Work environment stressors are discussed along with human and…

  11. Creating "Third Spaces": Promoting Learning through Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Wilhelm offers us a definition of "third spaces" as "more democratic and dialogic spaces than a classroom, as well as a metaphor for a space in which new, hybrid, and challenging discourses and real-world knowledge and applications are created." With helpful background and examples, he urges us to create such spaces for our students, adamant that…

  12. Process to create simulated lunar agglutinate particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gustafson, Robert J. (Inventor); Gustafson, Marty A. (Inventor); White, Brant C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method of creating simulated agglutinate particles by applying a heat source sufficient to partially melt a raw material is provided. The raw material is preferably any lunar soil simulant, crushed mineral, mixture of crushed minerals, or similar material, and the heat source creates localized heating of the raw material.

  13. Energy cost of creating quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Avijit; Singh, Uttam; Bhattacharya, Samyadeb; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2016-05-01

    We consider physical situations where the resource theories of coherence and thermodynamics play competing roles. In particular, we study the creation of quantum coherence using unitary operations with limited thermodynamic resources. We find the maximal coherence that can be created under unitary operations starting from a thermal state and find explicitly the unitary transformation that creates the maximal coherence. Since coherence is created by unitary operations starting from a thermal state, it requires some amount of energy. This motivates us to explore the trade-off between the amount of coherence that can be created and the energy cost of the unitary process. We also find the maximal achievable coherence under the constraint on the available energy. Additionally, we compare the maximal coherence and the maximal total correlation that can be created under unitary transformations with the same available energy at our disposal. We find that when maximal coherence is created with limited energy, the total correlation created in the process is upper bounded by the maximal coherence, and vice versa. For two-qubit systems we show that no unitary transformation exists that creates the maximal coherence and maximal total correlation simultaneously with a limited energy cost.

  14. Energy 101: Wind Turbines - 2014 Update

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-06

    See how wind turbines generate clean electricity from the power of wind. The video highlights the basic principles at work in wind turbines, and illustrates how the various components work to capture and convert wind energy to electricity. This updated version also includes information on the Energy Department's efforts to advance offshore wind power. Offshore wind energy footage courtesy of Vestas.

  15. Energy 101: Wind Turbines - 2014 Update

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    See how wind turbines generate clean electricity from the power of wind. The video highlights the basic principles at work in wind turbines, and illustrates how the various components work to capture and convert wind energy to electricity. This updated version also includes information on the Energy Department's efforts to advance offshore wind power. Offshore wind energy footage courtesy of Vestas.

  16. Using the fingerprints of solar magnetic reconnection to identify the elemental building blocks of the slow solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepko, Larry; Viall, Nicholeen M.; Kasper, Justin; Lepri, Sue

    2015-04-01

    While the source of the fast solar wind is well understood to be linked to coronal holes, the source of the slow solar wind has remained elusive. Many previous studies of the slow solar wind have examined trends in the composition and charge states over long time scales and found strong relationships between the solar wind velocity and these plasma parameters. These relationships have been used to constrain models of solar wind source and acceleration. In this study, we take advantage of high time resolution (12 min) measurements of solar wind composition and charge-state abundances recently reprocessed by the ACE Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) science team to probe the timescales of solar wind variability at relatively small scales. We study an interval of slow solar wind containing quasi-periodic 90 minute structures and show that they are remnants of solar magnetic reconnection. Each 90-minute parcel of slow solar wind, though the speed remains steady, exhibits the complete range of charge state and composition variations expected for the entire range of slow solar wind, which is repeated again in the next 90-minute interval. These observations show that previous statistical results break down on these shorter timescales, and impose new and important constraints on models of slow solar wind creation. We conclude by suggesting these structures were created through interchange magnetic reconnection and form elemental building blocks of the slow solar wind. We also discuss the necessity of decoupling separately the process(es) responsible for the release and acceleration.

  17. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Lori

    2001-03-01

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  18. Revealing the Hidden Value that the Federal Investment Tax Credit and Treasury Cash Grant Provide To Community Wind Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A.

    2009-12-14

    Although the global financial crisis of 2008/2009 has slowed wind power development in general, the crisis has, in several respects, been a blessing in disguise for community wind project development in the United States. For xample, the crisis-induced slowdown in the broader commercial wind market has, for the first time since 2004, created slack in the supply chain, creating an opportunity for shovel-ready community wind projects to finally proceed towards onstruction. Many such projects had been forced to wait on the sidelines as the commercial wind boom of 2005-2008 consumed virtually all available resources needed to complete a wind project (e.g., turbines, cranes, contractors).

  19. ValidWind applications: wind power prospecting, aerosol transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, T.; Marchant, A.; Apedaile, T.; Scholes, D.; Simmons, J.; Bradford, B.

    2010-10-01

    The ValidWind™ system employs an XL200 laser rangefinder to track small, lightweight, helium-filled balloons (0.33 meters, 0.015 kg). We record their trajectories (range resolution 0.5 meters) and automatically produce local wind profiles in real time. Tracking range is enhanced beyond 2 km by applying retro-reflector tape to the balloons. Aerodynamic analysis shows that ValidWind balloon motion is well coupled to the local wind within relaxation times { 1 second, due to drag forces at subcritical Reynolds numbers Re < 2×105. Such balloons are Lagrangian sensors; i.e., they move with the wind as opposed to being fixed in space. In a field campaign involving many balloons, slight variations in ground level winds at launch lead to trajectory patterns that we analyze to derive 3D maps of the vertical and horizontal wind profiles downwind of the launch area. Field campaigns are focused on likely sites for wind power generation and on facilities from which airborne particulates are emitted. We describe results of wind measurements in Utah near the cities of Clarkston, Logan, and Ogden. ValidWind is a relatively inexpensive wind sensor that is easily and rapidly transported and deployed at remote sites. It is an ideal instrument for wind prospecting to support early decisions required, for example, in siting meteorology towers. ValidWind provides high-resolution, real time characterization of the average and changing 3D wind fields in which wind power turbines and other remote sensors must operate.

  20. VisibleWind: wind profile measurements at low altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, Tom; Bradford, Bill; Marchant, Alan; Apedaile, Tom; Wright, Cordell

    2009-09-01

    VisibleWindTM is developing an inexpensive rapid response system, for accurately characterizing wind shear and small scale wind phenomena in the boundary layer and for prospecting suitable locations for wind power turbines. The ValidWind system can also collect reliable "ground truth" for other remote wind sensors. The system employs small (0.25 m dia.) lightweight balloons and a tracker consisting of an Impulse 200 XL laser rangefinder coupled to a PC for automated data recording. Experiments on balloon trajectories demonstrate that the laser detection of range (+/- 0.5 m), together with measured azimuth and altitude, is an inexpensive, convenient, and capable alternative to other wind tracking methods. The maximum detection range has been increased to 2200 meters using micro-corner-cube retroreflector tape on balloons. Low power LEDs enable nighttime tracking. To avoid large balloon gyrations about the mean trajectory, we use balloons having low ascent rates and subcritical Reynolds numbers. Trajectory points are typically recorded every 4 - 7 seconds. Atmospheric features observed under conditions of inversions or "light and variable winds" include abrupt onsets of shear at altitudes of 100-250 m, velocity changes of order 1-3 m/s within layers of 10-20 m thickness, and veering of the wind direction by 180 degrees or more as altitude increases from 300 to 500 m. We have previously reported comparisons of balloon-based wind profiles with the output of a co-located sodar. Even with the Impulse rangefinder, our system still requires a "man in the loop" to track the balloon. A future system enhancement will automate balloon tracking, so that laser returns are obtained automatically at 1 Hz. While balloon measurements of large-scale, high altitude wind profiles are well known, this novel measurement system provides high-resolution, real-time characterization of the fluctuating local wind fields at the bottom of the boundary layer where wind power turbines and other

  1. French wind power generation programme EOLE 2005 - first results

    SciTech Connect

    Laali, A.R.; Benard, M.

    1997-12-31

    EOLE 2005 has been launched in July 1996 by the French Ministry of Industry, Electricite de France and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Management). The Ministries of Research and Environment are participating also in this programme. The purpose is to create an initial market in France for wind power generation in order to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and the competitiveness of the wind energy compared to other energy sources by 2005. The installed capacity will reach at least 250 MW and possibly 500 MW.

  2. Development of an intelligent hypertext system for wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Shi, George Z.; Steinle, Frank W.; Wu, Y. C. L. Susan; Hoyt, W. Andes

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a system utilizing artificial intelligence technology to improve the productivity of project engineers who conduct wind tunnel tests. The objective was to create an intelligent hypertext system which integrates a hypertext manual and expert system that stores experts' knowledge and experience. The preliminary (Phase I) effort implemented a prototype IHS module encompassing a portion of the manuals and knowledge used for wind tunnel testing. The effort successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the intelligent hypertext system concept. A module for the internal strain gage balance, implemented on both IBM-PC and Macintosh computers, is presented. A description of the Phase II effort is included.

  3. Characterization of wind technology progress

    SciTech Connect

    Cadogan, J B; Parsons, B; Cohen, J M; Johnson, B L

    1996-07-01

    US DOE`s Wind Energy Program, NREL, and Sandia periodically re-evaluate the state of wind technology. Since 1995 marked the conclusion of a number of DOE-supported advanced turbine design efforts, and results from the next major round of research are expected near the latter part of the century, this paper discusses future trends for domestic wind farm applications (bulk power), incorporating recent turbine research efforts under different market assumptions from previous DOE estimates. Updated cost/performance projections are presented along with underlying assumptions and discussions of potential alternative wind turbine design paths. Issues on market valuation of wind technology in a restructured electricity market are also discussed.

  4. 2013 Wind Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.; Barbose, G.; Darghouth, N.; Hoen, B.; Mills, A.; Weaver, S.; Porter, K.; Buckley, M.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.

    2014-08-01

    This annual report provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2013. This 2013 edition updates data presented in previous editions while highlighting key trends and important new developments. The report includes an overview of key installation-related trends; trends in wind power capacity growth; how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources; the amount and percentage of wind energy in individual states; the status of offshore wind power development and the quantity of proposed wind power capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States.

  5. Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development

    SciTech Connect

    Minkel, Darin

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

  6. Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection

    PubMed Central

    Kempton, Willett; Pimenta, Felipe M.; Veron, Dana E.; Colle, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    World wind power resources are abundant, but their utilization could be limited because wind fluctuates rather than providing steady power. We hypothesize that wind power output could be stabilized if wind generators were located in a meteorologically designed configuration and electrically connected. Based on 5 yr of wind data from 11 meteorological stations, distributed over a 2,500 km extent along the U.S. East Coast, power output for each hour at each site is calculated. Each individual wind power generation site exhibits the expected power ups and downs. But when we simulate a power line connecting them, called here the Atlantic Transmission Grid, the output from the entire set of generators rarely reaches either low or full power, and power changes slowly. Notably, during the 5-yr study period, the amount of power shifted up and down but never stopped. This finding is explained by examining in detail the high and low output periods, using reanalysis data to show the weather phenomena responsible for steady production and for the occasional periods of low power. We conclude with suggested institutions appropriate to create and manage the power system analyzed here. PMID:20368464

  7. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 2: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.-M.; King, J.

    2012-09-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigates the impacts of high penetrations of wind and solar power into the Western Interconnection of the United States. WWSIS2 builds on the Phase 1 study but with far greater refinement in the level of data inputs and production simulation. It considers the differences between wind and solar power on systems operations. It considers mitigation options to accommodate wind and solar when full costs of wear-and-tear and full impacts of emissions rates are taken into account. It determines wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts. New data sets were created for WWSIS2, and WWSIS1 data sets were refined to improve realism of plant output and forecasts. Four scenarios were defined for WWSIS2 that examine the differences between wind and solar and penetration level. Transmission was built out to bring resources to load. Statistical analysis was conducted to investigate wind and solar impacts at timescales ranging from seasonal down to 5 minutes.

  8. Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Willett; Pimenta, Felipe M; Veron, Dana E; Colle, Brian A

    2010-04-20

    World wind power resources are abundant, but their utilization could be limited because wind fluctuates rather than providing steady power. We hypothesize that wind power output could be stabilized if wind generators were located in a meteorologically designed configuration and electrically connected. Based on 5 yr of wind data from 11 meteorological stations, distributed over a 2,500 km extent along the U.S. East Coast, power output for each hour at each site is calculated. Each individual wind power generation site exhibits the expected power ups and downs. But when we simulate a power line connecting them, called here the Atlantic Transmission Grid, the output from the entire set of generators rarely reaches either low or full power, and power changes slowly. Notably, during the 5-yr study period, the amount of power shifted up and down but never stopped. This finding is explained by examining in detail the high and low output periods, using reanalysis data to show the weather phenomena responsible for steady production and for the occasional periods of low power. We conclude with suggested institutions appropriate to create and manage the power system analyzed here.

  9. Offshore Wind Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This 2-page fact sheet describes NREL's offshore wind research and development efforts and capabilities. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is internationally recognized for offshore wind energy research and development (R&D). Its experience and capabilities cover a wide spectrum of wind energy disciplines. NREL's offshore wind R&D efforts focus on critical areas that address the long-term needs of the offshore wind energy industry and the Department of Energy (DOE). R&D efforts include: (1) Developing offshore design tools and methods; (2) Collaborating with international partners; (3) Testing offshore systems and developing standards; (4) Conducting economic analyses; (5) Characterizing offshore wind resources; and (6) Identifying and mitigating offshore wind grid integration challenges and barriers. NREL has developed and maintains a robust, open-source, modular computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool, known as FAST. FAST's state-of-the-art capabilities provide full dynamic system simulation for a range of offshore wind systems. It models the coupled aerodynamic, hydrodynamic, control system, and structural response of offshore wind systems to support the development of innovative wind technologies that are reliable and cost effective. FAST also provides dynamic models of wind turbines on offshore fixed-bottom systems for shallow and transitional depths and floating-platform systems in deep water, thus enabling design innovation and risk reduction and facilitating higher performance designs that will meet DOE's cost of energy, reliability, and deployment objectives.

  10. Mexico Wind Resource Assessment Project

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.N.; Elliott, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    A preliminary wind energy resource assessment of Mexico that produced wind resource maps for both utility-scale and rural applications was undertaken as part of the Mexico-U.S. Renewable Energy Cooperation Program. This activity has provided valuable information needed to facilitate the commercialization of small wind turbines and windfarms in Mexico and to lay the groundwork for subsequent wind resource activities. A surface meteorological data set of hourly data in digital form was utilized to prepare a more detailed and accurate wind resource assessment of Mexico than otherwise would have been possible. Software was developed to perform the first ever detailed analysis of the wind characteristics data for over 150 stations in Mexico. The hourly data set was augmented with information from weather balloons (upper-air data), ship wind data from coastal areas, and summarized wind data from sources in Mexico. The various data were carefully evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. The preliminary assessment has identified many areas of good-to-excellent wind resource potential and shows that the wind resource in Mexico is considerably greater than shown in previous surveys.

  11. Wind farm array wake losses

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.W.; McCarthy, E.F.

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  12. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, C.J.; Rhudy, R.G.; Bushman, R.E.

    1997-11-11

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of {radical}3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency. 4 figs.

  13. Reduced vibration motor winding arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Slavik, Charles J.; Rhudy, Ralph G.; Bushman, Ralph E.

    1997-01-01

    An individual phase winding arrangement having a sixty electrical degree phase belt width for use with a three phase motor armature includes a delta connected phase winding portion and a wye connected phase winding portion. Both the delta and wye connected phase winding portions have a thirty electrical degree phase belt width. The delta and wye connected phase winding portions are each formed from a preselected number of individual coils each formed, in turn, from an unequal number of electrical conductor turns in the approximate ratio of .sqroot.3. The individual coils of the delta and wye connected phase winding portions may either be connected in series or parallel. This arrangement provides an armature winding for a three phase motor which retains the benefits of the widely known and utilized thirty degree phase belt concept, including improved mmf waveform and fundamental distribution factor, with consequent reduced vibrations and improved efficiency.

  14. 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Orell, A.; Foster, N.

    2015-08-01

    The cover of the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report.According to the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report, distributed wind reached a cumulative capacity of almost 1 GW (906 MW) in the United States in 2014, reflecting nearly 74,000 wind turbines deployed across all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In total, 63.6 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added in 2014, representing nearly 1,700 units and $170 million in investment across 24 states. In 2014, America's distributed wind energy industry supported a growing domestic industrial base as exports from United States-based small wind turbine manufacturers accounted for nearly 80% of United States-based manufacturers' sales.

  15. CWEX-10/11: Overview of Results From the First Two Crop/Wind-Energy Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takle, E. S.; Rajewski, D. A.; Prueger, J. H.; Oncley, S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Horst, T. W.; Rhodes, M. E.; Pfeiffer, R.; Hatfield, J.; Spoth, K. K.; Doorenbos, R.

    2012-12-01

    We have conducted experiments in a 200-turbine operating wind farm in Iowa to measure aerodynamic and microclimate properties of the environment in and around turbines in an area of intensely managed agricultural crops. Surface measurements at multiple locations were made of temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, turbulence, and fluxes of heat, momentum, moisture and CO2. These together with remotely sensed wind speed, wind direction and turbulence at hub height accumulated over the growing seasons of 2010 and 2011 enable us to begin understanding of how turbines influence microclimate conditions in a wind-farm. SCADA data from 13 turbines enable studies of wakes and their interactions with each other and with the surface. Our studies corroborate published results that report reduction in wind speed, increased night-time temperature and decreased the daytime temperature in regions leeward of leading turbines in a wind farm. Our microclimate measurements enable us to go beyond previous reports to investigate spatial structures of mean wind, turbulence kinetic energy, thermal stability, and fluxes of heat, moisture and CO2 at the surface. Control cases are provided by evaluating surface conditions under a wide variety of wind directions and evaluating surface conditions at times when turbines were turned off or abrupt wind shifts were documented. Careful delineation of wind directions from the SCADA data reveal lateral characteristics of wakes and allow comparisons of power reduction for multiple interacting turbines with comparable results reported for off-shore wind farms. Our studies suggest that near-surface conditions are influenced by the presence of overlying wakes, wakes that impinge on the surface, and an irregular standing wave pressure field created by lines of turbines presenting an obstacle to the flow. Surface stability observed concurrently with wake interactions provides some insights on diurnal variability of wind farm performance.

  16. Cooperative wind erosion mechanics research between USDA-ARS Wind Erosion and Water Conservation Research Unit(WEWC) and Key Lab of Western Environmental Disaster (KLWED), Lanzhou University, Gansu, P.R. China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broad expanses of bare, fragile soil and frequent high-velocity winds create conditions leading to wind-induced soil loss and fugitive dust generation in the semi-arid regions of the United States and People’s Republic of China. Mechanistic process driven models have necessitated an increased under...

  17. Investigation of Wind Turbine Rotor Concepts for Offshore Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, Özlem; Grasso, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    Current plans in offshore wind energy developments call for further reduction of cost of energy. In order to contribute to this goal, several wind turbine rotor concepts have been investigated. Assuming the future offshore wind turbines will operate only in the offshore wind farms, the rotor concepts are not only evaluated for their stand-alone performances and their potential in reducing the loads, but also for their performance in an offshore wind farm. In order to do that, the 10MW reference wind turbine designed in Innwind.EU project is chosen as baseline. Several rotor parameters have been modified and their influences are investigated for offshore wind turbine design purposes. This investigation is carried out as a conceptual parametrical study. All concepts are evaluated numerically with BOT (Blade optimisation tool) software in wind turbine level and with Farmflow software in wind farm level for two wind farm layouts. At the end, all these concepts are compared with each other in terms of their advantages and disadvantages.

  18. Wind turbine spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, William N.

    1985-01-01

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  19. Database on wind characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Hojstrup, J.; Hansen, K.S.

    1996-12-31

    Wind data with high temporal resolution exist from a variety of sites, and is in demand by windturbine designers and wind engineers. Unfortunately it has always been a problem to gain access to a suitable amount of this data, because they are available from many different sources in different formats and with very different levels of documentation and quality control. We are now in the process of gaining access to a large amount of this type of data, checking the quality of the data and putting the data at the disposition of the windturbine designer community through easy Internet access. Online search will use summary statistics calculated for each series to help in the selection of data. The selected data can then be downloaded directly to the user. 3 figs.

  20. Wind turbine acoustic standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.; Shepherd, K. P.; Grosveld, F.

    1981-01-01

    A program is being conducted to develop noise standards for wind turbines which minimize annoyance and which can be used to design specifications. The approach consists of presenting wind turbine noise stimuli to test subjects in a laboratory listening chamber. The responses of the subjects are recorded for a range of stimuli which encompass the designs, operating conditions, and ambient noise levels of current and future installations. Results to date have established the threshold of detectability for a range of impulsive stimuli of the type associated with blade/tower wake interactions. The status of the ongoing psychoacoustic tests, the subjective data, and the approach to the development of acoustic criteria/standards are described.

  1. Wind turbine spoiler

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, W.N.

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of wind speed and energy over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappa, Ioanna; Dimakos, Yiannis; Dimas, Panagiotis; Kossieris, Panagiotis; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    To appraise the wind potential over Greece we analyse the main statistical properties of wind speed through time. To this end, we use 66 time series from 1932 to 2013 on daily and monthly time scale and examine the spatial variability of wind speed over Greece. To depict the main statistical behavior and potential of the wind over Greece, maps have been created illustrating the basic statistical characteristics of wind speed on monthly to annual time scale. We also examine time series of energy production from the currently developed system of key wind parks and we compare the theoretical potential with the actually produced energy. Finally, we explore a methodology to simulate wind energy production in a stochastic framework. In that context we generate hourly wind speed synthetic data using a modified Bartlett-Lewis model implemented in Hyetos. The results of our analysis offer an improved overall picture of wind speed variability over Greece and help us clarify to which extent Hyetos is applicable in the stochastic generation of wind speed time series.

  3. Effect of Large Finite-Size Wind Farms and Their Wakes on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ka Ling; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Through the use of large-eddy simulation, the effect of large finite-size wind farms and their wakes on conventionally-neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics and power extraction is investigated. Specifically, this study focuses on a wind farm that comprises 25 rows of wind turbines, spanning a distance of 10 km. It is shown that large wind farms have a significant effect on internal boundary layer growth both inside and downwind of the wind farms. If the wind farm is large enough, the internal boundary layer interacts with the thermally-stratified free atmosphere above, leading to a modification of the ABL height and power extraction. In addition, it is shown that large wind farms create extensive wakes, which could have an effect on potential downwind wind farms. Specifically, for the case considered here, a power deficit as large as 8% is found at a distance of 10 km downwind from the wind farm. Furthermore, this study compares the wind farm wake dynamics for cases in which the conventionally neutral ABLs are driven by a unidirectional pressure gradient and Coriolis forces.

  4. IEA-Task 31 WAKEBENCH: Towards a protocol for wind farm flow model evaluation. Part 2: Wind farm wake models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Sanz Rodrigo, Javier; Gancarski, Pawel; Chuchfield, Matthew; Naughton, Jonathan W.; Hansen, Kurt S.; Machefaux, Ewan; Maguire, Eoghan; Castellani, Francesco; Terzi, Ludovico; Breton, Simon-Philippe; Ueda, Yuko

    2014-06-01

    Researchers within the International Energy Agency (IEA) Task 31: Wakebench have created a framework for the evaluation of wind farm flow models operating at the microscale level. The framework consists of a model evaluation protocol integrated with a web-based portal for model benchmarking (www.windbench.net). This paper provides an overview of the building-block validation approach applied to wind farm wake models, including best practices for the benchmarking and data processing procedures for validation datasets from wind farm SCADA and meteorological databases. A hierarchy of test cases has been proposed for wake model evaluation, from similarity theory of the axisymmetric wake and idealized infinite wind farm, to single-wake wind tunnel (UMN-EPFL) and field experiments (Sexbierum), to wind farm arrays in offshore (Horns Rev, Lillgrund) and complex terrain conditions (San Gregorio). A summary of results from the axisymmetric wake, Sexbierum, Horns Rev and Lillgrund benchmarks are used to discuss the state-of-the-art of wake model validation and highlight the most relevant issues for future development.

  5. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, James L.; Somers, Dan M.

    1996-01-01

    Airfoils for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length.

  6. Airfoils for wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Tangler, J.L.; Somers, D.M.

    1996-10-08

    Airfoils are disclosed for the blade of a wind turbine wherein each airfoil is characterized by a thickness in a range from 16%-24% and a maximum lift coefficient designed to be largely insensitive to roughness effects. The airfoils include a family of airfoils for a blade 15 to 25 meters in length, a family of airfoils for a blade 1 to 5 meters in length, and a family of airfoils for a blade 5 to 10 meters in length. 10 figs.

  7. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  8. Modeling Wind Erosion Intermittency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, S.

    2015-12-01

    To improve dust emission schemes in large scale transport models, we developed the first physically-based model simulating the full erosion process in a turbulent flow by resolving explicitly saltating particle trajectories and dust suspension, in presence of vegetation. The large-eddy simulation technic is used here to simulate the turbulent flow, allowing to solve explicitly the main wind gusts near the surface and so the intermittency of the erosion process. The model appeared able to reproduce the saltation intermittency as visualized through the presence of blowing sand structures near the surface, known as aeolian streamers observed on beaches during windy days. In presence of vegetation, the model further allowed us to investigate the sensitivity of sand erosion to the arrangement and morphology of plants (shrubs versus trees). More recently, we further used the model to reanalyze the dependence of the size distribution of the dust flux to the wind speed for idealized erosion events starting from an air free of dust. We found that the suspension of small dust (around 1 μm) can be a long nonstationary process (several hours depending on the wind intensity) due to the low deposition velocity of this particle size range. This leads to a continuous enrichment of the near-surface dust flux in small particles, enrichment that is enhanced with wind intensity, independently of the possible role of saltators. The model also showed that the size distribution and magnitude of dust fluxes at a few meters height differ from those of the emitted flux at the surface as particles start to be sorted through the deposition process within the saltation layer. This last result should be considered when evaluating or calibrating "physically based" dust emission schemes against measured near-surface turbulent diffusive dust fluxes.

  9. Erosion and Wind Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 22 April 2003

    Streamlined buttes and mesas are left as remnants of an erosive wind that has carried away sediments and even the rim of a small crater. Two wind directions are apparent in the buttes and mesas that cross each other at 90 degrees. Small dark dunes wind their way between the remnant towers, indicating that the work of the wind is an ongoing process.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 5.3, Longitude 350.1 East (9.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

  10. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  11. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2007-02-27

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  12. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett Lee; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-09-19

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  13. Direct drive wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Jesse, Stowell; Costin, Daniel

    2006-10-10

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  14. Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Construction of motor fairing for the fan motors of the Full-Scale Tunnel (FST). The motors and their supporting structures were enclosed in aerodynamically smooth fairings to minimize resistance to the air flow. Close examination of this photograph reveals the complicated nature of constructing a wind tunnel. This motor fairing, like almost every other structure in the FST, represents a one-of-a-kind installation.

  15. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; ...

    2015-06-18

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the globalmore » meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a "triplet" structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. In conclusion, the turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions« less

  16. Wind shear test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techniques for forecasting and detecting a type of wind shear called microbursts are being tested this month in an operational program at Denver's Stapleton International Airport as part of an effort to reduce hazards to airplanes and passengers.Wind shear, which can be spawned by convective storms, can occur as a microburst. These downbursts of cool air are usually recognizable as a visible rain shaft beneath a thundercloud. Sometimes, however, the rain shaft evaporates before reaching the ground, leaving the downdraft invisible. Although thunderstorms are traditionally avoided by airplane pilots, these invisible downdrafts also harbor hazards in what usually appear to be safe skies. When the downdraft reaches the earth's surface, the downdraft spreads out horizontally, much like a stream of water gushing from a garden hose on a concrete surface, explained John McCarthy, director of the operational program. Airplanes can encounter trouble when the downdraft from the microburst causes sudden shifts in wind direction, which may reduce lift on the wing, an especially dangerous situation during takeoff.

  17. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; Moriarty, P.; Nielsen, F. G.; Skaare, B.; Byklum, E.

    2015-06-18

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the global meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a "triplet" structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. In conclusion, the turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions

  18. Wind and Water?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03284 Wind and Water?

    The deposits within this crater show evidence of erosion by both wind and water. The region outside the crater is dominated by wind erosion.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 1.4N, Longitude 204.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. CgWind: A high-order accurate simulation tool for wind turbines and wind farms

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, K K; Henshaw, W D; Lundquist, K A; Singer, M A

    2010-02-22

    CgWind is a high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) tool designed to meet the modeling needs of wind turbine and wind park engineers. This tool combines several advanced computational technologies in order to model accurately the complex and dynamic nature of wind energy applications. The composite grid approach provides high-quality structured grids for the efficient implementation of high-order accurate discretizations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Composite grids also provide a natural mechanism for modeling bodies in relative motion and complex geometry. Advanced algorithms such as matrix-free multigrid, compact discretizations and approximate factorization will allow CgWind to perform highly resolved calculations efficiently on a wide class of computing resources. Also in development are nonlinear LES subgrid-scale models required to simulate the many interacting scales present in large wind turbine applications. This paper outlines our approach, the current status of CgWind and future development plans.

  20. Analysis of measurements of the Bora wind in Vipava valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mole, Maruška; Bergant, Klemen; Honzak, Luka; Rakovec, Jože; Skok, Gregor; Stanič, Samo; Žabkar, Rahela; Škraba, Primož

    2014-05-01

    Bora wind is a phenomenon observed on the lee side of mountain chains, where the cold air-masses flowing over the barrier cause strong downslope winds. The relief profile of the SW Slovenia, which within 30 km of the coastal line first rises to a Karst plateau (300 m above sea level), then falls into the Vipava valley (100 m a.s.l.) and rises again to a mountainous barrier with maximum altitudes of about 1500 m a.s.l., creates an ideal setting for the occurrence of downslope winds in the Vipava valley. The occurrence of strong winds is correlated to the presence of cold NE air-flows in the higher, stably stratified layer, flowing over the SW-oriented orographic barrier, and warmer air on the lee side of the mountain range. These conditions lead to the flow of cold air from behind the barrier sinking into the valley bellow, generating very gusty and strong winds. Our data sample includes wind and gust speed measurements in the period from 27 January to 24 April 2012, which was selected due to strong Bora wind outbursts at that time. Wind speeds were measured using 15 wind sensors, out of which 5 were dedicated cup anemometers, positioned 4 meters above the ground and arranged in a two lines perpendicular to the barrier, line A consisting of 3 and line B of 2 instruments. The remaining wind sensors were ultrasonic, positioned at various heights above the ground at 10 different locations along the Vipava valley. The obtained gust speed measurements were analyzed in order to evaluate the frequency distribution of the wind gusts. In order to eliminate longer time intervals with light- or no wind, which can not be characterized as Bora and do not add any information to the gust frequency analysis, Fourier transform of the data was made for short time periods, taking into account single Bora wind outbursts only. Wind speed measurements were studied separately for each instrument line. In the line A, the first instrument was positioned in an elevated up-wind location on