Science.gov

Sample records for creating intelligent recharging

  1. A new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L.; Han, X. B.; Ding, R.; Li, G.; C-Y Lu, Steven; Hong, Q.

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a valid approach to solve the increasing transportation issue in cities. Vehicle detection is one of the key technologies in ITS. The ITS collects and processes traffic data (vehicle flow, vehicular speed, vehicle density and occupancy ratios) from vehicle detection sensors buried under the road or installed along the road. Inductive loop detector as one type of the vehicle detector is applied extensively, with the characters of stability, high value to cost ratio and feasibility. On the other hand, most of the existing inductive loop vehicle detection sensors have some weak points such as friability of detective loop, huge engineering for setting and traffic interruption during installing the sensor. The design and reality of a new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor is presented in this paper against these weak points existing now. The sensor consists of the inductive loop detector, the rechargeable batteries, the MCU (microcontroller) and the transmitter. In order to reduce the installing project amount, make the loop durable and easily maintained, the volume of the detective loop is reduced as much as we can. Communication in RF (radio frequency) brings on the advantages of getting rid of the feeder cable completely and reducing the installing project amount enormously. For saving the cable installation, the sensor is supplied by the rechargeable batteries. The purpose of the intelligent management of the energy and transmitter by means of MCU is to minimize the power consumption and prolong the working period of the sensor. In a word, the new sensor is more feasible with smaller volume, wireless communication, rechargeable batteries, low power consumption, low cost, high detector precision and easy maintenance and installation.

  2. Creating Multiple Processes from Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolffe, Robert; Robinson, Helja; Grant, Jean Marie

    1998-01-01

    Howard Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory stresses that all humans possess the various intelligences (linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist) to differing degrees, and most people can attain adequate competency levels. This article provides a sample checklist for…

  3. Creating Business Intelligence from Course Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dyk, Liezl; Conradie, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to address the interface between individual learning facilitators that use course management systems (CMS) data to support decision-making and course design and institutional infrastructure providers that are responsible for institutional business intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: The design of a data warehouse…

  4. Creating Business Intelligence from Course Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dyk, Liezl; Conradie, Pieter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to address the interface between individual learning facilitators that use course management systems (CMS) data to support decision-making and course design and institutional infrastructure providers that are responsible for institutional business intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: The design of a data warehouse…

  5. The 16th annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: intelligent students creating intelligent vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2009-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s. The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 16 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from nearly 70 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  6. The 14 TH Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: intelligent teams creating intelligent ground robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.; Nguyen, Dmitri

    2006-10-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s. The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics, and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 14 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 50 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the three-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participant feedback is presented.

  7. The 13 th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: intelligent ground vehicles created by intelligent teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2005-10-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s. The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics, and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 13 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 50 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the three-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participant feedback is presented.

  8. The 15 TH annual intelligent ground vehicle competition: intelligent ground robots created by intelligent students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2007-09-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of three, unmanned systems, student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) in the 1990s. The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics, and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned system. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip ground vehicles of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 15 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 50 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  9. Creating value: unifying silos into public health business intelligence.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Arthur J

    2014-01-01

    Through September 2014, federal investments in health information technology have been unprecedented, with more than 25 billion dollars in incentive funds distributed to eligible hospitals and providers. Over 85 percent of eligible United States hospitals and 60 percent of eligible providers have used certified electronic health record (EHR) technology and received Meaningful Use incentive funds (HITECH Act1). Certified EHR technology could create new public health (PH) value through novel and rapidly evolving data-use opportunities, never before experienced by PH. The long-standing "silo" approach to funding has fragmented PH programs and departments,2 but the components for integrated business intelligence (i.e., tools and applications to help users make informed decisions) and maximally reuse data are available now. Challenges faced by PH agencies on the road to integration are plentiful, but an emphasis on PH systems and services research (PHSSR) may identify gaps and solutions for the PH community to address. Technology and system approaches to leverage this information explosion to support a transformed health care system and population health are proposed. By optimizing this information opportunity, PH can play a greater role in the learning health system.

  10. Creating Value: Unifying Silos into Public Health Business Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Through September 2014, federal investments in health information technology have been unprecedented, with more than 25 billion dollars in incentive funds distributed to eligible hospitals and providers. Over 85 percent of eligible United States hospitals and 60 percent of eligible providers have used certified electronic health record (EHR) technology and received Meaningful Use incentive funds (HITECH Act1). Technology: Certified EHR technology could create new public health (PH) value through novel and rapidly evolving data-use opportunities, never before experienced by PH. The long-standing “silo” approach to funding has fragmented PH programs and departments,2 but the components for integrated business intelligence (i.e., tools and applications to help users make informed decisions) and maximally reuse data are available now. Systems: Challenges faced by PH agencies on the road to integration are plentiful, but an emphasis on PH systems and services research (PHSSR) may identify gaps and solutions for the PH community to address. Conclusion: Technology and system approaches to leverage this information explosion to support a transformed health care system and population health are proposed. By optimizing this information opportunity, PH can play a greater role in the learning health system. PMID:25995989

  11. Intelligent power management system for N+ rechargeable solid-state microscale batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alahmad, Mahmoud Ahmad

    2005-07-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been pursing miniaturized power sources for aerospace applications. In the area of power storage, they have developed a rechargeable solid state micro-scale lithium battery, rated at 4.25 V with a 50 nAH capacity. It is fabricated on a single 4-inch wafer using microelectronic fabrication techniques. Up to 20,000 microbatteries can be fabricated on a single wafer. A system to charge, discharge and monitor the status of each microbattery is required to utilize the microbatteries in practical applications. This Ph.D. dissertation describes the development of a novel N+ Switch Array Matrix (N+ SAM) topology. This topology is unique in its dynamic reconfiguration ability by providing selective connection and isolation and it is versatile in its core design by incorporating passive, active or energy storage elements. It is customized for the microbatteries to provide selective voltage and capacity ratios by reconfiguring the microbatteries during the charge or discharge cycle. In addition, a microbattery model and a categorization model have been developed to identify the status of each microbattery in the topology at any given time. An Intelligent Power Management System has been developed based on the N+ SAM topology to provide user-defined methods and connections for charging and discharging arbitrary number N microbatteries connected in series, parallel, or series-parallel configurations. Using the categorization model, the system provides real time information regarding the condition and status of each microbattery. Using the microbattery model, the system also provides real time fault tolerant capabilities and protection using voltage setting to terminate the charge and discharge if required. A two microbattery prototype circuit has been designed and built using a microprocessor-based controller and off-the-shelf components for the verification of the system's operation. The results of the prototype circuit are presented

  12. Creating National Attraction: Military Intelligence Sharing Building Foreign Military Interdependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    America ................................................................................................ 20 Case Study: France ...over time. The final case study focuses on intelligence sharing, or lack thereof, between the United States and France . Even though France was a...western power in the post-WWII era, the United States chose not to share intelligence with France due to a variety of concerns. The primary concerns

  13. Clinical Data Warehouse: An Effective Tool to Create Intelligence in Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Karami, Mahtab; Rahimi, Azin

    2017-09-21

    Clinical business intelligence tools such as clinical data warehouse enable health care organizations to objectively assess the disease management programs that affect the quality of patients' life and well-being in public. The purpose of these programs is to reduce disease occurrence, improve patient care, and decrease health care costs. Therefore, applying clinical data warehouse can be effective in generating useful information about aspects of patient care to facilitate budgeting, planning, research, process improvement, external reporting, benchmarking, and trend analysis, as well as to enable the decisions needed to prevent the progression or appearance of the illness aligning with maintaining the health of the population. The aim of this review article is to describe the benefits of clinical data warehouse applications in creating intelligence for disease management programs.

  14. Development of a Control Optimization System for Real Time Monitoring of Managed Aquifer Recharge and Recovery Systems Using Intelligent Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, K. M.; Drumheller, Z. W.; Lee, J. H.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Regnery, J.; Kitanidis, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Aquifers around the world show troubling signs of irreversible depletion and seawater intrusion as climate change, population growth, and urbanization lead to reduced natural recharge rates and overuse. Scientists and engineers have begun to revisit the technology of managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MAR) as a means to increase the reliability of the diminishing and increasingly variable groundwater supply. Unfortunately, MAR systems remain wrought with operational challenges related to the quality and quantity of recharged and recovered water stemming from a lack of data-driven, real-time control. This research seeks to develop and validate a general simulation-based control optimization algorithm that relies on real-time data collected though embedded sensors that can be used to ease the operational challenges of MAR facilities. Experiments to validate the control algorithm were conducted at the laboratory scale in a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer under both homogeneous and heterogeneous packing configurations. The synthetic aquifer used well characterized technical sands and the electrical conductivity signal of an inorganic conservative tracer as a surrogate measure for water quality. The synthetic aquifer was outfitted with an array of sensors and an autonomous pumping system. Experimental results verified the feasibility of the approach and suggested that the system can improve the operation of MAR facilities. The dynamic parameter inversion reduced the average error between the simulated and observed pressures between 12.5 and 71.4%. The control optimization algorithm ran smoothly and generated optimal control decisions. Overall, results suggest that with some improvements to the inversion and interpolation algorithms, which can be further advanced through testing with laboratory experiments using sensors, the concept can successfully improve the operation of MAR facilities.

  15. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on the Impression of Irony Created by the Mismatch between Verbal and Nonverbal Cues.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Emotional information is conveyed through verbal and nonverbal signals, with nonverbal cues often being considered the decisive factor in the judgment of others' emotional states. The aim of the present study was to examine how verbal and nonverbal cues are integrated by perceivers. More specifically, we tested whether the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information was perceived as an expression of irony. Moreover, we investigated the effects of emotional intelligence on the impression of irony. The findings revealed that the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information created the impression of irony. Furthermore, participants higher in emotional intelligence were faster at rating such stimuli as ironic expressions.

  16. Effects of Emotional Intelligence on the Impression of Irony Created by the Mismatch between Verbal and Nonverbal Cues

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Emotional information is conveyed through verbal and nonverbal signals, with nonverbal cues often being considered the decisive factor in the judgment of others’ emotional states. The aim of the present study was to examine how verbal and nonverbal cues are integrated by perceivers. More specifically, we tested whether the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information was perceived as an expression of irony. Moreover, we investigated the effects of emotional intelligence on the impression of irony. The findings revealed that the mismatch between verbal and nonverbal information created the impression of irony. Furthermore, participants higher in emotional intelligence were faster at rating such stimuli as ironic expressions. PMID:27716831

  17. Evaporation and concentration gradients created by episodic river recharge in a semi-arid zone aquifer: Insights from Cl-, δ18O, δ2H, and 3H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, K. T.; Hollins, S. E.; Hughes, C. E.; Cendón, D. I.; Chisari, R.; Griffiths, A.; Crawford, J.

    2015-10-01

    This study has significantly advanced our understanding of the origin of groundwater recharge in a semi-arid zone region of the Darling River catchment, Australia. The generally accepted hypothesis in arid zone environments in Australia that river water forms the primary groundwater recharge source has proven difficult to monitor. This is due to the time lags between large floods, the remoteness and expense of studying these hydrologically complex systems in detail. In addition, the highly episodic nature of dryland rivers complicates the interpretation of the groundwater signal. A range of hydrochemical tracers (chloride, oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium) measured in rain, river water, soil water and groundwater were used in this multi-year study to trace the pathways of groundwater recharge under wet and dry climatic conditions. The evaporation and Cl concentrations observed in the unsaturated zone confirmed that small volumetric inputs from periodic rainfall were not the major recharge mechanism. Sampling which included an overbank flooding event in March 2012 provided firm evidence for groundwater originating from high flow episodic river recharge. The use of long-term environmental data to understand how economically important water resources respond to climate change with increasing temperatures is considered essential for future sustainability.

  18. A Vision for the Future of Environmental Research: Creating Environmental Intelligence Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, E. J.

    2002-12-01

    being in the context of global, national and regional stewardship. These societal needs lead to a vision that uses a regional framework as a stepping-stone to a comprehensive national or global capability. The development of a comprehensive regional framework depends on a new approach to environmental research - the creation of regional Environmental Intelligence Centers. A key objective is to bring a demanding level of discipline to "forecasting" in a broad arena of environmental issues. The regional vision described above is designed to address a broad range of current and future environmental issues by creating a capability based on integrating diverse observing systems, making data readily accessible, developing an increasingly comprehensive predictive capability at the spatial and temporal scales appropriate for examining societal issues, and creating a vigorous intersection with decision-makers. With demonstrated success over a few large-scale regions of the U.S., this strategy will very likely grow into a national capability that far exceeds current capabilities.

  19. Creating Innovative Solutions for Future Hotel Rooms with Intelligent Multimedia and Pervasive Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharda, Nalin K.

    Pervasive computing and intelligent multimedia technologies are becoming increasingly important to the modern way of living. However, many of their potential applications have not been fully realized yet. This chapter explores how innovative applications can be developed to meet the needs of the next generation hotels. Futuristic hotel rooms aim to be more than “home-away-from-home,” and as a consequence, offer tremendous opportunities for developing innovative applications of pervasive computing and intelligent multimedia. Next generation hotels will make increased use of technology products to attract new customers. High end TV screens, changeable room ambiance, biometric guest recognition, and electronic check-in facilities are some of the features already being implemented by some hotels. Entirely futuristic hotels in the sea, the stratosphere or the outer space, are also being proposed. All of these provide many novel opportunities for developing innovative solutions using intelligent multimedia and ubiquitous computing.

  20. Business intelligence tools for radiology: creating a prototype model using open-source tools.

    PubMed

    Prevedello, Luciano M; Andriole, Katherine P; Hanson, Richard; Kelly, Pauline; Khorasani, Ramin

    2010-04-01

    Digital radiology departments could benefit from the ability to integrate and visualize data (e.g. information reflecting complex workflow states) from all of their imaging and information management systems in one composite presentation view. Leveraging data warehousing tools developed in the business world may be one way to achieve this capability. In total, the concept of managing the information available in this data repository is known as Business Intelligence or BI. This paper describes the concepts used in Business Intelligence, their importance to modern Radiology, and the steps used in the creation of a prototype model of a data warehouse for BI using open-source tools.

  1. NOAA's National Water Model - Integration of National Water Model with Geospatial Data creating Water Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, E. P.; Cosgrove, B.; Salas, F.

    2016-12-01

    As a significant step forward to transform NOAA's water prediction services, NOAA plans to implement a new National Water Model (NWM) Version 1.0 in August 2016. A continental scale water resources model, the NWM is an evolution of the WRF-Hydro architecture developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The NWM will provide analyses and forecasts of flow for the 2.7 million stream reaches nationwide in the National Hydrography Dataset Plus v2 (NHDPlusV2) jointly developed by the USGS and EPA. The NWM also produces high-resolution water budget variables of snow, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration on a 1-km grid. NOAA's stakeholders require additional decision support application to be built on these data. The Geo-intelligence division of the Office of Water Prediction is building new products and services that integrate output from the NWM with geospatial datasets such as infrastructure and demographics to better estimate the impacts dynamic water resource states on community resiliency. This presentation will detail the methods and underlying information to produce prototypes water resources intelligence that is timely, actionable and credible. Moreover, it will to explore the NWM capability to support sector-specific decision support services.

  2. Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-09-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from past experience and, in general, to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Aspects of intelligence are measured by standardized tests of intelligence. Average raw (number-correct) scores on such tests vary across the life span and also across generations, as well as across ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex. Measured values correlate with brain size, at least within humans. The heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between 0.4 and 0.8. But genes always express themselves through environment. Heritability varies as a function of a number of factors, including socioeconomic status and range of environments. Racial-group differences in measured intelligence have been reported, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable. As a result, these differences are difficult to interpret. Different cultures have different conceptions of the nature of intelligence, and also require different skills in order to express intelligence in the environment. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012 doi: 10.1002/wcs.1193 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  4. Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  5. Functional materials for rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangyi; Liang, Jing; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2011-04-19

    There is an ever-growing demand for rechargeable batteries with reversible and efficient electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Rechargeable batteries cover applications in many fields, which include portable electronic consumer devices, electric vehicles, and large-scale electricity storage in smart or intelligent grids. The performance of rechargeable batteries depends essentially on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions involved in the components (i.e., the anode, cathode, electrolyte, and separator) of the cells. During the past decade, extensive efforts have been dedicated to developing advanced batteries with large capacity, high energy and power density, high safety, long cycle life, fast response, and low cost. Here, recent progress in functional materials applied in the currently prevailing rechargeable lithium-ion, nickel-metal hydride, lead acid, vanadium redox flow, and sodium-sulfur batteries is reviewed. The focus is on research activities toward the ionic, atomic, or molecular diffusion and transport; electron transfer; surface/interface structure optimization; the regulation of the electrochemical reactions; and the key materials and devices for rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Using Multiple Intelligences to Create Better (Teachers of) Writers: A Guide to MI Theory for the Composition Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This essay demonstrates how the concept of multiple intelligences (MI) can be applied to college composition. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, published in 1983, started a revolution in education, but the application of this theory to teaching college writing was slow in coming. For the most part, writing teachers are comfortable in the…

  7. GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AND CHEMICAL ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The existing knowledge base regarding the presence and significance of chemicals foreign to the subsurface environment is large and growing -the papers in this volume serving as recent testament. But complex questions with few answers surround the unknowns regarding the potential for environmental or human health effects from trace levels of xenobiotics in groundwater, especially groundwater augmented with treated wastewater. Public acceptance for direct or indirect groundwater recharge using treated municipal wastewater ( especially sewage) spans the spectrum from unquestioned embrace to outright rejection. In this article, I detour around the issues most commonly discussed for groundwater recharge and instead focus on some of the less-recognized issues- those that emanate from the mysteries created at the many literal and virtual interfaces involved with the subsurface world. My major objective is to catalyze discussion that advances our understanding of the barriers to public acceptance of wastewater reuse -with its ultimate culmination in direct reuse for drinking. I pose what could be a key question as to whether much of the public's frustration or ambivalence in its decision making process for accepting or rejecting water reuse (for various purposes including personal use) emanates from fundamental inaccuracies, misrepresentation, or oversimplification of what water 'is' and how it functions in the environment -just what exactly is the 'water cyc

  8. Creating Intelligent Computer Workstation of a Freight Officer in a Single Information Space of Railway Transport: Synergetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malybaev, Saken K.; Malaybaev, Nurlan S.; Isina, Botakoz M.; Kenzhekeeva, Akbope R.; Khuangan, Nurbol

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of researches aimed at the creation of automated workplaces for railway transport specialists with the help of intelligent information systems. The analysis of tendencies of information technologies development in the transport network was conducted. It was determined that the most effective approach is to create…

  9. Information gathering, management and transferring for geospatial intelligence - A conceptual approach to create a spatial data infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Paulo; Correia, Anacleto; Teodoro, M. Filomena

    2017-06-01

    Since long ago, information is a key factor for military organizations. In military context the success of joint and combined operations depends on the accurate information and knowledge flow concerning the operational theatre: provision of resources, environment evolution, targets' location, where and when an event will occur. Modern military operations cannot be conceive without maps and geospatial information. Staffs and forces on the field request large volume of information during the planning and execution process, horizontal and vertical geospatial information integration is critical for decision cycle. Information and knowledge management are fundamental to clarify an environment full of uncertainty. Geospatial information (GI) management rises as a branch of information and knowledge management, responsible for the conversion process from raw data collect by human or electronic sensors to knowledge. Geospatial information and intelligence systems allow us to integrate all other forms of intelligence and act as a main platform to process and display geospatial-time referenced events. Combining explicit knowledge with person know-how to generate a continuous learning cycle that supports real time decisions, mitigates the influences of fog of war and provides the knowledge supremacy. This paper presents the analysis done after applying a questionnaire and interviews about the GI and intelligence management in a military organization. The study intended to identify the stakeholder's requirements for a military spatial data infrastructure as well as the requirements for a future software system development.

  10. Rechargeable zinc halogen battery

    SciTech Connect

    Spaziante, P.M.; Nidola, A.

    1980-01-01

    A rechargeable zinc halogen battery has an aqueous electrolyte containing ions of zinc and halogen and an amount of polysaccharide and/or sorbitol sufficient to prevent zinc dendrite formation during recharging. The electrolyte may also contain trace amounts of metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, and lead. 7 tables.

  11. Distributed Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLagan, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Distributed intelligence occurs when people in an organization take responsibility for creating innovations, solving problems, and making decisions. Organizations that have it excel in their markets and the global environment. (Author/JOW)

  12. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, T.

    1985-01-01

    The vast underground reservoirs formed by aquifers constitute invaluable water supply sources as well as water storage facilities. Because natural replenishment of the supply occurs very slowly, continued excessive exploitation of it causes groundwater levels to decline with time. If not corrected this leads to an eventual depletion of a valuable natural resource. To prevent mining and groundwater pollution, the artificial recharge of groundwater basins is becoming increasingly important in groundwater management as a way to increase this natural supply of water. Artificial recharge can reduce, stop, and even reverse declining levels of groundwater. In addition, it can protect underground freshwater in coastal aquifers against salt-water intrusion from the ocean, and can be used to store surface and reclaimed water for future use. This book is a treatise of the artificial recharge of groundwater, with particular emphasis on recharge with reclaimed municipal wastewater.

  13. Estimating groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is the entry of fresh water into the saturated portion of the subsurface part of the hydrologic cycle, the modifier "saturated" indicating that the pressure of the pore water is greater than atmospheric.

  14. Estimating groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding groundwater recharge is essential for successful management of water resources and modeling fluid and contaminant transport within the subsurface. This book provides a critical evaluation of the theory and assumptions that underlie methods for estimating rates of groundwater recharge. Detailed explanations of the methods are provided - allowing readers to apply many of the techniques themselves without needing to consult additional references. Numerous practical examples highlight benefits and limitations of each method. Approximately 900 references allow advanced practitioners to pursue additional information on any method. For the first time, theoretical and practical considerations for selecting and applying methods for estimating groundwater recharge are covered in a single volume with uniform presentation. Hydrogeologists, water-resource specialists, civil and agricultural engineers, earth and environmental scientists and agronomists will benefit from this informative and practical book. It can serve as the primary text for a graduate-level course on groundwater recharge or as an adjunct text for courses on groundwater hydrology or hydrogeology.

  15. Artificial recharge of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Task Committee on Guidelines for Artificial Recharge of Groundwater, of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) Irrigation and Drainage Division, sponsored an International Symposium on Artificial Recharge of Groundwater at the Inn-at-the-Park Hotel in Anaheim, Calif., August 23-27, 1988. Cosponsors were the U.S. Geological Survey, California Department of Water Resources, University of California Water Resources Center, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, with cooperation from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, International Association of Hydrological Sciences, American Water Resources Association, U.S. Agency for International Development, World Bank, United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development, and a number of local and state organizations.Because of the worldwide interest in artificial recharge and the need to develop efficient recharge facilities, the Anaheim symposium brought together an interdisciplinary group of engineers and scientists to provide a forum for many professional disciplines to exchange experiences and findings related to various types of artificial recharge; learn from both successful and unsuccessful case histories; promote technology transfer between the various disciplines; provide an education resource for communication with those who are not water scientists, such as planners, lawyers, regulators, and the public in general; and indicate directions by which cities or other entities can save funds by having reasonable technical guidelines for implementation of a recharge project.

  16. Monitoring Cave Recharge in the Edwards Aquifer Recharge Zone for Natural and Simulated Rainfall Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, L.; Veni, G.; Shade, B.; Wilcox, B. P.; Munster, C. L.; Owens, M. K.

    2005-12-01

    Across semi-arid regions of the world, woody plant encroachment is widespread with potential implications for groundwater recharge and streamflow. In an effort to better understand the interactions between woody plants and recharge, we are monitoring drip rates in shallow caves in the Edwards Aquifer recharge zone of Central Texas. The surface is covered by a dense stand of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). In addition to stemflow, throughfall, and surface runoff was monitored for both natural precipitation events as well as simulated rainfall. Interception and throughfall are measured using a grid of rain gauges and throughfall collectors. Surface runoff measurements were quantified with a 15.24 centimeter H- flume instrumented with an ultrasonic water level sensor. Drip collectors constructed inside the cave collect recharge entering the cave from the ceiling. Large scale rainfall simulation equipment onsite allows us to "re-create" these naturally occurring rainfall events and compare the resulting data with that from the original event. Performing these types of tests allows us to learn important information about the cave footprint's ability to transmit recharge waters into the cave. During a simulation, water is applied directly to the cave footprint and not to the entire hillslope as in a natural rain event. We found that recharge for the natural and simulated events were similar. In each case, recharge makes up less than 5% of the water budget, in spite of the fact that there was little, if any, surface runoff. The working hypothesis is that most of the rainfall is routed off the hillslope as lateral subsurface flow.

  17. Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

  18. REMOTELY RECHARGEABLE EPD

    SciTech Connect

    Vrettos, N; Athneal Marzolf, A; Scott Bowser, S

    2007-11-13

    Radiation measurements inside the Contact Decon Maintenance Cell (CDMC) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are required to determine stay times for personnel. A system to remotely recharge the transmitter of an Electronic Personnel Dosimeter (EPD) and bail assembly to transport the EPD within the CDMC was developed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to address this need.

  19. Intelligence: Real or artificial?

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    Throughout the history of the artificial intelligence movement, researchers have strived to create computers that could simulate general human intelligence. This paper argues that workers in artificial intelligence have failed to achieve this goal because they adopted the wrong model of human behavior and intelligence, namely a cognitive essentialist model with origins in the traditional philosophies of natural intelligence. An analysis of the word “intelligence” suggests that it originally referred to behavior-environment relations and not to inferred internal structures and processes. It is concluded that if workers in artificial intelligence are to succeed in their general goal, then they must design machines that are adaptive, that is, that can learn. Thus, artificial intelligence researchers must discard their essentialist model of natural intelligence and adopt a selectionist model instead. Such a strategic change should lead them to the science of behavior analysis. PMID:22477051

  20. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    SciTech Connect

    Friesen, Cody

    2014-03-07

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  1. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema

    Friesen, Cody

    2016-07-12

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  2. Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    AD-AI O297 EIC LA BS INC NEWTON MA F/6 10/3 AMB IENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERAU AG(MARHMU)L TI ARI AK IC07 UNCLASSIFIED C-655DEE TB6...036FL -T Research and Development Technical Report -N DELET-TR-81-0378-F AMBIENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERY K. M. Abraham D. L. Natwig...WORDS (Cenimne an revee filf Of ~"#amp Pu l41"lfr bg’ 61WA amober) Rechargeable lithium battery, CrO.5VO.5S2 positive electrode, 2Me-THF/LiAsF6, cell

  3. Recharge in Karst Shrublands of Central Texas: Monitoring Drip Rates in Shallow Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazan, R. A.; Wilcox, B. P.; Munster, C. L.; Owens, K.; Shade, B.

    2007-12-01

    The exceedingly complex subsurface hydrology of karst landscapes presents formidable challenges to understanding recharge rates and the relationships between rainfall and recharge. In this study, we have established a network of drip collectors and monitoring stations in shallow caves in the Edwards Plateau to better understand the dynamics of recharge and eventually for determining the effect of woody plants on recharge rates. Understanding recharge rates has direct relevance for management of the Edwards Aquifer, which serves as the main source of fresh water for the city of San Antonio and surrounding communities, As population around San Antonio continues to grow so does the demand for water, in turn, a need to address the supply exists. We have instrumented two caves that lie within the Camp Bullis Training Facility north of San Antonio, Texas. Data collected at each site record precipitation on the surface and measure recharge inside the caves. Monitoring of natural rainfall events at these sites began in October 2004. To date, all monitoring and data collection has occurred with the juniper canopy in place. Results have shown that cave recharge is influenced by 1) rainfall intensity and duration, 2) antecedent soil moisture condition, 3) depth of soil, and 4) surface geology. We plan to remove the tree canopy in the summer of 2008 and continue monitoring cave recharge in response to natural and re-created rainfall events. Comparing data collected with and without juniper cover in place will allow us to determine if recharge may be increased by reducing tree cover.

  4. Invitation to artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    D'heedene, R.N.

    1983-02-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence displayed by non-living objects, that is, machines. The possibility of creating intelligent machines has been a motivating force behind a great deal of computing machine development. The methods of AI are not only of historical interest, but are powerful in themselves. Artificial intelligence therefore deserves a prominent place in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. This paper discusses the pedagogical advantages of emphasizing AI in upper level courses, reasons for its present neglect, and the importance of introducing ai study. 5 references.

  5. Intelligence Authorization Legislation: Status and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-18

    created the two intelligence committees to provide oversight. The respective rules that established the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence ( SSCI ...intelligence committees have extensive staffs—approximately 40 each for SSCI and HPSCI. The House committee has subcommittees devoted to terrorism, human... SSCI ) serve on both committees. Although there is considerable overlap between the oversight responsibilities of armed services and intelligence

  6. How to Recharge a Confined Alluvial Aquifer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Fogg, G. E.; Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Greater water storage capacity is needed to offset future decreases in snowpack-water storage in California. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in California's Central Valley aquifer system is a promising alternative to new surface reservoir storage because it has the potential to both reduce overdraft conditions observed in many Central Valley groundwater basins and offset continued decreases in snowpack storage. MAR to the Central Valley's productive confined-aquifer system remains a challenge because, like most alluvial aquifer systems, it is composed mostly of silt and clay sediments that form nearly ubiquitous, multiple confining layers that inhibit direct recharge of the interconnected sand and gravel body networks. Several studies have mapped surficial soil types in the Central Valley that are conducive to MAR, but few studies have evaluated how subsurface geologic heterogeneity controls recharge to the confined aquifer system. Here, we use a transition probability Markov-chain geostatistical model conditioned with 1200 well logs to create a physically-realistic representation of the subsurface geologic heterogeneity in the American and Cosumnes River watersheds on the east side of the Sacramento Valley, CA, where studies have shown the presence of massive, interconnected, highly-permeable gravel deposits that are potentially conducive to considerably higher rates of regional recharge than would be possible over the rest of the landscape. Such localized stratigraphic features to support accelerated recharge occur throughout the Central Valley, but are mostly still undiscovered. A variably-saturated, fully-integrated, groundwater/surface-water code, ParFlow, was used to simulate MAR dynamics in this system. Results show the potential for (1) accelerated, high-volume recharge through interconnected gravels where they outcrop at land surface, and (2) regional repressurization of the deeper confined aquifer system. These findings provide insight into the critical

  7. Choosing appropriate techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, B.R.; Healy, R.W.; Cook, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Various techniques are available to quantify recharge; however, choosing appropriate techniques is often difficult. Important considerations in choosing a technique include space/time scales, range, and reliability of recharge estimates based on different techniques; other factors may limit the application of particular techniques. The goal of the recharge study is important because it may dictate the required space/time scales of the recharge estimates. Typical study goals include water-resource evaluation, which requires information on recharge over large spatial scales and on decadal time scales; and evaluation of aquifer vulnerability to contamination, which requires detailed information on spatial variability and preferential flow. The range of recharge rates that can be estimated using different approaches should be matched to expected recharge rates at a site. The reliability of recharge estimates using different techniques is variable. Techniques based on surface-water and unsaturated-zone data provide estimates of potential recharge, whereas those based on groundwater data generally provide estimates of actual recharge. Uncertainties in each approach to estimating recharge underscore the need for application of multiple techniques to increase reliability of recharge estimates.

  8. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  9. Reusable Energy and Power Sources: Rechargeable Batteries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Steve C.; Ritz, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries are very popular within consumer electronics. If one uses a cell phone or portable electric tool, she/he understands the need to have a reliable product and the need to remember to use the recharging systems that follow a cycle of charge/discharge. Rechargeable batteries are being called "green" energy sources. They are a…

  10. The pronounced seasonality of global groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, Scott; Birks, S. Jean; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Fawcett, Peter J.; Sharp, Zachary D.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Welker, Jeffrey M.

    2014-11-01

    Groundwater recharged by meteoric water supports human life by providing two billion people with drinking water and by supplying 40% of cropland irrigation. While annual groundwater recharge rates are reported in many studies, fewer studies have explicitly quantified intra-annual (i.e., seasonal) differences in groundwater recharge. Understanding seasonal differences in the fraction of precipitation that recharges aquifers is important for predicting annual recharge groundwater rates under changing seasonal precipitation and evapotranspiration regimes in a warming climate, for accurately interpreting isotopic proxies in paleoclimate records, and for understanding linkages between ecosystem productivity and groundwater recharge. Here we determine seasonal differences in the groundwater recharge ratio, defined here as the ratio of groundwater recharge to precipitation, at 54 globally distributed locations on the basis of 18O/16O and 2H/1H ratios in precipitation and groundwater. Our analysis shows that arid and temperate climates have wintertime groundwater recharge ratios that are consistently higher than summertime groundwater recharge ratios, while tropical groundwater recharge ratios are at a maximum during the wet season. The isotope-based recharge ratio seasonality is consistent with monthly outputs from a global hydrological model (PCR-GLOBWB) for most, but not all locations. The pronounced seasonality in groundwater recharge ratios shown in this study signifies that, from the point of view of predicting future groundwater recharge rates, a unit change in winter (temperate and arid regions) or wet season (tropics) precipitation will result in a greater change to the annual groundwater recharge rate than the same unit change to summer or dry season precipitation.

  11. Identifying Groundwater Recharge in Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Recharge epodicity in arid regions provides a method to estimate annual groundwater recharge given a relationship expressed as the recharge to precipitation ratio. Traditionally, in-situ observations are required to identify aquifer recharge events, while more advanced approaches such as the water-table fluctuation method or the episodic master recession method are necessary to delineate the recharge event. Our study uses the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations to estimate monthly changes in groundwater storage which are attributed to the combination of groundwater abstraction and episodic recharge in the arid southwestern United States. Our results illustrate the ability of remote sensing technologies to identify episodic groundwater recharge in arid regions which can be used within sustainable groundwater management frameworks to effectively manage groundwater resources.

  12. Beyond CMOS: heterogeneous integration of III–V devices, RF MEMS and other dissimilar materials/devices with Si CMOS to create intelligent microsystems

    PubMed Central

    Kazior, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in silicon technology continue to revolutionize micro-/nano-electronics. However, Si cannot do everything, and devices/components based on other materials systems are required. What is the best way to integrate these dissimilar materials and to enhance the capabilities of Si, thereby continuing the micro-/nano-electronics revolution? In this paper, I review different approaches to heterogeneously integrate dissimilar materials with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In particular, I summarize results on the successful integration of III–V electronic devices (InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs)) with Si CMOS on a common silicon-based wafer using an integration/fabrication process similar to a SiGe BiCMOS process (BiCMOS integrates bipolar junction and CMOS transistors). Our III–V BiCMOS process has been scaled to 200 mm diameter wafers for integration with scaled CMOS and used to fabricate radio-frequency (RF) and mixed signals circuits with on-chip digital control/calibration. I also show that RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can be integrated onto this platform to create tunable or reconfigurable circuits. Thus, heterogeneous integration of III–V devices, MEMS and other dissimilar materials with Si CMOS enables a new class of high-performance integrated circuits that enhance the capabilities of existing systems, enable new circuit architectures and facilitate the continued proliferation of low-cost micro-/nano-electronics for a wide range of applications. PMID:24567473

  13. Beyond CMOS: heterogeneous integration of III-V devices, RF MEMS and other dissimilar materials/devices with Si CMOS to create intelligent microsystems.

    PubMed

    Kazior, Thomas E

    2014-03-28

    Advances in silicon technology continue to revolutionize micro-/nano-electronics. However, Si cannot do everything, and devices/components based on other materials systems are required. What is the best way to integrate these dissimilar materials and to enhance the capabilities of Si, thereby continuing the micro-/nano-electronics revolution? In this paper, I review different approaches to heterogeneously integrate dissimilar materials with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In particular, I summarize results on the successful integration of III-V electronic devices (InP heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) and GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs)) with Si CMOS on a common silicon-based wafer using an integration/fabrication process similar to a SiGe BiCMOS process (BiCMOS integrates bipolar junction and CMOS transistors). Our III-V BiCMOS process has been scaled to 200 mm diameter wafers for integration with scaled CMOS and used to fabricate radio-frequency (RF) and mixed signals circuits with on-chip digital control/calibration. I also show that RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) can be integrated onto this platform to create tunable or reconfigurable circuits. Thus, heterogeneous integration of III-V devices, MEMS and other dissimilar materials with Si CMOS enables a new class of high-performance integrated circuits that enhance the capabilities of existing systems, enable new circuit architectures and facilitate the continued proliferation of low-cost micro-/nano-electronics for a wide range of applications.

  14. Research on rechargeable oxygen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giner, J.; Malachesky, P. A.; Holleck, G.

    1971-01-01

    Studies were carried out on a number of factors which may influence the behavior of the platinum electrocatalyst of oxygen electrodes for use in rechargeable metal-oxygen batteries or hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. The effects of pretreatments for various potentials and added ionic species, which could be present in such systems, were studied with reguard to: (1) the state of surface oxidation, (2) platinum dissolution, (3) the kinetics of oxygen evolution and reduction (including the role of hydrogen peroxide), and (4) changes in porous electrode structure. These studies were carried out on smooth platinum, platinized platinum, and Teflon-bonded platinum black electrodes in carefully purified electrolyte solutions. The main factors which appear to affect rechargeable oxygen electrode performance and life are: (1) the buildup of a refractory anodic layer on extended cycling, and (2) the dissolution of platinum.

  15. Electrically rechargeable REDOX flow cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A bulk energy storage system is designed with an electrically rechargeable reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cell divided into two compartments by a membrane, each compartment containing an electrode. An anode fluid is directed through the first compartment at the same time that a cathode fluid is directed through the second compartment. Means are provided for circulating the anode and cathode fluids, and the electrodes are connected to an intermittent or non-continuous electrical source, which when operating, supplies current to a load as well as to the cell to recharge it. Ancillary circuitry is provided for disconnecting the intermittent source from the cell at prescribed times and for circulating the anode and cathode fluids according to desired parameters and conditions.

  16. Rechargeable Aluminum-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Liu, Hansan; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Brown, Gilbert M

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reports on the development of rechargeable aluminum-ion batteries. A possible concept of rechargeable aluminum/aluminum-ion battery based on low-cost, earth-abundant Al anode, ionic liquid EMImCl:AlCl3 (1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloroaluminate) electrolytes and MnO2 cathode has been proposed. Al anode has been reported to show good reversibility in acid melts. However, due to the problems in demonstrating the reversibility in cathodes, alternate battery cathodes and battery concepts have also been presented. New ionic liquid electrolytes for reversible Al dissolution and deposition are needed in the future for replacing corrosive EMImCl:AlCl3 electrolytes.

  17. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  18. Iron-Air Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayan, Sri R. (Inventor); Prakash, G.K. Surya (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments include an iron-air rechargeable battery having a composite electrode including an iron electrode and a hydrogen electrode integrated therewith. An air electrode is spaced from the iron electrode and an electrolyte is provided in contact with the air electrode and the iron electrodes. Various additives and catalysts are disclosed with respect to the iron electrode, air electrode, and electrolyte for increasing battery efficiency and cycle life.

  19. Survey of rechargeable battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    We have reviewed rechargeable battery technology options for a specialized application in unmanned high altitude aircraft. Consideration was given to all rechargeable battery technologies that are available commercially or might be available in the foreseeable future. The LLNL application was found to impose very demanding performance requirements which cannot be met by existing commercially available battery technologies. The most demanding requirement is for high energy density. The technology that comes closest to providing the LLNL requirements is silver-zinc, although the technology exhibits significant shortfalls in energy density, charge rate capability and cyclability. There is no battery technology available ``off-the-shelf` today that can satisfy the LLNL performance requirements. All rechargeable battery technologies with the possibility of approaching/meeting the energy density requirements were reviewed. Vendor interviews were carried out for all relevant technologies. A large number of rechargeable battery systems have been developed over the years, though a much smaller number have achieved commercial success and general availability. The theoretical energy densities for these systems are summarized. It should be noted that a generally useful ``rule-of-thumb`` is that the ratio of packaged to theoretical energy density has proven to be less than 30%, and generally less than 25%. Data developed for this project confirm the usefulness of the general rule. However, data shown for the silver-zinc (AgZn) system show a greater conversion of theoretical to practical energy density than would be expected due to the very large cell sizes considered and the unusually high density of the active materials.

  20. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water-rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agrilcultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3-, N2, Cl, SO42-, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3-, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  1. Charge Characteristics of Rechargeable Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswaranathan, Ponn; Kelly, Cormac

    2014-03-01

    Rechargeable batteries play important role in technologies today and they are critical for the future. They are used in many electronic devices and their capabilities need to keep up with the accelerated pace of technology. Efficient energy capture and storage is necessary for the future rechargeable batteries. Charging and discharging characteristics of three popular commercially available re-chargeable batteries (NiCd, NiMH, and Li Ion) are investigated and compared with regular alkaline batteries. Pasco's 850 interface and their voltage & current sensors are used to monitor the current through and the potential difference across the battery. The discharge current and voltage stayed fairly constant until the end, with a slightly larger drop in voltage than current, which is more pronounced in the alkaline batteries. After 25 charge/discharge cycling there is no appreciable loss of charge capacities in the Li Ion battery. Energy densities, cycle characteristics, and memory effects will also be presented. Sponsored by the South Carolina Governor's school for Science and Mathematics under the Summer Program for Research Interns program.

  2. Intensive rainfall recharges tropical groundwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, Scott; Taylor, Richard G.

    2015-12-01

    Dependence upon groundwater to meet rising agricultural and domestic water needs is expected to increase substantially across the tropics where, by 2050, over half of the world’s population is projected to live. Rare, long-term groundwater-level records in the tropics indicate that groundwater recharge occurs disproportionately from heavy rainfalls exceeding a threshold. The ubiquity of this bias in tropical groundwater recharge to intensive precipitation is, however, unknown. By relating available long-term records of stable-isotope ratios of O and H in tropical precipitation (15 sites) to those of local groundwater, we reveal that groundwater recharge in the tropics is near-uniformly (14/15 sites) biased to intensive monthly rainfall, commonly exceeding the ∼70th intensity decile. Our results suggest that the intensification of precipitation brought about by global warming favours groundwater replenishment in the tropics. Nevertheless, the processes that transmit intensive rainfall to groundwater systems and enhance the resilience of tropical groundwater storage in a warming world, remain unclear.

  3. Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

  4. Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

  5. Ground-Water Recharge in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Falteisek, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    'Ground-water recharge' broadly describes the addition of water to the ground-water system. Most water recharging the ground-water system moves relatively rapidly to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Over the long term, recharge is generally balanced by discharge to surface waters, to plants, and to deeper parts of the ground-water system. However, this balance can be altered locally as a result of pumping, impervious surfaces, land use, or climate changes that could result in increased or decreased recharge. * Recharge rates to unconfined aquifers in Minnesota typically are about 20-25 percent of precipitation. * Ground-water recharge is least (0-2 inches per year) in the western and northwestern parts of the State and increases to greater than 6 inches per year in the central and eastern parts of the State. * Water-level measurement frequency is important in estimating recharge. Measurements made less frequently than about once per week resulted in as much as a 48 percent underestimation of recharge compared with estimates based on an hourly measurement frequency. * High-quality, long-term, continuous hydrologic and climatic data are important in estimating recharge rates.

  6. Automating Recession Curve Displacement Recharge Estimation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brennan; Schwartz, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Recharge estimation is an important and challenging element of groundwater management and resource sustainability. Many recharge estimation methods have been developed with varying data requirements, applicable to different spatial and temporal scales. The variability and inherent uncertainty in recharge estimation motivates the recommended use of multiple methods to estimate and bound regional recharge estimates. Despite the inherent limitations of using daily gauged streamflow, recession curve displacement methods provide a convenient first-order estimate as part of a multimethod hierarchical approach to estimate watershed-scale annual recharge. The implementation of recession curve displacement recharge estimation in the United States Geologic Survey (USGS) RORA program relies on the subjective, operator-specific selection of baseflow recession events to estimate a gauge-specific recession index. This paper presents a parametric algorithm that objectively automates this tedious, subjective process, parameterizing and automating the implementation of recession curve displacement. Results using the algorithm reproduce regional estimates of groundwater recharge from the USGS Appalachian Valley and Piedmont Regional Aquifer-System Analysis, with an average absolute error of less than 2%. The algorithm facilitates consistent, completely automated estimation of annual recharge that complements more rigorous data-intensive techniques for recharge estimation. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  7. Quantification of groundwater recharge in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Tubau, Isabel; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Carrera, Jesús; Valhondo, Cristina; Criollo, Rotman

    2017-08-15

    Groundwater management in urban areas requires a detailed knowledge of the hydrogeological system as well as the adequate tools for predicting the amount of groundwater and water quality evolution. In that context, a key difference between urban and natural areas lies in recharge evaluation. A large number of studies have been published since the 1990s that evaluate recharge in urban areas, with no specific methodology. Most of these methods show that there are generally higher rates of recharge in urban settings than in natural settings. Methods such as mixing ratios or groundwater modeling can be used to better estimate the relative importance of different sources of recharge and may prove to be a good tool for total recharge evaluation. However, accurate evaluation of this input is difficult. The objective is to present a methodology to help overcome those difficulties, and which will allow us to quantify the variability in space and time of the recharge into aquifers in urban areas. Recharge calculations have been initially performed by defining and applying some analytical equations, and validation has been assessed based on groundwater flow and solute transport modeling. This methodology is applicable to complex systems by considering temporal variability of all water sources. This allows managers of urban groundwater to evaluate the relative contribution of different recharge sources at a city scale by considering quantity and quality factors. The methodology is applied to the assessment of recharge sources in the Barcelona city aquifers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stupid Tutoring Systems, Intelligent Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    The initial vision for intelligent tutoring systems involved powerful, multi-faceted systems that would leverage rich models of students and pedagogies to create complex learning interactions. But the intelligent tutoring systems used at scale today are much simpler. In this article, I present hypotheses on the factors underlying this development,…

  9. Teaching & Learning through Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda; Campbell, Bruce; Dickinson, Dee

    In his studies of human capacity, Howard Gardner revealed a wider family of human intelligences than previously suggested. Noting that restricting educational programs to focusing on a preponderance of linguistic and mathematical intelligences minimizes the importance of other forms of knowing, this book presents strategies for creating open…

  10. Teaching & Learning through Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda; Campbell, Bruce; Dickinson, Dee

    In his studies of human capacity, Howard Gardner revealed a wider family of human intelligences than previously suggested. Noting that restricting educational programs to focusing on a preponderance of linguistic and mathematical intelligences minimizes the importance of other forms of knowing, this book presents strategies for creating open…

  11. Stupid Tutoring Systems, Intelligent Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    The initial vision for intelligent tutoring systems involved powerful, multi-faceted systems that would leverage rich models of students and pedagogies to create complex learning interactions. But the intelligent tutoring systems used at scale today are much simpler. In this article, I present hypotheses on the factors underlying this development,…

  12. Transformer Recharging with Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    N.J. Fisch

    2009-12-21

    Transformer recharging with lower hybrid waves in tokamaks can give low average auxiliary power if the resistivity is kept high enough during the radio frequency (rf) recharging stage. At the same time, operation in the hot ion mode via alpha channeling increases the effective fusion reactivity. This paper will address the extent to which these two large cost saving steps are compatible. __________________________________________________

  13. Recharge at the Hanford Site: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, G.W.

    1987-11-01

    A variety of field programs designed to evaluate recharge and other water balance components including precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, and water storage changes, have been carried out at the Hanford Site since 1970. Data from these programs have indicated that a wide range of recharge rates can occur depending upon specific site conditions. Present evidence suggests that minimum recharge occurs where soils are fine-textured and surfaces are vegetated with deep-rooted plants. Maximum recharge occurs where coarse soils or gravels exist at the surface and soils are kept bare. Recharge can occur in areas where shallow-rooted plants dominate the surface, particularly where soils are coarse-textured. Recharge estimates have been made for the site using simulation models. A US Geological Survey model that attempts to account for climate variability, soil storage parameters, and plant factors has calculated recharge values ranging from near zero to an average of about 1 cm/yr for the Hanford Site. UNSAT-H, a deterministic model developed for the site, appears to be the best code available for estimating recharge on a site-specific basis. Appendix I contains precipitation data from January 1979 to June 1987. 42 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Identifying and quantifying urban recharge: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, David N.

    2002-02-01

    The sources of and pathways for groundwater recharge in urban areas are more numerous and complex than in rural environments. Buildings, roads, and other surface infrastructure combine with man-made drainage networks to change the pathways for precipitation. Some direct recharge is lost, but additional recharge can occur from storm drainage systems. Large amounts of water are imported into most cities for supply, distributed through underground pipes, and collected again in sewers or septic tanks. The leaks from these pipe networks often provide substantial recharge. Sources of recharge in urban areas are identified through piezometry, chemical signatures, and water balances. All three approaches have problems. Recharge is quantified either by individual components (direct recharge, water-mains leakage, septic tanks, etc.) or holistically. Working with individual components requires large amounts of data, much of which is uncertain and is likely to lead to large uncertainties in the final result. Recommended holistic approaches include the use of groundwater modelling and solute balances, where various types of data are integrated. Urban recharge remains an under-researched topic, with few high-quality case studies reported in the literature.

  15. Reflections on Dry-Zone Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, G. W.

    2005-05-01

    Quantifying recharge in regions of low precipitation remains a challenging task. The design of permanent nuclear-waste isolation at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the design of arid-site landfill covers and the pumping of groundwater in desert cities, like Las Vegas, are examples where accurate recharge estimates are needed because they affect billion-dollar decisions. Recharge cannot be measured directly and must rely on estimation methods of various kinds including chemical tracers, thermal profiling, lysimetry, and water-balance modeling. Chemical methods, like chloride-mass-balance can significantly underestimate actual recharge rates and water-balance models are generally limited by large uncertainties. Studies at the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State, USA illustrate how estimates of recharge rates have changed over time and how these estimates can affect waste management decisions. Lysimetry has provided reliable estimates of recharge for a wide range of surface condittions. Lysimetric observations of reduced recharge, resulting from advective drying of coarse rock piles, suggest a way to avoid costly recharge protection using titanium shields at Yucca Mountain. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is funded by the U. S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-76-RL01830.

  16. Intelligent control system of autonomous objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, E. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Engel, N. E.; Brezitskaya, V. V.; Prohorovich, G. A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control system of autonomous objects as framework. The intelligent control framework includes two different layers: a reflexive layer and a reactive layer. The proposed multiagent adaptive fuzzy neuronet combines low-level reaction with high-level reasoning in an intelligent control framework. The formed as the multiagent adaptive fuzzy neuronet the intelligent control system on the base of autonomous object’s state, creates the effective control signal under random perturbations.

  17. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltz, David L.

    1982-01-01

    Describes kinds of results achieved by computer programs in artificial intelligence. Topics discussed include heuristic searches, artificial intelligence/psychology, planning program, backward chaining, learning (focusing on Winograd's blocks to explore learning strategies), concept learning, constraint propagation, language understanding…

  18. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  19. Intelligent Testing: Integrating Psychological Theory and Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, James C., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The field of intelligence testing has been revolutionized by Alan S. Kaufman. He developed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) with David Wechsler, and his best-selling book, Intelligent Testing with the WISC-R, introduced the phrase "intelligent testing." Kaufman, with his wife, Nadeen, then created his own…

  20. Intelligent Testing: Integrating Psychological Theory and Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, James C., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The field of intelligence testing has been revolutionized by Alan S. Kaufman. He developed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) with David Wechsler, and his best-selling book, Intelligent Testing with the WISC-R, introduced the phrase "intelligent testing." Kaufman, with his wife, Nadeen, then created his own…

  1. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are…

  2. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, David D.

    1986-01-01

    Overview of the artificial intelligence (AI) field provides a definition; discusses past research and areas of future research; describes the design, functions, and capabilities of expert systems and the "Turing Test" for machine intelligence; and lists additional sources for information on artificial intelligence. Languages of AI are…

  3. Organisational Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolles, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to explore the notion of organisational intelligence as a simple extension of the notion of the idea of collective intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses organisational intelligence using previous research, which includes the Purpose, Properties and Practice model of Dealtry, and the Viable Systems model. Findings: The…

  4. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  5. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  6. Organisational Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yolles, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to explore the notion of organisational intelligence as a simple extension of the notion of the idea of collective intelligence. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses organisational intelligence using previous research, which includes the Purpose, Properties and Practice model of Dealtry, and the Viable Systems model. Findings: The…

  7. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  8. Monitoring induced denitrification in an artificial aquifer recharge system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau-Martinez, Alba; Torrentó, Clara; Folch, Albert; Domènech, Cristina; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    As demands on groundwater increase, artificial recharge is becoming a common method for enhancing groundwater supply. The Llobregat River is a strategic water supply resource to the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, NE Spain). Aquifer overexploitation has leaded to both a decrease of groundwater level and seawater intrusion, with the consequent deterioration of water quality. In the middle section of the aquifer, in Sant Vicenç del Horts, decantation and infiltration ponds recharged by water from the Llobregat River (highly affected from wastewater treatment plant effluents), were installed in 2007, in the framework of the ENSAT Life+ project. At the bottom of the infiltration pond, a vegetal compost layer was installed to promote the growth of bacteria, to induce denitrification and to create favourable conditions for contaminant biodegradation. This layer consists on a mixture of compost, aquifer material, clay and iron oxide. Understanding the fate of contaminants, such as nitrate, during artificial aquifer recharge is required to evaluate the impact of artificial recharge in groundwater quality. In order to distinguish the source of nitrate and to evaluate the capability of the organic reactive layer to induce denitrification, a multi-isotopic approach coupled with hydrogeochemical data was performed. Groundwater samples, as well as river samples, were sampled during artificial and natural recharge periods. The isotopic analysis included: δ15N and δ18O of dissolved nitrate, δ34S and δ18O of dissolved sulphate, δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon, and δ2H and δ18O of water. Dissolved nitrate isotopic composition (δ15NNO3 from +9 to +21 o and δ18ONO3 from +3 to +16 ) demonstrated that heterotrophic denitrification induced by the reactive layer was taking place during the artificial recharge periods. An approximation to the extent of nitrate attenuation was calculated, showing a range between 95 and 99% or between 35 and 45%, by using the extreme

  9. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOEpatents

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  10. Recharge in semiarid mountain environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, G.W.

    1982-06-01

    A systematic investigation of tritium activity in precipitation, surface water, springs, and ground water of the Roswell artesian basin in New Mexico, has been supplemented by hydrogeologic reconnaissance of spring systems; by various statistical correlations and spectral analysis of stream flow and water level records of observation wells; by spring discharge measurements; by stable isotope determinations (oxygen 18 and deuterium); and by numerical modeling of part of the basin. Two recharge contributions to the Principal or Carbonate Aquifer have been distinguished principally on the basis of their tritium label and aquifer response characteristics. Almost all basin waters (including deep ground water) fall close to the meteoric line of hydrogen/oxygen isotope composition, and this rules out a juvenile origin or appreciable bedrock interaction.

  11. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages.

  12. Recharge mixing in a complex distributary spring system in the Missouri Ozarks, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Benjamin V.; Lerch, Robert N.; Groves, Christopher G.; Polk, Jason S.

    2015-05-01

    Toronto Springs is a complex distributary karst spring system with 11 perennial springs in the Missouri Ozarks, USA. Carroll Cave (CC) and Wet Glaize Creek (WG) were previously identified as principal recharge sources. This study (1) characterized physical and chemical properties of springs and recharge sources; (2) developed end-member mixing models to estimate contributing proportions of CC and WG; and (3) created a conceptual model for the system. Samples analyzed for major ions and specific conductivity, in conjunction with a rotating continuous monitoring program to identify statistically comparable baseflow conditions, were used to assess differences among the sites. Monitoring data showed that the springs differed depending upon recharge proportions. Cluster analysis of average ion concentrations supported the choice of CC and WG as mixing model end members. Results showed a range in the proportions of the recharge sources, from surface-water to groundwater dominated. A conceptual model suggests that a system of distinct conduits beneath the WG flood plain transmits water to the individual springs. These conduits controlled the end-member recharge contributions and water chemistry of the springs. Interpretation of relative proportions of recharge contributions extends existing knowledge of karst hydrologic geometry beyond that of point-to-point connections to revealing complex surface-water/groundwater mixing in heterogeneous distributary spring systems.

  13. Recharge and groundwater models: An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, W.

    2002-01-01

    Recharge is a fundamental component of groundwater systems, and in groundwater-modeling exercises recharge is either measured and specified or estimated during model calibration. The most appropriate way to represent recharge in a groundwater model depends upon both physical factors and study objectives. Where the water table is close to the land surface, as in humid climates or regions with low topographic relief, a constant-head boundary condition is used. Conversely, where the water table is relatively deep, as in drier climates or regions with high relief, a specified-flux boundary condition is used. In most modeling applications, mixed-type conditions are more effective, or a combination of the different types can be used. The relative distribution of recharge can be estimated from water-level data only, but flux observations must be incorporated in order to estimate rates of recharge. Flux measurements are based on either Darcian velocities (e.g., stream base-flow) or seepage velocities (e.g., groundwater age). In order to estimate the effective porosity independently, both types of flux measurements must be available. Recharge is often estimated more efficiently when automated inverse techniques are used. Other important applications are the delineation of areas contributing recharge to wells and the estimation of paleorecharge rates using carbon-14.

  14. Recharge and groundwater models: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Ward

    2002-02-01

    Recharge is a fundamental component of groundwater systems, and in groundwater-modeling exercises recharge is either measured and specified or estimated during model calibration. The most appropriate way to represent recharge in a groundwater model depends upon both physical factors and study objectives. Where the water table is close to the land surface, as in humid climates or regions with low topographic relief, a constant-head boundary condition is used. Conversely, where the water table is relatively deep, as in drier climates or regions with high relief, a specified-flux boundary condition is used. In most modeling applications, mixed-type conditions are more effective, or a combination of the different types can be used. The relative distribution of recharge can be estimated from water-level data only, but flux observations must be incorporated in order to estimate rates of recharge. Flux measurements are based on either Darcian velocities (e.g., stream baseflow) or seepage velocities (e.g., groundwater age). In order to estimate the effective porosity independently, both types of flux measurements must be available. Recharge is often estimated more efficiently when automated inverse techniques are used. Other important applications are the delineation of areas contributing recharge to wells and the estimation of paleorecharge rates using carbon-14.

  15. Architecture for robot intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, II, Richard Alan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a DBAM that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  16. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a 6 year recharge study in the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and field-measured data. The results of the statistical analysis reveal that a typical recharge event in central Kansas lasts 5-7 days, out of which 3 or 4 days are precipitation days with total precipitation of ??? 83 mm. The maximum soil-profile water storage and the maximum groundwater level resulting from the recharge event exhibit the lowest coefficients of variation, whereas the amount of recharge exhibits the highest coefficient of variation. The yearly recharge in the Great Bend Prairie ranged from 0 to 177 mm with a mean of 56 mm. Most of the recharge events occur during the months of April, May, and June, which coincide with the months of highest precipitation in the region. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the most influential variables affecting recharge are, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation average maximum soil-profile water storage during the spring months, average shallowest depth to water table during the same period, and spring rainfall rate. Classification methods, whereby relatively homogeneous hydrologic-unit areas based on the four recharge-affecting variables are identified, were combined with a Geographic Information Systems (ARC/INFO) overlay analysis to derive an area-wide map of differing recharge regions. This recharge zonation is in excellent agreement with the field-site recharge values. The resulting area-weighted average annual recharge for the region is 36 mm. ?? 1992.

  17. Integrating Raster Based GIS with Land Use, Surface Soil and Rainfall Records for the Estimation of Groundwater Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C. H.; Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    In Taiwan, groundwater resource plays a vital role in regional water supply because the quantity of groundwater pumpage has exceeded 1/3 of the total quantity of water supply. However, without proper management of groundwater usage, series environmental impacts such as land subsidence and seawater intrusions have occurred. To achieve the goal of sustainable management of groundwater resource, an accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is required. This study proposes to integrate PCRaster with maps of land use and surface soil and rainfall records to determine the spatial and temporal variations of groundwater recharge. PCRaster is a kind of raster based GIS software and its scripting interface is easy to create a spatio-temporal recharge estimation model. In the first step, the map of land use is re-grouped into three categories, impermeable zones, permeable zones and water bodies. For impermeable zones, the recharge quantities are assumed as zeros. Two kinds of estimating equations, a rainfall-infiltration equation and a saturated recharge equation, are respectively used to calculate the recharges of permeable zones and water bodies. The map of surface soil is used to define the spatial distribution of soil parameters in two equations. The temporal records of rainfall define the temporal variable in the rainfall-infiltration equation. The study area is Pingtung Plain which is 1,229 km2 in southern of Taiwan. In the process of estimation, the size of cells is 20 meters by 20 meters. The horizontal of estimation is during 1999 to 2010. The accumulated recharge is about 20.11 billion m3. (1.67 m3/yr). The annual recharge in 2008 is 1.89 billion m3. The annual recharges vary from 1.3 to 2.1 billion m3 because of different hydrological conditions. The infiltrated recharge in May and November in 2008 respectively are 430 (22.73%) and 67 (3.53%) million m3.

  18. Enhancing the Efficiency of NATO Intelligence Under an ASG-I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    reforms, its member nations should create an Assistant Secretary General for Intelligence (ASG-I) to bridge the gap between competing civilian and...intelligence reforms, its member nations should create an Assistant Secretary General for Intelligence (ASG- I) to bridge the gap between competing ...nations should create an Assistant Secretary General for Intelligence (ASG-I) to bridge the gap between competing civilian and military intelligence

  19. Plant intelligence.

    PubMed

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  20. Plant intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  1. Novel rechargeable calcium phosphate dental nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Weir, Michael D.; Chow, Laurence C.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Chen, Jihua; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Calcium phosphate (CaP) composites with Ca and P ion release can remineralize tooth lesions and inhibit caries. But the ion release lasts only a few months. The objectives of this study were to develop rechargeable CaP dental composite for the first time, and investigate the Ca and P recharge and re-release of composites with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) to achieve long-term inhibition of caries. Methods Three NACP nanocomposites were fabricated with resin matrix of: (1) bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) at 1:1 mass ratio (referred to as BT group); (2) pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) at 1:1 ratio (PE group); (3) BisGMA, TEGDMA, and Bis[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] phosphate (BisMEP) at 2:1:1 ratio (BTM group). Each resin was filled with 20% NACP and 50% glass particles, and the composite was photo-cured. Specimens were tested for flexural strength and elastic modulus, Ca and P ion release, and Ca and P ion recharge and re-release. Results NACP nanocomposites had strengths 3-fold of, and elastic moduli similar to, commercial resin-modified glass ionomer controls. CaP ion recharge capability was the greatest for PE group, followed by BTM group, with BT group being the lowest (p < 0.05). For each recharge cycle, CaP re-release reached similarly high levels, showing that CaP re-release did not decrease with more recharge cycles. After six recharge/re-release cycles, NACP nanocomposites without further recharge had continuous CaP ion release for 42 d. Significance Novel rechargeable CaP composites achieved long-term and sustained Ca and P ion release. Rechargeable NACP nanocomposite is promising for caries-inhibiting restorations, and the Ca and P ion recharge and re-release method has wide applicability to dental composites, adhesives, cements and sealants to achieve long-term caries-inhibition. PMID:26743970

  2. Electrode materials for rechargeable battery

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Christopher; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2015-09-08

    A positive electrode is disclosed for a non-aqueous electrolyte lithium rechargeable cell or battery. The electrode comprises a lithium containing material of the formula Na.sub.yLi.sub.xNi.sub.zMn.sub.1-z-z'M.sub.z'O.sub.d, wherein M is a metal cation, x+y>1, 0

  3. Towards a rechargeable alcohol biobattery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addo, Paul K.; Arechederra, Robert L.; Minteer, Shelley D.

    This research focused on the transition of biofuel cell technology to rechargeable biobatteries. The bioanode compartment of the biobattery consisted of NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) immobilized into a carbon composite paste with butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) ionic liquid serving as the electrolyte. Ferrocene was added to shuttle electrons to/from the electrode surface/current collector. The bioanode catalyzed the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in discharge mode. This bioanode was coupled to a cathode that consisted of Prussian Blue in a carbon composite paste with Nafion 212 acting as the separator between the two compartments. The biobattery can be fabricated in a charged mode with ethanol and have an open circuit potential of 0.8 V in the original state prior to charging or in the discharged mode with acetaldehyde and have an open circuit potential of 0.05 V. After charging it has an open circuit potential of 1.2 V and a maximum power density of 13.0 μW cm -3 and a maximum current density of 35.0 μA cm -3, respectively. The stability and efficiency of the biobattery were studied by cycling continuously at a discharging current of 0.4 mA and the results obtained showed reasonable stability over 50 cycles. This is a new type of secondary battery inspired by the metabolic processes of the living cell, which is an effective energy conversion system.

  4. Artificial recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwer, Herman

    2002-02-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater is achieved by putting surface water in basins, furrows, ditches, or other facilities where it infiltrates into the soil and moves downward to recharge aquifers. Artificial recharge is increasingly used for short- or long-term underground storage, where it has several advantages over surface storage, and in water reuse. Artificial recharge requires permeable surface soils. Where these are not available, trenches or shafts in the unsaturated zone can be used, or water can be directly injected into aquifers through wells. To design a system for artificial recharge of groundwater, infiltration rates of the soil must be determined and the unsaturated zone between land surface and the aquifer must be checked for adequate permeability and absence of polluted areas. The aquifer should be sufficiently transmissive to avoid excessive buildup of groundwater mounds. Knowledge of these conditions requires field investigations and, if no fatal flaws are detected, test basins to predict system performance. Water-quality issues must be evaluated, especially with respect to formation of clogging layers on basin bottoms or other infiltration surfaces, and to geochemical reactions in the aquifer. Clogging layers are managed by desilting or other pretreatment of the water, and by remedial techniques in the infiltration system, such as drying, scraping, disking, ripping, or other tillage. Recharge wells should be pumped periodically to backwash clogging layers. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10040-001-0182-4.

  5. Artificial Intelligence,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PATTERN RECOGNITION, * ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , *TEXTBOOKS, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC, ROBOTS, PROBLEM SOLVING, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, GAME THEORY, NATURAL LANGUAGE, SELF ORGANIZING SYSTEMS.

  6. Intelligent Assistance without Artificial Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Software Objects 4 Ponur 2: Expeftmntal and Pub~c Databases 9 If -𔄁-7~~,- 5 - bnitefignit Assisftanc without Artficial Intel~lgencO ’WIL Kaiseirl...production-qlualty software eng**"eeringevimnmen that provide seemin~gly Intelligent assistance without equirling new breakthoughs In Al research. Themre...8217.cance of SMILF as an example of Intelligent assistance without artificial intelligence . * 2 . ~2 Aichlbtscmr S 1BEi Utended for use by small torns

  7. Inverse modeling and uncertainty analysis of potential groundwater recharge to the confined semi-fossil Ohangwena II Aquifer, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallner, Markus; Houben, Georg; Lohe, Christoph; Quinger, Martin; Himmelsbach, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The identification of potential recharge areas and estimation of recharge rates to the confined semi-fossil Ohangwena II Aquifer (KOH-2) is crucial for its future sustainable use. The KOH-2 is located within the endorheic transboundary Cuvelai-Etosha-Basin (CEB), shared by Angola and Namibia. The main objective was the development of a strategy to tackle the problem of data scarcity, which is a well-known problem in semi-arid regions. In a first step, conceptual geological cross sections were created to illustrate the possible geological setting of the system. Furthermore, groundwater travel times were estimated by simple hydraulic calculations. A two-dimensional numerical groundwater model was set up to analyze flow patterns and potential recharge zones. The model was optimized against local observations of hydraulic heads and groundwater age. The sensitivity of the model against different boundary conditions and internal structures was tested. Parameter uncertainty and recharge rates were estimated. Results indicate that groundwater recharge to the KOH-2 mainly occurs from the Angolan Highlands in the northeastern part of the CEB. The sensitivity of the groundwater model to different internal structures is relatively small in comparison to changing boundary conditions in the form of influent or effluent streams. Uncertainty analysis underlined previous results, indicating groundwater recharge originating from the Angolan Highlands. The estimated recharge rates are less than 1% of mean yearly precipitation, which are reasonable for semi-arid regions.

  8. Illusory Intelligences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2008-01-01

    Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences has had a huge influence on school education. But its credentials lack justification, as the first section of this paper shows via a detailed philosophical analysis of how the intelligences are identified. If we want to make sense of the theory, we need to turn from a philosophical to a historical…

  9. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  10. Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Linda C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A series of articles focuses on artificial intelligence research and development to enhance information systems and services. Topics discussed include knowledge base designs, expert system development tools, natural language processing, expert systems for reference services, and the role that artificial intelligence concepts should have in…

  11. Illusory Intelligences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John

    2008-01-01

    Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences has had a huge influence on school education. But its credentials lack justification, as the first section of this paper shows via a detailed philosophical analysis of how the intelligences are identified. If we want to make sense of the theory, we need to turn from a philosophical to a historical…

  12. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  13. Research on Intelligent Synthesis Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Lobeck, William E.

    2002-01-01

    Four research activities related to Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) have been performed under this grant. The four activities are: 1) non-deterministic approaches that incorporate technologies such as intelligent software agents, visual simulations and other ISE technologies; 2) virtual labs that leverage modeling, simulation and information technologies to create an immersive, highly interactive virtual environment tailored to the needs of researchers and learners; 3) advanced learning modules that incorporate advanced instructional, user interface and intelligent agent technologies; and 4) assessment and continuous improvement of engineering team effectiveness in distributed collaborative environments.

  14. Research on Intelligent Synthesis Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Loftin, R. Bowen

    2002-12-01

    Four research activities related to Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE) have been performed under this grant. The four activities are: 1) non-deterministic approaches that incorporate technologies such as intelligent software agents, visual simulations and other ISE technologies; 2) virtual labs that leverage modeling, simulation and information technologies to create an immersive, highly interactive virtual environment tailored to the needs of researchers and learners; 3) advanced learning modules that incorporate advanced instructional, user interface and intelligent agent technologies; and 4) assessment and continuous improvement of engineering team effectiveness in distributed collaborative environments.

  15. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  16. Creating Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, John

    Encouraging exploration and practice, this book offers hundreds of exercises and numerous tips covering every step involved in creating poetry. Each chapter is a self-contained unit offering an overview of material in the chapter, a definition of terms, and poetry examples from well-known authors designed to supplement the numerous exercises.…

  17. Enhanced recharge rates and altered recharge sensitivity to climate variability through subsurface heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Andreas; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Karst aquifers in Europe are an important source of fresh water contributing up to half of the total drinking water supply in some countries. Karstic groundwater recharge is one of the most important components of the water balance of karst systems as it feeds the karst aquifers. Presently available large-scale hydrological models do not consider karst heterogeneity adequately. Projections of current and potential future groundwater recharge of Europe's karst aquifers are therefore unclear. In this study we compare simulations of present (1991-2010) and future (2080-2099) recharge using two different models to simulate groundwater recharge processes. One model includes karst processes (subsurface heterogeneity, lateral flow and concentrated recharge), while the other is based on the conceptual understanding of common hydrological systems (homogeneous subsurface, saturation excess overland flow). Both models are driven by the bias-corrected 5 GCMs of the ISI-MIP project (RCP8.5). To further assess sensitivity of groundwater recharge to climate variability, we calculate the elasticity of recharge rates to annual precipitation, temperature and average intensity of rainfall events, which is the median change of recharge that corresponds to the median change of these climate variables within the present and future time period, respectively. Our model comparison shows that karst regions over Europe have enhanced recharge rates with greater inter-annual variability compared to those with more homogenous subsurface properties. Furthermore, the heterogeneous representation shows stronger elasticity concerning climate variability than the homogeneous subsurface representation. This difference tends to increase towards the future. Our results suggest that water management in regions with heterogeneous subsurface can expect a higher water availability than estimated by most of the current large-scale simulations, while measures should be taken to prepare for increasingly

  18. Estimated recharge rates at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.J.; Walters, T.B.

    1995-02-01

    The Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitors the distribution of contaminants in ground water at the Hanford Site for the U.S. Department of Energy. A subtask called {open_quotes}Water Budget at Hanford{close_quotes} was initiated in FY 1994. The objective of this subtask was to produce a defensible map of estimated recharge rates across the Hanford Site. Methods that have been used to estimate recharge rates at the Hanford Site include measurements (of drainage, water contents, and tracers) and computer modeling. For the simulations of 12 soil-vegetation combinations, the annual rates varied from 0.05 mm/yr for the Ephrata sandy loam with bunchgrass to 85.2 mm/yr for the same soil without vegetation. Water content data from the Grass Site in the 300 Area indicated that annual rates varied from 3.0 to 143.5 mm/yr during an 8-year period. The annual volume of estimated recharge was calculated to be 8.47 {times} 10{sup 9} L for the potential future Hanford Site (i.e., the portion of the current Site bounded by Highway 240 and the Columbia River). This total volume is similar to earlier estimates of natural recharge and is 2 to 10x higher than estimates of runoff and ground-water flow from higher elevations. Not only is the volume of natural recharge significant in comparison to other ground-water inputs, the distribution of estimated recharge is highly skewed to the disturbed sandy soils (i.e., the 200 Areas, where most contaminants originate). The lack of good estimates of the means and variances of the supporting data (i.e., the soil map, the vegetation/land use map, the model parameters) translates into large uncertainties in the recharge estimates. When combined, the significant quantity of estimated recharge, its high sensitivity to disturbance, and the unquantified uncertainty of the data and model parameters suggest that the defensibility of the recharge estimates should be improved.

  19. Groundwater Recharge in Sandy Shallow Water Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, F. H.; Shukla, S.

    2015-12-01

    In shallow table conditions, a disproportionate increase or decrease in water table in response to minor water input or drainage is observed. This increase happens because the capillary fringe of the shallow water table reaches up to or near the surface (Wieringermeer effect). Conventional methods of calculating recharge such as multiplying the actual specific yield with the water table fluctuations cannot be used for Wieringermeer effect situations. A method using water balance data and soil moisture at different depths in the lysimeters was developed to estimate recharge and upflux. The recharge results were used to develop the apparent specific yield (Sya), which could be used to calculate consequent recharge events from water table fluctuations data. The correlations between water table level changes and rainfall, seepage irrigation, drip irrigation, and drainage were analyzed. Correlations with rainfall, seepage irrigation, and drainage were satisfactory (R-square ranged from 0.46 to 0.97). Combining the water tables fluctuations relationships developed with Sya value will allow the prediction of recharge from rainfall and irrigation events without the need for soil moisture equipment.

  20. Transient, spatially varied groundwater recharge modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Kibreab Amare; Woodbury, Allan D.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to integrate field data and modeling tools in producing temporally and spatially varying groundwater recharge in a pilot watershed in North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using the Richards equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D), ArcGIS™, ROSETTA, in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture, and a long-term gridded climate data. The public version of HYDUS-1D and another version with detailed freezing and thawing module are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack, and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGIS™ to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8 mm/year. Previous studies in the Okanagan Basin used Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance without any attempt of model performance evaluation, notwithstanding its inherent limitations. Thus, climate change impact results from this previous study and similar others, such as Jyrkama and Sykes (2007), need to be interpreted with caution.

  1. Recharge to the surficial aquifer system in Lee and Hendry counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krulikas, R.K.; Giese, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    tidal areas and barrier islands, soils of the Everglades, and soils of sloughs and freshwater marshes were assigned values of 0 to 2.0 inches per year; lastly, soils of manmade areas were assigned values of 0.5 to 1.5 inches per year. Small isolated areas of high-rate recharge (greater than 10 inches per year) might exist in Lee and Hendry Counties, but the maximum rate calculated in this study was 9.0 inches per year. Despite low natural recharge rates, lowering of the water table through pumping or canalization could create a potential for induced recharge in excess of 10 inches per year in parts of Lee and Hendry Counties.

  2. Priority Intelligence Requirements: The Operational Vacuum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-16

    when to use the courage and competence of his sol er. to achieve the maximum effect desired. Intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IFB) is...base and cull the sheer number of soldiers producing intelligence. In order for this force structure to be effective , the soldiers would have to be...extensive security problems create massive bottlenecks in the dissemination of intellingence information .48 Today, we sport a tremendous intelligence

  3. Rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordesh, K.; Weissenbacher, M.

    The rechargeable alkaline manganese dioxide/zinc MnO 2/Zn) system, long established commercial as a primay battery, has reached a high level of performance as a secondary battery system. The operating principles are presented and the technological achievements are surveyed by referencing the recent publications and patent literature. A review is also given of the improvements obtained with newly formulated cathodes and anodes and specially designed batteries. Supported by modelling of the cathode and anode processes and by statistical evidence during cycling of parallel/series-connected modules, the envisioned performance of the next generation of these batteries is described. The possibility of extending the practical use of the improved rechargeable MnO 2/Zn system beyond the field of small electronics into the area of power tools, and even to kW-sized power sources, is demonstrated. Finally, the commercial development in comparison with other rechargeable battery systems is examined.

  4. Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Cook, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. Many different approaches exist for estimating recharge. This paper presents a review of methods that are based on groundwater-level data. The water-table fluctuation method may be the most widely used technique for estimating recharge; it requires knowledge of specific yield and changes in water levels over time. Advantages of this approach include its simplicity and an insensitivity to the mechanism by which water moves through the unsaturated zone. Uncertainty in estimates generated by this method relate to the limited accuracy with which specific yield can be determined and to the extent to which assumptions inherent in the method are valid. Other methods that use water levels (mostly based on the Darcy equation) are also described. The theory underlying the methods is explained. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate applications of the different methods.

  5. Recharge estimation for transient ground water modeling.

    PubMed

    Jyrkama, Mikko I; Sykes, Jon F; Normani, Stefano D

    2002-01-01

    Reliable ground water models require both an accurate physical representation of the system and appropriate boundary conditions. While physical attributes are generally considered static, boundary conditions, such as ground water recharge rates, can be highly variable in both space and time. A practical methodology incorporating the hydrologic model HELP3 in conjunction with a geographic information system was developed to generate a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition for ground water modeling. The approach uses daily precipitation and temperature records in addition to land use/land cover and soils data. The importance of the method in transient ground water modeling is demonstrated by applying it to a MODFLOW modeling study in New Jersey. In addition to improved model calibration, the results from the study clearly indicate the importance of using a physically based and highly detailed recharge boundary condition in ground water quality modeling, where the detailed knowledge of the evolution of the ground water flowpaths is imperative. The simulated water table is within 0.5 m of the observed values using the method, while the water levels can differ by as much as 2 m using uniform recharge conditions. The results also show that the combination of temperature and precipitation plays an important role in the amount and timing of recharge in cooler climates. A sensitivity analysis further reveals that increasing the leaf area index, the evaporative zone depth, or the curve number in the model will result in decreased recharge rates over time, with the curve number having the greatest impact.

  6. Groundwater recharge from point to catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Di Ciacca, Antoine; Laloy, Eric; Jacques, Diederik

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is a challenging task as only a few devices (if any) can measure it directly. In this study, we discuss how groundwater recharge can be calculated at different temporal and spatial scales in the Kleine Nete catchment (Belgium). A small monitoring network is being installed, that is aimed to monitor the changes in dominant processes and to address data availability as one goes from the point to the catchment scale. At the point scale, groundwater recharge is estimated using inversion of soil moisture and/or water potential data and stable isotope concentrations (Koeniger et al. 2015). At the plot scale, it is proposed to monitor the discharge of a small drainage ditch in order to calculate the field groundwater recharge. Electrical conductivity measurements are necessary to separate shallow from deeper groundwater contribution to the ditch discharge (see Di Ciacca et al. poster in session HS8.3.4). At this scale, two or three-dimensional process-based vadose zone models will be used to model subsurface flow. At the catchment scale though, using a mechanistic, process-based model to estimate groundwater recharge is debatable (because of, e.g., the presence of numerous drainage ditches, mixed land use pixels, etc.). We therefore investigate to which extent various types of surrogate models can be used to make the necessary upscaling from the plot scale to the scale of the whole Kleine Nete catchment. Ref. Koeniger P, Gaj M, Beyer M, Himmelsbach T (2015) Review on soil water isotope based groundwater recharge estimations. Hydrological Processes, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.10775

  7. Enhanced groundwater recharge rates and altered recharge sensitivity to climate variability through subsurface heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Andreas; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-03-14

    Our environment is heterogeneous. In hydrological sciences, the heterogeneity of subsurface properties, such as hydraulic conductivities or porosities, exerts an important control on water balance. This notably includes groundwater recharge, which is an important variable for efficient and sustainable groundwater resources management. Current large-scale hydrological models do not adequately consider this subsurface heterogeneity. Here we show that regions with strong subsurface heterogeneity have enhanced present and future recharge rates due to a different sensitivity of recharge to climate variability compared with regions with homogeneous subsurface properties. Our study domain comprises the carbonate rock regions of Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East, which cover ∼25% of the total land area. We compare the simulations of two large-scale hydrological models, one of them accounting for subsurface heterogeneity. Carbonate rock regions strongly exhibit "karstification," which is known to produce particularly strong subsurface heterogeneity. Aquifers from these regions contribute up to half of the drinking water supply for some European countries. Our results suggest that water management for these regions cannot rely on most of the presently available projections of groundwater recharge because spatially variable storages and spatial concentration of recharge result in actual recharge rates that are up to four times larger for present conditions and changes up to five times larger for potential future conditions than previously estimated. These differences in recharge rates for strongly heterogeneous regions suggest a need for groundwater management strategies that are adapted to the fast transit of water from the surface to the aquifers.

  8. The recharge process in alluvial strip aquifers in arid Namibia and implication for artificial recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Diganta; Xu, Yongxin

    2016-10-01

    Alluvial strip aquifers associated with ephemeral rivers are important groundwater supply sources that sustain numerous settlements and ecological systems in arid Namibia. More than 70 % of the population in the nation's western and southern regions depend on alluvial aquifers associated with ephemeral rivers. Under natural conditions, recharge occurs through infiltration during flood events. Due to the characteristic spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in arid regions, recharge is irregular making the aquifers challenging to manage sustainably and they are often overexploited. This condition is likely to become more acute with increasing water demand and climate change, and artificial recharge has been projected as the apparent means of increasing reliability of supply. The article explores, through a case study and numerical simulation, the processes controlling infiltration, significance of surface water and groundwater losses, and possible artificial recharge options. It is concluded that recharge processes in arid alluvial aquifers differ significantly from those processes in subhumid systems and viability of artificial recharge requires assessment through an understanding of the natural recharge process and losses from the aquifer. It is also established that in arid-region catchments, infiltration through the streambed occurs at rates dependent on factors such as antecedent conditions, flow rate, flow duration, channel morphology, and sediment texture and composition. The study provides an important reference for sustainable management of alluvial aquifer systems in similar regions.

  9. Solar recharging system for hearing aid cells.

    PubMed

    Gòmez Estancona, N; Tena, A G; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, L; Muñiz, L; Aristimuño, D; Unanue, J M; Torca, J; Urruticoechea, A

    1994-09-01

    We present a solar recharging system for nickel-cadmium cells of interest in areas where batteries for hearing aids are difficult to obtain. The charger has sun cells at the top. Luminous energy is converted into electrical energy, during the day and also at night if there is moonlight. The cost of the charger and hearing aid is very low at 35 US$. The use of solar recharging for hearing aids would be useful in alleviating the problems of deafness in parts of developing countries where there is no electricity.

  10. Improved Separators For Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David; Surampudi, Subbarao; Huang, Chen-Kuo; Halpert, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    Improved pairs of separators proposed for use in rechargeable lithium cells operating at ambient temperature. Block growth of lithium dendrites and help prevent short circuits. Each cell contains one separator made of microporous polypropylene placed next to anode, and one separator made of microporous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) next to cathode. Separators increase cycle lives of secondary lithium cells. Cells to which concept applicable those of Li/TiS(2), Li/NbSe(3), Li/CoO(2), Li/MoS(2), Li/VO(x), and Li/MnO(2) chemical systems. Advantageous in spacecraft, military, communications, automotive, and other applications in which high energy density and rechargeability needed.

  11. Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döll, P.; Fiedler, K.

    2007-11-01

    Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps). The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961-1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3/(capita yr) for Egypt to more than 1 million m3

  12. Global-scale modeling of groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döll, P.; Fiedler, K.

    2008-05-01

    Long-term average groundwater recharge, which is equivalent to renewable groundwater resources, is the major limiting factor for the sustainable use of groundwater. Compared to surface water resources, groundwater resources are more protected from pollution, and their use is less restricted by seasonal and inter-annual flow variations. To support water management in a globalized world, it is necessary to estimate groundwater recharge at the global scale. Here, we present a best estimate of global-scale long-term average diffuse groundwater recharge (i.e. renewable groundwater resources) that has been calculated by the most recent version of the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model WGHM (spatial resolution of 0.5° by 0.5°, daily time steps). The estimate was obtained using two state-of-the-art global data sets of gridded observed precipitation that we corrected for measurement errors, which also allowed to quantify the uncertainty due to these equally uncertain data sets. The standard WGHM groundwater recharge algorithm was modified for semi-arid and arid regions, based on independent estimates of diffuse groundwater recharge, which lead to an unbiased estimation of groundwater recharge in these regions. WGHM was tuned against observed long-term average river discharge at 1235 gauging stations by adjusting, individually for each basin, the partitioning of precipitation into evapotranspiration and total runoff. We estimate that global groundwater recharge was 12 666 km3/yr for the climate normal 1961-1990, i.e. 32% of total renewable water resources. In semi-arid and arid regions, mountainous regions, permafrost regions and in the Asian Monsoon region, groundwater recharge accounts for a lower fraction of total runoff, which makes these regions particularly vulnerable to seasonal and inter-annual precipitation variability and water pollution. Average per-capita renewable groundwater resources of countries vary between 8 m3/(capita yr) for Egypt to more than 1 million m3

  13. Karst and artificial recharge: Theoretical and practical problems. A preliminary approach to artificial recharge assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Walid; Pistre, Séverin; Kneppers, Angeline; Bakalowicz, Michel; Najem, Wajdi

    2011-10-01

    SummaryManaged Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is an emerging sustainable technique that has already generated successful results and is expected to solve many water resource problems, especially in semi-arid and arid zones. It is of great interest for karst aquifers that currently supply 20-25% of the world's potable water, particularly in Mediterranean countries. However, the high heterogeneity in karst aquifers is too complex to be able to locate and describe them simply via field observations. Hence, as compared to projects in porous media, MAR is still marginal in karst aquifers. Accordingly, the present work presents a conceptual methodology for Aquifer Rechargeability Assessment in Karst - referred to as ARAK. The methodology was developed noting that artificial recharge in karst aquifers is considered an improbable challenge to solve since karst conduits may drain off recharge water without any significant storage, or recharge water may not be able to infiltrate. The aim of the ARAK method is to determine the ability of a given karst aquifer to be artificially recharged and managed, and the best sites for implementing artificial recharge from the surface. ARAK is based on multi-criteria indexation analysis modeled on karst vulnerability assessment methods. ARAK depends on four independent criteria, i.e. Epikarst, Rock, Infiltration and Karst. After dividing the karst domain into grids, these criteria are indexed using geological and topographic maps refined by field observations. ARAK applies a linear formula that computes the intrinsic rechargeability index based on the indexed map for every criterion, coupled with its attributed weighting rate. This index indicates the aptitude for recharging a given karst aquifer, as determined by studying its probability first on a regional scale for the whole karst aquifer, and then by characterizing the most favorable sites. Subsequently, for the selected sites, a technical and economic feasibility factor is applied, weighted

  14. Estimating Monetized Benefits of Groundwater Recharge from Stormwater Retention Practices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of the study is to inform valuation of groundwater recharge from stormwater retention in areas projected for new development and redevelopment. This study examined a simplified methodology for estimating recharge volume.

  15. REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 73 NIST REFLEAK: NIST Leak/Recharge Simulation Program for Refrigerant Mixtures (PC database for purchase)   REFLEAK estimates composition changes of zeotropic mixtures in leak and recharge processes.

  16. Musical Intelligence and the Benefits of Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Richard; Davidson, Lyle

    1996-01-01

    The multiple-intelligences perspective underlines the need to expand the musical intelligence concept and stress appreciation over performance. Music should be part of the curriculum. Successful music creates a more satisfied student body. Musical intelligence requires frequent instruction and clear instructional goals. It is not developed through…

  17. Musical Intelligence and the Benefits of Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Richard; Davidson, Lyle

    1996-01-01

    The multiple-intelligences perspective underlines the need to expand the musical intelligence concept and stress appreciation over performance. Music should be part of the curriculum. Successful music creates a more satisfied student body. Musical intelligence requires frequent instruction and clear instructional goals. It is not developed through…

  18. Emerging systems and machine intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Glasgow, J.C. II.

    1989-01-01

    A theory of mind or intelligence that derives from elements of philosophical, biological, linguistic, and psychological thought as well as of physics and information theory is presented. The hypothesis is defended that intelligence is not a thing but a composite of activities and attributes that must be described in terms of the evolution and interactions of systems, emerging into the environments in which they are embedded. It is proposed that a machine intelligence that emulates human intelligence must conform to certain restrictions that derive from accepting this hypothesis. In particular an implication is that for machine intelligence to be accepted as human-like intelligence it must be produced by a machine that functions in a manner substantially similar to a man and that interacts, grows or learns in and with an environment similar to that in which a man grows and learns. It is proposed that it should be possible to create machines and programs capable of this and that they can achieve intelligence with a large, but not arbitrarily large, degree of human-like characteristics. One system (of many possible systems), in development, based on grammars, and that satisfies some of those requirements is described. It consists of an artificial environment in which a grammar like program based on augmented transition networks, interacts with a human teacher. The purpose of KARA is to learn about the environment by being told and by imitation.

  19. Recharging Our Sense of Idealism: Concluding Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Michael; Dollarhide, Colette T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors aim to recharge one's sense of idealism. They argue that idealism is the Vitamin C that sustains one's commitment to implementing humanistic principles and social justice practices in the work of counselors and educators. The idealism that characterizes counselors and educators who are humanistic and social justice…

  20. Design considerations for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Huang, C.-K.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, Gerald

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion of design considerations for rechargable lithium batteries. The objective is to determine the influence of cell design parameters on the performance of Li-TiS2 cells. Topics covered include cell baseline design and testing, cell design and testing, cell design parameters studies, and cell cycling performance.

  1. Recharging Our Sense of Idealism: Concluding Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Andrea, Michael; Dollarhide, Colette T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors aim to recharge one's sense of idealism. They argue that idealism is the Vitamin C that sustains one's commitment to implementing humanistic principles and social justice practices in the work of counselors and educators. The idealism that characterizes counselors and educators who are humanistic and social justice…

  2. All inorganic ambient temperature rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, H. C.; Dey, A. N.; Schlaikjer, C.; Foster, D.; Kallianidis, M.

    Research and development was carried out on ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium batteries with inorganic SO2 electrolytes. The following solutes in SO2 were studied: tetrachloroaluminates, LiAlCl4, Li2B10Cl10, and LiGaCl4. Copper chloride (CuCl2) was used as one of the electrode materials.

  3. Rechargeable solid polymer electrolyte battery cell

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terji

    1985-01-01

    A rechargeable battery cell comprising first and second electrodes sandwiching a solid polymer electrolyte comprising a layer of a polymer blend of a highly conductive polymer and a solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said polymer blend and a layer of dry solid polymer electrolyte adjacent said layer of polymer blend and said second electrode.

  4. Alloys of clathrate allotropes for rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chan, Candace K; Miller, Michael A; Chan, Kwai S

    2014-12-09

    The present disclosure is directed at an electrode for a battery wherein the electrode comprises clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin. In method form, the present disclosure is directed at methods of forming clathrate alloys of silicon, germanium or tin which methods lead to the formation of empty cage structures suitable for use as electrodes in rechargeable type batteries.

  5. Anode for rechargeable ambient temperature lithium cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ambient room temperature, high density, rechargeable lithium battery includes a Li(x)Mg2Si negative anode which intercalates lithium to form a single crystalline phase when x is up to 1.0 and an amorphous phase when x is from 1 to 2.0. The electrode has good reversibility and mechanical strength after cycling.

  6. Application potential of rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, H.F.; Bramhall, P.J.

    1983-10-01

    Rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V/sub 0/ /sub 5/S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes were investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). Current densities and capacities as a function of temperature, cathode utilization efficiencies versus cycle life, and shelf lives were determined. The state of charge could be related to open circuit voltages after partial discharge. The potential of the system for communication applications is discussed. Recent advances in rechargeable lithium batteries were mainly due to the discovery of stable, cyclic ether electrolyte solvents (1) and to the use of rechargeable cathode materials (2). The practical usefulness of rechargeable lithium cells with Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ and MoO/sub 3/ cathodes was investigated in the temperature range of -30/sup 0/C to +25/sup 0/C. The electrolyte was mainly 1.5M LiAsF/sub 6/ in 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran with tetrahydrofuran (50:50 V percent). The two cathode materials were chosen because Cr /SUB 0.5/ V /SUB 0.5/ S/sub 2/ resembles TiS/sub 2/ in capacity and cycling behavior and MoO/sub 3/ is a low cost cathode material of interest.

  7. Anodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Xu, Wu; Lu, Dongping; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we will review the recent developments on the protection of Li metal anode in Li-S batteries. Various strategies used to minimize the corrosion of Li anode and reducing its impedance increase will be analyzed. Other potential anodes used in sulfur based rechargeable batteries will also be discussed.

  8. Using environmental tracers and transient hydraulic heads to estimate groundwater recharge and conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdal, Daniel; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2017-04-01

    Regional groundwater flow strongly depends on groundwater recharge and hydraulic conductivity. While conductivity is a spatially variable field, recharge can vary in both space and time. None of the two fields can be reliably observed on larger scales, and their estimation from other sparse data sets is an open topic. Further, common hydraulic-head observations may not suffice to constrain both fields simultaneously. In the current work we use the Ensemble Kalman filter to estimate spatially variable conductivity, spatiotemporally variable recharge and porosity for a synthetic phreatic aquifer. We use transient hydraulic-head and one spatially distributed set of environmental tracer observations to constrain the estimation. As environmental tracers generally reside for a long time in an aquifer, they require long simulation times and carries a long memory that makes them highly unsuitable for use in a sequential framework. Therefore, in this work we use the environmental tracer information to precondition the initial ensemble of recharge and conductivities, before starting the sequential filter. Thereby, we aim at improving the performance of the sequential filter by limiting the range of the recharge to values similar to the long-term annual recharge means and by creating an initial ensemble of conductivities that show similar pattern and values to the true field. The sequential filter is then used to further improve the parameters and to estimate the short term temporal behavior as well as the temporally evolving head field needed for short term predictions within the aquifer. For a virtual reality covering a subsection of the river Neckar it is shown that the use of environmental tracers can improve the performance of the filter. Results using the EnKF with and without this preconditioned initial ensemble are evaluated and discussed.

  9. Mountain-Block Recharge in the Santo Tomas Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, W. M.; Kretzschmar, T.

    2009-12-01

    Mountain block recharge (MBR) to adjacent basin aquifers can be a significant source of groundwater in arid and semi-arid regions. Unfortunately, geologic complexities within the mountain block often limit our understanding of this indirect form of recharge. Secondary permeability, resulting from faults and fractures, allows rainwater to infiltrate crystalline mountain rock, ultimately recharging the basin aquifer. Therefore, it is essential to consider mountain block geological features, especially faults, in recharge studies. We attempt to better understand MBR by creating a detailed fracture-trace map and by sampling springs and groundwater throughout the Santo Tomas valley, located in Northern Baja California, Mexico. Bounded by active faults, the valley is heavily fractured. These fractures enable fluid flow within the mountain block. Stable isotope (δ18O and δ2H) data show two distinct types of spring water within the watershed, possibly representing local and regional flow paths. Thermal springs, believed to be regional flow, display a -1.9‰ δ18O depletion when compared to all other spring water, indicative of recharge from higher elevations or older waters; both of the latter would be less affected under local drought conditions. This distinct isotopic signal was found 15 km downstream in the alluvial aquifer, indicating a significant amount of water is recharging the basin aquifer via the mountain block along this flow regime. A quantitative permeability value for the faults and fracture zones is difficult to attain due to their heterogeneous nature. However, the thermal system and most cold-water springs surface along active faults, which appear to transmit more water than undifferentiated fractures. Stable isotope (O and H) data. An isotopic distinction can be seen between the hot and cold springs within the watershed. Note that all the spring samples are taken between 400 - 550 m elevation, which includes the hot springs.

  10. Natural vs. artificial groundwater recharge, quantification through inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, H.; Berndtsson, R.; Kompani-Zare, M.; Persson, M.

    2013-02-01

    Estimating the change in groundwater recharge from an introduced artificial recharge system is important in order to evaluate future water availability. This paper presents an inverse modeling approach to quantify the recharge contribution from both an ephemeral river channel and an introduced artificial recharge system based on floodwater spreading in arid Iran. The study used the MODFLOW-2000 to estimate recharge for both steady- and unsteady-state conditions. The model was calibrated and verified based on the observed hydraulic head in observation wells and model precision, uncertainty, and model sensitivity were analyzed in all modeling steps. The results showed that in a normal year without extreme events, the floodwater spreading system is the main contributor to recharge with 80% and the ephemeral river channel with 20% of total recharge in the studied area. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the river channel recharge estimation represents relatively more uncertainty in comparison to the artificial recharge zones. The model is also less sensitive to the river channel. The results show that by expanding the artificial recharge system, the recharge volume can be increased even for small flood events, while the recharge through the river channel increases only for major flood events.

  11. Natural vs. artificial groundwater recharge, quantification through inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, H.; Berndtsson, R.; Kompani-Zare, M.; Persson, M.

    2012-08-01

    Estimating the change in groundwater recharge from an introduced artificial recharge system is important in order to evaluate future water availability. This paper presents an inverse modeling approach to quantify the recharge contribution from both an ephemeral river channel and an introduced artificial recharge system based on floodwater spreading in arid Iran. The study used the MODFLOW-2000 to estimate recharge for both steady and unsteady-state conditions. The model was calibrated and verified based on the observed hydraulic head in observation wells and model precision, uncertainty, and model sensitivity were analyzed in all modeling steps. The results showed that in a normal year without extreme events the floodwater spreading system is the main contributor to recharge with 80% and the ephemeral river channel with 20% of total recharge in the studied area. Uncertainty analysis revealed that the river channel recharge estimation represents relatively more uncertainty in comparison to the artificial recharge zones. The model is also less sensitive to the river channel. The results show that by expanding the artificial recharge system the recharge volume can be increased even for small flood events while the recharge through the river channel increases only for major flood events.

  12. Estimating recharge rates with analytic element models and parameter estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dripps, W.R.; Hunt, R.J.; Anderson, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge is usually a prerequisite for effective ground water flow modeling. In this study, an analytic element (AE) code (GFLOW) was used with a nonlinear parameter estimation code (UCODE) to quantify the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge using measured base flows as calibration targets. The ease and flexibility of AE model construction and evaluation make this approach well suited for recharge estimation. An AE flow model of an undeveloped watershed in northern Wisconsin was optimized to match median annual base flows at four stream gages for 1996 to 2000 to demonstrate the approach. Initial optimizations that assumed a constant distributed recharge rate provided good matches (within 5%) to most of the annual base flow estimates, but discrepancies of >12% at certain gages suggested that a single value of recharge for the entire watershed is inappropriate. Subsequent optimizations that allowed for spatially distributed recharge zones based on the distribution of vegetation types improved the fit and confirmed that vegetation can influence spatial recharge variability in this watershed. Temporally, the annual recharge values varied >2.5-fold between 1996 and 2000 during which there was an observed 1.7-fold difference in annual precipitation, underscoring the influence of nonclimatic factors on interannual recharge variability for regional flow modeling. The final recharge values compared favorably with more labor-intensive field measurements of recharge and results from studies, supporting the utility of using linked AE-parameter estimation codes for recharge estimation. Copyright ?? 2005 The Author(s).

  13. Regional Analysis of Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling analysis of runoff and ground-water recharge for the arid and semiarid southwestern United States was performed to investigate the interactions of climate and other controlling factors and to place the eight study-site investigations into a regional context. A distributed-parameter water-balance model (the Basin Characterization Model, or BCM) was used in the analysis. Data requirements of the BCM included digital representations of topography, soils, geology, and vegetation, together with monthly time-series of precipitation and air-temperature data. Time-series of potential evapotranspiration were generated by using a submodel for solar radiation, taking into account topographic shading, cloudiness, and vegetation density. Snowpack accumulation and melting were modeled using precipitation and air-temperature data. Amounts of water available for runoff and ground-water recharge were calculated on the basis of water-budget considerations by using measured- and generated-meteorologic time series together with estimates of soil-water storage and saturated hydraulic conductivity of subsoil geologic units. Calculations were made on a computational grid with a horizontal resolution of about 270 meters for the entire 1,033,840 square-kilometer study area. The modeling analysis was composed of 194 basins, including the eight basins containing ground-water recharge-site investigations. For each grid cell, the BCM computed monthly values of potential evapotranspiration, soil-water storage, in-place ground-water recharge, and runoff (potential stream flow). A fixed percentage of runoff was assumed to become recharge beneath channels operating at a finer resolution than the computational grid of the BCM. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1941 to 2004 were used to explore climatic variability in runoff and ground-water recharge. The selected approach provided a framework for classifying study-site basins with respect to climate and dominant recharge

  14. Applications of Parallelism to Current Algorithms for Intelligence Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-10

    ALGORITHMS FOR INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS Martha Ann Griesel * J. Steven Hughes Beth R. Moore 10 July 1987 National Aeronautics and Space Administration...INTELLIGENCE CENTER AND SCHOOL Software Analysis and Management System Applications of Parallelism to Current Algorithms for Intelligence Analysis 10 July 1987...rates and a growing diversity of IEW information sources create a void in current intelligence analysis methods. New ways are needed to quickly

  15. Effective use of business intelligence.

    PubMed

    Glaser, John; Stone, John

    2008-02-01

    Business intelligence--technology to manage and leverage an organization's data--can enhance healthcare organizations' financial and operational performance and quality of patient care. Effective BI management requires five preliminary steps: Establish business needs and value. Obtain buy-in from managers. Create an end-to-end vision. Establish BI governance. Implement specific roles for managing data quality.

  16. Intelligent Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research contract from Marshall Space Flight Center, Ultrafast, Inc. developed the world's first, high-temperature resistant, "intelligent" fastener. NASA needed a critical-fastening appraisal and validation of spacecraft segments that are coupled together in space. The intelligent-bolt technology deletes the self-defeating procedure of having to untighten the fastener, and thus upset the joint, during inspection and maintenance. The Ultrafast solution yielded an innovation that is likely to revolutionize manufacturing assembly, particularly the automobile industry. Other areas of application range from aircraft, computers and fork-lifts to offshore platforms, buildings, and bridges.

  17. Quantifying macropore recharge: Examples from a semi-arid area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, W.W.; Rainwater, K.A.; Thompson, D.B.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the significantly increased resolution of determining macropore recharge by combining physical, chemical, and isotopic methods of analysis. Techniques for quantifying macropore recharge were developed for both small-scale (1 to 10 km2) and regional-scale areas in and semi-arid areas. The Southern High Plains region of Texas and New Mexico was used as a representative field site to test these methods. Macropore recharge in small-scale areas is considered to be the difference between total recharge through floors of topographically dosed basins and interstitial recharge through the same area. On the regional scale, macropore recharge was considered to be the difference between regional average annual recharge and interstitial recharge measured in the unsaturated zone. Stable isotopic composition of ground water and precipitation was used us an independent estimate of macropore recharge on the regional scale. Results of this analysis suggest that in the Southern High Plains recharge flux through macropores is between 60 and 80 percent of the total 11 mm/y. Between 15 and 35 percent of the recharge occurs by interstitial recharge through the basin floors. Approximately 5 percent of the total recharge occurs as either interstitial or matrix recharge between the basin floors, representing approximately 95 percent of the area. The approach is applicable to other arid and semi-arid areas that focus rainfall into depressions or valleys.The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the significantly increased resolution of determining macropore recharge by combining physical, chemical, and isotopic methods of analysis. Techniques for quantifying macropore recharge were developed for both small-scale (1 to 10 km2) and regional-scale areas in arid and semi-arid areas. The Southern High Plains region of Texas and New Mexico was used as a representative field site to test these methods. Macropore recharge in small-scale areas is considered

  18. Enhanced groundwater recharge rates and altered recharge sensitivity to climate variability through subsurface heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Andreas; Gleeson, Tom; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    Our environment is heterogeneous. In hydrological sciences, the heterogeneity of subsurface properties, such as hydraulic conductivities or porosities, exerts an important control on water balance. This notably includes groundwater recharge, which is an important variable for efficient and sustainable groundwater resources management. Current large-scale hydrological models do not adequately consider this subsurface heterogeneity. Here we show that regions with strong subsurface heterogeneity have enhanced present and future recharge rates due to a different sensitivity of recharge to climate variability compared with regions with homogeneous subsurface properties. Our study domain comprises the carbonate rock regions of Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East, which cover ∼25% of the total land area. We compare the simulations of two large-scale hydrological models, one of them accounting for subsurface heterogeneity. Carbonate rock regions strongly exhibit “karstification,” which is known to produce particularly strong subsurface heterogeneity. Aquifers from these regions contribute up to half of the drinking water supply for some European countries. Our results suggest that water management for these regions cannot rely on most of the presently available projections of groundwater recharge because spatially variable storages and spatial concentration of recharge result in actual recharge rates that are up to four times larger for present conditions and changes up to five times larger for potential future conditions than previously estimated. These differences in recharge rates for strongly heterogeneous regions suggest a need for groundwater management strategies that are adapted to the fast transit of water from the surface to the aquifers. PMID:28242703

  19. Lithium rechargeable cell with a polymer cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-11-01

    Thin films of electropolymerized poly 3-methylthiophene (PMT) were used as a rechargeable cathode in Li(SO2)3AlCl4 electrolyte. Capacity was superior to porous carbon electrodes of like thickness. Pulse power levels of 2 W cm-2 were achieved, and high rate constant current pulses of four-second duration were reproducible over cycles. Cells could be recharged at potentials below 4.0 V, minimizing the formation of chlorine and thereby diminishing the capacity for corrosion. For a primary cell, greater discharge capacity was obtained with thionyl chloride and sulfuryl chloride electrolytes. Since PMT becomes electrically insulating in the reduced state, this could be used as a built-in safety feature to avert the hazards associated with abuse over-discharge.

  20. Anode-Free Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Adams, Brian D.; Zheng, Jianming; Xu, Wu; Henderson, Wesley A.; Wang, Jun; Bowden, Mark E.; Xu, Suochang; Hu, Jianzhi; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-08-18

    Anode-free rechargeable lithium (Li) batteries (AFLBs) are phenomenal energy storage systems due to their significantly increased energy density and reduced cost relative to Li-ion batteries, as well as ease of assembly owing to the absence of an active (reactive) anode material. However, significant challenges, including Li dendrite growth and low cycling Coulombic efficiency (CE), have prevented their practical implementation. Here, we report for the first time an anode-free rechargeable lithium battery based on a Cu||LiFePO4 cell structure with an extremely high CE (> 99.8%). This results from the utilization of both an exceptionally stable electrolyte and optimized charge/discharge protocols which minimize the corrosion of the in-situ formed Li metal anode.

  1. Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Hu, Jian Z.; Hu, Mary Y.; Liu, Tianbiao L.; Wei, Zhehao; Gu, Meng; Deng, Xuchu; Xu, Suochang; Han, Kee Sung; Wang, Jiulin; Nie, Zimin; Li, Guosheng; Zavadil, K.; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chong M.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Mueller, Karl T.; Persson, Kristin A.; Liu, Jun

    2014-12-28

    Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes present new opportunities for rechargeable magnesium batteries. However, few polymer electrolytes have demonstrated reversible Mg deposition/dissolution and those that have still contain volatile liquids such as tetrahydrofuran (THF). In this work, we report a nanocomposite polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), Mg(BH4)2 and MgO nanoparticles for rechargeable Mg batteries. Cells with this electrolyte have a high coulombic efficiency of 98% for Mg plating/stripping and a high cycling stability. Through combined experiment-modeling investigations, a correlation between improved solvation of the salt and solvent chain length, chelation and oxygen denticity is established. Following the same trend, the nanocomposite polymer electrolyte is inferred to enhance the dissociation of the salt Mg(BH4)2 and thus improve the electrochemical performance. The insights and design metrics thus obtained may be used in nanocomposite electrolytes for other multivalent systems.

  2. Recharge and Evapotranspiration Assessment In Kalahari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubczynski, M.; Obakeng, O.

    2006-12-01

    Sustainability of groundwater resources in Kalahri is constrained not only by recharge to the aquifers but also by discharge from them. Natural groundwater discharge takes place in 3 different ways, as aquifer groundwater outflow, direct tree root water uptake called groundwater transpiration (Tg) and as upward vapor-liquid water movement called groundwater evaporation (Eg), the latter two called groundwater evapotranspiration (ETg). The evaluation of ETg and recharge was the main goal of this study. Due to generally large depth of groundwater table in Kalahari, >60 m, Eg was assumed as negligible component of groundwater balances while in contrast Tg has been considered significant already since 90-ties. This was because of fragments of tree roots of Boscia albitrunca and Acacia erioloba found in borehole cores at depth of >60 m. Some of those roots reach groundwater, which allow them to remain green throughout dry seasons. This study was carried out using hydrological monitoring consisting of 10 multi-sensor towers and 17 groundwater monitoring points. Soil moisture movement was investigated by profile monitoring. The deepest profile was down to 76 m depth. The soil moisture results revealed complicated pattern characterized by a combination of diffuse and preferential flow. The actual evapotranspiration was estimated by the Bowen-ratio and temperature-profile methods which provided overestimated results as compared with rainfall so the recharge could not be deduced directly. Therefore recharge was derived indirectly, through 1D lumped parameter model that used rainfall and PET as input and heads as calibration reference. That model indicated recharge 0-50 mm/yr. For understanding tree impact upon groundwater recharge, tree sap velocity was monitored for 2 years using the Granier method on 41 trees of 9 species in 8 plots of 30x30m. The estimated plot transpirations showed large spatio-temporal variability, 3-71 mm/yr and occasionally exceeded recharge. In order

  3. Intelligent Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    Research has shown that differences among ordinary people in intelligence and personality depend equally on individual genetic variability and on differences in the environments that siblings experience within the same family, not differences in the neighborhood, school, and community environments. As of yet, there are no adequate theories to…

  4. Intelligent Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarr, Sandra

    Research has shown that differences among ordinary people in intelligence and personality depend equally on individual genetic variability and on differences in the environments that siblings experience within the same family, not differences in the neighborhood, school, and community environments. As of yet, there are no adequate theories to…

  5. Speech Intelligibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  6. Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Details the characteristics of Howard Gardner's seven multiple intelligences (MI): linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Discusses the implications of MI for instruction. Explores how students can study using their preferred learning style - visual, auditory, and physical study…

  7. Plant intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  8. Intelligence Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To make an academic study of matters inherently secret and potentially explosive seems a tall task. But a growing number of scholars are drawn to understanding spycraft. The interdisciplinary field of intelligence studies is mushrooming, as scholars trained in history, international studies, and political science examine such subjects as the…

  9. Intelligence Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To make an academic study of matters inherently secret and potentially explosive seems a tall task. But a growing number of scholars are drawn to understanding spycraft. The interdisciplinary field of intelligence studies is mushrooming, as scholars trained in history, international studies, and political science examine such subjects as the…

  10. Inorganic rechargeable non-aqueous cell

    DOEpatents

    Bowden, William L.; Dey, Arabinda N.

    1985-05-07

    A totally inorganic non-aqueous rechargeable cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode such as of lithium, a sulfur dioxide containing electrolyte and a discharging metal halide cathode, such as of CuCl.sub.2, CuBr.sub.2 and the like with said metal halide being substantially totally insoluble in SO.sub.2 and admixed with a conductive carbon material.

  11. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  12. Recharge pattern of contemporary glass ionomer restoratives.

    PubMed

    Arbabzadeh-Zavareh, Farahnaz; Gibbs, Tim; Meyers, Ian A; Bouzari, Majid; Mortazavi, Shiva; Walsh, Laurence J

    2012-03-01

    As glass ionomers have the ability to reload fluoride from outside sources, the aim was to compare the recharge pattern of six glass ionomer cements after exposure to fluoride. Fuji VII, Fuji IX, Riva Pink, Riva Bleach, Ketac Fil and Fuji IX Extra were investigated. The fluoride-containing materials used were tooth paste and mouth wash (Colgate). Specimens of each material (n=15) were immersed separately in deionized water for 59 days. Then the samples of each material were divided into three groups of five each. Two groups were recharged for 2, 20 and 60 min daily during three consecutive weekly intervals and then no treatment for one week. The third group was used as control. Fluoride release measurements (μg/cm(2)/day) were made in every 24 h. One-way and repeated measures analysis of variance tests were used. Tooth paste recharged materials showed higher level of recharge. On day 1, the difference of fluoride release from different treatment groups of different materials except for Fuji IX Extra were not significant (P>0.05). On days 7 and 14, the differences observed were significant (P<0.05) for all materials except for Fuji VII (tooth paste versus mouth wash) and Trial Fuji IX (mouth wash versus control) and on day 14 for Rvia Pink (mouth wash versus control). On days 21 and 28, the differences observed were significant for all the materials (P<0.05) except for Riva Pink (toothpaste versus mouth wash), Riva Bleach, Ketac Fil and Trial FujiI X (mouth wash versus control) on day 28. A time tabled schedule of application of fluoride-containing materials could help to achieve high fluoride release.

  13. Recharge pattern of contemporary glass ionomer restoratives

    PubMed Central

    Arbabzadeh-Zavareh, Farahnaz; Gibbs, Tim; Meyers, Ian A.; Bouzari, Majid; Mortazavi, Shiva; Walsh, Laurence J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As glass ionomers have the ability to reload fluoride from outside sources, the aim was to compare the recharge pattern of six glass ionomer cements after exposure to fluoride. Materials and Methods: Fuji VII, Fuji IX, Riva Pink, Riva Bleach, Ketac Fil and Fuji IX Extra were investigated. The fluoride-containing materials used were tooth paste and mouth wash (Colgate). Specimens of each material (n=15) were immersed separately in deionized water for 59 days. Then the samples of each material were divided into three groups of five each. Two groups were recharged for 2, 20 and 60 min daily during three consecutive weekly intervals and then no treatment for one week. The third group was used as control. Fluoride release measurements (μg/cm2/day) were made in every 24 h. One-way and repeated measures analysis of variance tests were used. Results: Tooth paste recharged materials showed higher level of recharge. On day 1, the difference of fluoride release from different treatment groups of different materials except for Fuji IX Extra were not significant (P>0.05). On days 7 and 14, the differences observed were significant (P<0.05) for all materials except for Fuji VII (tooth paste versus mouth wash) and Trial Fuji IX (mouth wash versus control) and on day 14 for Rvia Pink (mouth wash versus control). On days 21 and 28, the differences observed were significant for all the materials (P<0.05) except for Riva Pink (toothpaste versus mouth wash), Riva Bleach, Ketac Fil and Trial FujiI X (mouth wash versus control) on day 28. Conclusion: A time tabled schedule of application of fluoride-containing materials could help to achieve high fluoride release. PMID:22623928

  14. The rechargeable aluminum-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, N; Das, S K; Archer, L A

    2011-12-21

    We report a novel aluminium-ion rechargeable battery comprised of an electrolyte containing AlCl(3) in the ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, and a V(2)O(5) nano-wire cathode against an aluminium metal anode. The battery delivered a discharge capacity of 305 mAh g(-1) in the first cycle and 273 mAh g(-1) after 20 cycles, with very stable electrochemical behaviour.

  15. Ampere-Hour Meter For Rechargeable Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Schott, Timothy D.; Tcheng, Ping

    1993-01-01

    Low-power analog/digital electronic circuit meters discharge of storage battery in ampere-hours. By metering discharge, one obtains indication of state of charge of battery and avoids unnecessary recharging, maintaining capacity of battery and prolonging life. Because of its small size and low power consumption, useful in such applications as portable video cameras, communication equipment on boats, portable audio equipment, and portable medical equipment.

  16. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  17. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g-1 (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg-1), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  18. Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (16th): Intelligent Students Creating Intelligent Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-17

    Bob Jones University Abel 65 1:55 19 University of Akron Land ROOver 49 2:43 20 University of Delaware Warthog 38 0:45 21 City College of New York...844.33 14 University of Waterloo Q-BERT 843.67 15 University of Delaware Warthog 804.00 16 Missouri University of Science and Technology Stereo...1:17 6 University of Delaware Warthog 5 1:23 7 Pennsylvania State University Nittalion Battalion 5 2:06 8 University of Cincinnati Bearcat Cub 5 2

  19. Vowel intelligibility in classical singing.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Jean Westerman; Scherer, Ronald C

    2006-06-01

    Vowel intelligibility during singing is an important aspect of communication during performance. The intelligibility of isolated vowels sung by Western classically trained singers has been found to be relatively low, in fact, decreasing as pitch rises, and it is lower for women than for men. The lack of contextual cues significantly deteriorates vowel intelligibility. It was postulated in this study that the reduced intelligibility of isolated sung vowels may be partly from the vowels used by the singers in their daily vocalises. More specifically, if classically trained singers sang only a few American English vowels during their vocalises, their intelligibility for American English vowels would be less than for those classically trained singers who usually vocalize on most American English vowels. In this study, there were 21 subjects (15 women, 6 men), all Western classically trained performers as well as teachers of classical singing. They sang 11 words containing 11 different American English vowels, singing on two pitches a musical fifth apart. Subjects were divided into two groups, those who normally vocalize on 4, 5, or 6 vowels, and those who sing all 11 vowels during their daily vocalises. The sung words were cropped to isolate the vowels, and listening tapes were created. Two listening groups, four singing teachers and five speech-language pathologists, were asked to identify the vowels intended by the singers. Results suggest that singing fewer vowels during daily vocalises does not decrease intelligibility compared with singing the 11 American English vowels. Also, in general, vowel intelligibility was lower with the higher pitch, and vowels sung by the women were less intelligible than those sung by the men. Identification accuracy was about the same for the singing teacher listeners and the speech-language pathologist listeners except for the lower pitch, where the singing teachers were more accurate.

  20. Monitoring and modeling infiltration-recharge dynamics of managed aquifer recharge with desalinated seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganot, Yonatan; Holtzman, Ran; Weisbrod, Noam; Nitzan, Ido; Katz, Yoram; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We study the relation between surface infiltration and groundwater recharge during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with desalinated seawater in an infiltration pond, at the Menashe site that overlies the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. We monitor infiltration dynamics at multiple scales (up to the scale of the entire pond) by measuring the ponding depth, sediment water content and groundwater levels, using pressure sensors, single-ring infiltrometers, soil sensors, and observation wells. During a month (January 2015) of continuous intensive MAR (2.45 × 106 m3 discharged to a 10.7 ha area), groundwater level has risen by 17 m attaining full connection with the pond, while average infiltration rates declined by almost 2 orders of magnitude (from ˜ 11 to ˜ 0.4 m d-1). This reduction can be explained solely by the lithology of the unsaturated zone that includes relatively low-permeability sediments. Clogging processes at the pond-surface - abundant in many MAR operations - are negated by the high-quality desalinated seawater (turbidity ˜ 0.2 NTU, total dissolved solids ˜ 120 mg L-1) or negligible compared to the low-permeability layers. Recharge during infiltration was estimated reasonably well by simple analytical models, whereas a numerical model was used for estimating groundwater recharge after the end of infiltration. It was found that a calibrated numerical model with a one-dimensional representative sediment profile is able to capture MAR dynamics, including temporal reduction of infiltration rates, drainage and groundwater recharge. Measured infiltration rates of an independent MAR event (January 2016) fitted well to those calculated by the calibrated numerical model, showing the model validity. The successful quantification methodologies of the temporal groundwater recharge are useful for MAR practitioners and can serve as an input for groundwater flow models.

  1. Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries: Development of Ultra High Specific Energy Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Based on Protected Lithium Metal Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: PolyPlus is developing the world’s first commercially available rechargeable lithium-air (Li-Air) battery. Li-Air batteries are better than the Li-Ion batteries used in most EVs today because they breathe in air from the atmosphere for use as an active material in the battery, which greatly decreases its weight. Li-Air batteries also store nearly 700% as much energy as traditional Li-Ion batteries. A lighter battery would improve the range of EVs dramatically. Polyplus is on track to making a critical breakthrough: the first manufacturable protective membrane between its lithium–based negative electrode and the reaction chamber where it reacts with oxygen from the air. This gives the battery the unique ability to recharge by moving lithium in and out of the battery’s reaction chamber for storage until the battery needs to discharge once again. Until now, engineers had been unable to create the complex packaging and air-breathing components required to turn Li-Air batteries into rechargeable systems.

  2. Team B Intelligence Coups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gordon R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2003 Iraq prewar intelligence failure was not simply a case of the U.S. intelligence community providing flawed data to policy-makers. It also involved subversion of the competitive intelligence analysis process, where unofficial intelligence boutiques "stovepiped" misleading intelligence assessments directly to policy-makers and…

  3. Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neisser, Ulric; And Others

    1996-01-01

    As a response to recent public debate about the nature of intelligence, this article reviews the "state of the art" in the study of intelligence, exploring significant conceptualizations of intelligence, the use and interpretation of intelligence tests, racial or ethnic differences in intelligence, and major issues yet to be resolved.…

  4. Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    increases with the demands of near real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing...operating system providing actionable near-real- time intelligence to commanders for coalition synchronization and the requirement to protect national...real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing requirements across an ad hoc coalition

  5. Team B Intelligence Coups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gordon R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2003 Iraq prewar intelligence failure was not simply a case of the U.S. intelligence community providing flawed data to policy-makers. It also involved subversion of the competitive intelligence analysis process, where unofficial intelligence boutiques "stovepiped" misleading intelligence assessments directly to policy-makers and…

  6. Artificial Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, David R; Palacios-González, César; Harris, John

    2016-04-01

    It seems natural to think that the same prudential and ethical reasons for mutual respect and tolerance that one has vis-à-vis other human persons would hold toward newly encountered paradigmatic but nonhuman biological persons. One also tends to think that they would have similar reasons for treating we humans as creatures that count morally in our own right. This line of thought transcends biological boundaries-namely, with regard to artificially (super)intelligent persons-but is this a safe assumption? The issue concerns ultimate moral significance: the significance possessed by human persons, persons from other planets, and hypothetical nonorganic persons in the form of artificial intelligence (AI). This article investigates why our possible relations to AI persons could be more complicated than they first might appear, given that they might possess a radically different nature to us, to the point that civilized or peaceful coexistence in a determinate geographical space could be impossible to achieve.

  7. Recharge Data Package for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste 2001 Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Fayer; EM Murphy; JL Downs; FO Khan; CW Lindenmeier; BN Bjornstad

    2000-01-18

    time periods evaluated. The most important feature, the surface cover, is expected to be the modified RCRA Subtitle C design. This design uses a 1-m-thick silt loam layer above sand and gravel filter layers to create a capillary break. A 0.15-m-thick asphalt layer underlies the filter layers to function as a backup barrier and to promote lateral drainage. Cover sideslopes are expected to be constructed with 1V:10H slopes using sandy gravel. The recharge estimates for each scenario were derived from lysimeter and tracer data collected by the ILAW PA and other projects and from modeling analyses.

  8. Intelligent Tutor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA also seeks to advance American education by employing the technology utilization process to develop a computerized, artificial intelligence-based Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) to help high school and college physics students. The tutoring system is designed for use with the lecture and laboratory portions of a typical physics instructional program. Its importance lies in its ability to observe continually as a student develops problem solutions and to intervene when appropriate with assistance specifically directed at the student's difficulty and tailored to his skill level and learning style. ITS originated as a project of the Johnson Space Center (JSC). It is being developed by JSC's Software Technology Branch in cooperation with Dr. R. Bowen Loftin at the University of Houston-Downtown. Program is jointly sponsored by NASA and ACOT (Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow). Other organizations providing support include Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, the National Research Council, Pennzoil Products Company and the George R. Brown Foundation. The Physics I class of Clear Creek High School, League City, Texas are providing the classroom environment for test and evaluation of the system. The ITS is a spinoff product developed earlier to integrate artificial intelligence into training/tutoring systems for NASA astronauts flight controllers and engineers.

  9. Modelling overbank flood recharge at a continental scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doble, R.; Crosbie, R.; Peeters, L.; Joehnk, K.; Ticehurst, C.

    2014-04-01

    Accounting for groundwater recharge from overbank flooding is required to reduce uncertainty and error in river-loss terms and groundwater sustainable-yield calculations. However, continental- and global-scale models of surface water-groundwater interactions rarely include an explicit process to account for overbank flood recharge (OFR). This paper upscales previously derived analytical equations to a continental scale using national soil atlas data and satellite imagery of flood inundation, resulting in recharge maps for seven hydrologically distinct Australian catchments. Recharge for three of the catchments was validated against independent recharge estimates from bore hydrograph responses and one catchment was additionally validated against point-scale recharge modelling and catchment-scale change in groundwater storage. Flood recharge was predicted for four of the seven catchments modelled, but there was also unexplained recharge present from the satellite's flood inundation mapping data. At a catchment scale, recharge from overbank flooding was somewhat under-predicted using the analytical equations, but there was good confidence in the spatial patterns of flood recharge produced. Due to the scale of the input data, there were no significant relationships found when compared at a point scale. Satellite-derived flood inundation data and uncertainty in soil maps were the key limitations to the accuracy of the modelled recharge. Use of this method to model OFR was found to be appropriate at a catchment to continental scale, given appropriate data sources. The proportion of OFR was found to be at least 4% of total change in groundwater storage in one of the catchments for the period modelled, and at least 15% of the riparian recharge. Accounting for OFR is an important, but often overlooked, requirement for closing water balances in both the surface water and groundwater domains.

  10. Can We Mitigate Climate Extremes using Managed Aquifer Recharge: Case Studies California Central Valley and South-Central Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Faunt, C. C.; Pool, D. R.; Uhlman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Frequent long-term droughts interspersed with intense floods in the southwestern U.S. underscore the need to store more water to manage these climate extremes. Here we show how managed aquifer recharge can enhance drought resilience in the southwestern U.S. with ~ 70% of California under extreme drought and 75% of Arizona under moderate drought. Data on water sources, transportation, and users were compiled for managed aquifer recharge systems in the Central Valley and south-central Arizona. Groundwater depletion of 115 to 145 km3 in the 1900s created large subsurface reservoirs in thick alluvial basins in these regions. Large canals and aqueducts up to several 100 km long allow water to be imported from reservoirs, mostly in more humid regions. Imported water is either used instead of groundwater or is applied in surface spreading basins primarily during wet periods (≤1.3 km3/yr Central Valley, ≤0.7 km3/yr Arizona) and is extracted during droughts. The dominant water users include irrigators and municipalities both within and outside the managed aquifer recharge systems. Groundwater modeling indicates that recharge basins significantly increase groundwater storage in the Central Valley. Managed aquifer recharge systems significantly enhance drought resilience and increase sustainability of water resources in semiarid regions, complementing surface water reservoirs and conjunctive surface water/groundwater use by providing longer term storage.

  11. Assessing the Sensitivity of a Semi-arid Aquifer to the Quantity of Recharge and Evapotranspiration using a Seasonalized Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, K.; Maddock, T.; Meixner, T.; Mallakpour, I.

    2013-12-01

    The Upper San Pedro River basin aquifer in Southern Arizona has been modeled using MODFLOW several times, most recently by Goode and Maddock (2000) and Pool and Dickinson (2006). It is the last free-flowing river in Arizona and its riparian area serves as habitat for migrating birds and several endangered species. The current model improves upon previous models by switching from the Stream Package to the Streamflow Routing Package and adding a third season to represent the wet summer monsoon season, thereby creating a seasonalized steady-state oscillatory model. Recharge was seasonalized using an isotope-ratio method (Wahi et al, 2008), and maximum evapotranspiration (ET) was seasonalized according to estimates of riparian groundwater consumption by vegetation in the study area (Scott et al., 2005). The model was run with inputs of 80%, 100% and 120% of base values for recharge and maximum ET rates. This sensitivity analysis was done in order to assess the impact on river baseflow of the quantity of recharge and ET under a three-season recharge regime that reflects the natural system. Annual river baseflow was found to increase by 5.8% with each 20% increase in recharge, and to decrease by 10.5% with each 20% increase in ET. The majority of baseflow, 47%, occurred during the wet winter season (Oct-Feb). 35% occurred during the dry summer (Mar-Jun), and 18% during the wet summer monsoon season (Jul-Sept), when maximum ET rates peaked.

  12. Making Li-air batteries rechargeable: material challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yuyan; Ding, Fei; Xiao, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wu; Park, Seh Kyu; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Yong; Liu, Jun

    2013-02-25

    A Li-air battery could potentially provide three to five times higher energy density/specific energy than conventional batteries, thus enable the driving range of an electric vehicle comparable to a gasoline vehicle. However, making Li-air batteries rechargeable presents significant challenges, mostly related with materials. Herein, we discuss the key factors that influence the rechargeability of Li-air batteries with a focus on nonaqueous system. The status and materials challenges for nonaqueous rechargeable Li-air batteries are reviewed. These include electrolytes, cathode (electocatalysts), lithium metal anodes, and oxygen-selective membranes (oxygen supply from air). The perspective of rechargeable Li-air batteries is provided.

  13. Summary of groundwater-recharge estimates for Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart O. Reese,; Risser, Dennis W.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is water that infiltrates through the subsurface to the zone of saturation beneath the water table. Because recharge is a difficult parameter to quantify, it is typically estimated from measurements of other parameters like streamflow and precipitation. This report provides a general overview of processes affecting recharge in Pennsylvania and presents estimates of recharge rates from studies at various scales.The most common method for estimating recharge in Pennsylvania has been to estimate base flow from measurements of streamflow and assume that base flow (expressed in inches over the basin) approximates recharge. Statewide estimates of mean annual groundwater recharge were developed by relating base flow to basin characteristics of HUC10 watersheds (a fifth-level classification that uses 10 digits to define unique hydrologic units) using a regression equation. The regression analysis indicated that mean annual precipitation, average daily maximum temperature, percent of sand in soil, percent of carbonate rock in the watershed, and average stream-channel slope were significant factors in the explaining the variability of groundwater recharge across the Commonwealth.Several maps are included in this report to illustrate the principal factors affecting recharge and provide additional information about the spatial distribution of recharge in Pennsylvania. The maps portray the patterns of precipitation, temperature, prevailing winds across Pennsylvania’s varied physiography; illustrate the error associated with recharge estimates; and show the spatial variability of recharge as a percent of precipitation. National, statewide, regional, and local values of recharge, based on numerous studies, are compiled to allow comparison of estimates from various sources. Together these plates provide a synopsis of groundwater-recharge estimations and factors in Pennsylvania.Areas that receive the most recharge are typically those that get the most

  14. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  15. The Modification of Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinillos, Jose Luis

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the arguments supporting and opposing the idea that human intelligence can be improved. Research on the hereditary and environmental determinants of intelligence is examined. Problems in defining and measuring intelligence are discussed. (AM)

  16. An Intelligent Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Albert

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a research project that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help teach programing. Describes principles and implementation of the LISP Intelligent Tutoring System (LISPITS). Explains how the artificial intelligence technique was developed and possible future research. (MVL)

  17. An Intelligent Tutoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Albert

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a research project that uses artificial intelligence techniques to help teach programing. Describes principles and implementation of the LISP Intelligent Tutoring System (LISPITS). Explains how the artificial intelligence technique was developed and possible future research. (MVL)

  18. An ultrafast rechargeable aluminium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Chang; Gong, Ming; Lu, Bingan; Wu, Yingpeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Guan, Mingyun; Angell, Michael; Chen, Changxin; Yang, Jiang; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2015-04-16

    The development of new rechargeable battery systems could fuel various energy applications, from personal electronics to grid storage. Rechargeable aluminium-based batteries offer the possibilities of low cost and low flammability, together with three-electron-redox properties leading to high capacity. However, research efforts over the past 30 years have encountered numerous problems, such as cathode material disintegration, low cell discharge voltage (about 0.55 volts; ref. 5), capacitive behaviour without discharge voltage plateaus (1.1-0.2 volts or 1.8-0.8 volts) and insufficient cycle life (less than 100 cycles) with rapid capacity decay (by 26-85 per cent over 100 cycles). Here we present a rechargeable aluminium battery with high-rate capability that uses an aluminium metal anode and a three-dimensional graphitic-foam cathode. The battery operates through the electrochemical deposition and dissolution of aluminium at the anode, and intercalation/de-intercalation of chloroaluminate anions in the graphite, using a non-flammable ionic liquid electrolyte. The cell exhibits well-defined discharge voltage plateaus near 2 volts, a specific capacity of about 70 mA h g(-1) and a Coulombic efficiency of approximately 98 per cent. The cathode was found to enable fast anion diffusion and intercalation, affording charging times of around one minute with a current density of ~4,000 mA g(-1) (equivalent to ~3,000 W kg(-1)), and to withstand more than 7,500 cycles without capacity decay.

  19. Intelligent Design and Intelligent Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerman, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Good Evening, my name is Greg Jerman and for nearly a quarter century I have been performing failure analysis on NASA's aerospace hardware. During that time I had the distinct privilege of keeping the Space Shuttle flying for two thirds of its history. I have analyzed a wide variety of failed hardware from simple electrical cables to cryogenic fuel tanks to high temperature turbine blades. During this time I have found that for all the time we spend intelligently designing things, we need to be equally intelligent about understanding why things fail. The NASA Flight Director for Apollo 13, Gene Kranz, is best known for the expression "Failure is not an option." However, NASA history is filled with failures both large and small, so it might be more accurate to say failure is inevitable. It is how we react and learn from our failures that makes the difference.

  20. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  1. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

  2. Evolution of strategies for modern rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, John B

    2013-05-21

    This Account provides perspective on the evolution of the rechargeable battery and summarizes innovations in the development of these devices. Initially, I describe the components of a conventional rechargeable battery along with the engineering parameters that define the figures of merit for a single cell. In 1967, researchers discovered fast Na(+) conduction at 300 K in Na β,β''-alumina. Since then battery technology has evolved from a strongly acidic or alkaline aqueous electrolyte with protons as the working ion to an organic liquid-carbonate electrolyte with Li(+) as the working ion in a Li-ion battery. The invention of the sodium-sulfur and Zebra batteries stimulated consideration of framework structures as crystalline hosts for mobile guest alkali ions, and the jump in oil prices in the early 1970s prompted researchers to consider alternative room-temperature batteries with aprotic liquid electrolytes. With the existence of Li primary cells and ongoing research on the chemistry of reversible Li intercalation into layered chalcogenides, industry invested in the production of a Li/TiS2 rechargeable cell. However, on repeated recharge, dendrites grew across the electrolyte from the anode to the cathode, leading to dangerous short-circuits in the cell in the presence of the flammable organic liquid electrolyte. Because lowering the voltage of the anode would prevent cells with layered-chalcogenide cathodes from competing with cells that had an aqueous electrolyte, researchers quickly abandoned this effort. However, once it was realized that an oxide cathode could offer a larger voltage versus lithium, researchers considered the extraction of Li from the layered LiMO2 oxides with M = Co or Ni. These oxide cathodes were fabricated in a discharged state, and battery manufacturers could not conceive of assembling a cell with a discharged cathode. Meanwhile, exploration of Li intercalation into graphite showed that reversible Li insertion into carbon occurred

  3. Glossary of testing terminology for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Paul C.

    1988-10-01

    The Battery Test Working Task Force was formed in 1983 for the purpose of coordinating the evaluation of development rechargeable batteries by DOE-funded labs. The Task Force developed this glossary of testing terminology to improve the accuracy of communication and to permit meaningful comparisons of test results. It consists of a section of technical terms and a separate section of programmatic phrases and acronyms. The glossary emphasizes terms related to electric vehicle batteries due to the significant development and testing activities in this area.

  4. Porous silicon nanowires for lithium rechargeable batteries.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jung-Keun; Kim, Jongsoon; Lee, Hojun; Choi, Jaesuk; Choi, Min-Jae; Sim, Dong Min; Jung, Yeon Sik; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-10-25

    Porous silicon nanowire is fabricated by a simple electrospinning process combined with a magnesium reduction; this material is investigated for use as an anode material for lithium rechargeable batteries. We find that the porous silicon nanowire electrode from the simple and scalable method can deliver a high reversible capacity with an excellent cycle stability. The enhanced performance in terms of cycling stability is attributed to the facile accommodation of the volume change by the pores in the interconnect and the increased electronic conductivity due to a multi-level carbon coating during the fabrication process.

  5. Porous silicon nanowires for lithium rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jung-Keun; Kim, Jongsoon; Lee, Hojun; Choi, Jaesuk; Choi, Min-Jae; Sim, Dong Min; Jung, Yeon Sik; Kang, Kisuk

    2013-10-01

    Porous silicon nanowire is fabricated by a simple electrospinning process combined with a magnesium reduction; this material is investigated for use as an anode material for lithium rechargeable batteries. We find that the porous silicon nanowire electrode from the simple and scalable method can deliver a high reversible capacity with an excellent cycle stability. The enhanced performance in terms of cycling stability is attributed to the facile accommodation of the volume change by the pores in the interconnect and the increased electronic conductivity due to a multi-level carbon coating during the fabrication process.

  6. Organic Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-06-28

    This chapter will primarily focus on the advances made in recent years and specify the development of organic electrode materials for their applications in rechargeable lithium batteries, sodium batteries and redox flow batteries. Four various organic cathode materials, including conjugated carbonyl compounds, conducting polymers, organosulfides and free radical polymers, are introduced in terms of their electrochemical performances in these three battery systems. Fundamental issues related to the synthesis-structure-activity correlations, involved work principles in energy storage systems, and capacity fading mechanisms are also discussed.

  7. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    3SO 2 electrolyte. Surface treatments were carried out at 240"C using water (Cell 15) and thionyl chloride (Cell 16). Cathodes were placed in a Parr... LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL R.C. McDonald R. Vierra P. Harris M. Guentert F. Goebel C. Todino S. Hossain Yardney Technical Products, Inc. 82 Mechanic...61" INK rYPOT I AM 9al covmw 4 November 1991 Final Rpt: Sep 88 to Feb 91 ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL C: DAAL01-88-C-0849 R C

  8. Advanced Rechargeable Lithium Sulfur Dioxide Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-01

    electrolyte. Surface treatments were carried out at 2406C using water (Cell 15) and thionyl chloride (Cell 16). 3 Cathodes were placed in a Parr Bomb...Pawcatuck, CT 06379 94-02298 1425 Best Available Copy I ADVANCED RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM SULFUR DIOXIDE CELL I R.C. McDonald, P. Harris, F. Goebel, S. Hossain...Test Group 3 13 Test Group 4 22 Test Group 5 22 Test Group 6 24 Test Group 7 46 Test Group 8 52 Test Group 9 65 I CHEMICAL ANALYSIS 65 LITHIUM CYCLING

  9. Conceptualisation of groundwater recharge from the Wairau River, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Scott; Wöhling, Thomas; Davidson, Peter

    2016-04-01

    lateral direction than it can be recharged from above. We propose that this stratigraphic anisotropy can inherently create hydraulic a disconnection in a braided river environment. A numerical model of the Wairau Aquifer has been developed to test our conceptual understanding of river-aquifer exchange dynamics (Wöhling et al. 2015). The numerical model is only able to integrate and accurately simulate the variety of available observational types if disconnected conditions are simulated consistently over the majority of the recharge area. This confirms our hypothesis drawn from indirect observations. References Brunner, P, Cook, PG, & Simmons, CT, 2011. Disconnected surface water and groundwater: From theory to practice. Ground Water, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 460-467. Wöhling, T, Gosses, M, Troyer, J, Ede, M, Davidson, P, Wilson, S (2015). Towards modelling Wairau river - aquifer exchange flux dynamics: Data integration and upscaling. 2015 NZHS Conference, Hamilton, New Zealand.

  10. Crash test for groundwater recharge models: The effects of model complexity and calibration period on groundwater recharge predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, Christian; Von Freyberg, Jana; Schrimer, Maria

    2016-04-01

    An important question in recharge impact studies is how model choice, structure and calibration period affect recharge predictions. It is still unclear if a certain model type or structure is less affected by running the model on time periods with different hydrological conditions compared to the calibration period. This aspect, however, is crucial to ensure reliable predictions of groundwater recharge. In this study, we quantify and compare the effect of groundwater recharge model choice, model parametrization and calibration period in a systematic way. This analysis was possible thanks to a unique data set from a large-scale lysimeter in a pre-alpine catchment where daily long-term recharge rates are available. More specifically, the following issues are addressed: We systematically evaluate how the choice of hydrological models influences predictions of recharge. We assess how different parameterizations of models due to parameter non-identifiability affect predictions of recharge by applying a Monte Carlo approach. We systematically assess how the choice of calibration periods influences predictions of recharge within a differential split sample test focusing on the model performance under extreme climatic and hydrological conditions. Results indicate that all applied models (simple lumped to complex physically based models) were able to simulate the observed recharge rates for five different calibration periods. However, there was a marked impact of the calibration period when the complete 20 years validation period was simulated. Both, seasonal and annual differences between simulated and observed daily recharge rates occurred when the hydrological conditions were different to the calibration period. These differences were, however, less distinct for the physically based models, whereas the simpler models over- or underestimate the observed recharge depending on the considered season. It is, however, possible to reduce the differences for the simple models by

  11. Ionic liquid electrolytes as a platform for rechargeable metal-air batteries: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Kar, Mega; Simons, Tristan J; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R

    2014-09-21

    Metal-air batteries are a well-established technology that can offer high energy densities, low cost and environmental responsibility. Despite these favourable characteristics and utilisation of oxygen as the cathode reactant, these devices have been limited to primary applications, due to a number of problems that occur when the cell is recharged, including electrolyte loss and poor efficiency. Overcoming these obstacles is essential to creating a rechargeable metal-air battery that can be utilised for efficiently capturing renewable energy. Despite the first metal-air battery being created over 100 years ago, the emergence of reactive metals such as lithium has reinvigorated interest in this field. However the reactivity of some of these metals has generated a number of different philosophies regarding the electrolyte of the metal-air battery. Whilst much is already known about the anode and cathode processes in aqueous and organic electrolytes, the shortcomings of these electrolytes (i.e. volatility, instability, flammability etc.) have led some of the metal-air battery community to study room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as non-volatile, highly stable electrolytes that have the potential to support rechargeable metal-air battery processes. In this perspective, we discuss how some of these initial studies have demonstrated the capabilities of RTILs as metal-air battery electrolytes. We will also show that much of the long-held mechanistic knowledge of the oxygen electrode processes might not be applicable in RTIL based electrolytes, allowing for creative new solutions to the traditional irreversibility of the oxygen reduction reaction. Our understanding of key factors such as the effect of catalyst chemistry and surface structure, proton activity and interfacial reactions is still in its infancy in these novel electrolytes. In this perspective we highlight the key areas that need the attention of electrochemists and battery engineers, in order to progress

  12. Artificial recharge of groundwater and its role in water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the various aspects and methods of artificial recharge with particular emphasis on its uses and potential role in water management in the Arabian Gulf region. Artificial recharge occurs when man's activities cause more water to enter an aquifer, either under pumping or non-pumping conditions, than otherwise would enter the aquifer. Use of artificial recharge can be a practical means of dealing with problems of overdraft of groundwater. Methods of artificial recharge may be grouped under two broad types: (a) water spreading techniques, and (b) well-injection techniques. Successful use of artificial recharge requires a thorough knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifier system, and extensive onsite experimentation and tailoring of the artificial-recharge technique to fit the local or areal conditions. In general, water spreading techniques are less expensive than well injection and large quantities of water can be handled. Water spreading can also result in significant improvement in quality of recharge waters during infiltration and movement through the unsaturated zone and the receiving aquifer. In comparison, well-injection techniques are often used for emplacement of fresh recharge water into saline aquifer zones to form a manageable lens of fresher water, which may later be partially withdrawn for use or continue to be maintained as a barrier against salt-water encroachment. A major advantage in use of groundwater is its availability, on demand to wells, from a natural storage reservoir that is relatively safe from pollution and from damage by sabotage or other hostile action. However, fresh groundwater occurs only in limited quantities in most of the Arabian Gulf region; also, it is heavily overdrafted in many areas, and receives very little natural recharge. Good use could be made of artificial recharge by well injection in replenishing and managing aquifers in strategic locations if sources of

  13. Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, A.H.; Solomon, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in some water rights disputes, yet existing estimates carry large uncertainties. Stable isotope ratios can indicate the magnitude of mountain-front recharge relative to other components, but are generally incapable of distinguishing subsurface inflow from stream seepage. Noble gases provide an effective tool for determining the relative significance of subsurface inflow, specifically. Dissolved noble gas concentrations allow for the determination of recharge temperature, which is correlated with recharge elevation. The nature of this correlation cannot be assumed, however, and must be derived for the study area. The method is applied to the Salt Lake Valley Principal Aquifer in northern Utah to demonstrate its utility. Samples from 16 springs and mine tunnels in the adjacent Wasatch Mountains indicate that recharge temperature decreases with elevation at about the same rate as the mean annual air temperature, but is on average about 2??C cooler. Samples from 27 valley production wells yield recharge elevations ranging from the valley elevation (about 1500 m) to mid-mountain elevation (about 2500 m). Only six of the wells have recharge elevations less than 1800 m. Recharge elevations consistently greater than 2000 m in the southeastern part of the basin indicate that subsurface inflow constitutes most of the total recharge in this area. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Challenges of Artificial Recharge at the Chain of Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.

    2004-12-01

    A series of gravel quarry lakes, A through I (i.e. Chain of Lakes) in Alameda County, California are planned to convert to off-channel spreading lakes for artificial groundwater recharge. An operational plan is needed for the near-term improvements that would allow safe and efficient operations of Lake H and Lake I recently acquired for artificial recharge operations. Water source for the groundwater recharge comes from State Water Project (SWP) water releases at the South Bay Aqueduct turnout. The released water flows approximately nine miles in Arroyo Mocho Creek to the planned diversion facility. The recharge system includes multiple water delivery components and recharge components. Reliability of SWP water delivery is a water supply constraint to the recharge system. Hydraulic capacities of each delivery component and recharge capacities of each recharge component are physical constraints to the development of the operational plan. Policy issues identified in the Mitigated Negative Declaration which contains mitigation measures addressing potential impacts of fisheries and erosion are regulatory constraints to the operational plan development. Our approach that addresses technical challenges and policy issues in the development of the operational plan includes i) determination of lake recharge under observed conditions using water budget method; ii) development and calibration of a ground water flow model using MODFLOW; iii) estimation of lake recharge capacity for a range of lake levels using the calibrated ground water flow model; iv) analysis of clogging layer effects on recharge capacity; and v) development and application of operations models for the stream delivery system and the lake system.

  15. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  16. Urban Network Implications On Groundwater Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque, J.; Chambel, A.

    Urbanisation has had a major impact on groundwater beneath Évora city (South Portu- gal). Évora is an ancient city and the growth of impermeable areas due to urbanisation has lead to a reduction in groundwater recharge. The specific type of residential land use has a major influence on the permeability of the recharge area. The use of ground- water inside the city of Évora is largely for particular gardening and small farming supplies. In the oldest part of the city (inside of the city walls) there is little use of groundwater, while in the part of the city outside the city walls usage is more effec- tive. This study provides evidence that the municipality or particular people can use groundwater to irrigate the majority gardens, instead of using cleaned water from the Monte Novo Dam. This will also provide a solution to the control of pollution that occurs due to losses from the sewerage system of the city.

  17. Controlled induced recharge tests at Kalamazoo, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, Morris

    1962-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a controlled field testing program, which indicated that definite hydraulic and other advantages may be gained from induced recharging as practiced at Kalamazoo, Michigan. Results include the following: water levels and artesian pressures can be maintained at high stages, the results are lower pumping lifts and substantial reductions in the amount of power used for pumping; the high water levels permit increased rates of withdrawal during periods of peak demand; encroachment of poor quality water from other aquifers is minimized; the surface water induced into the aquifer is filtered naturally through great thicknesses of earth materials; natural underground storage is used to conserve and protect water, which otherwise would flow largely to waste; and, significant supplemental benefits, including flood control, have been derived. The tests demonstrated that it is possible to manipulate the regimen of a complex hydrologic system for definite hydraulic benefits with predictable results. Furthermore with current methods, quantitative evaluations may be made of the effects of induced recharge. The results of the tests, therefore, are applicable in other areas of similar hydrogeologic environments.

  18. When Everything is Intelligence - Nothing is Intelligence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Intelligence Analysis : A Discipline for the 21st Century." In it, Professor Wilhelm Agrell of the University of Lund, Sweden reflects on the evolution of...the practice of intelligence analysis into a modern profession. Highlighting what intelligence analysis is and, importantly, is not, he questions the...recent fascination with applying "the concept or perhaps the illusion of intelligence analysis " too broadly, such as to "information processing

  19. Genetic Fuzzy Trees for Intelligent Control of Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, Nicholas D.

    Fuzzy Logic Control is a powerful tool that has found great success in a variety of applications. This technique relies less on complex mathematics and more "expert knowledge" of a system to bring about high-performance, resilient, and efficient control through linguistic classification of inputs and outputs and if-then rules. Genetic Fuzzy Systems (GFSs) remove the need of this expert knowledge and instead rely on a Genetic Algorithm (GA) and have similarly found great success. However, the combination of these methods suffer severely from scalability; the number of rules required to control the system increases exponentially with the number of states the inputs and outputs can take. Therefor GFSs have thus far not been applicable to complex, artificial intelligence type problems. The novel Genetic Fuzzy Tree (GFT) method breaks down complex problems hierarchically, makes sub-decisions when possible, and thus greatly reduces the burden on the GA. This development significantly changes the field of possible applications for GFSs. Within this study, this is demonstrated through applying this technique to a difficult air combat problem. Looking forward to an autonomous Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle (UCAV) in the 2030 time-frame, it becomes apparent that the mission, flight, and ground controls will utilize the emerging paradigm of Intelligent Systems (IS); namely, the ability to learn, adapt, exhibit robustness in uncertain situations, make sense of the data collected in real-time and extrapolate when faced with scenarios significantly different from those used in training. LETHA (Learning Enhanced Tactical Handling Algorithm) was created to develop intelligent controllers for these advanced unmanned craft as the first GFT. A simulation space referred to as HADES (Hoplological Autonomous Defend and Engage Simulation) was created in which LETHA can train the UCAVs. Equipped with advanced sensors, a limited supply of Self-Defense Missiles (SDMs), and a recharging

  20. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  1. Web Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devedzic, Vladan

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys important aspects of Web Intelligence (WI) in the context of Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) research. WI explores the fundamental roles as well as practical impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and advanced Information Technology (IT) on the next generation of Web-related products, systems, services, and…

  2. Soil moisture data as a constraint for groundwater recharge estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; Sorensen, James P. R.; Butler, Adrian P.

    2017-09-01

    Estimating groundwater recharge rates is important for water resource management studies. Modeling approaches to forecast groundwater recharge typically require observed historic data to assist calibration. It is generally not possible to observe groundwater recharge rates directly. Therefore, in the past, much effort has been invested to record soil moisture content (SMC) data, which can be used in a water balance calculation to estimate groundwater recharge. In this context, SMC data is measured at different depths and then typically integrated with respect to depth to obtain a single set of aggregated SMC values, which are used as an estimate of the total water stored within a given soil profile. This article seeks to investigate the value of such aggregated SMC data for conditioning groundwater recharge models in this respect. A simple modeling approach is adopted, which utilizes an emulation of Richards' equation in conjunction with a soil texture pedotransfer function. The only unknown parameters are soil texture. Monte Carlo simulation is performed for four different SMC monitoring sites. The model is used to estimate both aggregated SMC and groundwater recharge. The impact of conditioning the model to the aggregated SMC data is then explored in terms of its ability to reduce the uncertainty associated with recharge estimation. Whilst uncertainty in soil texture can lead to significant uncertainty in groundwater recharge estimation, it is found that aggregated SMC is virtually insensitive to soil texture.

  3. Negotiating Intelligently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debenham, John; Simoff, Simeon

    The predominant approaches to automating competitive interaction appeal to the central notion of a utility function that represents an agent's preferences. Agent's are then endowed with machinery that enables them to perform actions that are intended to optimise their expected utility. Despite the extent of this work, the deployment of automatic negotiating agents in real world scenarios is rare. We propose that utility functions, or preference orderings, are often not known with certainty; further, the uncertainty that underpins them is typically in a state of flux. We propose that the key to building intelligent negotiating agents is to take an agent's historic observations as primitive, to model that agent's changing uncertainty in that information, and to use that model as the foundation for the agent's reasoning. We describe an agent architecture, with an attendant theory, that is based on that model. In this approach, the utility of contracts, and the trust and reliability of a trading partner are intermediate concepts that an agent may estimate from its information model. This enables us to describe intelligent agents that are not necessarily utility optimisers, that value information as a commodity, and that build relationships with other agents through the trusted exchange of information as well as contracts.

  4. Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanlon, B.R.; Keese, K.E.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Gaye, C.B.; Edmunds, W.M.; Simmers, I.

    2006-01-01

    Global synthesis of the findings from ???140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique is widely used to estimate recharge. Average recharge rates estimated over large areas (40-374000 km2) range from 0.2 to 35 mm year-1, representing 0.1-5% of long-term average annual precipitation. Extreme local variability in recharge, with rates up to ???720 m year-1, results from focussed recharge beneath ephemeral streams and lakes and preferential flow mostly in fractured systems. System response to climate variability and land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes is archived in unsaturated zone tracer profiles and in groundwater level fluctuations. Inter-annual climate variability related to El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) results in up to three times higher recharge in regions within the SW US during periods of frequent El Nin??os (1977-1998) relative to periods dominated by La Nin??as (1941-1957). Enhanced recharge related to ENSO is also documented in Argentina. Climate variability at decadal to century scales recorded in chloride profiles in Africa results in recharge rates of 30 mm year-1 during the Sahel drought (1970-1986) to 150 mm year-1 during non-drought periods. Variations in climate at millennial scales in the SW US changed systems from recharge during the Pleistocene glacial period (??? 10 000 years ago) to discharge during the Holocene semiarid period. LU/LC changes such as deforestation in Australia increased recharge up to about 2 orders of magnitude. Changes from natural grassland and shrublands to dryland (rain-fed) agriculture altered systems from discharge (evapotranspiration, ET) to recharge in the SW US. The

  5. Global synthesis of groundwater recharge in semiarid and arid regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Keese, Kelley E.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Gaye, Cheikh B.; Edmunds, W. Michael; Simmers, Ian

    2006-10-01

    Global synthesis of the findings from 140 recharge study areas in semiarid and arid regions provides important information on recharge rates, controls, and processes, which are critical for sustainable water development. Water resource evaluation, dryland salinity assessment (Australia), and radioactive waste disposal (US) are among the primary goals of many of these recharge studies. The chloride mass balance (CMB) technique is widely used to estimate recharge. Average recharge rates estimated over large areas (40-374 000 km2) range from 0.2 to 35 mm year-1, representing 0.1-5% of long-term average annual precipitation. Extreme local variability in recharge, with rates up to 720 m year-1, results from focussed recharge beneath ephemeral streams and lakes and preferential flow mostly in fractured systems. System response to climate variability and land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes is archived in unsaturated zone tracer profiles and in groundwater level fluctuations. Inter-annual climate variability related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) results in up to three times higher recharge in regions within the SW US during periods of frequent El Niños (1977-1998) relative to periods dominated by La Niñas (1941-1957). Enhanced recharge related to ENSO is also documented in Argentina. Climate variability at decadal to century scales recorded in chloride profiles in Africa results in recharge rates of 30 mm year-1 during the Sahel drought (1970-1986) to 150 mm year-1 during non-drought periods. Variations in climate at millennial scales in the SW US changed systems from recharge during the Pleistocene glacial period (10 000 years ago) to discharge during the Holocene semiarid period. LU/LC changes such as deforestation in Australia increased recharge up to about 2 orders of magnitude. Changes from natural grassland and shrublands to dryland (rain-fed) agriculture altered systems from discharge (evapotranspiration, ET) to recharge in the SW US. The impact of LU

  6. Groundwater recharge rate and zone structure estimation using PSOLVER algorithm.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, M Tamer; Elçi, Alper

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of groundwater recharge is an important but challenging task in groundwater flow modeling because recharge varies spatially and temporally. The goal of this study is to present an innovative methodology to estimate groundwater recharge rates and zone structures for regional groundwater flow models. Here, the unknown recharge field is partitioned into a number of zones using Voronoi Tessellation (VT). The identified zone structure with the recharge rates is associated through a simulation-optimization model that couples MODFLOW-2000 and the hybrid PSOLVER optimization algorithm. Applicability of this procedure is tested on a previously developed groundwater flow model of the Tahtalı Watershed. Successive zone structure solutions are obtained in an additive manner and penalty functions are used in the procedure to obtain realistic and plausible solutions. One of these functions constrains the optimization by forcing the sum of recharge rates for the grid cells that coincide with the Tahtalı Watershed area to be equal to the areal recharge rate determined in the previous modeling by a separate precipitation-runoff model. As a result, a six-zone structure is selected as the best zone structure that represents the areal recharge distribution. Comparison to results of a previous model for the same study area reveals that the proposed procedure significantly improves model performance with respect to calibration statistics. The proposed identification procedure can be thought of as an effective way to determine the recharge zone structure for groundwater flow models, in particular for situations where tangible information about groundwater recharge distribution does not exist.

  7. Stable isotope and groundwater flow dynamics of agricultural irrigation recharge into groundwater resources of the Central Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Criss, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Intensive agricultural irrigation and overdraft of groundwater in the Central Valley of California profoundly affect the regional quality and availability of shallow groundwater resources. In the natural state, the {delta}{sup 18}O values of groundwater were relatively homogeneous (mostly -7.0 {+-} 0.5{per_thousand}), reflecting local meteoric recharge that slowly (1-3m/yr) flowed toward the valley axis. Today, on the west side of the valley, the isotope distribution is dominated by high {sup 18}O enclosures formed by recharge of evaporated irrigation waters, while the east side has bands of low {sup 18}O groundwater indicating induced recharge from rivers draining the Sierra Nevada mountains. Changes in {delta}{sup 18}O values caused by the agricultural recharge strongly correlate with elevated nitrate concentrations (5 to >100 mg/L) that form pervasive, non-point source pollutants. Small, west-side cities dependent solely on groundwater resources have experienced increases of >1.0 mg/L per year of nitrate for 10-30 years. The resultant high nitrates threaten the economical use of the groundwater for domestic purposes, and have forced some well shut-downs. Furthermore, since >80% of modern recharge is now derived from agricultural irrigation, and because modern recharge rates are {approximately}10 times those of the natural state, agricultural land retirement by urbanization will severely curtail the current safe-yields and promote overdraft pumping. Such overdrafting has occurred in the Sacramento metropolitan area for {approximately}40 years, creating cones of depression {approximately}25m deep. Today, groundwater withdrawal in Sacramento is approximately matched by infiltration of low {sup 18}O water (-11.0{per_thousand}) away from the Sacramento and American Rivers, which is estimated to occur at 100-300m/year from the sharp {sup 18}O gradients in our groundwater isotope map.

  8. In situ, operando measurements of rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Howard; Wang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews recent in operando measurements (IOMs) for addressing challenges in advancing rechargeable battery (RB) technologies. As the demands on energy and power density of RBs for broader applications continue to grow, current RB technologies are pushed to their theoretical and engineering limits while new approaches are being extensively investigated. Also, IOMs have become more powerful and effective research tools in recent years; they will play an essential role in developing next generation RBs. This review is organized around outstanding issues in battery science and engineering. Finally, we emphasize the critical need for quantifying the distribution and transport of active ions in functioning batteries over wide temporal and spatial scales in real time.

  9. In situ, operando measurements of rechargeable batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Howard; Wang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews recent in operando measurements (IOMs) for addressing challenges in advancing rechargeable battery (RB) technologies. As the demands on energy and power density of RBs for broader applications continue to grow, current RB technologies are pushed to their theoretical and engineering limits while new approaches are being extensively investigated. Also, IOMs have become more powerful and effective research tools in recent years; they will play an essential role in developing next generation RBs. This review is organized around outstanding issues in battery science and engineering. Finally, we emphasize the critical need for quantifying the distribution and transport ofmore » active ions in functioning batteries over wide temporal and spatial scales in real time.« less

  10. Advances in rechargeable lithium molybdenum disulfide batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, K.; Stiles, J. A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The lithium molybdenum disulfide system as demonstrated in a C size cell, offers performance characteristics for applications where light weight and low volume are important. A gravimetric energy density of 90 watt hours per kilogram can be achieved in a C size cell package. The combination of charge retention capabilities, high energy density and a state of charge indicator in a rechargeable cell provides power package for a wide range of devices. The system overcomes the memory effect in Nicads where the full capacity of the battery cannot be utilized unless it was utilized on previous cycles. The development of cells with an advanced electrolyte formulation led to an improved rate capability especially at low temperatures and to a significantly improved life cycle.

  11. In situ, operando measurements of rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Howard; Wang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    This article reviews recent in operando measurements (IOMs) for addressing challenges in advancing rechargeable battery (RB) technologies. As the demands on energy and power density of RBs for broader applications continue to grow, current RB technologies are pushed to their theoretical and engineering limits while new approaches are being extensively investigated. Also, IOMs have become more powerful and effective research tools in recent years; they will play an essential role in developing next generation RBs. This review is organized around outstanding issues in battery science and engineering. Finally, we emphasize the critical need for quantifying the distribution and transport of active ions in functioning batteries over wide temporal and spatial scales in real time.

  12. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

    1994-11-01

    Small thin-film rechargeable cells have been fabricated with a lithium phosphorus oxyniuide electrolyte, Li metal anode, and Li{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode film. The cathode films were fabricated by several different techniques resulting in both crystalline and amorphous films. These were compared by observing the cell discharge behavior. Estimates have been made for the scale-up of such a thin-film battery to meet the specifications for the electric vehicle application. The specific energy, energy density, and cycle life are expected to meet the USABC mid-term criteria. However, the areas of the thin-films needed to fabricate such a cell are very large. The required areas could be greatly reduced by operating the battery at temperatures near 100{degrees}C or by enhancing the lithium ion transport rate in the cathode material.

  13. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System Battery Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    Long description. Illustrations of discotic liquid crystals, rod-coil polymers, lithium-ion conducting channel dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc) from top and side, novel star polyethylene oxide structures, composite polyethylene oxide materials (showing polyethylene oxide + lithium salt, carbon atoms and oxygen atoms), homopolyrotaxanes, and diblock copolymers In fiscal year 2000, NASA established a program to develop the next generation, lithium-based, polymer electrolyte batteries for aerospace applications. The goal of this program, known as Polymer Energy Rechargeable Systems (PERS), is to develop a space-qualified, advanced battery system embodying polymer electrolyte and lithium-based electrode technologies and to establish world-class domestic manufacturing capabilities for advanced batteries with improved performance characteristics that address NASA s future aerospace battery requirements.

  14. Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

  15. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-09-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  16. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  17. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

  18. Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, J. L.

    1988-09-01

    Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

  19. Nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Seung-Taek; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-06-01

    The prospect of drastic climate change and the ceaseless fluctuation of fossil fuel prices provide motivation to reduce the use of fossil fuels and to find new energy conversion and storage systems that are able to limit carbon dioxide generation. Among known systems, lithium-ion batteries are recognized as the most appropriate energy storage system because of their high energy density and thus space saving in applications. Introduction of nanotechnology to electrode material is beneficial to improve the resulting electrode performances such as capacity, its retention, and rate capability. The nanostructure is highly available not only when used alone but also is more highlighted when harmonized in forms of core-shell structure and composites with carbon nanotubes, graphene or reduced graphene oxides. This review covers syntheses and electrochemical properties of nanoscale, nanosized, and nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  20. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1990-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

  1. Rechargeable Seawater Battery and Its Electrochemical Mechanism

    DOE PAGES

    kim, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Eungje; Kim, Hyojin; ...

    2015-03-11

    Herein, we explore the electrochemical mechanism of a novel rechargeable seawater battery system that uses seawater as the cathode material. Sodium is harvested from seawater while charging the battery, and the harvested sodium is discharged with oxygen dissolved in the seawater, functioning as oxidants to produce electricity. The seawater provides both anode (Na metal) and cathode (O2) materials for the proposed battery. Based on the discharge voltage (~2.9 V) with participation of O2 and the charge voltage (~4.1 V) with Cl2 evolution during the first cycle, a voltage efficiency of about 73% is obtained. If the seawater battery is constructedmore » using hard carbon as the anode and a Na super ion conductor as the solid electrolyte, a strong cycle performance of 84% is observed after 40 cycles.« less

  2. Polymer Energy Rechargeable System (PERS) Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Dalton, Penni J.; Marsh, Richard A.; Surampudi, Rao

    2001-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) have recently established a collaborative effort to support the development of polymer-based, lithium-based cell chemistries and battery technologies to address the next generation of aerospace applications and mission needs. The overall objective of this development program, which is referred to as PERS, Polymer Energy Rechargeable System, is to establish a world-class technology capability and U.S. leadership in polymer-based battery technology for aerospace applications. Programmatically, the PERS initiative will exploit both interagency collaborations to address common technology and engineering issues and the active participation of academia and private industry. The initial program phases will focus on R&D activities to address the critical technical issues and challenges at the cell level.

  3. Unlinkable Priced Oblivious Transfer with Rechargeable Wallets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camenisch, Jan; Dubovitskaya, Maria; Neven, Gregory

    We present the first truly unlinkable priced oblivious transfer protocol. Our protocol allows customers to buy database records while remaining fully anonymous, i.e., (1) the database does not learn who purchases a record, and cannot link purchases by the same customer; (2) the database does not learn which record is being purchased, nor the price of the record that is being purchased; (3) the customer can only obtain a single record per purchase, and cannot spend more than his account balance; (4) the database does not learn the customer's remaining balance. In our protocol customers keep track of their own balances, rather than leaving this to the database as done in previous protocols. Our priced oblivious transfer protocol is also the first to allow customers to (anonymously) recharge their balances. Finally, we prove our protocol secure in the standard model (i.e., without random oracles).

  4. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, Larry; Giner, Jose

    1987-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells were investigated and developed. The electrocatalysts are defined as the material with a higher activity for the oxygen electrode reaction than the support. Advanced development will require that the materials be prepared in high surface area forms, and may also entail integration of various candidate materials. Eight candidate support materials and seven electrocatalysts were investigated. Of the 8 support, 3 materials meet the preliminary requirements in terms of electrical conductivity and stability. Emphasis is now on preparing in high surface area form and testing under more severe corrosion stress conditions. Of the 7 electrocatalysts prepared and evaluated, at least 5 materials remain as potential candidates. The major emphasis remains on preparation, physical characterization and electrochemical performance testing.

  5. Rechargeable Seawater Battery and Its Electrochemical Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    kim, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Eungje; Kim, Hyojin; Johnson, Christopher; Cho, Jaephil; Kim, Youngsik

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we explore the electrochemical mechanism of a novel rechargeable seawater battery system that uses seawater as the cathode material. Sodium is harvested from seawater while charging the battery, and the harvested sodium is discharged with oxygen dissolved in the seawater, functioning as oxidants to produce electricity. The seawater provides both anode (Na metal) and cathode (O2) materials for the proposed battery. Based on the discharge voltage (~2.9 V) with participation of O2 and the charge voltage (~4.1 V) with Cl2 evolution during the first cycle, a voltage efficiency of about 73% is obtained. If the seawater battery is constructed using hard carbon as the anode and a Na super ion conductor as the solid electrolyte, a strong cycle performance of 84% is observed after 40 cycles.

  6. Rechargeable Seawater Battery and Its Electrochemical Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    kim, Jae-Kwang; Lee, Eungje; Kim, Hyojin; Johnson, Christopher; Cho, Jaephil; Kim, Youngsik

    2015-03-11

    Herein, we explore the electrochemical mechanism of a novel rechargeable seawater battery system that uses seawater as the cathode material. Sodium is harvested from seawater while charging the battery, and the harvested sodium is discharged with oxygen dissolved in the seawater, functioning as oxidants to produce electricity. The seawater provides both anode (Na metal) and cathode (O2) materials for the proposed battery. Based on the discharge voltage (~2.9 V) with participation of O2 and the charge voltage (~4.1 V) with Cl2 evolution during the first cycle, a voltage efficiency of about 73% is obtained. If the seawater battery is constructed using hard carbon as the anode and a Na super ion conductor as the solid electrolyte, a strong cycle performance of 84% is observed after 40 cycles.

  7. Intelligence Support to Homeland Security: Supporting the Supporting Effort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    operational capabilities. The Orwellian Big Brother watching syndrome oft warned may in fact become a capability in the years to come as an intelligence tool...intelligence. The mosaic created from the integration of all available sources of intelligence is robust and less susceptible to deception. Although a dearth...www.govexec.com/features/1 101/1101 sl .htm>. Internet. Accessed 6 April 2002. Turner , Stansfield. Secrecy and Democracy: The CIA in Transition. Boston: Houghton

  8. Simulation of the xerographic recharge process

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Chang; Parker, S.E.; Lean, Meng H.

    1996-12-31

    Laser xerography (e.g. laser printing, photo-copying, etc.) involves the sequential steps: uniform charging of the photoconductor surface, discharging spots with a laser beam, developing the latent image on the photoconductor surface by the attachment of charged toner particles, and finally transfer-ring the image to paper through mechanical and electrostatic forces. Simulations have been developed that model these process from first-principles. Color reproduction involves multiple passes through these steps; once for each color separation (e.g. multiple toner layers on the photoconductor). Here we study the charging of the photoconductor surface, in situations of high mass-coverage with a 2D fluid model, and low mass coverage with a 3D particle model. Charge is sprayed using a corona, type discharge called a scorotron. We axe developing a 2D fluid model of the recharge process based on extending existing models. We use empirical IN data for the scorotron. A Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM) is used to solve for the field, and method of characteristics (MOC) to solve the charge continuity equation. Also developed, is a 3D particle model, where the field is solved using 3D BIEM and ionized air molecules axe treated as point charges which follow their average drift motion. Diffusion can be neglected because of the high voltage bias. Toner particles axe treated as finite size spherical dielectrics with nonuniform attached surface charge. We will show initial numerical results for both models. The purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of how charge in transported through the toner layers in subsequent recharging during color laser xerography.

  9. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-25

    number. 1. REPORT DATE 25 JAN 2007 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intelligence Issues for...of 2006, both by Elizabeth B. Bazan . authorization and defense appropriations acts, they include a substantial portion of the overall intelligence...Domain,” Washington Post, Jan . 23, 2005, p. A1. strategically analyze intelligence, and for failing to share intelligence with other intelligence agencies

  10. Climate variability effects on urban recharge beneath low impact development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Gurdak, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater resources in urban and coastal environments are highly vulnerable to human pressures and climate variability and change, and many communities face water shortages and need to find alternative water supplies. Therefore, understanding how low impact development (LID) site planning and integrated/best management practices (BMPs) affect recharge rates and volumes is important because of the increasing use of LID and BMP to reduce stormwater runoff and improve surface-water quality. Often considered a secondary management benefit, many BMPs may also enhance recharge to local aquifers; however these hypothesized benefits have not been thoroughly tested or quantified. In this study, we quantify stormwater capture and recharge enhancement beneath a BMP infiltration trench of the LID research network at San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California. Stormwater capture and retention was analyzed using the SCS TR-55 curve number method and in-situ infiltration rates to assess LID storage. Recharge was quantified using vadose zone monitoring equipment, a detailed water budget analysis, and a Hydrus-2D model. Additionally, the effects of historical and predicted future precipitation on recharge rates were examined using precipitation from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamic Laboratory (GFDL) A1F1 climate scenario. Observed recharge rates beneath the infiltration trench range from 1,600 to 3,700 mm/year and are an order of magnitude greater than recharge beneath an irrigated grass lawn and a natural setting. The Hydrus-2D model results indicate increased recharge under the GFDL A1F1 scenario compared with historical and GFDL modeled 20th century rates because of the higher frequency of large precipitation events that induce runoff into the infiltration trench. However, under a simulated A1F1 El Niño year, recharge calculated by a water budget does not increase compared with current El Niño recharge rates. In comparison, simulated recharge rates were

  11. Artificial Recharge Coupled with Flood Mitigation in Jeju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Koo, M.; Lee, K.; Moon, D.; Barry, J. M.; Park, W.

    2010-12-01

    The primary goal of this study is to develop and apply the artificial recharge system at Han Stream in Jeju Island, Korea, for not only securing sustainable groundwater resources, but also mitigating severe floods occurred due to the global climate changes. Jeju-friendly Aquifer Recharge Technology (J-ART) in this study has been developed by capturing ephemeral stream water with no interference in the environments such as natural recharge or eco-system, storing the flood water in the reservoirs, recharging it through designed borehole after appropriate water treatment, and then making it to be used at down-gradient production wells. For optimal design of J-ART, we conducted injection tests at the monitoring well (MW5) as well as at the planned recharge site during drilling the recharge wells and performed a modeling with the data obtained. Based on the modeling results, the artificial recharge wells were developed with a design of 10-meter spacing between the wells and 35-40 meter depths, which has a capacity of more than 2,500,000 m3 of groundwater resources in a year. Characterizing groundwater flow from recharge area to discharge area should be achieved to assess the efficiency of J-ART. The resistivity logging employed to predict water flow in unsaturated zone during artificial recharge based on the inverse modeling and resistivity change patterns. Stable isotope studies of deuterium and oxygen-18 of surface waters and groundwaters were carried out to interpret mixing and flow in groundwaters impacted by artificial recharge. Transient models were developed to predict the effects of artificial recharge using the hydraulic properties of aquifers, groundwater levels, and meteorological data. Time series changes of water balance after artificial recharge were analyzed, and residence time of the recharged water was also predicted with a certain degree of uncertainty. Keywords: J-ART, Hydrogeological methods, Geophysical survey, Stable isotopes, Groundwater modeling

  12. The effects of a dry sand layer on groundwater recharge in extremely arid areas: field study in the western Hexi Corridor of northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peng; Ma, Jinzhu; Qi, Shi; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Gaofeng

    2016-09-01

    Evaporation capacity is an important factor that cannot be ignored when judging whether extreme precipitation events will produce groundwater recharge. The evaporation layer's role in groundwater recharge was evaluated using a lysimeter simulation experiment in the desert area of Dunhuang, in the western part of the Hexi Corridor in northwestern China's Gansu Province. The annual precipitation in the study area is extremely low, averaging 38.87 mm during the 60-year study period, and daily pan evaporation amounts to 2,486 mm. Three simulated precipitation regimes (normal, 10 mm; ordinary annual maximum, 21 mm; and extreme, 31 mm) were used in the lysimeter simulation to allow monitoring of water movement and weighing to detect evaporative losses. The differences in soil-water content to a depth of 50 cm in the soil profile significantly affected rainfall infiltration during the initial stages of rainfall events. It was found that the presence of a dry 50-cm-deep sand layer was the key factor for "potential recharge" after the three rainfall events. Daily precipitation events less than 20 mm did not produce groundwater recharge because of the barrier effect created by the dry sand. Infiltration totaled 0.68 mm and penetrated to a depth below 50 cm with 31 mm of rainfall, representing potential recharge equivalent to 1.7 % of the rainfall. This suggests that only extreme precipitation events offer the possibility of recharge of groundwater in this extremely arid area.

  13. Echo Meadows Project Winter Artificial Recharge.

    SciTech Connect

    Ziari, Fred

    2002-12-19

    This report discusses the findings of the Echo Meadows Project (BPA Project 2001-015-00). The main purpose of this project is to artificially recharge an alluvial aquifer, WITH water from Umatilla River during the winter high flow period. In turn, this recharged aquifer will discharge an increased flow of cool groundwater back to the river, thereby improving Umatilla River water quality and temperature. A considerable side benefit is that the Umatilla River should improve as a habitat for migration, spanning, and rearing of anadromous and resident fish. The scope of this project is to provide critical baseline information about the Echo Meadows and the associated reach of the Umatilla River. Key elements of information that has been gathered include: (1) Annual and seasonal groundwater levels in the aquifer with an emphasis on the irrigation season, (2) Groundwater hydraulic properties, particularly hydraulic conductivity and specific yield, and (3) Groundwater and Umatilla River water quality including temperature, nutrients and other indicator parameters. One of the major purposes of this data gathering was to develop input to a groundwater model of the area. The purpose of the model is to estimate our ability to recharge this aquifer using water that is only available outside of the irrigation season (December through the end of February) and to estimate the timing of groundwater return flow back to the river. We have found through the data collection and modeling efforts that this reach of the river had historically returned as much as 45 cubic feet per second (cfs) of water to the Umatilla River during the summer and early fall. However, this return flow was reduced to as low as 10 cfs primarily due to reduced quantities of irrigation application, gain in irrigation efficiencies and increased groundwater pumping. Our modeling indicated that it is possible to restore these critical return flows using applied water outside of the irrigation season. We further

  14. Heat Tracing Percolation in Managed Aquifer Recharge Facilities using Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Ellis, W.; Bauer, B.; Hutchinson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Percolation rates in Managed Aquifer Rechage (MAR) facilities, such as recharge basins and stream channels, can vary widely through both time and space. Natural variations in sediment hydraulic conductivity can create 'dead zones' in which percolation rates are negligible. Clogging is a constant problem, leading to decays in facility percolation rates . Measuring percolation rate variations is important for management, maintenance, and remediation of surface MAR facilities We have used Fiber Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FODTS) to monitor percolation in two very different recharge facilities. The first is a small (2 ha) nearly round recharge basin of homogeneous sediment type in which water balance can be closely monitored. The second is a long narrow river channel separated from an active river by a levee. The alluvial sediment in the river channel varies widely in texture and water balance is difficult to monitor independently. Both facilities were monitored by trenching in fiber optic cable and measuring the propagation rate of the diurnal temperature oscillations carried downward with infiltrating water. In this way, heat was used as a tracer of percolation rates along the section defined by the trenched cable (400 and 1600 m, respectively). We were able to confirm the FODTS measurements of percolation in the recharge basin and demonstrate its wide applicability in the river channel. Results from the measurements have been used to understand both the hydraulic behavior of percolation in the facilities and to make management decisions regarding facility operations and the potential need for additional surface sediment remediation. Estimation of specific discharge (m/day) through the basin using the wavelet method. Basin stage is shown above

  15. Creationism and intelligent design.

    PubMed

    Pennock, Robert T

    2003-01-01

    Creationism, the rejection of evolution in favor of supernatural design, comes in many varieties besides the common young-earth Genesis version. Creationist attacks on science education have been evolving in the last few years through the alliance of different varieties. Instead of calls to teach "creation science," one now finds lobbying for "intelligent design" (ID). Guided by the Discovery Institute's "Wedge strategy," the ID movement aims to overturn evolution and what it sees as a pernicious materialist worldview and to renew a theistic foundation to Western culture, in which human beings are recognized as being created in the image of God. Common ID arguments involving scientific naturalism, "irreducible complexity," "complex specified information," and "icons of evolution," have been thoroughly examined and refuted. Nevertheless, from Kansas to Ohio to the U.S. Congress, ID continues lobbying to teach the controversy, and scientists need to be ready to defend good evolution education.

  16. Using atmospheric tracers to reduce uncertainty in groundwater recharge areas.

    PubMed

    Starn, J Jeffrey; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C; Robbins, Gary A

    2010-01-01

    A Monte Carlo-based approach to assess uncertainty in recharge areas shows that incorporation of atmospheric tracer observations (in this case, tritium concentration) and prior information on model parameters leads to more precise predictions of recharge areas. Variance-covariance matrices, from model calibration and calculation of sensitivities, were used to generate parameter sets that account for parameter correlation and uncertainty. Constraining parameter sets to those that met acceptance criteria, which included a standard error criterion, did not appear to bias model results. Although the addition of atmospheric tracer observations and prior information produced similar changes in the extent of predicted recharge areas, prior information had the effect of increasing probabilities within the recharge area to a greater extent than atmospheric tracer observations. Uncertainty in the recharge area propagates into predictions that directly affect water quality, such as land cover in the recharge area associated with a well and the residence time associated with the well. Assessments of well vulnerability that depend on these factors should include an assessment of model parameter uncertainty. A formal simulation of parameter uncertainty can be used to delineate probabilistic recharge areas, and the results can be expressed in ways that can be useful to water-resource managers. Although no one model is the correct model, the results of multiple models can be evaluated in terms of the decision being made and the probability of a given outcome from each model.

  17. Geostatistical estimates of future recharge for the Death Valley region

    SciTech Connect

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1998-12-01

    Spatially distributed estimates of regional ground water recharge rates under both current and potential future climates are needed to evaluate a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is located within the Death Valley ground-water region (DVGWR). Determining the spatial distribution of recharge is important for regional saturated-zone ground-water flow models. In the southern Nevada region, the Maxey-Eakin method has been used for estimating recharge based on average annual precipitation. Although this method does not directly account for a variety of location-specific factors which control recharge (such as bedrock permeability, soil cover, and net radiation), precipitation is the primary factor that controls in the region. Estimates of recharge obtained by using the Maxey-Eakin method are comparable to estimates of recharge obtained by using chloride balance studies. The authors consider the Maxey-Eakin approach as a relatively simple method of obtaining preliminary estimates of recharge on a regional scale.

  18. [Effects of reclaimed water recharge on groundwater quality: a review].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ping; Lü, Si-Dan; Wang, Mei-E; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2013-05-01

    Reclaimed water recharge to groundwater is an effective way to relieve water resource crisis. However, reclaimed water contains some pollutants such as nitrate, heavy metals, and new type contaminants, and thus, there exists definite environmental risk in the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater. To promote the development of reclaimed water recharge to groundwater and the safe use of reclaimed water in China, this paper analyzed the relevant literatures and practical experiences around the world, and summarized the effects of different reclaimed water recharge modes on the groundwater quality. Surface recharge makes the salt and nitrate contents in groundwater increased but the risk of heavy metals pollution be smaller, whereas well recharge can induce the arsenic release from sedimentary aquifers, which needs to be paid more attention to. New type contaminants are the hotspots in current researches, and their real risks are unknown. Pathogens have less pollution risks on groundwater, but some virus with strong activity can have the risks. Some suggestions were put forward to reduce the risks associated with the reclaimed water recharge to groundwater in China.

  19. The Personal Intelligences: Promoting Social and Emotional Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Launa

    This book blends two of the multiple intelligences (intrapersonal and interpersonal) with current research on the brain and learning to create a new foundation for K-8 classrooms. It shares a teacher's classroom practices linking brain functions with the development of interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. Nine chapters include (1)…

  20. Effects of artificial recharge on the Ogallala aquifer, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Richmond Flint; Keys, W.S.

    1985-01-01

    Four recharge tests were conducted by injecting water from playa lakes through wells into the Ogallala Formation. Injection was by gravity flow and by pumping under pressure. At one site, 34-acre feet of water was injected by gravity and produced a significant increase in yield of the well. At a second site, gravity injection of only 0.58 acre-foot caused a significant decrease in permeability due to plugging by suspended sediment. At two other sites, injection by pumping 6 and 14 acre-feet respectively, resulted in discharge of water at the surface and in perching of water above the water table. Differences in success of recharge were largely due to aquifer lithology and, therefore, the type of permeability; the concentration of suspended solids in the recharge water; and the injection technique. The injection technique can be controlled and the concentration of suspended solids can be minimized by treatment, but the site for well recharge will accept water most rapidly if it is selected on the basis of a favorable geohydrologic environment. Geophysical logs were used to study the effect of aquifer lithology on recharge and to understand the movement of injected water. Temperature logs were particularly useful in tracing the movement of recharged water. Natural-gamma, gamma-gamma, and neutron logs provided important data on lithology and porosity in the aquifer and changes in porosity and water distribution resulting from recharge. Effective recharge of the Ogallala Formation, using water from playa lakes, is possible where geohydrologic conditions are favorable and the recharge system is properly constructed.

  1. Gender Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This essay explores the questions that women faculty in institutions of all kinds have been pondering. What would be the attributes of a higher education system that provides opportunities for growth and advancement to women that are equal to those provided for men? What aspects of academic culture would have to change to create a more equitable…

  2. Novel rechargeable calcium phosphate nanoparticle-containing orthodontic cement.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xian-Ju; Xing, Dan; Wang, Lin; Zhou, Han; Weir, Michael D; Bai, Yu-Xing; Xu, Hockin Hk

    2016-11-04

    White spot lesions (WSLs), due to enamel demineralization, occur frequently in orthodontic treatment. We recently developed a novel rechargeable dental composite containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) with long-term calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion release and caries-inhibiting capability. The objectives of this study were to develop the first NACP-rechargeable orthodontic cement and investigate the effects of recharge duration and frequency on the efficacy of ion re-release. The rechargeable cement consisted of pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA). NACP was mixed into the resin at 40% by mass. Specimens were tested for orthodontic bracket shear bond strength (SBS) to enamel, Ca and P ion initial release, recharge and re-release. The new orthodontic cement exhibited an SBS similar to commercial orthodontic cement without CaP release (P>0.1). Specimens after one recharge treatment (e.g., 1 min immersion in recharge solution repeating three times in one day, referred to as "1 min 3 times") exhibited a substantial and continuous re-release of Ca and P ions for 14 days without further recharge. The ion re-release did not decrease with increasing the number of recharge/re-release cycles (P>0.1). The ion re-release concentrations at 14 days versus various recharge treatments were as follows: 1 min 3 times>3 min 2 times>1 min 2 times>6 min 1 time>3 min 1 time>1 min 1 time. In conclusion, although previous studies have shown that NACP nanocomposite remineralized tooth lesions and inhibited caries, the present study developed the first orthodontic cement with Ca and P ion recharge and long-term release capability. This NACP-rechargeable orthodontic cement is a promising therapy to inhibit enamel demineralization and WSLs around orthodontic brackets.International Journal of Oral Science advance online publication,4 November 2016; doi:10.1038/ijos.2016.40.

  3. Can we calibrate simultaneously groundwater recharge and aquifer hydrodynamic parameters ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassane Maina, Fadji; Ackerer, Philippe; Bildstein, Olivier

    2017-04-01

    By groundwater model calibration, we consider here fitting the measured piezometric heads by estimating the hydrodynamic parameters (storage term and hydraulic conductivity) and the recharge. It is traditionally recommended to avoid simultaneous calibration of groundwater recharge and flow parameters because of correlation between recharge and the flow parameters. From a physical point of view, little recharge associated with low hydraulic conductivity can provide very similar piezometric changes than higher recharge and higher hydraulic conductivity. If this correlation is true under steady state conditions, we assume that this correlation is much weaker under transient conditions because recharge varies in time and the parameters do not. Moreover, the recharge is negligible during summer time for many climatic conditions due to reduced precipitation, increased evaporation and transpiration by vegetation cover. We analyze our hypothesis through global sensitivity analysis (GSA) in conjunction with the polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) methodology. We perform GSA by calculating the Sobol indices, which provide a variance-based 'measure' of the effects of uncertain parameters (storage and hydraulic conductivity) and recharge on the piezometric heads computed by the flow model. The choice of PCE has the following two benefits: (i) it provides the global sensitivity indices in a straightforward manner, and (ii) PCE can serve as a surrogate model for the calibration of parameters. The coefficients of the PCE are computed by probabilistic collocation. We perform the GSA on simplified real conditions coming from an already built groundwater model dedicated to a subdomain of the Upper-Rhine aquifer (geometry, boundary conditions, climatic data). GSA shows that the simultaneous calibration of recharge and flow parameters is possible if the calibration is performed over at least one year. It provides also the valuable information of the sensitivity versus time, depending on

  4. Emotional Intelligence Meets Traditional Standards for an Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Results of 2 studies involving 503 adults and 229 adolescents show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale, a new ability test of emotional intelligence, meets 3 classical criteria of a standard intelligence. (SLD)

  5. Eight Ways of Teaching: The Artistry of Teaching with Multiple Intelligences. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazear, David

    This book goes through the eight intelligences (verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual, bodily/kinesthetic, musical/rhythmic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist), showing teachers new ways to create their own lessons using these intelligences. It also describes how to use technology to enhance each of the intelligences. The book…

  6. Intelligent buildings.

    PubMed

    Williams, W E

    1987-01-01

    The maturing of technologies in computer capabilities, particularly direct digital signals, has provided an exciting variety of new communication and facility control opportunities. These include telecommunications, energy management systems, security systems, office automation systems, local area networks, and video conferencing. New applications are developing continuously. The so-called "intelligent" or "smart" building concept evolves from the development of this advanced technology in building environments. Automation has had a dramatic effect on facility planning. For decades, communications were limited to the telephone, the typewritten message, and copy machines. The office itself and its functions had been essentially unchanged for decades. Office automation systems began to surface during the energy crisis and, although their newer technology was timely, they were, for the most part, designed separately from other new building systems. For example, most mainframe computer systems were originally stand-alone, as were word processing installations. In the last five years, the advances in distributive systems, networking, and personal computer capabilities have provided opportunities to make such dramatic improvements in productivity that the Selectric typewriter has gone from being the most advanced piece of office equipment to nearly total obsolescence.

  7. Complexity and compositionality in fluid intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, John; Chylinski, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Compositionality, or the ability to build complex cognitive structures from simple parts, is fundamental to the power of the human mind. Here we relate this principle to the psychometric concept of fluid intelligence, traditionally measured with tests of complex reasoning. Following the principle of compositionality, we propose that the critical function in fluid intelligence is splitting a complex whole into simple, separately attended parts. To test this proposal, we modify traditional matrix reasoning problems to minimize requirements on information integration, working memory, and processing speed, creating problems that are trivial once effectively divided into parts. Performance remains poor in participants with low fluid intelligence, but is radically improved by problem layout that aids cognitive segmentation. In line with the principle of compositionality, we suggest that effective cognitive segmentation is important in all organized behavior, explaining the broad role of fluid intelligence in successful cognition. PMID:28461462

  8. Recharge to the Eagle Valley ground-water basin by streamflow in Vicee Canyon, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, D.K.; Fischer, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Recharge to groundwater could be increased by adding imported water to natural surface water flow in Vicee Canyon, in Eagle Valley, Nevada, where municipal pumping has caused as much as 50 ft of water level decline since 1972. Measurements of infiltration rates, percolation rates, and hydraulic conductivity indicate that the area could be conducive to artificial recharge from infiltration of augmented streamflow. Runoff creates natural infiltration beds on the floor of Vicee Canyon, but baseflow causes channelization and armoring of the stream channel, reducing infiltration rates from about 4 inches to 1 inch/hour. A water balance of the streamflow in Vicee Canyon indicates that 60 to 70% becomes recharge, and the remainder is lost to evaporation from a nearby gravel pit and evapotranspiration on the canyon floor. Estimates of recharge from measurements in the unsaturated and saturated zones account for about 45% of the total streamflow. Application of a groundwater flow model indicates that at present pumping rates, water levels below Vicee Canyon and at a nearby municipal well may rise about 15-30 ft after 5 years as a result of about 1 cu ft/sec of augmented streamflow infiltration. (USGS)

  9. Inverting the Army Intelligence Pyramid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    Counterinsurgency, Company Intelligence Support Team, COIST, HUMINT, SIGINT, MASINT, OSINT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: (U) 17. LIMITATION OF...intelligence ( OSINT ), signals intelligence (SIGINT), and technical intelligence (TECHINT).14 11

  10. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  11. Educational Programs for Intelligence Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jerry P.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for education programs for competitive intelligence professionals. Highlights include definitions of intelligence functions, focusing on business intelligence; information utilization by decision makers; information sources; competencies for intelligence professionals; and the development of formal education programs. (38…

  12. The 17th Annual Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition: intelligent robots built by intelligent students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, Bernard L.

    2010-01-01

    The Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC) is one of four unmanned systems student competitions that were founded by the Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI). The IGVC is a multidisciplinary exercise in product realization that challenges college engineering student teams to integrate advanced control theory, machine vision, vehicular electronics and mobile platform fundamentals to design and build an unmanned ground vehicle. Teams from around the world focus on developing a suite of dual-use technologies to equip their system of the future with intelligent driving capabilities. Over the past 17 years, the competition has challenged undergraduate, graduate and Ph.D. students with real world applications in intelligent transportation systems, the military and manufacturing automation. To date, teams from over 70 universities and colleges have participated. This paper describes some of the applications of the technologies required by this competition and discusses the educational benefits. The primary goal of the IGVC is to advance engineering education in intelligent vehicles and related technologies. The employment and professional networking opportunities created for students and industrial sponsors through a series of technical events over the four-day competition are highlighted. Finally, an assessment of the competition based on participation is presented.

  13. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    DOEpatents

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  14. Improved zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1988-06-21

    The invention comprises an improved rechargeable zinc-air cell/battery having recirculating alkaline electrolyte and a zinc electrode comprising a porous foam support material which carries the active zinc electrode material. 5 figs.

  15. ENGINEERING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF A PROGRAM FOR ARTIFICIAL GROUNDWATER RECHARGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Bredehoeft, John D.

    1984-01-01

    This study describes and demonstrates two alternate methods for evaluating the relative costs and benefits of artificial groundwater recharge using percolation ponds. The first analysis considers the benefits to be the reduction of pumping lifts and land subsidence; the second considers benefits as the alternative costs of a comparable surface delivery system. Example computations are carried out for an existing artificial recharge program in Santa Clara Valley in California. A computer groundwater model is used to estimate both the average long term and the drought period effects of artificial recharge in the study area. Results indicate that the costs of artificial recharge are considerably smaller than the alternative costs of an equivalent surface system. Refs.

  16. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the recharge boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyrkama, M. I.; Sykes, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    The reliability analysis method is integrated with MODFLOW to study the impact of recharge on the groundwater flow system at a study area in New Jersey. The performance function is formulated in terms of head or flow rate at a pumping well, while the recharge sensitivity vector is computed efficiently by implementing the adjoint method in MODFLOW. The developed methodology not only quantifies the reliability of head at the well in terms of uncertainties in the recharge boundary condition, but it also delineates areas of recharge that have the highest impact on the head and flow rate at the well. The results clearly identify the most important land use areas that should be protected in order to maintain the head and hence production at the pumping well. These areas extend far beyond the steady state well capture zone used for land use planning and management within traditional wellhead protection programs.

  17. Glacierized headwater streams as aquifer recharge corridors, subarctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljedahl, A. K.; Gädeke, A.; O'Neel, S.; Gatesman, T. A.; Douglas, T. A.

    2017-07-01

    Arctic river discharge has increased in recent decades although sources and mechanisms remain debated. Abundant literature documents permafrost thaw and mountain glacier shrinkage over the past decades. Here we link glacier runoff to aquifer recharge via a losing headwater stream in subarctic Interior Alaska. Field measurements in Jarvis Creek (634 km2), a subbasin of the Tanana and Yukon Rivers, show glacier meltwater runoff as a large component (15-28%) of total annual streamflow despite low glacier cover (3%). About half of annual headwater streamflow is lost to the aquifer (38 to 56%). The estimated long-term change in glacier-derived aquifer recharge exceeds the observed increase in Tanana River base flow. Our findings suggest a linkage between glacier wastage, aquifer recharge along the headwater stream corridor, and lowland winter discharge. Accordingly, glacierized headwater streambeds may serve as major aquifer recharge zones in semiarid climates and therefore contributing to year-round base flow of lowland rivers.

  18. Bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hossain, Sohrab; Kozlowski, G.; Goebel, F.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs of a discussion on bipolar rechargeable lithium battery for high power applications are presented. Topics covered include cell chemistry, electrolytes, reaction mechanisms, cycling behavior, cycle life, and cell assembly.

  19. Recharging of contaminated aquifer with reclaimed sewage water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, M. M.; El-Din, M. Nour; Hassan, N. A.

    1995-04-01

    About 40% of the water supply of Cairo, Egypt, is drawn from a groundwater reservoir located southeast of the Nile Delta. Several thousand shallow wells supply drinking water to the farmers from the same groundwater reservoir, which is recharged by seepage from Ismailia canal, the irrigation canal network, and other wastewater lagoons in the same areas. Sewage water lagoons were located at the high ground of the area, recharging contaminated water into the aquifer. Since the groundwater in this area is used for drinking purposes, it was decided to treat the sewage water recharging the aquifer for health reasons. In this paper a solution to the problem is presented using an injection well recharging good quality water into the aquifer. A pumping well located at a distance downstream is used to pump the contaminated water out of the aquifer. A three-dimensional solute transport model was developed to study the concentration distribution with remediation time in the contaminated zone.

  20. NTS groundwater recharge study, FY 1992. Data report

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, B F; Mihevc, T M

    1992-10-01

    Groundwater recharge from precipitation is thought by many scientists to be extremely low in Southem Nevada; however, no direct measurements of recharge have been made to substantiate this hypothesis. Three geomorphic regions have been identified as potential areas of groundwater recharge at the Nevada Test Site (NTS): mesas, washes, and lowlands. Eight recharge monitoring stations have been installed to monitor each of these regions; four of the stations are on Pahute/Rainier Mesa, two stations are in Fortymile Wash, one station is in a transition area between the mesas and the lowlands (Whiterock Spring), and one station is located in Yucca Flat at the bottom of the U-3fd crater. An additional station is proposed for Frenchman Flat near the Area 5 mixed waste facility; however, the instrumentation of that site has been delayed due to the complex permitting process associated with instrument installation near the mixed waste facility. Digital data were collected from eight sites during FY 1992.

  1. Intelligent card processing terminal of urban rail transit in Nanjing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dechuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Song, Yana; He, Tiejun

    2011-10-01

    In order to improve the compatibility, security and expandability of Automatic Fare Collection System in rail transit, and reduce the maintenance cost, intelligent card processing terminal is proposed in this paper. The operation flow and features of intelligent card processing terminal are analyzed in detailed, and the software and hardware structures and business treatment process are designed. Finally, the security mechanism of intelligent card processing terminal is summarized. The application results shows that Intelligent card processing terminal makes interconnection among lines easier, creates considerable economic efficiency and the social efficiency, and can be widely used.

  2. Cryogenic Transport of High-Pressure-System Recharge Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K,; Ruemmele, Warren P.; Bohannon, Carl

    2010-01-01

    A method of relatively safe, compact, efficient recharging of a high-pressure room-temperature gas supply has been proposed. In this method, the gas would be liquefied at the source for transport as a cryogenic fluid at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Upon reaching the destination, a simple heating/expansion process would be used to (1) convert the transported cryogenic fluid to the room-temperature, high-pressure gaseous form in which it is intended to be utilized and (2) transfer the resulting gas to the storage tank of the system to be recharged. In conventional practice for recharging high-pressure-gas systems, gases are transported at room temperature in high-pressure tanks. For recharging a given system to a specified pressure, a transport tank must contain the recharge gas at a much higher pressure. At the destination, the transport tank is connected to the system storage tank to be recharged, and the pressures in the transport tank and the system storage tank are allowed to equalize. One major disadvantage of the conventional approach is that the high transport pressure poses a hazard. Another disadvantage is the waste of a significant amount of recharge gas. Because the transport tank is disconnected from the system storage tank when it is at the specified system recharge pressure, the transport tank still contains a significant amount of recharge gas (typically on the order of half of the amount transported) that cannot be used. In the proposed method, the cryogenic fluid would be transported in a suitably thermally insulated tank that would be capable of withstanding the recharge pressure of the destination tank. The tank would be equipped with quick-disconnect fluid-transfer fittings and with a low-power electric heater (which would not be used during transport). In preparation for transport, a relief valve would be attached via one of the quick-disconnect fittings (see figure). During transport, the interior of the tank would be kept at a near

  3. Hydrogeological Methods for Assessing Feasibility of Artificial Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Koo, M.; Lee, K.; Moon, D.; Barry, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents the hydrogeological methods to assess the feasibility of artificial recharge in Jeju Island, Korea for securing both sustainable groundwater resources and severe floods. Jeju-friendly Aquifer Recharge Technology (J-ART) in this study is developing by capturing ephemeral stream water with no interference in the environments such as natural recharge or eco-system, storing the flood water in the reservoirs, recharging it through designed borehole after appropriate water treatment, and then making it to be used at down-gradient production wells. Many hydrogeological methods, including physico-chemical surface water and groundwater monitoring, geophysical survey, stable isotope analysis, and groundwater modeling have been employed to predict and assess the artificially recharged surface waters flow and circulation between recharge area and discharge area. In the study of physico-chemical water monitoring survey, the analyses of surface water level and velocity, of water qualities including turbidity, and of suspended soil settling velocity were performed. For understanding subsurface hydrogeologic characteristics the injection test was executed and the results are 118-336 m2/day of transmissivity and 4,367-11,032 m3/day of the maximum intake water capacity. Characterizing groundwater flow from recharge area to discharge area should be achieved to assess the efficiency of J-ART. The resistivity logging was carried out to predict water flow in unsaturated zone during artificial recharge based on the inverse modeling and resistivity change patterns. Stable isotopes of deuterium and oxygen-18 of surface waters and groundwaters have been determined to interpret mixing and flow in groundwaters impacted by artificial recharge. A numerical model simulating groundwater flow and heat transport to assess feasibility of artificial recharge has been developed using the hydraulic properties of aquifers, groundwater levels, borehole temperatures, and meteorological

  4. Groundwater Modelling For Recharge Estimation Using Satellite Based Evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soheili, Mahmoud; (Tom) Rientjes, T. H. M.; (Christiaan) van der Tol, C.

    2017-04-01

    Groundwater movement is influenced by several factors and processes in the hydrological cycle, from which, recharge is of high relevance. Since the amount of aquifer extractable water directly relates to the recharge amount, estimation of recharge is a perquisite of groundwater resources management. Recharge is highly affected by water loss mechanisms the major of which is actual evapotranspiration (ETa). It is, therefore, essential to have detailed assessment of ETa impact on groundwater recharge. The objective of this study was to evaluate how recharge was affected when satellite-based evapotranspiration was used instead of in-situ based ETa in the Salland area, the Netherlands. The Methodology for Interactive Planning for Water Management (MIPWA) model setup which includes a groundwater model for the northern part of the Netherlands was used for recharge estimation. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) based actual evapotranspiration maps from Waterschap Groot Salland were also used. Comparison of SEBAL based ETa estimates with in-situ abased estimates in the Netherlands showed that these SEBAL estimates were not reliable. As such results could not serve for calibrating root zone parameters in the CAPSIM model. The annual cumulative ETa map produced by the model showed that the maximum amount of evapotranspiration occurs in mixed forest areas in the northeast and a portion of central parts. Estimates ranged from 579 mm to a minimum of 0 mm in the highest elevated areas with woody vegetation in the southeast of the region. Variations in mean seasonal hydraulic head and groundwater level for each layer showed that the hydraulic gradient follows elevation in the Salland area from southeast (maximum) to northwest (minimum) of the region which depicts the groundwater flow direction. The mean seasonal water balance in CAPSIM part was evaluated to represent recharge estimation in the first layer. The highest recharge estimated flux was for autumn

  5. Zinc electrode and rechargeable zinc-air battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P.N. Jr.

    1989-06-27

    This patent describes an improved zinc electrode for a rechargeable zinc-air battery comprising an outer frame and a porous foam electrode support within the frame which is treated prior to the deposition of zinc thereon to inhibit the formation of zinc dendrites on the external surface thereof. The outer frame is provided with passageways for circulating an alkaline electrolyte through the treated zinc-coated porous foam. A novel rechargeable zinc-air battery system is also disclosed.

  6. Investigation of artificial recharge of aquifers in Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichtler, William F.; Stannard, David I.; Kouma, Edwin

    1980-01-01

    Progressive declines of ground-water levels in some areas of Nebraska prompted this investigation into the technical feasibility of recharging aquifers through wells, impoundments, pits, and canals. Information gained from a literature search and from preliminary tests was used to design several artificial-recharge experiments in Nebraska from 1977 to 1979. In well experiments, 0.46 billion gallons of water from an aquifer recharged by the Platte River was transported by pipeline and injected through a well into a sand and gravel aquifer near Aurora. Recharge was at about 730 gallons per minute during tests of 6- and 8-months duration. No evidence of clogging of the aquifer due to chemical reactions, air entrainment, or bacteria was detected in either test. In the 6-month test, evidence of clogging due to fine sediment in the recharge water was detected; however, analysis of this test indicated that recharge could have continued for several years before rehabilitation would have become necessary. Results of the 8-month test confirmed results of the earlier test until casing failure in the supply well and subsequent sediment deposition in the recharge well caused rapid water-level rise in the recharge well. In surface-spreading experiments, maximum infiltration rates from 24-foot-diameter ring infiltrometers near Aurora and Tryon were 0.4 and 11 feet per day, respectively. Results indicate that large-scale surface spreading is feasible only where low-permeability layers are absent in the subsurface. Infiltration rates from reuse pits ranged from 0.01 to 1.6 feet per day, indicating highly variable subsurface permeability. Flow measurements in an irrigation canal near Farwell indicate an infiltration rate of 0.37 feet per day. (USGS)

  7. Statistical Method for Identification of Potential Groundwater Recharge Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Pallavi; Singh, V. S.

    2010-05-01

    The effective development of groundwater resource is essential for a country like India. Artificial recharge is the planned, human activity of augmenting the amount of groundwater available through works designed to increase the natural replenishment or percolation of surface waters into the groundwater aquifers, resulting in a corresponding increase in the amount of groundwater available for abstraction. India receives good amount of average annual rainfall about 114 cm but most of it's part waste through runoff. The imbalance between rainfall and recharge has caused serious shortage of water for drinking, agriculture and industrial purposes. The over exploitation of groundwater due to increasing population is an additional cause of water crisis that resulting in reduction in per capita availability of water in the country. Thus the planning for effective development of groundwater is essential through artificial recharge. Objective of the paper is to identification of artificial recharge zones by arresting runoff through suitable sites to restore groundwater conditions using statistical technique. The water table variation follows a pattern similar to rainfall variation with time delay. The rainfall and its relationship with recharge is a very important process in a shallow aquifer system. Understanding of this process is of critical importance to management of groundwater resource in any terrain. Groundwater system in a top weathered regolith in a balastic terrain forms shallow aquifer is often classified into shallow water table category. In the present study an effort has been made to understand the suitable recharge zone with relation to rainfall and water level by using statistical analysis. Daily time series data of rainfall and borehole water level data are cross correlated to investigate variations in groundwater level response time during the months of monsoon. This measurement facilitate to demarcate favorable areas for Artificial Recharge. KEYWORDS

  8. Sources of uncertainty in climate change impacts on groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, I. P.

    2007-12-01

    This paper assesses the significance of the many sources of uncertainty in future groundwater recharge estimation, based on lessons learnt from an integrated approach to assessing the regional impacts of climate and socio-economic change on groundwater recharge in East Anglia, UK. Many factors affect simulations of future groundwater recharge including changed precipitation and temperature regimes, coastal flooding, urbanization, woodland establishment, and changes in cropping, rotations and management practices. Stochastic modelling of potential recharge showed median annual recharge decreasing under a High emissions future from 75 mm (1961-90) to 56 mm in the 2020s and 45 mm in the 2050s. However, the median values for individual simulations ranged from 46-75 mm (2020s) and 30-71 mm (2050s) highlighting a decreasing but uncertain trend. The impacts of (and uncertainty in) the climate scenarios are generally regionally more important than those of the socio-economic scenarios. However, locally, the impacts of the socio-economic scenarios can be significant, especially where there are large increases in urbanization, agricultural land cover, bioenergy production, or agricultural management practices. For example, management of soil conditions can increase potential groundwater recharge by around 5 %, but poor management can further reduce potential recharge by up to 15 %. The paper will demonstrate that to focus on the direct impacts of climate change is to neglect the potentially important role of policy, societal values and economic processes in shaping the landscape above aquifers. If the likely consequences of future changes of groundwater recharge, resulting from both climate and socio-economic change, are to be assessed, hydrogeologists must increasingly work with researchers from other disciplines, such as socio-economists, agricultural modellers and soil scientists

  9. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

    1993-11-01

    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  10. Recharge to the North Richland well field

    SciTech Connect

    Law, A.G.

    1989-07-01

    The investigation was based on a preliminary ground-water flow model of the 1100 Area. Because few local data were available for this effort, an existing regional ground-water flow model of the Hanford Site was applied, which is based on the Variable Thickness Transient (VTT) ground-water flow code (Kipp et al., 1976). A submodel of the Hanford Site model was developed based on the VTT code. An independent model consisting of a simple representation of the local conditions in the vicinity of the North Richland well field was also used in the investigation. This model, based on the MODFLOW code (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1984), was used in a series of transient simulations to examine dynamic aspects of the well field/recharge basin. Results from this simple model also provide an independent, qualitative check of results produced with the 1100 Area model based on the VTT code. This report summarizes the 1100 Area modeling investigation, including the approach used to generate results for the regional and 1100 Area VTT models, the approach used in the transient MODFLOW model, results from some initial steady-state and transient simulations with the submodel and the MODFLOW models, and resulting conclusions and recommendations. Because local data were lacking to develop and calibrate the models, the investigation described in this report can best be described as a ''sensitivity analysis'' of ground-water flow in the 1100 Area. 4 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Rechargeable wireless EMG sensor for prosthetic control.

    PubMed

    Lichter, P A; Lange, E H; Riehle, T H; Anderson, S M; Hedin, D S

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrodes in modern myoelectric prosthetics are often embedded in the prosthesis socket and make contact with the skin. These electrodes detect and amplify muscle action potentials from voluntary contractions of the muscle in the residual limb and are used to control the prosthetic's movement and function. There are a number of performance-related deficiencies associated with external electrodes including the maintenance of sufficient electromyogram (EMG) signal amplitude, extraneous noise acquisition, and proper electrode interface maintenance that are expected to be improved or eliminated using the proposed implanted sensors. This research seeks to investigate the design components for replacing external electrodes with fully-implantable myoelectric sensors that include a wireless interface to the prosthetic limbs. This implanted technology will allow prosthetic limb manufacturers to provide products with increased performance, capability, and patient-comfort. The EMG signals from the intramuscular recording electrode are amplified and wirelessly transmitted to a receiver in the prosthetic limb. Power to the implant is maintained using a rechargeable battery and an inductive energy transfer link from the prosthetic. A full experimental system was developed to demonstrate that a wireless biopotential sensor can be designed that meets the requirements of size, power, and performance for implantation.

  12. Wearable textile battery rechargeable by solar energy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hee; Kim, Joo-Seong; Noh, Jonghyeon; Lee, Inhwa; Kim, Hyeong Jun; Choi, Sunghun; Seo, Jeongmin; Jeon, Seokwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yong; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Wearable electronics represent a significant paradigm shift in consumer electronics since they eliminate the necessity for separate carriage of devices. In particular, integration of flexible electronic devices with clothes, glasses, watches, and skin will bring new opportunities beyond what can be imagined by current inflexible counterparts. Although considerable progresses have been seen for wearable electronics, lithium rechargeable batteries, the power sources of the devices, do not keep pace with such progresses due to tenuous mechanical stabilities, causing them to remain as the limiting elements in the entire technology. Herein, we revisit the key components of the battery (current collector, binder, and separator) and replace them with the materials that support robust mechanical endurance of the battery. The final full-cells in the forms of clothes and watchstraps exhibited comparable electrochemical performance to those of conventional metal foil-based cells even under severe folding-unfolding motions simulating actual wearing conditions. Furthermore, the wearable textile battery was integrated with flexible and lightweight solar cells on the battery pouch to enable convenient solar-charging capabilities.

  13. Transient Rechargeable Batteries Triggered by Cascade Reactions.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Liu, Zhen; Yao, Yonggang; Wang, Zhengyang; Zhao, Bin; Luo, Wei; Dai, Jiaqi; Lacey, Steven D; Zhou, Lihui; Shen, Fei; Kim, Myeongseob; Swafford, Laura; Sengupta, Louise; Hu, Liangbing

    2015-07-08

    Transient battery is a new type of technology that allows the battery to disappear by an external trigger at any time. In this work, we successfully demonstrated the first transient rechargeable batteries based on dissoluble electrodes including V2O5 as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode as well as a biodegradable separator and battery encasement (PVP and sodium alginate, respectively). All the components are robust in a traditional lithium-ion battery (LIB) organic electrolyte and disappear in water completely within minutes due to triggered cascade reactions. With a simple cut-and-stack method, we designed a fully transient device with an area of 0.5 cm by 1 cm and total energy of 0.1 J. A shadow-mask technique was used to demonstrate the miniature device, which is compatible with transient electronics manufacturing. The materials, fabrication methods, and integration strategy discussed will be of interest for future developments in transient, self-powered electronics. The demonstration of a miniature Li battery shows the feasibility toward system integration for all transient electronics.

  14. Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg were realized in practical batteries. Other technological advantages include its chemical simplicity, absence of self-discharge, and long cycle life possibility. More recently, other high temperature sodium batteries have come into the spotlight. These systems can be described as follow: Na/Beta Double Prime-Al2O3/NaAlCl4/Metal Dichloride Sodium/metal dichloride systems are colloquially known as the zebra system and are currently being developed for traction and load leveling applications. The sodium-metal dichloride systems appear to offer many of the same advantages of the Na/S system, especially in terms of energy density and chemical simplicity. The metal dichloride systems offer increased safety and good resistance to overcharge and operate over a wide range of temperatures from 150 to 400 C with less corrosion problems.

  15. Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries: Low-Cost Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries with High Energy Density

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    BEEST Project: Pellion Technologies is developing rechargeable magnesium batteries that would enable an EV to travel 3 times farther than it could using Li-ion batteries. Prototype magnesium batteries demonstrate excellent electrochemical behavior; delivering thousands of charge cycles with very little fade. Nevertheless, these prototypes have always stored too little energy to be commercially viable. Pellion Technologies is working to overcome this challenge by rapidly screening potential storage materials using proprietary, high-throughput computer models. To date, 12,000 materials have been identified and analyzed. The resulting best materials have been electrochemically tested, yielding several very promising candidates.

  16. Intelligence: Genetic and Environmental Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancro, Robert, Ed.

    This book on the genetic and environmental influences on intelligence is comprised of the following papers: "The Structure of Intelligence in Relation to the Nature-Nurture Controversy," R. B. Cattell; "Theory of Intelligence," L. G. Humphreys; "Using Measured Intelligence Intelligently," P. R. Merrifield; "Intelligence: Definition, Theory, and…

  17. Intelligent Extruder

    SciTech Connect

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  18. The Policy of "Pumping the Recharge" Is Out of Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balleau, W. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogeologists have spent several scientific generations in understanding the source of water to well fields and the effects of wells on the interrelated surface water system. The benchmark is by Theis [1940], who emphasized that some groundwater is initially mined during aquifer development and, after sufficient time, well discharge will be made up by diminution of both rejected recharge and natural discharge. Rejected recharge is water that would reside in the aquifer, except for a lack of space available. Theis advised that a perennial safe yield is equivalent to the amount of rejected recharge and natural discharge that is "feasible to utilize." His term "feasible" may have anticipated many current issues about aquifer sustainability. Papers published this year on the Ogallala aquifer in the central United States and on the global groundwater "footprint" [Scanlon et al., 2012; Gleeson et al., 2012] focus on recharge as an index of sustainability and have been featured in the popular press. However, I argue in this Forum that natural recharge rates alone cannot serve to address the core policy question regarding sustainable aquifer conditions in response to well field stresses. For the sake of users of hydrologic guidance, advisors on this topic may wish to reconsider the safe nature of "pumping the recharge."

  19. Effect of temporally correlated recharge on fluctuations of groundwater levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, You-Kuan; Li, Zhongwei

    2006-10-01

    The effect of temporally correlated groundwater recharge, R(t), on fluctuations of the hydraulic head, h(t), was investigated with theoretical analyses and numerical simulations. Under an exponentially correlated recharge (ECR) process, analytical solutions for the hydraulic head covariance, Chh, and variance, σh2, were derived with a linear reservoir model. It was found that Chh and σh2 are time-dependent or nonstationary and reduce to those derived in a previous study for a white noise recharge (WNR) when the correlation timescale of the recharge process approaches zero. It is also found that σh2 for ECR is proportional to t2, while that for WNR is proportional to t for a substantial period of time, indicating that h(t) under ECR may vary as a smooth curve with no fractal characteristics (D = 1.0), while h(t) under WNR fluctuates as a Brownian motion (D = 1.5). The theoretical findings were verified by numerical simulations: The power spectra of the simulated heads with a one-dimensional transient groundwater flow model under ECR were shown to have distinct slopes in the log-log plot with D = 1.02. It was emphasized that the effect of temporal correlation in groundwater recharge is to dampen the fluctuations of the head and base flow and that daily groundwater recharge rates may have little temporal correlation in the hydrogeological conditions similar to the Walnut Creek site.

  20. Seasonal variation in natural recharge of coastal aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollema, Pauline N.; Antonellini, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Many coastal zones around the world have irregular precipitation throughout the year. This results in discontinuous natural recharge of coastal aquifers, which affects the size of freshwater lenses present in sandy deposits. Temperature data for the period 1960-1990 from LocClim (local climate estimator) and those obtained from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) SRES A1b scenario for 2070-2100, have been used to calculate the potential evapotranspiration with the Thornthwaite method. Potential recharge (difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) was defined at 12 locations: Ameland (The Netherlands), Auckland and Wellington (New Zealand); Hong Kong (China); Ravenna (Italy), Mekong (Vietnam), Mumbai (India), New Jersey (USA), Nile Delta (Egypt), Kobe and Tokyo (Japan), and Singapore. The influence of variable/discontinuous recharge on the size of freshwater lenses was simulated with the SEAWAT model. The discrepancy between models with continuous and with discontinuous recharge is relatively small in areas where the total annual recharge is low (258-616 mm/year); but in places with Monsoon-dominated climate (e.g. Mumbai, with recharge up to 1,686 mm/year), the difference in freshwater-lens thickness between the discontinuous and the continuous model is larger (up to 5 m) and thus important to consider in numerical models that estimate freshwater availability.

  1. Analysis of the infrastructure for recharging electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, R.; Graver, C.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the infrastructure ofr recharging electric vehicles (EV), equivalent to the refueling infrastructure for internal combustion engines (ICE), shows that many of the infrastructure elements required to recharge a large number of EV's in the U.S. are already in place. The U.S. utility industry has sufficient capacity to support at least 13 million EV's if they are recharged at night. There are at least 20 million single-family homes where an EV could be recharged by adding a 230 volt, 50 amp branch circuit and outlet. This support is not uniformly distributed, however, and will depend on the local housing stock characteristics. With respect to range-extension support, transient recharging stations could supply emergency recharging, but would not be desirable for routine use. Battery exchange would be feasible once there are enough EV's on the road. A range-extension hybrid could use the existing ICE refueling infrastructure, but would require further technical development, and would still depend somewhat on petroleum availability.

  2. Ephemeral channel recharge and near-channel evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodrich, D.; Williams, D.; Scott, R.; Unkrich, C.; Hultine, K.

    2003-04-01

    Ephemeral channel transmission losses play an important role in ground water/surface water dynamics in arid and semi-arid basins in the Southwest. However, identification of the processes driving these dynamics is difficult. Specifically, data on the proportion of runoff transmission losses that escape from near-channel evapotranspiration (ET) and wetted channel evaporation to become deep ground water recharge are difficult to obtain. Quantifying recharge with greater certainty is a critical need required to manage basins whose primary source of water supply is derived from groundwater. This paper addresses two principal objectives: 1) Assess the magnitude and seasonality of ephemeral channel recharge to the regional aquifer and a perched aquifer occluded from the regional aquifer; and, 2) Monitor the dynamics of ET and water movement between Flume 6, Flume 2, and Flume 1 of the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW). Groundwater, surface water, chemical, isotopic, tree sap flux and micrometeorological techniques were used to independently estimate ephemeral channel recharge. It was found that during the 1999 and 2000 monsoon seasons a substantial amount of water recharged into the regional aquifer in the 7 km reach between flume 2 and flume 1 of the WGEW. In 2001 and 2002 no recharge was detected.

  3. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  4. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  5. Creating a 21st-century intelligent health system.

    PubMed

    Newt, Gingrich; Nancy, Desmond

    2008-02-01

    In most areas of life, Americans enjoy the ease and convenience offered by advances in technology, communications, and transportation. Every day we experience the 21st-century model of America, which is one of effectiveness, accuracy, speed, flexibility, efficiency, lower cost, more choices, and greater achievement. We can shop online, compare prices for goods and services, and when decisions need to be made, we have access to a wide array of information sources to assist in making those decisions. In short, Americans enjoy great latitude in our power to determine what is best for us. This is not, however, the case when it comes to health and healthcare. In our current healthcare system, individuals are dependent on a structure that has resisted the natural progress and modernization achieved by market-oriented, 21st-century industries. The information age has been leaving health behind. Although it is the nature of a science- and technology-based entrepreneurial free market to provide more choices of higher quality at lower cost, in the healthcare sector, prices continue to rise, quality is inconsistent, and individuals lack the information, incentives, and power to make choices.

  6. Using Concept Maps to More Efficiently Create Intelligence Information Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    from time to time to make this possible. Christopher E. Coryell v Table of Contents Page Abstract...iv Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v List of Figures...34 4.1.3 Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 4.1.4 Database Creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 V . Validation

  7. Soil Water Balance and Recharge Monitoring at the Hanford Site – FY 2010 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, Michael J.; Saunders, Danielle L.; Herrington, Ricky S.; Felmy, Diana

    2010-10-27

    This report summarizes the recharge data collected in FY 2010 at five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Average monthly precipitation and temperature conditions in FY 2010 were near normal and did not present an opportunity for increased recharge. The recharge monitoring data confirmed those conditions, showing normal behavior in water content, matric head, and recharge rates. Also provided in this report is a strategy for recharge estimation for the next 5 years.

  8. Macromolecular networks and intelligence in microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Brooks, Aaron N.; Simeonidis, Evangelos; García-Contreras, Rodolfo; He, Fei; Boogerd, Fred C.; Jackson, Victoria J.; Goncharuk, Valeri; Kolodkin, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Living organisms persist by virtue of complex interactions among many components organized into dynamic, environment-responsive networks that span multiple scales and dimensions. Biological networks constitute a type of information and communication technology (ICT): they receive information from the outside and inside of cells, integrate and interpret this information, and then activate a response. Biological networks enable molecules within cells, and even cells themselves, to communicate with each other and their environment. We have become accustomed to associating brain activity – particularly activity of the human brain – with a phenomenon we call “intelligence.” Yet, four billion years of evolution could have selected networks with topologies and dynamics that confer traits analogous to this intelligence, even though they were outside the intercellular networks of the brain. Here, we explore how macromolecular networks in microbes confer intelligent characteristics, such as memory, anticipation, adaptation and reflection and we review current understanding of how network organization reflects the type of intelligence required for the environments in which they were selected. We propose that, if we were to leave terms such as “human” and “brain” out of the defining features of “intelligence,” all forms of life – from microbes to humans – exhibit some or all characteristics consistent with “intelligence.” We then review advances in genome-wide data production and analysis, especially in microbes, that provide a lens into microbial intelligence and propose how the insights derived from quantitatively characterizing biomolecular networks may enable synthetic biologists to create intelligent molecular networks for biotechnology, possibly generating new forms of intelligence, first in silico and then in vivo. PMID:25101076

  9. Intelligent Systems Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    1Krasnow Institute for Advanced Studies -- George Mason University Intelligent Systems Design James Albus Senior NIST Fellow – Retired Intelligent ...REPORT DATE DEC 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intelligent Systems Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ADDRESS(ES) Intelligent Systems Division National Institute of Standards and Technology 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  10. How Artificial Intelligence Impacts Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruyle, Kim E.

    1986-01-01

    Explores an artificial intelligence expert system authoring tool called EXSYS. Describes the system, which consists of an instruction manual and several floppy disks containing a rule editor for creating, editing, and experimenting with an expert system, a runtime program for running any existing EXSYS expert system, and several tutorial and…

  11. Leveraging business intelligence to make better decisions: Part I.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Data is the new currency. Business intelligence tools will provide better performing practices with a competitive intelligence advantage that will separate the high performers from the rest of the pack. Given the investments of time and money into our data systems, practice leaders must work to take every advantage and look at the datasets as a potential goldmine of business intelligence decision tools. A fresh look at decision tools created from practice data will create efficiencies and improve effectiveness for end-users and managers.

  12. An Efficient Wireless Recharging Mechanism for Achieving Perpetual Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongli; Chen, Guilin; Zhao, Shenghui; Chang, Chih-Yung; Chin, Yu-Ting

    2016-12-23

    Energy recharging has received much attention in recent years. Several recharging mechanisms were proposed for achieving perpetual lifetime of a given Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). However, most of them require a mobile recharger to visit each sensor and then perform the recharging task, which increases the length of the recharging path. Another common weakness of these works is the requirement for the mobile recharger to stop at the location of each sensor. As a result, it is impossible for recharger to move with a constant speed, leading to inefficient movement. To improve the recharging efficiency, this paper takes "recharging while moving" into consideration when constructing the recharging path. We propose a Recharging Path Construction (RPC) mechanism, which enables the mobile recharger to recharge all sensors using a constant speed, aiming to minimize the length of recharging path and improve the recharging efficiency while achieving the requirement of perpetual network lifetime of a given WSN. Performance studies reveal that the proposed RPC outperforms existing proposals in terms of path length and energy utilization index, as well as visiting cycle.

  13. Comparing potential recharge estimates from three Land Surface Models across the western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niraula, Rewati; Meixner, Thomas; Ajami, Hoori; Rodell, Matthew; Gochis, David; Castro, Christopher L.

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater is a major source of water in the western US. However, there are limited recharge estimates in this region due to the complexity of recharge processes and the challenge of direct observations. Land surface Models (LSMs) could be a valuable tool for estimating current recharge and projecting changes due to future climate change. In this study, simulations of three LSMs (Noah, Mosaic and VIC) obtained from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) are used to estimate potential recharge in the western US. Modeled recharge was compared with published recharge estimates for several aquifers in the region. Annual recharge to precipitation ratios across the study basins varied from 0.01% to 15% for Mosaic, 3.2% to 42% for Noah, and 6.7% to 31.8% for VIC simulations. Mosaic consistently underestimates recharge across all basins. Noah captures recharge reasonably well in wetter basins, but overestimates it in drier basins. VIC slightly overestimates recharge in drier basins and slightly underestimates it for wetter basins. While the average annual recharge values vary among the models, the models were consistent in identifying high and low recharge areas in the region. Models agree in seasonality of recharge occurring dominantly during the spring across the region. Overall, our results highlight that LSMs have the potential to capture the spatial and temporal patterns as well as seasonality of recharge at large scales. Therefore, LSMs (specifically VIC and Noah) can be used as a tool for estimating future recharge in data limited regions.

  14. An Efficient Wireless Recharging Mechanism for Achieving Perpetual Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongli; Chen, Guilin; Zhao, Shenghui; Chang, Chih-Yung; Chin, Yu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Energy recharging has received much attention in recent years. Several recharging mechanisms were proposed for achieving perpetual lifetime of a given Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). However, most of them require a mobile recharger to visit each sensor and then perform the recharging task, which increases the length of the recharging path. Another common weakness of these works is the requirement for the mobile recharger to stop at the location of each sensor. As a result, it is impossible for recharger to move with a constant speed, leading to inefficient movement. To improve the recharging efficiency, this paper takes “recharging while moving” into consideration when constructing the recharging path. We propose a Recharging Path Construction (RPC) mechanism, which enables the mobile recharger to recharge all sensors using a constant speed, aiming to minimize the length of recharging path and improve the recharging efficiency while achieving the requirement of perpetual network lifetime of a given WSN. Performance studies reveal that the proposed RPC outperforms existing proposals in terms of path length and energy utilization index, as well as visiting cycle. PMID:28025567

  15. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  16. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  17. Jensen and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Nathan

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the contributions of Arthur Jensen to the study of intelligence and considers his writings on the topic of racial differences in scores on tests of intelligence. Concludes with a discussion of his work on the correlates of the "g" vector (general intelligence factor). (Author/SLD)

  18. Calendrical Calculation and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Neil; Cowan, Richard; Samella, Katerina

    2000-01-01

    Studied the ability to name the days of the week for dates in the past and future (calendrical calculation) of 10 calendrical savants with Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale scores from 50 to 97. Results suggest that although low intelligence does not prevent the development of this skill, the talent depends on general intelligence. (SLD)

  19. Intelligence and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, M.; Prieto, M. D.; Ferrandiz, C.; Sanchez, C.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous authors have investigated the relationship which exists between creativity and intelligence, and diverse results were found. Thus, Guilford (1950) includes creativity within the intelligence construct, Sternberg (1988) alludes to creativity as encompassing the intelligence construct; Gardner (1995) indicates a close…

  20. Intelligence and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, M.; Prieto, M. D.; Ferrandiz, C.; Sanchez, C.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous authors have investigated the relationship which exists between creativity and intelligence, and diverse results were found. Thus, Guilford (1950) includes creativity within the intelligence construct, Sternberg (1988) alludes to creativity as encompassing the intelligence construct; Gardner (1995) indicates a close…

  1. Diversity in Our Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Jesus I.

    2002-01-01

    Babies and young children learn through extensive experimenting and by being encouraged, unknowingly, by parents to use their multiple intelligences. Later, children are forced to conform to the narrow intelligence valued by the formal education system; those who can not adapt drop out. By using multiple intelligences, we access a greater portion…

  2. Intelligent web agents for a 3D virtual community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, T. M.; Zhang, Yanqing; Owen, G. S. S.; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, we propose an Avatar-based intelligent agent technique for 3D Web based Virtual Communities based on distributed artificial intelligence, intelligent agent techniques, and databases and knowledge bases in a digital library. One of the goals of this joint NSF (IIS-9980130) and ACM SIGGRAPH Education Committee (ASEC) project is to create a virtual community of educators and students who have a common interest in comptuer graphics, visualization, and interactive techniqeus. In this virtual community (ASEC World) Avatars will represent the educators, students, and other visitors to the world. Intelligent agents represented as specially dressed Avatars will be available to assist the visitors to ASEC World. The basic Web client-server architecture of the intelligent knowledge-based avatars is given. Importantly, the intelligent Web agent software system for the 3D virtual community is implemented successfully.

  3. The intelligent automotive battery, "CYBOX ®"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Keizo; Yamada, Yoshifumi; Otsu, Koji; Machiyama, Yoshiaki; Emori, Akihiko; Okoshi, Teturo

    An intelligent battery to monitor battery states for an automotive use was newly developed. A main parameter to monitor battery states are based on the measurement of voltage variations that are to fluctuate immediately after an engine ignition. The developed monitoring unit is embedded into the lead-acid battery "CYBOX ®" which does not have a current monitoring unit. The monitoring unit that has an alarm system which is compact and highly reliable essentially diagnoses the state of charge and the state of health of battery states in order to inform automotive user of the adequate timing of replace, recharge, and the hazardous state of overcharge of batteries. The battery-monitoring unit has an optical data transfer system to extract internal data from external device. The battery-monitoring unit also has a data acquisition instrument which receives more detailed monitored historical data from the optical data transfer system of the monitoring unit.

  4. Groundwater recharge variation under climatic variability in Ajlun area and the recharge zone of Wadi Arab well field - Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raggad, Marwan Al; Alqadi, Mohammad; Magri, Fabien; Disse, Markus; Chiogna, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    Pumping of 75 MCM/yr from Ajlun area and Wadi Arab well field has led to diminished groundwater levels in North Jordan and dramatically affects ecosystem services. Climate change compounds these issues by reducing recharge and increasing the ecosystem's hydrological demand. This paper investigates groundwater recharge response to climatic changes in North Jordan by modeling climatic parameters for the time frame 2015 - 2050. Water budget components were modeled through the J2000 hydrological model considering a groundwater recharge of 47 MCM/yr. Statistical downscaling of global circulation models indicated a decline in precipitation of around 30% by the year 2050 with 2.5 and 2 °C increases in maximum and minimum temperature, respectively. Recharge for the year 2050 was recalculated based on the downscaling results to be 27% less than current recharge. Continuous over-pumping with recharge reduction will cause a 30-70% reduction in saturated thickness by the same year. Modeling groundwater resilience under the new conditions showed a severe impact on the study area especially in the central parts which are expected to comprise a semi dry aquifer by 2050.

  5. Studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yi

    The studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are included in this thesis. In the first part of this thesis, a linear sweep voltammetry method to study polysulfide transport through separators is presented. Shuttle of polysulfide from the sulfur cathode to lithium metal anode in rechargeable Li-S batteries is a critical issue hindering cycling efficiency and life. Several approaches have been developed to minimize it including polysulfide-blocking separators; there is a need for measuring polysulfide transport through separators. We have developed a linear sweep voltammetry method to measure the anodic (oxidization) current of polysulfides crossed separators, which can be used as a quantitative measurement of the polysulfide transport through separators. The electrochemical oxidation of polysulfide is diffusion controlled. The electrical charge in Coulombs produced by the oxidation of polysulfide is linearly related to the concentration of polysulfide within a certain range (≤ 0.5 M). Separators with a high porosity (large pore size) show high anodic currents, resulting in fast capacity degradation and low Coulombic efficiencies in Li-S cells. These results demonstrate this method can be used to correlate the polysulfide transport through separators with the separator structure and battery performance, therefore provide guidance for developing new separators for Li-S batteries. The second part includes a study on improving cycling performance of Li/polysulfide batteries by applying a functional polymer on carbon current collector. Significant capacity decay over cycling in Li-S batteries is a major impediment for their practical applications. Polysulfides Li2S x (3 < x ≤ 8) formed in the cycling are soluble in liquid electrolyte, which is the main reason for capacity loss and cycling instability. Functional polymers can tune the structure and property of sulfur electrodes, hold polysulfides, and improve cycle life. We have examined a

  6. Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

  7. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-12-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

  8. Oxocarbon Salts for Fast Rechargeable Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Wang, Jianbin; Lu, Yong; Li, Yixin; Liang, Guangxin; Chen, Jun

    2016-09-26

    Oxocarbon salts (M2 (CO)n ) prepared through one-pot proton exchange reactions with different metal ions (M=Li, Na, K) and frameworks (n=4, 5, 6) have been rationally designed and used as electrodes in rechargeable Li, Na, and K-ion batteries. The results show that M2 (CO)5 /M2 (CO)6 salts can insert two or four metal ions reversibly, while M2 (CO)4 shows less electrochemical activity. Especially, we discover that the K2 C6 O6 electrode enables ultrafast potassium-ion insertion/extraction with 212 mA h g(-1) at 0.2 C and 164 mA h g(-1) at 10 C. This behavior can be ascribed to the natural semiconductor property of K2 C6 O6 with a narrow band gap close to 0.9 eV, the high ionic conductivity of the K-ion electrolyte, and the facilitated K-ion diffusion process. Moreover, a first example of a K-ion battery with a rocking-chair reaction mechanism of K2 C6 O6 as cathode and K4 C6 O6 as anode is introduced, displaying an operation voltage of 1.1 V and an energy density of 35 Wh kg(-1) . This work provides an interesting strategy for constructing rapid K-ion batteries with renewable and abundant potassium materials. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Coupling Stormwater Capture and Managed Aquifer Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beganskas, S.; Hill, C. L.; Fisher, A. T.; Los Huertos, M.

    2013-12-01

    We are quantifying the performance of a system that couples stormwater capture and managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Our field site is a working ranch in the Pajaro Valley, central coastal California, where runoff from ~125 acres of farmed and grazed land is directed into a 2.5-acre infiltration basin. Stormwater captured for MAR at this site would otherwise be routed off the property and eventually into the ocean. We instrumented the site prior to the start of the 2013 water year (1 October 2012) to measure local precipitation, total inflow to the basin, and point-specific infiltration rates across the bottom of the basin using heat as a tracer. We also deployed sediment measurement and collection instruments to quantify the amount, texture, and biochemical nature of sediment accumulating in the basin, and to evaluate associated maintenance requirements for the system. The 2013 water year was relatively dry, with total precipitation less than 50% of the long-term average for this region; most of this precipitation occurred in December 2012. Water level and flow records indicate 17 distinct rain events that generated runoff, most early in the water year. The total inflow to the infiltration basin was 4.1 x 104 m3, equivalent to ~33 ac-ft. During a water year with average precipitation, it appears that this system could collect 80-100 ac-ft of runoff. There was up to 10 cm of sediment accumulation in some parts of the infiltration basin by the end of the rainy season. Sediment samples collected at the end of the season are being processed for analysis of sediment distribution and character. Thermal data are being analyzed to calculate spatial and temporal variations in infiltration rates across the basin. These data will be combined to assess the efficacy of coupling stormwater capture and MAR, and can guide future projects in this region of high groundwater demand and limited resources.

  10. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-01-01

    Electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells are being investigated and developed. Candidate support materials were drawn from transition metal carbides, borides, nitrides and oxides which have high conductivity (greater than 1 ohm/cm). Candidate catalyst materials were selected largely from metal oxides of the form ABO sub x (where A = Pb, Cd, Mn, Ti, Zr, La, Sr, Na, and B = Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Ni (Co) which were investigated and/or developed for one function only, O2 reduction or O2 evolution. The electrical conductivity requirement for catalysts may be lower, especially if integrated with a higher conductivity support. All candidate materials of acceptable conductivity are subjected to corrosion testing. Materials that survive chemical testing are examined for electrochemical corrosion activity. For more stringent corrosion testing, and for further evaluation of electrocatalysts (which generally show significant O2 evolution at at 1.4 V), samples are held at 1.6 V or 0.6 V for about 100 hours. The surviving materials are then physically and chemically analyzed for signs of degradation. To evaluate the bifunctional oxygen activity of candidate catalysts, Teflon-bonded electrodes are fabricated and tested in a floating electrode configuration. Many of the experimental materials being studied have required development of a customized electrode fabrication procedure. In advanced development, the goal is to reduce the polarization to about 300 to 350 mV. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials were identified to date for further development. The test results will be described.

  11. Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

    2013-12-01

    The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

  12. Estimated Infiltration, Percolation, and Recharge Rates at the Rillito Creek Focused Recharge Investigation Site, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffmann, John P.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Pool, Don R.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Callegary, James B.

    2007-01-01

    A large fraction of ground water stored in the alluvial aquifers in the Southwest is recharged by water that percolates through ephemeral stream-channel deposits. The amount of water currently recharging many of these aquifers is insufficient to meet current and future demands. Improving the understanding of streambed infiltration and the subsequent redistribution of water within the unsaturated zone is fundamental to quantifying and forming an accurate description of streambed recharge. In addition, improved estimates of recharge from ephemeral-stream channels will reduce uncertainties in water-budget components used in current ground-water models. This chapter presents a summary of findings related to a focused recharge investigation along Rillito Creek in Tucson, Arizona. A variety of approaches used to estimate infiltration, percolation, and recharge fluxes are presented that provide a wide range of temporal- and spatial-scale measurements of recharge beneath Rillito Creek. The approaches discussed include analyses of (1) cores and cuttings for hydraulic and textural properties, (2) environmental tracers from the water extracted from the cores and cuttings, (3) seepage measurements made during sustained streamflow, (4) heat as a tracer and numerical simulations of the movement of heat through the streambed sediments, (5) water-content variations, (6) water-level responses to streamflow in piezometers within the stream channel, and (7) gravity changes in response to recharge events. Hydraulic properties of the materials underlying Rillito Creek were used to estimate long-term potential recharge rates. Seepage measurements and analyses of temperature and water content were used to estimate infiltration rates, and environmental tracers were used to estimate percolation rates through the thick unsaturated zone. The presence or lack of tritium in the water was used to determine whether or not water in the unsaturated zone infiltrated within the past 40 years

  13. Classification of recharge regimes based on measures of hydrologic similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivapalan, Murugesu; Harman, Ciaran J.

    2010-05-01

    Groundwater recharge is usually estimated with the use of detailed numerical models of the vadose zone, where it is treated as a steady state process or is analyzed over short time periods (e.g., after single rainfall events). In reality, in natural settings groundwater recharge needs to be seen as the residual effect of the competition between gravitation drainage, capillary action of the soils and evaporation and plant water uptake. The competition is mediated by the nature of the soils, biological activity of living organisms, including vegetation and its adaptive behavior. Due to intermittency of the precipitation driver and the nonlinearity of soil mediated processes, recharge behavior can exhibit complex, nonlinear and threshold like behavior. In many instances it may reflect memory of previous events going backs weeks and even months. What is the role of climate, soils and vegetation in governing such behavior? In this paper we will adopt a similarity framework to assess recharge behavior in different climate-soil settings, in order to classify a range of recharge regimes, and the climate and soil controls that lead to such organization. A simple "multiple wetting front" model of unsaturated zone fluxes is used to carry out long term simulations of recharge, driven by artificial rainfall time series that include multi-scale variability ranging from within-storm patterns, seasonality, and inter-annual and inter-decadal variations. The results suggest that the classification system based on the use of a ratio of time scales that characterize the propagation of variability through the vadose zone, and the competition between the different forces that act on the water, including vegetation functioning. The analysis can be extended to estimate the residence time and age of the water that recharges, factors that are important to quantify the chemical composition of the water

  14. Intelligence-led crime scene processing. Part I: Forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Baylon, Amélie; Roux, Claude; Delémont, Olivier; Lock, Eric; Zingg, Christian; Margot, Pierre

    2010-02-25

    Forensic science is generally defined as the application of science to address questions related to the law. Too often, this view restricts the contribution of science to one single process which eventually aims at bringing individuals to court while minimising risk of miscarriage of justice. In order to go beyond this paradigm, we propose to refocus the attention towards traces themselves, as remnants of a criminal activity, and their information content. We postulate that traces contribute effectively to a wide variety of other informational processes that support decision making in many situations. In particular, they inform actors of new policing strategies who place the treatment of information and intelligence at the centre of their systems. This contribution of forensic science to these security oriented models is still not well identified and captured. In order to create the best condition for the development of forensic intelligence, we suggest a framework that connects forensic science to intelligence-led policing (part I). Crime scene attendance and processing can be envisaged within this view. This approach gives indications about how to structure knowledge used by crime scene examiners in their effective practice (part II).

  15. California GAMA Special Study: Importance of River Water Recharge to Selected Groundwater Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, Ate; Moran, Jean E.; Singleton, Michael J.; Esser, Bradley K.

    2016-03-21

    River recharge represents 63%, 86% and 46% of modern groundwater in the Mojave Desert, Owens Valley, and San Joaquin Valley, respectively. In pre-modern groundwater, river recharge represents a lower fraction: 36%, 46%, and 24% respectively. The importance of river water recharge in the San Joaquin valley has nearly doubled and is likely the result of a total increase of recharge of 40%, caused by river water irrigation return flows. This emphasizes the importance of recharge of river water via irrigation for renewal of groundwater resources. Mountain front recharge and local precipitation contribute to recharge of desert groundwater basins in part as the result of geological features focusing scarce precipitation promoting infiltration. River water recharges groundwater systems under lower temperatures and with larger water table fluctuations than local precipitation recharge. Surface storage is limited in time and volume, as evidenced by cold river recharge temperatures resulting from fast recharge, compared to the large capacity for subsurface storage. Groundwater banking of seasonal surface water flows therefore appears to be a natural and promising method for increasing the resilience of water supply systems. The distinct isotopic and noble gas signatures of river water recharge, compared to local precipitation recharge, reflecting the source and mechanism of recharge, are valuable constraints for numerical flow models.

  16. Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Constantz, Jim; Stonestrom, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Recharge of aquifers within arid and semiarid environments is defined as the downward flux of water across the regional water table. The introduction of recharging water at the land surface can occur at discreet locations, such as in stream channels, or be distributed over the landscape, such as across broad interarroyo areas within an alluvial ground-water basin. The occurrence of recharge at discreet locations is referred to as focused recharge, whereas the occurrence of recharge over broad regions is referred to as diffuse recharge. The primary interest of this appendix is focused recharge, but regardless of the type of recharge, estimation of downward fluxes is essential to its quantification. Like chemical tracers, heat can come from natural sources or be intentionally introduced to infer transport properties and aquifer recharge. The admission and redistribution of heat from natural processes such as insolation, infiltration, and geothermal activity can be used to quantify subsurface flow regimes. Heat is well suited as a ground-water tracer because it provides a naturally present dynamic signal and is relatively harmless over a useful range of induced perturbations. Thermal methods have proven valuable for recharge investigations for several reasons. First, theoretical descriptions of coupled water-and-heat transport are available for the hydrologic processes most often encountered in practice. These include land-surface mechanisms such as radiant heating from the sun, radiant cooling into space, and evapotranspiration, in addition to the advective and conductive mechanisms that usually dominate at depth. Second, temperature is theoretically well defined and readily measured. Third, thermal methods for depths ranging from the land surface to depths of hundreds of meters are based on similar physical principles. Fourth, numerical codes for simulating heat and water transport have become increasingly reliable and widely available. Direct measurement of water

  17. Determining Changes in Groundwater Quality during Managed Aquifer Recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambhir, T.; Houlihan, M.; Fakhreddine, S.; Dadakis, J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is becoming an increasingly prevalent technology for improving the sustainability of freshwater supply. However, recharge water can alter the geochemical conditions of the aquifer, mobilizing contaminants native to the aquifer sediments. Geochemical alterations on deep (>300 m) injection of highly treated recycled wastewater for MAR has received limited attention. We aim to determine how residual disinfectants used in water treatment processes, specifically the strong oxidants chloramine and hydrogen peroxide, affect metal mobilization within deep injection wells of the Orange County Water District. Furthermore, as the treated recharge water has very low ionic strength (44.6 mg L-1 total dissolved solids), we tested how differing concentrations of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride affected metal mobilization within deep aquifers. Continuous flow experiments were conducted on columns dry packed with sediments from a deep injection MAR site in Orange County, CA. The effluent was analyzed for shifts in water quality, including aqueous concentrations of arsenic, uranium, and chromium. Interaction between the sediment and oxic recharge solution causes naturally-occurring arsenopyrite to repartition onto iron oxides. The stability of arsenic on the newly precipitated iron oxides is dependent on pH changes during recharge.

  18. High power rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Huajun; Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Luo, Chao; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Suo, Liumin; Ma, Zhaohui; Han, Weiqiang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have attracted considerable attention because of their potential high energy density and low cost. However, their development has been severely hindered because of the lack of appropriate cathode materials. Here we report a rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery, in which the soluble iodine reacts with Mg2+ to form a soluble intermediate and then an insoluble final product magnesium iodide. The liquid–solid two-phase reaction pathway circumvents solid-state Mg2+ diffusion and ensures a large interfacial reaction area, leading to fast reaction kinetics and high reaction reversibility. As a result, the rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery shows a better rate capability (180 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C and 140 mAh g−1 at 1 C) and a higher energy density (∼400 Wh kg−1) than all other reported rechargeable magnesium batteries using intercalation cathodes. This study demonstrates that the liquid–solid two-phase reaction mechanism is promising in addressing the kinetic limitation of rechargeable magnesium batteries. PMID:28071666

  19. Assessing groundwater recharge with two unsaturated zone modeling technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogolev, Mikhail I.

    2002-06-01

    Two different unsaturated zone modeling technologies representing two main classes of unsaturated zone models (water-balance and Richards equation-based) were used to assess groundwater recharge for a hypothetical homogeneous profile and three real profiles of the Waterloo Moraine with deep groundwater level. The average rate assessed with the HELP technology for Waterloo Moraine is 8.3 cm/year for low-permeability silt till and silt areas, and 18.7 cm/year for areas built from sandy and gravely deposits. Assessments of the average annual recharge obtained with HELP and HELP/VS2DT technologies are very close, with the maximum difference equal to 12%. Comparison with results obtained independently with the tritium profile method was in favor of the HELP technology, which predicted the annual recharge with 4% error. The effectiveness of the two modeling technologies was assessed. The HELP technology, because of the solution method and interface capabilities, provides a quick and effective means for assessing groundwater recharge. By contrast, the HELP/VS2DT technology appears to be very sensitive to the profile settings and much harder to manipulate. Under conditions of multi-layer profile with the layers of contrast lithologies, the VS2DT model becomes nearly inapplicable. It is contended that the HELP technology has all the necessary qualities to become a core of the computational technology for assessing groundwater recharge rates.

  20. Geochemical Triggers of Arsenic Mobilization during Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    PubMed

    Fakhreddine, Sarah; Dittmar, Jessica; Phipps, Don; Dadakis, Jason; Fendorf, Scott

    2015-07-07

    Mobilization of arsenic and other trace metal contaminants during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) poses a challenge to maintaining local groundwater quality and to ensuring the viability of aquifer storage and recovery techniques. Arsenic release from sediments into solution has occurred during purified recycled water recharge of shallow aquifers within Orange County, CA. Accordingly, we examine the geochemical processes controlling As desorption and mobilization from shallow, aerated sediments underlying MAR infiltration basins. Further, we conducted a series of batch and column experiments to evaluate recharge water chemistries that minimize the propensity of As desorption from the aquifer sediments. Within the shallow Orange County Groundwater Basin sediments, the divalent cations Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) are critical for limiting arsenic desorption; they promote As (as arsenate) adsorption to the phyllosilicate clay minerals of the aquifer. While native groundwater contains adequate concentrations of dissolved Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), these cations are not present at sufficient concentrations during recharge of highly purified recycled water. Subsequently, the absence of dissolved Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) displaces As from the sediments into solution. Increasing the dosages of common water treatment amendments including quicklime (Ca(OH)2) and dolomitic lime (CaO·MgO) provides recharge water with higher concentrations of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions and subsequently decreases the release of As during infiltration.

  1. High power rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Huajun; Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Luo, Chao; Fan, Xiulin; Yang, Chongyin; Suo, Liumin; Ma, Zhaohui; Han, Weiqiang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2017-01-01

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have attracted considerable attention because of their potential high energy density and low cost. However, their development has been severely hindered because of the lack of appropriate cathode materials. Here we report a rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery, in which the soluble iodine reacts with Mg2+ to form a soluble intermediate and then an insoluble final product magnesium iodide. The liquid-solid two-phase reaction pathway circumvents solid-state Mg2+ diffusion and ensures a large interfacial reaction area, leading to fast reaction kinetics and high reaction reversibility. As a result, the rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery shows a better rate capability (180 mAh g-1 at 0.5 C and 140 mAh g-1 at 1 C) and a higher energy density (~400 Wh kg-1) than all other reported rechargeable magnesium batteries using intercalation cathodes. This study demonstrates that the liquid-solid two-phase reaction mechanism is promising in addressing the kinetic limitation of rechargeable magnesium batteries.

  2. High power rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery chemistry

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Huajun; Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; ...

    2017-01-10

    Rechargeable magnesium batteries have attracted considerable attention because of their potential high energy density and low cost. However, their development has been severely hindered because of the lack of appropriate cathode materials. Here we report a rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery, in which the soluble iodine reacts with Mg2+ to form a soluble intermediate and then an insoluble final product magnesium iodide. The liquid–solid two-phase reaction pathway circumvents solid-state Mg2+ diffusion and ensures a large interfacial reaction area, leading to fast reaction kinetics and high reaction reversibility. As a result, the rechargeable magnesium/iodine battery shows a better rate capability (180 mAh g–1more » at 0.5 C and 140 mAh g–1 at 1 C) and a higher energy density (~400 Wh kg–1) than all other reported rechargeable magnesium batteries using intercalation cathodes. As a result, this study demonstrates that the liquid–solid two-phase reaction mechanism is promising in addressing the kinetic limitation of rechargeable magnesium batteries.« less

  3. Noble gas excess air applied to distinguish groundwater recharge conditions.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Richard G S; Hiscock, Kevin M; Dennis, Paul F

    2007-03-15

    The application of geochemical tracers in groundwater studies can provide valuable insights into the rates and sources of groundwater recharge, residence times, and flow dynamics that are of significant value in the management of this important natural resource. This paper demonstrates the application of noble gas excess air to distinguish groundwater bodies with different recharge histories in a layered sandstone aquifer system in the east of England. The sampled groundwaters are all supersaturated with respect to neon, indicating the presence of excess air. The lowest excess air concentrations occur where the aquifer is unconfined (deltaNe, the proportion of neon in excess of saturation, = 12-26%) and recharge occurs directly to the outcrop. Groundwater in the confined part of the aquifer can be divided into two hydrochemical types based upon the dissolved ion chemistry: Type 1 groundwaters contain more excess air (deltaNe = 115-120%) than Type 2(deltaNe = 22-62%). The difference in excess air concentrations confirms that groundwater enters the confined aquifer along two discrete pathways. Furthermore, excess neon concentrations predicted from the magnitude of annual water table fluctuation observed in the different recharge areas are in good agreement with those measured in the corresponding groundwaters. We therefore recommend that excess air may be usefully employed as a direct indicator of the volume of long-term net annual groundwater recharge.

  4. Fate of human viruses in groundwater recharge systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, J.M.; Landry, E.F.

    1980-03-01

    The overall objective of this research program was to determine the ability of a well-managed tertiary effluent-recharge system to return virologically acceptable water to the groundwater aquifer. The study assessed the quality of waters renovated by indigenous recharge operations and investigated a number of virus-soil interrelationships. The elucidation of the interactions led to the establishment of basin operating criteria for optimizing virus removal. Raw influents, chlorinated tertiary effluents, and renovated wastewater from the aquifer directly beneath a uniquely designed recharge test basin were assayed on a weekly basis for the presence of human enteroviruses and coliform bacteria. High concentrations of viruses were routinely isolated from influents but were isolated only on four occasions from tertiary-treated sewage effluents. In spite of the high quality effluent being recharged, viruses were isolated from the groundwater observation well, indicating their ability to penetrate the unsaturated zone. Results of poliovirus seeding experiments carried out in the test basin clearly indicated the need to operate recharge basins at low (e.g. 1 cm/h) infiltration rates in areas having soil types similar to those found at the study site. The method selected for reducing the test basin infiltration rate involved clogging the basin surface with settled organic material from highly turbid effluent. Alternative methods for slowing infiltration rates are discussed in the text.

  5. Recharge from a subsidence crater at the Nevada test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, G. V.; Ely, D.M.; Hokett, S. L.; Gillespie, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    Current recharge through the alluvial fans of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is considered to be negligible, but the impact of more than 400 nuclear subsidence craters on recharge is uncertain. Many of the craters contain a playa region, but the impact of these playas has not been addressed. It was hypothesized that a crater playa would focus infiltration through the surrounding coarser-grained material, thereby increasing recharge. Crater U5a was selected because it represented a worst case for runoff into craters. A borehole was instrumented for neutron logging beneath the playa center and immediately outside the crater. Physical and hydraulic properties were measured along a transect in the crater and outside the crater. Particle-size analysis of the 14.6 m of sediment in the crater and morphological features of the crater suggest that a large ponding event of ≈63000 m3 had occurred since crater formation. Water flow simulations with HYDRUS-2D, which were corroborated by the measured water contents, suggest that the wetting front advanced initially by as much as 30 m yr−1 with a recharge rate 32 yr after the event of 2.5 m yr−1Simulations based on the measured properties of the sediments suggest that infiltration will occur preferentially around the playa perimeter. However, these sediments were shown to effectively restrict future recharge by storing water until removal by evapotranspiration (ET). This work demonstrated that subsidence craters may be self-healing.

  6. Hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks Artificial-Recharge Project : Morgan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Alan W.

    1980-01-01

    A hydrologic analysis of the proposed Badger-Beaver Creeks artificial-recharge project in Morgan County, Colo., was made with the aid of three digital computer models: A canal-distribution model, a ground-water flow model, and a stream-aquifer model. Statistical summaries of probable diversions from the South Platte River based on a 27-year period of historical flows indicate that an average-annual diversion of 96,000 acre-feet and a median-annual diversion of 43,000 acre-feet would be available. Diversions would sustain water in ponds for waterfowl habitat for an average of about five months per year, with a miximum pond surface area of about 300 acres with the median diversions and a maximum pond surface area of about 1,250 acres at least one-half of the years with the historic diversions. If the annual diversion were 43,000 acre-feet, recharge to the two alluvial aquifers would raise water levels sufficiently to create flowing streams in the channels of Beaver and Badger Creeks while allowing an increase in current ground-water pumping. The only area of significant waterlogging would be along the proposed delivery canal on the west edge of Badger Creek valley. If the total water available were diverted, the aquifer system could not transmit the water fast enough to the irrigation areas to avoid considerable waterlogging in the recharge areas. The impact of the proposed project on the South Platte River basin would be minimal once the ground-water system attained steady-state conditions, but that may take decades with a uniform diversion of the 43,000 acre-feet annually. (USGS)

  7. Swarm Intelligence Optimization and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Caichang; Lu, Lu; Liu, Yuanchao; Peng, Wenxiu

    Swarm Intelligence is a computational and behavioral metaphor for solving distributed problems inspired from biological examples provided by social insects such as ants, termites, bees, and wasps and by swarm, herd, flock, and shoal phenomena in vertebrates such as fish shoals and bird flocks. An example of successful research direction in Swarm Intelligence is ant colony optimization (ACO), which focuses on combinatorial optimization problems. Ant algorithms can be viewed as multi-agent systems (ant colony), where agents (individual ants) solve required tasks through cooperation in the same way that ants create complex social behavior from the combined efforts of individuals.

  8. Artificial recharge of ground water: Status and potential in the contiguous United States

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hare, M.; Fairchild, D.; Hajali, P.; Canter, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    Needs and requirements for ground water enhancement and nationwide geological locations where this could be accomplished by artificial recharge are the focus of this reference. This book provides a summary of the status and potential for artificial recharge in the contiguous United States. The focus is on artificial recharge for enhancing groundwater availability for agricultural uses, but not limited to this purpose. Chapters include technical descriptions of both direct and indirect artificial recharge methods, site selection and evaluation criteria for artificial recharge projects, case studies of projects and methodologies for determining the potential of geographic areas for artificial recharge.

  9. Social Intelligence: Next Generation Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2010-09-01

    In order for Business Intelligence to truly move beyond where it is today, a shift in approach must occur. Currently, much of what is accomplished in the realm of Business Intelligence relies on reports and dashboards to summarize and deliver information to end users. As we move into the future, we need to get beyond these reports and dashboards to a point where we break out the individual metrics that are embedded in these reports and interact with these components independently. Breaking these pieces of information out of the confines of reports and dashboards will allow them to be dynamically assembled for delivery in the way that makes most sense to each consumer. With this change in ideology, Business Intelligence will move from the concept of collections of objects, or reports and dashboards, to individual objects, or information components. The Next Generation Business Intelligence suite will translate concepts popularized in Facebook, Flickr, and Digg into enterprise worthy communication vehicles.

  10. Information Selection in Intelligence Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    formulation of preference elicitation problems,” in Proceedings of the National Conference on Artificial Intelligence , Edmonton, AB 239–246. Bron, C... Artificial Intelligence , (AAAI) Seattle, WA. Central Intelligence Agency. (1999). Consumer’s guide to Intelligence . Cohen, J., McClure, S., & Yu, A. (2007...IN INTELLIGENCE PROCESSING by Yuval Nevo December 2011 Thesis Advisors: Moshe Kress Nedialko B. Dimitrov Second Reader

  11. Optimizing Classification in Intelligence Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    ACC Classification Accuracy AUC Area Under the ROC Curve CI Competitive Intelligence COMINT Communications Intelligence DoD Department of...indispensible tool to support a national leader’s decision making process, competitive intelligence (CI) has emerged in recent decades as an environment meant...effectiveness for the intelligence product in competitive intelligence environment: accuracy, objectivity, usability, relevance, readiness, and timeliness

  12. Architecture for Multiple Interacting Robot Intelligences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Richard Alan, II (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An architecture for robot intelligence enables a robot to learn new behaviors and create new behavior sequences autonomously and interact with a dynamically changing environment. Sensory information is mapped onto a Sensory Ego-Sphere (SES) that rapidly identifies important changes in the environment and functions much like short term memory. Behaviors are stored in a database associative memory (DBAM) that creates an active map from the robot's current state to a goal state and functions much like long term memory. A dream state converts recent activities stored in the SES and creates or modifies behaviors in the DBAM.

  13. Estimating aquifer channel recharge using optical data interpretation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Gary R; Necsoiu, Marius; McGinnis, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Recharge through intermittent and ephemeral stream channels is believed to be a primary aquifer recharge process in arid and semiarid environments. The intermittent nature of precipitation and flow events in these channels, and their often remote locations, makes direct flow and loss measurements difficult and expensive. Airborne and satellite optical images were interpreted to evaluate aquifer recharge due to stream losses on the Frio River in south-central Texas. Losses in the Frio River are believed to be a major contributor of recharge to the Edwards Aquifer. The results of this work indicate that interpretation of readily available remote sensing optical images can offer important insights into the spatial distribution of aquifer recharge from losing streams. In cases where upstream gauging data are available, simple visual analysis of the length of the flowing reach downstream from the gauging station can be used to estimate channel losses. In the case of the Frio River, the rate of channel loss estimated from the length of the flowing reach at low flows was about half of the loss rate calculated from in-stream gain-loss measurements. Analysis based on water-surface width and channel slope indicated that losses were mainly in a reach downstream of the mapped recharge zone. The analysis based on water-surface width, however, did not indicate that this method could yield accurate estimates of actual flow in pool and riffle streams, such as the Frio River and similar rivers draining the Edwards Plateau. © 2011, Southwest Research Institute. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Crab Burrows are Important Conduits for Groundwater Recharge in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, M.; Tarek, M. H.; Yeo, D. C.; Badruzzaman, A.; Harvey, C. F.

    2013-12-01

    Recent research suggests that recharge from man-made ponds may stimulate arsenic mobilization within Bangladeshi aquifers. Man-made ponds are widespread throughout Bangladesh and are generally underlain by low permeability clays that could potentially limit flow to the sandy aquifer below if they are not compromised by preferential flow paths. Animal borrows are one common type of preferential flow path through surface clays. Across the Ganges Delta, terrestrial crabs dig borrows, sometimes as long as 10 meters. In our study pond in Munshiganj, Bangladesh we found crab burrows extending through the surficial clays and down into the shallow aquifer spaced approximately every meter. We use these field observations along with a novel, coupled isotope and water balance model to quantify the fluxes into and out of the pond. We show that nearly all of the aquifer recharge from the pond is through crab burrows which have enhanced the hydraulic conductivity of the surficial sediments by several orders of magnitude. In addition we show that the recharging pond water is shifting the solute composition of water beneath the pond. We suggest that, as a result of crab burrows, young ponds may contribute large fluxes of recharge water whereas older ponds may contribute little recharge to the aquifer. All terrestrial crabs have gills that must remain moist to allow for respiration. So, to ensure an uninterrupted water source, their borrows must reach the maximum depth that the water table drops to seasonally after irrigation ceases and before the onset of the monsoon. Once a pond is installed crabs living within the sediments that now make up the new pond bottom would no longer need to construct burrows to ensure a constant supply of water. Over time, burrows that existed prior to pond construction can clog. Water balance data for an old pond at our study site indicates that this pond contributes less recharge than our newly constructed pond.

  15. Estimating ground water recharge from topography, hydrogeology, and land cover.

    PubMed

    Cherkauer, Douglas S; Ansari, Sajjad A

    2005-01-01

    Proper management of ground water resources requires knowledge of the rates and spatial distribution of recharge to aquifers. This information is needed at scales ranging from that of individual communities to regional. This paper presents a methodology to calculate recharge from readily available ground surface information without long-term monitoring. The method is viewed as providing a reasonable, but conservative, first approximation of recharge, which can then be fine-tuned with other methods as time permits. Stream baseflow was measured as a surrogate for recharge in small watersheds in southeastern Wisconsin. It is equated to recharge (R) and then normalized to observed annual precipitation (P). Regression analysis was constrained by requiring that the independent and dependent variables be dimensionally consistent. It shows that R/P is controlled by three dimensionless ratios: (1) infiltrating to overland water flux, (2) vertical to lateral distance water must travel, and (3) percentage of land cover in the natural state. The individual watershed properties that comprise these ratios are now commonly available in GIS data bases. The empirical relationship for predicting R/P developed for the study watersheds is shown to be statistically viable and is then tested outside the study area and against other methods of calculating recharge. The method produces values that agree with baseflow separation from streamflow hydrographs (to within 15% to 20%), ground water budget analysis (4%), well hydrograph analysis (12%), and a distributed-parameter watershed model calibrated to total streamflow (18%). It has also reproduced the temporal variation over 5 yr observed at a well site with an average error < 12%.

  16. Intelligent diagnostics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquiston, Barbara M.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been applied to today's problems and could also be applied to space operations integrity. One of these systems is the XMAN tool designed for 'troubleshooting' jet engines. XMAN is the eXpert MAiNtenance tool developed to be an expert information analysis tool which stores trending and diagnostic data on Air Force engines. XMAN operates with a 'network topology' which follows a flow chart containing engine management information reports required by the governments technical order procedures. With XMAN technology, the user is able to identify engine problems by presenting the assertions of the fault isolation logic and attempting to satisfy individual assertions by referring to the databases created by an engine monitoring system. The troubleshooting process requires interaction between the technician and the computer to acquire new evidence form auxiliary maintenance tests corroboration of analytical results to accurately diagnose equipment malfunctions. This same technology will be required for systems which are functioning in space either with an onboard crew, or with an unmanned system. The technology and lessons learned developing this technology while suggesting definite applications for its use with developing space systems are addressed.

  17. Rechargeable sodium all-solid-state battery

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; ...

    2017-01-03

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. Furthermore, all-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  18. Rechargeable Sodium All-Solid-State Battery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B

    2017-01-25

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. All-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  19. Recent developments and future prospects for lithium rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, A. G.

    Possible future developments of lithium rechargeable batteries are discussed. Lithium ion liquid electrolyte batteries are now well established, with energy densities of up to around 150 Wh kg -1. There are prospects of increases in the energy density to perhaps 200-250 Wh kg -1 by using new cathode materials (lithium nickel cobalt oxide) and light weight construction. High power cells make it possible for these batteries to find new uses, e.g. in military applications. Some new materials could reduce the cost, which might make lithium rechargeable batteries economic for electric vehicles.

  20. Modelling of recharge and pollutant fluxes to urban groundwaters.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abraham; Tellam, John

    2006-05-01

    Urban groundwater resources are of considerable importance to the long-term viability of many cities world-wide, yet prediction of the quantity and quality of recharge is only rarely attempted at anything other than a very basic level. This paper describes the development of UGIf, a simple model written within a GIS, designed to provide estimates of spatially distributed recharge and recharge water quality in unconfined but covered aquifers. The following processes (with their calculation method indicated) are included: runoff and interception (curve number method); evapotranspiration (Penman-Grindley); interflow (empirical index approach); volatilization (Henry's law); sorption (distribution coefficient); and degradation (first order decay). The input data required are: meteorological data, landuse/cover map with event mean concentration attributes, geological maps with hydraulic and geochemical attributes, and topographic and water table elevation data in grid form. Standard outputs include distributions of: surface runoff, infiltration, potential recharge, ground level slope, interflow, actual recharge, pollutant fluxes in surface runoff, travel times of each pollutant through the unsaturated zone, and the pollutant fluxes and concentrations at the water table. The process of validation has commenced with a study of the Triassic Sandstone aquifer underlying Birmingham, UK. UGIf predicts a similar average recharge rate for the aquifer as previous groundwater flow modelling studies, but with significantly more spatial detail: in particular the results indicate that recharge through paved areas may be more important than previously thought. The results also highlight the need for more knowledge/data on the following: runoff estimation; interflow (including the effects of lateral flow and channelling on flow times and therefore chemistry); evapotranspiration in paved areas; the nature of unsaturated zone flow below paved areas; and the role of the pipe network

  1. Thin Rechargeable Batteries for CMOS SRAM Memory Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouse, Dennis N.

    1993-01-01

    New rechargeable battery technology is described and compared with classical primary battery back-up of SRAM PC cards. Thin solid polymer electrolyte cells with the thickness of TSOP memory components (1 mm nominal, 1.1 mm max) and capacities of 14 mAh/sq cm can replace coin cells. The SRAM PC cards with permanently installed rechargeable cells and optional electrochromic low battery voltage indicators will free the periodic PC card user from having to 'feed' their PC cards with coin cells and will allow a quick visual check of stored cards for their battery voltage status.

  2. Focused Ground-Water Recharge in the Amargosa Desert Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Walvoord, Michelle A.; Abraham, Jared D.; Stewart-Deaker, Amy E.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Constantz, Jim; Laczniak, Randell J.; Andraski, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    The Amargosa River is an approximately 300-kilometer long regional drainage connecting the northern highlands on the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nev., to the floor of Death Valley in Inyo County, Calif. Streamflow analysis indicates that the Amargosa Desert portion of the river is dry more than 98 percent of the time. Infiltration losses during ephemeral flows of the Amargosa River and Fortymile Wash provide the main sources of ground-water recharge on the desert-basin floor. The primary use of ground water is for irrigated agriculture. The current study examined ground-water recharge from ephemeral flows in the Amargosa River by using streamflow data and environmental tracers. The USGS streamflow-gaging station at Beatty, Nev., provided high-frequency data on base flow and storm runoff entering the basin during water years 1998?2001. Discharge into the basin during the four-year period totaled 3.03 million cubic meters, three quarters of which was base flow. Streambed temperature anomalies indicated the distribution of ephemeral flows and infiltration losses within the basin. Major storms that produced regional flow during the four-year period occurred in February 1998, during a strong El Ni?o that more than doubled annual precipitation, and in July 1999. The study also quantified recharge beneath undisturbed native vegetation and irrigation return flow beneath irrigated fields. Vertical profiles of water potential and environmental tracers in the unsaturated zone provided estimates of recharge beneath the river channel (0.04?0.09 meter per year) and irrigated fields (0.1?0.5 meter per year). Chloride mass-balance estimates indicate that 12?15 percent of channel infiltration becomes ground-water recharge, together with 9?22 percent of infiltrated irrigation. Profiles of potential and chloride beneath the dominant desert-shrub vegetation suggest that ground-water recharge has been negligible throughout most of the basin since at least the early Holocene

  3. Fractionating human intelligence.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Adam; Highfield, Roger R; Parkin, Beth L; Owen, Adrian M

    2012-12-20

    What makes one person more intellectually able than another? Can the entire distribution of human intelligence be accounted for by just one general factor? Is intelligence supported by a single neural system? Here, we provide a perspective on human intelligence that takes into account how general abilities or "factors" reflect the functional organization of the brain. By comparing factor models of individual differences in performance with factor models of brain functional organization, we demonstrate that different components of intelligence have their analogs in distinct brain networks. Using simulations based on neuroimaging data, we show that the higher-order factor "g" is accounted for by cognitive tasks corecruiting multiple networks. Finally, we confirm the independence of these components of intelligence by dissociating them using questionnaire variables. We propose that intelligence is an emergent property of anatomically distinct cognitive systems, each of which has its own capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Knowledge Intelligence: A New Field in Business Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Guangli; Li, Xiuting; Zhang, Lingling; Zhang, Yuejin; Shi, Yong

    This paper discussed the development of business intelligence considering the development of data mining. Business intelligence plays an important role in producing up-to-data information for operative and strategic decision-making. We proposed a new kind of knowledge named intelligent knowledge gotten from data. We illustrated a way to combine the business intelligence and intelligent knowledge and proposed a way of the management of intelligent knowledge which is more structural than the traditional knowledge.

  5. Artificial Intelligence and the High School Computer Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a four-part curriculum that can serve as a model for incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) into the high school computer curriculum. The model includes examining questions fundamental to AI, creating and designing an expert system, language processing, and creating programs that integrate machine vision with robotics and…

  6. Artificial Intelligence and the High School Computer Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a four-part curriculum that can serve as a model for incorporating artificial intelligence (AI) into the high school computer curriculum. The model includes examining questions fundamental to AI, creating and designing an expert system, language processing, and creating programs that integrate machine vision with robotics and…

  7. Column experiments to investigate transport of colloidal humic acid through porous media during managed aquifer recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dan; Zhou, Jingjing; Zhang, Wenjing; Huan, Ying; Yu, Xipeng; Li, Fulin; Chen, Xuequn

    2016-09-01

    Colloids act as vectors for pollutants in groundwater, thereby creating a series of environmental problems. While managed aquifer recharge plays an important role in protecting groundwater resources and controlling land subsidence, it has a significant effect on the transport of colloids. In this study, particle size and zeta potential of colloidal humic acid (HA) have been measured to determine the effects of different hydrochemistry conditions. Column experiments were conducted to examine the effects on the transport of colloidal HA under varying conditions of pH (5, 7, 9), ionic strength (<0.0005, 0.02, 0.05 M), cation valence (Na+, Ca2+) and flow rate (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 ml/min) through collectors (glass beads) to model the properties and quality of artificial recharge water and changes in the hydrodynamic field. Breakthrough curves showed that the behavior of colloidal HA being transported varied depending on the conditions. Colloid transport was strongly influenced by hydrochemical and hydrodynamic conditions. With decreasing pH or increasing ionic strength, a decrease in the peak effluent concentration of colloidal HA and increase in deposition could be clearly seen. Comparison of different cation valence tests indicated that changes in transport and deposition were more pronounced with divalent Ca2+ than with monovalent Na+. Changes in hydrodynamic field (flow rate) also had an impact on transportation of colloidal HA. The results of this study highlight the need for further research in this area.

  8. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Intelligence for making the work of Richards J. Heuer, Jr. on the psychology of intelligence analysis available to a new generation of intelligence...treat- ments elsewhere.3 Here I address his general legacy to the analytical pro- fession. Kent, a professor of European history at Yale, worked in the...found impact on earlier generations of analysts and managers, and his work continues to exert an indirect influence among practitioners of the

  9. On what intelligence is.

    PubMed

    Howard, R W

    1993-02-01

    Despite much controversy over the exact definition of intelligence, most researchers agree that it is a concept labelled by a word, or even several related concepts labelled by a word. The present study applies recent theorizing about the nature of concepts in general to clarify the notion (or notions) of intelligence. This theorizing defines a concept as a person's unique and individual information about a category and a category as a set of things in the world. An example of a concept/category pair is 'dog', with the category being the set of all dogs and an individual's concept of dog being his or her personal knowledge of dogs. This knowledge can be used to place things in or out of the category. Different individuals may have somewhat different knowledge about the same category and a single word may label several different concept/category pairs. A concept of intelligence thus consists of information about a general category labelled by the word 'intelligence'. This study analyses three major concept/category pairs of 'intelligence': (1) Spearman's g; (2) intelligence as a property of behaviour; and (3) intelligence as a set of abilities. Each concept contains different information, refers to a different category, and should be used in different ways. Several recurrent issues, such as whether the word 'intelligence' refers to a thing and what things are intelligent (e.g. animals, computers), can be resolved by considering each issue in relation to these concept/category pairs. For instance, the word 'intelligence' refers to a thing only if one uses the g concept. Similarly, only humans are intelligent according to the g concept but animals and computers may be considered intelligent if the other concepts are applied. Recent theorizing on the nature of concepts can be used to clarify other important psychological notions.

  10. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    D-Ai42 488 ARTIFICIAL INEELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (U) MASSACHUSETTS i/1 INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB M BRADY FEB 84 AI-M-756...Subtile) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Identify by block niiniber) -. Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a

  11. Dimensions of Intelligent Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    Keywords: IS, Intelligent Systems, Turing Test, Cognitive Model, situated cognition, BDI, Deep Blue, constructionism 1: Introduction Investigation of...of Intelligent Clinical Protocol System One of the most prolific areas of AI research has been in the medical realm which provides more representative...diagnosis are too diverse to cover easily. Instead I look at one well researched area - the support provided by intelligent system for clinical

  12. Artificial intelligence: Human effects

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.; Narayanan, A.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date study of the interaction between the fast-growing discipline of artificial intelligence and other human endeavors. The volume explores the scope and limitations of computing, and presents a history of the debate on the possibility of machines achieving intelligence. The authors offer a state-of-the-art survey of Al, concentrating on the ''mind'' (language understanding) and the ''body'' (robotics) of intelligent computing systems.

  13. Intelligence Essentials for Everyone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Larry Kahaner, Competitive Intelligence : From Black Ops to Boardrooms — How Businesses Gather, Analyze and Use Infor- mation to Succeed in the Global...32744.fm Page 2 Tuesday, June 22, 1999 9:42 AMauthorities. The Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals...SCIP, Competitive Intelligence Review, 8, No. 3 (Fall 1997), unnumbered 8th page. 5 SCIP, 1995 SCIP Membership Directory (Alexandria, VA: SCIP, 1995

  14. Intelligence Analysis: Once Again

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    This paper provides a sense of the literature written specifically about intelligence analysis , including general definitions, themes, divergent...has not been a progression of thinking relative to the core aspect and complexities of doing intelligence analysis ; hence, the title, "Once Again...including how they influence the determination of meaning. The literature on rigor in intelligence analysis is reviewed, including the role of

  15. Predicting nitrate contamination in recently recharged groundwater: High Plains regional aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurdak, J. J.; Qi, S. L.

    2004-12-01

    The High Plains regional aquifer, a nationally important groundwater resource, has widespread elevated nitrate concentrations in recently recharged groundwater. This condition has created a potential health concern for nearly 2 million people who rely on the aquifer for drinking water. Concentrations and spatial distribution of nitrate are influenced by anthropogenic activity, particularly from non-point source contamination. A novel groundwater vulnerability assessment encompassing the entire High Plains aquifer is presented that predicts areas of the aquifer where nitrate concentrations are expected to exceed a background value of 4 mg/L as N in recently recharged groundwater, defined as less than 50-years old. This model couples particle-tracking simulations and multivariate logistic regression analysis within a GIS framework, thereby incorporating site-specific hydrogeologic parameters and the groundwater flow regime. Contributing areas, delineated by a 90-degree sector, represented the capture zone up gradient from the well location and defined the area for GIS-based extraction of explanatory variables for statistical modeling. Particle-tracking simulations identified the appropriate radial length for the sector and well screen depths corresponding to recently recharged groundwater. Horizontal and vertical particle movements were most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and estimates of recharge, respectively. The final multivariate logistic regression model demonstrated statistical significance (p < 0.001), produced an excellent model fit (R2 = 0.912), and was validated with an independent nitrate data set (R2 = 0.856). Statistically significant explanatory variables in the contributing areas included percent agricultural land (p < 0.001), depth to water table (p = 0.001), soil infiltration score (p = 0.013), nitrogen applied as fertilizer on irrigated agricultural land (p = 0.050), and percent clay in the unsaturated zone (p = 0.040). Predicted groundwater

  16. Intelligent Complex Evolutionary Agent-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iantovics, Barna; Enǎchescu, Cǎlin

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the possibility to develop intelligent agent-based complex systems that use evolutionary learning techniques in order to adapt for the efficient solving of the problems by reorganizing their structure. For this investigation is proposed a complex multiagent system called EAMS (Evolutionary Adaptive Multiagent System), which using an evolutionary learning technique can learn different patterns of reorganization. The realized study proves that evolutionary techniques successfully can be used to create complex multiagent systems capable to intelligently reorganize their structure during their life cycle. The practical establishment of the intelligence of a computational system in generally, an agent-based system in particularly consists in how efficiently and flexibly the system can solve difficult problems.

  17. Creating an Online Library To Support a Virtual Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandelands, Eric

    1998-01-01

    International Management Centres (IMC), an independent business school, and Anbar Electronic Intelligence (AEI), a database publisher, have created a virtual library for IMC's virtual business school. Topics discussed include action learning; IMC's partnership with AEI; the virtual university model; designing virtual library resources; and…

  18. Powerful Writing: Description in Creating Monster Trading Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbro, Michelle

    Description can make a piece of writing come alive. This lesson plan combines art and word play, emphasizing writing for an audience while drawing on multiple intelligences. Peer review and feedback reinforces the revision process as students create trading cards by drawing pictures of monsters and describing and categorizing them in detail.…

  19. The search for intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, E. J.

    1980-12-01

    Implications of current understandings of the nature of human intelligence for the possibility of extraterrestrial intelligence are discussed. The perceptual theory of intelligence as the manipulation of perceptual images rather than language is introduced, and conditions leading to the ascendancy of man over other hominids with similar conceptual abilities are discussed, including the liberation of the hands from a locomotive function and the evolution of neoteny. It is argued that the specificity of the environmental, behavioral and physiological conditions which lead to the emergence of technologically oriented, and communicative intelligent creatures suggests that any SETI would most likely be fruitless.

  20. Intelligence and childlessness.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2014-11-01

    Demographers debate why people have children in advanced industrial societies where children are net economic costs. From an evolutionary perspective, however, the important question is why some individuals choose not to have children. Recent theoretical developments in evolutionary psychology suggest that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to prefer to remain childless than less intelligent individuals. Analyses of the National Child Development Study show that more intelligent men and women express preference to remain childless early in their reproductive careers, but only more intelligent women (not more intelligent men) are more likely to remain childless by the end of their reproductive careers. Controlling for education and earnings does not at all attenuate the association between childhood general intelligence and lifetime childlessness among women. One-standard-deviation increase in childhood general intelligence (15 IQ points) decreases women's odds of parenthood by 21-25%. Because women have a greater impact on the average intelligence of future generations, the dysgenic fertility among women is predicted to lead to a decline in the average intelligence of the population in advanced industrial nations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. STANFORD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROJECT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE , GAME THEORY, DECISION MAKING, BIONICS, AUTOMATA, SPEECH RECOGNITION, GEOMETRIC FORMS, LEARNING MACHINES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PATTERN RECOGNITION, SERVOMECHANISMS, SIMULATION, BIBLIOGRAPHIES.

  2. Machine listening intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  3. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of...

  4. 77 FR 32952 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Intelligence Agency, National Intelligence... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Intelligence University Board of...

  5. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of...

  6. Firearm microstamping technology: counterinsurgency intelligence gathering tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-05-01

    Warfare relies on effective, accurate and timely intelligence an especially critical task when conducting a counterinsurgency operation [1]. Simply stated counterinsurgency is an intelligence war. Both insurgents and counterinsurgents need effective intelligence capabilities to be successful. Insurgents and counterinsurgents therefore attempt to create and maintain intelligence networks and fight continuously to neutralize each other's intelligence capabilities [1][2]. In such an environment it is obviously an advantage to target or proactively create opportunities to track and map an insurgent movement. Quickly identifying insurgency intelligence assets (Infiltrators) within a host government's infrastructure is the goal. Infiltrators can occupy various areas of government such as security personnel, national police force, government offices or military units. Intentional Firearm Microstamping offers such opportunities when implemented into firearms. Outfitted within firearms purchased and distributed to the host nation's security forces (civilian and military), Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM) marks bullet cartridge casings with codes as they are fired from the firearm. IFM is incorporated onto optimum surfaces with the firearm mechanism. The intentional microstamp tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes that identify the firearm. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing which is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of a firefight or engagement, the technology will provide forensic intelligence allowing the mapping and tracking of small arms traffic patterns within the host nation or identify insurgency force strength and pinpoint firearm sources, such as corrupt/rogue military units or police force. Intentional Firearm Microstamping is a passive mechanical trace technology that can be outfitted or retrofitted to semiautomatic handguns and

  7. Electrolyte for use in high energy lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell and rechargeable electrochemical cell including the electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammone, R. J.; Binder, M.

    1986-04-01

    The general object of this invention is to provide a lithium based rechargeable electrochemical cell having an improved capacity. A more specific object of the invention is to provide an electrolyte for such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a cell. A still further object of the invention is to provide such a rechargeable electrochemical cell that permits the oxidation of dithionite to occur without using chlorine as an intermediate oxidizing agent. It has now been found that the aforementioned objects can be attained by providing an electrolyte including bromine dissolved in the liquid complex Li(s02)3A1C14.

  8. Rechargeable Sodium All-Solid-State Battery

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. All-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C. PMID:28149953

  9. Assessing the Use of Dry Wells as a Tool for Stormwater Management and Groundwater Recharge in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, E.; Harter, T.; Fogg, G. E.; Washburn, B.; Bryson, R.; Meirovitz, C.; Fawcett, J.; Kretsinger Grabert, V. J.; Bowles, C.; Carr, M.; Nelson, C.

    2014-12-01

    well. The results of water quality sampling will determine the contaminants of interest, and a model of the fate and transport of these contaminants in the vadose zone will be coupled with hydraulic models to estimate the response of the hydrogeologic system to dry well recharge, with the goal of creating a tool that can be used to evaluate future dry well locations.

  10. Family size and intelligence revisited: the role of emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Morand, D A

    1999-04-01

    Studies examining the link between family size and intelligence have consistently found a negative relationship. Children born into larger families tend to score lower on intelligence tests than children raised in smaller families. One recurrent but unexplained finding is that the relation between intelligence and number of siblings is consistently significant for verbal intelligence but inconsistent for nonverbal intelligence. Here, we conceptualize emotional intelligence as one facet of nonverbal intelligence. The research develops a measure of emotional intelligence and uses it to test the hypothesis that emotional intelligence is positively correlated with family size. The results, based upon a sample of graduate students, support the hypothesized relationship. Implications for the study of family size and intelligence, for refining the conceptualizations and measures of nonverbal intelligence, and for leadership theory, are discussed.

  11. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  12. Managed Aquifer Recharge in Italy: present and prospects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy

    2015-04-01

    On October the 3rd 2014, a one-day Workshop on Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) experiences in Italy took place at the GEOFLUID fair in Piacenza. It was organized within the framework of the EIP AG 128 - MAR Solutions - Managed Aquifer Recharge Strategies and Actions and the EU FPVII MARSOL. The event aimed at showcasing present experiences on MAR in Italy while at the same time starting a network among all the Institutions involved. In this contribution, we discuss the state of MAR application in Italy and summarize the outcomes of that event. In Italy aquifer recharge is traditionally applied unintentionally, by increasing riverbank filtration or because of excess irrigation. A certain interest for artificial recharge of aquifers arose at the end of the '70s and the beginning of the '80s and tests have been carried out in Tuscany, Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia. During the last years some projects on aquifer recharge were co-financed by the European Commission mainly through the LIFE program. Nearly all of them use the terminology of artificial recharge instead of MAR. They are: - TRUST (Tool for regional - scale assessment of groundwater storage improvement in adaptation to climate change, LIFE07 ENV/IT/000475; Marsala 2014); - AQUOR (Implementation of a water saving and artificial recharging participated strategy for the quantitative groundwater layer rebalance of the upper Vicenza's plain - LIFE 2010 ENV/IT/380; Mezzalira et al. 2014); - WARBO (Water re-born - artificial recharge: innovative technologies for the sustainable management of water resources, LIFE10 ENV/IT/000394; 2014). While the TRUST project dealt in general with aquifer recharge, AQUOR and WARBO focused essentially on small scale demonstration plants. Within the EU FPVII-ENV-2013 MARSOL project (Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought; 2014), a dedicated monitoring and decision support system is under development to manage recharge at a large scale

  13. Soil moisture and groundwater recharge under a mixed conifer forest

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1978-01-01

    The depletion of soil moisture within the surface 7 m by a mixed conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada was measured by the neutron method every 2 weeks during 5 consecutive summers. Soil moisture recharge was measured periodically during the intervening winters. Groundwater fluctuations within the surface 17 m were continuously recorded during the same period.

  14. Effects of recharge wells and flow barriers on seawater intrusion.

    PubMed

    Luyun, Roger; Momii, Kazuro; Nakagawa, Kei

    2011-01-01

    The installation of recharge wells and subsurface flow barriers are among several strategies proposed to control seawater intrusion on coastal groundwater systems. In this study, we performed laboratory-scale experiments and numerical simulations to determine the effects of the location and application of recharge wells, and of the location and penetration depth of flow barriers, on controlling seawater intrusion in unconfined coastal aquifers. We also compared the experimental results with existing analytical solutions. Our results showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved when the recharge water is injected at the toe of the saltwater wedge. Point injection yields about the same repulsion compared with line injection from a screened well for the same recharge rate. Results for flow barriers showed that more effective saltwater repulsion is achieved with deeper barrier penetration and with barriers located closer to the coast. When the flow barrier is installed inland from the original toe position however, saltwater intrusion increases with deeper barrier penetration. Saltwater repulsion due to flow barrier installation was found to be linearly related to horizontal barrier location and a polynomial function of the barrier penetration depth. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  15. Groundwater recharge is affected by irrigation efficiency and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, T. R.; Anapalli, S.

    2016-12-01

    Agricultural water savings may be viewed as a potential water supply as municipalities seek water security. However, historical "return flows" to groundwater must be estimated to determine how much net irrigation water can be sold. The RZWQM agricultural systems model was used to simulate deep drainage (pre-groundwater recharge) and surface runoff (potential return flow to streams) under historical conditions in Colorado, USA for limited and full irrigation of corn (maize). Interactions between projected climate change and water management (including limited irrigation) can be simulated. Irrigation (in)efficiency is assumed to result in distributions of variable irrigation amounts, which can be transformed with the model to estimate derived distributions of groundwater recharge and nitrate leaching. The simulation results indicate potential for large changes in the distributions and average groundwater recharge (up to 50% increase under climate change). Even so, biochemical cycling of nitrogen (denitrification) could reduce the nitrate leaching rates. This study serves as a prototype for estimating the derived distributions of groundwater recharge and other fluxes affected by irrigation and climate change.

  16. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; McCatty, S. A.

    1991-09-01

    The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

  17. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

  18. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single-unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

  19. LOCALIZED RECHARGE INFLUENCES ON MTBE TRANSPORT AND WELL PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vertical characterization of a gasoline release site at East Patchogue, New York showed that methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and aromatic plumes "dived" as they passed beneath a sand pit. That this behavior was caused by aquifer recharge was shown by two pieces of evidence. Fir...

  20. Electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Research and development technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hunger, H.F.

    1981-09-01

    Theoretical considerations predict increased stability of cyclic ethers and diethers against reductive cleavage by lithium if the ethers have 2 methyl substitution. Diethers are solvents with low viscosity which are desirable for high rate rechargeable lithium batteries. Synergistic, mixed solvent effects increase electrolyte conductance and rate capability of lithium intercalating cathodes.

  1. Workers prepare to connect cables that will recharge the battery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-11

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, workers prepare to connect cables that will recharge the battery for the S6 integrated truss. The final starboard truss in the assembly of the International Space Station, the S6 is scheduled to fly on space shuttle mission STS-119, whose launch date is not yet determined.

  2. Workers prepare to connect cables that will recharge the battery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-11

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, a worker holds a cable that will help recharge the battery for the S6 integrated truss. The final starboard truss in the assembly of the International Space Station, the S6 is scheduled to fly on space shuttle mission STS-119, whose launch date is not yet determined.

  3. Workers prepare to connect cables that will recharge the battery

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-09-11

    In the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, a worker connects a cable to recharge the battery for the S6 integrated truss. The final starboard truss in the assembly of the International Space Station, the S6 is scheduled to fly on space shuttle mission STS-119, whose launch date is not yet determined.

  4. Effects of variations in recharge on groundwater quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whittemore, D.O.; McGregor, K.M.; Marotz, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The predominant regional effect of recharge on municipal groundwater quality in Kansas is the dilution of mineralized water in aquifers with relatively shallow water tables. The individual dissolved constituents contributing most to the water-quality variations are sulfate and chloride, and the calcium and sodium accompanying them, which are derived from the dissolution of evaporite minerals within the aquifer or from saline formation water in bedrock underlying the aquifer. The relationship between recharge and groundwater-quality variation can be quantified by associating certain climatic indices, especially the Palmer Drought Index, with quality observations. The response time of the maximum water-quality change relative to the occurrence of drought or substantial recharge ranges from a month to 3 years depending on the aquifer characteristics, and is generally proportional to the saturated thickness and specific yield. The response time is also affected by discharge to and recharge from nearby streams and by the well construction, particularly the placement of the screened interval, and pumping stress. ?? 1989.

  5. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.; Mccatty, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    The investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature single unit rechargeable alkaline fuel cells is described. Focus is on chemical and electrochemical stability and O2 reduction/evolution activity of the electrode in question.

  6. Oxygen electrodes for rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swette, L.; Kackley, N.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of this program is the investigation and development of electrocatalysts and supports for the positive electrode of moderate temperature, single-unit, rechargeable alkaline fuel cells. Approximately six support materials and five catalyst materials have been identified to date for further development.

  7. LOCALIZED RECHARGE INFLUENCES ON MTBE TRANSPORT AND WELL PLACEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vertical characterization of a gasoline release site at East Patchogue, New York showed that methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and aromatic plumes "dived" as they passed beneath a sand pit. That this behavior was caused by aquifer recharge was shown by two pieces of evidence. Fir...

  8. NbSe3 Cathodes For Li Rechargeable Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Ni, Ching-Ion; Distefano, Salvador; Somoano, Robert B.; Bankston, C. Perry

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies involving preparation, characterization, and measurements of performance of NbSe3, intended for use as cathode material in lithium rechargeable electrochemical cells. Characteristics superior to those of other intercalating cathode materials, including high volumetric and gravimetric energy densities and ability to sustain discharges at high rates.

  9. An Intelligent FFR with a Self-Adjustable Ventilation Fan.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Song; Li, Hui; Shen, Shengnan; Li, Siyu; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaotie; Yang, James

    2017-08-21

    This paper presents an intelligent Filtering Facepiece Respirator (FFR) with a self-adjustable ventilation fan for improved comfort. The ventilation fan with an intelligent control aims to reduce temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentrations inside the facepiece. Compared with a previous version of the FFR, the advantage of this new FFR is the intelligent control of the fan's rotation speed based on the change in temperature and relative humidity in the FFR deadspace. The design of the control system utilizes an 8-bit, ultra-low power STC15W404AS microcontroller (HongJin technology, Shenzhen, China), and adopts a high-precision AM2320 device (AoSong electronic, Guangzhou, China) as temperature and relative humidity sensor so that control of temperature and relative humidity is realized in real time within the FFR deadspace. The ventilation fan is intelligently driven and runs on a rechargeable lithium battery with a power-save mode that provides a correspondingly longer operational time. Meanwhile, the design is simplistic. Two experiments were performed to determine the best location to place the fan.

  10. Artificial intelligence and intelligent tutoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livergood, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    As a species we have evolved by increasing our mental and physical powers through the deliberate development and use of instruments that amplify our inherent capabilities. Whereas hereditarily given instincts predetermine the actions of lower animal forms, human existence begins with freedom. As humans we can choose what actions we will perform. We have invented a technology called education to prepare ourselves for life. At present, our educational structures and procedures are failing to prepare us efficiently for the demands of modern life. One of the most important new technologies, in relation to human development, is the digital computer. This dissertation proposes that artificial intelligence maintain a highly critical technological awareness. Artificial intelligence, because of its origin as a politically sponsored field of investigation, must strive for constant awareness of its place within the larger political-economic world and its possible misuse by factions intent on manipulation and control. Computerized models of the human mind could be used in developing progressively more sophisticated brainwashing systems. Intelligent tutoring systems comprise an important new technology within the field of artificial intelligence. This dissertation explores specification and design procedures, functions and issues in developing intelligent tutoring systems.

  11. Spiritual Intelligence: The Tenth Intelligence that Integrates All Other Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses seven ways to develop spiritual intelligence, including: think about goals and identify values; access inner processes and use visualization to see goals fulfilled; integrate personal and universal vision; take responsibility for goals; develop a sense of community; focus on love and compassion; and take advantages of…

  12. Assessing the potential for significant and episodic recharge in southwestern Australia using rainfall data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Fay M.; Walker, Glen R.

    2002-02-01

    Agricultural practices in semi-arid parts of southwestern Australia have increased recharge and raised groundwater levels. As a result, land salinization has occurred. Managers aim to address the problem by reducing recharge, but it is not known whether all recharge is regular and seasonal or whether a substantial component is episodic (i.e. occurs in irregular pulses). Approaches that reduce regular recharge may not be effective at reducing recharge that is episodic. Water balances were used to assess the potential for recharge to be episodic at 53 sites throughout Western Australia. The results show that, for the conditions modeled, a substantial proportion of the recharge in drier parts of the agricultural areas occurred episodically, and that direct episodic recharge could be as important in some semi-arid areas as in arid regions. Therefore, mean annual rainfall is not a strong predictor of the ratio of episodic to total recharge at a site. The model indicates that in agricultural areas, most significant and episodic recharge events occurred over just a few days in winter months, when rainfall was dominated by frontal systems. However, substantial episodic recharge also resulted from large storms during the months of January, February, and March. The implication is that it will be difficult to reduce recharge substantially, and thus control salinity, as long as agriculture relies heavily on shallow-rooted winter-growing plants.

  13. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  14. Method of estimating natural recharge to the Edwards Aquifer in the San Antonio area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puente, Celso

    1978-01-01

    The principal errors in the estimates of annual recharge are related to errors in estimating runoff in ungaged areas, which represent about 30 percent of the infiltration area. The estimated long-term average annual recharge in each basin, however, is probably representative of the actual recharge because the averaging procedure tends to cancel out the major errors.

  15. Potential climate change effects on groundwater recharge in the High Plains Aquifer, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosbie, Russell S.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Mpelasoka, Freddie S.; Reedy, Robert C.; Gates, John B.; Zhang, Lu

    2013-07-01

    Considering that past climate changes have significantly impacted groundwater resources, quantitative predictions of climate change effects on groundwater recharge may be valuable for effective management of future water resources. This study used 16 global climate models (GCMs) and three global warming scenarios to investigate changes in groundwater recharge rates for a 2050 climate relative to a 1990 climate in the U.S. High Plains region. Groundwater recharge was modeled using the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer model WAVES for a variety of soil and vegetation types representative of the High Plains. The median projection under a 2050 climate includes increased recharge in the Northern High Plains (+8%), a slight decrease in the Central High Plains (-3%), and a larger decrease in the Southern High Plains (-10%), amplifying the current spatial trend in recharge from north to south. There is considerable uncertainty in both the magnitude and direction of these changes in recharge projections. Predicted changes in recharge between dry and wet future climate scenarios encompass both an increase and decrease in recharge rates, with the magnitude of this range greater than 50% of current recharge. On a proportional basis, sensitivity of recharge to changes in rainfall indicates that areas with high current recharge rates are least sensitive to change in rainfall and vice versa. Sensitivity analyses indicate an amplification of change in recharge compared to change in rainfall, and this amplification is in the range of 1-6 with an average of 2.5-3.5 depending upon the global warming scenario.

  16. Role of vegetation in interplay of climate, soil and groundwater recharge in a global dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Jackson, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater is an essential resource for people and ecosystems worldwide. Our capacity to ameliorate predicted global water shortages and to maintain sustainable water supplies depend on a better understanding of the controls of recharge and how vegetation change may affect recharge mechanisms. The goals of this study are to quantify the importance of vegetation as a dominant control on recharge globally and to compare the importance of vegetation with other hydrologically important variables, including climate and soil. We based our global analysis on > 500 recharge estimates from the literature that contained information on vegetation, soil and climate or location. Plant functional types significantly affected groundwater recharge rates substantially. After climatic factors (water inputs, PET, and seasonality), vegetation types explained about 15% of the residuals in the dataset. Across all climatic factors, croplands had the highest recharge rates, followed by grasslands, scrublands and woodlands (average recharge: 75, 63, 30, 22 mm/yr respectively). Recharge under woodlands showed the most nonlinear response to water inputs. Differences in recharge between the vegetation types were more exaggerated at arid climates and in clay soils, indicating greater biological control on soil water fluxes in these conditions. Our results shows that vegetation greatly affects recharge rates globally and alters relationship between recharge and physical variables allowing us to better predict recharge rates globally.

  17. On modeling and controlling intelligent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1993-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how certain diverse and advanced techniques of information processing and system theory might be integrated into a model of an intelligent, complex entity capable of materially enhancing an advanced information management system. To this end, we first examine the notion of intelligence and ask whether a semblance thereof can arise in a system consisting of ensembles of finite-state automata. Our goal is to find a functional model of intelligence in an information-management setting that can be used as a tool. The purpose of this tool is to allow us to create systems of increasing complexity and utility, eventually reaching the goal of an intelligent information management system that provides and anticipates needed data and information. We base our attempt on the ideas of general system theory where the four topics of system identification, modeling, optimization, and control provide the theoretical framework for constructing a complex system that will be capable of interacting with complex systems in the real world. These four key topics are discussed within the purview of cellular automata, neural networks, and evolutionary programming. This is a report of ongoing work, and not yet a success story of a synthetic intelligent system.

  18. Visualizing intelligence information using correlation graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vivek; Gagvani, Nikhil

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents a new information model to help intelligence analysts in organizing, querying, and visualizing the information present in large volumes of unstructured data sources such as text reports, multi-media, and human discourse. Our primary goal is to create a system that would combine the human pattern recognition abilities of intelligence analysis with the storage and processing capabilities of computers. Our system models the collective mental map of intelligence analysts in the form of the Correlation Graph, a modified graph data structure with objects and events as nodes and subjective probabilistic correlations between them as edges. Objects are entities such as people, places, and things. Events are actions that involve the objects. A taxonomy is also associated with the model to enable intelligence domain specific querying of the data. Graph drawing techniques are used to visualize the information represented by the correlation graph. Through real world examples, we demonstrate that the resulting information model can be used for efficient representation, presentation, and querying to discover novel patterns in the intelligence data via graph visualization techniques.

  19. Building the emotional intelligence of groups.

    PubMed

    Druskat, V U; Wolff, S B

    2001-03-01

    The management world knows by now that to be effective in the workplace, an individual needs high emotional intelligence. What isn't so well understood is that teams need it, too. Citing such companies as IDEO, Hewlett-Packard, and the Hay Group, the authors show that high emotional intelligence is at the heart of effective teams. These teams behave in ways that build relationships both inside and outside the team and that strengthen their ability to face challenges. High group emotional intelligence may seem like a simple matter of putting a group of emotionally intelligent individuals together. It's not. For a team to have high EI, it needs to create norms that establish mutual trust among members, a sense of group identity, and a sense of group efficacy. These three conditions are essential to a team's effectiveness because they are the foundation of true cooperation and collaboration. Group EI isn't a question of dealing with a necessary evil--catching emotions as they bubble up and promptly suppressing them. It's about bringing emotions deliberately to the surface and understanding how they affect the team's work. Group emotional intelligence is about exploring, embracing, and ultimately relying on the emotions that are at the core of teams.

  20. Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Gijsbert) Cirkel, D. G.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual ‘real' vegetation under the ‘real' moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces, the

  1. Climate change effects on vegetation characteristics and groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, R.; Voortman, B.; Witte, J.

    2010-12-01

    Climate change is among the most pressing issues of our time. Increase in temperature, a decrease in summer precipitation and increase in reference evapotranspiration might affect the water balance, freshwater availability and the spatial distribution and type of vegetation. Precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) largely determine groundwater recharge. Therefore, climate change likely affects both the spatial and temporal freshwater availability for nature conservation, agriculture and drinking water supply. Moreover, in the coastal (dune) areas, the groundwater recharge is crucial to the maintenance of the freshwater bell and the dynamics of the fresh - salt interface. Current knowledge, however, is insufficient to estimate reliably the effects of climate change on future freshwater availability. Future groundwater recharge, the driving force of the groundwater system, can only be assessed if we understand how vegetation responds to changing climatic conditions, and how vegetation feedbacks on groundwater recharge through altered actual ET. Although the reference ET (i.e. the ET of a reference vegetation, defined as a short grassland completely covering the soil and optimally provided by water) is predicted to increase, the future actual ET (i.e. the ET of the actual ‘real’ vegetation under the ‘real’ moisture conditions) is highly unknown. It is the dynamics in the actual ET, however, through which the vegetation feeds back on the groundwater recharge. In an earlier study we showed that increased atmospheric CO2 raises the water use efficiency of plants, thus reducing ET. Here we demonstrate another important vegetation feedback in dune systems: the fraction of bare soil and non-rooting species (lichens and mosses) in the dune vegetation will increase when, according to the expectations, summers become drier. From our calculations it appeared that on south slopes of dunes, which receive more solar radiation and are warmer than north facing surfaces

  2. Development of extraterrestrial intelligence and physical laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskij, V. S.

    This paper considers the restrictions imposed by physical laws on the development of life and intelligence in the form of extraterrestrial civilizations. For this purpose intelligence is defined as the community of intelligent beings, joined by the exchange of mass, energy and information both between themselves and with the external medium. Due to the limitation of the velocity of exchange of information and, in particular, mass and energy exchange, the dimensions of the intelligence cannot exceed some light days, i.e. they are limited by the habitable zone about their star. It is shown that the energy consumption should not exceed the energy output of their star for the sake of preserving the cosmic near-star zone of life from energetic pollution. With the above restrictions of the energy product it takes millions of years to create an omnidirectional beacon-transmitter signals from which would be received by the contemporary antennas in all our Galaxy. It is realistic to create an omnidirectional beacon operating in the range of no more than 100-1000 light years.

  3. Nickel-tin foam with nanostructured walls for rechargeable lithium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hye-Ran; Kim, Eun-Ji; Park, Yong Joon; Shin, Heon-Cheol

    Nickel-tin foams with a graded micro-porous framework and nano-porous walls are created by an electrochemical deposition method for use as the anode in rechargeable lithium batteries. The resulting electrodes react readily with lithium electrochemically and deliver a reversible capacity of more than 470 mAh g -1 for up to 50 cycles. In addition, they show outstanding rate performance: their reversible capacity at a discharging rate of 20 C is about 70% of the capacity at a rate of 1 C, due mainly to their unique structure which allows facile lithium-ion transport and fast surface reactions. The reversible capacity and rate capability show strong dependence on the thickness of the deposit and this is associated with the accessibility of lithium ions inside the porous structure.

  4. Multiple Intelligences in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Describes the investigation of the effects of a four-step model program used with third through fifth grade students to implement Gardener's concepts of seven human intelligences--linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, musical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal intelligence--into daily learning. (BB)

  5. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  6. Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve

    This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…

  7. International Intelligence Forum 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    FORUM 39 Peavie, Barrett K . Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia. Fort Leavenworth, KS : U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced...Investigative Service, 2000. Jenssen, Lars Christian and Olav Riste. Intelligence in the Cold War: Organiza- tion, Role, International Cooperation. Oslo

  8. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  9. The Physics of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escultura, E. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the physics of intelligence and provides an overview of what happens in the brain when a person is engaged in mental activity that we classify under thought or intelligence. It traces the formation of a concept starting with reception of visible or detectable signals from the real world by and external to the sense organs,…

  10. Emotional Intelligence and Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, John D.; Perkins, Donna M.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Emotional intelligence and social behavior were explored in a study with 11 adolescents. Results found that those with higher emotional intelligence were better able to identify their own and others' emotions in situations, use that information to guide their actions, and resist peer pressure than others. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  11. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  12. Expanding Human Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galyean, Beverly-Colleene

    1983-01-01

    The human brain is capable of mastering skills far beyond those it is now used for. Three questions about the further evolution of human intelligence are raised: What will be the next step in human intelligence? How is the next step manifesting itself? How can we prepare for those changes? (IS)

  13. Heidegger and artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The discipline of Artificial Intelligence, in its quest for machine intelligence, showed great promise as long as its areas of application were limited to problems of a scientific and situation neutral nature. The attempts to move beyond these problems to a full simulation of man's intelligence has faltered and slowed it progress, largely because of the inability of Artificial Intelligence to deal with human characteristic, such as feelings, goals, and desires. This dissertation takes the position that an impasse has resulted because Artificial Intelligence has never been properly defined as a science: its objects and methods have never been identified. The following study undertakes to provide such a definition, i.e., the required ground for Artificial Intelligence. The procedure and methods employed in this study are based on Heidegger's philosophy and techniques of analysis as developed in Being and Time. Results of this study show that both the discipline of Artificial Intelligence and the concerns of Heidegger in Being and Time have the same object; fundamental ontology. The application of Heidegger's conclusions concerning fundamental ontology unites the various aspects of Artificial Intelligence and provides the articulation which shows the parts of this discipline and how they are related.

  14. Ironising with Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlandson, Peter; Beach, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of a project that seeks in part to explore how students understand and use the concept of intelligence. It is based on an ethnographically contextualized study of linguistic events and was conducted in an inner-city upper secondary school in Sweden. The article shows that the concept of intelligence is not spontaneously used…

  15. The Reproduction of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Although a negative relationship between fertility and education has been described consistently in most countries of the world, less is known about the relationship between intelligence and reproductive outcomes. Also the paths through which intelligence influences reproductive outcomes are uncertain. The present study uses the NLSY79 to analyze…

  16. Artificial Intelligence Study (AIS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGNECE HARDWARE ....... 2-50 AI Architecture ................................... 2-49 AI Hardware ....................................... 2...system: The synergy between discrete-event simulation and the approaches that programmers take to develop artifical - intelligence software took some...dated 28 October 1986 Subject: Army Artifical Intelligence Training Available at Fort Gordon) has indicated the availability of the following training

  17. Ironising with Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlandson, Peter; Beach, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of a project that seeks in part to explore how students understand and use the concept of intelligence. It is based on an ethnographically contextualized study of linguistic events and was conducted in an inner-city upper secondary school in Sweden. The article shows that the concept of intelligence is not spontaneously used…

  18. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  19. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  20. Intelligent Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabezhailo, M. I.; Finn, V. K.

    1996-01-01

    An Intelligent Information System (IIS) uses data warehouse technology to facilitate the cycle of data and knowledge processing, including input, standardization, storage, representation, retrieval, calculation, and delivery. This article provides an overview of IIS products and artificial intelligence systems, illustrates examples of IIS…

  1. Intelligence and Physical Attractiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    This brief research note aims to estimate the magnitude of the association between general intelligence and physical attractiveness with large nationally representative samples from two nations. In the United Kingdom, attractive children are more intelligent by 12.4 IQ points (r=0.381), whereas in the United States, the correlation between…

  2. Next generation Emotional Intelligence

    Treesearch

    J. Saveland

    2012-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence has been a hot topic in leadership training since Dan Goleman published his book on the subject in 1995. Emotional intelligence competencies are typically focused on recognition and regulation of emotions in one's self and social situations, yielding four categories: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship...

  3. Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced so much that it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the LISP language. (JN)

  4. Intelligent tutoring systems.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J R; Boyle, C F; Reiser, B J

    1985-04-26

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP.

  5. Intelligent Tutoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced so much that it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the LISP language. (JN)

  6. Intelligence and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how intelligence is used to acquire education to make positives changes for oneself and for others. For change to occur, intelligence is required to understand which changes need to be made and how to make them. A literature review was conducted through the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)…

  7. Systems Intelligence Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Törmänen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.; Saarinen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Systems intelligence (SI) (Saarinen and Hämäläinen, 2004) is a construct defined as a person's ability to act intelligently within complex systems involving interaction and feedback. SI relates to our ability to act in systems and reason about systems to adaptively carry out productive actions within and with respect to systems such as…

  8. Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John R.; Boyle, C. Franklin; Reiser, Brian J.

    1985-04-01

    Cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer technology have advanced to the point where it is feasible to build computer systems that are as effective as intelligent human tutors. Computer tutors based on a set of pedagogical principles derived from the ACT theory of cognition have been developed for teaching students to do proofs in geometry and to write computer programs in the language LISP.

  9. Problem Solving and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Lauren B.; Glaser, Robert

    This paper argues that a major aspect of intelligence is the ability to solve problems and that careful analysis of problem-solving behavior is a means of specifying many of the psychological processes that make up intelligence. The focus is on the mechanisms involved when, in the absence of complete instruction, a person must "invent" a new…

  10. A Multiple Intelligence Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuzzi, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Describes multiple intelligence instruction (MII), based on the theory that humans possess seven intelligences: visual, musical, logical-mathematical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, linguistic, and bodily-kinesthetic. Argues that current methods of assessment are deficit-based and, therefore, not helpful in assessing MII students. Describes an…

  11. Artificial intelligence: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence. Topics considered at the conference included knowledge representation for expert systems, the use of robots in underwater vehicles for resource management, precision logic, an expert system for arc welding, data base management, a knowledge based approach to fault trees, and computer-aided manufacturing using simulation combined with artificial intelligence.

  12. Systems Intelligence Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Törmänen, Juha; Hämäläinen, Raimo P.; Saarinen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Systems intelligence (SI) (Saarinen and Hämäläinen, 2004) is a construct defined as a person's ability to act intelligently within complex systems involving interaction and feedback. SI relates to our ability to act in systems and reason about systems to adaptively carry out productive actions within and with respect to systems such as…

  13. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-27

    and Prosecution Act of 2006, both by Elizabeth B. Bazan . authorization and defense appropriations acts, they include a substantial portion of the...Expands Rumsfeld’s Domain,” Washington Post, Jan . 23, 2005, p. A1. strategically analyze intelligence, and for failing to share intelligence with other

  14. Intelligence Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-11

    a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 11 JAN 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...RS22011, Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004: “Lone Wolf” Amendment to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, by E. Bazan

  15. Global transpiration, recharge and runoff tracked with stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, S.

    2015-12-01

    The transformations of precipitation into soil-, ground- or stream-water constitute fundamental components of the hydrologic cycle. Hydrometric data are well suited to track propagations of pressures through the landscape, but tell us little about the transport of water itself. Conversely, isotopic data track movements of molecules, providing quantitative insights into subsurface processes. This presentation reviews recent uses of isotopic data to quantify the velocity, storage and mixing of precipitation as it flushes into plants (1. transpiration), aquifers (2. recharge) and streams (3. runoff). (1) Plant transpiration comprises the largest flux of fresh water from the continents, exceeding global river flows by a factor of ~1.5. Mounting evidence suggests that water used by plants is poorly connected to water flowing into streams and aquifers, contrasting most earth system model parameterizations. (2) This partitioning of precipitation into "blue" (recharge, runoff) and "green" (transpiration) water storages is further evidenced by relating precipitation and groundwater isotope contents. Global precipitation-groundwater isotope data show that snowmelt pulses (extratropics) and intensive rainfall (tropics) lead to disproportionately large groundwater recharge fluxes—that is, recharge/precipitation ratios exceeding the local annual average. Across the low latitudes, these results mean that the ongoing intensification of precipitation brought on by global warming may serve to promote groundwater recharge in the tropics, where, by 2050, half of the world's population is projected to live. (3) This presentation concludes by relating precipitation and streamflow isotope contents to show that ~1/3 of global river discharges are generated by precipitation that reaches the stream in less than 3 months (i.e., "young water" in rivers). Substantial and pervasive young, month(s)-old water in global rivers means that biogeochemical processes taking place in the critical

  16. Enhanced recharge and karst, Edwards aquifer, south central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, W.W. Jr. . Center for Water Research)

    1993-02-01

    Enhanced recharge is a water management strategy which can add significant quantities of ground water to the available water resources of the San Antonio region by utilizing the immense storage capacity of the unconfined zone of the Edwards aquifer. The Edwards aquifer presently is the sole source of water for a population of over 1,200,000, meeting public supply, industrial, and irrigation demands over a wide area of south central Texas. Valdina Farms Sinkhole is located adjacent to Seco Creek in Medina County and is in the recharge zone of the aquifer. Initial studies indicated that the sinkholes was capable of taking flood flows from Seco Creek and functioning as a recharge structure. Stream channels in the cavern system associated with Valdina Farms Sinkhole were incised into cave deposits and flood debris was present in the caverns at some distance from the sinkhole. Chemical analyses of samples of water from the cave and from nearby wells showed nitrate concentrations that decreased with distance from the cavern. Gradient of the potentiometric surface in the vicinity of the cave was very low, indicating high values of hydraulic conductivity for the aquifer. Based on evidence from these field studies a dam was constructed in 1982 on Seco Creek and a flood diversion channel was excavated to the sinkhole. Reservoir capacity is 2 acre-feet and design recharge rate is 3.8-6.7 m[sup 3]/sec. Annual recharge at the sinkhole has varied from 0 during periods of low runoff to 12,915 acre-feet.

  17. Groundwater recharge dynamics in unsaturated fractured chalk: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicolaetta M.

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneity of the unsaturated zone controls its hydraulic response to rainfall and the extent to which pollutants are delayed or attenuated before reaching groundwater. It plays therefore a very important role in the recharge of aquifers and the transfer of pollutants because of the presence of temporary storage zones and preferential flows. A better knowledge of the physical processes in the unsaturated zone would allow an improved assessment of the natural recharge in a heterogeneous aquifer and of its vulnerability to surface-applied pollution. The case study regards the role of the thick unsaturated zone of the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in Picardy (North of France) that controls the hydraulic response to rainfall. In the North Paris Basin, much of the recharge must pass through a regional chalk bed that is composed of a porous matrix with embedded fractures. Different types of conceptual models have been formulated to explain infiltration and recharge processes in the unsaturated fractured rock. The present study analyses the episodic recharge in fractured Chalk aquifer using the kinematic diffusion theory to predict water table fluctuation in response to rainfall. From an analysis of the data, there is the evidence of 1) a seasonal behavior characterized by a constant increase in the water level during the winter/spring period and a recession period, 2) a series of episodic behaviors during the summer/autumn. Kinematic diffusion models are useful for predict preferential fluxes and dynamic conditions. The presented approach conceptualizes the unsaturated flow as a combination of 1) diffusive flow refers to the idealized portion of the pore space of the medium within the flow rate is driven essentially by local gradient of potential; 2) preferential flow by which water moves across macroscopic distances through conduits of macropore length.

  18. Ecohydrologic process modeling of mountain block groundwater recharge.

    PubMed

    Magruder, Ian A; Woessner, William W; Running, Steve W

    2009-01-01

    Regional mountain block recharge (MBR) is a key component of alluvial basin aquifer systems typical of the western United States. Yet neither water scientists nor resource managers have a commonly available and reasonably invoked quantitative method to constrain MBR rates. Recent advances in landscape-scale ecohydrologic process modeling offer the possibility that meteorological data and land surface physical and vegetative conditions can be used to generate estimates of MBR. A water balance was generated for a temperate 24,600-ha mountain watershed, elevation 1565 to 3207 m, using the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC (BioGeochemical Cycles) (Running and Hunt 1993). Input data included remotely sensed landscape information and climate data generated with the Mountain Climate Simulator (MT-CLIM) (Running et al. 1987). Estimated mean annual MBR flux into the crystalline bedrock terrain is 99,000 m(3) /d, or approximately 19% of annual precipitation for the 2003 water year. Controls on MBR predictions include evapotranspiration (radiation limited in wet years and moisture limited in dry years), soil properties, vegetative ecotones (significant at lower elevations), and snowmelt (dominant recharge process). The ecohydrologic model is also used to investigate how climatic and vegetative controls influence recharge dynamics within three elevation zones. The ecohydrologic model proves useful for investigating controls on recharge to mountain blocks as a function of climate and vegetation. Future efforts will need to investigate the uncertainty in the modeled water balance by incorporating an advanced understanding of mountain recharge processes, an ability to simulate those processes at varying scales, and independent approaches to calibrating MBR estimates. Copyright © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  19. Artificial intelligence (AI) systems for interpreting complex medical datasets.

    PubMed

    Altman, R B

    2017-05-01

    Advances in machine intelligence have created powerful capabilities in algorithms that find hidden patterns in data, classify objects based on their measured characteristics, and associate similar patients/diseases/drugs based on common features. However, artificial intelligence (AI) applications in medical data have several technical challenges: complex and heterogeneous datasets, noisy medical datasets, and explaining their output to users. There are also social challenges related to intellectual property, data provenance, regulatory issues, economics, and liability. © 2017 ASCPT.

  20. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 1. Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Consortium ( NAIC ) I Volker Weiss and James F. Brule" APPROVED FORPUL/RELEAS" DI/UTION UN.IMI/ED This effort was funded partially by the Laboratory...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium ( NAIC ) REPORT NUMBER Science & Technology Center, Rm 2-296 N/A 111 College...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT(MPau* = w" The Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium ( NAIC ) was created by the Air

  1. Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, J D; Salovey, P; Caruso, D R; Sitarenios, G

    2001-09-01

    The authors have claimed that emotional intelligence (EI) meets traditional standards for an intelligence (J. D. Mayer, D. R. Caruso, & P. Salovey, 1999). R. D. Roberts, M. Zeidner, and G. Matthews (2001) questioned whether that claim was warranted. The central issue raised by Roberts et al. concerning Mayer et al. (1999) is whether there are correct answers to questions on tests purporting to measure EI as a set of abilities. To address this issue (and others), the present authors briefly restate their view of intelligence, emotion, and EI. They then present arguments for the reasonableness of measuring EI as an ability, indicate that correct answers exist, and summarize recent data suggesting that such measures are, indeed, reliable.

  2. Mapping Mountain Front Recharge Areas in Arid Watersheds Based on a Digital Elevation Model and Land Cover Types

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, Esther E.; Hamada, Yuki; O’Connor, Ben L.

    2014-06-01

    Here, a recent assessment that quantified potential impacts of solar energy development on water resources in the southwestern United States necessitated the development of a methodology to identify locations of mountain front recharge (MFR) in order to guide land development decisions. A spatially explicit, slope-based algorithm was created to delineate MFR zones in 17 arid, mountainous watersheds using elevation and land cover data. Slopes were calculated from elevation data and grouped into 100 classes using iterative self-organizing classification. Candidate MFR zones were identified based on slope classes that were consistent with MFR. Land cover types that were inconsistent with groundwater recharge were excluded from the candidate areas to determine the final MFR zones. No MFR reference maps exist for comparison with the study’s results, so the reliability of the resulting MFR zone maps was evaluated qualitatively using slope, surficial geology, soil, and land cover datasets. MFR zones ranged from 74 km2 to 1,547 km2 and accounted for 40% of the total watershed area studied. Slopes and surficial geologic materials that were present in the MFR zones were consistent with conditions at the mountain front, while soils and land cover that were present would generally promote groundwater recharge. Visual inspection of the MFR zone maps also confirmed the presence of well-recognized alluvial fan features in several study watersheds. While qualitative evaluation suggested that the algorithm reliably delineated MFR zones in most watersheds overall, the algorithm was better suited for application in watersheds that had characteristic Basin and Range topography and relatively flat basin floors than areas without these characteristics. Because the algorithm performed well to reliably delineate the spatial distribution of MFR, it would allow researchers to quantify aspects of the hydrologic processes associated with MFR and help local land resource managers to consider

  3. Mapping Mountain Front Recharge Areas in Arid Watersheds Based on a Digital Elevation Model and Land Cover Types

    DOE PAGES

    Bowen, Esther E.; Hamada, Yuki; O’Connor, Ben L.

    2014-06-01

    Here, a recent assessment that quantified potential impacts of solar energy development on water resources in the southwestern United States necessitated the development of a methodology to identify locations of mountain front recharge (MFR) in order to guide land development decisions. A spatially explicit, slope-based algorithm was created to delineate MFR zones in 17 arid, mountainous watersheds using elevation and land cover data. Slopes were calculated from elevation data and grouped into 100 classes using iterative self-organizing classification. Candidate MFR zones were identified based on slope classes that were consistent with MFR. Land cover types that were inconsistent with groundwatermore » recharge were excluded from the candidate areas to determine the final MFR zones. No MFR reference maps exist for comparison with the study’s results, so the reliability of the resulting MFR zone maps was evaluated qualitatively using slope, surficial geology, soil, and land cover datasets. MFR zones ranged from 74 km2 to 1,547 km2 and accounted for 40% of the total watershed area studied. Slopes and surficial geologic materials that were present in the MFR zones were consistent with conditions at the mountain front, while soils and land cover that were present would generally promote groundwater recharge. Visual inspection of the MFR zone maps also confirmed the presence of well-recognized alluvial fan features in several study watersheds. While qualitative evaluation suggested that the algorithm reliably delineated MFR zones in most watersheds overall, the algorithm was better suited for application in watersheds that had characteristic Basin and Range topography and relatively flat basin floors than areas without these characteristics. Because the algorithm performed well to reliably delineate the spatial distribution of MFR, it would allow researchers to quantify aspects of the hydrologic processes associated with MFR and help local land resource managers to

  4. Development of an intelligent hypertext system for wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, Ching F.; Shi, George Z.; Steinle, Frank W.; Wu, Y. C. L. Susan; Hoyt, W. Andes

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a system utilizing artificial intelligence technology to improve the productivity of project engineers who conduct wind tunnel tests. The objective was to create an intelligent hypertext system which integrates a hypertext manual and expert system that stores experts' knowledge and experience. The preliminary (Phase I) effort implemented a prototype IHS module encompassing a portion of the manuals and knowledge used for wind tunnel testing. The effort successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the intelligent hypertext system concept. A module for the internal strain gage balance, implemented on both IBM-PC and Macintosh computers, is presented. A description of the Phase II effort is included.

  5. Intelligence and homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2012-09-01

    The origin of preferences and values is an unresolved theoretical problem in behavioural sciences. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, derived from the Savanna Principle and a theory of the evolution of general intelligence, suggests that more intelligent individuals are more likely to acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel preferences and values than less intelligent individuals, but general intelligence has no effect on the acquisition and espousal of evolutionarily familiar preferences and values. Ethnographies of traditional societies suggest that exclusively homosexual behaviour was probably rare in the ancestral environment, so the Hypothesis would predict that more intelligent individuals are more likely to identify themselves as homosexual and engage in homosexual behaviour. Analyses of three large, nationally representative samples (two of which are prospectively longitudinal) from two different nations confirm the prediction.

  6. Leading Schools with Emotional Intelligence: A Study of the Degree of Association between Middle School Principal Emotional Intelligence and School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardach, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    Measures of cognitive intelligence such as Intelligence Quotient (IQ) have long been utilized as gatekeeper measures for leadership placement within organizations. Universities and Colleges have created leadership degree programs which are often almost exclusively measures of a student's cognitive ability. The degrees conferred are often the…

  7. [The emotional intelligence and coping with stress among medical students].

    PubMed

    Wons, Agata; Bargiel-Matusiewicz, Kamilla

    2011-01-01

    The emotional intelligence is a basis for active, adaptive coping with stress. The persons with high emotional intelligence can better recognize potential stressors, can use emotions in coping with problem, as far as they cope in better way with negative emotions evoking in stressful situation. The authors verify the thesis that individual style of coping with stress is connected with the level of emotional intelligence. The study was conducted among second year students of The School of Medicine. Two standardized instruments were used in the study: Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (INTE) which measures emotional intelligence understood as an ability to recognize, understand and control emotions and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) which measures scoping with stress style understood as a trait of personality. The results confirm that persons with high level of emotional intelligence are more flexible in coping with stressors. It has been stated that people with higher results in case of emotional intelligence undertake more willingly active acts confronting with problem. Persons who have low results in case of emotional intelligence use mainly strategies focused on coping with their own emotions, as far as on escape style of coping. The results of the presented study may become a stimulus to creating prevention projects addressed to future physicians and also to the people who are now active on professional level. The projects could prevent preserving unconstructive ways of coping with occupational stress and indirectly improve efficacy and satisfaction connected with medical care.

  8. Creating physics stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Korea has begun an ambitious 5bn plan to create 50 new institutes dedicated to fundamental research. Michael Banks meets physicist Se-Jung Oh, president of the Institute for Basic Science, to find out more.

  9. Create a Logo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duchen, Gail

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson that introduced students to graphic art as a career path. Explains that the students met a graphic artist and created a logo for a pretend client. Explains that the students researched logos. (CMK)

  10. Design and Testing of a Transcutaneous RF Recharging System for a Fetal Micropacemaker.

    PubMed

    Vest, Adriana N; Zhou, Li; Huang, Xuechen; Norekyan, Viktoria; Bar-Cohen, Yaniv; Chmait, Ramen H; Loeb, Gerald Eli

    2017-02-13

    We have developed a rechargeable fetal micropacemaker in order to treat severe fetal bradycardia with comorbid hydrops fetalis. The necessarily small form factor of the device, small patient population, and fetal anatomy put unique constraints on the design of the recharging system. To overcome these constraints, a custom high power field generator was built and the recharging process was controlled by utilizing pacing rate as a measure of battery state, a feature of the relaxation oscillator used to generate stimuli. The design and in vitro and in vivo verification of the recharging system is presented here, showing successful generation of recharging current in a fetal lamb model.

  11. The simulation of the recharging method of active medical implant based on Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xianyue; Song, Yong; Hao, Qun; Cao, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Dai, Pantao; Li, Wansong

    2014-11-01

    The recharging of Active Medical Implant (AMI) is an important issue for its future application. In this paper, a method for recharging active medical implant using wearable incoherent light source has been proposed. Firstly, the models of the recharging method are developed. Secondly, the recharging processes of the proposed method have been simulated by using Monte Carlo (MC) method. Finally, some important conclusions have been reached. The results indicate that the proposed method will help to result in a convenient, safe and low-cost recharging method of AMI, which will promote the application of this kind of implantable device.

  12. An overview of experiences of basin artificial recharge of ground water in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hida, Noboru

    In this paper, the author reviews the present situation of basin artificial recharge of ground water (MAR: managed aquifer recharge) as of 2007 in Japan. Most of the artificial recharge of basin method is carried out using alluvial fans. The enhancing groundwater resources in the Rokugo alluvial aquifer has resulted in sustainability for the groundwater environment, especially in the distal fan. As a general judgment, the basin artificial recharge contributes to sustainable aquifer management in alluvium. As a result of this review, the basin artificial recharge will be utilized more in the future, not only in Japan, but in monsoon Asian countries as well.

  13. Transient, spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, K.; Woodbury, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin

  14. Transient,spatially-varied recharge for groundwater modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Kibreab; Woodbury, Allan

    2013-04-01

    This study is aimed at producing spatially and temporally varying groundwater recharge for transient groundwater modeling in a pilot watershed in the North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using a Richard's equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D) [Simunek et al., 2002], ArcGISTM [ESRI, 2011], ROSETTA [Schaap et al., 2001], in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture and a long term gridded climate data [Nielsen et al., 2010]. The public version of HYDUS-1D [Simunek et al., 2002] and another beta version with a detailed freezing and thawing module [Hansson et al., 2004] are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. Correlation coefficients for soil temperature simulation were estimated at 0.9 and 0.8, at depths of 10 cm and 50 cm respectively; and for soil moisture, 0.8 and 0.6 at 10 cm and 50 cm respectively. This and other standard measures of model performance (root mean square error and average error) showed a promising performance of the HYDRUS-1D code in our pilot watershed. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGISTM to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8mm /year. This significant variation over the years, caused by antecedent soil moisture condition and climatic condition, illustrates the common flaw of assigning a constant percentage of precipitation throughout the simulation period. Groundwater recharge modeling has previously been attempted in the Okanagan Basin

  15. Creating a knowledge base of biological research papers

    SciTech Connect

    Hafner, C.D.; Baclawski, K.; Futrelle, R.P.; Fridman, N.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent text-oriented tools for representing and searching the biological research literature are being developed, which combine object-oriented databases with artificial intelligence techniques to create a richly structured knowledge base of Materials and Methods sections of biological research papers. A knowledge model of experimental processes, biological and chemical substances, and analytical techniques is described, based on the representation techniques of taxonomic semantic nets and knowledge frames. Two approaches to populating the knowledge base with the contents of biological research papers are described: natural language processing and an interactive knowledge definition tool.

  16. The spatial and temporal variability of groundwater recharge in a forested basin in northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dripps, W.R.; Bradbury, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Recharge varies spatially and temporally as it depends on a wide variety of factors (e.g. vegetation, precipitation, climate, topography, geology, and soil type), making it one of the most difficult, complex, and uncertain hydrologic parameters to quantify. Despite its inherent variability, groundwater modellers, planners, and policy makers often ignore recharge variability and assume a single average recharge value for an entire watershed. Relatively few attempts have been made to quantify or incorporate spatial and temporal recharge variability into water resource planning or groundwater modelling efforts. In this study, a simple, daily soil-water balance model was developed and used to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of groundwater recharge of the Trout Lake basin of northern Wisconsin for 1996-2000 as a means to quantify recharge variability. For the 5 years of study, annual recharge varied spatially by as much as 18 cm across the basin; vegetation was the predominant control on this variability. Recharge also varied temporally with a threefold annual difference over the 5-year period. Intra-annually, recharge was limited to a few isolated events each year and exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern. The results suggest that ignoring recharge variability may not only be inappropriate, but also, depending on the application, may invalidate model results and predictions for regional and local water budget calculations, water resource management, nutrient cycling, and contaminant transport studies. Recharge is spatially and temporally variable, and should be modelled as such. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Spatial-temporal pattern recognition of groundwater head variations for recharge zone identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jui-Pin; Chang, Liang-Cheng; Chang, Ping-Yu; Lin, Yuan-Chien; Chen, You-Cheng; Wu, Meng-Ting; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2017-06-01

    The delineation of groundwater recharge zones is crucial for the conservation of groundwater quality and quantity. To objectively estimate groundwater recharge zones, many field surveys are required that are costly in both time and money. To facilitate the assessment of recharge zones with high efficiency and low expense, this study proposes a 'fast-filter' approach based on empirical orthogonal function analysis and applies it in a synthetic case study and to Taiwan's Yilan Plain. In the synthetic case study, we demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively identify the recharge area by considering the head variations driven by rainfall recharge. For the case of Yilan Plain application, the field investigations (i.e., collected wellbore logs and electrical resistivity tomography [ERT] surveys) and a groundwater simulation model support the recharge zones estimated by the proposed method. The study results show that within the estimated recharge zone, all of the collected wellbore logs consist of coarse grains, and thick and continuous high resistivity zones were shown in the ERT profile images. Moreover, the groundwater model indicates that the recharge within the estimated recharge zone is 57.6% of the total recharge despite that the area of the estimated zone is only 26.8% of the study area. Therefore, the proposed method is shown to delineate recharge zones at low cost.

  18. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  19. Folklore and the Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehnecke, Dianne Swenson

    1995-01-01

    Explores using Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences for folklore analysis. States that when listening to folktales, linguistic intelligence was used, as opposed to drawing pictures of the stories, which used spatial intelligence. Provides some ideas on how to bring folklore studies and the use of multiple intelligences into the classroom. (PA)

  20. Folklore and the Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehnecke, Dianne Swenson

    1995-01-01

    Explores using Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences for folklore analysis. States that when listening to folktales, linguistic intelligence was used, as opposed to drawing pictures of the stories, which used spatial intelligence. Provides some ideas on how to bring folklore studies and the use of multiple intelligences into the classroom. (PA)

  1. Geophysical Methods for Improved Understanding of Managed Aquifer Recharge (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidlisecky, A.; Nenna, V.; Knight, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge is increasingly being used as a means of augmenting groundwater supplies. With the increased use, questions arise regarding the suitability of sites for such operations, as well as the operational efficiency of these systems. In this work we specifically look at MAR using an artificial recharge pond. There are two operational challenges commonly faced in artificial recharge ponds: 1) A decrease in infiltration rate of water into the subsurface during operating; this limits the amount of stored water. 2) Low recovery rates of the stored water. Addressing both of these challenges requires sufficient information about the spatial and temporal variation in governing hydrologic properties and processes. Geophysical methods provide a novel way of obtaining such information from the region beneath a recharge pond. A study of the Harkins Slough Recharge Pond, near Watsonville California, presented a unique opportunity to develop and test geophysical methods, specifically for improved understanding off MAR. At this site we deployed a series of geophysical sensors aimed at addressing the two operational challenges at the site. We first addressed the question: What is controlling the decrease in filtration rate? The development and installation of electrical conductivity probes beneath the pond allowed us to monitor changes in the top ~1 m over a 4-month period. This dataset revealed that clogging in the top ~10 cm was responsible for the decreased infiltration rate. These 1D data were augmented by a time-lapse 2D ERT dataset that shows significant lateral variability in infiltration at the site. The second question we addressed was: Why is the recovery rate so low? Using a combination of cone-penetrometer testing and seismic reflection data, we developed a subsurface model that suggested there was a thin clay layer that may be impeding the flow of water to the recovery wells. To further understand this, we developed electrical conductivity probes

  2. Determination of groundwater recharge mechanism in the deep loessial unsaturated zone by environmental tracers.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Chen, Xi; Liu, Wenzhao; Si, Bingcheng

    2017-05-15

    Studying the groundwater recharge mechanism in regions with thick unsaturated zone can greatly improve our understanding of hydrological processes since these regions have complex groundwater processes. This study attempted to discuss the groundwater recharge in a region covered by loess over 130m deep in China's Loess Plateau. The water stable isotope, tritium and chloride in precipitation, groundwater and soil water were determined and used as inputs of mass balance methods. The tracer technique is found to be applicable and effective this region with thick unsaturated zone. The groundwater originates from rapid precipitation infiltration through some fast flow paths. The total recharge is likely to be 107±55mmyr(-1) accounting for 19±10% of average annual precipitation, while the recharge from preferential flow accounts for 87±4% of the total recharge. The identified recharge mechanism has important implication to groundwater management and recharge modeling for regions covered by thick loess.

  3. A new method for estimating recharge to unconfined aquifers using differential river gauging.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Andrew M; Andersen, Martin S; Acworth, R Ian

    2014-01-01

    In semiarid and arid environments, leakage from rivers is a major source of recharge to underlying unconfined aquifers. Differential river gauging is widely used to estimate the recharge. However, the methods commonly applied are limited in that the temporal resolution is event-scale or longer. In this paper, a novel method is presented for quantifying both the total recharge volume for an event, and variation in recharge rate during an event from hydrographs recorded at the upstream and downstream ends of a river reach. The proposed method is applied to river hydrographs to illustrate the method steps and investigate recharge processes occurring in a sub-catchment of the Murray Darling Basin (Australia). Interestingly, although it is the large flood events which are commonly assumed to be the main source of recharge to an aquifer, our analysis revealed that the smaller flow events were more important in providing recharge.

  4. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, A. N.; Kambhampati, C.; Monson, J. R. T.; Drew, P. J.

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. METHODS: Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. RESULTS: The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. DISCUSSION: Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting. PMID:15333167

  5. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII < 0.45). Further, occupied spaces were found to have 10%-15% lower SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  6. Artificial intelligence in medicine.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, A N; Kambhampati, C; Monson, J R T; Drew, P J

    2004-09-01

    Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science capable of analysing complex medical data. Their potential to exploit meaningful relationship with in a data set can be used in the diagnosis, treatment and predicting outcome in many clinical scenarios. Medline and internet searches were carried out using the keywords 'artificial intelligence' and 'neural networks (computer)'. Further references were obtained by cross-referencing from key articles. An overview of different artificial intelligent techniques is presented in this paper along with the review of important clinical applications. The proficiency of artificial intelligent techniques has been explored in almost every field of medicine. Artificial neural network was the most commonly used analytical tool whilst other artificial intelligent techniques such as fuzzy expert systems, evolutionary computation and hybrid intelligent systems have all been used in different clinical settings. Artificial intelligence techniques have the potential to be applied in almost every field of medicine. There is need for further clinical trials which are appropriately designed before these emergent techniques find application in the real clinical setting.

  7. Intelligent Design and Earth History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The

  8. Intelligent robots: Do we need them and can they be built

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    For avid watchers of science fiction movies, the mention of robotics and artificial intelligence conjures up images of humanlike machines. Often, news reports of scientific advances that enable machines to behave in a flexible manner for a limited set of tests draw parallels to science fiction robots. The effect of this unfortunate kind of publicity is that the scientific disciplines of robotics and artificial intelligence are sometimes regarded as a playground for slightly crazed scientists trying to create artificial humans. In reality, the fields of robotics and artificial intelligence can best be described by answering a few commonly asked questions: What is an intelligent robot, anyway Why would we need things like that Could we build them and make them reliable for certain uses An example of an intelligent machine, or robot is presented and the question of whether intelligent robots are needed is addressed. The impact of ORNL research on uses for intelligent machines is described.

  9. Intelligence Reforms in Brazil: Contemporary Challenges and the Legacy of the Past

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    implementing Law No. 9,883 of December 7, 1999, which created the Brazilian Intelligence System (Sistema Brasileiro de Inteligencia ,SISBIN), the SISBIN...important are the following: Brazilian Intelligence Agency (Agencia Brasileira de Inteligencia , ABIN), which is the central organ of SISBIN; the...Coordinating Office for Intelligence of the Federal Police (Coordenacao de Inteligencia do Departamento de Policia Federal, PF) of the Ministry of

  10. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  11. Extraterrestrial intelligence? Not likely.

    PubMed

    DeVore, I

    2001-12-01

    The possibility that there exist extraterrestrial creatures with advanced intelligence is considered by examining major events in mammalian, primate, and human evolution on earth. The overwhelming evidence is that the evolution of intelligence in creatures elsewhere who have the capability to communicate with us is vanishingly small. The history of the evolution of advanced forms of life on this planet is so beset by adventitious, unpredictable events and multiple contingencies that the evolution of human-level intelligence is highly unlikely on any planet, including earth.

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-20

    8217’AD-A122 414 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (.) ARMY SCIENCE 1/j 13OARD WA SH INGTON Od I C PEDEN ET AL. 20 SEP 82 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 15/3 NL LEE...AND ACQUISITION WASHINGTON, D. C. 20310 A RMY CIENCE BOARD AD HOC SUBGROUP REPORT ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS SEPTEMBER 1982 DTIC DEC 1 5...TITLE (aid Subtitle) S TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Army Science Board AHSG Report Final Artificial Intelligence and Robotics S. PERFORMING ORG

  13. Artificial intelligence and statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book explores the possible applications of artificial intelligence in statistics and conversely, statistics in artificial intelligence. It is a collection of seventeen papers written by leaders in the field. Most of the papers were prepared for the Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics held in April 1985 and sponsored by ATandT Bell Laboratories. The book is divided into six parts: uncertainly propagation, clustering and learning, expert systems, environments for supporting statistical strategy, knowledge acquisition, and strategy. The editor ties the collection together in the first chapter by providing an overview of AI and statistics, discussing the Workshop, and exploring future research in the field.

  14. Intelligent control in robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Meystel, A.

    1988-08-01

    A new paradigm of solving control problems is considered: intelligent control. Conventional control theory does not offer adequate analytical and design tools for a number of systems: robots, automated manufacturing, multidimensional nonlinear and stochastic systems, multisensor systems, systems under human supervision, etc. Issues of dissatisfaction with conventional control theory are discussed. Several major domains of interest are formulated for the theory of intelligent control, as well as several possible avenues of their approaching in a nonconventional way. Nested hierarchical information structures are introduced typical for the problems formulated within the theory of intelligent control such as building multiresolutional multiloop controllers, providing continuity of planning/control processes, etc. 42 references.

  15. Geochemical analyses of ground-water ages, recharge rates, and hydraulic conductivity of the N aquifer, Black Mesa area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Hoffmann, John P.

    1997-01-01

    The Navajo Nation and Hopi Tribe of the Black Mesa area, Arizona, depend on ground water from the N aquifer to meet most tribal and industrial needs. Increasing use of this aquifer is creating concerns about possible adverse effects of increased ground-water withdrawals on the water resources of the region. A thorough understanding of the N aquifer is necessary to assess the aquifer's response to ground-water withdrawals. This study used geochemical techniques as an independent means of improving the conceptual model of ground-water flow in the N aquifer and to estimate recharge rates and hydraulic conductivity. Ground water flows in a south-southeastward direction from the recharge area around Shonto into the confined part of the N aquifer underneath Black Mesa. Ground-water flow paths diverge in the confined part of the aquifer to the northeast and south. The N aquifer thins to extinction south of Black Mesa. This discontinuity could force ground water to diverge along paths of least resistance. Ground water discharges from the confined part of the aquifer into Laguna Creek and Moenkopi Wash and from springs southwest of Kykotsmovi and southeast of Rough Rock after a residence time of about 35,000 years or more. Recent recharge along the periphery of Black Mesa mixes with older ground water that discharges from the confined part of the aquifer and flows away from Black Mesa. Dissolved-ion concentrations, ratios of dissolved ions, dissolved-gas concentrations, tritium, carbon-13, and chlorine-36 data indicate that water in the overlying D aquifer could be leaking into the confined part of the N aquifer in the southeastern part of Black Mesa. The boundary between the leaky and nonleaky zones is defined roughly by a line from Rough Rock to Second Mesa and separates ground waters that have significantly different chemistries. The Dakota Sandstone and Entrada Formation of the D aquifer could be the sources of leakage. Adjusted radiocarbon ground-water ages and data on

  16. Delineation and Prediction Uncertainty of Areas Contributing Recharge to Selected Well Fields in Wetland and Coastal Settings, Southern Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesz, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    coastal setting. The wells are screened in a coarse-grained, ice-proximal part of a morphosequence with saturated thicknesses generally less than 30 feet on the peninsula. The simulated area contributing recharge for the average withdrawal (16 gallons per minute) during 2003-07 was 0.018 square mile. The contributing area extended southwestward from the well fields to a simulated groundwater mound; it underlay part of a small nearby wetland, and it included isolated areas on the side of the wetland opposite the well fields. For the maximum pumping rate (230 gallons per minute), the simulated area contributing recharge (0.26 square mile) expanded in all directions; it included a till area on the peninsula, and it underlay part of a nearby pond. Because the well fields are screened in a thin aquifer, simulated groundwater traveltimes from recharge locations to the discharging wells were short: 94 percent of the traveltimes were 10 years or less, and the median traveltime was 1.3 years. Model-prediction uncertainty was evaluated using a Monte Carlo analysis; the parameter variance-covariance matrix from nonlinear regression was used to create parameter sets for the analysis. Important parameters for model prediction that could not be estimated by nonlinear regression were incorporated into the variance-covariance matrix. For the South Kingstown study site, observations provided enough information to constrain the uncertainty of these parameters within realistic ranges, but for the Charlestown study site, prior information on parameters was required. Thus, the uncertainty analysis for the South Kingstown study site was an outcome of calibrating the model to available observations, but the Charlestown study site was also dependent on information provided by the modeler. A water budget and model-fit statistical criteria were used to assess parameter sets so that prediction uncertainty was not overestimated. For the scenarios using maximum pumping rates at both study

  17. Developing empirical monthly groundwater recharge equations based on modeling and remote sensing data - Modeling future groundwater recharge to predict potential climate change impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemitzi, Alexandra; Ajami, Hoori; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2017-03-01

    Groundwater recharge is one of main components of the water budget that is difficult to quantify due to complexity of recharge processes and limited observations. In the present work a simple regression equation for monthly groundwater recharge estimation is developed by relating simulated recharge from a calibrated Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT) model to effective precipitation. Monthly groundwater recharge and actual evapotranspiration (AET) were computed by applying a calibrated (SWAT) model for a ten year period (2005-2015) in Vosvozis river basin in NE Greece. SWAT actual evapotranspiration (AET) results were compared to remotely sensed AET values from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), indicating the integrity of the modeling process. Water isotopes of 2H and 18O, originally presented herein, were used to infer recharge resources in the basin and provided additional evidence of the applicability of the developed formula. Results showed that the developed recharge estimation method can be effectively applied using MODIS evapotranspiration data, without having to adhere to numerical modeling which is many times constrained by the lack of available data especially in poorly gauged basins. Future trends of groundwater recharge up to 2100 using an ensemble of five downscaled climate change projections indicated that annual recharge will increase up to the middle of the present century and gradually decrease thereafter. However, the predicted magnitude is highly variable depending on the Global Climate Model (GCM) used. While winter recharge will likely increase in the future, summer recharge is expected to decrease as a result of temperature rise in the future.

  18. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  19. Intelligence Spending: Public Disclosure Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-25

    large Federal agencies — the Central Intelligence Agency ( CIA ), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the National Reconnaissance Office, the National...included not just the “National Intelligence Program”–the budgets for CIA , DIA, NSA et al, but also a wide variety of other intelligence and...entities ranging in size from the CIA and NSA down to the small intelligence offices of the Treasury and Energy Departments. Except for the CIA , this

  20. Novel Nanocomposite Materials for Advanced Li-Ion Rechargeable Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Chuan; Wang, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Nanostructured materials lie at the heart of fundamental advances in efficient energy storage and/or conversion, in which surface processes and transport kinetics play determining roles. Nanocomposite materials will have a further enhancement in properties compared to their constituent phases. This Review describes some recent developments of nanocomposite materials for high-performance Li-ion rechargeable batteries, including carbon-oxide nanocomposites, polymer-oxide nanocomposites, metal-oxide nanocomposites, and silicon-based nanocomposites, etc. The major goal of this Review is to highlight some new progress in using these nanocomposite materials as electrodes to develop Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, high rate capability, and excellent cycling stability.