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Sample records for creb regulate basal

  1. The Kinase Function of MSK1 Regulates BDNF Signaling to CREB and Basal Synaptic Transmission, But Is Not Required for Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation or Spatial Memory

    PubMed Central

    Daumas, Stephanie; Hunter, Christopher J.; Mistry, Rajen B.; Cooper, Daniel D.; Reyskens, Kathleen M.; Flynn, Harry T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The later stages of long-term potentiation (LTP) in vitro and spatial memory in vivo are believed to depend upon gene transcription. Accordingly, considerable attempts have been made to identify both the mechanisms by which transcription is regulated and indeed the gene products themselves. Previous studies have shown that deletion of one regulator of transcription, the mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), causes an impairment of spatial memory. Given the ability of MSK1 to regulate gene expression via the phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) at serine 133 (S133), MSK1 is a plausible candidate as a prime regulator of transcription underpinning synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Indeed, prior work has revealed the necessity for MSK1 in homeostatic and experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. However, using a knock-in kinase-dead mouse mutant of MSK1, the current study demonstrates that, while the kinase function of MSK1 is important in regulating the phosphorylation of CREB at S133 and basal synaptic transmission in hippocampal area CA1, it is not required for metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression (mGluR-LTD), two forms of LTP or several forms of spatial learning in the watermaze. These data indicate that other functions of MSK1, such as a structural role for the whole enzyme, may explain previous observations of a role for MSK1 in learning and memory. PMID:28275711

  2. Genome-wide functional analysis of CREB/long-term memory-dependent transcription reveals distinct basal and memory gene expression programs.

    PubMed

    Lakhina, Vanisha; Arey, Rachel N; Kaletsky, Rachel; Kauffman, Amanda; Stein, Geneva; Keyes, William; Xu, Daniel; Murphy, Coleen T

    2015-01-21

    Induced CREB activity is a hallmark of long-term memory, but the full repertoire of CREB transcriptional targets required specifically for memory is not known in any system. To obtain a more complete picture of the mechanisms involved in memory, we combined memory training with genome-wide transcriptional analysis of C. elegans CREB mutants. This approach identified 757 significant CREB/memory-induced targets and confirmed the involvement of known memory genes from other organisms, but also suggested new mechanisms and novel components that may be conserved through mammals. CREB mediates distinct basal and memory transcriptional programs at least partially through spatial restriction of CREB activity: basal targets are regulated primarily in nonneuronal tissues, while memory targets are enriched for neuronal expression, emanating from CREB activity in AIM neurons. This suite of novel memory-associated genes will provide a platform for the discovery of orthologous mammalian long-term memory components.

  3. Genome-wide Functional Analysis of CREB/Long-Term Memory-Dependent Transcription Reveals Distinct Basal and Memory Gene Expression Programs

    PubMed Central

    Lakhina, Vanisha; Arey, Rachel N.; Kaletsky, Rachel; Kauffman, Amanda; Stein, Geneva; Keyes, William; Xu, Daniel; Murphy, Coleen T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Induced CREB activity is a hallmark of long-term memory, but the full repertoire of CREB transcriptional targets required specifically for memory is not known in any system. To obtain a more complete picture of the mechanisms involved in memory, we combined memory training with genome-wide transcriptional analysis of C. elegans CREB mutants. This approach identified 757 significant CREB/memory-induced targets and confirmed the involvement of known memory genes from other organisms, but also suggested new mechanisms and novel components that may be conserved through mammals. CREB mediates distinct basal and memory transcriptional programs at least partially through spatial restriction of CREB activity: basal targets are regulated primarily in nonneuronal tissues, while memory targets are enriched for neuronal expression, emanating from CREB activity in AIM neurons. This suite of novel memory-associated genes will provide a platform for the discovery of orthologous mammalian long-term memory components. PMID:25611510

  4. Early induction of CREB activation and CREB-regulating signalling by antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Tardito, Daniela; Musazzi, Laura; Tiraboschi, Ettore; Mallei, Alessandra; Racagni, Giorgio; Popoli, Maurizio

    2009-11-01

    Converging evidence points to adaptive changes in neuroplasticity and gene expression as mediators of therapeutic action of antidepressants. Activation of cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB) and CREB-regulating signalling are considered main effectors in these mechanisms. We analysed the temporal profile of intracellular changes induced by antidepressants, by measuring activation of major CREB-regulating signalling cascades and activation (Ser133 phosphorylation) of CREB. The main aims of the study were to investigate how these different variables are modulated with time, whether stronger activation of signalling cascades corresponds to stronger activation of CREB, and whether these changes are different in distinct brain areas. Rat groups were treated for 1, 2 or 3 wk with the antidepressants fluoxetine or reboxetine; in additional groups drug treatment was followed by a washout week (3+1). Activation of CREB and major effectors in signalling cascades were analysed by Western blot analysis with phospho-antibodies, in nuclear and cytosolic fractions from hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex (P/FC). Surprisingly, CREB activation was already maximal after 1-wk treatment. In hippocampus early and stronger CREB activation was consistent with early and stronger activation of signalling. For both drugs, the profile of activation in P/FC was different from that observed in hippocampus. The results also showed that, contrary to the activatory role of MAP-ERKs and CaM kinase IV, nuclear alphaCaM kinase II was inactivated in parallel with activation of CREB.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of autophagy by an FXR/CREB axis

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Sunmi; Fu, Ting; Choi, Sung-E; Li, Yang; Zhu, Rong; Kumar, Subodh; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Yoon, Gyesoon; Kang, Yup; Zhong, Wenxuan; Ma, Jian; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2014-01-01

    Lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic components by autophagy is essential for cellular survival and homeostasis under nutrient-deprived conditions1–4. Acute regulation of autophagy by nutrient-sensing kinases is well defined3, 5–7, but longer-term transcriptional regulation is relatively unknown. Here we show that the fed-state sensing nuclear receptor FXR8, 9 and the fasting transcriptional activator CREB10, 11 coordinately regulate the hepatic autophagy gene network. Pharmacological activation of FXR repressed many autophagy genes and inhibited autophagy even in fasted mice and feeding-mediated inhibition of macroautophagy was attenuated in FXR-knockout mice. From mouse liver ChIP-seq data12–15, FXR and CREB binding peaks were detected at 178 and 112, respectively, of 230 autophagy-related genes, and 78 genes showed shared binding, mostly in their promoter regions. CREB promoted lipophagy, autophagic degradation of lipids16, under nutrient-deprived conditions, and FXR inhibited this response. Mechanistically, CREB upregulated autophagy genes, including Atg7, Ulk1, and Tfeb, by recruiting the coactivator CRTC2. After feeding or pharmacological activation, FXR trans-repressed these genes by disrupting the functional CREB/CRTC2 complex. This study identifies the novel FXR/CREB axis as a key physiological switch regulating autophagy, resulting in sustained nutrient regulation of autophagy during feeding/fasting cycles. PMID:25383523

  6. CREB activity in dopamine D1 receptor expressing neurons regulates cocaine-induced behavioral effects

    PubMed Central

    Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rieker, Claus; Cannella, Nazzareno; Parlato, Rosanna; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Korostynski, Michal; Engblom, David; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Schütz, Günther; Spanagel, Rainer; Parkitna, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that striatal cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) regulates sensitivity to psychostimulants. To test the cell-specificity of this hypothesis we examined the effects of a dominant-negative CREB protein variant expressed in dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) neurons on cocaine-induced behaviors. A transgenic mouse strain was generated by pronuclear injection of a BAC-derived transgene harboring the A-CREB sequence under the control of the D1R gene promoter. Compared to wild-type, drug-naïve mutants showed moderate alterations in gene expression, especially a reduction in basal levels of activity-regulated transcripts such as Arc and Egr2. The behavioral responses to cocaine were elevated in mutant mice. Locomotor activity after acute treatment, psychomotor sensitization after intermittent drug injections and the conditioned locomotion after saline treatment were increased compared to wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice had significantly higher cocaine conditioned place preference, displayed normal extinction of the conditioned preference, but showed an augmented cocaine-seeking response following priming-induced reinstatement. This enhanced cocaine-seeking response was associated with increased levels of activity-regulated transcripts and prodynorphin. The primary reinforcing effects of cocaine were not altered in the mutant mice as they did not differ from wild-type in cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio schedule at the training dose. Collectively, our data indicate that expression of a dominant-negative CREB variant exclusively in neurons expressing D1R is sufficient to recapitulate the previously reported behavioral phenotypes associated with virally expressed dominant-negative CREB. PMID:24966820

  7. GABA-CREB signalling regulates maturation and survival of newly generated neurons in the adult hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Jagasia, Ravi; Steib, Kathrin; Englberger, Elisabeth; Herold, Sabine; Faus-Kessler, Theresa; Saxe, Michael; Gage, Fred H.; Song, Hongjun; Lie, D. Chichung

    2009-01-01

    Survival and integration of new neurons in the hippocampal circuit are rate-limiting steps in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Neuronal network activity is a major regulator of these processes, yet little is known about the respective downstream signalling pathways. Here, we investigate the role of CREB signalling in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. CREB is activated in new granule neurons during a distinct developmental period. Loss of CREB function in a cell-autonomous fashion impairs dendritic development, decreases the expression of the neurogenic transcription factor NeuroD and of the neuronal microtubule associated protein, DCX, and compromises the survival of newborn neurons. In addition, GABA-mediated excitation regulates CREB activation at early developmental stages. Importantly, developmental defects following loss of GABA-mediated excitation can be compensated by enhanced CREB signalling. These results indicate that CREB signalling is a central pathway in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, regulating the development and survival of new hippocampal neurons downstream of GABA-mediated excitation. PMID:19553437

  8. Regulation of Energy Stores and Feeding by Neuronal and Peripheral CREB Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Koichi; Zhao, LiJuan; Shenton, Christopher; Iijima-Ando, Kanae

    2009-01-01

    The cAMP-responsive transcription factor CREB functions in adipose tissue and liver to regulate glycogen and lipid metabolism in mammals. While Drosophila has a homolog of mammalian CREB, dCREB2, its role in energy metabolism is not fully understood. Using tissue-specific expression of a dominant-negative form of CREB (DN-CREB), we have examined the effect of blocking CREB activity in neurons and in the fat body, the primary energy storage depot with functions of adipose tissue and the liver in flies, on energy balance, stress resistance and feeding behavior. We found that disruption of CREB function in neurons reduced glycogen and lipid stores and increased sensitivity to starvation. Expression of DN-CREB in the fat body also reduced glycogen levels, while it did not affect starvation sensitivity, presumably due to increased lipid levels in these flies. Interestingly, blocking CREB activity in the fat body increased food intake. These flies did not show a significant change in overall body size, suggesting that disruption of CREB activity in the fat body caused an obese-like phenotype. Using a transgenic CRE-luciferase reporter, we further demonstrated that disruption of the adipokinetic hormone receptor, which is functionally related to mammalian glucagon and β-adrenergic signaling, in the fat body reduced CRE-mediated transcription in flies. This study demonstrates that CREB activity in either neuronal or peripheral tissues regulates energy balance in Drosophila, and that the key signaling pathway regulating CREB activity in peripheral tissue is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:20041126

  9. CREB Regulates AChE-R-Induced Proliferation of Human Glioblastoma Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Chava; Sklan, Ella H; Soreq, Hermona

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) response element-binding protein, CREB, often modulates stress responses. Here, we report that CREB suppresses the glioblastoma proliferative effect of the stress-induced acetylcholinesterase variant, AChE-R. In human U87MG glioblastoma cells, AChE-R formed a triple complex with protein kinase C (PKC) ε and the scaffold protein RACK1, enhanced PKCε phosphorylation, and facilitated BrdU incorporation. Either overexpressed CREB, or antisense destruction of AChE-R mRNA, PKC, or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors—but not CREB combined with PKC inhibition suppressed—this proliferation, suggesting that CREB's repression of this process involves a PKC-mediated pathway, whereas impaired CREB regulation allows AChE-R-induced, PKA-mediated proliferation of glioblastoma tumors. PMID:15153340

  10. CREB regulates AChE-R-induced proliferation of human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Perry, Chava; Sklan, Ella H; Soreq, Hermona

    2004-01-01

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) response element-binding protein, CREB, often modulates stress responses. Here, we report that CREB suppresses the glioblastoma proliferative effect of the stress-induced acetylcholinesterase variant, AChE-R. In human U87MG glioblastoma cells, AChE-R formed a triple complex with protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon and the scaffold protein RACK1, enhanced PKCepsilon phosphorylation, and facilitated BrdU incorporation. Either overexpressed CREB, or antisense destruction of AChE-R mRNA, PKC, or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors-but not CREB combined with PKC inhibition suppressed-this proliferation, suggesting that CREB's repression of this process involves a PKC-mediated pathway, whereas impaired CREB regulation allows AChE-R-induced, PKA-mediated proliferation of glioblastoma tumors.

  11. Transcription factor CREB3L1 regulates vasopressin gene expression in the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Bordieri, Loredana; Greenwood, Michael P; Rosso Melo, Mariana; Colombari, Debora S A; Colombari, Eduardo; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2014-03-12

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a neurohypophysial hormone regulating hydromineral homeostasis. Here we show that the mRNA encoding cAMP responsive element-binding protein-3 like-1 (CREB3L1), a transcription factor of the CREB/activating transcription factor (ATF) family, increases in expression in parallel with AVP expression in supraoptic nuclei (SONs) and paraventicular nuclei (PVNs) of dehydrated (DH) and salt-loaded (SL) rats, compared with euhydrated (EH) controls. In EH animals, CREB3L1 protein is expressed in glial cells, but only at a low level in SON and PVN neurons, whereas robust upregulation in AVP neurons accompanied DH and SL rats. Concomitantly, CREB3L1 is activated by cleavage, with the N-terminal domain translocating from the Golgi, via the cytosol, to the nucleus. We also show that CREB3L1 mRNA levels correlate with AVP transcription level in SONs and PVNs following sodium depletion, and as a consequence of diurnal rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We tested the hypothesis that CREB3L1 activates AVP gene transcription. Both full-length and constitutively active forms of CREB3L1 (CREB3L1CA) induce the expression of rat AVP promoter-luciferase reporter constructs, whereas a dominant-negative mutant reduces expression. Rat AVP promoter deletion constructs revealed that CRE-like and G-box sequences in the region between -170 and -120 bp are important for CREB3L1 actions. Direct binding of CREB3L1 to the AVP promoter was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation both in vitro and in the SON itself. Injection of a lentiviral vector expressing CREB3L1CA into rat SONs and PVNs resulted in increased AVP biosynthesis. We thus identify CREB3L1 as a regulator of AVP transcription in the rat hypothalamus.

  12. Transcription Factor CREB3L1 Regulates Vasopressin Gene Expression in the Rat Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Bordieri, Loredana; Greenwood, Michael P.; Rosso Melo, Mariana; Colombari, Debora S. A.; Colombari, Eduardo; Paton, Julian F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a neurohypophysial hormone regulating hydromineral homeostasis. Here we show that the mRNA encoding cAMP responsive element-binding protein-3 like-1 (CREB3L1), a transcription factor of the CREB/activating transcription factor (ATF) family, increases in expression in parallel with AVP expression in supraoptic nuclei (SONs) and paraventicular nuclei (PVNs) of dehydrated (DH) and salt-loaded (SL) rats, compared with euhydrated (EH) controls. In EH animals, CREB3L1 protein is expressed in glial cells, but only at a low level in SON and PVN neurons, whereas robust upregulation in AVP neurons accompanied DH and SL rats. Concomitantly, CREB3L1 is activated by cleavage, with the N-terminal domain translocating from the Golgi, via the cytosol, to the nucleus. We also show that CREB3L1 mRNA levels correlate with AVP transcription level in SONs and PVNs following sodium depletion, and as a consequence of diurnal rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We tested the hypothesis that CREB3L1 activates AVP gene transcription. Both full-length and constitutively active forms of CREB3L1 (CREB3L1CA) induce the expression of rat AVP promoter-luciferase reporter constructs, whereas a dominant-negative mutant reduces expression. Rat AVP promoter deletion constructs revealed that CRE-like and G-box sequences in the region between −170 and −120 bp are important for CREB3L1 actions. Direct binding of CREB3L1 to the AVP promoter was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation both in vitro and in the SON itself. Injection of a lentiviral vector expressing CREB3L1CA into rat SONs and PVNs resulted in increased AVP biosynthesis. We thus identify CREB3L1 as a regulator of AVP transcription in the rat hypothalamus. PMID:24623760

  13. Tunable regulation of CREB DNA binding activity couples genotoxic stress response and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hwa; Trinh, Anthony T.; Larsen, Michele Campaigne; Mastrocola, Adam S.; Jefcoate, Colin R.; Bushel, Pierre R.; Tibbetts, Randal S.

    2016-01-01

    cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a key regulator of glucose metabolism and synaptic plasticity that is canonically regulated through recruitment of transcriptional coactivators. Here we show that phosphorylation of CREB on a conserved cluster of Ser residues (the ATM/CK cluster) by the DNA damage-activated protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and casein kinase1 (CK1) and casein kinase2 (CK2) positively and negatively regulates CREB-mediated transcription in a signal dependent manner. In response to genotoxic stress, phosphorylation of the ATM/CK cluster inhibited CREB-mediated gene expression, DNA binding activity and chromatin occupancy proportional to the number of modified Ser residues. Paradoxically, substoichiometric, ATM-independent, phosphorylation of the ATM/CK cluster potentiated bursts in CREB-mediated transcription by promoting recruitment of the CREB coactivator, cAMP-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTC2). Livers from mice expressing a non-phosphorylatable CREB allele failed to attenuate gluconeogenic genes in response to DNA damage or fully activate the same genes in response to glucagon. We propose that phosphorylation-dependent regulation of DNA binding activity evolved as a tunable mechanism to control CREB transcriptional output and promote metabolic homeostasis in response to rapidly changing environmental conditions. PMID:27431323

  14. Regulation of proliferation and histone acetylation in embryonic neural precursors by CREB/CREM signaling

    PubMed Central

    Parlato, Rosanna; Mandl, Claudia; Hölzl-Wenig, Gabriele; Liss, Birgit; Tucker, Kerry L; Ciccolini, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein) regulates differentiation, migration, survival and activity-dependent gene expression in the developing and mature nervous system. However, its specific role in the proliferation of embryonic neural progenitors is still not completely understood. Here we investigated how CREB regulates proliferation of mouse embryonic neural progenitors by a conditional mutant lacking Creb gene in neural progenitors. In parallel, we explored possible compensatory effects by the genetic ablation of another member of the same gene family, the cAMP-responsive element modulator (Crem). We show that CREB loss differentially impaired the proliferation, clonogenic potential and self-renewal of precursors derived from the ganglionic eminence (GE), in comparison to those derived from the cortex. This phenotype was associated with a specific reduction of histone acetylation in the GE of CREB mutant mice, and this reduction was rescued in vivo by inhibition of histone deacetylation. These observations indicate that the impaired proliferation could be caused by a reduced acetyltransferase activity in Creb conditional knock-out mice. These findings support a crucial role of CREB in controlling embryonic neurogenesis and propose a novel mechanism by which CREB regulates embryonic neural development. PMID:27504469

  15. CREB regulation of BK channel gene expression underlies rapid drug tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Ghezzi, Alfredo; Yin, Jerry C.P.; Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic tolerance is believed to involve homeostatic mechanisms initiated to restore normal neural function. Drosophila exposed to a sedating dose of an organic solvent, such as benzyl alcohol or ethanol, acquire tolerance to subsequent sedation by that solvent. The slo gene encodes BK type Ca2+-activated K+ channels and has been linked to alcohol- and organic solvent-induced behavioral tolerance in mice, C. elegans and Drosophila. The cAMP response element binding (CREB) proteins are transcription factors that have been mechanistically linked to some behavioral changes associated with drug addiction. Here we show that benzyl alcohol sedation alters expression of both dCREB-A and dCREB2-b genes to increase production of positively acting CREB isoforms and to reduce expression of negatively acting CREB variants. Using a CREB-responsive reporter gene we show that benzyl alcohol sedation increases CREB-mediated transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that the binding of dCREB2, with a phosphorylated kinase-inducible domain, increases immediately after benzyl alcohol sedation within the slo promoter region. Most importantly, we show that a loss-of-function allele of dCREB2 eliminates drug-induced up-regulation of slo expression and the production of benzyl alcohol tolerance. This unambiguously links dCREB2 transcription factors to these two benzyl alcohol induced phenotypes. These findings suggest that CREB positively regulates the expression of slo-encoded BK type Ca2+-activated K+ channels, and that this gives rise to behavioral tolerance to benzyl alcohol sedation. PMID:19243452

  16. Differential regulation of c-jun and CREB by acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal.

    PubMed

    Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Phansalkar, Ketaki; Audesirk, Gerald; West, Anne; Cabell, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation leads to accumulation of unsaturated aldehydes including acrolein and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) in brain. In this study, we examined the effects of these lipid peroxidation products on apoptotic pathways in cultured neurons. Acrolein and 4HNE increased the levels of active phosphorylated forms of c-jun and CREB, the transcription factors that promote apoptosis and cell survival, respectively. However, they decreased the activity of CREB-dependent BDNF promoter while they increased the activity of promoters responsive to c-jun. We hypothesized that this differential regulation could be due to competition between proapoptotic c-jun and cytoprotective CREB for CBP (CREB-binding protein), a coactivator shared by several transcription factors. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that the decrease of BDNF promoter activity by acrolein and 4HNE could be restored (i) by cotransfection with CBP, (ii) by cotransfection with VP 16-CREB, a constitutively active form of CREB that does not depend on CBP for its activation, or (iii) by inhibiting JNK-mediated c-jun activation. Finally, adenoviral transduction of hippocampal neurons with VP 16-CREB resulted in significant reduction in caspase-3 activation by acrolein and 4HNE. These observations suggest that lipid peroxidation-induced differential regulation of CREB and c-jun might play a role in neurodegeneration in AD.

  17. CREB Regulates Experience-Dependent Spine Formation and Enlargement in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pignataro, Annabella; Borreca, Antonella; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Middei, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Experience modifies synaptic connectivity through processes that involve dendritic spine rearrangements in neuronal circuits. Although cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) has a key function in spines changes, its role in activity-dependent rearrangements in brain regions of rodents interacting with the surrounding environment has received little attention so far. Here we studied the effects of vibrissae trimming, a widely used model of sensory deprivation-induced cortical plasticity, on processes associated with dendritic spine rearrangements in the barrel cortex of a transgenic mouse model of CREB downregulation (mCREB mice). We found that sensory deprivation through prolonged whisker trimming leads to an increased number of thin spines in the layer V of related barrel cortex (Contra) in wild type but not mCREB mice. In the barrel field controlling spared whiskers (Ipsi), the same trimming protocol results in a CREB-dependent enlargement of dendritic spines. Last, we demonstrated that CREB regulates structural rearrangements of synapses that associate with dynamic changes of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that CREB plays a key role in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic circuits rearrangements that account for new brain connectivity in response to changes in the environment. PMID:26075101

  18. Nuclear TRAF3 is a negative regulator of CREB in B cells.

    PubMed

    Mambetsariev, Nurbek; Lin, Wai W; Stunz, Laura L; Hanson, Brett M; Hildebrand, Joanne M; Bishop, Gail A

    2016-01-26

    The adaptor protein TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) regulates signaling through B-lymphocyte receptors, including CD40, BAFF receptor, and Toll-like receptors, and also plays a critical role inhibiting B-cell homoeostatic survival. Consistent with these findings, loss-of-function human TRAF3 mutations are common in B-cell cancers, particularly multiple myeloma and B-cell lymphoma. B cells of B-cell-specific TRAF3(-/-) mice (B-Traf3(-/-)) display remarkably enhanced survival compared with littermate control (WT) B cells. The mechanism for this abnormal homeostatic survival is poorly understood, a key knowledge gap in selecting optimal treatments for human B-cell cancers with TRAF3 deficiency. We show here for the first time to our knowledge that TRAF3 is a resident nuclear protein that associates with the transcriptional regulator cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in both mouse and human B cells. The TRAF-C domain of TRAF3 was necessary and sufficient to localize TRAF3 to the nucleus via a functional nuclear localization signal. CREB protein was elevated in TRAF3(-/-) B cells, without change in mRNA, but with a decrease in CREB ubiquitination. CREB-mediated transcriptional activity was increased in TRAF3-deficient B cells. Consistent with these findings, Mcl-1, an antiapoptotic target of CREB-mediated transcription, was increased in the absence of TRAF3 and enhanced Mcl-1 was suppressed with CREB inhibition. TRAF3-deficient B cells were also preferentially sensitive to survival inhibition with pharmacologic CREB inhibitor. Our results identify a new mechanism by which nuclear TRAF3 regulates B-cell survival via inhibition of CREB stability, information highly relevant to the role of TRAF3 in B-cell malignancies.

  19. Nuclear TRAF3 is a negative regulator of CREB in B cells

    PubMed Central

    Mambetsariev, Nurbek; Lin, Wai W.; Stunz, Laura L.; Hanson, Brett M.; Hildebrand, Joanne M.; Bishop, Gail A.

    2016-01-01

    The adaptor protein TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) regulates signaling through B-lymphocyte receptors, including CD40, BAFF receptor, and Toll-like receptors, and also plays a critical role inhibiting B-cell homoeostatic survival. Consistent with these findings, loss-of-function human TRAF3 mutations are common in B-cell cancers, particularly multiple myeloma and B-cell lymphoma. B cells of B-cell–specific TRAF3−/− mice (B-Traf3−/−) display remarkably enhanced survival compared with littermate control (WT) B cells. The mechanism for this abnormal homeostatic survival is poorly understood, a key knowledge gap in selecting optimal treatments for human B-cell cancers with TRAF3 deficiency. We show here for the first time to our knowledge that TRAF3 is a resident nuclear protein that associates with the transcriptional regulator cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in both mouse and human B cells. The TRAF-C domain of TRAF3 was necessary and sufficient to localize TRAF3 to the nucleus via a functional nuclear localization signal. CREB protein was elevated in TRAF3−/− B cells, without change in mRNA, but with a decrease in CREB ubiquitination. CREB-mediated transcriptional activity was increased in TRAF3-deficient B cells. Consistent with these findings, Mcl-1, an antiapoptotic target of CREB-mediated transcription, was increased in the absence of TRAF3 and enhanced Mcl-1 was suppressed with CREB inhibition. TRAF3-deficient B cells were also preferentially sensitive to survival inhibition with pharmacologic CREB inhibitor. Our results identify a new mechanism by which nuclear TRAF3 regulates B-cell survival via inhibition of CREB stability, information highly relevant to the role of TRAF3 in B-cell malignancies. PMID:26755589

  20. Expression and regulated nuclear transport of transducers of regulated CREB 1 in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, J; Zhang, X-L; Wang, J-W; Teng, L-L; Ge, J; Takemori, H; Xiong, Z-Q; Zhou, Y

    2009-03-31

    Calcium- and cAMP-dependent activation of CREB and transcription of cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-target genes play critical roles in various physiological and pathological conditions. TORCs (transducers of regulated CREB) represent a new family of conserved CREB coactivators that function as intracellular calcium- and cAMP-sensitive coincidence detectors, controlling the kinetics of CRE-mediated responses and long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission. Here we examined the expression and activity-dependent translocation of TORCs in adult retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the primary target of acute retinal ischemic injury as well as chronic retinal degenerative diseases. We found that both mRNAs of TORC1 and TORC2, but not TORC3, were enriched in adult rat retina. Comparing with TORC2, TORC1 protein was highly and selectively expressed in RGCs. At resting condition, TORC1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm but not nucleus of RGCs. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by intravitreous injection of NMDA or increase of cAMP signaling by administration of forskolin triggered nuclear accumulation of TORC1. Furthermore, transient retinal ischemic injury resulted in peri-nuclear and nuclear accumulation of TORC1 as well as transcription of BDNF in RGCs. Our results demonstrate that TORC1 is enriched in RGCs and its subcellular location could be regulated by Ca(2+) and cAMP, suggesting that manipulation of TORC1 activity may promote survival of RGCs in some optic disease conditions.

  1. Neuronal Activity Rapidly Induces Transcription of the CREB-Regulated microRNA-132, in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nudelman, Aaron S.; DiRocco, Derek P.; Lambert, Talley J.; Garelick, Michael G.; Le, Josh; Nathanson, Neil M.; Storm, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Activity-dependent changes in gene-expression are believed to underlie the molecular representation of memory. In this study, we report that in vivo activation of neurons rapidly induces the CREB-regulated microRNA miR-132. To determine if production of miR-132 is regulated by neuronal activity its expression in mouse brain was monitored by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Pilocarpine-induced seizures led to a robust, rapid, and transient increase in the primary transcript of miR-132 (pri-miR-132) followed by a subsequent rise in mature microRNA (miR-132). Activation of neurons in the hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and striatum by contextual fear conditioning, odor-exposure, and cocaine-injection, respectively, also increased pri-miR-132. Induction kinetics of pri-miR-132 were monitored and found to parallel those of immediate early genes, peaking at 45 minutes and returning to basal levels within two hours of stimulation. Expression levels of primary and mature-miR-132 increased significantly between postnatal days 10 and 24. We conclude that miR-132 is an activity-dependent microRNA in vivo, and may contribute to the long-lasting proteomic changes required for experience-dependent neuronal plasticity. PMID:19557767

  2. PKA/CREB regulates the constitutive promoter activity of the USP22 gene.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jianjun; Zhou, Xiaoou; Gong, Zhen; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Jianyun; Li, Weidong

    2015-03-01

    The human ubiquitin-specific processing enzyme 22 (USP22) plays a crucial role in regulating cell cycle processes and its overexpression has been linked to tumor progression. However, the mechanisms leading to USP22 transcriptional activation in human cancer cells are still unclear. Previously, we characterized the 5'-flanking sequence of the human USP22 gene and found a potential CREB/ATF binding site within the basic promoter region. The present study found that this site was required for constitutive USP22 transcriptional activity in HeLa and HepG2 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed that CREB interacted with this site. siRNA knockdown of CREB decreased USP22 transcriptional activation and endogenous expression, whereas CREB overexpression did not affect transcriptional levels. Furthermore, USP22 promoter activity and expression were decreased by inhibiting PKA with H-89, but were not responsive to forskolin induction. All of these results demonstrate that PKA/CREB is involved in the regulation of constitutive promoter activity of the USP22 gene.

  3. CREB1 regulates glucose transport of glioma cell line U87 by targeting GLUT1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaying; Zhang, Can; Mi, Yang; Chen, Fuxue; Du, Dongshu

    2017-06-23

    Glioma is stemmed from the glial cells in the brain, which is accounted for about 45% of all intracranial tumors. The characteristic of glioma is invasive growth, as well as there is no obvious boundary between normal brain tissue and glioma tissue, so it is difficult to resect completely with worst prognosis. The metabolism of glioma is following the Warburg effect. Previous researches have shown that GLUT1, as a glucose transporter carrier, affected the Warburg effect, but the molecular mechanism is not very clear. CREB1 (cAMP responsive element-binding protein1) is involved in various biological processes, and relevant studies confirmed that CREB1 protein regulated the expression of GLUT1, thus mediating glucose transport in cells. Our experiments mainly reveal that the CREB1 could affect glucose transport in glioma cells by regulating the expression of GLUT1, which controlled the metabolism of glioma and affected the progression of glioma.

  4. CREB is a key negative regulator of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanqiao; Cheng, Zhenguo; Liu, Funan; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Jiabin; Li, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX(CA9)is a member of the carbonic anhydrase family that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide, and plays a key role in the regulation of pH. Although a large number of studies have shown that CA9 is strongly up-regulated by HIF1-α, little is known about the negative regulation mechanism of CA9 in cancer cells. Here we find that CREB is a key negative regulator of CA9 in gastric cancer. Over-expression of CREB can significantly repress the expression of CA9. Treating with anisomycin (ANS), an activator of p38, the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of CREB are both promoted, while the transcription of CA9 is repressed. Besides, our results firstly identify that CREB can recruit SIRT1 (class III HDACS) by adaptor protein p300, then repress the expression of CA9. These findings may contribute to understand the negative regulation mechanisms of CA9 in gastric cancer.

  5. Reciprocal Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Phospho-CREB Regulates Voltage Gated Calcium Channel Expression during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, Arti; Antony, Cecil; Singhal, Jhalak; Tiwari, Brijendra K.; Singh, Yogendra; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated the roles played by L-type Voltage Gated Calcium Channels (VGCC) in regulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) survival and pathogenesis. Here we decipher mechanisms and pathways engaged by the pathogen to regulate VGCC expression in macrophages. We show that M. tb and its antigen Rv3416 use phospho-CREB (pCREB), Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Protein Kinase C (PKC) and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) to modulate VGCC expression in macrophages. siRNA mediated knockdown of MyD88, IRAK1, IRAK2 or TRAF6 significantly inhibited antigen mediated VGCC expression. Inhibiting Protein Kinase C (PKC) or MEK-ERK1/2 further increased VGCC expression. Interestingly, inhibiting intracellular calcium release upregulated antigen mediated VGCC expression, while inhibiting extracellular calcium influx had no significant effect. siRNA mediated knockdown of transcription factors c-Jun, SOX5 and CREB significantly inhibited Rv3416 mediated VGCC expression. A dynamic reciprocal cross-regulation between ROS and pCREB was observed that in turn governed VGCC expression with ROS playing a limiting role in the process. Further dissection of the mechanisms such as the interplay between ROS and pCREB would improve our understanding of the regulation of VGCC expression during M. tb infection. PMID:24797940

  6. The Insulin-Regulated CREB Coactivator TORC Promotes Stress Resistance in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Biao; Goode, Jason; Best, Jennifer; Meltzer, Jodi; Schilman, Pablo E.; Chen, Jian; Garza, Dan; Thomas, John B.; Montminy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In fasted mammals, glucose homeostasis is maintained through induction of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) coactivator transducer of regulated CREB activity 2 (TORC2), which stimulates the gluconeogenic program in concert with the forkhead factor FOXO1. Here we show that starvation also triggers TORC activation in Drosophila, where it maintains energy balance through induction of CREB target genes in the brain. TORC mutant flies have reduced glycogen and lipid stores and are sensitive to starvation and oxidative stress. Neuronal TORC expression rescued stress sensitivity as well as CREB target gene expression in TORC mutants. During refeeding, increases in insulin signaling inhibited TORC activity through the salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2)-mediated phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of TORC. Depletion of neuronal SIK2 increased TORC activity and enhanced stress resistance. As disruption of insulin signaling also augmented TORC activity in adult flies, our results illustrate the importance of an insulin-regulated pathway that functions in the brain to maintain energy balance. PMID:18460334

  7. Expression of Iron Regulatory Protein 1 Is Regulated not only by HIF-1 but also pCREB under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qian-Qian; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Zhang, Meng-Wan; Wang, Dang; Zhu, Li; Ke, Ya

    2016-01-01

    The inconsistent of responses of IRP1 and HIF-1 alpha to hypoxia and the similar tendencies in the changes of IRP1 and pCREB contents led us to hypothesize that pCREB might be involved in the regulation of IRP1 under hypoxia. Here, we investigated the role of pCREB in IRP1 expression in HepG2 cells under hypoxia using quantitative PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). We demonstrated that 1) Hypoxia increased pCREB levels inside of the nucleus; 2) Putative CREs were found in the IRP1 gene; 3) Nuclear extracts of HepG2 cells treated with hypoxia could bind to CRE1 and CRE3, and 100-fold competitor of putative CREs could abolish the binding activity to varying degrees; 4) pCREB was found in the CRE1 and CRE3 DNA-protein complexes of EMSA; 5) CRE1 and CRE3 binding activity of IRP1 depended on CREB activation but not on HIF-1; 6) Increased IRP1 expression under hypoxia could be prevented by LY294002; 7) ChIP assays demonstrated that pCREB binds to IRP1 promoter; and 8) HIF-1 and/or HIF-2 siRNA had no effect on the expression of pCREB and IRP1 proteins in cells treated with hypoxia for 8 hours. Our findings evidenced for the involvement of pCREB in IRP1 expression and revealed a dominant role of PI3K/Akt pathway in CREB activation under hypoxia and also suggested that dual-regulation of IRP1 expression by HIF-1 and pCERB or other transcription factor(s) under hypoxia might be a common mechanism in most if not all of hypoxia-inducible genes. PMID:27766034

  8. CREB- and NF-κB-Regulated CXC Chemokine Gene Expression in Lung Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hongxia; Chung, Wen-Cheng; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Ju, Zhenlin; Tran, Hai T.; Kim, Edward; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Koo, Ja Seok

    2009-01-01

    The recognition of the importance of angiogenesis in tumor progression has led to the development of antiangiogenesis as a new strategy for cancer treatment and prevention. By modulating tumor microenvironment and inducing angiogenesis, the proinflammatory cytokine interleukine (IL)-1 β has been reported to promote tumor development. However, the factors mediating IL-1β-induced angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the regulation of these angiogenic factors by IL-1β are less clear. Here, we report that IL-1β upregulated an array of proangiogenic CXC chemokine genes in NSCLC cell line A549 and in normal human tracheobronchial epithelium (NHTBE) cells, as determined by microarray analysis. Further analysis revealed that IL-1β induced much higher protein levels of CXC chemokines in NSCLC cells than in NHTBE cells. Conditioned medium from IL-1β treated A549 cells markedly increased endothelial cell migration, which was suppressed by neutralizing antibodies against CXCL5 and CXCR2. We also found that IL-1β-induced CXC chemokine gene overexpression in NSCLC cells was abrogated with the knockdown of CREB or NF-κB. Moreover, the expression of the CXC chemokine genes as well as CREB and NF-κB activities were greatly increased in tumorigenic NSCLC cell line compared with normal, premalignant immortalized or non-tumorigenic cell lines. A disruptor of the interaction between CREB-binding protein (CBP) and transcription factors such as CREB and NF-κB, 2-naphthol-AS-E-phosphate (KG-501), inhibited IL-1β-induced CXC chemokine gene expression and angiogenic activity in NSCLC. We propose that targeting CREB or NF-κB using small molecule inhibitors, such as KG-501, holds promise as a preventive and/or therapeutic approach for NSCLC. PMID:19138976

  9. The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 1 gene expression is regulated by CREB in neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Menga, Alessio; Iacobazzi, Vito; Infantino, Vittoria; Avantaggiati, Maria Laura; Palmieri, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 1 is an essential mitochondrial transporter that exchanges intramitochondrial aspartate and cytosolic glutamate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. It is expressed in brain, heart and muscle and is involved in important biological processes, including myelination. However, the signals that regulate the expression of this transporter are still largely unknown. In this study we first identify a CREB binding site within the aspartate/glutamate carrier gene promoter that acts as a strong enhancer element in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. This element is regulated by active, phosphorylated CREB protein and by signal pathways that modify the activity of CREB itself and, most noticeably, by intracellular Ca2+ levels. Specifically, aspartate/glutamate carrier gene expression is induced via CREB by forskolin while it is inhibited by the PKA inhibitor, H89. Furthermore, the CREB-induced activation of gene expression is increased by thapsigargin, which enhances cytosolic Ca2+, while it is inhibited by BAPTA-AM that reduces cytosolic Ca2+ or by STO-609, which inhibits CaMK-IV phosphorylation. We further show that CREB-dependent regulation of aspartate/glutamate carrier gene expression occurs in neuronal cells in response to pathological (inflammation) and physiological (differentiation) conditions. Since this carrier is necessary for neuronal functions and is involved in myelinogenesis, our results highlight that targeting of CREB activity and Ca2+ might be therapeutically exploited to increase aspartate/glutamate carrier gene expression in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25597433

  10. Regulation of basal promoter activity of the human thiamine pyrophosphate transporter SLC44A4 in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nabokina, Svetlana M; Ramos, Mel Brendan; Valle, Judith E; Said, Hamid M

    2015-05-01

    Microbiota of the large intestine synthesize considerable amount of vitamin B1 in the form of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). There is a specific high-affinity regulated carrier-mediated uptake system for TPP in human colonocytes (product of the SLC44A4 gene). The mechanisms of regulation of SLC44A4 gene expression are currently unknown. In this study, we characterized the SLC44A4 minimal promoter region and identified transcription factors important for basal promoter activity in colonic epithelial cells. The 5'-regulatory region of the SLC44A4 gene (1,022 bp) was cloned and showed promoter activity upon transient transfection into human colonic epithelial NCM460 cells. With the use of a series of 5'- and 3'-deletion luciferase reporter constructs, the minimal genomic region that required basal transcription of the SLC44A4 gene expression was mapped between nucleotides -178 and +88 (using the distal transcriptional start site as +1). Mutational analysis performed on putative cis-regulatory elements established the involvement of ETS/ELF3 [E26 transformation-specific sequence (ETS) proteins], cAMP-responsive element (CRE), and SP1/GC-box sequence motifs in basal SLC44A4 promoter activity. By means of EMSA, binding of ELF3 and CRE-binding protein-1 (CREB-1) transcription factors to the SLC44A4 minimal promoter was shown. Contribution of CREB into SLC44A4 promoter activity was confirmed using NCM460 cells overexpressing CREB. We also found high expression of ELF3 and CREB-1 in colonic (NCM460) compared with noncolonic (ARPE19) cells, suggesting their possible contribution to colon-specific pattern of SLC44A4 expression. This study represents the first characterization of the SLC44A4 promoter and reports the importance of both ELF3 and CREB-1 transcription factors in the maintenance of basal promoter activity in colonic epithelial cells.

  11. miR-134 regulates ischemia/reperfusion injury-induced neuronal cell death by regulating CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weidong; Liu, Xiaobin; Cao, Jie; Meng, Facai; Li, Min; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Jie

    2015-04-01

    microRNA-134 (miR-134) has been reported to be a brain-specific miRNA and is differently expressed in brain tissues subjected to ischemic injury. However, the underlying mechanism of miR-134 in regulating cerebral ischemic injury remains poorly understood. The current study was designed to delineate the molecular basis of miR-134 in regulating cerebral ischemic injury. Using the oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model of hippocampal neuron ischemia in vitro, we found that the overexpression of miR-134 mediated by recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector infection significantly promoted neuron death induced by OGD/reoxygenation, whereas the inhibition of miR-134 provided protective effects against OGD/reoxygenation-induced cell death. Moreover, cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) as a putative target of miR-134 was downregulated and upregulated by miR-134 overexpression or inhibition, respectively. The direct interaction between miR-134 and the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of CREB mRNA was further confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Overexpression of miR-134 also inhibited the expression of the downstream gene of CREB, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2, whereas the inhibition of miR-134 upregulated the expression of BDNF and Bcl-2 in neurons after OGD/reoxygenation. Notably, the knockdown of CREB by CREB siRNA apparently abrogated the protective effect of anti-miR-134 on OGD/reoxygenation-induced cell death. Taken together, our study suggests that downregulation of miR-134 alleviates ischemic injury through enhancing CREB expression and downstream genes, providing a promising and potential therapeutic target for cerebral ischemic injury.

  12. DPPC regulates COX-2 expression in monocytes via phosphorylation of CREB

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, R.H.K. Tonks, A.J.; Jones, K.P.; Ahluwalia, M.K.; Thomas, A.W.; Tonks, A.; Jackson, S.K.

    2008-05-23

    The major phospholipid in pulmonary surfactant dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) has been shown to modulate inflammatory responses. Using human monocytes, this study demonstrates that DPPC significantly increased PGE{sub 2} (P < 0.05) production by 2.5-fold when compared to untreated monocyte controls. Mechanistically, this effect was concomitant with an increase in COX-2 expression which was abrogated in the presence of a COX-2 inhibitor. The regulation of COX-2 expression was independent of NF-{kappa}B activity. Further, DPPC increased the phosphorylation of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB; an important nuclear transcription factor important in regulating COX-2 expression). In addition, we also show that changing the fatty acid groups of PC (e.g. using L-{alpha}-phosphatidylcholine {beta}-arachidonoyl-{gamma}-palmitoyl (PAPC)) has a profound effect on the regulation of COX-2 expression and CREB activation. This study provides new evidence for the anti-inflammatory activity of DPPC and that this activity is at least in part mediated via CREB activation of COX-2.

  13. Phosphorylation and SCF-mediated degradation regulate CREB-H transcription of metabolic targets

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Sónia; Carreira, Suzanne; Bailey, Daniel; Abaitua, Fernando; O'Hare, Peter

    2015-01-01

    CREB‑H, an endoplasmic reticulum–anchored transcription factor, plays a key role in regulating secretion and in metabolic and inflammatory pathways, but how its activity is modulated remains unclear. We examined processing of the nuclear active form and identified a motif around S87–S90 with homology to DSG-type phosphodegrons. We show that this region is subject to multiple phosphorylations, which regulate CREB-H stability by targeting it to the SCFFbw1a E3 ubiquitin ligase. Data from phosphatase treatment, use of phosophospecific antibody, and substitution of serine residues demonstrate phosphorylation of candidate serines in the region, with the core S87/S90 motif representing a critical determinant promoting proteasome-mediated degradation. Candidate kinases CKII and GSK-3b phosphorylate CREB-H in vitro with specificities for different serines. Prior phosphorylation with GSK-3 at one or more of the adjacent serines substantially increases S87/S90-dependent phosphorylation by CKII. In vivo expression of a dominant-negative Cul1 enhances steady-state levels of CREB‑H, an effect augmented by Fbw1a. CREB-H directly interacts with Fbw1a in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Finally, mutations within the phosphodegron, when incorporated into the full-length protein, result in increased levels of constitutively cleaved nuclear protein and increased transcription and secretion of a key endogenous target gene, apolipoprotein A IV. PMID:26108621

  14. Roles of CREB in the regulation of FMRP by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in cingulate cortex

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fragile X syndrome is caused by lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) due to silencing of the FMR1 gene. The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the central nervous system contribute to higher brain functions including learning/memory, mental disorders and persistent pain. The transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) is involved in important neuronal functions, such as synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival. Our recent study has shown that stimulation of Group I mGluRs upregulated FMRP and activated CREB in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key region for brain cognitive and executive functions, suggesting that activation of Group I mGluRs may upregulate FMRP through CREB signaling pathway. Results In this study, we demonstrate that CREB contributes to the regulation of FMRP by Group I mGluRs. In ACC neurons of adult mice overexpressing dominant active CREB mutant, the upregulation of FMRP by stimulating Group I mGluR is enhanced compared to wild-type mice. However, the regulation of FMRP by Group I mGluRs is not altered by overexpression of Ca2+-insensitive mutant form of downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), a transcriptional repressor involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Conclusion Our study has provided further evidence for CREB involvement in regulation of FMRP by Group I mGluRs in ACC neurons, and may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of fragile X syndrome. PMID:22867433

  15. Cranial irradiation regulates CREB-BDNF signaling and variant BDNF transcript levels in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Son, Yeonghoon; Yang, Miyoung; Kang, Sohi; Lee, Sueun; Kim, Jinwook; Kim, Juhwan; Park, Seri; Kim, Joong-Sun; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Shin, Taekyun; Kim, Sung-Ho; Wang, Hongbing; Moon, Changjong

    2015-05-01

    The brain can be exposed to ionizing radiation in various ways, and such irradiation can trigger adverse effects, particularly on learning and memory. However, the precise mechanisms of cognitive impairments induced by cranial irradiation remain unknown. In the hippocampus, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays roles in neurogenesis, neuronal survival, neuronal differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. The significance of BDNF transcript variants in these contexts is becoming clearer. In the present study, both object recognition memory and contextual fear conditioning task performance in adult C57BL/6 mice were assessed 1 month after a single exposure to cranial irradiation (10 Gy) to evaluate hippocampus-related behavioral dysfunction following such irradiation. Furthermore, changes in the levels of BDNF, the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, and BDNF transcript variants were measured in the hippocampus 1 month after cranial irradiation. On object recognition memory and contextual fear conditioning tasks, mice evaluated 1 month after irradiation exhibited significant memory deficits compared to sham-irradiated controls, but no apparent change was evident in locomotor activity. Both phosphorylated CREB and BDNF protein levels were significantly downregulated after irradiation of the hippocampus. Moreover, the levels of mRNAs encoding common BDNF transcripts, and exons IIC, III, IV, VII, VIII, and IXA, were significantly downregulated after irradiation. The reductions in CREB phosphorylation and BDNF expression induced by differential regulation of BDNF hippocampal exon transcripts may be associated with the memory deficits evident in mice after cranial irradiation.

  16. Notch1 Regulates Hippocampal Plasticity Through Interaction with the Reelin Pathway, Glutamatergic Transmission and CREB Signaling.

    PubMed

    Brai, Emanuele; Marathe, Swananda; Astori, Simone; Fredj, Naila Ben; Perry, Elisabeth; Lamy, Christophe; Scotti, Alessandra; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a crucial role in adult brain function such as synaptic plasticity, memory and olfaction. Several reports suggest an involvement of this pathway in neurodegenerative dementia. Yet, to date, the mechanism underlying Notch activity in mature neurons remains unresolved. In this work, we investigate how Notch regulates synaptic potentiation and contributes to the establishment of memory in mice. We observe that Notch1 is a postsynaptic receptor with functional interactions with the Reelin receptor, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and the ionotropic receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Targeted loss of Notch1 in the hippocampal CA fields affects Reelin signaling by influencing Dab1 expression and impairs the synaptic potentiation achieved through Reelin stimulation. Further analysis indicates that loss of Notch1 affects the expression and composition of the NMDAR but not AMPAR. Glutamatergic signaling is further compromised through downregulation of CamKII and its secondary and tertiary messengers resulting in reduced cAMP response element-binding (CREB) signaling. Our results identify Notch1 as an important regulator of mechanisms involved in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. These findings emphasize the possible involvement of this signaling receptor in dementia. In this paper, we propose a mechanism for Notch1-dependent plasticity that likely underlies the function of Notch1 in memory formation: Notch1 interacts with another important developmental pathway, the Reelin cascade.Notch1 regulates both NMDAR expression and composition.Notch1 influences a cascade of cellular events culminating in CREB activation.

  17. CREB-Dependent Regulation of GAD65 Transcription by BDNF/TrkB in Cortical Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Huertas, Carlos; Rico, Beatriz

    2011-04-01

    In the cerebral cortex, the functional output of projection neurons is fine-tuned by inhibitory neurons present in the network, which use γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as their main neurotransmitter. Previous studies have suggested that the expression levels of the rate-limiting GABA synthetic enzyme, GAD65, depend on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB activation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this neurotrophic factor and its receptor controls GABA synthesis are still unknown. Here, we show a direct regulation of the GAD65 gene by BDNF-TrkB signaling via CREB in cortical interneurons. Conditional ablation of TrkB in cortical interneurons causes a cell-autonomous decrease in the synaptically enriched GAD65 protein and its transcripts levels, suggesting that transcriptional regulation of the GAD65 gene is altered. Dissection of the intracellular pathway that underlies this process revealed that BDNF/TrkB signaling controls the transcription of GAD65 in a Ras-ERK-CREB-dependent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism through which BDNF/TrkB signaling may modulate the maturation and function of cortical inhibitory circuits.

  18. Sustained Induction of Collagen Synthesis by TGF-β Requires Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis of CREB3L1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiuyue; Lee, Ching-En; Denard, Bray; Ye, Jin

    2014-01-01

    CREB3L1 (cAMP response element binding protein 3-like 1), a transcription factor synthesized as a membrane-bound precursor and activated through Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis (RIP), is essential for collagen production by osteoblasts during bone development. Here, we show that TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β), a cytokine known to stimulate production of collagen during wound healing and fibrotic diseases, induces proteolytic activation of CREB3L1 in human A549 cells. This activation results from inhibition of expression of TM4SF20 (transmembrane 4 L6 family member 20), which normally inhibits RIP of CREB3L1. Cleavage of CREB3L1 releases its NH2-terminal domain from membranes, allowing it to enter the nucleus where it binds to Smad4 to activate transcription of genes encoding proteins required for assembly of collagen-containing extracellular matrix. Our findings raise the possibility that inhibition of RIP of CREB3L1 could prevent excess deposition of collagen in certain fibrotic diseases. PMID:25310401

  19. Altered regulation of CREB by chronic antidepressant administration in the brain of transgenic mice with impaired glucocorticoid receptor function.

    PubMed

    Blom, Joan M C; Tascedda, Fabio; Carra, Serena; Ferraguti, Chiara; Barden, Nicholas; Brunello, Nicoletta

    2002-05-01

    Various effects of antidepressant drugs on gene transcription have been described and altered gene expression has been proposed as being a common biological basis underlying depressive illness. One target for the common action of antidepressants is a modifying effect on the regulation of postreceptor pathways and genes related to the cAMP cascade. Recent studies have demonstrated that long-term antidepressant treatment resulted in sustained activation of the cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate system and in increased expression of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). A transgenic animal model of depression with impaired glucocorticoid receptor function was used to investigate the effect of chronic antidepressant treatments on CREB expression in different brain areas. Wild-type and transgenic mice received one administration of saline, desipramine, or fluoxetine, daily for 21 days. The effects of antidepressants on CREB mRNA were analyzed using a sensitive RNase protection assay. Antidepressant treatment resulted in a neuroanatomically and animal specific expression pattern of CREB. Our findings suggest that life-long central glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction results in an altered sensitivity with respect to the effects of antidepressants on the expression of CREB.

  20. Notch1 Regulates Hippocampal Plasticity Through Interaction with the Reelin Pathway, Glutamatergic Transmission and CREB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brai, Emanuele; Marathe, Swananda; Astori, Simone; Fredj, Naila Ben; Perry, Elisabeth; Lamy, Christophe; Scotti, Alessandra; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a crucial role in adult brain function such as synaptic plasticity, memory and olfaction. Several reports suggest an involvement of this pathway in neurodegenerative dementia. Yet, to date, the mechanism underlying Notch activity in mature neurons remains unresolved. In this work, we investigate how Notch regulates synaptic potentiation and contributes to the establishment of memory in mice. We observe that Notch1 is a postsynaptic receptor with functional interactions with the Reelin receptor, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and the ionotropic receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Targeted loss of Notch1 in the hippocampal CA fields affects Reelin signaling by influencing Dab1 expression and impairs the synaptic potentiation achieved through Reelin stimulation. Further analysis indicates that loss of Notch1 affects the expression and composition of the NMDAR but not AMPAR. Glutamatergic signaling is further compromised through downregulation of CamKII and its secondary and tertiary messengers resulting in reduced cAMP response element-binding (CREB) signaling. Our results identify Notch1 as an important regulator of mechanisms involved in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. These findings emphasize the possible involvement of this signaling receptor in dementia. Highlights In this paper, we propose a mechanism for Notch1-dependent plasticity that likely underlies the function of Notch1 in memory formation: Notch1 interacts with another important developmental pathway, the Reelin cascade. Notch1 regulates both NMDAR expression and composition. Notch1 influences a cascade of cellular events culminating in CREB activation. PMID:26635527

  1. The CREB-binding protein affects the circadian regulation of behaviour.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Christian; Winter, Tobias; Chen, Siwei; Hung, Hsiu-Cheng; Weber, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Rhythmic changes in light and temperature conditions form the primary environmental cues that synchronize the molecular circadian clock of most species with the external cycles of day and night. Previous studies established a role for the CREB-binding protein (CBP) in molecular clock function by coactivation of circadian transcription. Here, we report that moderately increased levels of CBP strongly dampen circadian behavioural rhythms without affecting molecular oscillations of circadian transcription. Interestingly, light-dark cycles as well as high temperature facilitated a circadian control of behavioural activity. Based on these observations we propose that in addition to its coactivator function for circadian transcription, CBP is involved in the regulation of circadian behaviour down-stream of the circadian clock.

  2. Shank is a dose-dependent regulator of Cav1 calcium current and CREB target expression

    PubMed Central

    Pym, Edward; Sasidharan, Nikhil; Thompson-Peer, Katherine L; Simon, David J; Anselmo, Anthony; Sadreyev, Ruslan; Hall, Qi; Nurrish, Stephen; Kaplan, Joshua M

    2017-01-01

    Shank is a post-synaptic scaffolding protein that has many binding partners. Shank mutations and copy number variations (CNVs) are linked to several psychiatric disorders, and to synaptic and behavioral defects in mice. It is not known which Shank binding partners are responsible for these defects. Here we show that the C. elegans SHN-1/Shank binds L-type calcium channels and that increased and decreased shn-1 gene dosage alter L-channel current and activity-induced expression of a CRH-1/CREB transcriptional target (gem-4 Copine), which parallels the effects of human Shank copy number variations (CNVs) on Autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. These results suggest that an important function of Shank proteins is to regulate L-channel current and activity induced gene expression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18931.001 PMID:28477407

  3. Shank is a dose-dependent regulator of Cav1 calcium current and CREB target expression.

    PubMed

    Pym, Edward; Sasidharan, Nikhil; Thompson-Peer, Katherine L; Simon, David J; Anselmo, Anthony; Sadreyev, Ruslan; Hall, Qi; Nurrish, Stephen; Kaplan, Joshua M

    2017-05-06

    Shank is a post-synaptic scaffolding protein that has many binding partners. Shank mutations and copy number variations (CNVs) are linked to several psychiatric disorders, and to synaptic and behavioral defects in mice. It is not known which Shank binding partners are responsible for these defects. Here we show that the C. elegans SHN-1/Shank binds L-type calcium channels and that increased and decreased shn-1 gene dosage alter L-channel current and activity-induced expression of a CRH-1/CREB transcriptional target (gem-4 Copine), which parallels the effects of human Shank copy number variations (CNVs) on Autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. These results suggest that an important function of Shank proteins is to regulate L-channel current and activity induced gene expression.

  4. The Expression of Porcine Prdx6 Gene Is Up-Regulated by C/EBPβ and CREB.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinyu; Ji, Panlong; Zhang, Liang; Bu, Guowei; Gu, Hao; Wang, Xiaojing; Xiong, Yuanzhu; Zuo, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Peroxiredoxin6 (Prdx6) is one of the peroxiredoxin (Prdxs) family members that play an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis. Our previous studies demonstrated that Prdx6 was significantly associated with pig meat quality, especially meat tenderness. However, the transcriptional regulation of porcine Prdx6 remains unclear. In this study, we determined the transcription start site (TSS) of porcine Prdx6 gene by 5' rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (5' RACE). Several regulatory elements including CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteinβ (C/EBPβ), Myogenic Differentiation (MyoD), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), stimulating protein1 (Sp1) and heat shock factor (HSF) binding sites were found by computational analyses together with luciferase reporter system. Overexpression and RNA interference experiments showed that C/EBPβ or CREB could up-regulate the expression of porcine Prdx6 gene at both mRNA and protein level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) confirmed that C/EBPβ and CREB could interact with Prdx6 promoter. Immuoprecipitation results also showed that C/EBPβ could interact with Prdx6 in vivo. Taken together, our findings identified C/EBPβ and CREB as the important regulators of porcine Prdx6 gene expression, and offered clues for further investigation of Prdx6 gene function.

  5. Transcription Factor CREB3L1 Regulates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Genes in the Osmotically Challenged Rat Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Greenwood, Michael Paul; Paton, Julian F. R.; Murphy, David

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is synthesised in magnocellular neurons (MCNs) of supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. In response to the hyperosmotic stressors of dehydration (complete fluid deprivation, DH) or salt loading (drinking 2% salt solution, SL), AVP synthesis increases in MCNs, which over-burdens the protein folding machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) are signaling pathways that improve ER function in response to the accumulation of misfold/unfold protein. We asked whether an ER stress response was activated in the SON and PVN of DH and SL rats. We observed increased mRNA expression for the immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), C/EBP-homologous protein (Chop), and cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 1 (Creb3l1) in both SON and PVN of DH and SL rats. Although we found no changes in the splicing pattern of X box-binding protein 1 (Xbp1), an increase in the level of the unspliced form of Xbp1 (Xbp1U) was observed in DH and SL rats. CREB3L1, a novel ER stress inducer, has been shown to be activated by ER stress to regulate the expression of target genes. We have previously shown that CREB3L1 is a transcriptional regulator of the AVP gene; however, a role for CREB3L1 in the response to ER stress has yet to be investigated in MCNs. Here, we used lentiviral vectors to introduce a dominant negative form of CREB3L1 (CREB3L1DN) in the rat SON. Expression of CREB3L1DN in the SON decreased Chop and Xbp1U mRNA levels, but not BiP and Atf4 transcript expression. CREB3L1 is thus implicated as a transcriptional mediator of the ER stress response in the osmotically stimulated SON. PMID:25915053

  6. The CREB coactivator CRTC2 controls hepatic lipid metabolism by regulating SREBP1.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinbo; Li, Erwei; Chen, Liqun; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wei, Fangchao; Liu, Jieyuan; Deng, Haiteng; Wang, Yiguo

    2015-08-13

    Abnormal accumulation of triglycerides in the liver, caused in part by increased de novo lipogenesis, results in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), an important transcriptional regulator of lipogenesis, is synthesized as an inactive precursor that binds to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In response to insulin signalling, SREBP1 is transported from the ER to the Golgi in a COPII-dependent manner, processed by proteases in the Golgi, and then shuttled to the nucleus to induce lipogenic gene expression; however, the mechanisms underlying enhanced SREBP1 activity in insulin-resistant obesity and diabetes remain unclear. Here we show in mice that CREB regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) functions as a mediator of mTOR signalling to modulate COPII-dependent SREBP1 processing. CRTC2 competes with Sec23A, a subunit of the COPII complex, to interact with Sec31A, another COPII subunit, thus disrupting SREBP1 transport. During feeding, mTOR phosphorylates CRTC2 and attenuates its inhibitory effect on COPII-dependent SREBP1 maturation. As hepatic overexpression of an mTOR-defective CRTC2 mutant in obese mice improved the lipogenic program and insulin sensitivity, these results demonstrate how the transcriptional coactivator CRTC2 regulates mTOR-mediated lipid homeostasis in the fed state and in obesity.

  7. Tachykinin regulation of basal synovial blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ferrell, W R; Lockhart, J C; Karimian, S M

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the role of endogenously released tachykinins in the regulation of blood flow to the rat knee joint. Synovial perfusion was assessed by laser Doppler perfusion imaging, which permitted spatial measurement of relative changes in perfusion from control (pre drug administration), expressed as the percentage change. Most experiments were performed on the exposed medial aspect of the knee joint capsule.Neither the selective tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, FK888, nor the selective tachykinin NK2 receptor antagonist, SR48968, significantly influenced synovial blood flow at doses of 10−12, 10−10 and 10−8 mol. However, topical co-administration of these agents produced significant dose-dependent reductions in basal synovial perfusion of 6.3±4.6, 12.0±3.4 and 19.9±2.6%, respectively; n=29. The non-selective tachykinin NK1/NK2 receptor antagonist, FK224, also produced significant (at 10−10 and 10−8 mol), but less potent, reductions in perfusion of 5.3±4.0, 8.4±2.2 and 5.9±2.8%, respectively; n=25.Topical administration of the α1-, α2-adrenoceptor antagonist phenoxybenzamine elicited a 31.3±6.2% increase in blood flow which was substantially reduced to 10.4±3.8% by co-administration of the FK888 and SR48968 (both at 10−8 mol; n=8–13), suggesting that normally there is sympathetic vasoconstrictor ‘tone' which is opposed by the vasodilator action of endogenous tachykinins.One week after surgical interruption of the nerve supply to the knee joint, co-administration of FK888 and SR48968 (both at 10−8 mol) now produced slight vasodilatation (6.7±4.6%; n=9) which did not differ significantly from vehicle treatment. Depletion of tachykinins from sensory nerve fibres by systemic capsaicin administration also resulted in abolition of the vasoconstrictor effect of FK888 and SR48968 (both at 10−8 mol), with these agents only producing a slight vasodilatation (2.5±5.3%; n=6).By use of a near infra

  8. A cAMP and CREB-mediated feed-forward mechanism regulates GSK3β in polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kakade, Vijayakumar R.; Tao, Shixin; Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Zhou, Xia; Li, Xiaogang; Yu, Alan S.L.; Calvet, James P.; Pandey, Pankaj; Rao, Reena

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is commonly known to be regulated at the level of its activity. However, in some diseases including polycystic kidney disease (PKD), GSK3β expression is increased and plays a pathophysiological role. The current studies aimed to determine the mechanism for the increased GSK3β expression in PKD and its significance to disease progression. In mouse models of PKD, increases in renal GSK3β corresponded with increases in renal cAMP levels and disease progression. In vivo and in vitro studies revealed that GSK3β is a cAMP-responsive gene, and elevated cAMP levels, as seen in PKD, can increase GSK3β expression. In normal mice, vasopressin signaling induced by water deprivation increased GSK3β expression, which decreased following rehydration. Examination of the GSK3β promoter revealed five potential binding sites for the transcription factor, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). CREB was found to bind to GSK3β promoter and essential for cAMP-mediated regulation of GSK3β. Importantly, this regulation was demonstrated to be part of a feed-forward loop in which cAMP through CREB regulates GSK3β expression, and GSK3β in turn positively regulates cAMP generation. GSK3β or CREB inhibition reduced transepithelial fluid secretion and cyst expansion in vitro. Thus, disruption at any point of this destructive cycle may be therapeutically useful to reduce cyst expansion and preserve renal function in PKD. PMID:27190311

  9. Running exercise-induced up-regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor is CREB-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael J.; Russo-Neustadt, Amelia A.

    2009-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed burgeoning evidence that antidepressant medications and physical exercise increase the expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This phenomenon has gained widespread appeal because BDNF is one of the first macromolecules observed to play a central role not only in the treatment of mood disorders, but also in neuronal survival-, growth-, and plasticity-related signaling cascades. Thus, it has become critical to understand how BDNF synthesis is regulated. Much evidence exists that changes in BDNF expression result from the activation/phosphorylation of the transcription factor, cAMP-response-element binding protein (CREB) following the administration of antidepressant medications. Utilizing a mouse model genetically engineered with an inducible CREB repressor, our current study provides evidence that increases in BDNF expression and cellular survival signaling resulting from physical exercise are also dependent upon activation of this central transcription factor. The transcription and expression of hippocampal BDNF, as well as the activation of Akt, a key survival signaling molecule, were measured following acute exercise, and also following short-term treatment with the norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitor, reboxetine. We found that both interventions led to a marked increase in hippocampal BDNF mRNA, BDNF protein and Akt phosphorylation (as well as CREB phosphorylation) in wild-type mice. As expected, activation of the CREB repressor in mutant mice sharply decreased CREB phosphorylation. In addition, all measures noted above remained at baseline levels when mutant mice exercised or received reboxetine. Increases in BDNF and phospho-Akt were also prevented when mutant mice received a combination of exercise and antidepressant treatment. The results are discussed in the context of what is currently known about BDNF signaling. PMID:19294650

  10. Running exercise-induced up-regulation of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor is CREB-dependent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Michael J; Russo-Neustadt, Amelia A

    2009-10-01

    The past decade has witnessed burgeoning evidence that antidepressant medications and physical exercise increase the expression of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This phenomenon has gained widespread appeal, because BDNF is one of the first macromolecules observed to play a central role not only in the treatment of mood disorders, but also in neuronal survival-, growth-, and plasticity-related signaling cascades. Thus, it has become critical to understand how BDNF synthesis is regulated. Much evidence exists that changes in BDNF expression result from the activation/phosphorylation of the transcription factor, cAMP-response-element binding protein (CREB) following the administration of antidepressant medications. Utilizing a mouse model genetically engineered with an inducible CREB repressor, our current study provides evidence that increases in BDNF expression and cellular survival signaling resulting from physical exercise are also dependent upon activation of this central transcription factor. The transcription and expression of hippocampal BDNF, as well as the activation of Akt, a key survival signaling molecule, were measured following acute exercise, and also following short-term treatment with the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine. We found that both interventions led to a marked increase in hippocampal BDNF mRNA, BDNF protein, and Akt phosphorylation (as well as CREB phosphorylation) in wild-type mice. As expected, activation of the CREB repressor in mutant mice sharply decreased CREB phosphorylation. In addition, all measures noted above remained at baseline levels when mutant mice exercised or received reboxetine. Increases in BDNF and phospho-Akt were also prevented when mutant mice received a combination of exercise and antidepressant treatment. The results are discussed in the context of what is currently known about BDNF signaling.

  11. CRTC2 Is a Coactivator of GR and Couples GR and CREB in the Regulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Micah J.; Suzuki, Shigeru; Segars, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones play essential roles in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, an adaptive response that is required for the maintenance of circulating glucose levels during fasting. Glucocorticoids do this by cooperating with glucagon, which is secreted from pancreatic islets to activate the cAMP-signaling pathway in hepatocytes. The cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) is a coactivator known to be specific to CREB and plays a central role in the glucagon-mediated activation of gluconeogenesis in the early phase of fasting. We show here that CRTC2 also functions as a coactivator for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). CRTC2 strongly enhances GR-induced transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid-responsive genes. CRTC2 physically interacts with the ligand-binding domain of the GR through a region spanning amino acids 561–693. Further, CRTC2 is required for the glucocorticoid-associated cooperative mRNA expression of the glucose-6-phosphatase, a rate-limiting enzyme for hepatic gluconeogenesis, by facilitating the attraction of GR and itself to its promoter region already occupied by CREB. CRTC2 is required for the maintenance of blood glucose levels during fasting in mice by enhancing the GR transcriptional activity on both the G6p and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) genes. Finally, CRTC2 modulates the transcriptional activity of the progesterone receptor, indicating that it may influence the transcriptional activity of other steroid/nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results reveal that CRTC2 plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis through coordinated regulation of the glucocorticoid/GR- and glucagon/CREB-signaling pathways on the key genes G6P and PEPCK. PMID:26652733

  12. CRTC2 Is a Coactivator of GR and Couples GR and CREB in the Regulation of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Micah J; Suzuki, Shigeru; Segars, James H; Kino, Tomoshige

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones play essential roles in the regulation of gluconeogenesis in the liver, an adaptive response that is required for the maintenance of circulating glucose levels during fasting. Glucocorticoids do this by cooperating with glucagon, which is secreted from pancreatic islets to activate the cAMP-signaling pathway in hepatocytes. The cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) is a coactivator known to be specific to CREB and plays a central role in the glucagon-mediated activation of gluconeogenesis in the early phase of fasting. We show here that CRTC2 also functions as a coactivator for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). CRTC2 strongly enhances GR-induced transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid-responsive genes. CRTC2 physically interacts with the ligand-binding domain of the GR through a region spanning amino acids 561-693. Further, CRTC2 is required for the glucocorticoid-associated cooperative mRNA expression of the glucose-6-phosphatase, a rate-limiting enzyme for hepatic gluconeogenesis, by facilitating the attraction of GR and itself to its promoter region already occupied by CREB. CRTC2 is required for the maintenance of blood glucose levels during fasting in mice by enhancing the GR transcriptional activity on both the G6p and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) genes. Finally, CRTC2 modulates the transcriptional activity of the progesterone receptor, indicating that it may influence the transcriptional activity of other steroid/nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results reveal that CRTC2 plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis through coordinated regulation of the glucocorticoid/GR- and glucagon/CREB-signaling pathways on the key genes G6P and PEPCK.

  13. CREB and FoxO1: two transcription factors for the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyoung-Jin; Han, Hye-Sook; Kim, Min-Jung; Koo, Seung-Hoi

    2013-12-01

    Liver plays a major role in maintaining glucose homeostasis in mammals. Under fasting conditions, hepatic glucose production is critical as a source of fuel to maintain the basic functions in other tissues, including skeletal muscle, red blood cells, and the brain. Fasting hormones glucagon and cortisol play major roles during the process, in part by activating the transcription of key enzyme genes in the gluconeogenesis such as phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6 phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6Pase). Conversely, gluconeogenic transcription is repressed by pancreatic insulin under feeding conditions, which effectively inhibits transcriptional activator complexes by either promoting post-translational modifications or activating transcriptional inhibitors in the liver, resulting in the reduction of hepatic glucose output. The transcriptional regulatory machineries have been highlighted as targets for type 2 diabetes drugs to control glycemia, so understanding of the complex regulatory mechanisms for transcription circuits for hepatic gluconeogenesis is critical in the potential development of therapeutic tools for the treatment of this disease. In this review, the current understanding regarding the roles of two key transcriptional activators, CREB and FoxO1, in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic program is discussed.

  14. Transcription factor CREB3L1 mediates cAMP and glucocorticoid regulation of arginine vasopressin gene transcription in the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Mingkwan; Greenwood, Michael P; Mecawi, Andre S; Loh, Su Yi; Rodrigues, José Antunes; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2015-10-26

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a neuropeptide hormone that functions in the regulation of water homeostasis by controlling water re-absorption at kidneys, is synthesised in supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. An increase in plasma osmolality stimulates secretion of AVP to blood circulation and induces AVP synthesis in these nuclei. Although studies on mechanism of AVP transcriptional regulation in hypothalamus proposed that cAMP and glucocorticoids positively and negatively regulate Avp expression, respectively, the molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. Recently, we identified CREB3L1 (cAMP-responsive element binding protein 3 like 1) as a putative transcription factor of Avp transcription in the rat hypothalamus. However the mechanism of how CREB3L1 is regulated in response of hyperosmotic stress in the neurons of hypothalamus has never been reported. This study aims to investigate effect of previously reported regulators (cAMP and glucocorticoid) of Avp transcription on transcription factor CREB3L1 in order to establish a molecular explanation for cAMP and glucocorticoids effect on AVP expression. The effect of cAMP and glucocorticoid treatment on Creb3l1 was investigated in both AtT20 cells and hypothalamic organotypic cultures. The expression of Creb3l1 was increased in both mRNA and protein level by treatment with forskolin, which raises intracellular cAMP levels. Activation of cAMP by forskolin also increased Avp promoter activity in AtT20 cells and this effect was blunted by shRNA mediated silencing of Creb3l1. The forskolin induced increase in Creb3l1 expression was diminished by combined treatment with dexamethasone, and, in vivo, intraperitoneal dexamethasone injection blunted the increase in Creb3l1 and Avp expression induced by hyperosmotic stress. Here we shows that cAMP and glucocorticoid positively and negatively regulate Creb3l1 expression in the rat hypothalamus, respectively, and regulation of cAMP on AVP

  15. Rare Genomic Variants Link Bipolar Disorder with Anxiety Disorders to CREB-Regulated Intracellular Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Berit; Rao, Aliz R; Christensen, Bryce; Dandekar, Sugandha; Yourshaw, Michael; Nelson, Stanley F

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common, complex, and severe psychiatric disorder with cyclical disturbances of mood and a high suicide rate. Here, we describe a family with four siblings, three affected females and one unaffected male. The disease course was characterized by early-onset bipolar disorder and co-morbid anxiety spectrum disorders that followed the onset of bipolar disorder. Genetic risk factors were suggested by the early onset of the disease, the severe disease course, including multiple suicide attempts, and lack of adverse prenatal or early life events. In particular, drug and alcohol abuse did not contribute to the disease onset. Exome sequencing identified very rare, heterozygous, and likely protein-damaging variants in eight brain-expressed genes: IQUB, JMJD1C, GADD45A, GOLGB1, PLSCR5, VRK2, MESDC2, and FGGY. The variants were shared among all three affected family members but absent in the unaffected sibling and in more than 200 controls. The genes encode proteins with significant regulatory roles in the ERK/MAPK and CREB-regulated intracellular signaling pathways. These pathways are central to neuronal and synaptic plasticity, cognition, affect regulation and response to chronic stress. In addition, proteins in these pathways are the target of commonly used mood-stabilizing drugs, such as tricyclic antidepressants, lithium, and valproic acid. The combination of multiple rare, damaging mutations in these central pathways could lead to reduced resilience and increased vulnerability to stressful life events. Our results support a new model for psychiatric disorders, in which multiple rare, damaging mutations in genes functionally related to a common signaling pathway contribute to the manifestation of bipolar disorder.

  16. Laser Acupuncture Exerts Neuroprotective Effects via Regulation of Creb, Bdnf, Bcl-2, and Bax Gene Expressions in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeong-Chan; Yoon, Sun-Bee; Kim, Dohyeong; Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Acupuncture has a positive effect on cognitive deficits. However, the effects of laser acupuncture (LA) on cognitive function and its mechanisms of action are unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of LA on middle cerebral artery occlusion- (MCAO-) induced cognitive impairment and its mechanisms of action. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was modeled in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by MCAO. After LA or manual-acupuncture (MA) treatment at the GV20 and HT7 for 2 weeks, hippocampal-dependent memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The hippocampus was dissected to analyze choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity and Creb, Bdnf, Bcl-2, and Bax gene expressions. MWM test demonstrated a significant improvement in hippocampal-dependent memory in the MCAO rats after LA treatment. LA treatment significantly reversed the postischemic decrease in ChAT immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region. LA treatment significantly normalized gene expression in the hippocampus which had been altered by MCAO, especially upregulating gene expression of Creb, Bdnf, and Bcl-2 and downregulating gene expression of Bax. This study suggests that LA treatment could improve cognitive impairment in MCAO rats to enhance the cholinergic system in the hippocampal CA1 region and to exert a neuroprotective effect by regulating Creb, Bdnf, Bcl-2, and Bax gene expressions. PMID:28408940

  17. Laser Acupuncture Exerts Neuroprotective Effects via Regulation of Creb, Bdnf, Bcl-2, and Bax Gene Expressions in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yun, Yeong-Chan; Jang, Dongyeop; Yoon, Sun-Bee; Kim, Dohyeong; Choi, Dong-Hee; Kwon, O-Sang; Lee, Yu-Mi; Youn, Daehwan

    2017-01-01

    Acupuncture has a positive effect on cognitive deficits. However, the effects of laser acupuncture (LA) on cognitive function and its mechanisms of action are unclear. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of LA on middle cerebral artery occlusion- (MCAO-) induced cognitive impairment and its mechanisms of action. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was modeled in adult Sprague-Dawley rats by MCAO. After LA or manual-acupuncture (MA) treatment at the GV20 and HT7 for 2 weeks, hippocampal-dependent memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The hippocampus was dissected to analyze choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity and Creb, Bdnf, Bcl-2, and Bax gene expressions. MWM test demonstrated a significant improvement in hippocampal-dependent memory in the MCAO rats after LA treatment. LA treatment significantly reversed the postischemic decrease in ChAT immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region. LA treatment significantly normalized gene expression in the hippocampus which had been altered by MCAO, especially upregulating gene expression of Creb, Bdnf, and Bcl-2 and downregulating gene expression of Bax. This study suggests that LA treatment could improve cognitive impairment in MCAO rats to enhance the cholinergic system in the hippocampal CA1 region and to exert a neuroprotective effect by regulating Creb, Bdnf, Bcl-2, and Bax gene expressions.

  18. cAMP/CREB-regulated LINC00473 marks LKB1-inactivated lung cancer and mediates tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zirong; Lin, Shuibin; Cao, Chunxia; Gimbrone, Nicholas T.; Yang, Rongqiang; Fu, Dongtao A.; Carper, Miranda B.; Haura, Eric B.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Cress, W. Douglas; Kaye, Frederic J.

    2016-01-01

    The LKB1 tumor suppressor gene is frequently mutated and inactivated in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Loss of LKB1 promotes cancer progression and influences therapeutic responses in preclinical studies; however, specific targeted therapies for lung cancer with LKB1 inactivation are currently unavailable. Here, we have identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) signature that is associated with the loss of LKB1 function. We discovered that LINC00473 is consistently the most highly induced gene in LKB1-inactivated human primary NSCLC samples and derived cell lines. Elevated LINC00473 expression correlated with poor prognosis, and sustained LINC00473 expression was required for the growth and survival of LKB1-inactivated NSCLC cells. Mechanistically, LINC00473 was induced by LKB1 inactivation and subsequent cyclic AMP–responsive element–binding protein (CREB)/CREB-regulated transcription coactivator (CRTC) activation. We determined that LINC00473 is a nuclear lncRNA and interacts with NONO, a component of the cAMP signaling pathway, thereby facilitating CRTC/CREB-mediated transcription. Collectively, our study demonstrates that LINC00473 expression potentially serves as a robust biomarker for tumor LKB1 functional status that can be integrated into clinical trials for patient selection and treatment evaluation, and implicates LINC00473 as a therapeutic target for LKB1-inactivated NSCLC. PMID:27140397

  19. The cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated by Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) and regulates myostatin gene expression in skeletal myoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Zuloaga, R.; Fuentes, E.N.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •IGF-1 induces the activation of CREB via IGF-1R/PI3K/PLC signaling pathway. •Calcium dependent signaling pathways regulate myostatin gene expression. •IGF-1 regulates myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription in skeletal myoblast. -- Abstract: Myostatin, a member of the Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. We have previously reported that IGF-1 induces a transient myostatin mRNA expression, through the activation of the Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells (NFAT) in an IP{sub 3}/calcium-dependent manner. Here we examined the activation of CREB transcription factor as downstream targets of IGF-1 during myoblast differentiation and its role as a regulator of myostatin gene expression. In cultured skeletal myoblast, IGF-1 induced the phosphorylation and transcriptional activation of CREB via IGF-1 Receptor/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Phospholipase C gamma (PLC γ), signaling pathways. Also, IGF-1 induced calcium-dependent molecules such as Calmodulin Kinase II (CaMK II), Extracellular signal-regulated Kinases (ERK), Protein Kinase C (PKC). Additionally, we examined myostatin mRNA levels and myostatin promoter activity in differentiated myoblasts stimulated with IGF-1. We found a significant increase in mRNA contents of myostatin and its reporter activity after treatment with IGF-1. The expression of myostatin in differentiated myoblast was downregulated by the transfection of siRNA–CREB and by pharmacological inhibitors of the signaling pathways involved in CREB activation. By using pharmacological and genetic approaches together these data demonstrate that IGF-1 regulates the myostatin gene expression via CREB transcription factor during muscle cell differentiation.

  20. Cadmium up-regulates transcription of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene through phosphorylated CREB rather than SF-1 in K28 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Yun; Gomes, Cynthia; Oh, Sung-Dug; Soh, Jaemog

    2015-04-01

    Cadmium is a widely used heavy metal in industry and affects the male reproductive system of animals, including humans, as a result of occupational and environmental exposures. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its effect on steroidogenesis in gonads remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that exposure of K28 mouse testicular Leydig tumor cells to cadmium led to a significant increase in the mRNA level, promoter activity and protein level of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), an essential factor for steroid biosynthesis. It has been well documented that StAR gene transcription is regulated by multiple transcription factors, including cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) family members and SF-1. Cadmium treatment caused an increase in CREB phosphorylation but did not alter the CREB protein level in the nucleus. EMSA studies revealed that cadmium-induced phosphorylated CREB formed specific complexes with the proximal region of the StAR gene promoter. Furthermore, co-transfection with a CREB expression plasmid significantly increased cadmium-induced StAR promoter activity. However, the nuclear level and the affinity of SF-1 protein for the StAR proximal promoter were dramatically decreased upon exposure to cadmium. Taken together, these results suggest that cadmium up-regulates StAR gene expression through phosphorylated CREB rather than through SF-1 in mouse testicular Leydig cells.

  1. Upregulation of CREB-mediated transcription enhances both short- and long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akinobu; Fukushima, Hotaka; Mukawa, Takuya; Toyoda, Hiroki; Wu, Long-Jun; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Xu, Hui; Shang, Yuze; Endoh, Kengo; Iwamoto, Taku; Mamiya, Nori; Okano, Emiko; Hasegawa, Shunsuke; Mercaldo, Valentina; Zhang, Yue; Maeda, Ryouta; Ohta, Miho; Josselyn, Sheena A; Zhuo, Min; Kida, Satoshi

    2011-06-15

    Unraveling the mechanisms by which the molecular manipulation of genes of interest enhances cognitive function is important to establish genetic therapies for cognitive disorders. Although CREB is thought to positively regulate formation of long-term memory (LTM), gain-of-function effects of CREB remain poorly understood, especially at the behavioral level. To address this, we generated four lines of transgenic mice expressing dominant active CREB mutants (CREB-Y134F or CREB-DIEDML) in the forebrain that exhibited moderate upregulation of CREB activity. These transgenic lines improved not only LTM but also long-lasting long-term potentiation in the CA1 area in the hippocampus. However, we also observed enhanced short-term memory (STM) in contextual fear-conditioning and social recognition tasks. Enhanced LTM and STM could be dissociated behaviorally in these four lines of transgenic mice, suggesting that the underlying mechanism for enhanced STM and LTM are distinct. LTM enhancement seems to be attributable to the improvement of memory consolidation by the upregulation of CREB transcriptional activity, whereas higher basal levels of BDNF, a CREB target gene, predicted enhanced shorter-term memory. The importance of BDNF in STM was verified by microinfusing BDNF or BDNF inhibitors into the hippocampus of wild-type or transgenic mice. Additionally, increasing BDNF further enhanced LTM in one of the lines of transgenic mice that displayed a normal BDNF level but enhanced LTM, suggesting that upregulation of BDNF and CREB activity cooperatively enhances LTM formation. Our findings suggest that CREB positively regulates memory consolidation and affects memory performance by regulating BDNF expression.

  2. Heme Oxygenase-1 Regulates Dendritic Cell Function through Modulation of p38 MAPK-CREB/ATF1 Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Al-Huseini, Laith M. A.; Aw Yeang, Han Xian; Hamdam, Junnat M.; Sethu, Swaminathan; Alhumeed, Naif; Wong, Wai; Sathish, Jean G.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for the initiation of immune responses including activation of CD8 T cells. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels influence DC maturation and function. Intracellular heme, a product of catabolism of heme-containing metalloproteins, is a key inducer of ROS. Intracellular heme levels are regulated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catalyzes the degradation of heme. Heme oxygenase-1 has been implicated in regulating DC maturation; however, its role in other DC functions is unclear. Furthermore, the signaling pathways modulated by HO-1 in DCs are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that inhibition of HO-1 activity in murine bone marrow-derived immature DCs (iDCs) resulted in DCs with raised intracellular ROS levels, a mature phenotype, impaired phagocytic and endocytic function, and increased capacity to stimulate antigen-specific CD8 T cells. Interestingly, our results reveal that the increased ROS levels following HO-1 inhibition did not underlie the changes in phenotype and functions observed in these iDCs. Importantly, we show that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) pathway is involved in the mediation of the phenotypic and functional changes arising from HO-1 inhibition. Furthermore, up-regulation of HO-1 activity rendered iDCs refractory to lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of p38 MAPK-CREB/ATF1 pathway and DC maturation. Finally, we demonstrate that treatment of iDC with the HO-1 substrate, heme, recapitulates the effects that result from HO-1 inhibition. Based on these results, we conclude that HO-1 regulates DC maturation and function by modulating the p38 MAPK-CREB/ATF1 signaling axis. PMID:24719331

  3. Opposite regulation by typical and atypical anti-psychotics of ERK1/2, CREB and Elk-1 phosphorylation in mouse dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Laura; Håkansson, Kerstin; Usiello, Alessandro; Borgkvist, Anders; Lindskog, Maria; Greengard, Paul; Fisone, Gilberto

    2003-07-01

    The two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), are involved in the control of gene expression via phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factors cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) and Elk-1. Here, we have examined the effect of haloperidol and clozapine, two anti-psychotic drugs, and eticlopride, a selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, on the state of phosphorylation of ERK1/2, CREB and Elk-1, in the mouse dorsal striatum. Administration of the typical anti-psychotic haloperidol stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, CREB and Elk-1. Virtually identical results were obtained using eticlopride. In contrast, the atypical anti-psychotic clozapine reduced ERK1/2, CREB and Elk-1 phosphorylation. This opposite regulation was specifically exerted by haloperidol and clozapine on ERK, CREB, and Elk-1 phosphorylation, as both anti-psychotic drugs increased the phosphorylation of the dopamine- and cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) at the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) site. The activation of CREB and Elk-1 induced by haloperidol appeared to be achieved via different signalling pathways, as inhibition of ERK1/2 activation abolished the stimulation of Elk-1 phosphorylation without affecting CREB phosphorylation. This study shows that haloperidol and clozapine induce distinct patterns of phosphorylation in the dorsal striatum. The results provide a novel biochemical paradigm elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the distinct therapeutic actions of typical and atypical anti-psychotic agents.

  4. Regulation of anxiety and initiation of sexual behavior by CREB in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Barrot, Michel; Wallace, Deanna L.; Bolaños, Carlos A.; Graham, Danielle L.; Perrotti, Linda I.; Neve, Rachael L.; Chambliss, Heather; Yin, Jerry C.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual deficits and other behavioral disturbances such as anxiety-like behaviors can be observed in animals that have undergone social isolation, especially in species having important social interactions. Using a model of protracted social isolation in adult rats, we observed increased anxiety-like behavior and deficits in both the latency to initiate sexual behavior and the latency to ejaculate. We show, using transgenic cAMP response element (CRE)-LacZ reporter mice, that protracted social isolation also reduces CRE-dependent transcription within the nucleus accumbens. This decrease in CRE-dependent transcription can be mimicked in nonisolated animals by local viral gene transfer of a dominant negative mutant of CRE-binding protein (CREB). We previously showed that this manipulation increases anxiety-like behavior. We show here that it also impairs initiation of sexual behavior in nonisolated animals, a deficit that can be corrected by anxiolytic drug treatment. This local reduction in CREB activity, however, has no influence on ejaculation parameters. Reciprocally, we used the viral transgenic approach to overexpress CREB in the nucleus accumbens of isolated animals. We show that this local increase in CREB activity completely rescued the anxiety phenotype of the isolated animals, as well as their deficit in initiating sexual behavior, but failed to rescue the deficit in ejaculation. Our data suggest a role for the nucleus accumbens in anxiety responses and in specific aspects of sexual behavior. The results also provide insight into the molecular mechanisms by which social interactions affect brain plasticity and behavior. PMID:15923261

  5. CREB phosphorylation regulates striatal transcriptional responses in the self-administration model of methamphetamine addiction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Krasnova, Irina N; Chiflikyan, Margarit; Justinova, Zuzana; McCoy, Michael T; Ladenheim, Bruce; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Quintero, Cynthia; Brannock, Christie; Barnes, Chanel; Adair, Jordan E; Lehrmann, Elin; Kobeissy, Firas H; Gold, Mark S; Becker, Kevin G; Goldberg, Steven R; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2013-10-01

    Neuroplastic changes in the dorsal striatum participate in the transition from casual to habitual drug use and might play a critical role in the development of methamphetamine (METH) addiction. We examined the influence of METH self-administration on gene and protein expression that may form substrates for METH-induced neuronal plasticity in the dorsal striatum. Male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered METH (0.1mg/kg/injection, i.v.) or received yoked saline infusions during eight 15-h sessions and were euthanized 2h, 24h, or 1month after cessation of METH exposure. Changes in gene and protein expression were assessed using microarray analysis, RT-PCR and Western blots. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by PCR was used to examine epigenetic regulation of METH-induced transcription. METH self-administration caused increases in mRNA expression of the transcription factors, c-fos and fosb, the neurotrophic factor, Bdnf, and the synaptic protein, synaptophysin (Syp) in the dorsal striatum. METH also caused changes in ΔFosB, BDNF and TrkB protein levels, with increases after 2 and 24h, but decreases after 1month of drug abstinence. Importantly, ChIP-PCR showed that METH self-administration caused enrichment of phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), but not of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3), on promoters of c-fos, fosb, Bdnf and Syp at 2h after cessation of drug intake. These findings show that METH-induced changes in gene expression are mediated, in part, by pCREB-dependent epigenetic phenomena. Thus, METH self-administration might trigger epigenetic changes that mediate alterations in expression of genes and proteins serving as substrates for addiction-related synaptic plasticity.

  6. CREB, ATF, and AP-1 transcription factors regulate IFN-gamma secretion by human T cells in response to mycobacterial antigen.

    PubMed

    Samten, Buka; Townsend, James C; Weis, Steven E; Bhoumik, Anindita; Klucar, Peter; Shams, Homayoun; Barnes, Peter F

    2008-08-01

    IFN-gamma production by T cells is pivotal for defense against many pathogens, and the proximal promoter of IFN-gamma, -73 to -48 bp upstream of the transcription start site, is essential for its expression. However, transcriptional regulation mechanisms through this promoter in primary human cells remain unclear. We studied the effects of cAMP response element binding protein/activating transcription factor (CREB/ATF) and AP-1 transcription factors on the proximal promoter of IFN-gamma in human T cells stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Using EMSA, supershift assays, and promoter pulldown assays, we demonstrated that CREB, ATF-2, and c-Jun, but not cyclic AMP response element modulator, ATF-1, or c-Fos, bind to the proximal promoter of IFN-gamma upon stimulation, and coimmunoprecipitation indicated the possibility of interaction among these transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the recruitment of these transcription factors to the IFN-gamma proximal promoter in live Ag-activated T cells. Inhibition of ATF-2 activity in T cells with a dominant-negative ATF-2 peptide or with small interfering RNA markedly reduced the expression of IFN-gamma and decreased the expression of CREB and c-Jun. These findings suggest that CREB, ATF-2, and c-Jun are recruited to the IFN-gamma proximal promoter and that they up-regulate IFN-gamma transcription in response to microbial Ag. Additionally, ATF-2 controls expression of CREB and c-Jun during T cell activation.

  7. Period1 gates the circadian modulation of memory-relevant signaling in mouse hippocampus by regulating the nuclear shuttling of the CREB kinase pP90RSK.

    PubMed

    Rawashdeh, Oliver; Jilg, Antje; Maronde, Erik; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Stehle, Jörg H

    2016-09-01

    Memory performance varies over a 24-h day/night cycle. While the detailed underlying mechanisms are yet unknown, recent evidence suggests that in the mouse hippocampus, rhythmic phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) are central to the circadian (~ 24 h) regulation of learning and memory. We recently identified the clock protein PERIOD1 (PER1) as a vehicle that translates information encoding time of day to hippocampal plasticity. We here elaborate how PER1 may gate the sensitivity of memory-relevant hippocampal signaling pathways. We found that in wild-type mice (WT), spatial learning triggers CREB phosphorylation only during the daytime, and that this effect depends on the presence of PER1. The time-of-day-dependent induction of CREB phosphorylation can be reproduced pharmacologically in acute hippocampal slices prepared from WT mice, but is absent in preparations made from Per1-knockout (Per1(-/-) ) mice. We showed that the PER1-dependent CREB phosphorylation is regulated downstream of MAPK. Stimulation of WT hippocampal neurons triggered the co-translocation of PER1 and the CREB kinase pP90RSK (pMAPK-activated ribosomal S6 kinase) into the nucleus. In hippocampal neurons from Per1(-/-) mice, however, pP90RSK remained perinuclear. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed a high-affinity interaction between PER1 and pP90RSK. Knocking down endogenous PER1 in hippocampal cells inhibited adenylyl cyclase-dependent CREB activation. Taken together, the PER1-dependent modulation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear signaling in the murine hippocampus provides a molecular explanation for how the circadian system potentially shapes a temporal framework for daytime-dependent memory performance, and adds a novel facet to the versatility of the clock gene protein PER1. We provide evidence that the circadian clock gene Period1 (Per1) regulates CREB phosphorylation in the mouse hippocampus

  8. Recruitment of CREB1 and Histone Deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) to the Mouse Ltbp-1 Promoter Regulates its Constitutive Expression in a Dioxin Receptor-dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Duran, Aurea; Ballestar, Esteban; Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose M.; Marlowe, Jennifer L.; Puga, Alvaro; Esteller, Manel; Fernandez-Salguero, Pedro M.

    2010-01-01

    Latent TGFβ-binding protein 1 (LTBP-1) is a key regulator of TGFβ targeting and activation in the extracellular matrix. LTBP-1 is recognized as a major docking molecule to localize, and possibly to activate, TGFβ in the extracellular matrix. Despite this relevant function, the molecular mechanisms regulating Ltbp-1 transcription remain largely unknown. Previous results from our laboratory revealed that mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) lacking dioxin receptor (AhR) had increased Ltbp-1 mRNA expression and elevated TGFβ activity, suggesting that AhR repressed Ltbp-1 transcription. Here, we have cloned the mouse Ltbp-1 gene promoter and analysed its mechanism of transcriptional repression by AhR. Reporter gene assays, AhR over-expression and site-directed mutagenesis showed that basal Ltbp-1 transcription is AhR-dependent. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and RNA interference (RNAi) revealed that AhR regulates Ltbp-1 transcription by a mechanism involving recruitment of co-activators such as CREB1 and co-repressors such as HDAC2 to the Ltbp-1 promoter. In AhR-expressing (AhR+/+) MEF cells, the recruitment of HDAC1, 2 and 4 correlated with decreased K8H4 acetylation and impaired binding of pCREBSer133 to the Ltbp-1 promoter, likely maintaining a constitutive repressed state. AhR−/− MEF cells had the opposite pattern of HDACs and pCREB1Ser133 binding to Ltbp-1 promoter, and therefore, over-expressed Ltbp-1 mRNA. In agreement, siRNA for HDAC2 increased Ltbp-1 expression and K8H4 acetylation in AhR+/+ but not in AhR−/− MEF cells. We suggest that HDAC2 binding keeps Ltbp-1 promoter repressed in AhR+/+ MEF cells, whereas in AhR-null MEF cells the absence of HDAC2 and the binding of pCREBSer133 allow Ltbp-1 transcription. Thus, epigenetics can contribute to constitutive Ltbp-1 repression by a mechanism requiring AhR activity. PMID:18508077

  9. Luman/CREB3 Recruitment Factor Regulates Glucocorticoid Receptor Activity and Is Essential for Prolactin-Mediated Maternal Instinct

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, Amanda C.; Choleris, Elena; Gillis, Daniel J.; Armstrong, John N.; Amor, Talya R.; McCluggage, Adam R. R.; Turner, Patricia V.; Liang, Genqing; Cai, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a major part of the neuroendocrine system in animal responses to stress. It is known that the HPA axis is attenuated at parturition to prevent detrimental effects of glucocorticoid secretion including inhibition of lactation and maternal responsiveness. Luman/CREB3 recruitment factor (LRF) was identified as a negative regulator of CREB3 which is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Here, we report a LRF gene knockout mouse line that has a severe maternal behavioral defect. LRF−/− females lacked the instinct to tend pups; 80% of their litters died within 24 h, while most pups survived if cross-fostered. Prolactin levels were significantly repressed in lactating LRF−/− dams, with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling markedly augmented. In cell culture, LRF repressed transcriptional activity of GR and promoted its protein degradation. LRF was found to colocalize with the known GR repressor, RIP140/NRIP1, which inhibits the activity by GR within specific nuclear punctates that are similar to LRF nuclear bodies. Furthermore, administration of prolactin or the GR antagonist RU486 restored maternal responses in mutant females. We thus postulate that LRF plays a critical role in the attenuation of the HPA axis through repression of glucocorticoid stress signaling during parturition and the postpartum period. PMID:23071095

  10. Cyclic phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid induce hyaluronic acid synthesis via CREB transcription factor regulation in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Maeda-Sano, Katsura; Gotoh, Mari; Morohoshi, Toshiro; Someya, Takao; Murofushi, Hiromu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2014-09-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator and an analog of the growth factor-like phospholipid lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). cPA has a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. We showed before that a metabolically stabilized cPA derivative, 2-carba-cPA, relieved osteoarthritis pathogenesis in vivo and induced hyaluronic acid synthesis in human osteoarthritis synoviocytes in vitro. This study focused on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts, which retain moisture and maintain health in the dermis. We investigated the effects of cPA and LPA on hyaluronic acid synthesis in human fibroblasts (NB1RGB cells). Using particle exclusion and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we found that both cPA and LPA dose-dependently induced hyaluronic acid synthesis. We revealed that the expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 messenger RNA and protein is up-regulated by cPA and LPA treatment time dependently. We then characterized the signaling pathways up-regulating hyaluronic acid synthesis mediated by cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. Pharmacological inhibition and reporter gene assays revealed that the activation of the LPA receptor LPAR1, Gi/o protein, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) but not nuclear factor κB induced hyaluronic acid synthesis by the treatment with cPA and LPA in NB1RGB cells. These results demonstrate for the first time that cPA and LPA induce hyaluronic acid synthesis in human skin fibroblasts mainly through the activation of LPAR1-Gi/o followed by the PI3K, ERK, and CREB signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stimulatory heterotrimeric G protein augments gamma ray-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bak expression via CREB and AP-1 in H1299 human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, So Young; Oh, Jung Min; Juhnn, Yong Sung

    2009-08-31

    Stimulatory heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (Gs protein) stimulate cAMP generation in response to various signals, and modulate various cellular phenomena such as proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Gs proteins on gamma ray-induced apoptosis of lung cancer cells and its molecular mechanism, as an attempt to develop a new strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of gamma radiation. Expression of constitutively active mutant of the alpha subunit of Gs (GalphasQL) augmented gamma ray-induced apoptosis via mitochondrial dependent pathway when assessed by clonogenic assay, FACS analysis of PI stained cells, and western blot analysis of the cytoplasmic translocation of cytochrome C and the cleavage of caspase-3 and ploy(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in H1299 human lung cancer cells. GalphasQL up-regulated the Bak expression at the levels of protein and mRNA. Treatment with inhibitors of PKA (H89), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and a CRE-decoy blocked GalphasQL-stimulated Bak reporter luciferase activity. Expression of GalphasQL increased basal and gamma ray-induced luciferase activity of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and AP-1, and the binding of CREB and AP-1 to Bak promoter. Furthermore, prostaglandin E2, a Galphas activating signal, was found to augment gamma ray-induced apoptosis, which was abolished by treatment with a prostanoid receptor antagonist. These results indicate that Galphas augments gamma ray-induced apoptosis by up-regulation of Bak expression via CREB and AP-1 in H1299 lung cancer cells, suggesting that the efficacy of radiotherapy of lung cancer may be improved by modulating Gs signaling pathway.

  12. Presenilins regulate neurotrypsin gene expression and neurotrypsin-dependent agrin cleavage via cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) modulation.

    PubMed

    Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Kim, Sonia N; Benner, Christopher; Herrera, Cheryl M; Kang, David E; Garcia-Bassets, Ivan; Goldstein, Lawrence S B

    2013-12-06

    Presenilins, the catalytic components of the γ-secretase complex, are upstream regulators of multiple cellular pathways via regulation of gene transcription. However, the underlying mechanisms and the genes regulated by these pathways are poorly characterized. In this study, we identify Tequila and its mammalian ortholog Prss12 as genes negatively regulated by presenilins in Drosophila larval brains and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, respectively. Prss12 encodes the serine protease neurotrypsin, which cleaves the heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin. Altered neurotrypsin activity causes serious synaptic and cognitive defects; despite this, the molecular processes regulating neurotrypsin expression and activity are poorly understood. Using γ-secretase drug inhibitors and presenilin mutants in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we found that a mature γ-secretase complex was required to repress neurotrypsin expression and agrin cleavage. We also determined that PSEN1 endoproteolysis or processing of well known γ-secretase substrates was not essential for this process. At the transcriptional level, PSEN1/2 removal induced cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/CREB-binding protein binding, accumulation of activating histone marks at the neurotrypsin promoter, and neurotrypsin transcriptional and functional up-regulation that was dependent on GSK3 activity. Upon PSEN1/2 reintroduction, this active epigenetic state was replaced by a methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)-containing repressive state and reduced neurotrypsin expression. Genome-wide analysis revealed hundreds of other mouse promoters in which CREB binding is similarly modulated by the presence/absence of presenilins. Our study thus identifies Tequila and neurotrypsin as new genes repressed by presenilins and reveals a novel mechanism used by presenilins to modulate CREB signaling based on controlling CREB recruitment.

  13. Presenilins Regulate Neurotrypsin Gene Expression and Neurotrypsin-dependent Agrin Cleavage via Cyclic AMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Modulation*

    PubMed Central

    Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Kim, Sonia N.; Benner, Christopher; Herrera, Cheryl M.; Kang, David E.; Garcia-Bassets, Ivan; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Presenilins, the catalytic components of the γ-secretase complex, are upstream regulators of multiple cellular pathways via regulation of gene transcription. However, the underlying mechanisms and the genes regulated by these pathways are poorly characterized. In this study, we identify Tequila and its mammalian ortholog Prss12 as genes negatively regulated by presenilins in Drosophila larval brains and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, respectively. Prss12 encodes the serine protease neurotrypsin, which cleaves the heparan sulfate proteoglycan agrin. Altered neurotrypsin activity causes serious synaptic and cognitive defects; despite this, the molecular processes regulating neurotrypsin expression and activity are poorly understood. Using γ-secretase drug inhibitors and presenilin mutants in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we found that a mature γ-secretase complex was required to repress neurotrypsin expression and agrin cleavage. We also determined that PSEN1 endoproteolysis or processing of well known γ-secretase substrates was not essential for this process. At the transcriptional level, PSEN1/2 removal induced cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/CREB-binding protein binding, accumulation of activating histone marks at the neurotrypsin promoter, and neurotrypsin transcriptional and functional up-regulation that was dependent on GSK3 activity. Upon PSEN1/2 reintroduction, this active epigenetic state was replaced by a methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)-containing repressive state and reduced neurotrypsin expression. Genome-wide analysis revealed hundreds of other mouse promoters in which CREB binding is similarly modulated by the presence/absence of presenilins. Our study thus identifies Tequila and neurotrypsin as new genes repressed by presenilins and reveals a novel mechanism used by presenilins to modulate CREB signaling based on controlling CREB recruitment. PMID:24145027

  14. Ferulic acid prevents LPS-induced up-regulation of PDE4B and stimulates the cAMP/CREB signaling pathway in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Hong, Qian; Tan, Hong-ling; Xiao, Cheng-rong; Gao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) isozymes are involved in different functions, depending on their patterns of distribution in the brain. The PDE4 subtypes are distributed in different inflammatory cells, and appear to be important regulators of inflammatory processes. In this study we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA), a plant component with strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced up-regulation of phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) in PC12 cells, which in turn regulated cellular cAMP levels and the cAMP/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) pathway in the cells. Methods: PC12 cells were treated with LPS (1 μg/mL) for 8 h, and the changes of F-actin were detected using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured suing ELISA kits, and PDE4B-specific enzymatic activity was assessed with a PDE4B assay kit. The mRNA levels of PDE4B were analyzed with Q-PCR, and the protein levels of CREB and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) were determined using immunoblotting. Furthermore, molecular docking was used to identify the interaction between PDE4B2 and FA. Results: Treatment of PC12 cells with LPS induced thick bundles of actin filaments appearing in the F-actin cytoskeleton, which were ameliorated by pretreatment with FA (10–40 μmol/L) or with a PDE4B inhibitor rolipram (30 μmol/L). Pretreatment with FA dose-dependently inhibited the LPS-induced production of TNF-α and IL-1β in PC12 cells. Furthermore, pretreatment with FA dose-dependently attenuated the LPS-induced up-regulation of PDE4 activity in PC12 cells. Moreover, pretreatment with FA decreased LPS-induced up-regulation of the PDE4B mRNA, and reversed LPS-induced down-regulation of CREB and pCREB in PC12 cells. The molecular docking results revealed electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between FA and PDE4B2. Conclusion: The beneficial effects of FA in PC12 cells might be conferred through inhibition of LPS

  15. Estrogen receptor α L429 and A430 regulate 17β-estradiol-induced cell proliferation via CREB1.

    PubMed

    Pesiri, Valeria; Totta, Pierangela; Segatto, Marco; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Pallottini, Valentina; Marino, Maria; Acconcia, Filippo

    2015-12-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2)-dependent cell proliferation requires both estrogen receptor α (ERα)-based integrated control of gene transcription and kinase pathways activation. Such coordination of intracellular E2:ERα-dependent signaling mechanisms is finely tuned by receptor association with specific partner proteins. Recently, we identified the leucine (L) 429 and alanine (A) 430 within the ERα ligand binding domain as important residues for receptor non-covalent interaction to ubiquitinated species [i.e., ERα ubiquitin-binding surface (ERα UBS)] and for E2-induced ERα activation. To date, if these two ERα amino acids are involved in the control of E2-dependent pathways required for cell proliferation is unknown. Here, by using stably expressing ERα mutated in L429 and A430 (i.e., L429A,A430G-LAAG) cell lines, we show that L429 and A430 are critical for E2-induced cell proliferation, PI3K/AKT pathway activation, and ERα-mediated transcriptional changes. Moreover, we demonstrate that these two receptor structural determinants direct the E2-induced PI3K/AKT/CREB1 pathway activation and CREB1-mediated transcriptional activity that in turn control the hormone-induced cell proliferation. As a whole, our data demonstrate for the first time that the ERα UBS contributes to the modulation of E2-induced ERα-mediated cell proliferation and provide a novel connection between the receptor structure and the functional molecular mechanisms by which E2:ERα complex can regulate cell processes.

  16. Regulation of SREBPs by Sphingomyelin in Adipocytes via a Caveolin and Ras-ERK-MAPK-CREB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Makdissy, Nehman; Popa, Iuliana; Younsi, Mohamed; Valet, Philippe; Brunaud, Laurent; Ziegler, Olivier; Quilliot, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) is a key transcription factor in insulin and glucose metabolism. We previously demonstrated that elevated levels of membrane sphingomyelin (SM) were related to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), which is a known target gene of SREBP-1 in adipocytes. However, the role of SM in SREBP expression in adipocytes remains unknown. In human abdominal adipose tissue from obese women with various concentrations of fasting plasma insulin, SREBP-1 proteins decreased in parallel with increases in membrane SM levels. An inverse correlation was found between the membrane SM content and the levels of SREBP-1c/ERK/Ras/PPARγ/CREB proteins. For the first time, we demonstrate the effects of SM and its signaling pathway in 3T3-F442A adipocytes. These cells were enriched or unenriched with SM in a range of concentrations similar to those observed in obese subjects by adding exogenous natural SMs (having different acyl chain lengths) or by inhibiting neutral sphingomyelinase. SM accumulated in caveolae of the plasma membrane within 24 h and then in the intracellular space. SM enrichment decreased SREBP-1 through the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) but not JNK or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Ras/Raf-1/MEK1/2 and KSR proteins, which are upstream mediators of ERK, were down-regulated, whereas SREBP-2/caveolin and cholesterol were up-regulated. In SM-unmodulated adipocytes treated with DL-1-Phenyl-2-Palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PPMP), where the ceramide level increased, the expression levels of SREBPs and ERK were modulated in an opposite direction relative to the SM-enriched cells. SM inhibited the insulin-induced expression of SREBP-1. Rosiglitazone, which is an anti-diabetic agent and potent activator of PPARγ, reversed the effects of SM on SREBP-1, PPARγ and CREB. Taken together, these findings provide novel insights indicating that excess membrane SM

  17. Reduced CREB phosphorylation after chronic lithium treatment is associated with down-regulation of CaM kinase IV in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tardito, Daniela; Tiraboschi, Ettore; Kasahara, Jiro; Racagni, Giorgio; Popoli, Maurizio

    2007-08-01

    Lithium is widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, although its mechanism of action is not fully clear. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of prolonged lithium administration on cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and CaM kinase IV (CaMKIV), one of the main kinases phosphorylating CREB in neurons following synaptic activation. CREB total protein expression and phosphorylation (Ser133), as well as CaMKIV enzymatic activity, phosphorylation of Thr196 (the activator residue) and kinase expression level were assessed in total homogenates and nuclei from the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex following 5 wk lithium treatment. Whereas no significant effects were found in prefrontal/frontal cortex, lithium administration reduced CREB phosphorylation and at the same time down-regulated CaMKIV (enzymatic activity, phospho-Thr196 and protein expression level) in cell nuclei from the hippocampus. These data suggest for the first time the involvement of CaMKIV in the mechanism of action of lithium.

  18. Coordinated transcriptional regulation of Hspa1a gene by multiple transcription factors: crucial roles for HSF-1, NF-Y, NF-κB, and CREB.

    PubMed

    Sasi, Binu K; Sonawane, Parshuram J; Gupta, Vinayak; Sahu, Bhavani S; Mahapatra, Nitish R

    2014-01-09

    Although the transcript level of inducible heat shock protein 70.3 (Hsp70.3, also known as Hspa1a) is altered in various disease states, its transcriptional regulation remains incompletely understood. Here, we systematically analyzed the Hspa1a promoter to identify major cis elements and transcription factors that may govern the constitutive/inducible gene expression. Computational analyses coupled with extensive in vitro (promoter-reporter activity and electrophoretic mobility shift assays) and in vivo (chromatin immunoprecipitation assays) revealed interaction of several transcription factors with Hspa1a promoter motifs: HSF-1 (heat shock factor 1) at -114/-97 bp and -788/-777bp, NF-Y (nuclear transcription factor Y) at -73/-58 bp, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) at -133/-124 bp, and CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) at -483/-476 bp. Consistently, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated down-regulation of each of these transcription factors caused substantial reduction of endogenous Hspa1a expression. Heat-shock-induced activation of Hspa1a was coordinately regulated by HSF-1 and NF-Y/NF-κB. The Hspa1a expression was augmented by TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and forskolin in NF-κB and CREB-dependent manners, respectively. NF-κB and CREB also activated Hspa1a transcription in cardiac myoblasts upon exposure to ischemia-like conditions. Taken together, this study discovered previously unknown roles for NF-κB and CREB to regulate Hspa1a expression and a coordinated action by several transcription factors for Hspa1a transactivation under heat-shock/ischemia-like conditions and thereby provided new insights into the mechanism of Hspa1a regulation.

  19. The Distribution of messenger RNAs Encoding the Three Isoforms of the Transducer Of Regulated CREB Activity (TORC) in The Rat Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Alan G.; Sanchez-Watts, Graciela; Liu, Ying; Aguilera, Greti

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the CREB-dependent transcriptional activation of a number of genes requires the CREB co-activator, transducer of regulated CREB activity (TORC). Because of the central importance of CREB in many brain functions we examined the topographic distribution of TORC1, 2, and 3 mRNAs in specific regions of the rat forebrain. In situ hybridisation (ISH) analysis revealed that TORC1 is the most abundant isoform in most forebrain structures, followed by TORC2 and TORC3. All three TORC isoforms were found in a number of brain nuclei, the ventricular ependyma, and pia mater. While high levels of TORC1 were widely distributed in the forebrain, TORC2 was found in discrete nuclei and TORC3 mostly in the ependyma, and pia mater. The relative expression of TORC isoforms was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, TORC1 and 2 mRNAs were abundant in the parvicellular and magnocellular neuroendocrine compartments, while TORC3 expression was low. All three isoform mRNAs were found elsewhere in the hypothalamus, with the most prominent expression of TORC1 in the ventromedial nucleus, TORC2 in the dorsomedial and arcuate nuclei, TORCs 1 and 2 in the supraoptic, and TORC2 in the suprachiasmatic nuclei. These differential distribution patterns are consistent with complex roles for all three TORC isoforms in diverse brain structures, and provide a foundation for further studies on the mechanisms of CREB/TORC signalling on brain function. PMID:21679259

  20. SUMOylation regulates the nuclear mobility of CREB binding protein and its association with nuclear bodies in live cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Colm M.; Kindle, Karin B.; Collins, Hilary M.; Heery, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The lysine acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP) is required for chromatin modification and transcription at many gene promoters. In fixed cells, a large proportion of CBP colocalises to PML or nuclear bodies. Using live cell imaging, we show here that YFP-tagged CBP expressed in HEK293 cells undergoes gradual accumulation in nuclear bodies, some of which are mobile and migrate towards the nuclear envelope. Deletion of a short lysine-rich domain that contains the major SUMO acceptor sites of CBP abrogated its ability to be SUMO modified, and prevented its association with endogenous SUMO-1/PML speckles in vivo. This SUMO-defective CBP showed enhanced ability to co-activate AML1-mediated transcription. Deletion mapping revealed that the SUMO-modified region was not sufficient for targeting CBP to PML bodies, as C-terminally truncated mutants containing this domain showed a strong reduction in accumulation at PML bodies. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that YFP-CBP{Delta}998-1087 had a retarded recovery time in the nucleus, as compared to YFP-CBP. These results indicate that SUMOylation regulates CBP function by influencing its shuttling between nuclear bodies and chromatin microenvironments.

  1. Basal Forebrain Thermoregulatory Mechanism Modulates Auto-Regulated Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Hruda Nanda; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of body temperature and sleep are two physiological mechanisms that are vital for our survival. Interestingly neural structures implicated in both these functions are common. These areas include the medial preoptic area (POA), the lateral POA, the ventrolateral POA, the median preoptic nucleus, and the medial septum, which form part of the basal forebrain (BF). When given a choice, rats prefer to stay at an ambient temperature of 27°C, though the maximum sleep was observed when they were placed at 30°C. Ambient temperature around 27°C should be considered as the thermoneutral temperature for rats in all sleep studies. At this temperature the diurnal oscillations of sleep and body temperature are properly expressed. The warm sensitive neurons of the POA mediate the increase in sleep at 30°C. Promotion of sleep during the rise in ambient temperature from 27 to 30°C, serve a thermoregulatory function. Autonomous thermoregulatory changes in core body temperature and skin temperature could act as an input signal to modulate neuronal activity in sleep-promoting brain areas. The studies presented here show that the neurons of the BF play a key role in regulating sleep. BF thermoregulatory system is a part of the global homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanism, which is auto-regulated. PMID:22754548

  2. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lan; Cao, Xue-Li; Xing, Tian-Yan; Mori, Daisuke; Tang, Rui-Qi; Li, Jing; Gao, Li-Juan; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. PMID:27136583

  3. Chlamydomonas IFT172 is encoded by FLA11, interacts with CrEB1, and regulates IFT at the flagellar tip.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lotte B; Miller, Mark S; Geimer, Stefan; Leitch, Jeffery M; Rosenbaum, Joel L; Cole, Douglas G

    2005-02-08

    The transport of flagellar precursors and removal of turnover products from the flagellar tip is mediated by intraflagellar transport (IFT) , which is essential for both flagellar assembly and maintenance . Large groups of IFT particles are moved from the flagellar base to the tip by kinesin-2, and smaller groups are returned to the base by cytoplasmic dynein 1b. The IFT particles are composed of two protein complexes, A and B, comprising approximately 16-18 polypeptides. How cargo is unloaded from IFT particles, turnover products loaded, and active IFT motors exchanged at the tip is unknown. We previously showed that the Chlamydomonas microtubule end binding protein 1 (CrEB1) localizes to the flagellar tip and is depleted from the tips of the temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant fla11ts . We demonstrate here that FLA11 encodes IFT protein 172, a component of IFT complex B, and show that IFT172 interacts with CrEB1. Because fla11ts cells are defective in IFT particle turnaround at the tip, our results indicate that IFT172 is involved in regulating the transition between anterograde and retrograde IFT at the tip, perhaps by a mechanism involving CrEB1. Therefore, IFT172 is involved in the control of flagellar assembly/disassembly at the tip.

  4. Serotonin- and Training-Induced Dynamic Regulation of CREB2 in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Rong-Yu; Shah, Shreyansh; Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory and plasticity, including long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) of the "Aplysia" sensorimotor synapse, depend on the activation of transcription factors that regulate genes necessary for synaptic plasticity. In the present study we found that treatment with 5-HT and behavioral training produce biphasic changes in the expression of…

  5. Serotonin- and Training-Induced Dynamic Regulation of CREB2 in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Rong-Yu; Shah, Shreyansh; Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term memory and plasticity, including long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) of the "Aplysia" sensorimotor synapse, depend on the activation of transcription factors that regulate genes necessary for synaptic plasticity. In the present study we found that treatment with 5-HT and behavioral training produce biphasic changes in the expression of…

  6. GRK3 is a direct target of CREB activation and regulates neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haiping; Zheng, Dayong; Zhang, Yan; Li, Min; Xu, Jianming; Zhang, Songlin; Ittmann, Michael; Li, Wenliang

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is an aggressive subtype of prostate cancer that commonly arises through neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) of prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC) after therapy, such as radiation therapy and androgen deprivation treatment (ADT). No effective therapeutic is available for NEPC and its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have reported that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3, also called ADRBK2) promotes prostate cancer progression. In this study, we demonstrate that the ADT-activated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) directly targets and induces GRK3. We show GRK3 expression is higher in NEPC than in PAC cells and mouse models, and it positively correlates with the expression and activity of CREB in human prostate cancers. Notably, overexpression of GRK3 in PAC cells increased the expression of NE markers in a kinase activity dependent manner. Conversely, silencing GRK3 blocked CREB-induced NED in PAC cells, reversed NE phenotypes and inhibited proliferation of NEPC cells. Taken together, these results indicate that GRK3 is a new critical activator of NE phenotypes and mediator of CREB activation in promoting NED of prostate cancer cells. PMID:27191986

  7. Leptin Induces Hippocampal Synaptogenesis via CREB-Regulated MicroRNA-132 Suppression of p250GAP

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Matasha; Zhu, Mingyan; Impey, Soren; Lambert, Talley J.; Bland, Tyler; Karatsoreos, Ilia N.; Nakazawa, Takanobu

    2014-01-01

    Leptin acts in the hippocampus to enhance cognition and reduce depression and anxiety. Cognitive and emotional disorders are associated with abnormal hippocampal dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis. Although leptin has been shown to induce synaptogenesis in the hypothalamus, its effects on hippocampal synaptogenesis and the mechanism(s) involved are not well understood. Here we show that leptin receptors (LepRs) are critical for hippocampal dendritic spine formation in vivo because db/db mice lacking the long form of the leptin receptor (LepRb) have reduced spine density on CA1 and CA3 neurons. Leptin promotes the formation of mature spines and functional glutamate synapses on hippocampal pyramidal neurons in both dissociated and slice cultures. These effects are blocked by short hairpin RNAs specifically targeting the LepRb and are absent in cultures from db/db mice. Activation of the LepR leads to cAMP response element–binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and initiation of CREB-dependent transcription via the MAPK kinase/Erk pathway. Furthermore, both Mek/Erk and CREB activation are required for leptin-induced synaptogenesis. Leptin also increases expression of microRNA-132 (miR132), a well-known CREB target, which is also required for leptin-induced synaptogenesis. Last, leptin suppresses the expression of p250GAP, a miR132 target, and this suppression is obligatory for leptin's effects as is the downstream target of p250GAP, Rac1. LepRs appear to be critical in vivo as db/db mice have lowered hippocampal miR132 levels and elevated p250GAP expression. In conclusion, we identify a novel signaling pathway by which leptin increases synaptogenesis through inducing CREB transcription and increasing microRNA-mediated suppression of p250GAP activity, thus removing a known inhibitor of Rac1-stimulated synaptogenesis. PMID:24877561

  8. CREB and ChREBP oppositely regulate SIRT1 expression in response to energy availability.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Lilia G; Feige, Jérôme N; Canto, Carles; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Yu, Jiujiu; Herman, Mark A; Mataki, Chikage; Kahn, Barbara B; Auwerx, Johan

    2011-09-30

    The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is a major metabolic regulator activated by energy stresses such as fasting or calorie restriction. SIRT1 activation during fasting not only relies on the increase in the NAD(+)/NADH ratio caused by energy deprivation but also involves an upregulation of SIRT1 mRNA and protein levels in various metabolic tissues. We demonstrate that SIRT1 expression is controlled systemically by the activation of the cyclic AMP response-element-binding protein upon low nutrient availability. Conversely, in the absence of energetic stress, the carbohydrate response-element-binding protein represses the expression of SIRT1. Altogether, these results demonstrate that SIRT1 expression is tightly controlled at the transcriptional level by nutrient availability and further underscore that SIRT1 is a crucial metabolic checkpoint connecting the energetic status with transcriptional programmes.

  9. A stress-activated, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-ATF/CREB pathway regulates posttranscriptional, sequence-dependent decay of target RNAs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun; Wagnon, Jacy L; Protacio, Reine M; Glazko, Galina V; Beggs, Marjorie; Raj, Vinay; Davidson, Mari K; Wahls, Wayne P

    2013-08-01

    Broadly conserved, mitogen-activated/stress-activated protein kinases (MAPK/SAPK) of the p38 family regulate multiple cellular processes. They transduce signals via dimeric, basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors of the ATF/CREB family (such as Atf2, Fos, and Jun) to regulate the transcription of target genes. We report additional mechanisms for gene regulation by such pathways exerted through RNA stability controls. The Spc1 (Sty1/Phh1) kinase-regulated Atf1-Pcr1 (Mts1-Mts2) heterodimer of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe controls the stress-induced, posttranscriptional stability and decay of sets of target RNAs. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing data revealed that decay is associated nonrandomly with transcripts that contain an M26 sequence motif. Moreover, the ablation of an M26 sequence motif in a target mRNA is sufficient to block its stress-induced loss. Conversely, engineered M26 motifs can render a stable mRNA into one that is targeted for decay. This stress-activated RNA decay (SARD) provides a mechanism for reducing the expression of target genes without shutting off transcription itself. Thus, a single p38-ATF/CREB signal transduction pathway can coordinately induce (promote transcription and RNA stability) and repress (promote RNA decay) transcript levels for distinct sets of genes, as is required for developmental decisions in response to stress and other stimuli.

  10. A Stress-Activated, p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase–ATF/CREB Pathway Regulates Posttranscriptional, Sequence-Dependent Decay of Target RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Wagnon, Jacy L.; Protacio, Reine M.; Glazko, Galina V.; Beggs, Marjorie; Raj, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Broadly conserved, mitogen-activated/stress-activated protein kinases (MAPK/SAPK) of the p38 family regulate multiple cellular processes. They transduce signals via dimeric, basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors of the ATF/CREB family (such as Atf2, Fos, and Jun) to regulate the transcription of target genes. We report additional mechanisms for gene regulation by such pathways exerted through RNA stability controls. The Spc1 (Sty1/Phh1) kinase-regulated Atf1-Pcr1 (Mts1-Mts2) heterodimer of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe controls the stress-induced, posttranscriptional stability and decay of sets of target RNAs. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing data revealed that decay is associated nonrandomly with transcripts that contain an M26 sequence motif. Moreover, the ablation of an M26 sequence motif in a target mRNA is sufficient to block its stress-induced loss. Conversely, engineered M26 motifs can render a stable mRNA into one that is targeted for decay. This stress-activated RNA decay (SARD) provides a mechanism for reducing the expression of target genes without shutting off transcription itself. Thus, a single p38-ATF/CREB signal transduction pathway can coordinately induce (promote transcription and RNA stability) and repress (promote RNA decay) transcript levels for distinct sets of genes, as is required for developmental decisions in response to stress and other stimuli. PMID:23732911

  11. Epigenetic modification of miR-10a regulates renal damage by targeting CREB1 in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shan, Qun; Zheng, Guihong; Zhu, Aihua; Cao, Li; Lu, Jun; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, ZiFeng; Fan, Shaohua; Sun, Chunhui; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that microRNA-mediated gene expression modulation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the novel miRNAs involved in type 2 diabetes and its functional regulatory mechanisms still need to be determined. In this study, we assessed the role of miR-10a in extracellular matrix accumulation in the kidney of diabetic mellitus induced by combining administration of chronic high fat diet (HFD) and low dosage of streptozotocin (STZ, 35mg/kg). Here, we found that HFD/STZ administration decreased the level of microRNA (miR-10a) expression in ICR strain mice. Overexpression of miR-10a alleviated the increased ratio of urine albumin-to-creatinine (ACR) ratio of HFD/STZ mice. In contrast, knockdown of miR-10a increased the ratio of kidney ACR in naïve mice. Furthermore, cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB1) was validated as a target of miR-10a in vitro and in vivo. CREB1 and its downstream fibronectin (FN, extracellular matrix) were increased in HFD/STZ-treated mice, which was reversed by kidney miR-10a overexpression. The content of CREB1 and FN was increased by miR-10a knockdown in kidney of naïve mice. Furthermore, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) was revealed to be increased in kidney of HFD/STZ mice, accompanied with the augmentation of ACR ratio and FN level. Knockdown of HDAC3 with siRNA significantly caused the increase of miR-10a, resulting in the decrease in CREB1 and FN expression in kidney of HFD/STZ mice. Contrarily, HDAC3 overexpression mediated by lentivirus decreased miR-10a content, and enhanced ACR value, CREB1 and FN formation in naïve mice. Collectively, these results elucidate that HDAC3/miR-10a/CREB1 serves as a new mechanism underlying kidney injury, providing potential therapeutic targets in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Tongqiao Huoxue Decoction ameliorates learning and memory defects in rats with vascular dementia by up-regulating the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-CREB pathway.

    PubMed

    Ge, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xin-Ming; Huang, Zhao-Gang; Xia, Quan; Wang, Ning; Xu, Du-Juan

    2015-11-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the effects of Tongqiao Huoxue Decoction (TQHXD) on the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-CREB pathway and the memory and learning capacities of rats with vascular dementia (VD). The rat VD model was established by using an improved bilateral carotid artery ligation method. The Morris water maze experiment was used to evaluate the ethology of the VD rats following treatments with TQHXD at 3.01, 6.02, and 12.04 g·kg(-1) per day for 31 days. At the end of experiment, the hippocampus were harvested and analyzed. Western blotting and RT-PCR were used to measure the expression levels of calmodulin-binding protein kinase II(CaMKII), protein kinase A(PKA), cAMP-response element binding protein(CREB), and three N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor subunits (NR1, NR2A, and NR2B). Our results revealed that TQHXD could alleviate the loss of learning abilities and increase the memory capacity (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 vs the model group, respectively). The treatment with 6.02 and 12.04 g·kg(-1) of TQHXD significantly up-regulated the Ca(2+)-CaMKII-CREB pathway in the hippocampus. In conclusion, TQHXD showed therapeutic effects on a bilateral carotid artery ligation-induced vascular dementia model, through the up-regulation of calcium signalling pathways. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. N-palmitoyl serotonin alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment via regulation of cholinergic and antioxidant systems, and expression of BDNF and p-CREB in mice.

    PubMed

    Min, A Young; Doo, Choon Nan; Son, Eun Jung; Sung, Nak Yun; Lee, Kun Jong; Sok, Dai-Eun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2015-12-05

    N-Palmitoyl-5-hydroxytryptamines (Pal-5HT), a cannabinoid, has recently been reported to express anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory actions in RBL-2H3 cells, and ameliorate glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT-22 cells. In this study, we examined the effect of Pal-5HT on deficits of learning and memory induced by scopolamine in mice. Memory performance was evaluated using Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), level of oxidative stress markers, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) were determined. Loss of neuronal cells in hippocampus was evaluated by histological examinations. Pal-5HT significantly improved the amnesia in the behavioral assessment. Pal-5HT regulated cholinergic function by inhibiting scopolamine-induced elevation of AChE activity and decline of ChAT activity. Pal-5HT suppressed oxidative stress by increasing activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) or NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) and lowering MDA level. Additionally, it prevented against scopolamine-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2. Moreover, Pal-5HT suppressed the death of neuronal cells in CA1 and CA3 regions, while it restored expression of p-CREB and BDNF in hippocampus. Taken together, Pal-5HT is suggested to ameliorate deficits of memory and learning through regulation of cholinergic function, activation of antioxidant systems as well as restoration of BDNF and p-CREB expression. From these, Pal-5HT may be a potential candidate to prevent against neurodegeneration related to the memory deficit.

  14. Angelica sinensis polysaccharides promotes apoptosis in human breast cancer cells via CREB-regulated caspase-3 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei-Jie; Wang, Sheng; Hu, Zhuang; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Song, Cai-Juan

    2015-11-20

    Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) is purified from the fresh roots of Angelica sinensis (AS). This traditional Chinese medicine has been used for thousands of years for treating gynecological diseases and used in functional foods for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. The antitumor activity of ASP is related to its biological activities, because it suppresses a variety of pro-proliferative or anti-apoptotic factors that are dramatically expressed in cancer cells of given types. In this study, we show that angelica sinensis polysaccharide induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells of T47D over-expressing the Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), inducing apoptosis-related signaling pathway activity. The result also found that ASP caused cell death was linked to caspase activity, accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria. We found that ASP significantly affected the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax), Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and apoptotic protease activating facter-1 (Apaf1) protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. DAPI staining and Flow cytometry were used to analyze apoptosis. The nude mice xenograft model was used to evaluate the antitumor effect of ASP in vivo. ASP has profound antitumor effect on T47D cells, probably by inducing apoptosis through CREB signaling pathway. Thus, these results suggest that ASP would be a promising therapeutic agent for breast cancer. - Highlights: • CREB and Caspase-3 signaling pathways are involved in the ASP induced breast cancer cells apoptosis. • ROCK1/Mlc signaling pathway plays a critical role in this ASP-mediated apoptosis. • Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) affected the PARP, Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Apaf1 protein expression. • The activation of CREB and ROCK1 promotes caspase-3 activation and apoptosis induced

  15. Glutamate affects the production of epoxyeicosanoids within the brain: The up-regulation of brain CYP2J through the MAPK-CREB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingzhou; Zhu, Quanfei; Wu, Jinhua; Yu, Xuming; Hu, Mingbai; Xie, Xianfei; Yang, Zheqiong; Yang, Jing; Feng, Yu-Qi; Yue, Jiang

    2017-04-15

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and chronic glutamate excitotoxicity has been thought to be involved in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated the effects of glutamate at concentrations lower than the usual extrasynaptic concentrations on the production of epoxyeicosanoids mediated by brain CYP2J. Glutamate increased CYP2J2 mRNA levels in astrocytes in a dose-dependent manner, while an antagonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5 receptor) attenuated the glutamate-induced increases in CYP2J2 levels by glutamate. Glutamate increased the binding of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) with the CYP2J2 promoter, and the inhibition of the MAPK signaling pathway (ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) decreased the binding of CREB with the CYP2J2 promoter following the glutamate treatment. CREB activated the CYP2J2 promoter located at -1522 to -1317bp, and CREB overexpression significantly increased CYP2J2 mRNA levels. The CYP2J2 and mGlu5 mRNA levels were higher in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem in adult rats that received a subcutaneous injection of monosodium l-glutamate at 1, 3, 5, and 7days of age. The data from the partial least-squares-discriminant analysis showed the epoxyeicosanoid profile of the hippocampus from the cerebellum, brain stem, and frontal cortex. The sum of the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) was increased by 1.16-fold, 1.18-fold, and 1.19-fold in the frontal cortex, cerebellum, and brain stem, respectively, in rats treated with monosodium l-glutamate compared with the control group. The results suggest that brain CYP2J levels and CYP2J-mediated epoxyeicosanoid production can be regulated by extrasynaptic glutamate. The glutamate receptors expressed in astrocytes may mediate the regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and the metabolome of endogenous substances by glutamate.

  16. CREB regulates TNF-α-induced GM-CSF secretion via p38 MAPK in human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Koga, Yasuhiko; Hisada, Takeshi; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Utsugi, Mitsuyoshi; Ono, Akihiro; Yatomi, Masakiyo; Kamide, Yosuke; Aoki-Saito, Haruka; Tsurumaki, Hiroaki; Dobashi, Kunio; Yamada, Masanobu

    2016-10-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine that mediates eosinophilic differentiation, migration and survival, causing respiratory tract inflammation. GM-CSF is also known to be secreted from respiratory tract structural cells. However, the mechanisms of GM-CSF secretion have not been well established. Human fetal lung fibroblasts and human primary asthmatic lung fibroblasts were used for the study of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced GM-CSF secretion. GM-CSF secretion and mRNA expression were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Knockdown of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in fibroblasts was carried out by using specific small interfering RNAs of CREB. Among respiratory tract structural cells, pulmonary fibroblasts exhibited increased GM-CSF secretion and mRNA expression after stimulation with TNF-α in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor controlled TNF-α-induced GM-CSF secretion, and roflumilast and rolipram, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-4, suppressed TNF-α-induced GM-CSF secretion. Consistent with this, forskolin also completely blocked GM-CSF secretion, and similar results were observed in response to cAMP treatment, suggesting that cAMP signaling suppressed TNF-α-induced GM-CSF secretion in human lung fibroblasts. Furthermore, CREB was phosphorylated through p38 MAPK but not cAMP signaling after TNF-α stimulation, and GM-CSF secretion was inhibited by CREB knockdown. Finally, these effects were also demonstrated in human primary lung fibroblasts in a patient with asthma. CREB signaled independent of cAMP signaling and was phosphorylated by p38 MAPK following TNF-α stimulation, playing a critical role in GM-CSF secretion in human lung fibroblasts. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Low-Dose Levodopa Protects Nerve Cells from Oxidative Stress and Up-Regulates Expression of pCREB and CD39

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Min; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Yan-Xin; Liu, Xue-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the influence of low-dose levodopa (L-DOPA) on neuronal cell death under oxidative stress. Methods PC12 cells were treated with L-DOPA at different concentrations. We detected the L-DOPA induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Meanwhile, MTT and LDH assay were performed to determine the proliferation and growth of PC12 cells with or without ROS scavenger. In addition, after pretreatment with L-DOPA at different concentrations alone or in combination with CD39 inhibitor, PC12 cells were incubated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and the cell viability was evaluated by MTT and LDH assay. In addition, the expression of pCREB and CD39 was detected by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot assay in both cells and rat’s brain after L-DOPA treatment. Results After treatment with L-DOPA for 3 days, the cell proliferation and growth were promoted when the L-DOPA concentration was <30 µM, while cell proliferation was comparable to that in control group when the L-DOPA concentration was >30 µM. Low dose L-DOPA could protect the PC12 cells from H2O2 induced oxidative stress, which was compromised by CD39 inhibitor. In addition, the expression of CD39 and pCREB increased in both PC12 cells and rats’ brain after L-DOPA treatment. Conclusions L-DOPA at different concentrations has distinct influence on proliferation and growth of PC12 cells, and low dose (<30 µM) L-DOPA protects PC12 cells against oxidative stress which might be related to the up-regulation of CD39 and pCREB expression. PMID:24743653

  18. Identification of a CREB-dependent serotonergic pathway and neuronal circuit regulating foraging behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans: a useful model for mental disorders and their treatments?

    PubMed

    Zubenko, George S; Jones, Michelle L; Estevez, Annette O; Hughes, Hugh B; Estevez, Miguel

    2009-01-05

    The cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB)-mediated cell signaling pathway is conserved through evolution and participates in a broad range of complex behaviors of divergent species including man. This study describes the integration of genetic, pharmacologic, and anatomic methods to elucidate a serotonergic signaling pathway by which the CREB homolog CRH-1 controls foraging rate (FR) in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, along with the complete neuronal circuit through which this pathway operates. In the anterior afferent arm of the circuit, CRH-1 controls FR by regulating the expression of tph-1, the sole structural gene for tryptophan hydroxylase, in serotonergic sensory (ADF) neurons whose post-synaptic effects are mediated through 5HT(2)-like SER-1 receptors. The posterior afferent limb of the circuit includes an interneuron (RIH) that does not express tph-1 and whose serotonergic phenotype is dependent on the contribution of this neurotransmitter from another source, probably the ADF neurons. The postsynaptic effects of the RIH interneuron are mediated through 5HT(1)-like SER-4 receptors. This model has potential utility for the study of clinical disorders and experimental therapeutics. Furthermore, the discovery of serotonergic neurons that depend on other sources for their neurotransmitter phenotype could provide a mechanism for rapidly altering the number and distribution of serotonergic pathways in developing and adult nervous systems, providing a dimension of functional complexity that has been previously unrecognized. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Acid activation of Trpv1 leads to an up-regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons via the CaMK-CREB cascade: a potential mechanism of inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Masako; Hata, Kenji; Nagayama, Tomotaka; Sakurai, Teruhisa; Nishisho, Toshihiko; Wakabayashi, Hiroki; Hiraga, Toru; Ebisu, Shigeyuki; Yoneda, Toshiyuki

    2010-08-01

    Increased production of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory neurons is implicated in inflammatory pain. The inflammatory site is acidic due to proton release from infiltrating inflammatory cells. Acid activation of peripheral nociceptors relays pain signals to the CNS. Here, we examined whether acid activated the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (Trpv1), a widely recognized acid-sensing nociceptor and subsequently increased CGRP expression. Chemically induced inflammation was associated with thermal hyperalgesia and increased CGRP expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats. In organ cultures of DRG, acid (pH 5.5) elevated CGRP expression and the selective Trpv1 antagonist 5'-Iodoresiniferatoxin decreased it. Trpv1-deficient DRG showed reduced CGRP increase by acid. Of note, many of CGRP/Trpv1-positive DRG neurons exhibited the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a nociceptive transcription factor. Knockdown of CREB by small interfering RNA or a dominant-negative form of CREB diminished acid-elevated CGRP expression. Acid elevated the transcriptional activity of CREB, which in turn stimulated CGRP gene promoter activity. These effects were inhibited by a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) inhibitor KN-93. In conclusion, our results suggest that inflammatory acidic environments activate Trpv1, leading to an up-regulation of CGRP expression via CaMK-CREB cascade, a series of events that may be associated with inflammatory pain.

  20. 5-Aminolaevulinate synthase gene promoter contains two cAMP-response element (CRE)-like sites that confer positive and negative responsiveness to CRE-binding protein (CREB).

    PubMed Central

    Giono, L E; Varone, C L; Cánepa, E T

    2001-01-01

    The first and rate-controlling step of the haem biosynthetic pathway in mammals and fungi is catalysed by the mitochondrial-matrix enzyme 5-aminolaevulinate synthase (ALAS). The purpose of this work was to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the cAMP regulation of rat housekeeping ALAS gene expression. Thus we have examined the ALAS promoter for putative transcription-factor-binding sites that may regulate transcription in a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-induced context. Applying both transient transfection assays with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene driven by progressive ALAS promoter deletions in HepG2, and electrophoresis mobility-shift assays we have identified two putative cAMP-response elements (CREs) at positions -38 and -142. Functional analysis showed that both CRE-like sites were necessary for complete PKA induction, but only one for basal expression. Co-transfection with a CRE-binding protein (CREB) expression vector increased PKA-mediated induction of ALAS promoter transcriptional activity. However, in the absence of co-transfected PKA, CREB worked as a specific repressor for ALAS promoter activity. A CREB mutant deficient in a PKA phosphorylation site was unable to induce expression of the ALAS gene but could inhibit non-stimulated promoter activity. Furthermore, a DNA-binding mutant of CREB did not interfere with ALAS promoter basal activity. Site-directed-mutagenesis studies showed that only the nearest element to the transcription start site was able to inhibit the activity of the promoter. Therefore, we conclude that CREB, through its binding to CRE-like sites, mediates the effect of cAMP on ALAS gene expression. Moreover, we propose that CREB could also act as a repressor of ALAS transcription, but is able to reverse its role after PKA activation. Dephosphorylated CREB would interfere in a spatial-disposition-dependent manner with the transcriptional machinery driving inhibition of gene expression. PMID:11139395

  1. CREB trans-activation of disruptor of telomeric silencing-1 mediates forskolin inhibition of CTGF transcription in mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Kong, Qun; Kone, Bruce C

    2010-03-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) participates in diverse fibrotic processes including glomerulosclerosis. The adenylyl cyclase agonist forskolin inhibits CTGF expression in mesangial cells by unclear mechanisms. We recently reported that the histone H3K79 methyltransferase disruptor of telomeric silencing-1 (Dot1) suppresses CTGF gene expression in collecting duct cells (J Clin Invest 117: 773-783, 2007) and HEK 293 cells (J Biol Chem In press). In the present study, we characterized the involvement of Dot1 in mediating the inhibitory effect of forskolin on CTGF transcription in mouse mesangial cells. Overexpression of Dot1 or treatment with forskolin dramatically suppressed basal CTGF mRNA levels and CTGF promoter-luciferase activity, while hypermethylating H3K79 in chromatin associated with the CTGF promoter. siRNA knockdown of Dot1 abrogated the inhibitory effect of forskolin on CTGF mRNA expression. Analysis of the Dot1 promoter sequence identified a CREB response element (CRE) at -384/-380. Overexpression of CREB enhanced forskolin-stimulated Dot1 promoter activity. A constitutively active CREB mutant (CREB-VP16) strongly induced Dot1 promoter-luciferase activity, whereas overexpression of CREBdLZ-VP16, which lacks the CREB DNA-binding domain, abolished this activation. Mutation of the -384/-380 CRE resulted in 70% lower levels of Dot1 promoter activity. ChIP assays confirmed CREB binding to the Dot1 promoter in chromatin. We conclude that forskolin stimulates CREB-mediated trans-activation of the Dot1 gene, which leads to hypermethylation of histone H3K79 at the CTGF promoter, and inhibition of CTGF transcription. These data are the first to describe regulation of the Dot1 gene, and disclose a complex network of genetic and epigenetic controls on CTGF transcription.

  2. Prostanoid EP1 receptors mediate up-regulation of the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 by cAMP-independent activation of protein kinase A, CREB and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Ji, R; Sanchez, CM; Chou, CL; Chen, XB; Woodward, DF; Regan, JW

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulation of the G protein-coupled prostanoid EP1 receptor was found to up-regulate the expression of Nur-related factor 1 (Nurr1) (NR4A2), a transcription factor in the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors. The present studies characterize the molecular mechanism of this up-regulation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The expression of Nurr1 was examined by immunoblot analysis, the polymerase chain reaction and reporter gene assays in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells stably expressing the recombinant EP1 receptor and in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells expressing endogenous EP1 receptors. Signalling pathway inhibitors were used to examine the roles of Rho, PKA, the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and NF-κB on the PGE2 stimulated up-regulation of Nurr1. CREB and NF-κB signalling were also examined by immunoblot analysis and reporter gene assays. KEY RESULTS The EP1 receptor mediated up-regulation of Nurr1 was blocked with inhibitors of Rho, PKA, NF-κB and CREB; but PGE2 failed to significantly stimulate intracellular cAMP formation. PGE2 stimulation of the EP1 receptor induced the phosphorylation and activation of CREB and NF-κB, which could be blocked by inhibition of PKA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS PGE2 stimulation of the human EP1 receptor up-regulates the expression of Nurr1 by a mechanism involving the sequential activation of the Rho, PKA, CREB and NF-κB signalling pathways. EP1 receptors are implicated in tumorigenesis and the up-regulation of Nurr1 may underlie the anti-apoptotic effects of PGE2. PMID:22188298

  3. Prostanoid EP₁ receptors mediate up-regulation of the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 by cAMP-independent activation of protein kinase A, CREB and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Ji, R; Sanchez, C M; Chou, C L; Chen, X B; Woodward, D F; Regan, J W

    2012-06-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) stimulation of the G protein-coupled prostanoid EP(1) receptor was found to up-regulate the expression of Nur-related factor 1 (Nurr1) (NR4A2), a transcription factor in the NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors. The present studies characterize the molecular mechanism of this up-regulation. The expression of Nurr1 was examined by immunoblot analysis, the polymerase chain reaction and reporter gene assays in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells stably expressing the recombinant EP(1) receptor and in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells expressing endogenous EP(1) receptors. Signalling pathway inhibitors were used to examine the roles of Rho, PKA, the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and NF-κB on the PGE(2) stimulated up-regulation of Nurr1. CREB and NF-κB signalling were also examined by immunoblot analysis and reporter gene assays. The EP(1) receptor mediated up-regulation of Nurr1 was blocked with inhibitors of Rho, PKA, NF-κB and CREB; but PGE(2) failed to significantly stimulate intracellular cAMP formation. PGE(2) stimulation of the EP1 receptor induced the phosphorylation and activation of CREB and NF-κB, which could be blocked by inhibition of PKA. PGE(2) stimulation of the human EP(1) receptor up-regulates the expression of Nurr1 by a mechanism involving the sequential activation of the Rho, PKA, CREB and NF-κB signalling pathways. EP(1) receptors are implicated in tumorigenesis and the up-regulation of Nurr1 may underlie the anti-apoptotic effects of PGE(2) . © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Proximity Interactions among Basal Body Components in Trypanosoma brucei Identify Novel Regulators of Basal Body Biogenesis and Inheritance

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hung Quang; Zhou, Qing; Rowlett, Veronica W.; Hu, Huiqing; Lee, Kyu Joon; Margolin, William

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei. Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins. These proteins localize to distinct subdomains of the basal body, and several of them form a ring-like structure surrounding the basal body barrel. Functional characterization of representative basal body proteins revealed distinct roles in basal body duplication/separation and flagellar axoneme assembly. Overall, this work identified novel proteins required for basal body duplication and separation and uncovered new functions of conserved basal body proteins in basal body duplication and separation, highlighting an unusual mechanism of basal body biogenesis and inheritance in this early divergent eukaryote. PMID:28049148

  5. Cholesterol enhances neuron susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli via cAMP/PKA/CREB-dependent up-regulation of Kv2.1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meng-Hua; Yang, Guang; Jiao, Song; Hu, Chang-Long; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2012-02-01

    Cholesterol is a major component of membrane lipid rafts. It is more abundant in the brain than in other tissues and plays a critical role in maintaining brain function. We report here that a significant enhancement in apoptosis in rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) was observed upon incubation with 5mM K(+) /serum free (LK-S) medium. Cholesterol enrichment further potentiated CGN apoptosis incubated under LK-S medium. On the contrary, cholesterol depletion using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin protected the CGNs from apoptosis induced by LK-S treatment. Cholesterol enrichment, however, did not induce apoptosis in CGNs that have been incubated with 25mM K(+) /serum medium. Mechanistically, increased I(K) currents and DNA fragmentation were found in CGNs incubated in LK-S, which was further potentiated in the presence of cholesterol. Cholesterol-treated CGNs also exhibited increased cAMP levels and up-regulation of Kv2.1 expression. Increased levels of activated form of PKA and phospho-CREB further supported activation of the cAMP/PKA pathway upon treatment of CGNs with cholesterol-containing LK-S medium. Conversely, inhibition of PKA or small G protein Gs abolished the increase in I(K) current and the potentiation of Kv2.1 expression, leading to reduced susceptibility of CGNs to LK-S and cholesterol-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that the elevation of membrane cholesterol enhances CGN susceptibility to apoptotic stimuli via cAMP/PKA/CREB-dependent up-regulation of Kv2.1. Our data provide new evidence for the role of cholesterol in eliciting neuronal cell death. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Angelica sinensis polysaccharides promotes apoptosis in human breast cancer cells via CREB-regulated caspase-3 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-Jie; Wang, Sheng; Hu, Zhuang; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Song, Cai-Juan

    2015-11-20

    Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) is purified from the fresh roots of Angelica sinensis (AS). This traditional Chinese medicine has been used for thousands of years for treating gynecological diseases and used in functional foods for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. The antitumor activity of ASP is related to its biological activities, because it suppresses a variety of pro-proliferative or anti-apoptotic factors that are dramatically expressed in cancer cells of given types. In this study, we show that angelica sinensis polysaccharide induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells of T47D over-expressing the Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), inducing apoptosis-related signaling pathway activity. The result also found that ASP caused cell death was linked to caspase activity, accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, and Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria. We found that ASP significantly affected the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax), Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and apoptotic protease activating facter-1 (Apaf1) protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. DAPI staining and Flow cytometry were used to analyze apoptosis. The nude mice xenograft model was used to evaluate the antitumor effect of ASP in vivo. ASP has profound antitumor effect on T47D cells, probably by inducing apoptosis through CREB signaling pathway. Thus, these results suggest that ASP would be a promising therapeutic agent for breast cancer.

  7. Nak regulates Dlg basal localization in Drosophila salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Huei; Yang, Wei-Kan; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Lai, Tzu-Ting; Chien, Cheng-Ting

    2009-04-24

    Protein trafficking is highly regulated in polarized cells. During development, how the trafficking of cell junctional proteins is regulated for cell specialization is largely unknown. In the maturation of Drosophila larval salivary glands (SGs), the Dlg protein is essential for septate junction formation. We show that Dlg was enriched in the apical membrane domain of proximal cells and localized basolaterally in distal mature cells. The transition of Dlg distribution was disrupted in nak mutants. Nak associated with the AP-2 subunit alpha-Ada and the AP-1 subunit AP-1gamma. In SG cells disrupting AP-1 and AP-2 activities, Dlg was enriched in the apical membrane. Therefore, Nak regulates the transition of Dlg distribution likely through endocytosis of Dlg from the apical membrane domain and transcytosis of Dlg to the basolateral membrane domain during the maturation of SGs development.

  8. The mitochondrial uncoupler DNP triggers brain cell mTOR signaling network reprogramming and CREB pathway up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yongqing; Gharavi, Robert; Park, Hee Ra; Lee, Jaewon; Siddiqui, Sana; Telljohann, Richard; Nassar, Matthew R; Cutler, Roy G; Becker, Kevin G; Mattson, Mark P

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial metabolism is highly responsive to nutrient availability and ongoing activity in neuronal circuits. The molecular mechanisms by which brain cells respond to an increase in cellular energy expenditure are largely unknown. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling enhances cellular energy expenditure in mitochondria and can be induced with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a proton ionophore previously used for weight loss. We found that DNP treatment reduces mitochondrial membrane potential, increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels and reduces oxidative stress in cerebral cortical neurons. Gene expression profiling of the cerebral cortex of DNP-treated mice revealed reprogramming of signaling cascades that included suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and insulin--PI3K - MAPK pathways, and up-regulation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2, a negative regulator of mTOR. Genes encoding proteins involved in autophagy processes were up-regulated in response to DNP. CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) signaling, Arc and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which play important roles in synaptic plasticity and adaptive cellular stress responses, were up-regulated in response to DNP, and DNP-treated mice exhibited improved performance in a test of learning and memory. Immunoblot analysis verified that key DNP-induced changes in gene expression resulted in corresponding changes at the protein level. Our findings suggest that mild mitochondrial uncoupling triggers an integrated signaling response in brain cells characterized by reprogramming of mTOR and insulin signaling, and up-regulation of pathways involved in adaptive stress responses, molecular waste disposal, and synaptic plasticity. Physiological bioenergetic challenges such as exercise and fasting can enhance neuroplasticity and protect neurons against injury and neurodegeneration. Here, we show that the mitochondrial uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) elicits adaptive signaling responses in the

  9. Differences in basal and morphine-induced FosB/DeltaFosB and pCREB immunoreactivities in dopaminergic brain regions of alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Kaste, Kristiina; Kivinummi, Tanja; Piepponen, T Petteri; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2009-06-01

    Besides alcohol, alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats differ also with respect to other abused drugs. To study the molecular basis of these differences, we examined the expression of two transcription factors implicated in addiction, DeltaFosB and pCREB, in brain dopaminergic regions of AA and ANA rats. The effects of morphine and nicotine were studied to relate the behavioral and molecular changes induced by these drugs. Baseline FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (IR) in the nucleus accumbens core and pCREB IR in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) were elevated in AA rats. Morphine increased DeltaFosB-like IR more readily in the caudate-putamen of AA rats than in ANA rats. In the PFC morphine decreased pCREB IR in AA rats, but increased it in ANA rats. In addition to enhanced locomotor response, the development of place preference to morphine was enhanced in AA rats. The enhanced nicotine-induced locomotor sensitization found in AA compared with ANA rats seems to depend in addition to dopamine and DeltaFosB on other mechanisms. These findings suggest that enhanced sensitivity of AA rats to morphine is related to augmented morphine-induced expression of FosB/DeltaFosB and morphine-induced reduction of pCREB levels. Moreover, altered innate expression of FosB/DeltaFosB and pCREB in AA rats is likely to affect the sensitivity of these rats to abused drugs.

  10. RIP1 negatively regulates basal autophagic flux through TFEB to control sensitivity to apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yonekawa, Tohru; Gamez, Graciela; Kim, Jihye; Tan, Aik Choon; Thorburn, Jackie; Gump, Jacob; Thorburn, Andrew; Morgan, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    In a synthetic lethality/viability screen, we identified the serine–threonine kinase RIP1 (RIPK1) as a gene whose knockdown is highly selected against during growth in normal media, in which autophagy is not critical, but selected for in conditions that increase reliance on basal autophagy. RIP1 represses basal autophagy in part due to its ability to regulate the TFEB transcription factor, which controls the expression of autophagy-related and lysosomal genes. RIP1 activates ERK, which negatively regulates TFEB though phosphorylation of serine 142. Thus, in addition to other pro-death functions, RIP1 regulates cellular sensitivity to pro-death stimuli by modulating basal autophagy. PMID:25908842

  11. Differential regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase by 4-hydroxynonenal in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes through ATF-2/CREB-1 transactivation and concomitant inhibition of NF-kappaB signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, France; Morquette, Barbara; Shi, Qin; Fahmi, Hassan; Lavigne, Patrick; Di Battista, John A; Fernandes, Julio C; Benderdour, Mohamed

    2007-04-01

    4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a lipid peroxidation end product, is produced abundantly in osteoarthritic (OA) articular tissues and was recently identified as a potent catabolic factor in OA cartilage. In this study, we provide additional evidence that HNE acts as an inflammatory mediator by elucidating the signaling cascades targeted in OA chondrocytes leading to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression. HNE induced COX-2 protein and mRNA levels with accompanying increases in prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) production. In contrast, HNE had no effect on basal iNOS expression or nitric oxide (NO) release. However, HNE strongly inhibited IL-1beta-induced iNOS or NO production. Transient transfection experiments revealed that the ATF/CRE site (-58/-53) is essential for HNE-induced COX-2 promoter activation and indeed HNE induced ATF-2 and CREB-1 phosphorylation as well as ATF/CRE binding activity. Overexpression of p38 MAPK enhanced the HNE-induced ATF/CRE luciferase reporter plasmid activation, COX-2 synthesis and promoter activity. HNE abrogated IL-1beta-induced iNOS expression and promoter activity mainly through NF-kappaB site (-5,817/-5,808) possibly via suppression of IKKalpha-induced IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and NF-kappaB/p65 nuclear translocation. Upon examination of upstream signaling components, we found that IKKalpha was inactivated through HNE/IKKalpha adduct formation. Taken together, these findings illustrate the central role played by HNE in the regulation of COX-2 and iNOS in OA. The aldehyde induced selectively COX-2 expression via ATF/CRE activation and inhibited iNOS via IKKalpha inactivation. c 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Renal Proximal Tubule Na,K-ATPase is Controlled by CREB Regulated Transcriptional CoActivators as well as Salt Inducible Kinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Taub, Mary; Garamella, Sudha; Kim, Dongwook; Rajkhowa, Trivikram; Cutuli, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium reabsorption by the kidney is regulated by locally produced natriuretic and anti-natriuretic factors, including dopamine and norepinephrine, respectively. Previous studies indicated that signaling events initiated by these natriuretic and anti-natriuretic factors achieve their effects by altering the phosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase in the renal proximal tubule, and that Protein Kinase A (PKA) and Calcium mediated signaling pathways are involved. The same signaling pathways also control the transcription of the Na,K-ATPase β subunit gene atp1b1 in renal proximal tubule cells. In this report, evidence is presented that 1) both the recently discovered cAMP-Regulated Transcriptional Coactivators (CRTCs), and Salt Inducible Kinase 1 (SIK1) contribute to the transcriptional regulation of atp1b1 in renal proximal tubule (RPT) cells, and 2) that renal effectors including norepinephrine, dopamine, prostaglandins and sodium play a role. Exogenously expressed CRTCs stimulate atp1b1 transcription. Evidence for a role of endogenous CRTCs includes the loss of transcriptional regulation of atp1b1 by a dominant negative CRTC, as well as by a CREB mutant, with an altered CRTC binding site. In a number of experimental systems, SIK phosphorylates CRTCs, which are then sequestered in the cytoplasm, preventing their nuclear effects. Consistent with such a role of SIK in primary RPT cells, atp1b1 transcription increased in the presence of a dominant negative SIK1, and in addition, regulation by dopamine, norepinephrine and monensin was disrupted by a dominant negative SIK1. These latter observations can be explained, if SIK1 is phosphorylated and inactivated in the presence of these renal effectors. Our results support the hypothesis that Na,K-ATPase in the renal proximal tubule is regulated at the transcriptional level via SIK1 and CRTCs by renal effectors, in addition to the previously reported control of the phosphorylation of Na,K-ATPase. PMID:26432356

  13. EGCG ameliorates high-fat- and high-fructose-induced cognitive defects by regulating the IRS/AKT and ERK/CREB/BDNF.

    PubMed

    Mi, Yashi; Qi, Guoyuan; Fan, Rong; Qiao, Qinglian; Sun, Yali; Gao, Yuqi; Liu, Xuebo

    2017-07-24

    Obesity, which is caused by an energy imbalance between calorie intake and consumption, has become a major international health burden. Obesity increases the risk of insulin resistance and age-related cognitive decline, accompanied by peripheral inflammation. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective activities; however, few reports have focused on its potential effect on cognitive disorders. In this study, our goal was to investigate the protective effects of EGCG treatment on insulin resistance and memory impairment induced by a high-fat and high-fructose diet (HFFD). We randomly assigned 3-mo-old C57BL/6J mice to 3 groups with different diets: control group, HFFD group, and HFFD plus EGCG group. Memory loss was assessed by using the Morris water maze test, during which EGCG was observed to prevent HFFD-elicited memory impairment and neuronal loss. Consistent with these results, EGCG attenuated HFFD-induced neuronal damage. Of note, EGCG significantly ameliorated insulin resistance and cognitive disorder by up-regulating the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/AKT and ERK/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathways. Long-term HFFD-triggered neuroinflammation was restored by EGCG supplementation by inhibiting the MAPK and NF-κB pathways, as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α. EGCG also reversed high glucose and glucosamine-induced insulin resistance in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells by improving the oxidized cellular status and mitochondrial function. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide compelling evidence that the nutritional compound EGCG has the potential to ameliorate HFFD-triggered learning and memory loss.-Mi, Y., Qi, G., Fan, R., Qiao, Q., Sun, Y., Gao, Y., Liu, X. EGCG ameliorates high-fat- and high-fructose-induced cognitive defects by regulating the IRS/AKT and

  14. Desipramine improves depression-like behavior and working memory by up-regulating p-CREB in Alzheimer's disease associated mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Dan; Li, Jia; Yu, Li-Peng; Wu, Mei-Na; Sun, Li-Na; Qi, Jin-Shun

    2016-06-01

    Aggregation of amyloid [Formula: see text] protein (A[Formula: see text] and progressive loss of memory are the main characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is noteworthy that approximately 40% of AD patients have depressive symptom. The close correlation between cognitive deficits and mental depression suggests a possibility that antidepression treatment might be beneficial to cognitive improvement in AD. The present study, by using tail-suspension test (TST), forced swimming, alternative electro-stimulus Y maze test and immunohistochemistry, examined the neuroprotective effects of desipramine, a newer generation tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), and investigated its possible molecular mechanism. The results showed that: (1) intra-hippocampal injection of A[Formula: see text] induced depression-like behavior and associative learning deficits in mice, with an increased mean immobility time in tail-suspension and forced swimming test and an increased mean error times in Y maze test; (2) after treatment with desipramine (10[Formula: see text]mg/kg, i.p.), the average immobility time significantly decreased, from [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]s in A[Formula: see text] group to [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]s in A[Formula: see text] plus desipramine group ([Formula: see text]) in TST and from [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]s to [Formula: see text][Formula: see text]s ([Formula: see text] or 9, [Formula: see text]) in forced swimming test, respectively;the mean error times of mice in Y maze test also significantly decreased, from [Formula: see text] in A[Formula: see text] group to [Formula: see text] in A[Formula: see text] plus desipramine group ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]); (3) desipramine administration significantly prevented against A[Formula: see text]-induced down-regulation of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB) in the hippocampus. These results indicate that A[Formula: see text] could

  15. α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Airway Epithelium Differentiation by Controlling Basal Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Maouche, Kamel; Polette, Myriam; Jolly, Thomas; Medjber, Kahina; Cloëz-Tayarani, Isabelle; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Burlet, Henriette; Terryn, Christine; Coraux, Christelle; Zahm, Jean-Marie; Birembaut, Philippe; Tournier, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Airway epithelial basal cells are known to be critical for regenerating injured epithelium and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), which is highly permeable to Ca2+, is involved in lung morphogenesis. Here, we have investigated the potential role of the α7 nAChR in the regulation of airway epithelial basal cell proliferation and the differentiation of the human airway epithelium. In vivo during fetal development and in vitro during the regeneration of the human airway epithelium, α7 nAChR expression coincides with epithelium differentiation. Inactivating α7 nAChR function in vitro increases cell proliferation during the initial steps of the epithelium regeneration, leading to epithelial alterations such as basal cell hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia, remodeling observed in many bronchopulmonary diseases. The regeneration of the airway epithelium after injury in α7−/− mice is delayed and characterized by a transient hyperplasia of basal cells. Moreover, 1-year-old α7−/− mice more frequently present basal cells hyperplasia. Modulating nAChR function or expression shows that only α7 nAChR, as opposed to heteropentameric αxβy nAChRs, controls the proliferation of human airway epithelial basal cells. These findings suggest that α7 nAChR is a key regulator of the plasticity of the human airway epithelium by controlling basal cell proliferation and differentiation pathway and is involved in airway remodeling during bronchopulmonary diseases. PMID:19808646

  16. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D

    2016-02-18

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies.

  17. Myosin light-chain phosphatase regulates basal actomyosin oscillations during morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Valencia-Expósito, Andrea; Grosheva, Inna; Míguez, David G.; González-Reyes, Acaimo; Martín-Bermudo, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Contractile actomyosin networks generate forces that drive tissue morphogenesis. Actomyosin contractility is controlled primarily by reversible phosphorylation of the myosin-II regulatory light chain through the action of myosin kinases and phosphatases. While the role of myosin light-chain kinase in regulating contractility during morphogenesis has been largely characterized, there is surprisingly little information on myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) function in this context. Here, we use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cells combined with mathematical modelling to demonstrate that the MLCP subunit flapwing (flw) is a key regulator of basal myosin oscillations and cell contractions underlying egg chamber elongation. Flw expression decreases specifically on the basal side of follicle cells at the onset of contraction and flw controls the initiation and periodicity of basal actomyosin oscillations. Contrary to previous reports, basal F-actin pulsates similarly to myosin. Finally, we propose a quantitative model in which periodic basal actomyosin oscillations arise in a cell-autonomous fashion from intrinsic properties of motor assemblies. PMID:26888436

  18. Pak3 regulates apical-basal polarity in migrating border cells during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Felix, Martina; Chayengia, Mrinal; Ghosh, Ritabrata; Sharma, Aditi; Prasad, Mohit

    2015-11-01

    Group cell migration is a highly coordinated process that is involved in a number of physiological events such as morphogenesis, wound healing and tumor metastasis. Unlike single cells, collectively moving cells are physically attached to each other and retain some degree of apical-basal polarity during the migratory phase. Although much is known about direction sensing, how polarity is regulated in multicellular movement remains unclear. Here we report the role of the protein kinase Pak3 in maintaining apical-basal polarity in migrating border cell clusters during Drosophila oogenesis. Pak3 is enriched in border cells and downregulation of its function impedes border cell movement. Time-lapse imaging suggests that Pak3 affects protrusive behavior of the border cell cluster, specifically regulating the stability and directionality of protrusions. Pak3 functions downstream of guidance receptor signaling to regulate the level and distribution of F-actin in migrating border cells. We also provide evidence that Pak3 genetically interacts with the lateral polarity marker Scribble and that it regulates JNK signaling in the moving border cells. Since Pak3 depletion results in mislocalization of several apical-basal polarity markers and overexpression of Jra rescues the polarity of the Pak3-depleted cluster, we propose that Pak3 functions through JNK signaling to modulate apical-basal polarity of the migrating border cell cluster. We also observe loss of apical-basal polarity in Rac1-depleted border cell clusters, suggesting that guidance receptor signaling functions through Rac GTPase and Pak3 to regulate the overall polarity of the cluster and mediate efficient collective movement of the border cells to the oocyte boundary.

  19. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed CREB and serine 133 phospho-CREB binding to the CART gene proximal promoter

    PubMed Central

    Rogge, George A; Shen, Li-Ling; Kuhar, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Both over expression of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and intra-accumbal injection of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides, have been shown to decrease cocaine reward. Also, over expression of CREB in the rat NAc increased CART mRNA and peptide levels, but it is not known if this was due to a direct action of P-CREB on the CART gene promoter. The goal of this study was to test if CREB and P-CREB bound directly to the CRE site in the CART promoter, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. ChIP assay with anti-CREB antibodies showed an enrichment of the CART promoter fragment containing the CRE region over IgG precipitated material, a non-specific control. Forskolin, which was known to increase CART mRNA levels in GH3 cells, was utilized to show that the drug increased levels of P-CREB protein and P-CREB binding to the CART promoter CRE-containing region. A region of the c-Fos promoter containing a CRE cis-regulatory element was previously shown to bind P-CREB, and it was used here as a positive control. These data suggest that the effects of CREB over expression on blunting cocaine reward could be, at least in part, attributed to the increased expression of the CART gene by direct interaction of P-CREB with the CART promoter CRE site, rather than by some indirect action. PMID:20451507

  20. Bifurcation phenomena in an impulsive model of non-basal testosterone regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Churilov, Alexander N.; Medvedev, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Complex nonlinear dynamics in a recent mathematical model of non-basal testosterone regulation are investigated. In agreement with biological evidence, the pulsatile (non-basal) secretion of testosterone is modeled by frequency and amplitude modulated feedback. It is shown that, in addition to already known periodic motions with one and two pulses in the least period of a closed-loop system solution, cycles of higher periodicity and chaos are present in the model in hand. The broad range of exhibited dynamic behaviors makes the model highly promising in model-based signal processing of hormone data.

  1. Acinus integrates AKT1 and subapoptotic caspase activities to regulate basal autophagy.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Nilay; Tyra, Lauren K; Stenesen, Drew; Krämer, Helmut

    2014-10-27

    How cellular stresses up-regulate autophagy is not fully understood. One potential regulator is the Drosophila melanogaster protein Acinus (Acn), which is necessary for autophagy induction and triggers excess autophagy when overexpressed. We show that cell type-specific regulation of Acn depends on proteolysis by the caspase Dcp-1. Basal Dcp-1 activity in developing photoreceptors is sufficient for this cleavage without a need for apoptosis to elevate caspase activity. On the other hand, Acn was stabilized by loss of Dcp-1 function or by the presence of a mutation in Acn that eliminates its conserved caspase cleavage site. Acn stability also was regulated by AKT1-mediated phosphorylation. Flies that expressed stabilized forms of Acn, either the phosphomimetic Acn(S641,731D) or the caspase-resistant Acn(D527A), exhibited enhanced basal autophagy. Physiologically, these flies showed improvements in processes known to be autophagy dependent, including increased starvation resistance, reduced Huntingtin-induced neurodegeneration, and prolonged life span. These data indicate that AKT1 and caspase-dependent regulation of Acn stability adjusts basal autophagy levels.

  2. Expression Patterns of CREBs in Oocyte Growth and Maturation of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Wang, De-Shou; Sudhakumari, Cheni-Chery; Kobayashi, Tohru; Nagahama, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    In fish, oocyte meiotic maturation is regulated by 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-progesterone through cAMP. To study the role of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in meiotic maturation, we cloned and characterized the expression pattern of CREBs from two fish models, the Nile tilapia and catfish. In the Nile tilapia three different CREBs were identified where in CREB1 was found in many tissues including gonads with abundant expression in testis. CREB2, few amino acids shorter than CREB1, was expressed in several tissues with abundant expression in ovary. In addition, a 3’UTR variant form, CREB3 was exclusively found in ovary. During natural 14-day ovarian cycle of the Nile tilapia, CREB1 expression was stable throughout vitellogenesis with a sharp decrease on the day of spawning. In contrast, CREB2 remain unchanged throughout the ovarian cycle, however elevated in 11-day full-grown immature ovarian follicle and after hCG-induction. Interestingly, CREB3 expression was induced three folds on the day of spawning as well as during hCG-induced oocyte maturation. Based on the synergistic expression pattern, CREB1 is likely to control oocyte growth, whereas CREB 2 and 3 contribute to oocyte maturation in tilapia and the latter seems to be critical. In catfish, a single form of CREB showed a maximum expression during spawning phase and hCG-induced maturation both in vivo and in vitro augmented CREB expression. These results suggest that spatial and temporal expression of CREBs seems to be important for final oocyte maturation and may also regulate oocyte growth in fish. PMID:26700177

  3. cAMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) and Nuclear Factor κB Mediate the Tamoxifen-induced Up-regulation of Glutamate Transporter 1 (GLT-1) in Rat Astrocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Pratap; Webb, Anton; Smith, Keisha; Lee, Kyuwon; Son, Deok-Soo; Aschner, Michael; Lee, Eunsook

    2013-01-01

    Tamoxifen (TX), a selective estrogen receptor modulator, exerts antagonistic effects on breast tissue and is used to treat breast cancer. Recent evidence also suggests that it may act as an agonist in brain tissue. We reported previously that TX enhanced the expression and function of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) in rat astrocytes, an effect that was mediated by TGF-α. To gain further insight into the mechanisms that mediate TX-induced up-regulation of GLT-1 (EAAT2 in humans), we investigated its effect on GLT-1 at the transcriptional level. TX phosphorylated the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and recruited CREB to the GLT-1 promoter consensus site. The effect of TX on astrocytic GLT-1 was attenuated by the inhibition of PKA, the upstream activator of the CREB pathway. In addition, the effect of TX on GLT-1 promoter activity was abolished by the inhibition of the NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, TX recruited the NF-κB subunits p65 and p50 to the NF-κB binding domain of the GLT-1 promoter. Mutation of NF-κB (triple, −583/-282/-251) or CRE (-308) sites on the GLT-1 promoter led to significant repression of the promoter activity, but neither mutant completely abolished the TX-induced GLT-1 promoter activity. Mutation of both the NF-κB (-583/-282/-251) and CRE (-308) sites led to a complete abrogation of the effect of TX on GLT-1 promoter activity. Taken together, our findings establish that TX regulates GLT-1 via the CREB and NF-κB pathways. PMID:23955341

  4. Alpha or beta human chorionic gonadotropin knockdown decrease BeWo cell fusion by down-regulating PKA and CREB activation

    PubMed Central

    Saryu Malhotra, Sudha; Suman, Pankaj; Kumar Gupta, Satish

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to delineate the role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in trophoblast fusion. In this direction, using shRNA lentiviral particles, α- and β-hCG silenced ‘BeWo’ cell lines were generated. Treatment of both α- and β-hCG silenced BeWo cells with either forskolin or exogenous hCG showed a significant reduction in cell fusion as compared with control shRNA treated cells. Studies by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed down-regulation of fusion-associated proteins such as syncytin-1 and syndecan-1 in the α- and β-hCG silenced cells. Delineation of downstream signaling pathways revealed that phosphorylation of PKA and CREB were compromised in the silenced cells whereas, no significant changes in p38MAPK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were observed. Moreover, β-catenin activation was unaffected by either α- or β-hCG silencing. Further, inhibition of PKA by H89 inhibitor led to a significant decrease in BeWo cell fusion but had no effect on β-catenin activation suggesting the absence of non-canonical β-catenin stabilization via PKA. Interestingly, canonical activation of β-catenin was associated with the up-regulation of Wnt 10b expression. In summary, this study establishes the significance of hCG in the fusion of trophoblastic BeWo cells, but there may be additional factors involved in this process. PMID:26053549

  5. Chronic enhancement of CREB activity in the hippocampus interferes with the retrieval of spatial information.

    PubMed

    Viosca, Jose; Malleret, Gaël; Bourtchouladze, Rusiko; Benito, Eva; Vronskava, Svetlana; Kandel, Eric R; Barco, Angel

    2009-03-01

    The activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene expression is thought to be critical for the formation of different types of long-term memory. To explore the consequences of chronic enhancement of CREB function on spatial memory in mammals, we examined spatial navigation in bitransgenic mice that express in a regulated and restricted manner a constitutively active form of CREB, VP16-CREB, in forebrain neurons. We found that chronic enhancement of CREB activity delayed the acquisition of an allocentric strategy to solve the hidden platform task. The ability to turn on and off transgene expression allowed us to dissect the role of CREB in dissociable memory processes. In mice in which transgene expression was turned on during memory acquisition, turning off the transgene re-established the access to the memory trace, whereas in mice in which transgene expression was turned off during acquisition, turning on the transgene impaired memory expression in a reversible manner, indicating that CREB enhancement specifically interfered with the retrieval of spatial information. The defects on spatial navigation in mice with chronic enhancement of CREB function were not corrected by conditions that increased further CREB-dependent activation of hippocampal memory systems, such as housing in an enriched environment. These results along with previous findings in CREB-deficient mutants indicate that the relationship of CREB-mediated plasticity to spatial memory is an inverted-U function, and that optimal learning in the water maze requires accurate regulation of this pathway.

  6. Basal and insulin-regulated free fatty acid and glucose metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Shadid, Samyah; Kanaley, Jill A; Sheehan, Michael T; Jensen, Michael D

    2007-06-01

    These studies were done to examine the effects of body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), sex, and fitness on basal and insulin-regulated FFA and glucose metabolism. We performed 137 experiments in 101 nondiabetic, premenopausal women and men, ranging from low normal weight to class III obese (BMI 18.0-40.5 kg/m2). Glucose flux was measured using [6-(2)H2]glucose and FFA kinetics with [9,10-(3)H]oleate under either basal (74 experiments) or euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU.kg FFM(-1).min(-1)) clamp conditions (63 experiments). Consistent with our previous findings, REE and sex independently predicted basal FFA flux, whereas fat-free mass was the best predictor of basal glucose flux; in addition, percent body fat was independently and positively associated with basal glucose flux (total r2 = 0.52, P < 0.0001). Insulin-suppressed lipolysis remained significantly associated with REE (r = 0.25, P < 0.05), but percent body fat also contributed (total adjusted r2 = 0.36, P < 0.0001), whereas sex was not significantly related to insulin-suppressed FFA flux. Glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemia was independently associated with peak VO2, percent body fat, and FFA concentrations (total r2 = 0.63, P < 0.0001) but not with sex. We conclude that basal glucose production is independently related to both FFM and body fatness. In addition, hyperinsulinemia obscures the sex differences in FFA release relative to REE, but brings out the effects of fatness on lipolysis.

  7. CREB-Induced Inflammation Is Important for Malignant Mesothelioma Growth

    PubMed Central

    Westbom, Catherine M.; Shukla, Anurag; MacPherson, Maximilian B.; Yasewicz, Elizabeth C.; Miller, Jill M.; Beuschel, Stacie L.; Steele, Chad; Pass, Harvey I.; Vacek, Pamela M.; Shukla, Arti

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor with no treatment regimen. Previously we have demonstrated that cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is constitutively activated in MM tumor cells and tissues and plays an important role in MM pathogenesis. To understand the role of CREB in MM tumor growth, we generated CREB-inhibited MM cell lines and performed in vitro and in vivo experiments. In vitro experiments demonstrated that CREB inhibition results in significant attenuation of proliferation and drug resistance of MM cells. CREB-silenced MM cells were then injected into severe combined immunodeficiency mice, and tumor growth in s.c. and i.p. models of MM was followed. We observed significant inhibition in MM tumor growth in both s.c. and i.p. models and the presence of a chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin, further inhibited MM tumor growth in the i.p. model. Peritoneal lavage fluids from CREB-inhibited tumor-bearing mice showed a significantly reduced total cell number, differential cell counts, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IL-8, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor). In vitro studies showed that asbestos-induced inflammasome/inflammation activation in mesothelial cells was CREB dependent, further supporting the role of CREB in inflammation-induced MM pathogenesis. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the involvement of CREB in the regulation of MM pathogenesis by regulation of inflammation. PMID:25111229

  8. Kin of IRRE-like Protein 2 Is a Phosphorylated Glycoprotein That Regulates Basal Insulin Secretion*

    PubMed Central

    Yesildag, Burcak; Bock, Thomas; Herrmanns, Karolin; Wollscheid, Bernd; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Direct interactions among pancreatic β-cells via cell surface proteins inhibit basal and enhance stimulated insulin secretion. Here, we functionally and biochemically characterized Kirrel2, an immunoglobulin superfamily protein with β-cell-specific expression in the pancreas. Our results show that Kirrel2 is a phosphorylated glycoprotein that co-localizes and interacts with the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin in MIN6 cells. We further demonstrate that the phosphosites Tyr595–596 are functionally relevant for the regulation of Kirrel2 stability and localization. Analysis of the extracellular and intracellular domains of Kirrel2 revealed that it is cleaved and shed from MIN6 cells and that the remaining membrane spanning cytoplasmic domain is processed by γ-secretase complex. Kirrel2 knockdown with RNA interference in MIN6 cells and ablation of Kirrel2 from mice with genetic deletion resulted in increased basal insulin secretion from β-cells, with no immediate influence on stimulated insulin secretion, total insulin content, or whole body glucose metabolism. Our results show that in pancreatic β-cells Kirrel2 localizes to adherens junctions, is regulated by multiple post-translational events, including glycosylation, extracellular cleavage, and phosphorylation, and engages in the regulation of basal insulin secretion. PMID:26324709

  9. Enhancement by lithium of cAMP-induced CRE/CREB-directed gene transcription conferred by TORC on the CREB basic leucine zipper domain

    PubMed Central

    Böer, Ulrike; Eglins, Julia; Krause, Doris; Schnell, Susanne; Schöfl, Christof; Knepel, Willhart

    2007-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of the action of lithium salts in the treatment of bipolar disorder is not well understood. As their therapeutic action requires chronic treatment, adaptive neuronal processes are suggested to be involved. The molecular basis of this are changes in gene expression regulated by transcription factors such as CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein). CREB contains a transactivation domain, in which Ser119 is phosphorylated upon activation, and a bZip (basic leucine zipper domain). The bZip is involved in CREB dimerization and DNA-binding, but also contributes to CREB transactivation by recruiting the coactivator TORC (transducer of regulated CREB). In the present study, the effect of lithium on CRE (cAMP response element)/CREB-directed gene transcription was investigated. Electrically excitable cells were transfected with CRE/CREB-driven luciferase reporter genes. LiCl (6 mM or higher) induced an up to 4.7-fold increase in 8-bromo-cAMP-stimulated CRE/CREB-directed transcription. This increase was not due to enhanced Ser119 phosphorylation or DNA-binding of CREB. Also, the known targets inositol monophosphatase and GSK3β (glycogen-synthase-kinase 3β) were not involved as specific GSK3β inhibitors and inositol replenishment did not mimic and abolish respectively the effect of lithium. However, lithium no longer enhanced CREB activity when the CREB-bZip was deleted or the TORC-binding site inside the CREB-bZip was specifically mutated (CREB-R300A). Otherwise, TORC overexpression conferred lithium responsiveness on CREB-bZip or the CRE-containing truncated rat somatostatin promoter. This indicates that lithium enhances cAMP-induced CRE/CREB-directed transcription, conferred by TORC on the CREB-bZip. We thus support the hypothesis that lithium salts modulate CRE/CREB-dependent gene transcription and suggest the CREB coactivator TORC as a new molecular target of lithium. PMID:17696880

  10. Inverse regulation of basal lipolysis in perigonadal and mesenteric fat depots in mice.

    PubMed

    Wueest, Stephan; Yang, Xingyuan; Liu, Jun; Schoenle, Eugen J; Konrad, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Given the strong link between visceral adiposity and (hepatic) insulin resistance as well as liver steatosis, it is crucial to characterize obesity-associated alterations in adipocyte function, particularly in fat depots drained to the liver. Yet these adipose tissues are not easily accessible in humans, and the most frequently studied depot in rodents is the perigonadal, which is drained systemically. In the present study, we aimed to study alterations in lipolysis between mesenteric and perigonadal adipocytes in mice. Basal free fatty acid and glycerol release was significantly lower in perigonadal compared with mesenteric adipocytes isolated from chow-fed C57BL/6J mice. However, this difference completely vanished in high-fat diet-fed mice. Consistently, protein levels of the G(0)/G(1) switch gene 2 (G0S2), which were previously found to be inversely related to basal lipolysis, were significantly lower in mesenteric compared with perigonadal fat of chow-fed mice. Similarly, perilipin was differently expressed between the two depots. In addition, adipocyte-specific overexpression of G0S2 led to significantly decreased basal lipolysis in mesenteric adipose tissue of chow-fed mice. In conclusion, lipolysis is differently regulated between perigonadal and mesenteric adipocytes, and these depot-specific differences might be explained by altered regulation of G0S2 and/or perilipin.

  11. Cellular regulation of basal and FSH-stimulated cyclic AMP production in irradiated rat testes

    SciTech Connect

    Kangasniemi, M.; Kaipia, A.; Toppari, J.; Mali, P.; Huhtaniemi, I.; Parvinen, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Basal and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) productions by seminiferous tubular segments from irradiated adult rats were investigated at defined stages of the epithelial cycle when specific spermatogenic cells were low in number. Seven days post-irradiation, depletion of spermatogonia did not influence the basal cAMP production, but FSH response increased in stages II-VIII. Seventeen days post-irradiation when spermatocytes were low in number, there was a small increase in basal cAMP level in stages VII-VIII and FSH-stimulated cAMP production increased in stages VII-XII and XIII-I. At 38 days when pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids (steps 1-6) were low in number, a decreased basal cAMP production was measured in stages II-VI and IX-XII. FSH-stimulated cAMP output increased in stages VII-XII but decreased in stages II-VI. At 52 days when all spermatids were low in number, basal cAMP levels decreased in all stages of the cycle, whereas FSH response was elevated only in stages VII-XII. All spermatogenic cell types seem to have an effect on cAMP production by the seminiferous tubule in a stage-specific fashion. Germ cells appear to regulate Sertoli cell FSH response in a paracrine way, and a part of cAMP may originate from spermatids stimulated by an unknown FSH-dependent Sertoli cell factor. The FSH-dependent functions may control such phenomena as spermatogonial proliferation, final maturation of spermatids, and onset of meiosis.

  12. Enhanced CREB phosphorylation in immature dentate gyrus granule cells precedes neurotrophin expression and indicates a specific role of CREB in granule cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bender, R. A.; Lauterborn, J. C.; Gall, C. M.; Cariaga, W.; Baram, T. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation and maturation of dentate gyrus granule cells requires coordinated interactions of numerous processes. These must be regulated by protein factors capable of integrating signals mediated through diverse signalling pathways. Such integrators of inter and intracellular physiological stimuli include the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a leucine-zipper class transcription factor that is activated through phosphorylation. Neuronal activity and neurotrophic factors, known to be involved in granule cell differentiation, are major physiologic regulators of CREB function. To examine whether CREB may play a role in governing coordinated gene transcription during granule cell differentiation, we determined the spatial and temporal profiles of phosphorylated (activated) CREB throughout postnatal development in immature rat hippocampus. We demonstrate that CREB activation is confined to discrete, early stages of granule cell differentiation. In addition, CREB phosphorylation occurs prior to expression of the neurotrophins BDNF and NT-3. These data indicate that in a signal transduction cascade connecting CREB and neurotrophins in the process of granule cell maturation, CREB is located upstream of neurotrophins. Importantly, CREB may be a critical component of the machinery regulating the coordinated transcription of genes contributing to the differentiation of granule cells and their integration into the dentate gyrus network. PMID:11207803

  13. CD99 isoforms regulate CD1a expression in human monocyte-derived DCs through ATF-2/CREB-1 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Mahiddine, Karim; Mallavialle, Aude; Bziouech, Hanen; Larbret, Frédéric; Bernard, Alain; Bernard, Ghislaine

    2016-06-01

    CD1a expression is considered one of the major characteristics qualifying in vitro human dendritic cells (DCs) during their generation process. Here, we report that CD1A transcription is regulated by a mechanism involving the long and short isoforms of CD99. Using a lentiviral construct encoding for a CD99 short hairpin RNA, we were able to inhibit CD99 expression in human primary DCs. In such cells, CD1a membrane expression increased and CD1A transcripts were much higher in abundance compared to cells expressing CD99 long form (CD99LF). We also show that CD1A transcription is accompanied by a switch in expression from CD99LF to expression at comparable levels of both CD99 isoforms during immature DCs generation in vitro. We demonstrate that CD99LF maintains a lower level of CD1A transcription by up-regulating the phosphorylated form of the ATF-2 transcription factor and that CD99 short form (SF) is required to counteract this regulatory mechanism. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms related to CD99 alternative splicing will be very helpful to better understand the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of CD1a molecules during DCs differentiation and its involvement in the immune response. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Regulation of basal and oxidative stress-triggered jasmonic acid-related gene expression by glutathione.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Glutathione is a determinant of cellular redox state with roles in defence and detoxification. Emerging concepts suggest that this compound also has functions in cellular signalling. Here, we report evidence that glutathione plays potentially important roles in setting signalling strength through the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway. Firstly, we show that basal expression of JA-related genes is correlated with leaf glutathione content when the latter is manipulated either genetically or pharmacologically. Secondly, analyses of an oxidative stress signalling mutant, cat2, reveal that up-regulation of the JA pathway triggered by intracellular oxidation requires accompanying glutathione accumulation. Genetically blocking this accumulation in a cat2 cad2 line largely annuls H2 O2 -induced expression of JA-linked genes, and this effect can be rescued by exogenously supplying glutathione. While most attention on glutathione functions in biotic stress responses has been focused on the thiol-regulated protein NPR1, a comparison of JA-linked gene expression in cat2 cad2 and cat2 npr1 double mutants provides evidence that glutathione acts through other components to regulate the response of this pathway to oxidative stress. Our study provides new information implicating glutathione as a factor determining basal JA gene expression and suggests novel glutathione-dependent control points that regulate JA signalling in response to intracellular oxidation.

  15. Basal transcription of APOBEC3G is regulated by USF1 gene in hepatocyte

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Yanli; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoju; Shang, Jia; Kang, Yi

    2016-01-29

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G, A3G) exert antiviral defense as an important factor of innate immunity. A variety of cytokines such as IFN-γ,IL2,IL15,IL7 could induce the transcription of A3G. However, the regulation of other nuclear factor on the transcription of A3G have not been reported at the present. To gain new insights into the transcriptional regulation of this restriction factor, we cloned and characterized the promoter region of A3G and investigate the modulation of USF1 gene on the transcription of A3G. We identified a 232 bp region that was sufficient to regulate the activity of full promoter. Transcriptional start sites (TSS) were identified by the luciferase reporter assays of plasmids containing full or shorter fragments of the A3G promoter. The results demonstrated that the core promoter of A3G is located within the region -159/-84 relative to the TSS. Transcriptional activity of A3G core promoter regulated by USF1 was dependent on an E-box (located at position -91/-86 relative to the major TSS) and was abolished after mutation of this DNA element. USF1 gene can take part in basal transcription regulation of the human A3G gene in hepatocyte, and the identified E-box represented a binding site for the USF1. - Highlights: • The core promoter of A3G is located within the region −159/−84 relative to the TSS. • Transcriptional activity of A3G core promoter regulated by USF1 was dependent on an E-box (located at position −91/−86 relative to the major TSS). • USF1 gene can take part in basal transcription regulation of the human A3G gene in hepatocyte.

  16. ADIPOSE TRIGLYCERIDE LIPASE REGULATES BASAL LIPOLYSIS AND LIPID DROPLET SIZE IN ADIPOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, Hideaki; Perfield, James W.; Obin, Martin S.; Greenberg, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    In adipocytes, lipid droplet (LD) size reflects a balance of triglyceride synthesis (lipogenesis) and hydrolysis (lipolysis). Perilipin A (Peri A), is the most abundant phosphoprotein on the surface of adipocyte LDs and has a crucial role in lipid storage and lipolysis. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are the major rate-determining enzymes for lipolysis in adipocytes. Each of these proteins (Peri A, ATGL and HSL) have been demonstrated to regulate lipid storage and release in the adipocyte. However, in the absence of PKA stimulation (basal state), the lipases (ATGL and HSL) are located mainly in the cytoplasm, and their contribution to basal rates of lipolysis and influence on LD size are poorly understood. In this study, we utilize an adenoviral system to knockdown or overexpress ATGL and HSL in an engineered model system of adipocytes in the presence or absence of Peri A. We are able to demonstrate in our experimental model system, that in the basal state, LD size, triglyceride storage, and fatty acid release are mainly influenced by expression of ATGL. These results demonstrate for the first time the relative contributions of ATGL, HSL, and Peri A on determination of LD size in the absence of PKA-stimulation. PMID:18980248

  17. Notch-inducible hyperphosphorylated CREB and its ultradian oscillation in long-term memory formation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiabin; Little, Christopher J; Tremmel, Daniel M; Yin, Jerry C P; Wesley, Cedric S

    2013-07-31

    Notch is a cell surface receptor that is known to regulate developmental processes by establishing physical contact between neighboring cells. Many recent studies show that it also plays an important role in the formation of long-term memory (LTM) in adults, implying that memory formation requires regulation at the level of cell-cell contacts among brain cells. Neither the target of Notch activity in LTM formation nor the underlying mechanism of regulation is known. We report here results of our studies in adult Drosophila melanogaster showing that Notch regulates dCrebB-17A, the CREB protein. CREB is a transcriptional factor that is pivotal for intrinsic and synaptic plasticity involved in LTM formation. Notch in conjunction with PKC activity upregulates the level of a hyperphosphorylated form of CREB (hyper-PO4 CREB) and triggers its ultradian oscillation, both of which are linked to LTM formation. One of the sites that is phosphorylated in hyper-PO4 CREB is serine 231, which is the functional equivalent of mammalian CREB serine 133, the phosphorylation of which is an important regulator of CREB functions. Our data suggest the model that Notch and PKC activities generate a cyclical accumulation of cytoplasmic hyper-PO4 CREB that is a precursor for generating the nuclear CREB isoforms. Cyclical accumulation of CREB might be important for repetitive aspects of LTM formation, such as memory consolidation. Because Notch, PKC, and CREB have been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), our data might also shed some light on memory loss and dementia.

  18. BRCA1 transcriptionally regulates genes associated with the basal-like phenotype in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Julia J; James, Colin R; Quinn, Jennifer E; Stewart, Gail E; Staunton, Kieran Crosbie; Buckley, Niamh E; McDyer, Fionnuala A; Kennedy, Richard D; Wilson, Richard H; Mullan, Paul B; Harkin, D Paul

    2010-08-01

    Expression profiling of BRCA1-deficient tumours has identified a pattern of gene expression similar to basal-like breast tumours. In this study, we examine whether a BRCA1-dependent transcriptional mechanism may underpin the link between BRCA1 and basal-like phenotype. In methods section, the mRNA and protein were harvested from a number of BRCA1 mutant and wild-type breast cancer cell lines and from matched isogenic controls. Microarray-based expression profiling was used to identify potential BRCA1-regulated transcripts. These gene targets were then validated (by in silico analysis of tumour samples) by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were used to confirm recruitment of BRCA1 to specific promoters. In results, we demonstrate that functional BRCA1 represses the expression of cytokeratins 5(KRT5) and 17(KRT17) and p-Cadherin (CDH3) in HCC1937 and T47D breast cancer cell lines at both mRNA and protein level. ChIP assays demonstrate that BRCA1 is recruited to the promoters of KRT5, KRT17 and CDH3, and re-ChIP assays confirm that BRCA1 is recruited independently to form c-Myc and Sp1 complexes on the CDH3 promoter. We show that siRNA-mediated inhibition of endogenous c-Myc (and not Sp1) results in a marked increase in CDH3 expression analogous to that observed following the inhibition of endogenous BRCA1. The data provided suggest a model whereby BRCA1 and c-Myc form a repressor complex on the promoters of specific basal genes and represent a potential mechanism to explain the observed overexpression of key basal markers in BRCA1-deficient tumours.

  19. The Myb-p300-CREB axis modulates intestine homeostasis, radiosensitivity and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sampurno, S; Bijenhof, A; Cheasley, D; Xu, H; Robine, S; Hilton, D; Alexander, W S; Pereira, L; Mantamadiotis, T; Malaterre, J; Ramsay, R G

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium is constantly renewing, depending upon the intestinal stem cells (ISC) regulated by a spectrum of transcription factors (TFs), including Myb. We noted previously in mice with a p300 mutation (plt6) within the Myb-interaction-domain phenocopied Myb hypomorphic mutant mice with regard to thrombopoiesis, and here, changes in GI homeostasis. p300 is a transcriptional coactivator for many TFs, most prominently cyclic-AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and also Myb. Studies have highlighted the importance of CREB in proliferation and radiosensitivity, but not in the GI. This prompted us to directly investigate the p300–Myb–CREB axis in the GI. Here, the role of CREB has been defined by generating GI-specific inducible creb knockout (KO) mice. KO mice show efficient and specific deletion of CREB, with no evident compensation by CREM and ATF1. Despite complete KO, only modest effects on proliferation, radiosensitivity and differentiation in the GI under homeostatic or stress conditions were evident, even though CREB target gene pcna (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) was downregulated. creb and p300 mutant lines show increased goblet cells, whereas a reduction in enteroendocrine cells was apparent only in the p300 line, further resembling the Myb hypomorphs. When propagated in vitro, crebKO ISC were defective in organoid formation, suggesting that the GI stroma compensates for CREB loss in vivo, unlike in MybKO studies. Thus, it appears that p300 regulates GI differentiation primarily through Myb, rather than CREB. Finally, active pCREB is elevated in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells and adenomas, and is required for the expression of drug transporter, MRP2, associated with resistance to Oxaliplatin as well as several chromatin cohesion protein that are relevant to CRC therapy. These data raise the prospect that CREB may have a role in GI malignancy as it does in other cancer types, but unlike Myb, is not critical for GI

  20. Expression of OASIS, a CREB/ATF family transcription factor, in CNS lesion and its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Takuya; Iseki, Ken; Mori, Tetsuji; Takaki, Hiromi; Yokoya, Sachihiko; Hagino, Seita; Takeda, Junko; Zhang, Yuxiang; Takeuchi, Mayumi; Kikuchi, Shin-ichi; Wanaka, Akio

    2002-12-01

    We reported the expression patterns of a novel member of the CREB/ATF family, OASIS, in central nervous system (CNS) lesions and its transcriptional activity. OASIS gene expression was upregulated in the stab-injured spinal cord. Double labeling experiments revealed that the distribution of OASIS mRNA-positive cells overlapped with a population of GFAP-immunoreactive cells. This finding suggested that OASIS might regulate expression of important downstream molecules in certain subset of the reactive astrocytes (e.g. inhibitory substances in injured brain). In gel shift assays, OASIS was able to specifically bind to CRE as CREB family members were. We then examined transcriptional activity of full-length OASIS with GAL4-UAS-luciferase reporter assay in COS7 cells. OASIS protein activated transcription, but did not inhibit basal transcription driven by AdML promoter. To determine critical portion(s) of the OASIS protein in transcriptional activation, we examined the activity of various deletion constructs of OASIS gene. The assay revealed that a strong transcriptional activation domain lay in the N-terminal region where acidic amino acids clustered and a possible repression domain, which had not been reported for other CREB/ATF family members, lay in the more C-terminal region. We therefore proposed that OASIS protein positively regulated gene transcription in a subset of reactive astrocytes, and thereby influenced the reaction of injured CNS tissues.

  1. Allelic differences between Europeans and Chinese for CREB1 SNPs and their implications in gene expression regulation, hippocampal structure and function, and bipolar disorder susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Luo, X-J; Rietschel, M; Lewis, C M; Mattheisen, M; Müller-Myhsok, B; Jamain, S; Leboyer, M; Landén, M; Thompson, P M; Cichon, S; Nöthen, M M; Schulze, T G; Sullivan, P F; Bergen, S E; Donohoe, G; Morris, D W; Hargreaves, A; Gill, M; Corvin, A; Hultman, C; Toga, A W; Shi, L; Lin, Q; Shi, H; Gan, L; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Czamara, D; Henry, C; Etain, B; Bis, J C; Ikram, M A; Fornage, M; Debette, S; Launer, L J; Seshadri, S; Erk, S; Walter, H; Heinz, A; Bellivier, F; Stein, J L; Medland, S E; Arias Vasquez, A; Hibar, D P; Franke, B; Martin, N G; Wright, M J; Su, B

    2014-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a polygenic disorder that shares substantial genetic risk factors with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genetic analyses have reported numerous BD susceptibility genes, while some variants, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CACNA1C have been successfully replicated, many others have not and subsequently their effects on the intermediate phenotypes cannot be verified. Here, we studied the MDD-related gene CREB1 in a set of independent BD sample groups of European ancestry (a total of 64,888 subjects) and identified multiple SNPs significantly associated with BD (the most significant being SNP rs6785[A], P=6.32 × 10(-5), odds ratio (OR)=1.090). Risk SNPs were then subjected to further analyses in healthy Europeans for intermediate phenotypes of BD, including hippocampal volume, hippocampal function and cognitive performance. Our results showed that the risk SNPs were significantly associated with hippocampal volume and hippocampal function, with the risk alleles showing a decreased hippocampal volume and diminished activation of the left hippocampus, adding further evidence for their involvement in BD susceptibility. We also found the risk SNPs were strongly associated with CREB1 expression in lymphoblastoid cells (P<0.005) and the prefrontal cortex (P<1.0 × 10(-6)). Remarkably, population genetic analysis indicated that CREB1 displayed striking differences in allele frequencies between continental populations, and the risk alleles were completely absent in East Asian populations. We demonstrated that the regional prevalence of the CREB1 risk alleles in Europeans is likely caused by genetic hitchhiking due to natural selection acting on a nearby gene. Our results suggest that differential population histories due to natural selection on regional populations may lead to genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to complex diseases, such as BD, and explain inconsistencies in detecting the genetic markers of these diseases among

  2. Allelic differences between Europeans and Chinese for CREB1 SNPs and their implications in gene expression regulation, hippocampal structure and function, and bipolar disorder susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Li, M; Luo, X-j; Rietschel, M; Lewis, CM; Mattheisen, M; Müller-Myhsok, B; Jamain, S; Leboyer, M; Landén, M; Thompson, PM; Cichon, S; Nöthen, MM; Schulze, TG; Sullivan, PF; Bergen, SE; Donohoe, G; Morris, DW; Hargreaves, A; Gill, M; Corvin, A; Hultman, C; Toga, AW; Shi, L; Lin, Q; Shi, H; Gan, L; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Czamara, D; Henry, C; Etain, B; Bis, JC; Ikram, MA; Fornage, M; Debette, S; Launer, LJ; Seshadri, S; Erk, S; Walter, H; Heinz, A; Bellivier, F; Stein, JL; Medland, SE; Vasquez, A Arias; Hibar, DP; Franke, B; Martin, NG; Wright, MJ; Su, B

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a polygenic disorder that shares substantial genetic risk factors with major depressive disorder (MDD). Genetic analyses have reported numerous BD susceptibility genes, while some variants, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CACNA1C have been successfully replicated, many others have not and subsequently their effects on the intermediate phenotypes cannot be verified. Here, we studied the MDD-related gene CREB1 in a set of independent BD sample groups of European ancestry (a total of 64 888 subjects) and identified multiple SNPs significantly associated with BD (the most significant being SNP rs6785[A], P = 6.32 × 10−5, odds ratio (OR) = 1.090). Risk SNPs were then subjected to further analyses in healthy Europeans for intermediate phenotypes of BD, including hippocampal volume, hippocampal function and cognitive performance. Our results showed that the risk SNPs were significantly associated with hippocampal volume and hippocampal function, with the risk alleles showing a decreased hippocampal volume and diminished activation of the left hippocampus, adding further evidence for their involvement in BD susceptibility. We also found the risk SNPs were strongly associated with CREB1 expression in lymphoblastoid cells (P<0.005) and the prefrontal cortex (P<1.0 × 10−6). Remarkably, population genetic analysis indicated that CREB1 displayed striking differences in allele frequencies between continental populations, and the risk alleles were completely absent in East Asian populations. We demonstrated that the regional prevalence of the CREB1 risk alleles in Europeans is likely caused by genetic hitchhiking due to natural selection acting on a nearby gene. Our results suggest that differential population histories due to natural selection on regional populations may lead to genetic heterogeneity of susceptibility to complex diseases, such as BD, and explain inconsistencies in detecting the genetic markers of these diseases

  3. Dopamine D2 receptors regulate the anatomical and functional balance of basal ganglia circuitry.

    PubMed

    Cazorla, Maxime; de Carvalho, Fernanda Delmondes; Chohan, Muhammad O; Shegda, Mariya; Chuhma, Nao; Rayport, Stephen; Ahmari, Susanne E; Moore, Holly; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2014-01-08

    Structural plasticity in the adult brain is essential for adaptive behavior. We have found a remarkable anatomical plasticity in the basal ganglia of adult mice that is regulated by dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). By modulating neuronal excitability, striatal D2Rs bidirectionally control the density of direct pathway collaterals in the globus pallidus that bridge the direct pathway with the functionally opposing indirect pathway. An increase in bridging collaterals is associated with enhanced inhibition of pallidal neurons in vivo and disrupted locomotor activation after optogenetic stimulation of the direct pathway. Chronic blockade with haloperidol, an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia, decreases the extent of bridging collaterals and rescues the locomotor imbalance. These findings identify a role for bridging collaterals in regulating the concerted balance of striatal output and may have important implications for understanding schizophrenia, a disease involving excessive activation of striatal D2Rs that is treated with D2R blockers.

  4. Dopamine D2 receptors regulate the anatomical balance of basal ganglia circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Cazorla, Maxime; de Carvalho, Fernanda Delmondes; Chohan, Muhammad O.; Shegda, Mariya; Chuhma, Nao; Rayport, Stephen; Ahmari, Susanne E.; Moore, Holly; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Summary Structural plasticity in the adult brain is essential for adaptive behavior. We have found a remarkable anatomical plasticity in the basal ganglia of adult mice that is regulated by dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs). By modulating neuronal excitability, striatal D2Rs bi-directionally control the density of direct pathway collaterals in the globus pallidus that bridge the direct pathway with the functionally opposing indirect pathway. An increase in bridging collaterals is associated with enhanced inhibition of pallidal neurons in vivo and disrupted locomotor activation after optogenetic stimulation of the direct pathway. Remarkably, chronic blockade with haloperidol, an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia decreases the extent of bridging collaterals and rescues the locomotor imbalance. These findings identify a role for bridging collaterals in regulating the concerted balance of striatal output, and may have important implications for understanding schizophrenia, a disease involving excessive activation of striatal D2Rs that is treated with D2R blockers. PMID:24411738

  5. Hepatic CREB3L3 controls whole-body energy homeostasis and improves obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Satoh, Aoi; Yabe, Sachiko; Furusawa, Mika; Tokushige, Naoko; Tezuka, Hitomi; Mikami, Motoki; Iwata, Wakiko; Shingyouchi, Akiko; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Kiwata, Shiori; Fujimoto, Yuri; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Danno, Hirosuke; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ishii, Kiyoaki; Karasawa, Tadayoshi; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Shimada, Masako; Kawakami, Yasushi; Urayama, Osamu; Sone, Hirohito; Takekoshi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Takahashi, Akimitsu; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2014-12-01

    Transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in the liver is the key to maintaining systemic energy homeostasis during starvation. The membrane-bound transcription factor cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB3L3) has been reported to be activated during fasting and to regulate triglyceride metabolism. Here, we show that CREB3L3 confers a wide spectrum of metabolic responses to starvation in vivo. Adenoviral and transgenic overexpression of nuclear CREB3L3 induced systemic lipolysis, hepatic ketogenesis, and insulin sensitivity with increased energy expenditure, leading to marked reduction in body weight, plasma lipid levels, and glucose levels. CREB3L3 overexpression activated gene expression levels and plasma levels of antidiabetic hormones, including fibroblast growth factor 21 and IGF-binding protein 2. Amelioration of diabetes by hepatic activation of CREB3L3 was also observed in several types of diabetic obese mice. Nuclear CREB3L3 mutually activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α promoter in an autoloop fashion and is crucial for the ligand transactivation of PPARα by interacting with its transcriptional regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α. CREB3L3 directly and indirectly controls fibroblast growth factor 21 expression and its plasma level, which contributes at least partially to the catabolic effects of CREB3L3 on systemic energy homeostasis in the entire body. Therefore, CREB3L3 is a therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes.

  6. Downregulation of CREB expression in Alzheimer's brain and in Aβ-treated rat hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in neuronal dysfunction and neuron loss in Alzheimer's brain. Previous studies have reported downregulation of CREB-mediated transcription by oxidative stress and Aβ. The promoter for CREB itself contains cyclic AMP response elements. Therefore, we examined the expression of CREB in the hippocampal neurons of Tg2576 mice, AD post-mortem brain and in cultured rat hippocampal neurons exposed to Aβ aggregates. Results Laser Capture Microdissection of hippocampal neurons from Tg2576 mouse brain revealed decreases in the mRNA levels of CREB and its target, BDNF. Immunohistochemical analysis of Tg2576 mouse brain showed decreases in CREB levels in hippocampus and cortex. Markers of oxidative stress were detected in transgenic mouse brain and decreased CREB staining was observed in regions showing abundance of astrocytes. There was also an inverse correlation between SDS-extracted Aβ and CREB protein levels in Alzheimer's post-mortem hippocampal samples. The levels of CREB-regulated BDNF and BIRC3, a caspase inhibitor, decreased and the active cleaved form of caspase-9, a marker for the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, was elevated in these samples. Exposure of rat primary hippocampal neurons to Aβ fibrils decreased CREB promoter activity. Decrease in CREB mRNA levels in Aβ-treated neurons was reversed by the antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine. Overexpression of CREB by adenoviral transduction led to significant protection against Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that chronic downregulation of CREB-mediated transcription results in decrease of CREB content in the hippocampal neurons of AD brain which may contribute to exacerbation of disease progression. PMID:21854604

  7. Mevalonate metabolism regulates Basal breast cancer stem cells and is a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Ginestier, Christophe; Monville, Florence; Wicinski, Julien; Cabaud, Olivier; Cervera, Nathalie; Josselin, Emmanuelle; Finetti, Pascal; Guille, Arnaud; Larderet, Gaelle; Viens, Patrice; Sebti, Said; Bertucci, François; Birnbaum, Daniel; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle

    2012-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that breast tumors are organized in a hierarchy, with a subpopulation of tumorigenic cancer cells, the cancer stem cells (CSCs), which sustain tumor growth. The characterization of protein networks that govern CSC behavior is paramount to design new therapeutic strategies targeting this subpopulation of cells. We have sought to identify specific molecular pathways of CSCs isolated from 13 different breast cancer cell lines of luminal or basal/mesenchymal subtypes. We compared the gene expression profiling of cancer cells grown in adherent conditions to those of matched tumorsphere cultures. No specific pathway was identified to be commonly regulated in luminal tumorspheres, resulting from a minor CSC enrichment in tumorsphere passages from luminal cell lines. However, in basal/mesenchymal tumorspheres, the enzymes of the mevalonate metabolic pathway were overexpressed compared to those in cognate adherent cells. Inhibition of this pathway with hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase blockers resulted in a reduction of breast CSC independent of inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis and of protein farnesylation. Further modulation of this metabolic pathway demonstrated that protein geranylgeranylation (GG) is critical to breast CSC maintenance. A small molecule inhibitor of the geranylgeranyl transferase I (GGTI) enzyme reduced the breast CSC subpopulation both in vitro and in primary breast cancer xenografts. We found that the GGTI effect on the CSC subpopulation is mediated by inactivation of Ras homolog family member A (RHOA) and increased accumulation of P27(kip1) in the nucleus. The identification of protein GG as a major contributor to CSC maintenance opens promising perspectives for CSC targeted therapy in basal breast cancer.

  8. Ubiquitination of basal VEGFR2 regulates signal transduction and endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Abdul-Zani, Izma; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2017-08-10

    Cell surface receptors can undergo recycling or proteolysis but the cellular decision-making events that sort between these pathways remain poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) regulates signal transduction and angiogenesis but how signaling and proteolysis is regulated is not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that a pathway requiring the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 controls basal VEGFR2 levels, hence metering plasma membrane receptor availability for the VEGF-A-regulated response by endothelial cells. VEGFR2 undergoes VEGF-A-independent constitutive degradation via a UBA1-dependent ubiquitin-linked pathway. Depletion of UBA1 increased VEGFR2 recycling from endosome-to-plasma membrane and decreased proteolysis. Increased membrane receptor availability after UBA1 depletion elevated VEGF-A-stimulated activation of key signaling enzymes such as PLCγ1 and ERK1/2. Although UBA1 depletion caused an overall decrease in endothelial cell proliferation, surviving cells showed greater VEGF-A-stimulated responses such as cell migration and tubulogenesis. Our study now suggests that a ubiquitin-linked pathway regulates the balance between receptor recycling and degradation which in turn impacts on the intensity and duration of VEGF-A-stimulated signal transduction and the endothelial response. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Mediator MED23 regulates basal transcription in vivo via an interaction with P-TEFb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Xiao; Huang, Yan; Hu, Xiangming; Liu, Runzhong; Hou, Dongming; Chen, Ruichuan; Wang, Gang

    2013-01-01

    The Mediator is a multi-subunit complex that transduces regulatory information from transcription regulators to the RNA polymerase II apparatus. Growing evidence suggests that Mediator plays roles in multiple stages of eukaryotic transcription, including elongation. However, the detailed mechanism by which Mediator regulates elongation remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that Mediator MED23 subunit controls a basal level of transcription by recruiting elongation factor P-TEFb, via an interaction with its CDK9 subunit. The mRNA level of Egr1, a MED23-controlled model gene, is reduced 4-5 fold in Med23 (-/-) ES cells under an unstimulated condition, but Med23-deficiency does not alter the occupancies of RNAP II, GTFs, Mediator complex, or activator ELK1 at the Egr1 promoter. Instead, Med23 depletion results in a significant decrease in P-TEFb and RNAP II (Ser2P) binding at the coding region, but no changes for several other elongation regulators, such as DSIF and NELF. ChIP-seq revealed that Med23-deficiency partially reduced the P-TEFb occupancy at a set of MED23-regulated gene promoters. Further, we demonstrate that MED23 interacts with CDK9 in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, these results provide the mechanistic insight into how Mediator promotes RNAP II into transcription elongation.

  10. Mechanisms Underlying the Antidepressant Response of Acupuncture via PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Huili; Zhang, Xuhui; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Jing; Yang, Xinjing; Zhao, Bingcong; Zhang, Chuntao; Yu, Miao; Xu, Mingmin; Yu, Qiuyun; Liang, Xingchen; Li, Xiang; Shi, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein signaling pathway, contributing to impaired neurogenesis parallel to depressive-like behaviors, has been identified as the crucial factor involved in the antidepressant response of acupuncture. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with antidepressant response of acupuncture, neurogenesis, and depressive-like behaviors ameliorating remain unexplored. The objective was to identify the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response of acupuncture through PKA signaling pathway in depression rats by employing the PKA signaling pathway inhibitor H89 in in vivo experiments. Our results indicated that the expression of hippocampal PKA-α and p-CREB was significantly downregulated by chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) procedures. Importantly, acupuncture reversed the downregulation of PKA-α and p-CREB. The expression of PKA-α was upregulated by fluoxetine, but not p-CREB. No significant difference was found between Acu and FLX groups on the expression of PKA-α and p-CREB. Interestingly, H89 inhibited the effects of acupuncture or fluoxetine on upregulating the expression of p-CREB, but not PKA-α. There was no significant difference in expression of CREB among the groups. Conclusively, our findings further support the hypothesis that acupuncture could ameliorate depressive-like behaviors by regulating PKA/CREB signaling pathway, which might be mainly mediated by regulating the phosphorylation level of CREB. PMID:28523193

  11. G6PC2: A Negative Regulator of Basal Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Pound, Lynley D.; Oeser, James K.; O’Brien, Tracy P.; Wang, Yingda; Faulman, Chandler J.; Dadi, Prasanna K.; Jacobson, David A.; Hutton, John C.; McGuinness, Owen P.; Shiota, Masakazu; O’Brien, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) is associated with increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular-associated mortality. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked polymorphisms in G6PC2 with variations in FBG and body fat, although not insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance. G6PC2 encodes an islet-specific, endoplasmic reticulum–resident glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit. A combination of in situ perfused pancreas, in vitro isolated islet, and in vivo analyses were used to explore the function of G6pc2 in mice. G6pc2 deletion had little effect on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, whereas body fat was reduced in female G6pc2 knockout (KO) mice on both a chow and high-fat diet, observations that are all consistent with human GWAS data. G6pc2 deletion resulted in a leftward shift in the dose-response curve for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). As a consequence, under fasting conditions in which plasma insulin levels were identical, blood glucose levels were reduced in G6pc2 KO mice, again consistent with human GWAS data. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was reduced, whereas basal cytoplasmic calcium levels were elevated in islets isolated from G6pc2 KO mice. These data suggest that G6pc2 represents a novel, negative regulator of basal GSIS that acts by hydrolyzing glucose-6-phosphate, thereby reducing glycolytic flux. PMID:23274894

  12. G6PC2: a negative regulator of basal glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Pound, Lynley D; Oeser, James K; O'Brien, Tracy P; Wang, Yingda; Faulman, Chandler J; Dadi, Prasanna K; Jacobson, David A; Hutton, John C; McGuinness, Owen P; Shiota, Masakazu; O'Brien, Richard M

    2013-05-01

    Elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) is associated with increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular-associated mortality. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked polymorphisms in G6PC2 with variations in FBG and body fat, although not insulin sensitivity or glucose tolerance. G6PC2 encodes an islet-specific, endoplasmic reticulum-resident glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit. A combination of in situ perfused pancreas, in vitro isolated islet, and in vivo analyses were used to explore the function of G6pc2 in mice. G6pc2 deletion had little effect on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, whereas body fat was reduced in female G6pc2 knockout (KO) mice on both a chow and high-fat diet, observations that are all consistent with human GWAS data. G6pc2 deletion resulted in a leftward shift in the dose-response curve for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). As a consequence, under fasting conditions in which plasma insulin levels were identical, blood glucose levels were reduced in G6pc2 KO mice, again consistent with human GWAS data. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was reduced, whereas basal cytoplasmic calcium levels were elevated in islets isolated from G6pc2 KO mice. These data suggest that G6pc2 represents a novel, negative regulator of basal GSIS that acts by hydrolyzing glucose-6-phosphate, thereby reducing glycolytic flux.

  13. Overexpression of CREB in the nucleus accumbens shell increases cocaine reinforcement in self-administering rats.

    PubMed

    Larson, Erin B; Graham, Danielle L; Arzaga, Rose R; Buzin, Nicole; Webb, Joseph; Green, Thomas A; Bass, Caroline E; Neve, Rachael L; Terwilliger, Ernest F; Nestler, Eric J; Self, David W

    2011-11-09

    Chronic exposure to addictive drugs enhances cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-regulated gene expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc), and these effects are thought to reduce the positive hedonic effects of passive cocaine administration. Here, we used viral-mediated gene transfer to produce short- and long-term regulation of CREB activity in NAc shell of rats engaging in volitional cocaine self-administration. Increasing CREB expression in NAc shell markedly enhanced cocaine reinforcement of self-administration behavior, as indicated by leftward (long-term) and upward (short-term) shifts in fixed ratio dose-response curves. CREB also increased the effort exerted by rats to obtain cocaine on more demanding progressive ratio schedules, an effect highly correlated with viral-induced modulation of BDNF protein in the NAc shell. CREB enhanced cocaine reinforcement when expressed either throughout acquisition of self-administration or when expression was limited to postacquisition tests, indicating a direct effect of CREB independent of reinforcement-related learning. Downregulating endogenous CREB in NAc shell by expressing a short hairpin RNA reduced cocaine reinforcement in similar tests, while overexpression of a dominant-negative CREB(S133A) mutant had no significant effect on cocaine self-administration. Finally, increasing CREB expression after withdrawal from self-administration enhanced cocaine-primed relapse, while reducing CREB levels facilitated extinction of cocaine seeking, but neither altered relapse induced by cocaine cues or footshock stress. Together, these findings indicate that CREB activity in NAc shell increases the motivation for cocaine during active self-administration or after withdrawal from cocaine. Our results also highlight that volitional and passive drug administration can lead to substantially different behavioral outcomes.

  14. Basal and apical regulation of VEGF-A and placenta growth factor in the RPE/choroid and primary RPE

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Leyla; Flach, Janina; Lassen, Jens; Treumer, Felix; Roider, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family are strongly involved in pathological processes in the retina, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Cells of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) constitutively secrete VEGF-A, and the secretion of placental growth factor (PlGF) has also been described. RPE cells are strongly polarized cells with different secretome at the apical and basal side. In this study, we evaluated the basal and apical regulation of VEGF-A and PlGF secretion in RPE/choroid explants and primary RPE cells. Methods RPE/choroid tissue explants were prepared from porcine eyes and cultivated in modified Ussing chambers, separating apical (RPE) and basal (choroid) supernatant. Primary RPE cells were also prepared from porcine eyes and cultivated on Transwell plates. Explants and cells were treated with inhibitors for VEGFR-2 (SU1498), p38 (SB203580), and the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and SP-1 (mithramycin), respectively. VEGF-A and PlGF content was evaluated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, western blots were performed. Results In the RPE/choroid, VEGF-A can initially be found on the apical and basal sides with significantly more pronounced secretion on the basal side. VEGF-A secretion is differentially regulated on the apical and basal sides, with the inhibition of SP-1 and NF-κB showing strong effects apically and basally after 24 h and 48 h, the inhibition of p38 displaying its effect mainly on the basal side with some effect apically after 48 h, and the inhibition of VEGFR-2 reducing the secretion of VEGF only on the apical side at 24 h and 48 h. In the RPE cell culture, similar effects were found, with inhibition of NF-κB or SP-1 displaying a strong decrease in VEGF-A on both sides, and p38 inhibition displaying only an inhibitory effect on the basal side. In contrast, an apical effect of VEGFR-2 inhibition was not found. However, the

  15. Abundance of phosphorylated Apis mellifera CREB in the honeybee's mushroom body inner compact cells varies with age.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Katrin B; Heufelder, Karin; Kersting, Isabella; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-04-15

    Hymenopteran eusociality has been proposed to be associated with the activity of the transcription factor CREB (cAMP-response element binding protein). The honeybee (Apis mellifera) is a eusocial insect displaying a pronounced age-dependent division of labor. In honeybee brains, CREB-dependent genes are regulated in an age-dependent manner, indicating that there might be a role for neuronal honeybee CREB (Apis mellifera CREB, or AmCREB) in the bee's division of labor. In this study, we further explore this hypothesis by asking where in the honeybee brain AmCREB-dependent processes might take place and whether they vary with age in these brain regions. CREB is activated following phosphorylation at a conserved serine residue. An increase of phosphorylated CREB is therefore regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. Thus, we here examine the localization of phosphorylated AmCREB (pAmCREB) in the brain and its age-dependent variability. We report prominent pAmCREB staining in a subpopulation of intrinsic neurons of the mushroom bodies. In these neurons, the inner compact cells (IC), pAmCREB is located in the nuclei, axons, and dendrites. In the central bee brain, the IC somata and their dendritic region, we observed an age-dependent increase of pAmCREB. Our results demonstrate the IC to be candidate neurons involved in age-dependent division of labor. We hypothesize that the IC display a high level of CREB-dependent transcription that might be related to neuronal and behavioral plasticity underlying a bee's foraging behavior.

  16. Planar polarity of multiciliated ependymal cells involves the anterior migration of basal bodies regulated by non-muscle myosin II.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Yuki; Meunier, Alice; Huang, Shihhui; Shimozawa, Togo; Yamada, Osamu; Kida, Yasuyuki S; Inoue, Masashi; Ito, Tsubasa; Kato, Hiroko; Sakaguchi, Masanori; Sunabori, Takehiko; Nakaya, Masa-Aki; Nonaka, Shigenori; Ogura, Toshihiko; Higuchi, Hideo; Okano, Hideyuki; Spassky, Nathalie; Sawamoto, Kazunobu

    2010-09-01

    Motile cilia generate constant fluid flow over epithelial tissue, and thereby influence diverse physiological processes. Such functions of ciliated cells depend on the planar polarity of the cilia and on their basal bodies being oriented in the downstream direction of fluid flow. Recently, another type of basal body planar polarity, characterized by the anterior localization of the basal bodies in individual cells, was reported in the multiciliated ependymal cells that line the surface of brain ventricles. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which this polarity is established. Here, we report in mice that basal bodies move in the apical cell membrane during differentiation to accumulate in the anterior region of ependymal cells. The planar cell polarity signaling pathway influences basal body orientation, but not their anterior migration, in the neonatal brain. Moreover, we show by pharmacological and genetic studies that non-muscle myosin II is a key regulator of this distribution of basal bodies. This study demonstrates that the orientation and distribution of basal bodies occur by distinct mechanisms.

  17. CREB Overexpression: A Feature Associated with Negative Prognosis in Never-Smokers with NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hye-Sook; Liu, Diane D.; Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Pisters, Katherine; Lippman, Scott M.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Koo, Ja Seok

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Recent advances in targeted therapies hold promise for the development of new treatments for certain subsets of cancer patients by targeting specific signaling molecule. Based on the identification of the transcription factor cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) as an important regulator of growth of several types of cancers and our recent findings of its importance in normal differentiation of bronchial epithelial cells, we hypothesized that CREB plays an important pathobiologic role in lung carcinogenesis. We conducted this initial study to determine whether the expression and activation status of CREB are altered in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and of any prognostic importance in NSCLC patients. We found that the expression levels of mRNA and protein of CREB and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) were significantly higher in most of the NSCLC cell lines and tumor specimens than in the normal human tracheobronchial epithelial (NHTBE) cells and adjacent normal lung tissue, respectively. Analysis of CREB mRNA expression and the CREB gene copy number showed that CREB overexpression occurred mainly at the transcriptional level. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarray (TMA) slides containing sections of NSCLC specimens obtained from 310 patients showed that a decreased survival duration was significantly associated with overexpression of CREB or p-CREB in never-smokers but not in current or former smokers with NSCLC. These are the first reported results illustrating the potential of CREB as a molecular target for the prevention and treatment of NSCLC, especially in never-smokers. PMID:18676828

  18. Acupuncture Activates ERK-CREB Pathway in Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun; Liang, Jia; Wang, Jun-Ren; Hu, Li; Tu, Ya; Guo, Jian-You

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) signal pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. There is growing evidence that acupuncture in traditional Chinese medicine has antidepressant-like effect. However, the effect of acupuncture on ERK-CREB pathway remains unknown. In our study, the antidepressant-like effect of acupuncture treatment was measured by sucrose intake test and open field test in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) for 4 weeks. The protein levels of ERK1/2, CREB, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), and phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the hippocampus (HP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) were examined by Western blot analysis. Our results showed that CUMS rats exhibited the reduction in behavioral activities, whereas acupuncture stimulation at acupoints Baihui (Du20) and Neiguan (PC6) reversed the behavioral deficit. In addition, exposure to CUMS resulted in the decrease of p-ERK1/2 and p-CREB in the HP and PFC. Acupuncture increased the ratio of p-ERK1/2 to ERK1/2 and the ratio of p-CREB to CREB in the HP and PFC. Our study suggested that one potential way, by which acupuncture had antidepressant-like effect, might be mediated by activating the ERK-CREB pathway in the brain. PMID:23843874

  19. Microdomain organization and frequency-dependence of CREB-dependent transcriptional signaling in heart cells

    PubMed Central

    Kobrinsky, Evgeny; Duong, Son Q.; Sheydina, Anna; Soldatov, Nikolai M.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated Cav1.2 calcium channels couple membrane depolarization to cAMP response-element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent transcriptional activation. To investigate the spatial and temporal organization of CREB-dependent transcriptional nuclear microdomains, we combined perforated patch-clamp technique and FRET microscopy for monitoring CREB and CREB-binding protein interaction in the nuclei of live cells. The experimental approach to the quantitative assessment of CREB-dependent transcriptional signaling evoked by cAMP- and Cav1.2-dependent mechanisms was devised in COS1 cells expressing recombinant Cav1.2 calcium channels. Using continuous 2-dimensional wavelet transform and time series analyses, we found that nuclear CREB-dependent transcriptional signaling is organized differentially in spatially and temporally separated microdomains of 4 distinct types. In rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, CREB-dependent transcription is mediated by the cAMP-initiated CaMKII-sensitive and Cav1.2-initiated CaMKII-insensitive mechanisms. The latter microdomains show a tendency to exhibit periodic behavior correlated with spontaneous contraction of myocytes suggestive of frequency-dependent CREB-dependent transcriptional regulation in the heart.—Kobrinsky, E., Duong, S.Q., Sheydina, A., Soldatov, N. M. Microdomain organization and frequency-dependence of CREB-dependent transcriptional signaling in heart cells. PMID:21248242

  20. Oxidative stress-induced CREB upregulation promotes DNA damage repair prior to neuronal cell death protection.

    PubMed

    Pregi, Nicolás; Belluscio, Laura María; Berardino, Bruno Gabriel; Castillo, Daniela Susana; Cánepa, Eduardo Tomás

    2017-01-01

    cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein is a cellular transcription factor that mediates responses to different physiological and pathological signals. Using a model of human neuronal cells we demonstrate herein, that CREB is phosphorylated after oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide. This phosphorylation is largely independent of PKA and of the canonical phosphoacceptor site at ser-133, and is accompanied by an upregulation of CREB expression at both mRNA and protein levels. In accordance with previous data, we show that CREB upregulation promotes cell survival and that its silencing results in an increment of apoptosis after oxidative stress. Interestingly, we also found that CREB promotes DNA repair after treatment with hydrogen peroxide. Using a cDNA microarray we found that CREB is responsible for the regulation of many genes involved in DNA repair and cell survival after oxidative injury. In summary, the neuroprotective effect mediated by CREB appears to follow three essential steps following oxidative injury. First, the upregulation of CREB expression that allows sufficient level of activated and phosphorylated protein is the primordial event that promotes the induction of genes of the DNA Damage Response. Then and when the DNA repair is effective, CREB induces detoxification and survival genes. This kinetics seems to be important to completely resolve oxidative-induced neuronal damages.

  1. Oxidative stress-mediated down-regulation of bcl-2 promoter in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Pugazhenthi, Subbiah; Nesterova, Albina; Jambal, Purevsuren; Audesirk, Gerald; Kern, Marcey; Cabell, Leigh; Eves, Eva; Rosner, Marsha R; Boxer, Linda M; Reusch, Jane E-B

    2003-03-01

    Generation of oxidative stress/reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the causes of neuronal apoptosis. We have examined the effects of ROS at the transcriptional level in an immortalized hippocampal neuronal cell line (H19-7) and in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Treatment of H19-7 cells with hydrogen peroxide (150 micro m) resulted in a 40% decrease in Bcl-2 protein and a parallel decrease in bcl-2 mRNA levels. H19-7 cells overexpressing bcl-2 were found to be resistant to ROS-induced apoptosis. We had previously shown that bcl-2 promoter activity is positively regulated by the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) in neurons. In the present study, we demonstrate that ROS decreases the activity of luciferase reporter gene driven by a cyclic AMP response element site containing bcl-2 promoter. Exposure of neurons to ROS for 6 h resulted in basal and fibroblast growth factor-2-stimulated phosphorylation/activation of CREB. Chronic 24 h treatment with ROS led to a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in CREB protein and CREB mRNA levels. Adenoviral overexpression of wild type CREB in H19-7 cells resulted in significant (p < 0.01) protection against ROS-induced apoptosis through up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression whereas dominant negative CREB exaggerated the injury. These findings demonstrate that loss of CREB function contributes to oxidative stress-induced neuronal dysfunction.

  2. Regulation of sexual development in the basal termite Cryptotermes secundus: mutilation, pheromonal manipulation or honest signal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korb, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Social insect colonies are not the harmonious entities they were once considered. Considerable conflicts exist between colony members, as has been shown for Hymenoptera. For termites, similar studies are lacking, but aggressive manipulations have been claimed to regulate sexual development, and even to account for the evolution of workers. This study on a basal termite, Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae), suggests that the importance of aggressive manipulations in termites has been overemphasized. Wing-bud mutilations, a means proposed to regulate the development of dispersing sexuals (alates), seem to be artifacts of handling conditions that cause disturbance. Aggressive behaviors never occurred unless colonies were disturbed. Theoretical considerations further showed that the potential for intense conflict among termite nestmates is low compared to hymenopteran societies. Strong conflicts are only expected to occur over the replacement of natal reproductives that died, while less intense conflicts should exist over the development into alates when food in the colony becomes limiting. Accordingly, intracolonial aggressive interactions over replacement are common, whereas nestmates seem to manipulate alate development via proctodeal feeding when food resources decline. However, the latter is rather an honest signal than a manipulation because only the most competent prospective dispersers can impede the development of nestmates.

  3. TBX1 regulates epithelial polarity and dynamic basal filopodia in the second heart field.

    PubMed

    Francou, Alexandre; Saint-Michel, Edouard; Mesbah, Karim; Kelly, Robert G

    2014-11-01

    Elongation of the vertebrate heart occurs by progressive addition of second heart field (SHF) cardiac progenitor cells from pharyngeal mesoderm to the poles of the heart tube. The importance of these cells in the etiology of congenital heart defects has led to extensive research into the regulation of SHF deployment by signaling pathways and transcription factors. However, the basic cellular features of these progenitor cells, including epithelial polarity, cell shape and cell dynamics, remain poorly characterized. Here, using immunofluorescence, live imaging and embryo culture, we demonstrate that SHF cells constitute an atypical, apicobasally polarized epithelium in the dorsal pericardial wall, characterized by apical monocilia and dynamic actin-rich basal filopodia. We identify the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome gene Tbx1, required in the SHF for outflow tract development, as a regulator of the epithelial properties of SHF cells. Cell shape changes in mutant embryos include increased circularity, a reduced basolateral membrane domain and impaired filopodial activity, and are associated with elevated aPKCζ levels. Activation of aPKCζ in embryo culture similarly impairs filopodia activity and phenocopies proliferative defects and ectopic differentiation observed in the SHF of Tbx1 null embryos. Our results reveal that epithelial and progenitor cell status are coupled in the SHF, identifying control of cell shape as a regulatory step in heart tube elongation and outflow tract morphogenesis.

  4. Basal Splicing Factors Regulate the Stability of Mature mRNAs in Trypanosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sachin Kumar; Carmi, Shai; Ben-Asher, Hiba Waldman; Tkacz, Itai Dov; Naboishchikov, Ilana; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression in trypanosomes is mainly regulated post-transcriptionally. Genes are transcribed as polycistronic mRNAs that are dissected by the concerted action of trans-splicing and polyadenylation. In trans-splicing, a common exon, the spliced leader, is added to all mRNAs from a small RNA. In this study, we examined by microarray analysis the transcriptome following RNAi silencing of the basal splicing factors U2AF65, SF1, and U2AF35. The transcriptome data revealed correlations between the affected genes and their splicing and polyadenylation signaling properties, suggesting that differential binding of these factors to pre-mRNA regulates trans-splicing and hence expression of specific genes. Surprisingly, all these factors were shown to affect not only splicing but also mRNA stability. Affinity purification of SF1 and U2AF35 complexes supported their role in mRNA stability. U2AF35 but not SF1 was shown to bind to ribosomes. To examine the role of splicing factors in mRNA stability, mutations were introduced into the polypyrimidine tract located in the 3′ UTR of a mini-gene, and the results demonstrate that U2AF65 binds to such a site and controls the mRNA stability. We propose that transcripts carrying splicing signals in their 3′ UTR bind the splicing factors and control their stability. PMID:23283975

  5. Chronic enhancement of CREB activity in the hippocampus interferes with the retrieval of spatial information

    PubMed Central

    Viosca, Jose; Malleret, Gaël; Bourtchouladze, Rusiko; Benito, Eva; Vronskava, Svetlana; Kandel, Eric R.; Barco, Angel

    2009-01-01

    The activation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent gene expression is thought to be critical for the formation of different types of long-term memory. To explore the consequences of chronic enhancement of CREB function on spatial memory in mammals, we examined spatial navigation in bitransgenic mice that express in a regulated and restricted manner a constitutively active form of CREB, VP16-CREB, in forebrain neurons. We found that chronic enhancement of CREB activity delayed the acquisition of an allocentric strategy to solve the hidden platform task. The ability to turn on and off transgene expression allowed us to dissect the role of CREB in dissociable memory processes. In mice in which transgene expression was turned on during memory acquisition, turning off the transgene re-established the access to the memory trace, whereas in mice in which transgene expression was turned off during acquisition, turning on the transgene impaired memory expression in a reversible manner, indicating that CREB enhancement specifically interfered with the retrieval of spatial information. The defects on spatial navigation in mice with chronic enhancement of CREB function were not corrected by conditions that increased further CREB-dependent activation of hippocampal memory systems, such as housing in an enriched environment. These results along with previous findings in CREB-deficient mutants indicate that the relationship of CREB-mediated plasticity to spatial memory is an inverted-U function, and that optimal learning in the water maze requires accurate regulation of this pathway. PMID:19237642

  6. Skeletal Muscle Growth Hormone Receptor Signaling Regulates Basal, but Not Fasting-Induced, Lipid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Archana; Wu, YingJie; Buffin, Nicholas J.; Li, Xiaosong; Sun, Hui; Gordon, Ronald E.; Yakar, Shoshana; LeRoith, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Background Growth hormone (GH) stimulates whole-body lipid oxidation, but its regulation of muscle lipid oxidation is not clearly defined. Mice with a skeletal muscle-specific knockout of the GH receptor (mGHRKO model) are protected from high fat diet (HFD)–induced insulin resistance and display increased whole-body carbohydrate utilization. In this study we used the mGRHKO mice to investigate the role of muscle GHR signaling on lipid oxidation under regular chow (RC)- and HFD- fed conditions, and in response to fasting. Methodology/Principal Findings Expression of lipid oxidation genes was analyzed by real-time PCR in the muscles of RC- and HFD- fed mice, and after 24 h fasting in the HFD-fed mice. Expression of lipid oxidation genes was lower in the muscles of the mGHRKO mice relative to the controls, irrespective of diet. However, in response to 24 h fasting, the HFD-fed mGHRKO mice displayed up-regulation of lipid oxidation genes similar to the fasted controls. When subjected to treadmill running challenge, the HFD-fed mGHRKO mice demonstrated increased whole-body lipid utilization. Additionally, under fasted conditions, the adipose tissue of the mGHRKO mice displayed increased lipolysis as compared to both the fed mGHRKO as well as the fasted control mice. Conclusions/Significance Our data show that muscle GHR signaling regulates basal lipid oxidation, but not the induction of lipid oxidation in response to fasting. We further demonstrate that muscle GHR signaling is involved in muscle-adipose tissue cross-talk; however the mechanisms mediating this remain to be elucidated. PMID:23024761

  7. Selective CREB-dependent cyclin expression mediated by the PI3K and MAPK pathways supports glioma cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, P; Filiz, G; Brown, D V; Hollande, F; Gonzales, M; D'Abaco, G; Papalexis, N; Phillips, W A; Malaterre, J; Ramsay, R G; Mantamadiotis, T

    2014-01-01

    The cyclic-AMP response element binding (CREB) protein has been shown to have a pivotal role in cell survival and cell proliferation. Transgenic rodent models have revealed a role for CREB in higher-order brain functions, such as memory and drug addiction behaviors. CREB overexpression in transgenic animals imparts oncogenic properties on cells in various tissues, and aberrant CREB expression is associated with tumours. It is the central position of CREB, downstream from key developmental and growth signalling pathways, which gives CREB this ability to influence a spectrum of cellular activities, such as cell survival, growth and differentiation, in both normal and cancer cells. We show that CREB is highly expressed and constitutively activated in patient glioma tissue and that this activation closely correlates with tumour grade. The mechanism by which CREB regulates glioblastoma (GBM) tumour cell proliferation involves activities downstream from both the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways that then modulate the expression of three key cell cycle factors, cyclin B, D and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Cyclin D1 is highly CREB-dependent, whereas cyclin B1 and PCNA are co-regulated by both CREB-dependent and -independent mechanisms. The precise regulatory network involved appears to differ depending on the tumour-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog status of the GBM cells, which in turn allows CREB to regulate the activity of the PI3K itself. Given that CREB sits at the hub of key cancer cell signalling pathways, understanding the role of glioma-specific CREB function may lead to improved novel combinatorial anti-tumour therapies, which can complement existing PI3K-specific drugs undergoing early phase clinical trials. PMID:24979279

  8. CREB decreases astrocytic excitability by modifying subcellular calcium fluxes via the sigma-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Eraso-Pichot, A; Larramona-Arcas, R; Vicario-Orri, E; Villalonga, R; Pardo, L; Galea, E; Masgrau, R

    2017-03-01

    Astrocytic excitability relies on cytosolic calcium increases as a key mechanism, whereby astrocytes contribute to synaptic transmission and hence learning and memory. While it is a cornerstone of neurosciences that experiences are remembered, because transmitters activate gene expression in neurons, long-term adaptive astrocyte plasticity has not been described. Here, we investigated whether the transcription factor CREB mediates adaptive plasticity-like phenomena in astrocytes. We found that activation of CREB-dependent transcription reduced the calcium responses induced by ATP, noradrenaline, or endothelin-1. As to the mechanism, expression of VP16-CREB, a constitutively active CREB mutant, had no effect on basal cytosolic calcium levels, extracellular calcium entry, or calcium mobilization from lysosomal-related acidic stores. Rather, VP16-CREB upregulated sigma-1 receptor expression thereby increasing the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum and its uptake by mitochondria. Sigma-1 receptor was also upregulated in vivo upon VP16-CREB expression in astrocytes. We conclude that CREB decreases astrocyte responsiveness by increasing calcium signalling at the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria interface, which might be an astrocyte-based form of long-term depression.

  9. Basal expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene is dependent on protein kinase A activity.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, R A; Matthews, R P; Idzerda, R L; McKnight, G S

    1995-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions as a Cl- channel that becomes activated after phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). We demonstrate that PKA also plays a crucial role in maintaining basal expression of the CFTR gene in the human colon carcinoma cell line T84. Inhibition of PKA activity by expression of a dominant-negative regulatory subunit or treatment with the PKA-selective inhibitor N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89) caused a complete suppression of CFTR gene expression without affecting other constitutively active genes. Basal expression of a 2.2-kb region of the CFTR promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene (CFTR-luc) exhibited the same dependence on PKA. The ability of cAMP to induce CFTR over basal levels is cell-type specific. In T84 cells, both the endogenous CFTR gene and CFTR-luc exhibited only a modest inducibility (approximately 2-fold), whereas in the human choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3, CFTR-luc could be induced at least 4-fold. A variant cAMP-response element is present at position -48 to -41 in the CFTR promoter, and mutation of this sequence blocks basal expression. We conclude that cAMP, acting through PKA, is an essential regulator of basal CFTR gene expression and may mediate an induction of CFTR in responsive cell types. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7543684

  10. Thermal conductance and basal metabolic rate are part of a coordinated system for heat transfer regulation

    PubMed Central

    Naya, Daniel E.; Spangenberg, Lucía; Naya, Hugo; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Thermal conductance measures the ease with which heat leaves or enters  an organism's body. Although the analysis of this physiological variable in relation to climatic and ecological factors can be traced to studies by Scholander and colleagues, only small advances have occurred ever since. Here, we analyse the relationship between minimal thermal conductance estimated during summer (Cmin) and several ecological, climatic and geographical factors for 127 rodent species, in order to identify the exogenous factors that have potentially affected the evolution of thermal conductance. In addition, we evaluate whether there is compensation between Cmin and basal metabolic rate (BMR)—in such a way that a scale-invariant ratio between both variables is equal to one—as could be expected from the Scholander–Irving model of heat transfer. Our major findings are (i) annual mean temperature is the best single predictor of mass-independent Cmin. (ii) After controlling for the effect of body mass, there is a strong positive correlation between log10 (Cmin) and log10 (BMR). Further, the slope of this correlation is close to one, indicating an almost perfect compensation between both physiological variables. (iii) Structural equation modelling indicated that Cmin values are adjusted to BMR values and not the other way around. Thus, our results strongly suggest that BMR and thermal conductance integrate a coordinated system for heat regulation in endothermic animals and that summer conductance values are adjusted (in an evolutionary sense) to track changes in BMRs. PMID:23902915

  11. Flattop regulates basal body docking and positioning in mono- and multiciliated cells

    PubMed Central

    Gegg, Moritz; Böttcher, Anika; Burtscher, Ingo; Hasenoeder, Stefan; Van Campenhout, Claude; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Grant, Seth G N; Lickert, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) regulates basal body (BB) docking and positioning during cilia formation, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we investigate the uncharacterized gene Flattop (Fltp) that is transcriptionally activated during PCP acquisition in ciliated tissues. Fltp knock-out mice show BB docking and ciliogenesis defects in multiciliated lung cells. Furthermore, Fltp is necessary for kinocilium positioning in monociliated inner ear hair cells. In these cells, the core PCP molecule Dishevelled 2, the BB/spindle positioning protein Dlg3, and Fltp localize directly adjacent to the apical plasma membrane, physically interact and surround the BB at the interface of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. Dlg3 and Fltp knock-outs suggest that both cooperatively translate PCP cues for BB positioning in the inner ear. Taken together, the identification of novel BB/spindle positioning components as potential mediators of PCP signaling might have broader implications for other cell types, ciliary disease, and asymmetric cell division. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03842.001 PMID:25296022

  12. Stochasticity and bifurcations in a reduced model with interlinked positive and negative feedback loops of CREB1 and CREB2 stimulated by 5-HT.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lijie; Yang, Zhuoqin; Bi, Yuanhong

    2016-04-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element-binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors is crucial in regulating gene expression required for long-term memory (LTM) formation. Upon exposure of sensory neurons to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), CREB1 is activated via activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) intracellular signaling pathways, and CREB2 as a transcriptional repressor is relieved possibly via phosphorylation of CREB2 by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Song et al. [18] proposed a minimal model with only interlinked positive and negative feedback loops of transcriptional regulation by the activator CREB1 and the repressor CREB2. Without considering feedbacks between the CREB proteins, Pettigrew et al. [8] developed a computational model characterizing complex dynamics of biochemical pathways downstream of 5-HT receptors. In this work, to describe more simply the biochemical pathways and gene regulation underlying 5-HT-induced LTM, we add the important extracellular sensitizing stimulus 5-HT as well as the product Ap-uch into the Song's minimal model. We also strive to examine dynamical properties of the gene regulatory network under the changing concentration of the stimulus, [5-HT], cooperating with the varying positive feedback strength in inducing a high state of CREB1 for the establishment of long-term memory. Different dynamics including monostability, bistability and multistability due to coexistence of stable steady states and oscillations is investigated by means of codimension-2 bifurcation analysis. At the different positive feedback strengths, comparative analysis of deterministic and stochastic dynamics reveals that codimension-1 bifurcation with respect to [5-HT] as the parameter can predict diverse stochastic behaviors resulted from the finite number of molecules, and the number of CREB1 molecules more and more preferentially resides near the high steady state with increasing [5-HT], which contributes to long

  13. Differential regulation of the Hippo pathway by adherens junctions and apical-basal cell polarity modules.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Chao; Graves, Hillary K; Moya, Ivan M; Tao, Chunyao; Hamaratoglu, Fisun; Gladden, Andrew B; Halder, Georg

    2015-02-10

    Adherens junctions (AJs) and cell polarity complexes are key players in the establishment and maintenance of apical-basal cell polarity. Loss of AJs or basolateral polarity components promotes tumor formation and metastasis. Recent studies in vertebrate models show that loss of AJs or loss of the basolateral component Scribble (Scrib) cause deregulation of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway and hyperactivation of its downstream effectors Yes-associated protein (YAP) and Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ). However, whether AJs and Scrib act through the same or independent mechanisms to regulate Hippo pathway activity is not known. Here, we dissect how disruption of AJs or loss of basolateral components affect the activity of the Drosophila YAP homolog Yorkie (Yki) during imaginal disc development. Surprisingly, disruption of AJs and loss of basolateral proteins produced very different effects on Yki activity. Yki activity was cell-autonomously decreased but non-cell-autonomously elevated in tissues where the AJ components E-cadherin (E-cad) or α-catenin (α-cat) were knocked down. In contrast, scrib knockdown caused a predominantly cell-autonomous activation of Yki. Moreover, disruption of AJs or basolateral proteins had different effects on cell polarity and tissue size. Simultaneous knockdown of α-cat and scrib induced both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous Yki activity. In mammalian cells, knockdown of E-cad or α-cat caused nuclear accumulation and activation of YAP without overt effects on Scrib localization and vice versa. Therefore, our results indicate the existence of multiple, genetically separable inputs from AJs and cell polarity complexes into Yki/YAP regulation.

  14. Impaired role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the regulation of basal conduit artery diameter during essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bellien, Jeremy; Remy-Jouet, Isabelle; Iacob, Michele; Blot, Etienne; Mercier, Alain; Lucas, Daniele; Dreano, Yvonne; Gutierrez, Laurence; Donnadieu, Nathalie; Thuillez, Christian; Joannides, Robinson

    2012-12-01

    In young healthy subjects, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids synthesized by endothelial cytochrome P450 epoxygenases maintain basal conduit artery diameter during altered NO availability. Whether this compensatory mechanism is effective during essential hypertension is unknown. Radial artery diameter, blood flow, and mean wall shear stress were determined in 14 nontreated essential hypertensive patients and 14 normotensive control subjects during 8 minutes of brachial infusion for inhibitors of cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (fluconazole, 0.4 µmol/min) and NO synthase (N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, 8 µmol/min) alone and in combination. In controls, the radial artery diameter was reduced by fluconazole (-0.034 ± 0.012 mm) and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (-0.037 ± 0.010 mm) and to a larger extent by their combination (-0.137 ± 0.011 mm), demonstrating a synergic effect. In contrast, the radial diameter in hypertensive patients was not affected by fluconazole (0.010 ± 0.014 mm) but was reduced by N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (-0.091 ± 0.008 mm) to a larger extent than in controls. In parallel, N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine decreased local plasma nitrite to a lesser extent in hypertensive patients (-14 ± 5 nmol/L) than in controls (-50 ± 10 nmol/L). Moreover, the addition of fluconazole to N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine did not further decrease radial diameter in patients (-0.086 ± 0.011 mm). Accordingly, fluconazole significantly decreased local epoxyeicosatrienoic acid plasma level in controls (-2.0 ± 0.6 ng/mL) but not in patients (-0.9 ± 0.4 ng/mL). Inhibitors effects on blood flow and endothelium-independent dilatation to sodium nitroprusside were similar between groups. These results show that, in contrast to normotensive subjects, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids did not contribute to the regulation of basal conduit artery diameter and did not compensate for altered NO availability to maintain this diameter in essential hypertensive patients.

  15. CREB Selectively Controls Learning-Induced Structural Remodeling of Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middei, Silvia; Spalloni, Alida; Longone, Patrizia; Pittenger, Christopher; O'Mara, Shane M.; Marie, Helene; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2012-01-01

    The modulation of synaptic strength associated with learning is post-synaptically regulated by changes in density and shape of dendritic spines. The transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) is required for memory formation and in vitro dendritic spine rearrangements, but its role in learning-induced remodeling of neurons…

  16. CREB Selectively Controls Learning-Induced Structural Remodeling of Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middei, Silvia; Spalloni, Alida; Longone, Patrizia; Pittenger, Christopher; O'Mara, Shane M.; Marie, Helene; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2012-01-01

    The modulation of synaptic strength associated with learning is post-synaptically regulated by changes in density and shape of dendritic spines. The transcription factor CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) is required for memory formation and in vitro dendritic spine rearrangements, but its role in learning-induced remodeling of neurons…

  17. Complexes containing activating transcription factor (ATF)/cAMP-responsive-element-binding protein (CREB) interact with the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-ATF composite site to regulate Gadd153 expression during the stress response.

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, T W; Martindale, J L; Guyton, K Z; Hai, T; Holbrook, N J

    1999-01-01

    Gadd153, also known as chop, encodes a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factor family and is transcriptionally activated by cellular stress signals. We recently demonstrated that arsenite treatment of rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells results in the biphasic induction of Gadd153 mRNA expression, controlled in part through binding of C/EBPbeta and two uncharacterized protein complexes to the C/EBP-ATF (activating transcription factor) composite site in the Gadd153 promoter. In this report, we identified components of these additional complexes as two ATF/CREB (cAMP-responsive-element-binding protein) transcription factors having differential binding activities dependent upon the time of arsenite exposure. During arsenite treatment of PC12 cells, we observed enhanced binding of ATF4 to the C/EBP-ATF site at 2 h as Gadd153 mRNA levels increased, and enhanced binding of ATF3 complexes at 6 h as Gadd153 expression declined. We further demonstrated that ATF4 activates, while ATF3 represses, Gadd153 promoter activity through the C/EBP-ATF site. ATF3 also repressed ATF4-mediated transactivation and arsenite-induced activation of the Gadd153 promoter. Our results suggest that numerous members of the ATF/CREB family are involved in the cellular stress response, and that regulation of stress-induced biphasic Gadd153 expression in PC12 cells involves the ordered, sequential binding of multiple transcription factor complexes to the C/EBP-ATF composite site. PMID:10085237

  18. Dopamine modulates acetylcholine release via octopamine and CREB signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Suo, Satoshi; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2013-01-01

    Animals change their behavior and metabolism in response to external stimuli. cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a signal-activated transcription factor that enables the coupling of extracellular signals and gene expression to induce adaptive changes. Biogenic amine neurotransmitters regulate CREB and such regulation is important for long-term changes in various nervous system functions, including learning and drug addiction. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the amine neurotransmitter octopamine activates a CREB homolog, CRH-1, in cholinergic SIA neurons, whereas dopamine suppresses CREB activation by inhibiting octopamine signaling in response to food stimuli. However, the physiological role of this activation is unknown. In this study, the effect of dopamine, octopamine, and CREB on acetylcholine signaling was analyzed using the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb. Mutants with decreased dopamine signaling exhibited reduced acetylcholine signaling, and octopamine and CREB functioned downstream of dopamine in this regulation. This study demonstrates that the regulation of CREB by amine neurotransmitters modulates acetylcholine release from the neurons of C. elegans.

  19. CREB3L3 controls fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in synergy with PPARα

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Satoh, Aoi; Tezuka, Hitomi; Han, Song-iee; Takei, Kenta; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yatoh, Shigeru; Yahagi, Naoya; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Sone, Hirohito; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    CREB3L3 is involved in fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in a mutual manner with PPARα. To evaluate relative contribution, a combination of knockout and transgenic mice was investigated. On a ketogenic-diet (KD) that highlights capability of hepatic ketogenesis, Creb3l3−/− mice exhibited reduction of expression of genes for fatty oxidation and ketogenesis comparable to Ppara−/− mice. Most of the genes were further suppressed in double knockout mice indicating independent contribution of hepatic CREB3L3. During fasting, dependency of ketogenesis on CREB3L3 is lesser extents than Ppara−/− mice suggesting importance of adipose PPARα for supply of FFA and hyperlipidemia in Creb3l3−/− mice. In conclusion CREB3L3 plays a crucial role in hepatic adaptation to energy starvation via two pathways: direct related gene regulation and an auto-loop activation of PPARα. Furthermore, as KD-fed Creb3l3−/− mice exhibited severe fatty liver, activating inflammation, CREB3L3 could be a therapeutic target for NAFLD. PMID:27982131

  20. Gap junctions and other mechanisms of cell-cell communication regulate basal insulin secretion in the pancreatic islet.

    PubMed

    Benninger, R K P; Head, W Steven; Zhang, Min; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W

    2011-11-15

    Cell-cell communication in the islet of Langerhans is important for the regulation of insulin secretion. Gap-junctions coordinate oscillations in intracellular free-calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) and insulin secretion in the islet following elevated glucose. Gap-junctions can also ensure that oscillatory [Ca(2+)](i) ceases when glucose is at a basal levels. We determine the roles of gap-junctions and other cell-cell communication pathways in the suppression of insulin secretion under basal conditions. Metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion levels were measured from islets lacking gap-junction coupling following deletion of connexion36 (Cx36(-/-)), and these results were compared to those obtained using fully isolated β-cells. K(ATP) loss-of-function islets provide a further experimental model to specifically study gap-junction mediated suppression of electrical activity. In isolated β-cells or Cx36(-/-) islets, elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) persisted in a subset of cells even at basal glucose. Isolated β-cells showed elevated insulin secretion at basal glucose; however, insulin secretion from Cx36(-/-) islets was minimally altered. [Ca(2+)](i) was further elevated under basal conditions, but insulin release still suppressed in K(ATP) loss-of-function islets. Forced elevation of cAMP led to PKA-mediated increases in insulin secretion from islets lacking gap-junctions, but not from islets expressing Cx36 gap junctions. We conclude there is a redundancy in how cell-cell communication in the islet suppresses insulin release. Gap junctions suppress cellular heterogeneity and spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) signals, while other juxtacrine mechanisms, regulated by PKA and glucose, suppress more distal steps in exocytosis. Each mechanism is sufficiently robust to compensate for a loss of the other and still suppress basal insulin secretion.

  1. Gap junctions and other mechanisms of cell–cell communication regulate basal insulin secretion in the pancreatic islet

    PubMed Central

    Benninger, R K P; Head, W Steven; Zhang, Min; Satin, Leslie S; Piston, David W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cell–cell communication in the islet of Langerhans is important for the regulation of insulin secretion. Gap-junctions coordinate oscillations in intracellular free-calcium ([Ca2+]i) and insulin secretion in the islet following elevated glucose. Gap-junctions can also ensure that oscillatory [Ca2+]i ceases when glucose is at a basal levels. We determine the roles of gap-junctions and other cell–cell communication pathways in the suppression of insulin secretion under basal conditions. Metabolic, electrical and insulin secretion levels were measured from islets lacking gap-junction coupling following deletion of connexion36 (Cx36−/−), and these results were compared to those obtained using fully isolated β-cells. KATP loss-of-function islets provide a further experimental model to specifically study gap-junction mediated suppression of electrical activity. In isolated β-cells or Cx36−/− islets, elevations in [Ca2+]i persisted in a subset of cells even at basal glucose. Isolated β-cells showed elevated insulin secretion at basal glucose; however, insulin secretion from Cx36−/− islets was minimally altered. [Ca2+]i was further elevated under basal conditions, but insulin release still suppressed in KATP loss-of-function islets. Forced elevation of cAMP led to PKA-mediated increases in insulin secretion from islets lacking gap-junctions, but not from islets expressing Cx36 gap junctions. We conclude there is a redundancy in how cell–cell communication in the islet suppresses insulin release. Gap junctions suppress cellular heterogeneity and spontaneous [Ca2+]i signals, while other juxtacrine mechanisms, regulated by PKA and glucose, suppress more distal steps in exocytosis. Each mechanism is sufficiently robust to compensate for a loss of the other and still suppress basal insulin secretion. PMID:21930600

  2. Regulation of neuronal gene expression and survival by basal NMDA receptor activity: a role for histone deacetylase 4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yelin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Modrusan, Zora; Sheng, Morgan; Kaminker, Joshua S

    2014-11-12

    Neuronal gene expression is modulated by activity via calcium-permeable receptors such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs). While gene expression changes downstream of evoked NMDAR activity have been well studied, much less is known about gene expression changes that occur under conditions of basal neuronal activity. In mouse dissociated hippocampal neuronal cultures, we found that a broad NMDAR antagonist, AP5, induced robust gene expression changes under basal activity, but subtype-specific antagonists did not. While some of the gene expression changes are also known to be downstream of stimulated NMDAR activity, others appear specific to basal NMDAR activity. The genes altered by AP5 treatment of basal cultures were enriched for pathways related to class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs), apoptosis, and synapse-related signaling. Specifically, AP5 altered the expression of all three class IIa HDACs that are highly expressed in the brain, HDAC4, HDAC5, and HDAC9, and also induced nuclear accumulation of HDAC4. HDAC4 knockdown abolished a subset of the gene expression changes induced by AP5, and led to neuronal death under long-term tetrodotoxin or AP5 treatment in rat hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. These data suggest that basal, but not evoked, NMDAR activity regulates gene expression in part through HDAC4, and, that HDAC4 has neuroprotective functions under conditions of low NMDAR activity.

  3. CREB and AP-1 activation regulates MKP-1 induction by LPS or M-CSF and their kinetics correlate with macrophage activation versus proliferation.

    PubMed

    Casals-Casas, Cristina; Alvarez, Eva; Serra, Maria; de la Torre, Carolina; Farrera, Consol; Sánchez-Tilló, Ester; Caelles, Carme; Lloberas, Jorge; Celada, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is a protein phosphatase that plays a crucial role in innate immunity. This phosphatase inactivates ERK1/2, which are involved in two opposite functional activities of the macrophage, namely proliferation and activation. Here we found that although macrophage proliferation and activation induce MKP-1 with different kinetics, gene expression is mediated by the proximal promoter sequences localized between -380 and -180 bp. Mutagenesis experiments of the proximal element determined that CRE/AP-1 is required for LPS- or M-CSF-induced activation of the MKP-1 gene. Moreover, the results from gel shift analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated that c-Jun and CREB bind to the CRE/AP-1 box. The distinct kinetics shown by M-CSF and LPS correlates with the induction of JNK and c-jun, as well as the requirement for Raf-1. The signal transduction pathways that activate the induction of MKP-1 correlate kinetically with induction by M-CSF and LPS.

  4. Basally activated nonselective cation currents regulate the resting membrane potential in human and monkey colonic smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Laura; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Lowe, Vanessa; Zheng, Haifeng; Peri, Lauren; Ro, Seungil; Sanders, Kenton M.

    2011-01-01

    Resting membrane potential (RMP) plays an important role in determining the basal excitability of gastrointestinal smooth muscle. The RMP in colonic muscles is significantly less negative than the equilibrium potential of K+, suggesting that it is regulated not only by K+ conductances but by inward conductances such as Na+ and/or Ca2+. We investigated the contribution of nonselective cation channels (NSCC) to the RMP in human and monkey colonic smooth muscle cells (SMC) using voltage- and current-clamp techniques. Qualitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine potential molecular candidates for these channels among the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily. Spontaneous transient inward currents and holding currents were recorded in human and monkey SMC. Replacement of extracellular Na+ with equimolar tetraethylammonium or Ca2+ with Mn2+ inhibited basally activated nonselective cation currents. Trivalent cations inhibited these channels. Under current clamp, replacement of extracellular Na+ with N-methyl-d-glucamine or addition of trivalent cations caused hyperpolarization. Three unitary conductances of NSCC were observed in human and monkey colonic SMC. Molecular candidates for basally active NSCC were TRPC1, C3, C4, C7, M2, M4, M6, M7, V1, and V2 in human and monkey SMC. Comparison of the biophysical properties of these TRP channels with basally active NSCC (bINSCC) suggests that TRPM4 and specific TRPC heteromultimer combinations may underlie the three single-channel conductances of bINSCC. In conclusion, these findings suggest that basally activated NSCC contribute to the RMP in human and monkey colonic SMC and therefore may play an important role in determining basal excitability of colonic smooth muscle. PMID:21566016

  5. The LPA1/ZEB1/miR-21-activation pathway regulates metastasis in basal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Debashish; Leblanc, Raphael; Grunewald, Thomas G P; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Ribeiro, Johnny; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2015-08-21

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid promoting cancer metastasis. LPA activates a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). While blockage of LPA1in vivo inhibits breast carcinoma metastasis, down-stream genes mediating LPA-induced metastasis have not been yet identified. Herein we showed by analyzing publicly available expression data from 1488 human primary breast tumors that the gene encoding the transcription factor ZEB1 was the most correlated with LPAR1 encoding LPA1. This correlation was most prominent in basal primary breast carcinomas and restricted to cell lines of basal subtypes. Functional experiments in three different basal cell lines revealed that LPA-induced ZEB1 expression was regulated by the LPA1/Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (Pi3K) axis. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that LPA up-regulated the oncomiR miR-21 through an LPA1/Pi3K/ZEB1-dependent mechanism. Strikingly, treatment with a mirVana miR-21 inhibitor, or silencing LPA1 or ZEB1 completely blocked LPA-induced cell migration in vitro, invasion and tumor cell bone colonization in vivo, which can be restored with a mirVana miR-21 mimic. Finally, high LPAR1 expression in basal breast tumors predicted worse lung-metastasis-free survival. Collectively, our results elucidate a new molecular pathway driving LPA-induced metastasis, thus underscoring the therapeutic potential of targeting LPA1 in patients with basal breast carcinomas.

  6. The LPA1/ZEB1/miR-21-activation pathway regulates metastasis in basal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Debashish; Leblanc, Raphael; Grunewald, Thomas G. P.; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Ribeiro, Johnny; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid promoting cancer metastasis. LPA activates a series of six G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6). While blockage of LPA1 in vivo inhibits breast carcinoma metastasis, down-stream genes mediating LPA-induced metastasis have not been yet identified. Herein we showed by analyzing publicly available expression data from 1488 human primary breast tumors that the gene encoding the transcription factor ZEB1 was the most correlated with LPAR1 encoding LPA1. This correlation was most prominent in basal primary breast carcinomas and restricted to cell lines of basal subtypes. Functional experiments in three different basal cell lines revealed that LPA-induced ZEB1 expression was regulated by the LPA1/Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (Pi3K) axis. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analyses further demonstrated that LPA up-regulated the oncomiR miR-21 through an LPA1/Pi3K/ZEB1-dependent mechanism. Strikingly, treatment with a mirVana miR-21 inhibitor, or silencing LPA1 or ZEB1 completely blocked LPA-induced cell migration in vitro, invasion and tumor cell bone colonization in vivo, which can be restored with a mirVana miR-21 mimic. Finally, high LPAR1 expression in basal breast tumors predicted worse lung-metastasis-free survival. Collectively, our results elucidate a new molecular pathway driving LPA-induced metastasis, thus underscoring the therapeutic potential of targeting LPA1 in patients with basal breast carcinomas. PMID:26098771

  7. CXCL12 prolongs naive CD4+ T lymphocytes survival via activation of PKA, CREB and Bcl2 and BclXl up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Laura; Ferraro, Elisabetta; De Simone, Salvatore; Gatta, Lucia; Feraco, Alessandra; Racioppi, Luigi; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Naive T lymphocytes recirculate through the body, traveling from secondary lymphoid organs through tissues and via lymphatic vessels and peripheral blood into other secondary lymphoid organs and into the bone marrow. In these tissues, lymphocytes are exposed to the chemokine CXCL12 which is abundantly produced in bone marrow and in lymph nodes by stromal cells. CXCL12 is known to drive lymphocytes chemotaxis and, in cells types such as stem cells, an antiapopototic effect has been described. Here we analyzed the effect of CXCL12 exposure on naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes purified from peripheral blood by immunomagnetic negative isolation and cultured in a nutrient poor medium. We also studied, mainly by western blot analysis, the signaling pathways involved in CXCL12 action on naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes. We found that CXCL12-exposed cells survived longer than untreated ones and this prolonged lifespan was specific for resting naïve lymphocytes, while in vitro activated lymphoblasts died rapidly despite CXCL12 treatment. We demonstrated that the increased percentage of living cells observed upon CXCL12 administration was not due to induction of proliferation but to a prosurvival effect of this chemokine. Moreover, our data suggest that this prosurvival effect on naïve CD4+ T lymphocytes might likely be mediated by PKA-dependent CREB activation and consequent increased expression of the antiapoptotic factors Bcl2 and BclXl. This newly reported activity of CXCL12 might contribute to the maintenance of the naïve T lymphocytes pool in vivo, which is needed to ensure a proper immune response to new antigens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical regulation of the proangiogenic factor CCN1/CYR61 gene requires the combined activities of MRTF-A and CREB-binding protein histone acetyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Mary; Liu, Haibo; Amir, Jawaria; Sun, Yi; Morris, Stephan W; Siddiqui, M A Q; Lau, Lester F; Chaqour, Brahim

    2009-08-21

    Smooth muscle-rich tissues respond to mechanical overload by an adaptive hypertrophic growth combined with activation of angiogenesis, which potentiates their mechanical overload-bearing capabilities. Neovascularization is associated with mechanical strain-dependent induction of angiogenic factors such as CCN1, an immediate-early gene-encoded matricellular molecule critical for vascular development and repair. Here we have demonstrated that mechanical strain-dependent induction of the CCN1 gene involves signaling cascades through RhoA-mediated actin remodeling and the p38 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK). Actin signaling controls serum response factor (SRF) activity via SRF interaction with the myocardin-related transcriptional activator (MRTF)-A and tethering to a single CArG box sequence within the CCN1 promoter. Such activity was abolished in mechanically stimulated mouse MRTF-A(-/-) cells or upon inhibition of CREB-binding protein (CBP) histone acetyltransferase (HAT) either pharmacologically or by siRNAs. Mechanical strain induced CBP-mediated acetylation of histones 3 and 4 at the SRF-binding site and within the CCN1 gene coding region. Inhibition of p38 SAPK reduced CBP HAT activity and its recruitment to the SRF.MRTF-A complex, whereas enforced induction of p38 by upstream activators (e.g. MKK3 and MKK6) enhanced both CBP HAT and CCN1 promoter activities. Similarly, mechanical overload-induced CCN1 gene expression in vivo was associated with nuclear localization of MRTF-A and enrichment of the CCN1 promoter with both MRTF-A and acetylated histone H3. Taken together, these data suggest that signal-controlled activation of SRF, MRTF-A, and CBP provides a novel connection between mechanical stimuli and angiogenic gene expression.

  9. The SOX11 transcription factor is a critical regulator of basal-like breast cancer growth, invasion, and basal-like gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Jonathan H; Uray, Ivan P; Mazumdar, Abhijit; Tsimelzon, Anna; Savage, Michelle; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Brown, Powel H

    2016-03-15

    Basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs) are aggressive breast cancers associated with poor survival. Defining the key drivers of BLBC growth will allow identification of molecules for targeted therapy. In this study, we performed a primary screen integrating multiple assays that compare transcription factor expression and activity in BLBC and non-BLBC at the RNA, DNA, and protein levels. This integrated screen identified 33 transcription factors that were elevated in BLBC in multiple assays comparing mRNA expression, DNA cis-element sequences, or protein DNA-binding activity. In a secondary screen to identify transcription factors critical for BLBC cell growth, 8 of the 33 candidate transcription factors (TFs) were found to be necessary for growth in at least two of three BLBC cell lines. Of these 8 transcription factors, SOX11 was the only transcription factor required for BLBC growth, but not for growth of non-BLBC cells. Our studies demonstrate that SOX11 is a critical regulator of multiple BLBC phenotypes, including growth, migration, invasion, and expression of signature BLBC genes. High SOX11 expression was also found to be an independent prognostic indicator of poor survival in women with breast cancer. These results identify SOX11 as a potential target for the treatment of BLBC, the most aggressive form of breast cancer.

  10. The Rac1 regulator ELMO controls basal body migration and docking in multiciliated cells through interaction with Ezrin.

    PubMed

    Epting, Daniel; Slanchev, Krasimir; Boehlke, Christopher; Hoff, Sylvia; Loges, Niki T; Yasunaga, Takayuki; Indorf, Lara; Nestel, Sigrun; Lienkamp, Soeren S; Omran, Heymut; Kuehn, E Wolfgang; Ronneberger, Olaf; Walz, Gerd; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that are present on most cells and are required for normal tissue development and function. Defective cilia cause complex syndromes with multiple organ manifestations termed ciliopathies. A crucial step during ciliogenesis in multiciliated cells (MCCs) is the association of future basal bodies with the apical plasma membrane, followed by their correct spacing and planar orientation. Here, we report a novel role for ELMO-DOCK1, which is a bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor complex for the small GTPase Rac1, and for the membrane-cytoskeletal linker Ezrin, in regulating centriole/basal body migration, docking and spacing. Downregulation of each component results in ciliopathy-related phenotypes in zebrafish and disrupted ciliogenesis in Xenopus epidermal MCCs. Subcellular analysis revealed a striking impairment of basal body docking and spacing, which is likely to account for the observed phenotypes. These results are substantiated by showing a genetic interaction between elmo1 and ezrin b. Finally, we provide biochemical evidence that the ELMO-DOCK1-Rac1 complex influences Ezrin phosphorylation and thereby probably serves as an important molecular switch. Collectively, we demonstrate that the ELMO-Ezrin complex orchestrates ciliary basal body migration, docking and positioning in vivo.

  11. Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Quoilin, C; Mouithys-Mickalad, A; Duranteau, J; Gallez, B; Hoebeke, M

    2012-06-29

    To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells.

  12. ALD1 Regulates Basal Immune Components and Early Inducible Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Nicolás M; Jung, Ho Won; Engle, Nancy L; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Greenberg, Jean T

    2015-04-01

    Robust immunity requires basal defense machinery to mediate timely responses and feedback cycles to amplify defenses against potentially spreading infections. AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN 1 (ALD1) is needed for the accumulation of the plant defense signal salicylic acid (SA) during the first hours after infection with the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and is also upregulated by infection and SA. ALD1 is an aminotransferase with multiple substrates and products in vitro. Pipecolic acid (Pip) is an ALD1-dependent bioactive product induced by P. syringae. Here, we addressed roles of ALD1 in mediating defense amplification as well as the levels and responses of basal defense machinery. ALD1 needs immune components PAD4 and ICS1 (an SA synthesis enzyme) to confer disease resistance, possibly through a transcriptional amplification loop between them. Furthermore, ALD1 affects basal defense by controlling microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptor levels and responsiveness. Vascular exudates from uninfected ALD1-overexpressing plants confer local immunity to the wild type and ald1 mutants yet are not enriched for Pip. We infer that, in addition to affecting Pip accumulation, ALD1 produces non-Pip metabolites that play roles in immunity. Thus, distinct metabolite signals controlled by the same enzyme affect basal and early defenses versus later defense responses, respectively.

  13. cAMP-responsive Element-binding Protein (CREB) and cAMP Co-regulate Activator Protein 1 (AP1)-dependent Regeneration-associated Gene Expression and Neurite Growth*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Thong C.; Barco, Angel; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Willis, Dianna E.

    2014-01-01

    To regenerate damaged axons, neurons must express a cassette of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) that increases intrinsic growth capacity and confers resistance to extrinsic inhibitory cues. Here we show that dibutyrl-cAMP or forskolin combined with constitutive-active CREB are superior to either agent alone in driving neurite growth on permissive and inhibitory substrates. Of the RAGs examined, only arginase 1 (Arg1) expression correlated with the increased neurite growth induced by the cAMP/CREB combination, both of which were AP1-dependent. This suggests that cAMP-induced AP1 activity is necessary and interacts with CREB to drive expression of RAGs relevant for regeneration and demonstrates that combining a small molecule (cAMP) with an activated transcription factor (CREB) stimulates the gene expression necessary to enhance axonal regeneration. PMID:25296755

  14. Cardiac-specific overexpression of dominant-negative CREB leads to increased mortality and mitochondrial dysfunction in female mice.

    PubMed

    Watson, Peter A; Birdsey, Nicholas; Huggins, Gordon S; Svensson, Eric; Heppe, Daniel; Knaub, Leslie

    2010-12-01

    mortality. These results provide further support for the role of the CREB transcription factor in regulating mitochondrial integrity and identify a critical pathway that may contribute to sex differences in heart failure.

  15. MTOR inhibition attenuates DNA damage and apoptosis through autophagy-mediated suppression of CREB1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Hu, Zhongdong; Liu, Zhibo; Chen, Rongrong; Peng, Haiyong; Guo, Jing; Chen, Xinxin; Zhang, Hongbing

    2013-12-01

    Hyperactivation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) is a common feature of human cancers, and MTOR inhibitors, such as rapamycin, are thus becoming therapeutics in targeting certain cancers. However, rapamycin has also been found to compromise the efficacy of chemotherapeutics to cells with hyperactive MTOR. Here, we show that loss of TSC2 or PTEN enhanced etoposide-induced DNA damage and apoptosis, which was blunted by suppression of MTOR with either rapamycin or RNA interference. cAMP response element-binding protein 1 (CREB1), a nuclear transcription factor that regulates genes involved in survival and death, was positively regulated by MTOR in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and cancer cell lines. Silencing Creb1 expression with siRNA protected MTOR-hyperactive cells from DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, loss of TSC2 or PTEN impaired either etoposide or nutrient starvation-induced autophagy, which in turn, leads to CREB1 hyperactivation. We further elucidated an inverse correlation between autophagy activity and CREB1 activity in the kidney tumor tissue obtained from a TSC patient and the mouse livers with hepatocyte-specific knockout of PTEN. CREB1 induced DNA damage and subsequent apoptosis in response to etoposide in autophagy-defective cells. Reactivation of CREB1 or inhibition of autophagy not only improved the efficacy of rapamycin but also alleviated MTOR inhibition-mediated chemoresistance. Therefore, autophagy suppression of CREB1 may underlie the MTOR inhibition-mediated chemoresistance. We suggest that inhibition of MTOR in combination with CREB1 activation may be used in the treatment of cancer caused by an abnormal PI3K-PTEN-AKT-TSC1/2-MTOR signaling pathway. CREB1 activators should potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics in treatment of these cancers.

  16. Over-Expression of CREB in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Increases Cocaine Reinforcement in Self-Administering Rats

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erin B.; Graham, Danielle L.; Arzaga, Rose R.; Buzin, Nicole; Webb, Joseph; Green, Thomas A.; Bass, Caroline E.; Neve, Rachael L.; Terwilliger, Ernest F.; Nestler, Eric J.; Self, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exposure to addictive drugs enhances cAMP response element binding protein (CREB)-regulated gene expression in nucleus accumbens (NAc), and these effects are thought to reduce the positive hedonic effects of passive cocaine administration. Here, we utilized viral-mediated gene transfer to produce short- and long-term regulation of CREB activity in NAc shell of rats engaging in volitional cocaine self-administration. Increasing CREB expression in NAc shell markedly enhanced cocaine reinforcement of self-administration behavior, as indicated by leftward (long-term) and upward (short-term) shifts in fixed-ratio dose-response curves. CREB also increased the effort exerted by rats to obtain cocaine on more demanding progressive ratio schedules, an effect highly correlated with viral-induced modulation of BDNF protein in the NAc shell. CREB enhanced cocaine reinforcement when expressed either throughout acquisition of self-administration or when expression was limited to post-acquisition tests, indicating a direct effect of CREB independent of reinforcement-related learning. Down-regulating endogenous CREB in NAc shell by expressing an shRNA reduced cocaine reinforcement in similar tests, while over expression of a dominant negative CREBS133A mutant had no significant effect on cocaine self-administration. Finally, increasing CREB expression after withdrawal from self-administration enhanced cocaine-primed relapse, while reducing CREB levels facilitated extinction of cocaine seeking, but neither altered relapse induced by cocaine cues or footshock stress. Together, these findings indicate that CREB activity in NAc shell increases the motivation for cocaine during active self-administration or after withdrawal from cocaine. Our results also highlight that volitional and passive drug administration can lead to substantially different behavioral outcomes. PMID:22072694

  17. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    PubMed

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation.

  18. Primary Cilia on Horizontal Basal Cells Regulate Regeneration of the Olfactory Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Ariell M; Green, Warren W; McIntyre, Jeremy C; Allen, Benjamin L; Schwob, James E; Martens, Jeffrey R

    2015-10-07

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is one of the few tissues to undergo constitutive neurogenesis throughout the mammalian lifespan. It is composed of multiple cell types including olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that are readily replaced by two populations of basal stem cells, frequently dividing globose basal cells and quiescent horizontal basal cells (HBCs). However, the precise mechanisms by which these cells mediate OE regeneration are unclear. Here, we show for the first time that the HBC subpopulation of basal stem cells uniquely possesses primary cilia that are aligned in an apical orientation in direct apposition to sustentacular cell end feet. The positioning of these cilia suggests that they function in the detection of growth signals and/or differentiation cues. To test this idea, we generated an inducible, cell type-specific Ift88 knock-out mouse line (K5rtTA;tetOCre;Ift88(fl/fl)) to disrupt cilia formation and maintenance specifically in HBCs. Surprisingly, the loss of HBC cilia did not affect the maintenance of the adult OE but dramatically impaired the regeneration of OSNs following lesion. Furthermore, the loss of cilia during development resulted in a region-specific decrease in neurogenesis, implicating HBCs in the establishment of the OE. Together, these results suggest a novel role for primary cilia in HBC activation, proliferation, and differentiation. We show for the first time the presence of primary cilia on a quiescent population of basal stem cells, the horizontal basal cells (HBCs), in the olfactory epithelium (OE). Importantly, our data demonstrate that cilia on HBCs are necessary for regeneration of the OE following injury. Moreover, the disruption of HBC cilia alters neurogenesis during the development of the OE, providing evidence that HBCs participate in the establishment of this tissue. These data suggest that the mechanisms of penetrance for ciliopathies in the OE extend beyond that of defects in olfactory sensory neurons and may

  19. MicroRNA-34b promoter hypermethylation induces CREB overexpression and contributes to myeloid transformation

    PubMed Central

    Pigazzi, Martina; Manara, Elena; Bresolin, Silvia; Tregnago, Claudia; Beghin, Alessandra; Baron, Emma; Giarin, Emanuela; Cho, Er-Chieh; Masetti, Riccardo; Rao, Dinesh S.; Sakamoto, Kathleen M.; Basso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA-34b down-regulation in acute myeloid leukemia was previously shown to induce CREB overexpression, thereby causing leukemia proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The role of microRNA-34b and CREB in patients with myeloid malignancies has never been evaluated. We examined microRNA-34b expression and the methylation status of its promoter in cells from patients diagnosed with myeloid malignancies. We used gene expression profiling to identify signatures of myeloid transformation. We established that microRNA-34b has suppressor ability and that CREB has oncogenic potential in primary bone marrow cell cultures and in vivo. MicroRNA-34b was found to be up-regulated in pediatric patients with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (n=17) and myelodysplastic syndromes (n=28), but was down-regulated in acute myeloid leukemia patients at diagnosis (n=112). Our results showed that hypermethylation of the microRNA-34b promoter occurred in 66% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia explaining the low microRNA-34b levels and CREB overexpression, whereas preleukemic myelodysplastic syndromes and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia were not associated with hypermethylation or CREB overexpression. In paired samples taken from the same patients when they had myelodysplastic syndrome and again during the subsequent acute myeloid leukemia, we confirmed microRNA-34b promoter hypermethylation at leukemia onset, with 103 CREB target genes differentially expressed between the two disease stages. This subset of CREB targets was confirmed to associate with high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes in a separate cohort of patients (n=20). Seventy-eight of these 103 CREB targets were also differentially expressed between healthy samples (n=11) and de novo acute myeloid leukemia (n=72). Further, low microRNA-34b and high CREB expression levels induced aberrant myelopoiesis through CREB-dependent pathways in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, we suggest that microRNA-34b controls CREB expression and

  20. Interactions between CBP, NF-kappaB, and CREB in the lungs after hemorrhage and endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Shenkar, R; Yum, H K; Arcaroli, J; Kupfner, J; Abraham, E

    2001-08-01

    The transcriptional regulatory factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB has a central role in modulating expression of proinflammatory mediators that are important in acute lung injury. In vitro studies have shown that competition between NF-kappaB and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) for binding to the coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) is important in regulating transcriptional activity of these factors. In the present study, we examined in vivo interactions between CBP, CREB, and NF-kappaB in hemorrhage- or endotoxemia-induced acute lung injury. Association of CBP with CREB or the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB increased in the lungs after hemorrhage or endotoxemia. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase before hemorrhage, but not before endotoxemia, decreased p65-CBP interactions while increasing those between CREB and CBP. These alterations in CREB-CBP and p65-CBP interactions were functionally significant because xanthine oxidase inhibition before hemorrhage resulted in increased expression of the CREB-dependent gene c-Fos and decreased expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-2, a NF-kappaB-dependent gene. The present results show that the coactivator CBP has an important role in modulating transcription in vivo under clinically relevant pathophysiological conditions.

  1. Insights into Basal Signaling Regulation, Oligomerization, and Structural Organization of the Human G-Protein Coupled Receptor 83

    PubMed Central

    Scheerer, Patrick; Biebermann, Heike; Kleinau, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    The murine G-protein coupled receptor 83 (mGPR83) is expressed in the hypothalamus and was previously suggested to be involved in the regulation of metabolism. The neuropeptide PEN has been recently identified as a potent GPR83 ligand. Moreover, GPR83 constitutes functionally relevant hetero-oligomers with other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) such as the ghrelin receptor (GHSR) or GPR171. Previous deletion studies also revealed that the long N-terminal extracellular receptor domain (eNDo) of mGPR83 may act as an intra-molecular ligand, which participates in the regulation of basal signaling activity, which is a key feature of GPCR function. Here, we investigated particular amino acids at the eNDo of human GPR83 (hGPR83) by side-directed mutagenesis to identify determinants of the internal ligand. These studies were accompanied by structure homology modeling to combine functional insights with structural information. The capacity for hetero-oligomer formation of hGPR83 with diverse family A GPCRs such as the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) was also investigated, with a specific emphasis on the impact of the eNDo on oligomerization and basal signaling properties. Finally, we demonstrate that hGPR83 exhibits an unusual basal signaling for different effectors, which also supports signaling promiscuity. hGPR83 interacts with a variety of hypothalamic GPCRs such as the MC4R or GHSR. These interactions are not dependent on the ectodomain and most likely occur at interfaces constituted in the transmembrane regions. Moreover, several amino acids at the transition between the eNDo and transmembrane helix 1 were identified, where mutations lead also to biased basal signaling modulation. PMID:27936173

  2. Analogous mechanism regulating formation of neocortical basal radial glia and cerebellar Bergmann glia

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Xin; Guo, Qiuxia; Leung, Alan W; Li, James YH

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical basal radial glia (bRG) and cerebellar Bergmann glia (BG) are basal progenitors derived from ventricular apical radial glia (aRG) that selectively lose their apical processes. bRG and BG have been implicated in the expansion and folding of the cerebrum and cerebellum, respectively. Here, we analyzed the molecular characteristics and development of bRG and BG. Transcriptomic comparison revealed striking similarity of the molecular features of bRG and BG. We found that heightened ERK signaling activity in aRG is tightly linked to the temporal formation and the relative abundance of bRG in human and mouse cortices. Forced activation of an FGF-ERK-ETV axis that is crucial to BG induction specifically induced bRG with canonical human bRG features in mice. Therefore, our data point to a common mechanism of bRG and BG generation, bearing implications to the role for these basal progenitors in the evolution of cortical folding of the cerebrum and cerebellum. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23253.001 PMID:28489004

  3. β-TrCP-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of liver-enriched transcription factor CREB-H

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yun; Gao, Wei-Wei; Tang, Hei-Man Vincent; Deng, Jian-Jun; Wong, Chi-Ming; Chan, Chi-Ping; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2016-01-01

    CREB-H is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident bZIP transcription factor which critically regulates lipid homeostasis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. CREB-H is proteolytically activated by regulated intramembrane proteolysis to generate a C-terminally truncated form known as CREB-H-ΔTC, which translocates to the nucleus to activate target gene expression. CREB-H-ΔTC is a fast turnover protein but the mechanism governing its destruction was not well understood. In this study, we report on β-TrCP-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of CREB-H-ΔTC. The degradation of CREB-H-ΔTC was mediated by lysine 48-linked polyubiquitination and could be inhibited by proteasome inhibitor. CREB-H-ΔTC physically interacted with β-TrCP, a substrate recognition subunit of the SCFβ-TrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase. Forced expression of β-TrCP increased the polyubiquitination and decreased the stability of CREB-H-ΔTC, whereas knockdown of β-TrCP had the opposite effect. An evolutionarily conserved sequence, SDSGIS, was identified in CREB-H-ΔTC, which functioned as the β-TrCP-binding motif. CREB-H-ΔTC lacking this motif was stabilized and resistant to β-TrCP-induced polyubiquitination. This motif was a phosphodegron and its phosphorylation was required for β-TrCP recognition. Furthermore, two inhibitory phosphorylation sites close to the phosphodegron were identified. Taken together, our work revealed a new intracellular signaling pathway that controls ubiquitination and degradation of the active form of CREB-H transcription factor. PMID:27029215

  4. Impairment of Memory Consolidation by Galanin Correlates with In-Vivo Inhibition of Both LTP and CREB Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Jefferson W.; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Barr, Alasdair M.; Criado, Jose R.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Behrens, M. Margarita; Henriksen, Steven J.; Bartfai, Tamas

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the state of CREB phosphorylation and in LTP in the hippocampus have been associated with learning and memory. Here we show that galanin, the neuropeptide released in the hippocampal formation from cholinergic and noradrenergic fibers, that has been shown to produce impairments in memory consolidation in the Morris water maze task inhibits both LTP and CREB phosphorylation in the rat hippocampus in-vivo. While there are many transmitters regulating CREB phosphorylation none has been shown to suppress behaviorally-induced hippocampal CREB phosphorylation as potently as galanin. The in-vivo inhibition of dentate gyrus-LTP and of CREB phosphorylation by the agonist occupancy of GalR1 and GALR2-type galanin receptors provides strong in-vivo cellular and molecular correlates to galanin-induced learning deficits and designates galanin as a major regulator of the memory consolidation process. PMID:19531380

  5. Association of MMP7 -181A→G Promoter Polymorphism with Gastric Cancer Risk: INFLUENCE OF NICOTINE IN DIFFERENTIAL ALLELE-SPECIFIC TRANSCRIPTION VIA INCREASED PHOSPHORYLATION OF cAMP-RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN (CREB).

    PubMed

    Kesh, Kousik; Subramanian, Lakshmi; Ghosh, Nillu; Gupta, Vinayak; Gupta, Arnab; Bhattacharya, Samir; Mahapatra, Nitish R; Swarnakar, Snehasikta

    2015-06-05

    Elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase7 (MMP7) has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in cancer invasion. The -181A→G (rs11568818) polymorphism in the MMP7 promoter modulates gene expression and possibly affects cancer progression. Here, we evaluated the impact of -181A→G polymorphism on MMP7 promoter activity and its association with gastric cancer risk in eastern Indian case-control cohorts (n = 520). The GG genotype as compared with the AA genotype was predisposed (p = 0.02; odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-3.3) to gastric cancer risk. Stratification analysis showed that tobacco addiction enhanced gastric cancer risk in GG subjects when compared with AA subjects (p = 0.03, odds ratio = 2.46, and 95% confidence interval = 1.07-5.68). Meta-analysis revealed that tobacco enhanced the risk for cancer more markedly in AG and GG carriers. Activity and expression of MMP7 were significantly higher in GG than in AA carriers. In support, MMP7 promoter-reporter assays showed greater transcriptional activity toward A to G transition under basal/nicotine-induced/cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) overexpressed conditions in gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Moreover, nicotine (a major component of tobacco) treatment significantly up-regulated MMP7 expression due to enhanced CREB phosphorylation followed by its nuclear translocation in gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed higher binding of phosphorylated CREB with the -181G than the -181A allele. Altogether, specific binding of phosphorylated CREB to the G allele-carrying promoter enhances MMP7 gene expression that is further augmented by nicotine due to increased CREB phosphorylation and thereby increases the risk for gastric cancer.

  6. The role of CREB3L4 in the proliferation of prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Joo-Man; Kim, Mi-Young; Ahn, Yong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer (PC) is growing rapidly throughout the world, in probable association with the adoption of western style diets. Thus, understanding the molecular pathways triggering the development of PC is crucial for both its prevention and treatment. Here, we investigated the role of the metabolism-associated protein, CREB3L4, in the proliferation of PC cells. CREB3L4 was upregulated by the synthetic androgen, R1881, in LNCaP PC cells (an androgen-dependent cell line). Knockdown of CREB3L4 resulted in decreased androgen-dependent PC cell growth. LNCaP cells transfected with siCREB3L4 underwent G2/M arrest, with upregulation of the proteins cyclin B1, phospho-CDK1, p21Waf1/Cip1, and INCA1, and downregulation of cyclin D1. Moreover, depletion of CREB3L4 resulted in significantly decreased expression of a subset of androgen-receptor (AR) target genes, including PSA, FKBP5, HPGD, KLK2, and KLK4. We also demonstrated that CREB3L4 directly interacts with the AR, and increases the binding of AR to androgen response elements (AREs). We also identified a role for the unfolded protein response (and its surrogate, IRE1α), in activating CREB3L4. Cumulatively, we postulate that CREB3L4 expression is mediated by an AR-IRE1α axis, but is also directly regulated by AR-to-ARE binding. Thus, our study demonstrates that CREB3L4 plays a key role in PC cell proliferation, which is promoted by both AR and IRE1α. PMID:28338058

  7. Molecular mechanism: the human dopamine transporter histidine 547 regulates basal and HIV-1 Tat protein-inhibited dopamine transport

    PubMed Central

    Quizon, Pamela M.; Sun, Wei-Lun; Yuan, Yaxia; Midde, Narasimha M.; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal dopaminergic transmission has been implicated as a risk determinant of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. HIV-1 Tat protein increases synaptic dopamine (DA) levels by directly inhibiting DA transporter (DAT) activity, ultimately leading to dopaminergic neuron damage. Through integrated computational modeling prediction and experimental validation, we identified that histidine547 on human DAT (hDAT) is critical for regulation of basal DA uptake and Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport. Compared to wild type hDAT (WT hDAT), mutation of histidine547 (H547A) displayed a 196% increase in DA uptake. Other substitutions of histidine547 showed that DA uptake was not altered in H547R but decreased by 99% in H547P and 60% in H547D, respectively. These mutants did not alter DAT surface expression or surface DAT binding sites. H547 mutants attenuated Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport observed in WT hDAT. H547A displays a differential sensitivity to PMA- or BIM-induced activation or inhibition of DAT function relative to WT hDAT, indicating a change in basal PKC activity in H547A. These findings demonstrate that histidine547 on hDAT plays a crucial role in stabilizing basal DA transport and Tat-DAT interaction. This study provides mechanistic insights into identifying targets on DAT for Tat binding and improving DAT-mediated dysfunction of DA transmission. PMID:27966610

  8. Molecular mechanism: the human dopamine transporter histidine 547 regulates basal and HIV-1 Tat protein-inhibited dopamine transport.

    PubMed

    Quizon, Pamela M; Sun, Wei-Lun; Yuan, Yaxia; Midde, Narasimha M; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Zhu, Jun

    2016-12-14

    Abnormal dopaminergic transmission has been implicated as a risk determinant of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. HIV-1 Tat protein increases synaptic dopamine (DA) levels by directly inhibiting DA transporter (DAT) activity, ultimately leading to dopaminergic neuron damage. Through integrated computational modeling prediction and experimental validation, we identified that histidine547 on human DAT (hDAT) is critical for regulation of basal DA uptake and Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport. Compared to wild type hDAT (WT hDAT), mutation of histidine547 (H547A) displayed a 196% increase in DA uptake. Other substitutions of histidine547 showed that DA uptake was not altered in H547R but decreased by 99% in H547P and 60% in H547D, respectively. These mutants did not alter DAT surface expression or surface DAT binding sites. H547 mutants attenuated Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport observed in WT hDAT. H547A displays a differential sensitivity to PMA- or BIM-induced activation or inhibition of DAT function relative to WT hDAT, indicating a change in basal PKC activity in H547A. These findings demonstrate that histidine547 on hDAT plays a crucial role in stabilizing basal DA transport and Tat-DAT interaction. This study provides mechanistic insights into identifying targets on DAT for Tat binding and improving DAT-mediated dysfunction of DA transmission.

  9. RNA Helicase DDX5 Regulates MicroRNA Expression and Contributes to Cytoskeletal Reorganization in Basal Breast Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Daojing; Huang, Jing; Hu, Zhi

    2011-11-15

    RNA helicase DDX5 (also p68) is involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism and serves as a transcriptional co-regulator, but its functional role in breast cancer remains elusive. Here, we report an integrative biology study of DDX5 in breast cancer, encompassing quantitative proteomics, global MicroRNA profiling, and detailed biochemical characterization of cell lines and human tissues. We showed that protein expression of DDX5 increased progressively from the luminal to basal breast cancer cell lines, and correlated positively with that of CD44 in the basal subtypes. Through immunohistochemistry analyses of tissue microarrays containing over 200 invasive human ductal carcinomas, we observed that DDX5 was upregulated in the majority of malignant tissues, and its expression correlated strongly with those of Ki67 and EGFR in the triple-negative tumors. We demonstrated that DDX5 regulated a subset of MicroRNAs including miR-21 and miR-182 in basal breast cancer cells. Knockdown of DDX5 resulted in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and reduction of cellular proliferation. The effects were accompanied by upregulation of tumor suppressor PDCD4 (a known miR-21 target); as well as upregulation of cofilin and profilin, two key proteins involved in actin polymerization and cytoskeleton maintenance, as a consequence of miR-182 downregulation. Treatment with miR-182 inhibitors resulted in morphologic phenotypes resembling those induced by DDX5 knockdown. Using bioinformatics tools for pathway and network analyses, we confirmed that the network for regulation of actin cytoskeleton was predominantly enriched for the predicted downstream targets of miR-182. Our results reveal a new functional role of DDX5 in breast cancer via the DDX5→miR-182→actin cytoskeleton pathway, and suggest the potential clinical utility of DDX5 and its downstream MicroRNAs in the theranostics of breast cancer.

  10. Endotoxin-induced basal respiration alterations of renal HK-2 cells: A sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Quoilin, C.; Mouithys-Mickalad, A.; Duranteau, J.; Gallez, B.; Hoebeke, M.

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A HK-2 cells model of inflammation-induced acute kidney injury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two oximetry methods: high resolution respirometry and ESR spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen consumption rates of renal cells decrease when treated with LPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cells do not recover normal respiration when the LPS treatment is removed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This basal respiration alteration is a sign of pathologic metabolism down-regulation. -- Abstract: To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells.

  11. Quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranoside suppresses melanin synthesis by augmenting p38 MAPK and CREB signaling pathways and subsequent cAMP down-regulation in murine melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Gug; Kim, Han Hyuk; Paul, Souren; Jang, Jae Yoon; Cho, Yong Hun; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Yu, Jae Myo; Lee, Eun Su; An, Bong Jeun; Kang, Sun Chul; Bang, Byung Ho

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of purified quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-d-glucopyranosid (QCGG) on melanogenesis was investigated. QCGG was isolated from the calyx of a traditional Korean medicinal herb, Persimmon (Diospyros kaki). The hypopigmentation effects of QCGG were determined by examination of cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity assay, cAMP assay, and Western blotting of α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Our results showed that QCGG inhibited both melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in a concentration-dependent manner as well as significantly reduced the expression of melanogenic proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase-related protein-1, tyrosinase-related protein-2, and tyrosinase. Moreover, QCGG inhibited intracellular cAMP levels, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and p38 MAPK expression in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 cells. Taken together, the suppressive effects of QCGG on melanogenesis may involve down-regulation of MITF and its downstream signaling pathway via phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CREB along with reduced cAMP levels. These results indicate that QCGG reduced melanin synthesis by reducing expression of tyrosine and tyrosine-related proteins via extracellular signal-related protein kinase (ERK) activation, followed by down-regulation of CREB, p38, and MITF. PMID:26586997

  12. A role for neuronal cAMP responsive-element binding (CREB)-1 in brain responses to calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Salvatore; Ripoli, Cristian; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Ranieri, Sofia Chiatamone; Leone, Lucia; Toietta, Gabriele; McBurney, Michael W; Schütz, Günther; Riccio, Antonella; Grassi, Claudio; Galeotti, Tommaso; Pani, Giovambattista

    2012-01-10

    Calorie restriction delays brain senescence and prevents neurodegeneration, but critical regulators of these beneficial responses other than the NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) are unknown. We report that effects of calorie restriction on neuronal plasticity, memory and social behavior are abolished in mice lacking cAMP responsive-element binding (CREB)-1 in the forebrain. Moreover, CREB deficiency drastically reduces the expression of Sirt-1 and the induction of genes relevant to neuronal metabolism and survival in the cortex and hippocampus of dietary-restricted animals. Biochemical studies reveal a complex interplay between CREB and Sirt-1: CREB directly regulates the transcription of the sirtuin in neuronal cells by binding to Sirt-1 chromatin; Sirt-1, in turn, is recruited by CREB to DNA and promotes CREB-dependent expression of target gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and neuronal NO Synthase. Accordingly, expression of these CREB targets is markedly reduced in the brain of Sirt KO mice that are, like CREB-deficient mice, poorly responsive to calorie restriction. Thus, the above circuitry, modulated by nutrient availability, links energy metabolism with neurotrophin signaling, participates in brain adaptation to nutrient restriction, and is potentially relevant to accelerated brain aging by overnutrition and diabetes.

  13. HMGA1 promotes metastatic processes in basal-like breast cancer regulating EMT and stemness

    PubMed Central

    Pegoraro, Silvia; Ros, Gloria; Piazza, Silvano; Sommaggio, Roberta; Ciani, Yari; Rosato, Antonio; Sgarra, Riccardo; Del Sal, Giannino

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that progresses to the critical hallmark of metastasis. In the present study, we show that the High Mobility Group A1 (HMGA1) protein plays a fundamental role in this process in basal-like breast cancer subtype. HMGA1 knockdown induces the mesenchymal to epithelial transition and dramatically decreases stemness and self-renewal. Notably, HMGA1 depletion in basal-like breast cancer cell lines reduced migration and invasion in vitro and the formation of metastases in vivo. Mechanistically, HMGA1 activated stemness and key migration-associated genes which were linked to the Wnt/beta-catenin, Notch and Pin1/mutant p53 signalling pathways. Moreover, we identified a specific HMGA1 gene expression signature that was activated in a large subset of human primary breast tumours and was associated with poor prognosis. Taken together, these data provide new insights into the role of HMGA1 in the acquisition of aggressive features in breast cancer. PMID:23945276

  14. Transgenic songbirds with suppressed or enhanced activity of CREB transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Kentaro; Matsui, Sumiko; Watanabe, Dai

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds postnatally develop their skill to utter and to perceive a vocal signal for communication. How genetic and environmental influences act in concert to regulate the development of such skill is not fully understood. Here, we report the phenotype of transgenic songbirds with altered intrinsic activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcription factor. By viral vector-mediated modification of genomic DNA, we established germ line-transmitted lines of zebra finches, which exhibited enhanced or suppressed activity of CREB. Although intrinsically acquired vocalizations or their hearing ability were not affected, the transgenic birds showed reduced vocal learning quality of their own songs and impaired audio-memory formation against conspecific songs. These results thus demonstrate that appropriate activity of CREB is necessary for the postnatal acquisition of learned behavior in songbirds, and the CREB transgenic birds offer a unique opportunity to separately manipulate both genetic and environmental factors that impinge on the postnatal song learning. PMID:26048905

  15. Mifepristone Suppresses Basal Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Down-regulating KLF5 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong; Shi, Peiguo; Nie, Zhi; Liang, Huichun; Zhou, Zhongmei; Chen, Wenlin; Chen, Haijun; Dong, Chao; Yang, Runxiang; Liu, Suling; Chen, Ceshi

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is currently the most malignant subtype of breast cancers without effective targeted therapies. Mifepristone (MIF), a drug regularly used for abortion, has been reported to have anti-tumor activity in multiple hormone-dependent cancers, including luminal type breast cancers. In this study, we showed that MIF suppressed tumor growth of the TNBC cell lines and patient-derived xenografts in NOD-SCID mice. Furthermore, MIF reduced the TNBC cancer stem cell (CSC) population through down-regulating KLF5 expression, a stem cell transcription factor over-expressed in basal type TNBC and promoting cell proliferation, survival and stemness. Interestingly, MIF suppresses the expression of KLF5 through inducing the expression of miR-153. Consistently, miR-153 decreases CSC and miR-153 inhibitor rescued MIF-induced down-regulation of the KLF5 protein level and CSC ratio. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIF inhibits basal TNBC via the miR-153/KLF5 axis and MIF may be used for the treatment of TNBC. PMID:26941846

  16. Mifepristone Suppresses Basal Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Stem Cells by Down-regulating KLF5 Expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Shi, Peiguo; Nie, Zhi; Liang, Huichun; Zhou, Zhongmei; Chen, Wenlin; Chen, Haijun; Dong, Chao; Yang, Runxiang; Liu, Suling; Chen, Ceshi

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is currently the most malignant subtype of breast cancers without effective targeted therapies. Mifepristone (MIF), a drug regularly used for abortion, has been reported to have anti-tumor activity in multiple hormone-dependent cancers, including luminal type breast cancers. In this study, we showed that MIF suppressed tumor growth of the TNBC cell lines and patient-derived xenografts in NOD-SCID mice. Furthermore, MIF reduced the TNBC cancer stem cell (CSC) population through down-regulating KLF5 expression, a stem cell transcription factor over-expressed in basal type TNBC and promoting cell proliferation, survival and stemness. Interestingly, MIF suppresses the expression of KLF5 through inducing the expression of miR-153. Consistently, miR-153 decreases CSC and miR-153 inhibitor rescued MIF-induced down-regulation of the KLF5 protein level and CSC ratio. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIF inhibits basal TNBC via the miR-153/KLF5 axis and MIF may be used for the treatment of TNBC.

  17. Endogenous E-type prostaglandins in regulation of basal alkaline secretion by amphibian duodenum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Heylings, J R; Hampson, S E; Garner, A

    1985-01-01

    Segments of proximal duodenum from Rana catesbeiana, stripped of external muscle and mounted as a tube in a glass chamber, alkalinized the luminal-side bathing solution at a rate of 1.70 +/- 0.16 microEq/cm . h (n = 18, gross surface area approximately 1.5 cm2/cm). A single change of the serosal-side bathing solution for fresh solution reduced the rate of titratable alkaline secretion, which achieved a new steady state after 45 min amounting to 66% +/- 2% of the initial rate; transmucosal potential difference (lumen negative) fell from 10.6 +/- 1.2 to 8.8 +/- 1.1 mV. Concentrations of E-type prostaglandins in the serosal-side solution measured by radioimmunoassay were 8.5 nM (3 ng/ml) before, 0.17 nM 5 min after, and 1.7 nM 90 min after the solution change (n = 8). Reapplication of the original bathing solution 90 min after the initial change reestablished original secretory rate and potential difference. The increases in alkaline secretion and potential difference were comparable in magnitude and profile to those induced by serosal administration of 10 nM prostaglandin E2. Addition of the metabolic inhibitor 2,4-dinitrophenol (100 microM, serosal side) reduced basal alkaline secretion to 30% +/- 7% of the initial rate and abolished the potential difference (n = 8). These data demonstrate that endogenous prostaglandin E production by an isolated preparation of amphibian duodenum accounts for a proportion of alkaline secretion that is equivalent to 50% of metabolism-dependent basal secretion.

  18. ARAP2 promotes GLUT1-mediated basal glucose uptake through regulation of sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Aditi; Håversen, Liliana; Mobini, Reza; Andersson, Linda; Ståhlman, Marcus; Lu, Emma; Rutberg, Mikael; Fogelstrand, Per; Ekroos, Kim; Mardinoglu, Adil; Levin, Malin; Perkins, Rosie; Borén, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Lipid droplet formation, which is driven by triglyceride synthesis, requires several droplet-associated proteins. We identified ARAP2 (an ADP-ribosylation factor 6 GTPase-activating protein) in the lipid droplet proteome of NIH-3T3 cells and showed that knockdown of ARAP2 resulted in decreased lipid droplet formation and triglyceride synthesis. We also showed that ARAP2 knockdown did not affect fatty acid uptake but reduced basal glucose uptake, total levels of the glucose transporter GLUT1, and GLUT1 levels in the plasma membrane and the lipid micro-domain fraction (a specialized plasma membrane domain enriched in sphingolipids). Microarray analysis showed that ARAP2 knockdown altered expression of genes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Because sphingolipids are known to play a key role in cell signaling, we performed lipidomics to further investigate the relationship between ARAP2 and sphingolipids and potentially identify a link with glucose uptake. We found that ARAP2 knockdown increased glucosylceramide and lactosylceramide levels without affecting ceramide levels, and thus speculated that the rate-limiting enzyme in glycosphingolipid synthesis, namely glucosylceramide synthase (GCS), could be modified by ARAP2. In agreement with our hypothesis, we showed that the activity of GCS was increased by ARAP2 knockdown and reduced by ARAP2 overexpression. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of GCS resulted in increases in basal glucose uptake, total GLUT1 levels, triglyceride biosynthesis from glucose, and lipid droplet formation, indicating that the effects of GCS inhibition are the opposite to those resulting from ARAP2 knockdown. Taken together, our data suggest that ARAP2 promotes lipid droplet formation by modifying sphingolipid metabolism through GCS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic changes in intracellular ROS levels regulate airway basal stem cell homeostasis through Nrf2-dependent Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Paul, Manash K; Bisht, Bharti; Darmawan, Daphne O; Chiou, Richard; Ha, Vi L; Wallace, William D; Chon, Andrew T; Hegab, Ahmed E; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David A; Alva-Ornelas, Jackelyn A; Gomperts, Brigitte N

    2014-08-07

    Airways are exposed to myriad environmental and damaging agents such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), which also have physiological roles as signaling molecules that regulate stem cell function. However, the functional significance of both steady and dynamically changing ROS levels in different stem cell populations, as well as downstream mechanisms that integrate ROS sensing into decisions regarding stem cell homeostasis, are unclear. Here, we show in mouse and human airway basal stem cells (ABSCs) that intracellular flux from low to moderate ROS levels is required for stem cell self-renewal and proliferation. Changing ROS levels activate Nrf2, which activates the Notch pathway to stimulate ABSC self-renewal and an antioxidant program that scavenges intracellular ROS, returning overall ROS levels to a low state to maintain homeostatic balance. This redox-mediated regulation of lung stem cell function has significant implications for stem cell biology, repair of lung injuries, and diseases such as cancer.

  20. Closed-loop firing rate regulation of two interacting excitatory and inhibitory neural populations of the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Ihab; Pasillas-Lépine, William; Chaillet, Antoine; Panteley, Elena; Palfi, Stéphane; Senova, Suhan

    2016-02-01

    This paper develops a new closed-loop firing rate regulation strategy for a population of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus, derived using a model-based analysis of the basal ganglia. The system is described using a firing rate model, in order to analyse the generation of beta-band oscillations. On this system, a proportional regulation of the firing rate reduces the gain of the subthalamo-pallidal loop in the parkinsonian case, thus impeding pathological oscillation generation. A filter with a well-chosen frequency is added to this proportional scheme, in order to avoid a potential instability of the feedback loop due to actuation and measurement delays. Our main result is a set of conditions on the parameters of the stimulation strategy that guarantee both its stability and a prescribed delay margin. A discussion on the applicability of the proposed method and a complete set of mathematical proofs is included.

  1. Appetitive Cue-Evoked ERK Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens Requires NMDA and D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation and Regulates CREB Phosphorylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschmann, Erin K. Z.; Mauna, Jocelyn C.; Willis, Cory M.; Foster, Rebecca L.; Chipman, Amanda M.; Thiels, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned stimuli (CS) can modulate reward-seeking behavior. This modulatory effect can be maladaptive and has been implicated in excessive reward seeking and relapse to drug addiction. We previously demonstrated that exposure to an appetitive CS causes an increase in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic-AMP…

  2. Appetitive Cue-Evoked ERK Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens Requires NMDA and D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation and Regulates CREB Phosphorylation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschmann, Erin K. Z.; Mauna, Jocelyn C.; Willis, Cory M.; Foster, Rebecca L.; Chipman, Amanda M.; Thiels, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned stimuli (CS) can modulate reward-seeking behavior. This modulatory effect can be maladaptive and has been implicated in excessive reward seeking and relapse to drug addiction. We previously demonstrated that exposure to an appetitive CS causes an increase in the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic-AMP…

  3. Interaction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons with the glucocorticoid system in stress regulation and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Paul, Saswati; Jeon, Won Kyung; Bizon, Jennifer L; Han, Jung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    A substantial number of studies on basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons (BFCN) have provided compelling evidence for their role in the etiology of stress, cognitive aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neurodegenerative diseases. BFCN project to a broad range of cortical sites and limbic structures, including the hippocampus, and are involved in stress and cognition. In particular, the hippocampus, the primary target tissue of the glucocorticoid stress hormones, is associated with cognitive function in tandem with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation. The present review summarizes glucocorticoid and HPA axis research to date in an effort to establish the manner in which stress affects the release of acetylcholine (ACh), glucocorticoids, and their receptor in the context of cognitive processes. We attempt to provide the molecular interactive link between the glucocorticoids and cholinergic system that contributes to BFCN degeneration in stress-induced acceleration of cognitive decline in aging and AD. We also discuss the importance of animal models in facilitating such studies for pharmacological use, to which could help decipher disease states and propose leads for pharmacological intervention.

  4. DNA supercoiling, a critical signal regulating the basal expression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Fulcrand, Geraldine; Dages, Samantha; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Chapagain, Prem; Gerstman, Bernard S.; Dunlap, David; Leng, Fenfei

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli lac repressor (LacI) is a paradigmatic transcriptional factor that controls the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon. This tetrameric protein specifically binds to the O1, O2 and O3 operators of the lac operon and forms a DNA loop to repress transcription from the adjacent lac promoter. In this article, we demonstrate that upon binding to the O1 and O2 operators at their native positions LacI constrains three (−) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter and forms a topological barrier. The stability of LacI-mediated DNA topological barriers is directly proportional to its DNA binding affinity. However, we find that DNA supercoiling modulates the basal expression from the lac operon in E. coli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that LacI functions as a topological barrier to constrain free, unconstrained (−) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter. These constrained (−) supercoils enhance LacI’s DNA-binding affinity and thereby the repression of the promoter. Thus, LacI binding is superhelically modulated to control the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon under varying growth conditions. PMID:26763930

  5. Interaction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons with the glucocorticoid system in stress regulation and cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Saswati; Jeon, Won Kyung; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Han, Jung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    A substantial number of studies on basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons (BFCN) have provided compelling evidence for their role in the etiology of stress, cognitive aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and other neurodegenerative diseases. BFCN project to a broad range of cortical sites and limbic structures, including the hippocampus, and are involved in stress and cognition. In particular, the hippocampus, the primary target tissue of the glucocorticoid stress hormones, is associated with cognitive function in tandem with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation. The present review summarizes glucocorticoid and HPA axis research to date in an effort to establish the manner in which stress affects the release of acetylcholine (ACh), glucocorticoids, and their receptor in the context of cognitive processes. We attempt to provide the molecular interactive link between the glucocorticoids and cholinergic system that contributes to BFCN degeneration in stress-induced acceleration of cognitive decline in aging and AD. We also discuss the importance of animal models in facilitating such studies for pharmacological use, to which could help decipher disease states and propose leads for pharmacological intervention. PMID:25883567

  6. INTU is essential for oncogenic Hh signaling through regulating primary cilia formation in basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, N; Leung, E L-H; Liu, C; Li, L; Eguether, T; Jun Yao, X-J; Jones, E C; Norris, D A; Liu, A; Clark, R A; Roop, D R; Pazour, G J; Shroyer, K R; Chen, J

    2017-08-31

    Inturned (INTU), a cilia and planar polarity effector, performs prominent ciliogenic functions during morphogenesis, such as in the skin. INTU is expressed in adult tissues but its role in tissue maintenance is unknown. Here, we report that the expression of the INTU gene is aberrantly elevated in human basal cell carcinoma (BCC), coinciding with increased primary cilia formation and activated hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Disrupting Intu in an oncogenic mutant Smo (SmoM2)-driven BCC mouse model prevented the formation of BCC through suppressing primary cilia formation and Hh signaling, suggesting that Intu performs a permissive role during BCC formation. INTU is essential for intraflagellar transport A complex assembly during ciliogenesis. To further determine whether Intu is directly involved in the activation of Hh signaling downstream of ciliogenesis, we examined the Hh signaling pathway in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which readily responds to the Hh pathway activation. Depleting Intu blocked Smo agonist-induced Hh pathway activation, whereas the expression of Gli2ΔN, a constitutively active Gli2, restored Hh pathway activation in Intu-deficient cells, suggesting that INTU functions upstream of Gli2 activation. In contrast, overexpressing Intu did not promote ciliogenesis or Hh signaling. Taken together, data obtained from this study suggest that INTU is indispensable during BCC tumorigenesis and that its aberrant upregulation is likely a prerequisite for primary cilia formation during Hh-dependent tumorigenesis.

  7. DNA supercoiling, a critical signal regulating the basal expression of the lac operon in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Fulcrand, Geraldine; Dages, Samantha; Zhi, Xiaoduo; Chapagain, Prem; Gerstman, Bernard S; Dunlap, David; Leng, Fenfei

    2016-01-14

    Escherichia coli lac repressor (LacI) is a paradigmatic transcriptional factor that controls the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon. This tetrameric protein specifically binds to the O1, O2 and O3 operators of the lac operon and forms a DNA loop to repress transcription from the adjacent lac promoter. In this article, we demonstrate that upon binding to the O1 and O2 operators at their native positions LacI constrains three (-) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter and forms a topological barrier. The stability of LacI-mediated DNA topological barriers is directly proportional to its DNA binding affinity. However, we find that DNA supercoiling modulates the basal expression from the lac operon in E. coli. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that LacI functions as a topological barrier to constrain free, unconstrained (-) supercoils within the 401-bp DNA loop of the lac promoter. These constrained (-) supercoils enhance LacI's DNA-binding affinity and thereby the repression of the promoter. Thus, LacI binding is superhelically modulated to control the expression of lacZYA in the lac operon under varying growth conditions.

  8. MicroRNA-27a regulates basal transcription by targeting the p44 subunit of general transcription factor IIH

    PubMed Central

    Portal, Maximiliano M.

    2011-01-01

    General transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) is a complex RNA polymerase II basal transcription factor comprising 10 different polypeptides that display activities involved in transcription and DNA repair processes. Although biochemical studies have uncovered TFIIH importance, little is known about how the mRNAs that code for TFIIH subunits are regulated. Here it is shown that mRNAs encoding seven of the TFIIH subunits (p34, p44, p52, p62, XPB, CDK7, and p8) are regulated at the posttranscriptional level in a Dicer-dependent manner. Indeed, abolition of the miRNA pathway induces abnormal accumulation, stabilization, and translational activation of these seven mRNAs. Herein, miR-27a was identified as a key regulator of p44 mRNA. Moreover, miR-27a was shown to destabilize the p44 subunit of the TFIIH complex during the G2-M phase, thereby modulating the transcriptional shutdown observed during this transition. This work is unique in providing a demonstration of global transcriptional regulation through the action of a single miRNA. PMID:21558443

  9. The CCAAT box in the proximal SERCA2 gene promoter regulates basal and stress-induced transcription in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Fragoso-Medina, Jorge; Rodriguez, Gabriela; Zarain-Herzberg, Angel

    2017-09-07

    The cardiac sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase-2a (SERCA2a) is vital for the correct handling of calcium concentration in cardiomyocytes. Recent studies showed that the induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (ERS) with the SERCA2 inhibitor Thapsigargin (Tg) increases the mRNA and protein levels of SERCA2a. The SERCA2 gene promoter contains an ERS response element (ERSE) at position -78 bp that is conserved among species and might transcriptionally regulate SERCA2 gene expression. However, its involvement in SERCA2 basal and calcium-mediated transcriptional activation has not been elucidated. In this work, we show that in cellular cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, the treatment with Tg or the calcium ionophore A23187 increases the SERCA2a mRNA and protein abundance, as well as the transcriptional activity of two chimeric human SERCA2 gene constructs, containing -254 and -2579 bp of 5'-regulatory region cloned in the pGL3-basic vector and transiently transfected in cultured cardiomyocytes. We found that the ERSE present in the SERCA2 proximal promoter contains a CCAAT box that is involved in basal and ERS-mediated hSERCA2 transcriptional activation. The EMSA results showed that the CCAAT box present in the ERSE recruits the NF-Y transcription factor. Additionally, by ChIP assays, we confirmed in vivo binding of NF-Y and C/EBPβ transcription factors to the SERCA2 gene proximal promoter.

  10. Cortically projecting basal forebrain parvalbumin neurons regulate cortical gamma band oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae; Thankachan, Stephen; McKenna, James T; McNally, James M; Yang, Chun; Choi, Jee Hyun; Chen, Lichao; Kocsis, Bernat; Deisseroth, Karl; Strecker, Robert E; Basheer, Radhika; Brown, Ritchie E; McCarley, Robert W

    2015-03-17

    Cortical gamma band oscillations (GBO, 30-80 Hz, typically ∼40 Hz) are involved in higher cognitive functions such as feature binding, attention, and working memory. GBO abnormalities are a feature of several neuropsychiatric disorders associated with dysfunction of cortical fast-spiking interneurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV). GBO vary according to the state of arousal, are modulated by attention, and are correlated with conscious awareness. However, the subcortical cell types underlying the state-dependent control of GBO are not well understood. Here we tested the role of one cell type in the wakefulness-promoting basal forebrain (BF) region, cortically projecting GABAergic neurons containing PV, whose virally transduced fibers we found apposed cortical PV interneurons involved in generating GBO. Optogenetic stimulation of BF PV neurons in mice preferentially increased cortical GBO power by entraining a cortical oscillator with a resonant frequency of ∼40 Hz, as revealed by analysis of both rhythmic and nonrhythmic BF PV stimulation. Selective saporin lesions of BF cholinergic neurons did not alter the enhancement of cortical GBO power induced by BF PV stimulation. Importantly, bilateral optogenetic inhibition of BF PV neurons decreased the power of the 40-Hz auditory steady-state response, a read-out of the ability of the cortex to generate GBO used in clinical studies. Our results are surprising and novel in indicating that this presumptively inhibitory BF PV input controls cortical GBO, likely by synchronizing the activity of cortical PV interneurons. BF PV neurons may represent a previously unidentified therapeutic target to treat disorders involving abnormal GBO, such as schizophrenia.

  11. Basal cGMP regulates the resting pacemaker potential frequency of cultured mouse colonic interstitial cells of Cajal.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Pawan Kumar; Choi, Seok; Jeong, Yu Jin; Park, Chan Guk; So, Insuk; Jun, Jae Yeoul

    2014-07-01

    Cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) inhibited the generation of pacemaker activity in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) from the small intestine. However, cGMP role on pacemaker activity in colonic ICCs has not been reported yet. Thus, we investigated the role of cGMP in pacemaker activity regulation by colonic ICCs. We performed a whole-cell patch-clamp and Ca(2+) imaging in cultured ICCs from mouse colon. 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase) increased the pacemaker potential frequency, whereas zaprinast (an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase) and cell-permeable 8-bromo-cGMP decreased the pacemaker potential frequency. KT-5823 (an inhibitor of protein kinase G [PKG]) did not affect the pacemaker potential. L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide [NO] synthase) increased the pacemaker potential frequency, whereas (±)-S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP, a NO donor) decreased the pacemaker potential frequency. Glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker) did not block the effects of cell-permeable 8-bromo-cGMP and SNAP. Recordings of spontaneous intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) oscillations revealed that ODQ and L-NAME increased [Ca(2+)]i oscillations. In contrast, zaprinast, 8-bromo cGMP, and SNAP decreased the [Ca(2+)]i oscillations. Basal cGMP levels regulate the resting pacemaker potential frequency by the alteration on Ca(2+) release via a PKG-independent pathway. Additionally, the endogenous release of NO seems to be responsible maintaining basal cGMP levels in colonic ICCs.

  12. Scaffold protein enigma homolog activates CREB whereas a short splice variant prevents CREB activation in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Jumpei; Iijima, Masumi; Yoshimoto, Nobuo; Niimi, Tomoaki; Kuroda, Shun'ichi; Maturana, Andrés D

    2015-12-01

    Enigma Homolog (ENH1 or Pdlim5) is a scaffold protein composed of an N-terminal PDZ domain and three LIM domains at the C-terminal end. The enh gene encodes for several splice variants with opposing functions. ENH1 promotes cardiomyocytes hypertrophy whereas ENH splice variants lacking LIM domains prevent it. ENH1 interacts with various Protein Kinase C (PKC) isozymes and Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1). In addition, the binding of ENH1's LIM domains to PKC is sufficient to activate the kinase without stimulation. The downstream events of the ENH1-PKC/PKD1 complex remain unknown. PKC and PKD1 are known to phosphorylate the transcription factor cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB). We tested whether ENH1 could play a role in the activation of CREB. We found that, in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes, ENH1 interacts with CREB, is necessary for the phosphorylation of CREB at ser133, and the activation of CREB-dependent transcription. On the contrary, the overexpression of ENH3, a LIM-less splice variant, inhibited the phosphorylation of CREB. ENH3 overexpression or shRNA knockdown of ENH1 prevented the CREB-dependent transcription. Our results thus suggest that ENH1 plays an essential role in CREB's activation and dependent transcription in cardiomyocytes. At the opposite, ENH3 prevents the CREB transcriptional activity. In conclusion, these results provide a first molecular explanation to the opposing functions of ENH splice variants.

  13. Prevention of hepatic steatosis and hepatic insulin resistance by knockdown of cAMP Response Element Binding Protein (CREB)

    PubMed Central

    Erion, Derek M.; Ignatova, Irena D.; Yonemitsu, Shin; Nagai, Yoshio; Chatterjee, Paula; Weismann, Dirk; Hsiao, Jennifer J.; Zhang, Dongyan; Iwasaki, Takanori; Stark, Romana; Flannery, Clare; Kahn, Mario; Carmean, Christopher M.; Yu, Xing Xian; Murray, Susan F.; Bhanot, Sanjay; Monia, Brett P.; Cline, Gary W.; Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2009-01-01

    Summary In patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hepatic insulin resistance and increased gluconeogenesis contributes to fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia. Since CREB is a key regulator of gluconeogenic gene expression, we hypothesized that decreasing hepatic CREB expression would reduce fasting hyperglycemia in rodent models of T2DM. In order to test this hypothesis, we used a CREB-specific antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) to knock down CREB expression in liver. CREB ASO treatment dramatically reduced fasting plasma glucose concentrations in ZDF rats, ob/ob mice and a STZ-treated high-fat fed rat model of T2DM. Surprisingly, CREB ASO treatment also decreased plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as hepatic triglyceride content due to decreases in hepatic lipogenesis. These results suggest that CREB is an attractive therapeutic target for correcting both hepatic insulin resistance and dyslipidemia associated with NAFLD and T2DM by down regulation of both lipogenic and gluconeogenic gene expression. PMID:19945407

  14. Phosphorylation of CREB affects its binding to high and low affinity sites: implications for cAMP induced gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, M; Weih, F; Schmid, W; DeVack, C; Kowenz-Leutz, E; Luckow, B; Boshart, M; Schütz, G

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP treatment of hepatoma cells leads to increased protein binding at the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene in vivo, as revealed by genomic footprinting, whereas no increase is observed at the CRE of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene. Several criteria establish that the 43 kDa CREB protein is interacting with both of these sites. Two classes of CRE with different affinity for CREB are described. One class, including the TATCRE, is characterized by asymmetric and weak binding sites (CGTCA), whereas the second class containing symmetrical TGACGTCA sites shows a much higher binding affinity for CREB. Both classes show an increase in binding after phosphorylation of CREB by protein kinase A (PKA). An in vivo phosphorylation-dependent change in binding of CREB increases the occupancy of weak binding sites used for transactivation, such as the TATCRE, while high affinity sites may have constitutive binding of transcriptionally active and inactive CREB dimers, as demonstrated by in vivo footprinting at the PEPCK CRE. Thus, lower basal level and higher relative stimulation of transcription by cyclic AMP through low affinity CREs should result, allowing finely tuned control of gene activation. Images PMID:1354612

  15. A role for Gle1, a regulator of DEAD-box RNA helicases, at centrosomes and basal bodies

    PubMed Central

    Jao, Li-En; Akef, Abdalla; Wente, Susan R.

    2017-01-01

    Control of organellar assembly and function is critical to eukaryotic homeostasis and survival. Gle1 is a highly conserved regulator of RNA-dependent DEAD-box ATPase proteins, with critical roles in both mRNA export and translation. In addition to its well-defined interaction with nuclear pore complexes, here we find that Gle1 is enriched at the centrosome and basal body. Gle1 assembles into the toroid-shaped pericentriolar material around the mother centriole. Reduced Gle1 levels are correlated with decreased pericentrin localization at the centrosome and microtubule organization defects. Of importance, these alterations in centrosome integrity do not result from loss of mRNA export. Examination of the Kupffer’s vesicle in Gle1-depleted zebrafish revealed compromised ciliary beating and developmental defects. We propose that Gle1 assembly into the pericentriolar material positions the DEAD-box protein regulator to function in localized mRNA metabolism required for proper centrosome function. PMID:28035044

  16. The SKP2 E3 ligase regulates basal homeostasis and stress-induced regeneration of HSCs

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Sonia; Wang, Lin; Mumaw, Christen; Srour, Edward F.; Lo Celso, Cristina; Nakayama, Kei-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Exit from quiescence and reentry into cell cycle is essential for HSC self-renewal and regeneration. Skp2 is the F-box unit of the SCF E3-ligase that targets the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p21Cip1, p27Kip1, p57Kip2, and p130 for degradation. These CKIs inhibit the G1 to S-phase transition of the cell cycle, and their deletion results in increased cell proliferation and decreased stem cell self-renewal. Skp2 deletion leads to CKIs stabilization inducing cell-cycle delay or arrest, and conversely, increased Skp2 expression is often found in cancers. Here, we show that SKP2 expression is increased in HSC and progenitors in response to hematopoietic stress from myelosuppression or after transplantation. At steady state, SKP2 deletion decreased the mitotic activity of HSC and progenitors resulting in enhanced HSC quiescence, increased HSC pool size, and maintenance. However, the inability to rapidly enter cell cycle greatly impaired the short-term repopulating potential of SKP2 null HSC and their ability to regenerate after myeloablative stress. Mechanistically, deletion of SKP2 in HSC and progenitors stabilized CKIs in vivo, particularly p27Kip1, p57Kip2, and p130. Our results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for SKP2 in regulating HSC and progenitor expansion and hematopoietic regeneration after stress. PMID:21502543

  17. The SKP2 E3 ligase regulates basal homeostasis and stress-induced regeneration of HSCs.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Sonia; Wang, Lin; Mumaw, Christen; Srour, Edward F; Lo Celso, Cristina; Nakayama, Kei-ichi; Carlesso, Nadia

    2011-06-16

    Exit from quiescence and reentry into cell cycle is essential for HSC self-renewal and regeneration. Skp2 is the F-box unit of the SCF E3-ligase that targets the CDK inhibitors (CKIs) p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1), p57(Kip2), and p130 for degradation. These CKIs inhibit the G(1) to S-phase transition of the cell cycle, and their deletion results in increased cell proliferation and decreased stem cell self-renewal. Skp2 deletion leads to CKIs stabilization inducing cell-cycle delay or arrest, and conversely, increased Skp2 expression is often found in cancers. Here, we show that SKP2 expression is increased in HSC and progenitors in response to hematopoietic stress from myelosuppression or after transplantation. At steady state, SKP2 deletion decreased the mitotic activity of HSC and progenitors resulting in enhanced HSC quiescence, increased HSC pool size, and maintenance. However, the inability to rapidly enter cell cycle greatly impaired the short-term repopulating potential of SKP2 null HSC and their ability to regenerate after myeloablative stress. Mechanistically, deletion of SKP2 in HSC and progenitors stabilized CKIs in vivo, particularly p27(Kip1), p57(Kip2), and p130. Our results demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for SKP2 in regulating HSC and progenitor expansion and hematopoietic regeneration after stress.

  18. Inhibition of CREB Activity in the Dorsal Portion of the Striatum Potentiates Behavioral Responses to Drugs of Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Fasano, Stefania; Pittenger, Christopher; Brambilla, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    The striatum participates in multiple forms of behavioral adaptation, including habit formation, other forms of procedural memory, and short- and long-term responses to drugs of abuse. The cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors has been implicated in various forms of behavioral plasticity, but its role in the dorsal portion of the striatum-has been little explored. We previously showed that in transgenic mice in which CREB function is inhibited in the dorsal striatum, bidirectional synaptic plasticity and certain forms of long-term procedural memory are impaired. Here we show, in startling contrast, that inhibition of striatal CREB facilitates cocaine- and morphine-place conditioning and enhances locomotor sensitization to cocaine. These findings propose CREB as a positive regulator of dorsal striatum-dependent procedural learning but a negative regulator of drug-related learning. PMID:19826621

  19. Defective CFTR-dependent CREB activation results in impaired spermatogenesis and azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen Ming; Chen, Jing; Chen, Hui; Diao, Rui Ying; Fok, Kin Lam; Dong, Jian Da; Sun, Ting Ting; Chen, Wen Ying; Yu, Mei Kuen; Zhang, Xiao Hu; Tsang, Lai Ling; Lau, Ann; Shi, Qi Xian; Shi, Qing Hua; Huang, Ping Bo; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-limiting recessive genetic disease among Caucasians caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) with over 95% male patients infertile. However, whether CFTR mutations could affect spermatogenesis and result in azoospermia remains an open question. Here we report compromised spermatogenesis, with significantly reduced testicular weight and sperm count, and decreased cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) expression in the testes of CFTR knockout mice. The involvement of CFTR in HCO(3) (-) transport and the expression of the HCO(3) (-) sensor, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), are demonstrated for the first time in the primary culture of rat Sertoli cells. Inhibition of CFTR or depletion of HCO(3) (-) could reduce FSH-stimulated, sAC-dependent cAMP production and phosphorylation of CREB, the key transcription factor in spermatogenesis. Decreased CFTR and CREB expression are also observed in human testes with azoospermia. The present study reveals a previously undefined role of CFTR and sAC in regulating the cAMP-CREB signaling pathway in Sertoli cells, defect of which may result in impaired spermatogenesis and azoospermia. Altered CFTR-sAC-cAMP-CREB functional loop may also underline the pathogenesis of various CF-related diseases.

  20. Protein kinase A-mediated CREB phosphorylation is an oxidant-induced survival pathway in alveolar type II cells

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Christy A.; Kitiphongspattana, Kajorn; Siddiqui, Nazli; Roe, Michael W.; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2008-01-01

    Oxidant stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases, including fibrotic lung disease and cancer. We previously found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) initiates an increase in Ca2+/cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in C10 alveolar type II cells that requires activation of extracellular regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). Here, we investigated the role of crosstalk between protein kinase A (PKA) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in oxidant-induced signaling to ERK1/2 and CREB in C10 cells. Application of H2O2 increased nuclear accumulation of PKA, and inhibition of PKA with H89 reduced oxidant-mediated phosphorylation of both CREB and ERK1/2. Single cell measurements of cAMP and redox status, using a FRET-based biosensor and a redox-sensitive GFP, respectively, indicated that H2O2 increases production of cAMP that correlates with redox state. Inhibition of EGFR activity decreased both H2O2-induced CREB phosphorylation and translocation of PKA to the nucleus, suggesting that crosstalk between PKA and EGFR underlies the oxidant-induced CREB response. Furthermore, knockdown of CREB expression using siRNA led to a decrease in bcl-2 and an increase in oxidant-induced apoptosis. Together these data reveal a novel role for crosstalk between PKA, ERK1/2 and CREB that mediates cell survival during oxidant stress. PMID:18392938

  1. MicroRNA-506 inhibits esophageal cancer cell proliferation via targeting CREB1

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wen-Jian; Wang, Yong-Lian; Lu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Ling; Qi, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as key regulators of multiple cancers. MicroRNA-506 (miR-506) functions as a tumor suppressor in various types of cancers. However, its role in esophageal cancer remains unclear. In our study, we found that miR-506 was significantly down-regulated in esophageal cancer tissues and cell lines. In vitro assay, our results showed that ectopic over-expression of miR-506 inhibited esophageal cancer cells proliferation, meanwhile, cells proliferation was promoted by miR-506 inhibition. In exploring mechanisms underlying the inhibitive role, we found that miR-506 significantly decreased the expression and transcription activity of cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1). CREB1, tumor oncogene, exhibited significantly promote effect on esophageal cancer cell proliferation. Taken together, our data identify a new role of miR-506 in esophageal cancer involving CREB1 suppression. PMID:26617801

  2. cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I regulates ethanol-induced cAMP response element-mediated gene expression via activation of CREB-binding protein and inhibition of MAPK.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Anastasia; Wu, Meiye; Asher, Orna; Diamond, Ivan

    2004-10-08

    We have shown that the two types of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in NG108-15 cells differentially mediate forskolin- and ethanol-induced cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and CRE-mediated gene transcription. Activated type II PKA is translocated into the nucleus where it phosphorylates CREB. By contrast, activated type I PKA does not translocate to the nucleus but is required for CRE-mediated gene transcription by inducing the activation of other transcription cofactors such as CREB-binding protein (CBP). We show here that CBP is required for forskolin- and ethanol-induced CRE-mediated gene expression. Forskolin- and ethanol-induced CBP phosphorylation, demonstrable at 10 min, persists up to 24 h. CBP phosphorylation requires type I PKA but not type II PKA. In NG108-15 cells, ethanol and forskolin activation of type I PKA also inhibits several components of the MAPK pathway including B-Raf kinase, ERK1/2, and p90RSK phosphorylation. As a result, unphosphorylated p90RSK no longer binds to nor inhibits CBP. Moreover, MEK inhibition by PD98059 induces a significant increase of CRE-mediated gene activation. Taken together, our findings suggest that inhibition of the MAPK pathway enhances cAMP-dependent gene activation during exposure of NG108-15 cells to ethanol. This mechanism appears to involve type I PKA-dependent phosphorylation of CBP and inhibition of MEK-dependent phosphorylation of p90RSK. Under these conditions p90RSK is no longer bound to CBP, thereby promoting CBP-dependent CREB-mediated gene expression.

  3. Neuregulin1 signaling targets SRF and CREB and activates the muscle spindle-specific gene Egr3 through a composite SRF-CREB-binding site.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Carter A; Ankenbruck, Nick; Lester, Bridget; Bailey, Julie; Fromm, Larry

    2013-03-10

    Muscle spindles are sensory receptors embedded within muscle that detect changes in muscle length. Each spindle is composed of specialized muscle fibers, known as intrafusal muscle fibers, along with the endings of axons from sensory neurons that innervate these muscle fibers. Formation of muscle spindles requires neuregulin1 (NRG1), which is released by sensory axons, activating ErbB receptors in muscle cells that are contacted. In muscle cells, the transcription factor Egr3 is transcriptionally induced by NRG1, which in turn activates various target genes involved in forming the intrafusal fibers of muscle spindles. The signaling relay within the NRG1-ErbB pathway that acts to induce Egr3 is presumably critical for muscle spindle formation but for the most part has not been determined. In the current studies, we examined, using cultured muscle cells, transcriptional regulatory mechanisms by which Egr3 responds to NRG1. We identified a composite regulatory element for the Egr3 gene, consisting adjacent sites that bind cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and serum response factor (SRF), with a role in NRG1 responsiveness. The SRF element also influences Egr3 basal expression in unstimulated myotubes, and in the absence of the SRF element, the CREB element influences basal expression. We show that NRG1 signaling, to target SRF, acts on the SRF coactivators myocardian-related transcription factor (MRTF)-A and MRTF-B, which are known to activate SRF-mediated transcription, by stimulating their translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. CREB is phosphorylated, which is known to contribute to its activation, in response to NRG1. These results suggest that NRG1 induces expression of the muscle spindle-specific gene Egr3 by stimulating the transcriptional activity of CREB and SRF.

  4. CREB-mediated synaptogenesis and neurogenesis is crucial for the role of 5-HT1a receptors in modulating anxiety behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Cai, Cheng-Yun; Wu, Hai-Yin; Zhu, Li-Juan; Luo, Chun-Xia; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2016-07-12

    Serotonin 1a-receptor (5-HT1aR) has been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety. However, the mechanism underlying the role of 5-HT1aR in anxiety remains poorly understood. Here we show in mice that the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus functions as an effector of 5-HT1aR in modulating anxiety-related behaviors. We generated recombinant lentivirus LV-CREB133-GFP expressing a dominant negative CREB which could not be phosphorylated at Ser133 to specifically reduce CREB activity, and LV-VP16-CREB-GFP expressing a constitutively active fusion protein VP16-CREB which could be phosphorylated by itself to specifically enhance CREB activity. LV-CREB133-GFP neutralized 5-HT1aR agonist-induced up-regulation of synapse density, spine density, dendrite complexity, neurogenesis, and the expression of synapsin and spinophilin, two well-characterized synaptic proteins, and abolished the anxiolytic effect of 5-HT1aR agonist; whereas LV-VP16-CREB-GFP rescued the 5-HT1aR antagonist-induced down-regulation of synapse density, spine density, dendrite complexity, neurogenesis and synapsin and spinophilin expression, and reversed the anxiogenic effect of 5-HT1aR antagonist. The deletion of neurogenesis by irradiation or the diminution of synaptogenesis by knockdown of synapsin expression abolished the anxiolytic effects of both CREB and 5-HT1aR activation. These findings suggest that CREB-mediated hippoacampus structural plasticity is crucial for the role of 5-HT1aR in modulating anxiety-related behaviors.

  5. CREB-mediated synaptogenesis and neurogenesis is crucial for the role of 5-HT1a receptors in modulating anxiety behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Cai, Cheng-Yun; Wu, Hai-Yin; Zhu, Li-Juan; Luo, Chun-Xia; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin 1a-receptor (5-HT1aR) has been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety. However, the mechanism underlying the role of 5-HT1aR in anxiety remains poorly understood. Here we show in mice that the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus functions as an effector of 5-HT1aR in modulating anxiety-related behaviors. We generated recombinant lentivirus LV-CREB133-GFP expressing a dominant negative CREB which could not be phosphorylated at Ser133 to specifically reduce CREB activity, and LV-VP16-CREB-GFP expressing a constitutively active fusion protein VP16-CREB which could be phosphorylated by itself to specifically enhance CREB activity. LV-CREB133-GFP neutralized 5-HT1aR agonist-induced up-regulation of synapse density, spine density, dendrite complexity, neurogenesis, and the expression of synapsin and spinophilin, two well-characterized synaptic proteins, and abolished the anxiolytic effect of 5-HT1aR agonist; whereas LV-VP16-CREB-GFP rescued the 5-HT1aR antagonist-induced down-regulation of synapse density, spine density, dendrite complexity, neurogenesis and synapsin and spinophilin expression, and reversed the anxiogenic effect of 5-HT1aR antagonist. The deletion of neurogenesis by irradiation or the diminution of synaptogenesis by knockdown of synapsin expression abolished the anxiolytic effects of both CREB and 5-HT1aR activation. These findings suggest that CREB-mediated hippoacampus structural plasticity is crucial for the role of 5-HT1aR in modulating anxiety-related behaviors. PMID:27404655

  6. Integrative genomic analysis of CREB defines a critical role for transcription factor networks in mediating the fed/fasted switch in liver

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic homeostasis in mammals critically depends on the regulation of fasting-induced genes by CREB in the liver. Previous genome-wide analysis has shown that only a small percentage of CREB target genes are induced in response to fasting-associated signaling pathways. The precise molecular mechanisms by which CREB specifically targets these genes in response to alternating hormonal cues remain to be elucidated. Results We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing of CREB in livers from both fasted and re-fed mice. In order to quantitatively compare the extent of CREB-DNA interactions genome-wide between these two physiological conditions we developed a novel, robust analysis method, termed the ‘single sample independence’ (SSI) test that greatly reduced the number of false-positive peaks. We found that CREB remains constitutively bound to its target genes in the liver regardless of the metabolic state. Integration of the CREB cistrome with expression microarrays of fasted and re-fed mouse livers and ChIP-seq data for additional transcription factors revealed that the gene expression switches between the two metabolic states are associated with co-localization of additional transcription factors at CREB sites. Conclusions Our results support a model in which CREB is constitutively bound to thousands of target genes, and combinatorial interactions between DNA-binding factors are necessary to achieve the specific transcriptional response of the liver to fasting. Furthermore, our genome-wide analysis identifies thousands of novel CREB target genes in liver, and suggests a previously unknown role for CREB in regulating ER stress genes in response to nutrient influx. PMID:23682854

  7. Pituitary gonadotropins FSH and LH are oppositely regulated by the activin/follistatin system in a basal teleost, the eel.

    PubMed

    Aroua, Salima; Maugars, Gersende; Jeng, Shan-Ru; Chang, Ching-Fong; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Rousseau, Karine; Dufour, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    European eels are blocked at a prepubertal silver stage due to a deficient production of pituitary gonadotropins. We investigated the potential role of activin/follistatin system in the control of eel gonadotropins. Through the development of qPCR assays for European eel activin β(B) and follistatin, we first analyzed the tissue distribution of the expression of these two genes. Both activin β(B) and follistatin are expressed in the brain, pituitary and gonads. In addition, a striking expression of both transcripts was also found in the retina and in adipose tissue. The effects of recombinant human activins and follistatin on eel gonadotropin gene expression were studied using primary cultures of eel pituitary cells. Activins A and B strongly stimulated FSHβ subunit expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In contrast, activin reduced LHβ expression, an inhibitory effect which was highlighted in the presence of testosterone, a known activator of eel LHβ expression. No effect of activin was observed on other pituitary hormones. Follistatin antagonized both the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of activin on FSHβ and LHβ expression, respectively. Activin is the first major stimulator of FSH expression evidenced in the eel. These results in a basal teleost further support the ancient origin and strong conservation of the activin/follistatin system in the control of FSH in vertebrates. In contrast, the opposite regulation of FSH and LH may have emerged in the teleost lineage.

  8. Nerve signaling regulates basal keratinocyte proliferation in the blastema apical epithelial cap in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Satoh, Akira; Bryant, Susan V; Gardiner, David M

    2012-06-15

    The ability of adult vertebrates to repair tissue damage is widespread and impressive; however, the ability to regenerate structurally complex organs such as the limb is limited largely to the salamanders. The fact that most of the tissues of the limb can regenerate has led investigators to question and identify the barriers to organ regeneration. From studies in the salamander, it is known that one of the earliest steps required for successful regeneration involves signaling between nerves and the wound epithelium/apical epithelial cap (AEC). In this study we confirm an earlier report that the keratinocytes of the AEC acquire their function coincident with exiting the cell cycle. We have discovered that this unique, coordinated behavior is regulated by nerve signaling and is associated with the presence of gap junctions between the basal keratinocytes of the AEC. Disruption of nerve signaling results in a loss of gap junction protein, the reentry of the cells into the cell cycle, and regenerative failure. Finally, coordinated exit from the cell cycle appears to be a conserved behavior of populations of cells that function as signaling centers during both development and regeneration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HMMR antisense RNA 1, a novel long noncoding RNA, regulates the progression of basal-like breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Ma, Jun; Cheng, Yong; Zhang, Hongbo; Luo, Wengguang; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (HMMR) is an essential cancer-related gene in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). In our study, HMMR antisense RNA 1 (HMMR-AS1) was analyzed in BLBC patients through polymerase chain reaction analysis. Here, we found that the expression of HMMR was positively correlated with HMMR-AS1 (RP11-80G.1). When HMMR-AS1 (RP11-80G.1) was knocked down, the expression of HMMR markedly reduced. Furthermore, in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells, the proliferation and migration abilities were remarkably suppressed via knocking down HMMR-AS1 (RP11-80G.1) in vitro. The results showed that lncRNA HMMR-AS1 (RP11-80G.1) influenced the progression of BLBCs through regulating HMMR, suggesting that HMMR-AS1 (RP11-80G.1) could be regarded as a novel biomarker and therapeutic target in the treatment of BLBCs in future. PMID:27920576

  10. GLI activation by atypical protein kinase C ι/λ regulates the growth of basal cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Scott X; Li, Mischa; Lee, Alex; Tang, Jean Y; Oro, Anthony E

    2013-02-28

    Growth of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) requires high levels of hedgehog (HH) signalling through the transcription factor GLI. Although inhibitors of membrane protein smoothened (SMO) effectively suppress HH signalling, early tumour resistance illustrates the need for additional downstream targets for therapy. Here we identify atypical protein kinase C ι/λ (aPKC-ι/λ) as a novel GLI regulator in mammals. aPKC-ι/λ and its polarity signalling partners co-localize at the centrosome and form a complex with missing-in-metastasis (MIM), a scaffolding protein that potentiates HH signalling. Genetic or pharmacological loss of aPKC-ι/λ function blocks HH signalling and proliferation of BCC cells. Prkci is a HH target gene that forms a positive feedback loop with GLI and exists at increased levels in BCCs. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling shows that aPKC-ι/λ and SMO control the expression of similar genes in tumour cells. aPKC-ι/λ functions downstream of SMO to phosphorylate and activate GLI1, resulting in maximal DNA binding and transcriptional activation. Activated aPKC-ι/λ is upregulated in SMO-inhibitor-resistant tumours and targeting aPKC-ι/λ suppresses signalling and growth of resistant BCC cell lines. These results demonstrate that aPKC-ι/λ is critical for HH-dependent processes and implicates aPKC-ι/λ as a new, tumour-selective therapeutic target for the treatment of SMO-inhibitor-resistant cancers.

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of the activation of CREB and c-Fos transcription factors in the nervous system of the terrestrial snail induced by pentylenetetrazole.

    PubMed

    Efimova, O I; Ierusalimskii, V N; Anokhin, K V; Balaban, P M

    2007-11-01

    Phosphorylation of CREB transcription factor and expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in the brains of vertebrates play a key role in the molecular genetic mechanisms of long-term neuronal plasticity. The present study identifies the conditions for immunohistochemical detection of pCREB and c-Fos in the nervous system of the mollusk Helix lucorum (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora); activation of these transcription factors was demonstrated after administration of the convulsive agent pentylenetetrazole. Basal pCREB and c-Fos levels in the central nervous system of intact animals were low. Injection of pentylenetetrazole at a dose of 600 mg/kg evoked characteristic stereotypical motor responses, along with sharp reductions in the phosphorylation of CREB1 and expression of the immediate early gene c-fos, this also occurring in identified neurons. Double immunofluorescent labeling of pCREB and c-Fos showed that expression of c-Fos transcription factor was seen only in pCREB-immunoreactive neurons. These data provide evidence that activation of pCREB and c-Fos transcription factors can be used as molecular markers for mapping the processes of neuronal plasticity in the nervous systems of mollusks.

  12. CREB controls hepatic lipid metabolism through nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-gamma.

    PubMed

    Herzig, Stephan; Hedrick, Susan; Morantte, Ianessa; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Galimi, Francesco; Montminy, Marc

    2003-11-13

    Fasting triggers a series of hormonal cues that promote energy balance by inducing glucose output and lipid breakdown in the liver. In response to pancreatic glucagon and adrenal cortisol, the cAMP-responsive transcription factor CREB activates gluconeogenic and fatty acid oxidation programmes by stimulating expression of the nuclear hormone receptor coactivator PGC-1 (refs 2-5). In parallel, fasting also suppresses lipid storage and synthesis (lipogenic) pathways, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we show that mice deficient in CREB activity have a fatty liver phenotype and display elevated expression of the nuclear hormone receptor PPAR-gamma, a key regulator of lipogenic genes. CREB inhibits hepatic PPAR-gamma expression in the fasted state by stimulating the expression of the Hairy Enhancer of Split (HES-1) gene, a transcriptional repressor that is shown here to be a mediator of fasting lipid metabolism in vivo. The coordinate induction of PGC-1 and repression of PPAR-gamma by CREB during fasting provides a molecular rationale for the antagonism between insulin and counter-regulatory hormones, and indicates a potential role for CREB antagonists as therapeutic agents in enhancing insulin sensitivity in the liver.

  13. Podophyllotoxin induces CREB phosphorylation and CRE-driven gene expression via PKA but not MAPKs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya Qiong; Xie, Xin

    2010-01-01

    CRE-driven luciferase reporter is commonly used in drug screening systems involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In a screen campaign designed to search for melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonists, podophyllotoxin, a microtubules disruptor, was found to induce cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-driven reporter expression. MC4R was not involved because podophyllotoxin induced CREB activation and CRE-driven transcription in cells not expressing MC4R. Previous studies indicated that intracellular calcium, PKA, and MAPKs are involved in CREB phosphorylation and activation. Our studies revealed that podophyllotoxin did not affect intracellular calcium level and the phosphorylation state of p38. Podophyllotoxin induced JNK and ERK activation, but blockade of JNK and ERK activation with specific inhibitors had no effect on podophyllotoxin-induced CREB activation and CRE-regulated gene expression. Further experiments revealed that H89, a specific inhibitor of PKA, significantly inhibited podophyllotoxin-induced CREB activation. Podophyllotoxin itself did not alter intracellular cAMP level. Taken together, podophyllotoxin induces CREB activation and CRE-driven gene expression via PKA activation by a cAMP-independent mechanism.

  14. Activation of CREB by St. John's wort may diminish deletorious effects of aging on spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Trofimiuk, Emil; Holownia, Adam; Braszko, Jan J

    2010-03-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) is one of the leading psychotherapeutic phytomedicines. Beneficial effects of this herb in the treatment of mild to moderate depression are well known. In this study we tested a hypothesis that St. John's wort alleviates age-related memory impairments by increasing the levels of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in hippocampus. Middleaged rats (18 month-old) displayed a decline in the acquisition of spatial working memory (p < 0.001) in the Morris water maze (MWM). Chronic administration of Hypericum perforatum (HP) (350 mg/kg for 21 days), potently and significantly improved the processing of spatial information in the aged rats (p < 0.001). Also the herb increased the levels of pCREB in the aged rat's hippocampus (p < 0.01) as measured by western immunoblotting. Aging caused significant locomotor impairments as tested in the open field (p < 0.001) but not in the MWM test. However, these were unaffected by treatment with HP. Thus, this study indicates that St. John's wort effectively prevents aging-induced deterioration of spatial memory in 18 month-old rats, possibly by the activation of CREB regulated genes associated with memory formation. It appears that mechanism is probably inactive in young rats.

  15. Genetic approaches to investigate the role of CREB in neuronal plasticity and memory.

    PubMed

    Barco, Angel; Marie, Hélène

    2011-12-01

    In neurons, the convergence of multiple intracellular signaling cascades leading to cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) activation suggests that this transcription factor plays a critical role in integrating different inputs and mediating appropriate neuronal responses. The nature of this transcriptional response depends on both the type and strength of the stimulus and the cellular context. CREB-dependent gene expression has been involved in many different aspects of nervous system function, from embryonic development to neuronal survival, and synaptic, structural, and intrinsic plasticity. Here, we first review the different methodological approaches used to genetically manipulate CREB activity and levels in neurons in vivo in the adult brain, including recombinant viral vectors, mouse transgenesis, and gene-targeting techniques. We then discuss the impact of these approaches on our understanding of CREB's roles in neuronal plasticity and memory in rodents. Studies combining these genetic approaches with electrophysiology and behavior provide strong evidence that CREB is critically involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity, intrinsic excitability, and long-term memory formation. These findings pave the way for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat memory disorders.

  16. Cardiac-specific overexpression of dominant-negative CREB leads to increased mortality and mitochondrial dysfunction in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Birdsey, Nicholas; Huggins, Gordon S.; Svensson, Eric; Heppe, Daniel; Knaub, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    mortality. These results provide further support for the role of the CREB transcription factor in regulating mitochondrial integrity and identify a critical pathway that may contribute to sex differences in heart failure. PMID:20935148

  17. Time of day influences memory formation and dCREB2 proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Fropf, Robin; Zhang, Jiabin; Tanenhaus, Anne K.; Fropf, Whitney J.; Siefkes, Ellen; Yin, Jerry C. P.

    2014-01-01

    Many biological phenomena oscillate under the control of the circadian system, exhibiting peaks and troughs of activity across the day/night cycle. In most animal models, memory formation also exhibits this property, but the underlying neuronal and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The dCREB2 transcription factor shows circadian regulated oscillations in its activity, and has been shown to be important for both circadian biology and memory formation. We show that the time-of-day (TOD) of behavioral training affects Drosophila memory formation. dCREB2 exhibits complex changes in protein levels across the daytime and nighttime, and these changes in protein abundance are likely to contribute to oscillations in dCREB2 activity and TOD effects on memory formation. PMID:24744705

  18. Chronic morphine administration induces over-expression of aldolase C with reduction of CREB phosphorylation in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hai-Yu; Pu, Xiao-Ping

    2009-05-01

    In recent studies, alterations in the activity and expression of metabolic enzymes, such as those involved in glycolysis, have been detected in morphine-dependent patients and animals. Increasing evidence demonstrates that the hippocampus is an important brain region associated with morphine dependence, but the molecular events occurring in the hippocampus following chronic exposure to morphine are poorly understood. Aldolase C is the brain-specific isoform of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase which is a glycolytic enzyme catalyzing reactions in the glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and fructose metabolic pathways. Using Western blot and immunofluorescence assays, we found the expression of aldolase C was markedly increased in the mouse hippocampus following chronic morphine treatment. Naloxone pretreatment before morphine administration suppressed withdrawal jumping, weight loss, and overexpression of aldolase C. CREB is a transcription factor regulated through phosphorylation on Ser133, which is known to play a key role in the mechanism of morphine dependence. When detecting the expression of phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in the mouse hippocampus using Western blot and immunohistochemistry, we found CREB phosphorylation was clearly decreased following chronic morphine treatment. Interestingly, laser-confocal microscopy showed that overexpression of aldolase C in mouse hippocampal neurons was concomitant with the decreased immunoreactivity of p-CREB. The results suggest potential links between the morphine-induced alteration of aldolase C and the regulation of CREB phosphorylation, a possible mechanism of morphine dependence.

  19. Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of the stimulator of interferon genes by transcription factors CREB and c-Myc.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Jin, Rui; Zhou, Guo-Ping; Xu, Hua-Guo

    2016-12-20

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) plays an important role in host defense, autoimmune disease, osteoclast differentiation and anti-tumor response. Although many downstream targets have been studied in depth, the regulation of STING gene expression remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that transcription factors CREB and c-Myc maintain the transcriptional activity of STING. By 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis, we identified the transcriptional start site (TSS) of STING. We illustrated that the region -124/+1 relative to TSS was sufficient for full promoter activity by a series of 5' deletion promoter constructs. Transcriptional activity of the STING minimal promoter was dependent on CREB and c-Myc binding motifs and was abolished after mutation of these two DNA elements. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that transcription factors CREB and c-Myc bind to STING promoter in vivo. Overexpression of CREB and c-Myc increased the STING promoter activity. Meanwhile, knocking-down of CREB and c-Myc by a small interfering RNA (siRNA) strategy markedly reduced endogenous STING expression. In summary, these results demonstrated that transcription factors CREB and c-Myc are involved in the regulation of STING transcription.

  20. Chronic antidepressant administration increases the expression of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Nibuya, M; Nestler, E J; Duman, R S

    1996-04-01

    The present study demonstrates that chronic, but not acute, adminstration of several different classes of antidepressants, including serotonin- and norepinephrine-selective reuptake inhibitors, increases the expression of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) mRNA in rat hippocampus. In contrast, chronic administration of several nonantidepressant psychotropic drugs did not influence expression of CREB mRNA, demonstrating the pharmacological specificity of this effect. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrates that antidepressant administration increases expression of CREB mRNA in CA1 and CA3 pyramidal and dentate gyrus granule cell layers of the hippocampus. In addition, levels of CRE immunoreactivity and of CRE binding activity were increased by chronic antidepressant administration, which indicates that expression and function of CREB protein are increased along with its mRNA. Chronic administration of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors rolipram or papaverine also increased expression of CREB mRNA in hippocampus, demonstrating a role for the cAMP cascade. Moreover, coadministration of rolipram with imipramine resulted in a more rapid induction of CREB than with either treatment alone. Increased expression and function of CREB suggest that specific target genes may be regulated by these treatments. We have found that levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and trkB mRNA are also increased by administration of antidepressants or PDE inhibitors. These findings indicate that upregulation of CREB is a common action of chronic antidepressant treatments that may lead to regulation of specific target genes, such as BDNF and trkB, and to the long-term effects of these treatments on brain function.

  1. Metabolic hormones regulate basal and growth hormone-dependent igf2 mRNA level in primary cultured coho salmon hepatocytes: effects of insulin, glucagon, dexamethasone, and triiodothyronine.

    PubMed

    Pierce, A L; Dickey, J T; Felli, L; Swanson, P; Dickhoff, W W

    2010-03-01

    Igf1 and Igf2 stimulate growth and development of vertebrates. Circulating Igfs are produced by the liver. In mammals, Igf1 mediates the postnatal growth-promoting effects of growth hormone (Gh), whereas Igf2 stimulates fetal and placental growth. Hepatic Igf2 production is not regulated by Gh in mammals. Little is known about the regulation of hepatic Igf2 production in nonmammalian vertebrates. We examined the regulation of igf2 mRNA level by metabolic hormones in primary cultured coho salmon hepatocytes. Gh, insulin, the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (Dex), and glucagon increased igf2 mRNA levels, whereas triiodothyronine (T(3)) decreased igf2 mRNA levels. Gh stimulated igf2 mRNA at physiological concentrations (0.25x10(-9) M and above). Insulin strongly enhanced Gh stimulation of igf2 at low physiological concentrations (10(-11) M and above), and increased basal igf2 (10(-8) M and above). Dex stimulated basal igf2 at concentrations comparable to those of stressed circulating cortisol (10(-8) M and above). Glucagon stimulated basal and Gh-stimulated igf2 at supraphysiological concentrations (10(-7) M and above), whereas T(3) suppressed basal and Gh-stimulated igf2 at the single concentration tested (10(-7) M). These results show that igf2 mRNA level is highly regulated in salmon hepatocytes, suggesting that liver-derived Igf2 plays a significant role in salmon growth physiology. The synergistic regulation of igf2 by insulin and Gh in salmon hepatocytes is similar to the regulation of hepatic Igf1 production in mammals.

  2. Borrelia burgdorferi uniquely regulates its motility genes and has an intricate flagellar hook-basal body structure.

    PubMed

    Sal, Melanie S; Li, Chunhao; Motalab, M A; Shibata, Satoshi; Aizawa, Shin-ichi; Charon, Nyles W

    2008-03-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a flat-wave, motile spirochete that causes Lyme disease. Motility is provided by periplasmic flagella (PFs) located between the cell cylinder and an outer membrane sheath. The structure of these PFs, which are composed of a basal body, a hook, and a filament, is similar to the structure of flagella of other bacteria. To determine if hook formation influences flagellin gene transcription in B. burgdorferi, we inactivated the hook structural gene flgE by targeted mutagenesis. In many bacteria, completion of the hook structure serves as a checkpoint for transcriptional control of flagellum synthesis and other chemotaxis and motility genes. Specifically, the hook allows secretion of the anti-sigma factor FlgM and concomitant late gene transcription promoted by sigma28. However, the control of B. burgdorferi PF synthesis differs from the control of flagellum synthesis in other bacteria; the gene encoding sigma28 is not present in the genome of B. burgdorferi, nor are any sigma28 promoter recognition sequences associated with the motility genes. We found that B. burgdorferi flgE mutants lacked PFs, were rod shaped, and were nonmotile, which substantiates previous evidence that PFs are involved in both cell morphology and motility. Although most motility and chemotaxis gene products accumulated at wild-type levels in the absence of FlgE, mutant cells had markedly decreased levels of the flagellar filament proteins FlaA and FlaB. Further analyses showed that the reduction in the levels of flagellin proteins in the spirochetes lacking FlgE was mediated at the posttranscriptional level. Taken together, our results indicate that in B. burgdorferi, the completion of the hook does not serve as a checkpoint for transcriptional regulation of flagellum synthesis. In addition, we also present evidence that the hook protein in B. burgdorferi forms a high-molecular-weight complex and that formation of this complex occurs in the periplasmic space.

  3. Evidence for Conservation of the Calcitonin Superfamily and Activity-regulating Mechanisms in the Basal Chordate Branchiostoma floridae

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, Toshio; Kuwasako, Kenji; Ogasawara, Michio; Takahashi, Hiroki; Matsubara, Shin; Osugi, Tomohiro; Muramatsu, Ikunobu; Sasayama, Yuichi; Suzuki, Nobuo; Satake, Honoo

    2016-01-01

    The calcitonin (CT)/CT gene-related peptide (CGRP) family is conserved in vertebrates. The activities of this peptide family are regulated by a combination of two receptors, namely the calcitonin receptor (CTR) and the CTR-like receptor (CLR), and three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). Furthermore, RAMPs act as escort proteins by translocating CLR to the cell membrane. Recently, CT/CGRP family peptides have been identified or inferred in several invertebrates. However, the molecular characteristics and relevant functions of the CTR/CLR and RAMPs in invertebrates remain unclear. In this study, we identified three CT/CGRP family peptides (Bf-CTFPs), one CTR/CLR-like receptor (Bf-CTFP-R), and three RAMP-like proteins (Bf-RAMP-LPs) in the basal chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). The Bf-CTFPs were shown to possess an N-terminal circular region typical of the CT/CGRP family and a C-terminal Pro-NH2. The Bf-CTFP genes were expressed in the central nervous system and in endocrine cells of the midgut, indicating that Bf-CTFPs serve as brain and/or gut peptides. Cell surface expression of the Bf-CTFP-R was enhanced by co-expression with each Bf-RAMP-LP. Furthermore, Bf-CTFPs activated Bf-CTFP-R·Bf-RAMP-LP complexes, resulting in cAMP accumulation. These results confirmed that Bf-RAMP-LPs, like vertebrate RAMPs, are prerequisites for the function and translocation of the Bf-CTFP-R. The relative potencies of the three peptides at each receptor were similar. Bf-CTFP2 was a potent ligand at all receptors in cAMP assays. Bf-RAMP-LP effects on ligand potency order were distinct to vertebrate CGRP/adrenomedullin/amylin receptors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular and functional characterization of an authentic invertebrate CT/CGRP family receptor and RAMPs. PMID:26644465

  4. Selective phosphorylation of nuclear CREB by fluoxetine is linked to activation of CaM kinase IV and MAP kinase cascades.

    PubMed

    Tiraboschi, Ettore; Tardito, Daniela; Kasahara, Jiro; Moraschi, Stefania; Pruneri, Paolo; Gennarelli, Massimo; Racagni, Giorgio; Popoli, Maurizio

    2004-10-01

    Regulation of gene expression is purported as a major component in the long-term action of antidepressants. The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is activated by chronic antidepressant treatments, although a number of studies reported different effects on CREB, depending on drug types used and brain areas investigated. Furthermore, little is known as to what signaling cascades are responsible for CREB activation, although cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) cascade was suggested to be a central player. We investigated how different drugs (fluoxetine (FLX), desipramine (DMI), reboxetine (RBX)) affect CREB expression and phosphorylation of Ser(133) in the hippocampus and prefrontal/frontal cortex (PFCX). Acute treatments did not induce changes in these mechanisms. Chronic FLX increased nuclear phospho-CREB (pCREB) far more markedly than pronoradrenergic drugs, particularly in PFCX. We investigated the function of the main signaling cascades that were shown to phosphorylate and regulate CREB. PKA did not seem to account for the selective increase of pCREB induced by FLX. All drug treatments markedly increased the enzymatic activity of nuclear Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM) kinase IV (CaMKIV), a major neuronal CREB kinase, in PFCX. Activation of this kinase was due to increased phosphorylation of the activatory residue Thr196, with no major changes in the expression levels of alpha- and beta-CaM kinase kinase, enzymes that phosphorylate CaMKIV. Again in PFCX, FLX selectively increased the expression level of MAP kinases Erk1/2, without affecting their phosphorylation. Our results show that FLX exerts a more marked effect on CREB phosphorylation and suggest that CaMKIV and MAP kinase cascades are involved in this effect.

  5. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress.

    PubMed

    Uban, Kristina A; Comeau, Wendy L; Ellis, Linda A; Galea, Liisa A M; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-10-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine (DA) systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic DA activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and DA systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and DA systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24h following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared to CVS-exposed control

  6. Basal regulation of HPA and dopamine systems is altered differentially in males and females by prenatal alcohol exposure and chronic variable stress

    PubMed Central

    Uban, Kristina A.; Comeau, Wendy; Ellis, Linda A.; Galea, Liisa A. M.; Weinberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on central nervous system function include an increased prevalence of mental health problems, including substance use disorders (SUD). The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and dopamine systems have overlapping neurocircuitries and are both implicated in SUD. PAE alters both HPA and dopaminergic activity and regulation, resulting in increased HPA tone and an overall reduction in tonic dopamine activity. However, effects of PAE on the interaction between HPA and dopamine (DA) systems have not been investigated. The present study examined PAE effects on basal regulation of central stress and dopamine systems in key brain regions where these systems intersect. Adult Sprague-Dawley male and female offspring from prenatal alcohol-exposed (PAE), pairfed (PF), and ad libitum-fed control (C) groups were subjected to chronic variable stress (CVS) or remained as a no stress (non-CVS) control group. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA, as well as glucocorticoid and DA receptor (DA-R) expression were measured under basal conditions 24 hours following the end of CVS. We show, for the first time, that regulation of basal HPA and DA systems, and likely, HPA-DA interactions, are altered differentially in males and females by PAE and CVS. PAE augmented the typical attenuation in weight gain during CVS in males and caused increased weight loss in females. Increased basal corticosterone levels in control, but not PAE, females suggest that PAE alters the profile of basal hormone secretion throughout CVS. CVS downregulated basal CRH mRNA in the prefrontal cortex and throughout the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in PAE females but only in the posterior BNST of control females. PAE males and females exposed to CVS exhibited more widespread upregulation of basal mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA throughout the hippocampus, and an attenuated decrease in DA-R expression throughout the nucleus accumbens and striatum compared

  7. CREB Overexpression Ameliorates Age-related Behavioral and Biophysical Deficits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiao-Wen

    Age-related cognitive deficits are observed in both humans and animals. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deficits are not yet fully elucidated. In aged animals, a decrease in intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons from the CA1 sub-region of hippocampus is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive impairments, but the molecular mechanism(s) that modulate both these factors has yet to be identified. Increasing activity of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in young adult rodents has been shown to facilitate cognition, and increase intrinsic excitability of their neurons. However, how CREB changes with age, and how that impacts cognition in aged animals, is not clear. Therefore, we first systematically characterized age- and training-related changes in CREB levels in dorsal hippocampus. At a remote time point after undergoing behavioral training, levels of total CREB and activated CREB (phosphorylated at S133, pCREB) were measured in both young and aged rats. We found that pCREB, but not total CREB was significantly reduced in dorsal CA1 of aged rats. Importantly, levels of pCREB were found to be positively correlated with short-term spatial memory in both young and aged rats i.e. higher pCREB in dorsal CA1 was associated with better spatial memory. These findings indicate that an age-related deficit in CREB activity may contribute to the development of age-related cognitive deficits. However, it was still unclear if increasing CREB activity would be sufficient to ameliorate age-related cognitive, and biophysical deficits. To address this question, we virally overexpressed CREB in CA1, where we found the age-related deficit. Young and aged rats received control or CREB virus, and underwent water maze training. While control aged animals exhibited deficits in long-term spatial memory, aged animals with CREB overexpression performed at levels comparable to young animals. Concurrently, aged neurons

  8. Varicella-Zoster Virus Activates CREB, and Inhibition of the pCREB-p300/CBP Interaction Inhibits Viral Replication In Vitro and Skin Pathogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    François, Sylvie; Sen, Nandini; Mitton, Bryan; Xiao, Xiangshu; Sakamoto, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes varicella upon primary infection and zoster upon reactivation from latency in sensory ganglion neurons. The replication of herpesviruses requires manipulation of cell signaling pathways. Notably, CREB, a factor involved in the regulation of several cellular processes, is activated upon infection of T cells with VZV. Here, we report that VZV infection also induced CREB phosphorylation in fibroblasts and that XX-650-23, a newly identified inhibitor of the phosphorylated-CREB (pCREB) interaction with p300/CBP, restricted cell-cell spread of VZV in vitro. CREB phosphorylation did not require the viral open reading frame 47 (ORF47) and ORF66 kinases encoded by VZV. Evaluating the biological relevance of these observations during VZV infection of human skin xenografts in the SCID mouse model of VZV pathogenesis showed both that pCREB was upregulated in infected skin and that treatment with XX-650-23 reduced infectious-virus production and limited lesion formation compared to treatment with a vehicle control. Thus, processes of CREB activation and p300/CBP binding are important for VZV skin infection and may be targeted for antiviral drug development. IMPORTANCE Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a common pathogen that causes chicken pox and shingles. As with all herpesviruses, the infection is acquired for life, and the virus can periodically reactivate from latency. Although VZV infection is usually benign with few or no deleterious consequences, infection can be life threatening in immunocompromised patients. Otherwise healthy elderly individuals who develop zoster as a consequence of viral reactivation are at risk for postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), a painful and long-lasting complication. Current vaccines use a live attenuated virus that is usually safe but cannot be given to many immunodeficient patients and retains the capacity to establish latency and reactivate, causing zoster. Antiviral drugs

  9. A sequence-selective single-strand DNA-binding protein regulates basal transcription of the murine tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (Timp-1) gene.

    PubMed

    Phillips, B W; Sharma, R; Leco, P A; Edwards, D R

    1999-08-06

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is important in maintaining the extracellular proteolytic balance during tissue remodeling processes. To allow homeostatic tissue turnover, the murine Timp-1 gene is expressed by most cells at a low basal level, and during acute remodeling its transcription is activated by a variety of stimuli. A non-consensus AP-1-binding site (5'-TGAGTAA-3') that is conserved in mammalian timp-1 genes is a critical element in basal and serum-stimulated transcription. We show here that each strand of this unusual AP-1 site binds a distinct single-stranded DNA-binding protein, although neither strand from a perfect consensus AP-1 site from the human collagenase gene shows similar binding. One of the single-strand binding factors, which we term ssT1, binds to a second upstream Timp-1 region between nucleotides -115 and -100. Deletion analysis demonstrated that this region is important in basal but not serum-inducible transcription. The ssT1 factor was 52-54 kDa by UV cross-linking of electrophoretic mobility shift assays and Southwestern blot analysis. Its binding to DNA shows sequence selectivity rather than specificity, with 5'-CT/ATTN((4-6))ATC-3' as a favored motif. Multiple ssT1-like activities were found in nuclear extracts from mouse fibroblasts and rat liver and testis, suggesting that these factors may regulate basal Timp-1 transcription in a tissue-specific fashion.

  10. cAMP-response-element-binding protein positively regulates breast cancer metastasis and subsequent bone destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Jieun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Ha, Hyunil Lee, Zang Hee

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} CREB is highly expressed in advanced breast cancer cells. {yields} Tumor-related factors such as TGF-{beta} further elevate CREB expression. {yields} CREB upregulation stimulates metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. {yields} CREB signaling is required for breast cancer-induced bone destruction. -- Abstract: cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has been reported to be associated with cancer development and poor clinical outcome in various types of cancer. However, it remains to be elucidated whether CREB is involved in breast cancer development and osteotropism. Here, we found that metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibited higher CREB expression than did non-metastatic MCF-7 cells and that CREB expression was further increased by several soluble factors linked to cancer progression, such as IL-1, IGF-1, and TGF-{beta}. Using wild-type CREB and a dominant-negative form (K-CREB), we found that CREB signaling positively regulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, K-CREB prevented MDA-MB-231 cell-induced osteolytic lesions in a mouse model of cancer metastasis. Furthermore, CREB signaling in cancer cells regulated the gene expression of PTHrP, MMPs, and OPG, which are closely involved in cancer metastasis and bone destruction. These results indicate that breast cancer cells acquire CREB overexpression during their development and that this CREB upregulation plays an important role in multiple steps of breast cancer bone metastasis.

  11. cAMP-dependent protein kinase types I and II differentially regulate cAMP response element-mediated gene expression: implications for neuronal responses to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Anastasia; Gordon, Adrienne S; Diamond, Ivan

    2002-05-24

    We have shown that ethanol induces translocation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) to the nucleus, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation, and cAMP response element-mediated gene transcription in NG108-15 cells. However, little is known about which PKA types regulate this process. We show here that under basal conditions NG108-15 cells contain type I PKA (CbetaRIbeta) primarily in cytosol and type II PKA (CalphaRIIbeta) in the particulate and nuclear fractions. Antagonists of both type I and type II PKA inhibit forskolin- and ethanol-induced cAMP response element-mediated gene transcription. However, only the type II PKA antagonist inhibits forskolin-induced Calpha and ethanol-induced Calpha and RIIbeta translocation to the nucleus and CREB phosphorylation; the type I antagonist is without effect. Our data suggest that forskolin- and ethanol-induced CREB phosphorylation and gene activation are differentially mediated by the two types of PKA. We propose that type II PKA is translocated and activated in the nucleus and induces CREB phosphorylation that is necessary but not sufficient for gene transcription. By contrast, type I PKA is activated in the cytoplasm, turning on a downstream pathway that activates other transcription cofactors that interact with phosphorylated CREB to induce gene transcription.

  12. Systemic Inhibition of CREB is Well-tolerated in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingbing X.; Gardner, Ryan; Xue, Changhui; Qian, David Z.; Xie, Fuchun; Thomas, George; Kazmierczak, Steven C.; Habecker, Beth A.; Xiao, Xiangshu

    2016-01-01

    cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) is a nuclear transcription factor activated by multiple extracellular signals including growth factors and hormones. These extracellular cues activate CREB through phosphorylation at Ser133 by various protein serine/threonine kinases. Once phosphorylated, it promotes its association with transcription coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its paralog p300 to activate CREB-dependent gene transcription. Tumor tissues of different origins have been shown to present overexpression and/or overactivation of CREB, indicating CREB as a potential cancer drug target. We previously identified 666-15 as a potent inhibitor of CREB with efficacious anti-cancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we investigated the specificity of 666-15 and evaluated its potential in vivo toxicity. We found that 666-15 was fairly selective in inhibiting CREB. 666-15 was also found to be readily bioavailable to achieve pharmacologically relevant concentrations for CREB inhibition. Furthermore, the mice treated with 666-15 showed no evidence of changes in body weight, complete blood count, blood chemistry profile, cardiac contractility and tissue histologies from liver, kidney and heart. For the first time, these results demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of CREB is well-tolerated in vivo and indicate that such inhibitors should be promising cancer therapeutics. PMID:27694829

  13. Expression of floral MADS-box genes in basal angiosperms: implications for the evolution of floral regulators.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangtae; Koh, Jin; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Kong, Hongzhi; Hu, Yi; Ma, Hong; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2005-09-01

    The ABC model of floral organ identity is based on studies of Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum, both of which are highly derived eudicots. Most of the genes required for the ABC functions in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum are members of the MADS-box gene family, and their orthologs are present in all major angiosperm lineages. Although the eudicots comprise 75% of all angiosperms, most of the diversity in arrangement and number of floral parts is actually found among basal angiosperm lineages, for which little is known about the genes that control floral development. To investigate the conservation and divergence of expression patterns of floral MADS-box genes in basal angiosperms relative to eudicot model systems, we isolated several floral MADS-box genes and examined their expression patterns in representative species, including Amborella (Amborellaceae), Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) and Illicium (Austrobaileyales), the successive sister groups to all other extant angiosperms, plus Magnolia and Asimina, members of the large magnoliid clade. Our results from multiple methods (relative-quantitative RT-PCR, real-time PCR and RNA in situ hybridization) revealed that expression patterns of floral MADS-box genes in basal angiosperms are broader than those of their counterparts in eudicots and monocots. In particular, (i) AP1 homologs are generally expressed in all floral organs and leaves, (ii) AP3/PI homologs are generally expressed in all floral organs and (iii) AG homologs are expressed in stamens and carpels of most basal angiosperms, in agreement with the expectations of the ABC model; however, an AG homolog is also expressed in the tepals of Illicium. The broader range of strong expression of AP3/PI homologs is inferred to be the ancestral pattern for all angiosperms and is also consistent with the gradual morphological intergradations often observed between adjacent floral organs in basal angiosperms.

  14. CREB1/ATF1 Activation in Photoreceptor Degeneration and Protection

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, William A.; Allore, Heather G.; Johnson, Elizabeth; Towle, Virginia; Tao, Weng; Acland, Gregory M.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB1) and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) are closely related members of the bZIP superfamily of transcription factors. Both are activated in response to a wide array of stimuli, including cellular stress. This study was conducted to assess the CREB1/ATF1 pathway in photoreceptor disease and protection. Methods. The expression levels of p-CREB1, CREB1, and ATF1 were examined by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry in normal canine retina and retinas of several canine models of retinal degeneration (rcd1, rcd2, erd, prcd, XLPRA1, XLPRA2, T4R RHO). Humans retinas affected with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were also examined. p-CREB1/ATF1 immunolabeling was assessed in normal and rcd1 dogs treated with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), to examine the effect of a neuroprotective stimulus on activation of CREB1/ATF1. Results. Native CREB1 and ATF1 as well as phosphorylated CREB1/ATF1 was examined in normal canine retina by immunoblot. The p-CREB1 antibody identified phosphorylated CREB1 and ATF1 and labeled the inner retina only in normal dogs. In degenerate canine and human retinas, strong immunolabeling appeared in rod and cone photoreceptors, indicating increased expression of native CREB1 and ATF1, as well as increased phosphorylation of these proteins. Retinal protection by CNTF in rcd1 dogs was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of p-CREB1/ATF1-labeled photoreceptor nuclei. Conclusions. Positive association of CREB1/ATF1 phosphorylation with photoreceptor protection suggests that it may contribute to an innate protective response. These data identify a signaling mechanism in rods and cones of potential importance for therapies of RP and AMD. PMID:19643965

  15. Differential basal-to-apical accessibility of lamin A/C epitopes in the nuclear lamina regulated by changes in cytoskeletal tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihalainen, Teemu O.; Aires, Lina; Herzog, Florian A.; Schwartlander, Ruth; Moeller, Jens; Vogel, Viola

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear lamins play central roles at the intersection between cytoplasmic signalling and nuclear events. Here, we show that at least two N- and C-terminal lamin epitopes are not accessible at the basal side of the nuclear envelope under environmental conditions known to upregulate cell contractility. The conformational epitope on the Ig-domain of A-type lamins is more buried in the basal than apical nuclear envelope of human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenesis (but not adipogenesis), and in fibroblasts adhering to rigid (but not soft) polyacrylamide hydrogels. This structural polarization of the lamina is promoted by compressive forces, emerges during cell spreading, and requires lamin A/C multimerization, intact nucleoskeleton-cytoskeleton linkages (LINC), and apical-actin stress-fibre assembly. Notably, the identified Ig-epitope overlaps with emerin, DNA and histone binding sites, and comprises various laminopathy mutation sites. Our findings should help decipher how the physical properties of cellular microenvironments regulate nuclear events.

  16. Differential basal-to-apical accessibility of lamin A/C epitopes in the nuclear lamina regulated by changes in cytoskeletal tension

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Florian A.; Schwartlander, Ruth; Moeller, Jens; Vogel, Viola

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear lamins play central roles at the intersection between cytoplasmic signalling and nuclear events. Here, we show that at least two N- and C-terminal lamin epitopes are not accessible at the basal side of the nuclear envelope under environmental conditions known to upregulate cell contractility. The conformational epitope on the Ig-domain of A-type lamins is more buried in the basal than apical nuclear envelope of human mesenchymal stem cells undergoing osteogenesis (but not adipogenesis), and in fibroblasts adhering to rigid (but not soft) polyacrylamide hydrogels. This structural polarization of the lamina is promoted by compressive forces, emerges during cell spreading, and requires lamin A/C multimerization, intact nucleoskeleton-cytoskeleton linkages (LINC), and apical-actin stress-fibre assembly. Notably, the identified Igepitope overlaps with emerin, DNA and histone binding sites, and comprises various laminopathy mutation sites. Our findings should help deciphering how the physical properties of cellular microenvironments regulate nuclear events. PMID:26301768

  17. CREB Mediates Prostaglandin F2α-Induced MUC5AC Overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wen-Cheng; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Sun, Hongxia; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Koo, Ja Seok

    2009-01-01

    Mucus secretion is an important protective mechanism for the luminal lining of open tubular organs, but mucin overproduction in the respiratory tract can exacerbate the inflammatory process and cause airway obstruction. Production of MUC5AC, a predominant gel-forming mucin secreted by airway epithelia, can be induced by various inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins. The two major prostaglandins involved in inflammation are prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2α. PGE2-induced mucin production has been well studied, but the effect of PGF2α on mucin production remains poorly understood. To elucidate the effect and underlying mechanism of PGF2α on MUC5AC production, we investigated the signal transduction of PGF2α associated with this effect using normal human tracheobronchial epithelial cells. Our results demonstrated that PGF2α induces MUC5AC overproduction via a signaling cascade involving protein kinase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p90 ribosomal S6 protein kinase, and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). The regulation of PGF2α-induced MUC5AC expression by CREB was further confirmed by cAMP response element-dependent MUC5AC promoter activity and by interaction between CREB and MUC5AC promoter. The abrogation of all downstream signaling activities via suppression of each signaling molecule along the pathway indicates that a single pathway from PGF2α receptor to CREB is responsible for inducing MUC5AC overproduction. As CREB also mediates mucin overproduction induced by PGE2 and other inflammatory mediators, our findings have important clinical implication for the management of airway mucus hypersecretion. PMID:19201889

  18. Dynamic CREB family activity drives segmentation and posterior polarity specification in mammalian somitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lopez, T Peter; Fan, Chen-Ming

    2013-05-28

    The segmented body plan of vertebrates is prefigured by reiterated embryonic mesodermal structures called somites. In the mouse embryo, timely somite formation from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) is controlled by the "segmentation clock," a molecular oscillator that triggers progressive waves of Notch activity throughout the PSM. Notch clock activity is suppressed in the posterior PSM by FGF signaling until it crosses a determination front at which its net activity is sufficiently high to effect segmentation. Here, Notch and Wnt signaling directs somite anterior/posterior (A/P) polarity specification and boundary formation via regulation of the segmentation effector gene Mesoderm posterior 2. How Notch and Wnt signaling becomes coordinated at this front is incompletely defined. Here we show that the activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors exhibits Wnt3a-dependent oscillatory behavior near the determination front and is in unison with Notch activity. Inhibition of CREB family in the mesoderm causes defects in somite segmentation and a loss in somite posterior polarity leading to fusions of vertebrae and ribs. Among the CREB family downstream genes, several are known to be regulated by Wnt3a. Of those, we show that the CREB family occupies a conserved binding site in the promoter region of Delta-like 1, encoding a Notch ligand, in the anterior PSM as a mechanism to specify posterior identity of somites. Together, these data support that the CREB family acts at the determination front to modulate Wnt signaling and strengthen Notch signaling as a means to orchestrate cells for somite segmentation and anterior/posterior patterning.

  19. Binding of a 100-kDa ubiquitous factor to the human prolactin promoter is required for its basal and hormone-regulated activity.

    PubMed

    Peers, B; Nalda, A M; Monget, P; Voz, M L; Belayew, A; Martial, J A

    1992-11-15

    cAMP strongly stimulates the activity of the human prolactin (hPRL) promoter. We have previously shown that two types of cis-element are required for this cAMP regulation; binding sites for the pituitary-specific factor Pit-1, and the sequence spanning nucleotides -115 to -85 (named sequence A). Sequence A contains the TGACG motif found in the consensus sequence of the cAMP-responsive element (CRE). In this study, we show that a mutation in the TGACG motif of sequence A strongly reduces not only the cAMP regulation but also the Ca2+ regulation and basal activity of the hPRL promoter. Furthermore, gel-shift assays indicate that the mutation prevents binding of a ubiquitous factor which is not the CRE-binding protein. Southwestern experiments suggest that this ubiquitous factor's molecular mass is approximately 100 kDa. We conclude that binding of a 100-kDa ubiquitous factor to sequence A is required for full basal and hormonal regulation of hPRL-promoter activity.

  20. Basal and stress-inducible expression of HSPA6 in human keratinocytes is regulated by negative and positive promoter regions.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Vincent P; Stamatis, Michael; Shmukler, Anastasia; Aneskievich, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes serve as the primary barrier between the body and environmental stressors. They are subjected to numerous stress events and are likely to respond with a repertoire of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPA6 (HSP70B') is described in other cell types with characteristically low to undetectable basal expression, but is highly stress induced. Despite this response in other cells, little is known about its control in keratinocytes. We examined endogenous human keratinocyte HSPA6 expression and localized some responsible transcription factor sites in a cloned HSPA6 3 kb promoter. Using promoter 5' truncations and deletions, negative and positive regulatory regions were found throughout the 3 kb promoter. A region between -346 and -217 bp was found to be crucial to HSPA6 basal expression and stress inducibility. Site-specific mutations and DNA-binding studies show that a previously uncharacterized AP1 site contributes to the basal expression and maximal stress induction of HSPA6. Additionally, a new heat shock element (HSE) within this region was defined. While this element mediates increased transcriptional response in thermally stressed HaCaT keratinocytes, it preferentially binds a stress-inducible factor other than heat shock factor (HSF)1 or HSF2. Intriguingly, this newly characterized HSPA6 HSE competes HSF1 binding a consensus HSE and binds both HSF1 and HSF2 from other epithelial cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the HSPA6 promoter contains essential negative and positive promoter regions and newly identified transcription factor targets, which are key to the basal and stress-inducible expression of HSPA6. Furthermore, these results suggest that an HSF-like factor may preferentially bind this newly identified HSPA6 HSE in HaCaT cells.

  1. Monoallelic and biallelic CREB3L1 variant causes mild and severe osteogenesis imperfecta, respectively.

    PubMed

    Keller, Rachel B; Tran, Thao T; Pyott, Shawna M; Pepin, Melanie G; Savarirayan, Ravi; McGillivray, George; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J; Byers, Peter H

    2017-08-17

    PurposeOsteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable skeletal dysplasia. Dominant pathogenic variants in COL1A1 and COL1A2 explain the majority of OI cases. At least 15 additional genes have been identified, but those still do not account for all OI phenotypes that present. We sought the genetic cause of mild and lethal OI phenotypes in an unsolved family.MethodsWe performed exome sequencing on seven members of the family, both affected and unaffected.ResultsWe identified a variant in cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 1 (CREB3L1) in a consanguineous family. The variant caused a prenatal/perinatal lethal OI in homozygotes, similar to that seen in OI type II as a result of mutations in type I collagen genes, and a mild phenotype (fractures, blue sclerae) in multiple heterozygous family members. CREB3L1 encodes old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS), an endoplasmic reticulum stress transducer. The variant disrupts a DNA-binding site and prevents OASIS from acting on its transcriptional targets including SEC24D, which encodes a component of the coat protein II complex.ConclusionThis report confirms that CREB3L1 is an OI-related gene and suggests the pathogenic mechanism of CREB3L1-associated OI involves the altered regulation of proteins involved in cellular secretion.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 17 August 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.115.

  2. Lifespan extension induced by AMPK and calcineurin is mediated by CRTC-1 and CREB

    PubMed Central

    Mair, William; Morantte, Ianessa; Rodrigues, Ana P. C.; Manning, Gerard; Montminy, Marc; Shaw, Reuben J.; Dillin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Activating AMPK or inactivating calcineurin slows ageing in Caenorhabditis elegans1,2 and both have been implicated as therapeutic targets for age-related pathology in mammals3–5. However, the direct targets that mediate their effects on longevity remain unclear. In mammals, CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivators (CRTCs)6 are a family of cofactors involved in diverse physiological processes including energy homeostasis7–9, cancer10 and endoplasmic reticulum stress11. Here we show that both AMPK and calcineurin modulate longevity exclusively through post-translational modification of CRTC-1, the sole C. elegans CRTC. We demonstrate that CRTC-1 is a direct AMPK target, and interacts with the CREB homologue-1 (CRH-1) transcription factor in vivo. The pro-longevity effects of activating AMPK or deactivating calcineurin decrease CRTC-1 and CRH-1 activity and induce transcriptional responses similar to those of CRH-1 null worms. Downregulation of crtc-1 increases lifespan in a crh-1-dependent manner and directly reducing crh-1 expression increases longevity, substantiating a role for CRTCs and CREB in ageing. Together, these findings indicate a novel role for CRTCs and CREB in determining lifespan downstream of AMPK and calcineurin, and illustrate the molecular mechanisms by which an evolutionarily conserved pathway responds to low energy to increase longevity. PMID:21331044

  3. The Hox gene Dfd controls organogenesis by shaping territorial border through regulation of basal DE-Cadherin distribution.

    PubMed

    Anais Tiberghien, Marie; Lebreton, Gaelle; Cribbs, David; Benassayag, Corinne; Suzanne, Magali

    2015-09-15

    Hox genes are highly conserved selector genes controlling tissue identity and organogenesis. Recent work indicates that Hox genes also controls cell segregation and segmental boundary in various species, however the underlying cellular mechanisms involved in this function are poorly understood. In Drosophila melanogaster, the Hox gene Deformed (Dfd) is required for specification and organogenesis of the adult Maxillary (Mx) palp. Here, we demonstrate that differential Dfd expression control Mx morphogenesis through the formation of a physical boundary separating the Mx field and the Peripodial Epithelium (PE). We show that this boundary relies on DE-cadherin (DE-cad) basal accumulation in Mx cells controlled by differential Dfd expression. Indeed, Dfd controls boundary formation through cell autonomous basal redistribution of DE-cad which leads to subsequent fold at the Dfd expression border. Finally, the loss of Mx DE-cad basal accumulation and hence of Mx-PE folding is sufficient to prevent Mx organogenesis thus revealing the crucial role of boundaries in organ differentiation. Altogether, these results reveal that Hox coordination of tissue morphogenesis relies on boundary fold formation through the modulation of DE-cad positioning.

  4. Cell-specific occupancy of an extended repertoire of CREM and CREB binding loci in male germ cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background CREB and CREM are closely related factors that regulate transcription in response to various stress, metabolic and developmental signals. The CREMτ activator isoform is selectively expressed in haploid spermatids and plays an essential role in murine spermiogenesis. Results We have used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to sequencing (ChIP-seq) to map CREM and CREB target loci in round spermatids from adult mouse testis and spermatogonia derived GC1-spg cells respectively. We identify more than 9000 genomic loci most of which are cell-specifically occupied. Despite the fact that round spermatids correspond to a highly specialised differentiated state, our results show that they have a remarkably accessible chromatin environment as CREM occupies more than 6700 target loci corresponding not only to the promoters of genes selectively expressed in spermiogenesis, but also of genes involved in functions specific to other cell types. The expression of only a small subset of these target genes are affected in the round spermatids of CREM knockout animals. We also identify a set of intergenic binding loci some of which are associated with H3K4 trimethylation and elongating RNA polymerase II suggesting the existence of novel CREB and CREM regulated transcripts. Conclusions We demonstrate that CREM and CREB occupy a large number of promoters in highly cell specific manner. This is the first study of CREM target promoters directly in a physiologically relevant tissue in vivo and represents the most comprehensive experimental analysis of CREB/CREM regulatory potential to date. PMID:20920259

  5. NR2B-containing NMDA receptors promote neural progenitor cell proliferation through CaMKIV/CREB pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mei; Zhang, Dong-Qing; Wang, Xiang-Zhen; Xu, Tie-Jun

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} The NR2B component of the NMDARs is important for the NSPC proliferation. {yields} pCaMKIV and pCREB exist in NSPCs. {yields} The CaMKIV/CREB pathway mediates NSPC proliferation. -- Abstract: Accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in regulating neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) proliferation. Functional properties of NMDARs can be markedly influenced by incorporating the regulatory subunit NR2B. Here, we aim to analyze the effect of NR2B-containing NMDARs on the proliferation of hippocampal NSPCs and to explore the mechanism responsible for this effect. NSPCs were shown to express NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2B. The NR2B selective antagonist, Ro 25-6981, prevented the NMDA-induced increase in cell proliferation. Moreover, we demonstrated that the phosphorylation levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were increased by NMDA treatment, whereas Ro 25-6981 decreased them. The role that NR2B-containing NMDARs plays in NSPC proliferation was abolished when CREB phosphorylation was attenuated by CaMKIV silencing. These results suggest that NR2B-containing NMDARs have a positive role in regulating NSPC proliferation, which may be mediated through CaMKIV phosphorylation and subsequent induction of CREB activation.

  6. The molecular biology of memory: cAMP, PKA, CRE, CREB-1, CREB-2, and CPEB.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Eric R

    2012-05-14

    The analysis of the contributions to synaptic plasticity and memory of cAMP, PKA, CRE, CREB-1, CREB-2, and CPEB has recruited the efforts of many laboratories all over the world. These are six key steps in the molecular biological delineation of short-term memory and its conversion to long-term memory for both implicit (procedural) and explicit (declarative) memory. I here first trace the background for the clinical and behavioral studies of implicit memory that made a molecular biology of memory storage possible, and then detail the discovery and early history of these six molecular steps and their roles in explicit memory.

  7. Isoflurane-induced inactivation of CREB through histone deacetylase 4 is responsible for cognitive impairment in developing brain.

    PubMed

    Sen, Tanusree; Sen, Nilkantha

    2016-12-01

    Anesthetics including isoflurane are known to induce neuronal dysfunction in the developing brain, however, the underlying mechanism is mostly unknown. The transcriptional activation of CREB (cyclic AMP response element binding protein) and the alterations in acetylation of histones modulated by several histone deacetylases such as HDAC4 (histone deacetylase 4) are known to contribute to synaptic plasticity in the brain. Here we have shown that administration of isoflurane (1.4%) for 2h leads to transcriptional inactivation of CREB which results in loss of dendritic outgrowth and decreased expression level of proteins essential for memory and cognitive functions, such as BDNF, and c-fos in the developing brain of mice at postnatal day 7 (PND7). To elucidate the molecular mechanism, we found that exposure to isoflurane leads to an increase in nuclear translocation of HDAC4, which interacts with CREB in the nucleus. This event, in turn, results in a decrease in interaction between an acetyltransferase, CBP, and CREB that ultimately leads to transcriptional inactivation of CREB. As a result, the expression level of BDNF, and c-fos were significantly down-regulated after administration of isoflurane in PND7 brain. Depletion of HDAC4 in PND7 brain rescues the transcriptional activation of CREB along with augmentation in the level of the expression level of BDNF and c-fos. Moreover, administration of lentiviral particles of HDAC4 RNAi in primary neurons rescues neurite outgrowth following isoflurane treatment. Taken together, our study suggests that HDAC4-induced transcriptional inactivation of CREB is responsible for isoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Neuronal activity controls Bdnf expression via Polycomb de-repression and CREB/CBP/JMJD3 activation in mature neurons

    PubMed Central

    Palomer, Ernest; Carretero, Javier; Benvegnù, Stefano; Dotti, Carlos G.; Martin, Mauricio G.

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently described that in embryonic stem cells, the expression of some important developmentally regulated genes is repressed, but poised for fast activation under the appropriate stimuli. In this work we show that Bdnf promoters are repressed by Polycomb Complex 2 in mature hippocampal neurons, and basal expression is guaranteed by the coexistence with activating histone marks. Neuronal stimulation triggered by N-methyl-D-aspartate application induces the transcription of these promoters by H3K27Me3 demethylation and H3K27Me3 phosphorylation at Serine 28 leading to displacement of EZH2, the catalytic subunit of Polycomb Repressor Complex 2. Our data show that the fast transient expression of Bdnf promoters II and VI after neuronal stimulation is dependent on acetylation of histone H3K27 by CREB-p/CBP. Thus, regulatory mechanisms established during development seem to remain after differentiation controlling genes induced by different stimuli, as would be the case of early memory genes in mature neurons. PMID:27010597

  9. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase regulates basal and cyclic AMP-stimulated but not phorbol ester-stimulated transcription of the tyrosine hydroxylase gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, K S; Tinti, C; Song, B; Cubells, J F; Joh, T H

    1994-09-01

    To define the precise role of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in transcriptional regulation of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene, we performed transient cotransfection analyses of a reporter construct containing the upstream 2,400 bp sequence of the rat TH gene with expression plasmids encoding a heat-stable specific inhibitor of PKA (PKI), a mutant regulatory subunit of PKA, or the catalytic subunit of PKA. Inhibition of PKA activity by expression of either PKI or mutant regulatory subunit blocked cAMP-stimulated induction and reduced basal transcription of the TH-reporter construct. Expression of the catalytic subunit of PKA induced the expression of the TH-reporter construct up to 50-fold in a dose-dependent manner. Primer extension analysis confirmed that PKA-mediated induction of TH-reporter expression occurred at the correct transcription initiation site. Expression of PKI did not affect induction following phorbol ester treatment, suggesting that PKA and protein kinase C (PKC) induce TH transcription by independent mechanisms. Finally, a double mutation within the cAMP response element (CRE) of TH2400-CAT diminished its basal and forskolin-stimulated transcription to the level of the promoterless plasmid, pBLCAT3, but did not alter the induction following treatment with phorbol ester, indicating that the CRE is not required for PKC-mediated transcriptional induction. Our results indicate that PKA, via the CRE, plays a crucial role for basal and cAMP-inducible transcription of the TH gene.

  10. Identification of host transcriptional networks showing concentration-dependent regulation by HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins in basal cervical squamous epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen P; Scarpini, Cinzia G; Groves, Ian J; Odle, Richard I; Coleman, Nicholas

    2016-07-26

    Development of cervical squamous cell carcinoma requires increased expression of the major high-risk human-papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 in basal cervical epithelial cells. We used a systems biology approach to identify host transcriptional networks in such cells and study the concentration-dependent changes produced by HPV16-E6 and -E7 oncoproteins. We investigated sample sets derived from the W12 model of cervical neoplastic progression, for which high quality phenotype/genotype data were available. We defined a gene co-expression matrix containing a small number of highly-connected hub nodes that controlled large numbers of downstream genes (regulons), indicating the scale-free nature of host gene co-expression in W12. We identified a small number of 'master regulators' for which downstream effector genes were significantly associated with protein levels of HPV16 E6 (n = 7) or HPV16 E7 (n = 5). We validated our data by depleting E6/E7 in relevant cells and by functional analysis of selected genes in vitro. We conclude that the network of transcriptional interactions in HPV16-infected basal-type cervical epithelium is regulated in a concentration-dependent manner by E6/E7, via a limited number of central master-regulators. These effects are likely to be significant in cervical carcinogenesis, where there is competitive selection of cells with elevated expression of virus oncoproteins.

  11. Cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate basal and tumour necrosis factor-α-induced regulation of myosin light chain kinase gene activity

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dongmei; Ma, Thomas Y

    2008-01-01

    The patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have a ‘leaky gut’ manifested by an increase in intestinal epithelial tight junction (TJ) permeability. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a proto-typical pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in intestinal inflammation of CD. An important pro-inflammatory action of TNF-α is to cause a functional opening of intestinal TJ barrier. Previous studies have shown that TNF-α increase in TJ permeability was regulated by an increase in myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) gene activity and protein expression. The major aim of this study was to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate basal and TNF-α-induced increase in MLCK gene activity. By progressive 5′ deletion, minimal MLCK promoter was localized between −313 to +118 on MLCK promoter. A p53 binding site located within minimal promoter region was identified as an essential determinant for basal promoter activity. A 4 bp start site and a 5 bp downstream promoter element were required for MLCK gene activity. TNF-α-induced increase in MLCK promoter activity was mediated by NF-κB activation. There were eight κB binding sites on MLCK promoter. The NF-κB1 site at +48 to +57 mediated TNF-α-induced increase in MLCK promoter activity. The NF-κB2 site at −325 to −316 had a repressive role on promoter activity. The opposite effects on promoter activity were due to differences in the NF-κB dimer type binding to the κB sites. p50/p65 dimer preferentially binds to the NF-κB1 site and up-regulates promoter activity; while p50/p50 dimer preferentially binds to the NF-κB2 site and down-regulates promoter activity. In conclusion, we have identified the minimal MLCK promoter region, essential molecular determinants and molecular mechanisms that mediate basal and TNF-α-induced modulation of MLCK promoter activity in Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. These studies provide novel insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate

  12. Silymarin suppresses the PGE2 -induced cell migration through inhibition of EP2 activation; G protein-dependent PKA-CREB and G protein-independent Src-STAT3 signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seon Min; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Chae, In Gyeong; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2015-03-01

    Silymarin has been known as a chemopreventive agent, and possesses multiple anti-cancer activities including induction of apoptosis, inhibition of proliferation and growth, and blockade of migration and invasion. However, whether silymarin could inhibit prostaglandin (PG) E2 -induced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) migration and what are the underlying mechanisms are not well elucidated. Here, we found that silymarin markedly inhibited PGE2 -stimulated migration. PGE2 induced G protein-dependent CREB phosphorylation via protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, and PKA inhibitor (H89) inhibited PGE2 -mediated migration. Silymarin reduced PGE2 -induced CREB phosphorylation and CRE-promoter activity. PGE2 also activated G protien-independent signaling pathways (Src and STAT3) and silymarin reduced PGE2 -induced phosphorylation of Src and STAT3. Inhibitor of Src (Saracatinib) markedly reduced PGE2 -mediated migration. We found that EP2, a PGE2 receptor, is involved in PGE2 -mediated cell migration. Down regulation of EP2 by EP2 siRNA and EP2 antagonist (AH6809) reduced PGE2 -inudced migration. In contrast, EP2 agonist (Butaprost) increased cell migration and silymarin effectively reduced butaprost-mediated cell migration. Moreover, PGE2 increased EP2 expression through activation of positive feedback mechanism, and PGE2 -induced EP2 expression, as well as basal EP2 levels, were reduced in silymarin-treated cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates that silymarin inhibited PGE2 -induced cell migration through inhibition of EP2 signaling pathways (G protein dependent PKA-CREB and G protein-independent Src-STAT3). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Regulation of basal and reserve cardiac pacemaker function by interactions of cAMP mediated PKA-dependent Ca2+ cycling with surface membrane channels

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradova, Tatiana M.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2009-01-01

    Decades of intensive research of primary cardiac pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, have established potential roles of specific membrane channels in the generation of the diastolic depolarization, the major mechanism allowing sinoatrial node cells generate spontaneous beating. During the last three decades, multiple studies made either in the isolated sinoatrial node or sinoatrial node cells have demonstrated a pivotal role of Ca2+ and, specifically Ca2+-release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, for spontaneous beating of cardiac pacemaker. Recently, spontaneous, rhythmic local subsarcolemmal Ca2+ releases from ryanodine receptors during late half of the diastolic depolarization have been implicated as a vital factor in the generation of sinoatrial node cells spontaneous firing. Local Ca2+ releases are driven by a unique combination of high basal cAMP production by adenylyl cyclases, high basal cAMP degradation by phosphodiesterases and a high level of cAMP-mediated PKA-dependent phosphorylation. These local Ca2+ releases activate an inward Na+-Ca2+ exchange current which accelerates the terminal diastolic depolarization rate and, thus, controls the spontaneous pacemaker firing. Both the basal primary pacemaker beating rate and its modulation via β-adrenergic receptor stimulation appear to be critically dependent upon intact RyR function and local subsarcolemmal sarcoplasmic reticulum generated Ca2+ releases. This review aspires to integrate the traditional viewpoint that has emphasized the supremacy of the ensemble of surface membrane ion channels in spontaneous firing of the primary cardiac pacemaker, and these novel perspectives of cAMP-mediated PKA-dependent Ca2+ cycling in regulation of the heart pacemaker clock, both in the basal state and during β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. PMID:19573534

  14. cAMP-Response Element-Binding 3-Like Protein 1 (CREB3L1) is Required for Decidualization and its Expression is Decreased in Women with Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J I; Yoo, J-Y; Kim, T H; Kim, Y I; Ferguson, S D; Fazleabas, A T; Young, S L; Lessey, B A; Ahn, J Y; Lim, J M; Jeong, J-W

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a major cause of infertility and pelvic pain, affecting more than 10% of reproductive-aged women. Progesterone resistance has been observed in the endometrium of women with this disease, as evidenced by alterations in progesterone-responsive gene and protein expression. cAMPResponse Element-Binding 3-like protein 1 (Creb3l1) has previously been identified as a progesterone receptor (PR) target gene in mouse uterus via high density DNA microarray analysis. However, CREB3L1 function has not been studied in the context of endometriosis and uterine biology. In this study, we validated progesterone (P4) regulation of Creb3l1 in the uteri of wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout (PRKO) mice. Furthermore, we observed that CREB3L1 expression was significantly higher in secretory phase human endometrium compared to proliferative phase and that CREB3L1 expression was significantly decreased in the endometrium of women with endometriosis. Lastly, by transfecting CREB3L1 siRNA into cultured human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs) prior to hormonal induction of in vitro decidualization, we showed that CREB3L1 is required for the decidualization process. Interestingly, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, critical factor for decidualization, was also significantly reduced in CREB3L1-silenced hESCs. It is known that hESCs from patients with endometriosis show impaired decidualization and that dysregulation of the P4-PR signaling axis is linked to a variety of endometrial diseases including infertility and endometriosis. Therefore, these results suggest that CREB3L1 is required for decidualization in mice and humans and may be linked to the pathogenesis of endometriosis in a P4-dependent manner.

  15. Constitutive activation of CREB in mice enhances temporal association learning and increases hippocampal CA1 neuronal spine density and complexity

    PubMed Central

    Serita, Tatsurou; Fukushima, Hotaka; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Transcription factor CREB is believed to play essential roles in the formation of long-term memory (LTM), but not in learning and short-term memory (STM). Surprisingly, we previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a dominant active mutant of CREB (DIEDML) in the forebrain (DIEDML mice) demonstrated enhanced STM and LTM in hippocampal-dependent, rapid, one-trial learning tasks. Here we show that constitutive activation of CREB enhances hippocampal-dependent learning of temporal association in trace fear conditioning and delayed matching-to-place tasks. We then show that in DIEDML mice the apical tuft dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, required for temporal association learning, display increased spine density, especially of thin spines and of Homer1-negative spines. In contrast, the basal and apical oblique dendrites of CA1 neurons, required for rapid one-trial learning, show increased density of thin, stubby, and mushroom spines and of Homer1-positive spines. Furthermore, DIEDML mice showed increased dendritic complexity in the proximal portion of apical CA1 dendrites to the soma. In contrast, forebrain overexpression of CaMKIV, leading to enhanced LTM but not STM, show normal learning and CA1 neuron morphology. These findings suggest that dendritic region-specific morphological changes in CA1 neurons by constitutive activation of CREB may contribute to improved learning and STM. PMID:28195219

  16. Constitutive activation of CREB in mice enhances temporal association learning and increases hippocampal CA1 neuronal spine density and complexity.

    PubMed

    Serita, Tatsurou; Fukushima, Hotaka; Kida, Satoshi

    2017-02-14

    Transcription factor CREB is believed to play essential roles in the formation of long-term memory (LTM), but not in learning and short-term memory (STM). Surprisingly, we previously showed that transgenic mice expressing a dominant active mutant of CREB (DIEDML) in the forebrain (DIEDML mice) demonstrated enhanced STM and LTM in hippocampal-dependent, rapid, one-trial learning tasks. Here we show that constitutive activation of CREB enhances hippocampal-dependent learning of temporal association in trace fear conditioning and delayed matching-to-place tasks. We then show that in DIEDML mice the apical tuft dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, required for temporal association learning, display increased spine density, especially of thin spines and of Homer1-negative spines. In contrast, the basal and apical oblique dendrites of CA1 neurons, required for rapid one-trial learning, show increased density of thin, stubby, and mushroom spines and of Homer1-positive spines. Furthermore, DIEDML mice showed increased dendritic complexity in the proximal portion of apical CA1 dendrites to the soma. In contrast, forebrain overexpression of CaMKIV, leading to enhanced LTM but not STM, show normal learning and CA1 neuron morphology. These findings suggest that dendritic region-specific morphological changes in CA1 neurons by constitutive activation of CREB may contribute to improved learning and STM.

  17. Activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptor-mediated AMPK/CREB pathway reduces cerebral ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Young; Ju, Chung; Anthony Jalin, Angela M A; Lee, Da In; Prather, Paul L; Kim, Won-Ki

    2013-03-01

    The type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) was recently shown to mediate neuroprotection in ischemic injury. However, the role of CB2Rs in the central nervous system, especially neuronal and glial CB2Rs in the cortex, remains unclear. We, therefore, investigated anti-ischemic mechanisms of cortical CB2R activation in various ischemic models. In rat cortical neurons/glia mixed cultures, a CB2R agonist, trans-caryophyllene (TC), decreased neuronal injury and mitochondrial depolarization caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R); these effects were reversed by the selective CB2R antagonist, AM630, but not by a type 1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, AM251. Although it lacked free radical scavenging and antioxidant enzyme induction activities, TC reduced OGD/R-evoked mitochondrial dysfunction and intracellular oxidative stress. Western blot analysis demonstrated that TC enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB), and increased expression of the CREB target gene product, brain-derived neurotrophic factor. However, TC failed to alter the activity of either Akt or extracellular signal-regulated kinase, two major CB2R signaling pathways. Selective AMPK and CREB inhibitors abolished the neuroprotective effects of TC. In rats, post-ischemic treatment with TC decreased cerebral infarct size and edema, and increased phosphorylated CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in neurons. All protective effects of TC were reversed by co-administration with AM630. Collectively, these data demonstrate that cortical CB2R activation by TC ameliorates ischemic injury, potentially through modulation of AMPK/CREB signaling, and suggest that cortical CB2Rs might serve as a putative therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia.

  18. Sweet taste receptors regulate basal insulin secretion and contribute to compensatory insulin hypersecretion during the development of diabetes in male mice.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, George A; Smith, Kathleen R; Tyrberg, Björn; Hussain, Tania; Pratley, Richard E

    2014-06-01

    β-Cells rapidly secrete insulin in response to acute increases in plasma glucose but, upon further continuous exposure to glucose, insulin secretion progressively decreases. Although the mechanisms are unclear, this mode of regulation suggests the presence of a time-dependent glucosensory system that temporarily attenuates insulin secretion. Interestingly, early-stage β-cell dysfunction is often characterized by basal (ie, fasting) insulin hypersecretion, suggesting a disruption of these related mechanisms. Because sweet taste receptors (STRs) on β-cells are implicated in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose is a bona fide STR ligand, we tested whether STRs mediate this sensory mechanism and participate in the regulation of basal insulin secretion. We used mice lacking STR signaling (T1R2(-/-) knockout) and pharmacologic inhibition of STRs in human islets. Mouse and human islets deprived of STR signaling hypersecrete insulin at short-term fasting glucose concentrations. Accordingly, 5-hour fasted T1R2(-/-) mice have increased plasma insulin and lower glucose. Exposure of isolated wild-type islets to elevated glucose levels reduced STR expression, whereas islets from diabetic (db/db) or diet-induced obese mouse models show similar down-regulation. This transcriptional reprogramming in response to hyperglycemia correlates with reduced STR function in these mouse models, leading to insulin hypersecretion. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which insulin secretion is physiologically regulated by STRs and also suggest that, during the development of diabetes, STR function is compromised by hyperglycemia leading to hyperinsulinemia. These observations further suggest that STRs might be a promising therapeutic target to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes.

  19. Sweet Taste Receptors Regulate Basal Insulin Secretion and Contribute to Compensatory Insulin Hypersecretion During the Development of Diabetes in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathleen R.; Tyrberg, Björn; Hussain, Tania; Pratley, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    β-Cells rapidly secrete insulin in response to acute increases in plasma glucose but, upon further continuous exposure to glucose, insulin secretion progressively decreases. Although the mechanisms are unclear, this mode of regulation suggests the presence of a time-dependent glucosensory system that temporarily attenuates insulin secretion. Interestingly, early-stage β-cell dysfunction is often characterized by basal (ie, fasting) insulin hypersecretion, suggesting a disruption of these related mechanisms. Because sweet taste receptors (STRs) on β-cells are implicated in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose is a bona fide STR ligand, we tested whether STRs mediate this sensory mechanism and participate in the regulation of basal insulin secretion. We used mice lacking STR signaling (T1R2−/− knockout) and pharmacologic inhibition of STRs in human islets. Mouse and human islets deprived of STR signaling hypersecrete insulin at short-term fasting glucose concentrations. Accordingly, 5-hour fasted T1R2−/− mice have increased plasma insulin and lower glucose. Exposure of isolated wild-type islets to elevated glucose levels reduced STR expression, whereas islets from diabetic (db/db) or diet-induced obese mouse models show similar down-regulation. This transcriptional reprogramming in response to hyperglycemia correlates with reduced STR function in these mouse models, leading to insulin hypersecretion. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which insulin secretion is physiologically regulated by STRs and also suggest that, during the development of diabetes, STR function is compromised by hyperglycemia leading to hyperinsulinemia. These observations further suggest that STRs might be a promising therapeutic target to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes. PMID:24712876

  20. Small molecule kaempferol modulates PDX-1 protein expression and subsequently promotes pancreatic β-cell survival and function via CREB.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhen, Wei; Maechler, Pierre; Liu, Dongmin

    2013-04-01

    Chronic hyperlipidemia causes β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Thus, searching for agents to promote pancreatic β-cell survival and improve its function could be a promising strategy to prevent and treat T2D. We investigated the effects of kaempferol, a small molecule isolated from ginkgo biloba, on apoptosis and function of β-cells and further determined the mechanism underlying its actions. Kaempferol treatment promoted viability, inhibited apoptosis and reduced caspase-3 activity in INS-1E cells and human islets chronically exposed to palmitate. In addition, kaempferol prevented the lipotoxicity-induced down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins Akt and Bcl-2. The cytoprotective effects of kaempferol were associated with improved insulin secretion, synthesis, and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) expression. Chronic hyperlipidemia significantly diminished cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production, protein kinase A (PKA) activation, cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and its regulated transcriptional activity in β-cells, all of which were restored by kaempferol treatment. Disruption of CREB expression by transfection of CREB siRNA in INS-1E cells or adenoviral transfer of dominant-negative forms of CREB in human islets ablated kaempferol protection of β-cell apoptosis and dysfunction caused by palmitate. Incubation of INS-1E cells or human islets with kaempferol for 48h induced PDX-1 expression. This effect of kaempferol on PDX-1 expression was not shared by a host of structurally related flavonoid compounds. PDX-1 gene knockdown reduced kaempferol-stimulated cAMP generation and CREB activation in INS-1E cells. These findings demonstrate that kaempferol is a novel survivor factor for pancreatic β-cells via up-regulating the PDX-1/cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling cascade.

  1. Proatherogenic Abnormalities Of Lipid Metabolism In SirT1 Transgenic Mice Are Mediated Through Creb Deacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Li; Lin, Hua V.; Kim-Muller, Ja Young; Welch, Carrie L.; Gu, Wei; Accili, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis are associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and diabetes, but the mechanism is unclear. Gain-of-function of the gene encoding deacetylase SirT1 improves insulin sensitivity, and could be expected to protect against lipid abnormalities. Surprisingly, when transgenic mice overexpressing SirT1 (SirBACO) are placed on atherogenic diet, they maintain better glucose homeostasis, but develop worse lipid profiles and larger atherosclerotic lesions than controls. We show that transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (Creb) is deacetylated in SirBACO mice. We identify Lys136 is a substrate for SirT1-dependent deacetylation that affects Creb activity by preventing its cAMP-dependent phosphorylation, leading to reduced expression of glucogenic genes, and promoting hepatic lipid accumulation and secretion. Expression of constitutively acetylated Creb (K136Q) in SirBACO mice mimics Creb activation and abolishes the dyslipidemic and insulin-sensitizing effects of SirT1 gain-of-function. We propose that SirT1-dependent Creb deacetylation regulates the balance between glucose and lipid metabolism, integrating fasting signals. PMID:22078933

  2. Fission yeast ATF/CREB family protein Atf21 plays important roles in production of normal spores.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomohiko; Yamada, Takatomi; Yamada, Shintaro; Matsumoto, Kouji; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2011-02-01

    Activating transcription factor/cAMP response element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family transcription factors play central roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis. They are activated in response to environmental stimuli, bind to CRE sequences in the promoters of stress-response genes and regulate transcription. Although ATF/CREB proteins are widely conserved among most eukaryotes, their characteristics are highly diverse. Here, we investigated the functions of a fission yeast ATF/CREB protein Atf21 to find out its unique properties. We show that Atf21 is dispensable for the adaptive response to several stresses such as nitrogen starvation and for meiotic events including nuclear divisions. However, spores derived from atf21Δ mutants are not as mature as wild-type ones and are unable to form colonies under nutrition-rich conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Atf21 protein, which is scarce in early meiosis, gradually accumulates as meiosis proceeds; it reaches maximum levels approximately 8 h after nitrogen starvation and is present during germination. These results suggest that Atf21 is expressed and functions long after nitrogen starvation. Given that other well-characterized fission yeast ATF/CREB proteins Atf1 and Pcr1 accumulate and function promptly upon exposure to environmental stresses, we propose that Atf21 is a distinct member of the ATF/CREB family in fission yeast. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. A new perspective on the role of the CREB family of transcription factors in memory consolidation via adult hippocampal neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Martínez, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis is the process by which new neurons are generated in the brains of adults. Since its discovery 50 years ago, adult neurogenesis has been widely studied in the mammalian brain and has provided a new perspective on the pathophysiology of many psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, some of which affect memory. In this regard, adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN), which occurs in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG), has been suggested to play a role in the formation and consolidation of new memories. This process involves many transcription factors, of which cyclic AMP (cAMP)-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is a well-documented one. In the developing brain, CREB regulates crucial cell stages (e.g., proliferation, differentiation, and survival), and in the adult brain, it participates in neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory. In addition, new evidence supports the hypothesis that CREB may also participate in learning and memory through its involvement in AHN. This review examines the CREB family of transcription factors, including the different members and known signaling pathways. It highlights the role of CREB as a modulator of AHN, which could underlie its function in memory consolidation mechanisms. PMID:26379491

  4. CREB phosphorylation and melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal gland: involvement of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase type II.

    PubMed

    Maronde, E; Wicht, H; Taskén, K; Genieser, H G; Dehghani, F; Olcese, J; Korf, H W

    1999-10-01

    Phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) at amino acid serine 133 appears as an important link between the norepinephrine (NE)-induced activation of second messenger systems and the stimulation of melatonin biosynthesis. Here we investigated in the rat pineal gland: 1) the type of protein kinase that mediates CREB phosphorylation: and 2) its impact on melatonin biosynthesis. Immunochemical or immunocytochemical demonstration of serine133-phosphorylated cyclic AMP regulated element binding protein (pCREB) and radioimmunological detection of melatonin revealed that only cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitors suppressed NE-induced CREB phosphorylation and stimulation of melatonin biosynthesis, whereas inhibitors of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, protein kinase C, or calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) were ineffective. Investigations with cyclic AMP-agonist pairs that selectively activate either PKA type I or II link NE-induced CREB phosphorylation and stimulation of melatonin biosynthesis to the activation of PKA type II. Our data suggest that PKA type II plays an important role in the transcriptional control of melatonin biosynthesis in the rat pineal organ.

  5. Characterization of the human mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate transporter SLC25A19 minimal promoter: a role for NF-Y in regulating basal transcription.

    PubMed

    Nabokina, Svetlana M; Valle, Judith E; Said, Hamid M

    2013-10-10

    Transcriptional regulation of expression of the human mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate transporter (the product of the SLC25A19 gene) is unknown. To understand this regulation, we cloned and characterized the 5'-regulatory region of the SLC25A19 gene (1,080 bp). The cloned fragment was found to possess promoter activity in transiently transfected human-derived liver HepG2 cells. 5'- and 3'-deletion analysis has identified the minimal region required for basal SLC25A19 promoter activity to be between -131 and +20 (using the distal transcriptional start site as +1). The minimal promoter lacks typical TATA motif and contains two inverted CCAAT boxes (binding sites for NF-Y transcriptional factor). By means of mutational analysis, the critical role of both the upstream and downstream CCAAT boxes in basal SLC25A19 promoter activity was established; however, each of these boxes alone was found to be unable to support promoter activity. EMSA and supershift EMSA (with the use of specific antibodies against NF-Y subunits) studies, as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, demonstrated the binding of NF-Y to both CCAAT boxes in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The requirement for NF-Y in SLC25A19 promoter activity in vivo was directly confirmed by the use of a dominant negative NF-YA mutant in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. These studies report for the first time the characterization of the SLC25A19 promoter and demonstrate an essential role for NF-Y in its basal activity.

  6. Region-dependent dynamics of cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in the basal ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fu-Chin; Graybiel, Ann M.

    1998-01-01

    The cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is an activity-dependent transcription factor that is involved in neural plasticity. The kinetics of CREB phosphorylation have been suggested to be important for gene activation, with sustained phosphorylation being associated with downstream gene expression. If so, the duration of CREB phosphorylation might serve as an indicator for time-sensitive plastic changes in neurons. To screen for regions potentially involved in dopamine-mediated plasticity in the basal ganglia, we used organotypic slice cultures to study the patterns of dopamine- and calcium-mediated CREB phosphorylation in the major subdivisions of the striatum. Different durations of CREB phosphorylation were evoked in the dorsal and ventral striatum by activation of dopamine D1-class receptors. The same D1 stimulus elicited (i) transient phosphorylation (≤15 min) in the matrix of the dorsal striatum; (ii) sustained phosphorylation (≤2 hr) in limbic-related structures including striosomes, the nucleus accumbens, the fundus striati, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; and (iii) prolonged phosphorylation (up to 4 hr or more) in cellular islands in the olfactory tubercle. Elevation of Ca2+ influx by stimulation of L-type Ca2+ channels, NMDA, or KCl induced strong CREB phosphorylation in the dorsal striatum but not in the olfactory tubercle. These findings differentiate the response of CREB to dopamine and calcium signals in different striatal regions and suggest that dopamine-mediated CREB phosphorylation is persistent in limbic-related regions of the neonatal basal ganglia. The downstream effects activated by persistent CREB phosphorylation may include time-sensitive neuroplasticity modulated by dopamine. PMID:9539803

  7. Identification of host transcriptional networks showing concentration-dependent regulation by HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins in basal cervical squamous epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen P.; Scarpini, Cinzia G.; Groves, Ian J.; Odle, Richard I.; Coleman, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Development of cervical squamous cell carcinoma requires increased expression of the major high-risk human-papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes E6 and E7 in basal cervical epithelial cells. We used a systems biology approach to identify host transcriptional networks in such cells and study the concentration-dependent changes produced by HPV16-E6 and -E7 oncoproteins. We investigated sample sets derived from the W12 model of cervical neoplastic progression, for which high quality phenotype/genotype data were available. We defined a gene co-expression matrix containing a small number of highly-connected hub nodes that controlled large numbers of downstream genes (regulons), indicating the scale-free nature of host gene co-expression in W12. We identified a small number of ‘master regulators’ for which downstream effector genes were significantly associated with protein levels of HPV16 E6 (n = 7) or HPV16 E7 (n = 5). We validated our data by depleting E6/E7 in relevant cells and by functional analysis of selected genes in vitro. We conclude that the network of transcriptional interactions in HPV16-infected basal-type cervical epithelium is regulated in a concentration-dependent manner by E6/E7, via a limited number of central master-regulators. These effects are likely to be significant in cervical carcinogenesis, where there is competitive selection of cells with elevated expression of virus oncoproteins. PMID:27457222

  8. GABAergic Interneuron Differentiation in the Basal Forebrain Is Mediated through Direct Regulation of Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Isoforms by Dlx Homeobox Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Le, Trung N; Zhou, Qing-Ping; Cobos, Inma; Zhang, Shunzhen; Zagozewski, Jamie; Japoni, Sara; Vriend, Jerry; Parkinson, Tracie; Du, Guoyan; Rubenstein, John L; Eisenstat, David D

    2017-09-06

    GABA is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cortex but regulation of its synthesis during forebrain development is poorly understood. In the telencephalon, members of the distal-less (Dlx) homeobox gene family are expressed in, and regulate the development of, the basal ganglia primodia from which many GABAergic neurons originate and migrate to other forebrain regions. The Dlx1/Dlx2 double knock-out mice die at birth with abnormal cortical development, including loss of tangential migration of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons to the neocortex (Anderson et al., 1997a). We have discovered that specific promoter regulatory elements of glutamic acid decarboxylase isoforms (Gad1 and Gad2), which regulate GABA synthesis from the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, are direct transcriptional targets of both DLX1 and DLX2 homeoproteins in vivo Further gain- and loss-of-function studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that both DLX1 and DLX2 are necessary and sufficient for Gad gene expression. DLX1 and/or DLX2 activated the transcription of both Gad genes, and defects in Dlx function disrupted the differentiation of GABAergic interneurons with global reduction in GABA levels in the forebrains of the Dlx1/Dlx2 double knock-out mouse in vivo Identification of Gad genes as direct Dlx transcriptional targets is significant; it extends our understanding of Dlx gene function in the developing forebrain beyond the regulation of tangential interneuron migration to the differentiation of GABAergic interneurons arising from the basal telencephalon, and may help to unravel the pathogenesis of several developmental brain disorders.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. We show that Dlx1/Dlx2 homeobox genes regulate GABA synthesis during forebrain development through direct activation of glutamic acid decarboxylase enzyme isoforms that convert glutamate to GABA. This discovery helps explain how Dlx mutations result in abnormal

  9. DNA dynamics play a role as a basal transcription factor in the positioning and regulation of gene transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Boian S; Gelev, Vladimir; Yoo, Sang Wook; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Fukuyo, Yayoi; Bishop, Alan R; Rasmussen, Kim Ø; Usheva, Anny

    2010-04-01

    We assess the role of DNA breathing dynamics as a determinant of promoter strength and transcription start site (TSS) location. We compare DNA Langevin dynamic profiles of representative gene promoters, calculated with the extended non-linear PBD model of DNA with experimental data on transcription factor binding and transcriptional activity. Our results demonstrate that DNA dynamic activity at the TSS can be suppressed by mutations that do not affect basal transcription factor binding-DNA contacts. We use this effect to establish the separate contributions of transcription factor binding and DNA dynamics to transcriptional activity. Our results argue against a purely 'transcription factor-centric' view of transcription initiation, suggesting that both DNA dynamics and transcription factor binding are necessary conditions for transcription initiation.

  10. Basal brain oxidative and nitrative stress levels are finely regulated by the interplay between superoxide dismutase 2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Barone, Eugenio; Cenini, Giovanna; Di Domenico, Fabio; Noel, Teresa; Wang, Chi; Perluigi, Marzia; St Clair, Daret K; Butterfield, D Allan

    2015-11-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes of the cell and catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals O2- to H2O2 and molecular oxygen (O2). Among the three forms of SOD identified, manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD, SOD2) is a homotetramer located wholly in the mitochondrial matrix. Because of the SOD2 strategic location, it represents the first mechanism of defense against the augmentation of ROS/reactive nitrogen species levels in the mitochondria for preventing further damage. This study seeks to understand the effects that the partial lack (SOD2(-/+) ) or the overexpression (TgSOD2) of MnSOD produces on oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels in different brain isolated cellular fractions (i.e., mitochondrial, nuclear, cytosolic) as well as in the whole-brain homogenate. Furthermore, because of the known interaction between SOD2 and p53 protein, this study seeks to clarify the impact that the double mutation has on oxidative/nitrative stress levels in the brain of mice carrying the double mutation (p53(-/-) × SOD2(-/+) and p53(-/-) × TgSOD2). We show that each mutation affects mitochondrial, nuclear, and cytosolic oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels differently, but, overall, no change or reduction of oxidative/nitrative stress levels was found in the whole-brain homogenate. The analysis of well-known antioxidant systems such as thioredoxin-1 and Nrf2/HO-1/BVR-A suggests their potential role in the maintenance of the cellular redox homeostasis in the presence of changes of SOD2 and/or p53 protein levels. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The role of PERK and GCN2 in basal and hydrogen peroxide-regulated translation from the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site.

    PubMed

    Jack, Samantha C; Chan, Shiu-Wan

    2011-10-01

    We have previously shown that translation from the HCV IRES is up-regulated by patho/physiological doses of H(2)O(2) but is still sensitive to the inhibitory effect of phospho-eIF2α in hepatocytes. In this study using wild type and 'knockout' mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we showed that two of the eIF2α kinases, PERK and GCN2, were not responsible for translational regulation under physiological and a higher apoptotic doses of H(2)O(2) (100 μM). However, a differential translational response was observed at a lower apoptotic dose of H(2)O(2) (50 μM) between Perk+/+ and Perk-/- MEFs but not that between Gcn2+/+ and Gcn2-/- MEFs, suggesting that PERK may play a role in translational up-regulation under oxidative stress. Our results also suggest that PERK mediates such an effect via an eIF2-independent pathway. This is in contrast to the canonical role of PERK on translational inhibition under stress conditions via phosphorylation of eIF2α. When tested for the role of PERK and GCN2 on basal translation from the HCV IRES under non-stressed condition, we found that basal translation from the HCV IRES was also favoured in the presence of PERK or GCN2 in MEFs over that of cap-dependent translation and was favoured in the presence of GCN2 but not PERK in Huh-7 cells. These results suggest that PERK and GCN2 also have a functional role on regulating translation under non-stressed conditions, apart from their long established roles as stress kinases.

  12. Arabidopsis LIP5, a Positive Regulator of Multivesicular Body Biogenesis, Is a Critical Target of Pathogen-Responsive MAPK Cascade in Plant Basal Defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Shang, Yifen; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) play essential roles in many cellular processes. The MVB pathway requires reversible membrane association of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transports (ESCRTs) for sustained protein trafficking. Membrane dissociation of ESCRTs is catalyzed by the AAA ATPase SKD1, which is stimulated by LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 (LIP5). We report here that LIP5 is a target of pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) and plays a critical role in plant basal resistance. Arabidopsis LIP5 interacts with MPK6 and MPK3 and is phosphorylated in vitro by activated MPK3 and MPK6 and in vivo upon expression of MPK3/6-activating NtMEK2DD and pathogen infection. Disruption of LIP5 has little effects on flg22-, salicylic acid-induced defense responses but compromises basal resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. The critical role of LIP5 in plant basal resistance is dependent on its ability to interact with SKD1. Mutation of MPK phosphorylation sites in LIP5 does not affect interaction with SKD1 but reduces the stability and compromises the ability to complement the lip5 mutant phenotypes. Using the membrane-selective FM1–43 dye and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated that pathogen infection increases formation of both intracellular MVBs and exosome-like paramural vesicles situated between the plasma membrane and the cell wall in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. These results indicate that the MVB pathway is positively regulated by pathogen-responsive MPK3/6 through LIP5 phosphorylation and plays a critical role in plant immune system likely through relocalization of defense-related molecules. PMID:25010425

  13. Regulation of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone transcription by elevated glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew N; Liu, Ying; Macgregor, Robert; Huang, Victoria; Aguilera, Greti

    2013-11-01

    Negative glucocorticoid feedback is essential for preventing the deleterious effects of excessive hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis axis activation, with an important target being CRH transcription in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. The aim of these studies was to determine whether glucocorticoids repress CRH transcription directly in CRH neurons, by examining glucocorticoid effects on glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-CRH promoter interaction and the activation of proteins required for CRH transcription. Immunoprecipitation of hypothalamic chromatin from intact or adrenalectomized rats subjected to either stress or corticosterone injections showed minor association of the proximal CRH promoter with the GR compared with that with phospho-CREB (pCREB). In contrast, the Period-1 (Per1, a glucocorticoid-responsive gene) promoter markedly recruited GR. Stress increased pCREB recruitment by the CRH but not the Per1 promoter, irrespective of circulating glucocorticoids. In vitro, corticosterone pretreatment (30 minutes or 18 hours) only slightly inhibited basal and forskolin-stimulated CRH heteronuclear RNA in primary hypothalamic neuronal cultures and CRH promoter activity in hypothalamic 4B cells. In 4B cells, 30 minutes or 18 hours of corticosterone exposure had no effect on forskolin-induced nuclear accumulation of the recognized CRH transcriptional regulators, pCREB and transducer of regulated CREB activity 2. The data show that inhibition of CRH transcription by physiological glucocorticoids in vitro is minor and that direct interaction of GR with DNA in the proximal CRH promoter may not be a major mechanism of CRH gene repression. Although GR interaction with distal promoter elements may have a role, the data suggest that transcriptional repression of CRH by glucocorticoids involves protein-protein interactions and/or modulation of afferent inputs to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

  14. MiR-582-5p/miR-590-5p targeted CREB1/CREB5–NF-κB signaling and caused opioid-induced immunosuppression in human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Long, X; Li, Y; Qiu, S; Liu, J; He, L; Peng, Y

    2016-01-01

    Chronic opioid abusers are more susceptible to bacterial and viral infections, but the molecular mechanism underlying opioid-induced immunosuppression is unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as key players in the control of biological processes, and may participate in immune regulation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms in opioid-induced and miRNA-mediated immunosuppression, in the context of miRNA dysregulation in opioid abusers. Blood samples of heroin abusers were collected and analyzed using miRNA microarray analysis and quantitative PCR validation. The purified primary human monocytes were cultured in vitro to explore the underlying mechanism. We found that morphine and its derivative heroin significantly decreased the expression levels of miR-582-5p and miR-590-5p in monocytes. cAMP response element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) and CREB5 were detected as direct target genes of miR-582-5p and miR-590-5p, respectively, by using dual-luciferase assay and western bolt. Functional studies showed that knockdown of CREB1/CREB5 increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level and enhanced expression of phospho–NF-κB p65 and NF-κB p65. Our results demonstrated that miR-582-5p and miR-590-5p play important roles in opioid-induced immunosuppression in monocytes by targeting CREB1/CREB5–NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:26978739

  15. Involvement of Phosphorylated "Apis Mellifera" CREB in Gating a Honeybee's Behavioral Response to an External Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees ("Apis mellifera") we recently demonstrated a particular high…

  16. Involvement of Phosphorylated "Apis Mellifera" CREB in Gating a Honeybee's Behavioral Response to an External Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees ("Apis mellifera") we recently demonstrated a particular high…

  17. Synergistic Neuroprotective Effects of Two Herbal Ingredients via CREB-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Dongxiao; Zhao, Runqing; Dong, Xianzhe; Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    As two natural oligosaccharide esters, 3,6’-Disinapoyl sucrose (DISS) and tenuifolisideA (TFSA) are originating from the root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd, a traditional Chinese medicine used in treatment of mental disorders. Previous reports have shown that both of them possess in vitro neuroprotective effects by stimulating different upstream pathways related with cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB). In the present study, we investigated the additive neuroprotective effects of DISS and TFSA on Glu-induced damage of SY5Y cells and purposed the possible underlying mechanism. The interaction between DISS and TFSA showed a clear-cut synergistic effect as evidenced by combination index (CI). Additional evidence from biochemical (NOS activity) assays confirmed their additive inhibition on the Glu-induced NOS hyperactivation. Moreover, we showed that co-treatment of DISS and TFSA resulted in an additively up-regulated phosphorylation of CREB as well as increased expressions of CRTC1 and BDNF. Neuroprotective effects of DISS and TFSA on Glu-induced decrease in cell viability were blocked by MAPK/ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and PI3-K inhibitor (LY290042). Nevertheless, the CRTC1 or BDNF expression induced by these two compounds was significantly reduced in the presence of either ERK or PI3-K inhibitor, indicating that the two oligosaccharide esters shared some common pathways in the regulation of CREB-BDNF pathway. Taken together, we, for the first time, showed that DISS and TFSA exerted the additive neuroprotective effects on CREB-BDNF signaling pathway through complementary mechanisms. PMID:27729863

  18. Synergistic Neuroprotective Effects of Two Herbal Ingredients via CREB-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Wang, Dongxiao; Zhao, Runqing; Dong, Xianzhe; Hu, Yuan; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    As two natural oligosaccharide esters, 3,6'-Disinapoyl sucrose (DISS) and tenuifolisideA (TFSA) are originating from the root of Polygala tenuifolia Willd, a traditional Chinese medicine used in treatment of mental disorders. Previous reports have shown that both of them possess in vitro neuroprotective effects by stimulating different upstream pathways related with cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB). In the present study, we investigated the additive neuroprotective effects of DISS and TFSA on Glu-induced damage of SY5Y cells and purposed the possible underlying mechanism. The interaction between DISS and TFSA showed a clear-cut synergistic effect as evidenced by combination index (CI). Additional evidence from biochemical (NOS activity) assays confirmed their additive inhibition on the Glu-induced NOS hyperactivation. Moreover, we showed that co-treatment of DISS and TFSA resulted in an additively up-regulated phosphorylation of CREB as well as increased expressions of CRTC1 and BDNF. Neuroprotective effects of DISS and TFSA on Glu-induced decrease in cell viability were blocked by MAPK/ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and PI3-K inhibitor (LY290042). Nevertheless, the CRTC1 or BDNF expression induced by these two compounds was significantly reduced in the presence of either ERK or PI3-K inhibitor, indicating that the two oligosaccharide esters shared some common pathways in the regulation of CREB-BDNF pathway. Taken together, we, for the first time, showed that DISS and TFSA exerted the additive neuroprotective effects on CREB-BDNF signaling pathway through complementary mechanisms.

  19. CREB influences timing and entrainment of the SCN circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boyoung; Li, Aiqing; Hansen, Katelin F; Cao, Ruifeng; Yoon, Jae Hwa; Obrietan, Karl

    2010-12-01

    The transcriptional feedback circuit, which is at the core of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian (i.e., 24 h) clock, is tightly coupled to both external entrainment cues, such as light, as well as rhythmic cues that arise on a system-wide level within the SCN. One potential signaling pathway by which these cues are conveyed to the molecular clock is the CREB/CRE transcriptional cascade. In this study, we employed a tetracycline-inducible CREB repressor mouse strain, in which approximately 60% of the SCN neurons express the transgene, to test CREB functionality in the clock and its effects on overt rhythmicity. We show that attenuated CREB signaling in the SCN led to a significant reduction in light-evoked clock entrainment. An examination of circadian timing revealed that CREB repressor mice exhibited normal free-running rhythms in the absence of external lighting cues. However, under conditions of constant light, which typically leads to a lengthening of the circadian period, CREB repressor mice exhibited a dramatic arrhythmic phenotype, which could be reversed with doxycycline. At a cellular level, the repression of CREB led to a significant reduction in both the expression of the circadian clock proteins PERIOD1 and PERIOD2 and the clock output hormones AVP and VIP. Together, these data support the idea that the CRE transcriptional pathway orchestrates transcriptional events that are essential for both the maintenance of SCN timing and light entrainment of the circadian clock.

  20. Aripiprazole Increases the PKA Signalling and Expression of the GABAA Receptor and CREB1 in the Nucleus Accumbens of Rats.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bo; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2016-05-01

    The GABAA receptor is implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and regulated by PKA signalling. Current antipsychotics bind with D2-like receptors, but not the GABAA receptor. The cAMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 (CREB1) is also associated with PKA signalling and may be related to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. This study investigated the effects of antipsychotics in modulating D2-mediated PKA signalling and its downstream GABAA receptors and CREB1. Rats were treated orally with aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, ter in die (t.i.d.)), bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, t.i.d.), haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) or vehicle for 1 week. The levels of PKA-Cα and p-PKA in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate putamen (CPu) were detected by Western blots. The mRNA levels of Gabrb1, Gabrb2, Gabrb3 and Creb1, and their protein expression were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blots, respectively. Aripiprazole elevated the levels of p-PKA and the ratio of p-PKA/PKA in the NAc, but not the PFC and CPu. Correlated with this elevated PKA signalling, aripiprazole elevated the mRNA and protein expression of the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc. While haloperidol elevated the levels of p-PKA and the ratio of p-PKA/PKA in both NAc and CPu, it only tended to increase the expression of the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc, but not the CPu. Bifeprunox had no effects on PKA signalling in these brain regions. These results suggest that aripiprazole has selective effects on upregulating the GABAA (β-1) receptor and CREB1 in the NAc, probably via activating PKA signalling.

  1. Cannabinoid receptor type 2 agonist attenuates apoptosis by activation of phosphorylated CREB-Bcl-2 pathway after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mutsumi; Sherchan, Prativa; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Hasegawa, Yu; Flores, Jerry; Doycheva, Desislava; Zhang, John H

    2014-11-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) which comprises of vasogenic edema and apoptotic cell death is an important component of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) pathophysiology. This study evaluated whether cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) agonist, JWH133, attenuates EBI after SAH and whether CB2R stimulation reduces pro-apoptotic caspase-3 via up-regulation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-Bcl-2 signaling pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=123) were subjected to SAH by endovascular perforation. Rats received vehicle or JWH133 at 1h after SAH. Neurological deficits and brain water content were evaluated at 24h after SAH. Western blot was performed to quantify phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 levels. Neuronal cell death was evaluated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling staining. Additionally, CREB siRNA was administered to manipulate the proposed pathway. JWH133 (1.0mg/kg) improved neurological deficits and reduced brain water content in left hemisphere 24h after SAH. JWH133 significantly increased activated CREB (pCREB) and Bcl-2 levels and significantly decreased cleaved caspase-3 levels in left hemisphere 24h after SAH. CREB siRNA reversed the effects of treatment. TUNEL positive neurons in the cortex were reduced with JWH133 treatment. Thus, CB2R stimulation attenuated EBI after SAH possibly through activation of pCREB-Bcl-2 pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hyperlipidemia and hepatitis in liver-specific CREB3L3 knockout mice generated using a one-step CRISPR/Cas9 system

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Yoshimi; Oikawa, Fusaka; Mizuno, Seiya; Ohno, Hiroshi; Yagishita, Yuka; Satoh, Aoi; Osaki, Yoshinori; Takei, Kenta; Kikuchi, Takuya; Han, Song-iee; Matsuzaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yatoh, Shigeru; Yahagi, Naoya; Isaka, Masaaki; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Sone, Hirohito; Takahashi, Satoru; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Shimano, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 (CREB3L3), a transcription factor expressed in the liver and small intestine, governs fasting-response energy homeostasis. Tissue-specific CREB3L3 knockout mice have not been generated till date. To our knowledge, this is the first study using the one-step CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate CREB3L3 floxed mice and subsequently obtain liver- and small intestine-specific Creb3l3 knockout (LKO and IKO, respectively) mice. While LKO mice as well as global KO mice developed hypertriglyceridemia, LKO mice exhibited hypercholesterolemia in contrast to hypocholesterolemia in global KO mice. LKO mice demonstrated up-regulation of hepatic Srebf2 and its corresponding target genes. No phenotypic differences were observed between IKO and floxed mice. Severe liver injury was observed in LKO mice fed a methionine-choline deficient diet, a model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. These results provide new evidence regarding the hepatic CREB3L3 role in plasma triglyceride metabolism and hepatic and intestinal CREB3L3 contributions to cholesterol metabolism. PMID:27291420

  3. The PPAR-gamma-binding sequence Pal3 is necessary for basal but dispensable for high-fat diet regulated human renin expression in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Lachmann, Peter; Selbmann, Jenny; Hickmann, Linda; Hohenstein, Bernd; Hugo, Christian; Todorov, Vladimir T

    2017-05-22

    We reported earlier that PPAR-gamma regulates renin transcription through a human-specific atypical binding sequence termed hRen-Pal3. Here we developed a mouse model to investigate the functional relevance of the hRen-Pal3 sequence in vivo since it might be responsible for the increased renin production in obesity and thus for the development of accompanying arterial hypertension. We used bacterial artificial chromosome construct and co-placement strategy to generate two transgenic mouse lines expressing the human renin gene from identical genomic locus without affecting the intrinsic mouse renin expression. One line carried a wild-type hRen-Pal3 in the transgene (Pal3wt strain) and the other a mutated non-functional Pal3 (Pal3mut strain). Human renin expression was correctly targeted to the renin-producing juxtaglomerular (JG) cells of kidney in both lines. However, Pal3mut mice had lower basal human renin expression. Since human renin does not recognize mouse angiotensinogen as substrate, the blood pressure was not different between the strains. Stimulation of renin production with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril equipotentially stimulated the human renin expression in Pal3wt and Pal3mut mice. High-fat diet for 10 weeks which is known to activate PPAR-gamma failed to increase human renin mRNA in kidneys of either strain. These findings showed that the human renin PPAR-gamma-binding sequence hRen-Pal3 is essential for basal renin expression but dispensable for the cell-specific and high-fat diet regulated renin expression in the kidney.

  4. Three nuclear and two membrane estrogen receptors in basal teleosts, Anguilla sp.: Identification, evolutionary history and differential expression regulation.

    PubMed

    Lafont, Anne-Gaëlle; Rousseau, Karine; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Dufour, Sylvie

    2016-09-01

    Estrogens interact with classical intracellular nuclear receptors (ESR), and with G-coupled membrane receptors (GPER). In the eel, we identified three nuclear (ESR1, ESR2a, ESR2b) and two membrane (GPERa, GPERb) estrogen receptors. Duplicated ESR2 and GPER were also retrieved in most extant teleosts. Phylogeny and synteny analyses suggest that they result from teleost whole genome duplication (3R). In contrast to conserved 3R-duplicated ESR2 and GPER, one of 3R-duplicated ESR1 has been lost shortly after teleost emergence. Quantitative PCRs revealed that the five receptors are all widely expressed in the eel, but with differential patterns of tissue expression and regulation. ESR1 only is consistently up-regulated in vivo in female eel BPG-liver axis during induced sexual maturation, and also up-regulated in vitro by estradiol in eel hepatocyte primary cultures. This first comparative study of the five teleost estradiol receptors provides bases for future investigations on differential roles that may have contributed to the conservation of multiple estrogen receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress induces altered CRE/CREB pathway activity and BDNF expression in the hippocampus of glucocorticoid receptor-impaired mice.

    PubMed

    Alboni, Silvia; Tascedda, Fabio; Corsini, Daniela; Benatti, Cristina; Caggia, Federica; Capone, Giacomo; Barden, Nicholas; Blom, Joan M C; Brunello, Nicoletta

    2011-06-01

    The gene coding for the neurotrophin Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a stress-responsive gene. Changes in its expression may underlie some of the pathological effects of stress-related disorders like depression. Data on the stress-induced regulation of the expression of BDNF in pathological conditions are rare because often research is conducted using healthy animals. In our experiments, we used transgenic mice with glucocorticoid receptor impaired (GR-i) expression in the hypothalamus created as a tool to study the neuroendocrine changes occurring in stress-related disorders. First, under basal condition, GR-i mice displayed lower levels of BDNF exons IX and IV and decreased CRE(BDNF) binding activity with respect to wild-type (WT) mice in the hippocampus. Then, we exposed GR-i and WT mice to an acute restraint stress (ARS) to test the hypothesis that GR-i mice display: 1] different ARS induced expression of BDNF, and 2] altered activation of signaling pathways implicated in regulating BDNF gene expression in the hippocampus with respect to WT mice. Results indicate that ARS enhanced BDNF mRNA expression mainly in the CA3 hippocampal sub-region of GR-i mice in the presence of enhanced levels of pro-BDNF protein, while no effect was observed in WT mice. Moreover, ARS reduced CREB signaling and binding to the BDNF promoter in GR-i mice but enhanced signaling and binding, possibly through ERK1/2 activation, in WT mice. Thus, life-long central GR dysfunction resulted in an altered sensitivity at the transcriptional level that may underlie an impaired response to an acute psycho-physical stress. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'.

  6. Phosphorylation of CREB, a cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein, contributes partially to lysophosphatidic acid-induced fibroblast cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Yong-Jun; Sun, Yuanjie; Kim, Nam-Ho; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2009-03-13

    Lysophospholipids regulate a wide array of biological processes including cell survival and proliferation. In our previous studies, we found that in addition to SRE, CRE is required for maximal c-fos promoter activation triggered by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). c-fos is an early indicator of various cells into the cell cycle after mitogenic stimulation. However, role of CREB activation in LPA-stimulated proliferation has not been elucidated yet. Here, we investigate how LPA induces proliferation in Rat-2 fibroblast cell via CREB activation. We found that total cell number and BrdU-positive cells were increased by LPA. Moreover, levels of c-fos mRNA and cyclin D1 protein were increased via LPA-induced CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, LPA-induced Rat-2 cell proliferation was decreased markedly by ERK inhibitor (U0126) and partially by MSK inhibitor (H89). Taken together, these results suggest that CREB activation could partially up-regulate accumulation of cyclin D1 protein level and proliferation of LPA-stimulated Rat-2 fibroblast cells.

  7. Cyclic-AMP-responsive transcriptional activation of CREB-327 involves interdependent phosphorylated subdomains.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C Q; Yun, Y D; Hoeffler, J P; Habener, J F

    1990-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-regulated gene expression is mediated by specific phosphoproteins (CREBs) which bind to cAMP-responsive elements of gene promoters. By analyzing the transactivation activities and phosphorylations in vivo of deletion and point mutated chimeric fusion proteins of the placental CREB-327, in which the DNA-binding domain is replaced by the heterologous binding-domain of the yeast transcription factor GAL4, we localized the cAMP-responsive and phosphorylated domain to a minimal-essential sequence module of 46 amino acids (residues 92-137). This serine-rich, multiply-phosphorylated sequence consists of at least three interdependent subdomains required for transcriptional activation. Although phosphorylation of serine-119 by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A is necessary for transcriptional activation, such activation requires both a phosphorylated heptadecapeptide domain located ten residues amino terminal to the serine-119 and an eleven-residue domain carboxyl terminal to the serine-119. Deletion of these two domains does not impair phosphorylation of serine-119. Further, deletion of the carboxyl-terminal domain does not alter phosphorylation of the heptadecapeptide domain. We propose that akin to the phosphorylation-dependent activation of enzymes, the transcriptional transactivation functions of CREB-327 involve a phosphorylation-dependent allosteric conformational mechanism. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2176153

  8. DA-9801 promotes neurite outgrowth via ERK1/2-CREB pathway in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Kyong Hoon; Back, Moon Jung; Ha, Hae Chan; Jang, Ji Min; Kim, Ha Hyung; Choi, Sang-Zin; Son, Miwon; Kim, Dae Kyong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the effect of DA-9801 on neurite outgrowth. We found that DA-9801 elicits its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. DA-9801, an extract from a mixture of Dioscorea japonica and Dioscorea nipponica, was reported to promote neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on cell viability and expression of neuronal markers were evaluated in PC12 cells. To investigate DA-9801 action, specific inhibitors targeting the ERK signaling cascade were used. No cytotoxicity was observed in PC12 cells at DA-9801 concentrations of less than 30 µg/mL. In the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF, 2 ng/mL), DA-9801 promoted neurite outgrowth and increased the relative mRNA levels of neurofilament-L (NF-L), a marker of neuronal differentiation. The Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 and MEK inhibitor PD98059 significantly attenuated DA-9801-induced neurite outgrowth. Additionally, the MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor SL327 significantly attenuated the increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells induced by DA-9801 treatment. Conversely, the selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor SB203580 did not attenuate the DA-9801 treatment-induced increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells. DA-9801 enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB in PC12 cells incubated with and without NGF. Pretreatment with PD98059 blocked the DA-9801-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB. In conclusion, DA-9801 induces neurite outgrowth by affecting the ERK1/2-CREB signaling pathway. Insights into the mechanism underlying this effect of DA-9801 may suggest novel potential strategies for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy.

  9. Multiple roles for keratin intermediate filaments in the regulation of epithelial barrier function and apico-basal polarity

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Pedro J.; Forteza, Radia; Mashukova, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    abstract As multicellular organisms evolved a family of cytoskeletal proteins, the keratins (types I and II) expressed in epithelial cells diversified in more than 20 genes in vertebrates. There is no question that keratin filaments confer mechanical stiffness to cells. However, such a number of genes can hardly be explained by evolutionary advantages in mechanical features. The use of transgenic mouse models has revealed unexpected functional relationships between keratin intermediate filaments and intracellular signaling. Accordingly, loss of keratins or mutations in keratins that cause or predispose to human diseases, result in increased sensitivity to apoptosis, regulation of innate immunity, permeabilization of tight junctions, and mistargeting of apical proteins in different epithelia. Precise mechanistic explanations for these phenomena are still lacking. However, immobilization of membrane or cytoplasmic proteins, including chaperones, on intermediate filaments (“scaffolding”) appear as common molecular mechanisms and may explain the need for so many different keratin genes in vertebrates. PMID:27583190

  10. Essential role of CREB family proteins during Xenopus embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lutz, B; Schmid, W; Niehrs, C; Schütz, G

    1999-10-01

    The leucine zipper transcription factors cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), cAMP response element modulatory protein (CREM) and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) bind to the cAMP response element (CRE) with the palindromic consensus sequence TGACGTCA. Their transcriptional activities are dependent on serine phosphorylation induced by various extracellular signals such as hormones, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Here we show that CREB is the predominant CRE-binding protein in Xenopus embryos and that it plays an essential role during early development. The importance of CREB for morphogenetic processes was assessed by injection of RNA encoding a dominant-negative form of CREB that is fused to a truncated progesterone receptor ligand binding domain. In this fusion protein, a dominant-negative function can be induced by application of the synthetic steroid RU486 at given developmental stages. The inhibition of CREB at blastula and early gastrula stages leads to severe posterior defects of the embryos reflected by strong spina bifida, whereas the inhibition of CREB at the beginning of neurulation resulted in stunted embryos with microcephaly. In these embryos, initial induction of neural and mesodermal tissues is not dependent on CREB function, as genes such as Otx2, Krox20, Shh and MyoD are still expressed in injected embryos. But the expression domains of Otx2 and MyoD were found to be distorted reflecting the abnormal development in both neural and somitic derivatives. In summary, our data show that CREB is essential during several developmental stages of Xenopus embryogenesis.

  11. Multiple garlic (Allium sativum L.) microRNAs regulate the immunity against the basal rot fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cepae.

    PubMed

    Chand, Subodh Kumar; Nanda, Satyabrata; Mishra, Rukmini; Joshi, Raj Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The basal plate rot fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC), is the most devastating pathogen posing a serious threat to garlic (Allium sativum L.) production worldwide. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key modulators of gene expression related to development and defense responses in eukaryotes. However, the miRNA species associated with garlic immunity against FOC are yet to be explored. In the present study, a small RNA library developed from FOC infected resistant garlic line was sequenced to identify immune responsive miRNAs. Forty-five miRNAs representing 39 conserved and six novel sequences responsive to FOC were detected. qRT-PCR analyses further classified them into three classes based on their expression patterns in susceptible line CBT-As11 and in the resistant line CBT-As153. North-blot analyses of six selective miRNAs confirmed the qRT-PCR results. Expression studies on a selective set of target genes revealed a negative correlation with the complementary miRNAs. Furthermore, transgenic garlic plant overexpresing miR164a, miR168a and miR393 showed enhanced resistance to FOC, as revealed by decreased fungal growth and up-regulated expression of defense-responsive genes. These results indicate that multiple miRNAs are involved in garlic immunity against FOC and that the overexpression of miR164a, miR168a and miR393 can augment garlic resistance to Fusarium basal rot infection.

  12. Otx1 promotes basal dendritic growth and regulates intrinsic electrophysiological and synaptic properties of layer V pyramidal neurons in mouse motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-F; Liu, L-X; Cao, H-T; Ou, L; Qu, J; Wang, Y; Chen, J-G

    2015-01-29

    The transcription factor Otx1 is specifically expressed in layer V pyramidal cells (L5PCs) in the cerebral cortex. Otx1 null mutant mice have a defect in the developmental axon pruning of L5PCs and show epileptic seizures. However, the role of Otx1 in electrophysiology, morphology and synaptology of the cortical neurons has not been fully investigated. This study examines the influences of Otx1 on neuronal properties of L5PCs by loss- and gain-of-function approaches. Mice with an Otx1-null mutation had decreased structural measurements of basal dendrites in L5PCs. In contrast, the size of basal dendrites was increased in the Otx1-over-expressed pyramidal cells (PCs) in L2/3 where the gene normally does not express. PCs showed burst and non-burst firing patterns of action potentials. The proportion of burst firing neurons was reduced in the Otx1 mutant but increased in the neurons over-expressing Otx1. Although the burst firing population decreased, the proportion of those bursting neurons with a low threshold increased in the Otx1 mutant mice. Moreover, excitatory facilitating synaptic connections formed between L5PCs were predominant in the Otx1 mutant mice, which greatly contrasted with the predominant depressing synaptic connections in the controls. Taken together, it suggests an enhanced activity of neuronal network in the cortex of Otx1 mutant mice. These data indicate that the Otx1 expression is essential for the normal development of dendritic morphology, intrinsic electrophysiology and synaptic dynamics of L5PCs. This study provides new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying the spatial and temporal regulation of neuronal and synaptic properties of L5PCs, and improves our understanding on the generation of epileptic seizures. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of L-DOPA and STN-HFS dyskinesiogenic treatments on NR2B regulation in basal ganglia in the rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Adrien; Sgambato-Faure, Véronique; Savasta, Marc

    2012-12-01

    Dyskinesia is a major side effect of chronic levodopa (L-DOPA) administration, the reference treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS) alleviates parkinsonian motor symptoms and indirectly improves dyskinesia by decreasing L-DOPA requirement. However, inadequate stimulation can also trigger dyskinetic movements in PD patients and animal models. Here, we investigated the possible association between L-DOPA- and STN-HFS-induced dyskinesia and regulation of the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors in the rodent model of PD. We subjected 6-OHDA-lesioned rats to HFS for 1h, at an intensity triggering forelimb dyskinesia. Other 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were treated with chronic high doses of L-DOPA for ten days, to induce abnormal involuntary movements. The 6-OHDA lesion regulated NR2B only in the SNr, where the activation of NR2B was observed (as assessed by phosphorylation of the Tyr1472 residue). Both STN-HFS and L-DOPA dyskinesiogenic treatments induced NR2B activation in the STN and EP, but only L-DOPA triggered NR2B hyperphosphorylation in the striatum. Finally, the use of CP-101,606 exacerbated L-DOPA-induced motor behavior and associated NR2B hyperphosphorylation in the striatum, STN and EP. Thus, NR2B activation in basal ganglia structures is correlated with dyskinesia.

  14. FoxO1 is a negative regulator of FSHβ gene expression in basal and GnRH-stimulated conditions in female.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Suk; Lee, Hyeon Jeong; Ku, Cheol Ryong; Cho, Yoon Hee; Seo, Mi Ran; Lee, Yoo Jeoung; Lee, Eun Jig

    2014-06-01

    The importance of forkhead box class O (FoxO) proteins in reproductive endocrinology has been confirmed by age-dependent infertility in females in a FoxO3a-knockout mouse model. In this study, FoxO1 was detected in gonadotropes in the anterior pituitary. Overexpression of FoxO1 in primary pituitary cells decreased FSHβ gene expression in both basal and GnRH-stimulated conditions, and this result was replicated by the human FSHβ promoter activity. Although direct binding of FoxO1 to FoxO-binding element (FBE) (at -124 to -119 bp of the human FSHβ promoter) was not detected in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, a DNA pull-down assay and transfection study using the mutant FBE reporter vector revealed that FBE is necessary in FSHβ suppression by FoxO1, suggestive of other cofactor requirements. GnRH stimulated the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway, which induced posttranslational modification of FoxO1 and retained it in the cytoplasm. We also confirmed this result in primary cell cultures; most of the FoxO1 was detected in the cytoplasm when treated with GnRH but in the nucleus when the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway was inhibited. These findings suggest that FoxO1 is regulated by the GnRH signaling pathway and functions as a negative regulator of FSHβ gene expression.

  15. Endogenous short RNAs generated by Dicer 2 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 regulate mRNAs in the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor; Nicolas, Francisco; Moxon, Simon; Haro, Juan de; Calo, Silvia; Torres-Martinez, Santiago; Moulton, Vincent; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa; Dalmay, Tamas

    2011-09-01

    Endogenous short RNAs (esRNAs) play diverse roles in eukaryotes and usually are produced from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by Dicer. esRNAs are grouped into different classes based on biogenesis and function but not all classes are present in all three eukaryotic kingdoms. The esRNA register of fungi is poorly described compared to other eukaryotes and it is not clear what esRNA classes are present in this kingdom and whether they regulate the expression of protein coding genes. However, evidence that some dicer mutant fungi display altered phenotypes suggests that esRNAs play an important role in fungi. Here, we show that the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides produces new classes of esRNAs that map to exons and regulate the expression of many protein coding genes. The largest class of these exonic-siRNAs (ex-siRNAs) are generated by RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase 1 (RdRP1) and dicer-like 2 (DCL2) and target the mRNAs of protein coding genes from which they were produced. Our results expand the range of esRNAs in eukaryotes and reveal a new role for esRNAs in fungi

  16. Upregulation of AKT1 protein expression in forskolin-stimulated macrophage: evidence from ChIP analysis that CREB binds to and activates the AKT1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Misra, Uma Kant; Pizzo, Salvatore Vincent

    2007-03-01

    Recently, we reported that silencing CREB gene expression by RNAi significantly attenuates forskolin-induced activation of Akt1. We now provide evidence that forskolin-treatment causes transcriptional and translational upregulation of Akt1 in macrophages. Akt synthesis was demonstrated by [(14)C]leucine or [(35)S] incorporation into newly synthesized Akt1 protein. Akt protein levels increased by approximately 1.5-fold after only a 5 min exposure of macrophages to forskolin. Akt1 levels thereafter rapidly returned to basal values (t(1/2) approximately 15 min). Maximal upregulation of Akt1 occurred in cells treated with 10 microM forskolin. Forskolin-dependent Akt1 synthesis was abolished by pretreating the cells with CREB-directed dsRNA as demonstrated at both the message and protein level, as well as by determining the synthesis of [(35)S]-labeled Akt1 protein. The PKA inhibitor H-89, greatly attenuated forskolin-induced Akt1 synthesis. Transcriptional and translational inhibitors also greatly reduced Akt1 synthesis in forskolin-stimulated [(14)C]leucine-labeled macrophages. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrate that CREB binds to a CRE binding domain of the Akt1 gene promoter. In conclusion, we show here for the first time transcriptional upregulation of Akt1 by CREB, based upon Akt1 protein synthesis and its modulation by transitional and translational inhibitors in forskolin-stimulated cells, Akt1 protein. and mRNA levels upon silencing CREB gene expression, and binding of CREB to the Akt1 gene promoter.

  17. CREB Phosphorylation Coincides with Transient Synapse Formation in the Rat Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus Following Avoidance Learning

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Cormac; Gallagher, Helen C.; O'Malley, Aoibheinn; Bourke, Mary; Regan, Ciaran M.

    2000-01-01

    Spine density change in the hippocampal dentate gyrus accompanies memory consolidation and coincides with the increased expression of ribosome-rich, hyperchromatic granule cells. Although this suggests increased protein synthesis to be required for synaptic growth in the 5 to 7 h post-training period, little temporal mapping of the associated molecular mechanisms has been done. Here, we demonstrate a similar frequency of hyperchromatic cells in naïve animals and in those sacrificed 6 h post-training, suggesting a transient repression of protein synthesis in the early post-training period. Immunoblot analysis of CREB phosphorylation in the dentate gyrus supported this view, with downregulation from basal levels observed at 2 to 3 h and at 12 h posttraining. Protein synthesis reactivation appears to be specific for de novo spine production as no change in spine frequency accompanies the immediate post-training period of depressed protein synthesis. These findings support the view that CREB-mediated gene transcription is a requirement for long-term memory consolidation and may be directly implicated in the process of synaptic growth. PMID:11486487

  18. Basal and fasting/refeeding-regulated tissue levels of endogenous PPAR-alpha ligands in Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Angelo A; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Capasso, Raffaele; Marini, Pietro; Cristino, Luigia; Petrosino, Stefania; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA) and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) are endogenous lipids that activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha with high and intermediate potency, and exert anorectic and anti-inflammatory actions in rats, respectively. We investigated OEA and PEA tissue level regulation by the nutritional status in lean and obese rats. OEA and PEA levels in the brainstem, duodenum, liver, pancreas, and visceral (VAT) or subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues of 7-week-old wild-type (WT) and Zucker rats, fed ad libitum or following overnight food deprivation, with and without refeeding, were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In WT rats, duodenal OEA, but not PEA, levels were reduced by food deprivation and restored by refeeding, whereas the opposite was observed for OEA in the pancreas, and for both mediators in the liver and SAT. In ad lib fed Zucker rats, PEA and OEA levels were up to tenfold higher in the duodenum, slightly higher in the brainstem, and lower in the other tissues. Fasting/refeeding-induced changes in OEA levels were maintained in the duodenum, liver, and SAT, and lost in the pancreas, whereas fasting upregulated this compound also in the VAT. The observed changes in OEA levels in WT rats are relevant to the actions of this mediator on satiety, hepatic and adipocyte metabolism, and insulin release. OEA dysregulation in Zucker rats might counteract hyperphagia in the duodenum, but contribute to hyperinsulinemia in the pancreas, and to fat accumulation in adipose tissues and liver. Changes in PEA levels might be relevant to the inflammatory state of Zucker rats.

  19. Developmental iodine deficiency resulting in hypothyroidism reduces hippocampal ERK1/2 and CREB in lactational and adolescent rats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Developmental iodine deficiency (ID) leads to inadequate thyroid hormone that impairs learning and memory with an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are implicated in the impaired learning and memory in lactational and adolescent rat hippocampus following developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Methods Three developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 ppm or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 till postnatal day (PN) 28. Then, the total and phorsporylated ERK1/2 and total and phorsporylated CREB in the hippocampus were detected with western blot on PN14, PN21, PN28 and PN42. Results The iodine-deficient and hypothyroid pups showed lower serum FT3 and FT4 levels, smaller body size, and delayed eyes opening. The mean number of surviving cells in the hippocampus of the iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats was significantly reduced compared to controls (P < 0.05). Iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treatment groups demonstrated significantly lower level of total and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and CREB than the controls on PN14, PN21 and PN28 (P < 0.05, respectively). The reduction of ERK1/2 and CREB was not reversible with the restoration of serum thyroid hormone concentrations on PN42. Conclusions Developmental ID and hypothyroidism down-regulate hippocampal ERK1/2 and CREB in lactational and adolescent rats. PMID:20021662

  20. Developmental iodine deficiency resulting in hypothyroidism reduces hippocampal ERK1/2 and CREB in lactational and adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Liu, Wanyang; Wang, Yi; Hou, Yi; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2009-12-18

    Developmental iodine deficiency (ID) leads to inadequate thyroid hormone that impairs learning and memory with an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that hippocampal extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are implicated in the impaired learning and memory in lactational and adolescent rat hippocampus following developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Three developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 ppm or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 till postnatal day (PN) 28. Then, the total and phorsporylated ERK1/2 and total and phorsporylated CREB in the hippocampus were detected with western blot on PN14, PN21, PN28 and PN42. The iodine-deficient and hypothyroid pups showed lower serum FT3 and FT4 levels, smaller body size, and delayed eyes opening. The mean number of surviving cells in the hippocampus of the iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treated rats was significantly reduced compared to controls (P < 0.05). Iodine-deficient and 15 ppm PTU-treatment groups demonstrated significantly lower level of total and phosphorylated ERK1/2 and CREB than the controls on PN14, PN21 and PN28 (P < 0.05, respectively). The reduction of ERK1/2 and CREB was not reversible with the restoration of serum thyroid hormone concentrations on PN42. Developmental ID and hypothyroidism down-regulate hippocampal ERK1/2 and CREB in lactational and adolescent rats.

  1. Rescue of impaired long-term facilitation at sensorimotor synapses of Aplysia following siRNA knockdown of CREB1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yili; Liu, Rong-Yu; Smolen, Paul; Cleary, Leonard J; Byrne, John H

    2015-01-28

    Memory impairment is often associated with disrupted regulation of gene induction. For example, deficits in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP; an essential cofactor for activation of transcription by CREB) impair long-term synaptic plasticity and memory. Previously, we showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of CBP in individual sensory neurons significantly reduced levels of CBP and impaired 5-HT-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) in sensorimotor cocultures from Aplysia. Moreover, computational simulations of the biochemical cascades underlying LTF successfully predicted training protocols that restored LTF following CBP knockdown. We examined whether simulations could also predict a training protocol that restores LTF impaired by siRNA-induced knockdown of the transcription factor CREB1. Simulations based on a previously described model predicted rescue protocols that were specific to CREB1 knockdown. Empirical studies demonstrated that one of these rescue protocols partially restored impaired LTF. In addition, the effectiveness of the rescue protocol was enhanced by pretreatment with rolipram, a selective cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor. These results provide further evidence that computational methods can help rescue disruptions in signaling cascades underlying memory formation. Moreover, the study demonstrates that the effectiveness of computationally designed training protocols can be enhanced with complementary pharmacological approaches.

  2. Rescue of Impaired Long-Term Facilitation at Sensorimotor Synapses of Aplysia following siRNA Knockdown of CREB1

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lian; Zhang, Yili; Liu, Rong-Yu; Smolen, Paul; Cleary, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Memory impairment is often associated with disrupted regulation of gene induction. For example, deficits in cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP; an essential cofactor for activation of transcription by CREB) impair long-term synaptic plasticity and memory. Previously, we showed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced knockdown of CBP in individual sensory neurons significantly reduced levels of CBP and impaired 5-HT-induced long-term facilitation (LTF) in sensorimotor cocultures from Aplysia. Moreover, computational simulations of the biochemical cascades underlying LTF successfully predicted training protocols that restored LTF following CBP knockdown. We examined whether simulations could also predict a training protocol that restores LTF impaired by siRNA-induced knockdown of the transcription factor CREB1. Simulations based on a previously described model predicted rescue protocols that were specific to CREB1 knockdown. Empirical studies demonstrated that one of these rescue protocols partially restored impaired LTF. In addition, the effectiveness of the rescue protocol was enhanced by pretreatment with rolipram, a selective cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor. These results provide further evidence that computational methods can help rescue disruptions in signaling cascades underlying memory formation. Moreover, the study demonstrates that the effectiveness of computationally designed training protocols can be enhanced with complementary pharmacological approaches. PMID:25632137

  3. Immune complexes (IC) down-regulate the basal and interferon-γ-induced expression of MHC Class II on human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, P; Beigier-Bompadre, M; De La Barrera, S; Alves-Rosa, M F; Fernandez, G; Palermo, M S; Isturiz, M A

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of Fc receptors for IgG (FcγRs) on monocytes/macrophages with immune complexes (IC) triggers regulatory and effector functions. Previous studies have shown that FcγR–IC interactions inhibit the IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II in murine macrophages. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for these effects have not been elucidated. In addition, whether this IC-dependent effect also occurs in human cells is not known. Taking into account the fact that IC and IFN-γ are frequently found in infections and autoimmune disorders, together with the crucial role MHC class II molecules play in the regulation of immune response, we explored the effect and mechanism of IC-induced MHC class II down-regulation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This effect was studied either in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. We demonstrate that IC exert a drastic inhibition of basal and IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II on human monocytes. This effect was mediated through the interaction of IC with both FcγRI and FcγRII. Moreover, similar results were obtained using supernatants from IC-treated PBMC. The IC-induced down-regulation of MHC class II is abrogated by pepstatin and phosphoramidon, supporting the role of aspartic protease(s) and metalloprotease(s) in this process. In parallel with MHC class II expression, antigen presentation was markedly inhibited in the presence of IC. PMID:11529917

  4. Basal Levels of eIF2α Phosphorylation Determine Cellular Antioxidant Status by Regulating ATF4 and xCT Expression*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lewerenz, Jan; Maher, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    eIF2α is part of a multimeric complex that regulates cap-dependent translation. Phosphorylation of eIF2α (phospho-eIF2α) is induced by various forms of cell stress, resulting in changes to the proteome of the cell with two diametrically opposed consequences, adaptation to stress or initiation of programmed cell death. In contrast to the robust eIF2α phosphorylation seen in response to acute insults, less is known about the functional role of basal levels of eIF2α phosphorylation. Here we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts expressing a nonphosphorylatable eIF2α have enhanced sensitivity to diverse toxic insults, including amyloid β-(1–42) peptide (Aβ), a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. This correlates with impaired glutathione metabolism because of down-regulation of the light chain, xCT, of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system X-c. The mechanistic link between the absence of phospho-eIF2α and xCT expression is nuclear factor ATF4. Consistent with these findings, long term activation of the phospho-eIF2α/ATF4/xCT signaling module by the specific eIF2α phosphatase inhibitor, salubrinal, induces resistance against oxidative glutamate toxicity in the hippocampal cell line HT22 and primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, in PC12 cells selected for resistance against Aβ, increased activity of the phospho-eIF2α/ATF4/xCT module contributes to the resistant phenotype. In wild-type PC12 cells, activation of this module by salubrinal ameliorates the response to Aβ. Furthermore, in human brains, ATF4 and phospho-eIF2α levels are tightly correlated and up-regulated in Alzheimer disease, most probably representing an adaptive response against disease-related cellular stress rather than a correlate of neurodegeneration. PMID:19017641

  5. Obesity-mediated regulation of HGF/c-Met is associated with reduced basal-like breast cancer latency in parous mice.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Freemerman, Alex J; Galanko, Joseph A; McNaughton, Kirk K; Bendt, Katharine M; Darr, David B; Troester, Melissa A; Makowski, Liza

    2014-01-01

    It is widely thought that pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk, but this lacks consideration of breast cancer subtypes. While a full term pregnancy reduces risk for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and luminal breast cancers, parity is associated with increased risk of basal-like breast cancer (BBC) subtype. Basal-like subtypes represent less than 10% of breast cancers and are highly aggressive, affecting primarily young, African American women. Our previous work demonstrated that high fat diet-induced obesity in nulliparous mice significantly blunted latency in C3(1)-TAg mice, a model of BBC, potentially through the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met oncogenic pathway. Experimental studies have examined parity and obesity individually, but to date, the joint effects of parity and obesity have not been studied. We investigated the role of obesity in parous mice on BBC. Parity alone dramatically blunted tumor latency compared to nulliparous controls with no effects on tumor number or growth, while obesity had only a minor role in further reducing latency. Obesity-associated metabolic mediators and hormones such as insulin, estrogen, and progesterone were not significantly regulated by obesity. Plasma IL-6 was also significantly elevated by obesity in parous mice. We have previously reported a potential role for stromal-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) via its cognate receptor c-Met in the etiology of obesity-induced BBC tumor onset and in both human and murine primary coculture models of BBC-aggressiveness. Obesity-associated c-Met concentrations were 2.5-fold greater in normal mammary glands of parous mice. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that, parity in C3(1)-TAg mice dramatically reduced BBC latency compared to nulliparous mice. In parous mice, c-Met is regulated by obesity in unaffected mammary gland and is associated with tumor onset. C3(1)-TAg mice recapitulate epidemiologic findings such that parity drives increased BBC risk and potential

  6. Obesity-Mediated Regulation of HGF/c-Met Is Associated with Reduced Basal-Like Breast Cancer Latency in Parous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Sneha; Freemerman, Alex J.; Galanko, Joseph A.; McNaughton, Kirk K.; Bendt, Katharine M.; Darr, David B.; Troester, Melissa A.; Makowski, Liza

    2014-01-01

    It is widely thought that pregnancy reduces breast cancer risk, but this lacks consideration of breast cancer subtypes. While a full term pregnancy reduces risk for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and luminal breast cancers, parity is associated with increased risk of basal-like breast cancer (BBC) subtype. Basal-like subtypes represent less than 10% of breast cancers and are highly aggressive, affecting primarily young, African American women. Our previous work demonstrated that high fat diet-induced obesity in nulliparous mice significantly blunted latency in C3(1)-TAg mice, a model of BBC, potentially through the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met oncogenic pathway. Experimental studies have examined parity and obesity individually, but to date, the joint effects of parity and obesity have not been studied. We investigated the role of obesity in parous mice on BBC. Parity alone dramatically blunted tumor latency compared to nulliparous controls with no effects on tumor number or growth, while obesity had only a minor role in further reducing latency. Obesity-associated metabolic mediators and hormones such as insulin, estrogen, and progesterone were not significantly regulated by obesity. Plasma IL-6 was also significantly elevated by obesity in parous mice. We have previously reported a potential role for stromal-derived hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) via its cognate receptor c-Met in the etiology of obesity-induced BBC tumor onset and in both human and murine primary coculture models of BBC-aggressiveness. Obesity-associated c-Met concentrations were 2.5-fold greater in normal mammary glands of parous mice. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that, parity in C3(1)-TAg mice dramatically reduced BBC latency compared to nulliparous mice. In parous mice, c-Met is regulated by obesity in unaffected mammary gland and is associated with tumor onset. C3(1)-TAg mice recapitulate epidemiologic findings such that parity drives increased BBC risk and potential

  7. The Concerted Action of Type 2 and Type 3 Deiodinases Regulates the Cell Cycle and Survival of Basal Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Miro, Caterina; Ambrosio, Raffaele; De Stefano, Maria Angela; Di Girolamo, Daniela; Di Cicco, Emery; Cicatiello, Annunziata Gaetana; Mancino, Giuseppina; Porcelli, Tommaso; Raia, Maddalena; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Salvatore, Domenico; Dentice, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) mediate pleiotropic cellular processes involved in metabolism, cellular proliferation, and differentiation. The intracellular hormonal environment can be tailored by the type 1 and 2 deiodinase enzymes D2 and D3, which catalyze TH activation and inactivation respectively. In many cellular systems, THs exert well-documented stimulatory or inhibitory effects on cell proliferation; however, the molecular mechanisms by which they control rates of cell cycle progression have not yet been entirely clarified. We previously showed that D3 depletion or TH treatment influences the proliferation and survival of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. Surprisingly, we also found that BCC cells express not only sustained levels of D3 but also robust levels of D2. The aim of the present study was to dissect the contribution of D2 to TH metabolism in the BCC context, and to identify the molecular changes associated with cell proliferation and survival induced by TH and mediated by D2 and D3. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 technology to genetically deplete D2 and D3 in BCC cells and studied the consequences of depletion on cell cycle progression and on cell death. Cell cycle progression was analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of synchronized cells, and the apoptosis rate by annexin V incorporation. Mechanistic investigations revealed that D2 inactivation accelerates cell cycle progression thereby enhancing the proportion of S-phase cells and cyclin D1 expression. Conversely, D3 mutagenesis drastically suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of BCC cells. Furthermore, the basal apoptotic rate was oppositely regulated in D2- and D3-depleted cells. Our results indicate that BCC cells constitute an example in which the TH signal is finely tuned by the concerted expression of opposite-acting deiodinases. The dual regulation of D2 and D3 expression plays a critical role in cell cycle progression and cell death by influencing cyclin D1-mediated

  8. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a new regulator of cell polarity required for metastatic dissemination of basal-like breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Salvador, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Floristán, Alfredo; Cuevas, Eva P; Santos, Vanesa; Montes, Amalia; Morales, Saleta; Castilla, Maria Angeles; Rojo-Sebastián, Alejandro; Martínez, Alejandra; Hardisson, David; Csiszar, Katalin; Portillo, Francisco; Peinado, Héctor; Palacios, José; Cano, Amparo

    2011-01-01

    Basal-like breast carcinoma is characterized by the expression of basal/myoepithelial markers, undifferentiated phenotype, highly aggressive behaviour and frequent triple negative status (ESR−, PR−, Her2neu−). We have previously shown that epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurs in basal-like breast tumours and identified Lysyl-oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) as an EMT player and poor prognosis marker in squamous cell carcinomas. We now show that LOXL2 mRNA is overexpressed in basal-like human breast carcinomas. Breast carcinoma cell lines with basal-like phenotype show a specific cytoplasmic/perinuclear LOXL2 expression, and this subcellular distribution is significantly associated with distant metastatic incidence in basal-like breast carcinomas. LOXL2 silencing in basal-like carcinoma cells induces a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) associated with a decrease of tumourigenicity and suppression of metastatic potential. Mechanistic studies indicate that LOXL2 maintains the mesenchymal phenotype of basal-like carcinoma cells by a novel mechanism involving transcriptional downregulation of Lgl2 and claudin1 and disorganization of cell polarity and tight junction complexes. Therefore, intracellular LOXL2 is a new candidate marker of basal-like carcinomas and a target to block metastatic dissemination of this aggressive breast tumour subtype. PMID:21732535

  9. Dynorphin up-regulation in the dentate granule cell mossy fiber pathway following chronic inhibition of GluN2B-containing NMDAR is associated with increased CREB (Ser 133) phosphorylation, but is independent of BDNF/TrkB signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rittase, W. Bradley; Dong, Yu; Barksdale, DaRel; Galdzicki, Zygmunt; Bausch, Suzanne B.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that neuronal responses to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDAR) activation/inactivation are influenced by subunit composition. For example, activation of synaptic NMDAR (comprised of GluN2A > GluN2B) phosphorylates cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) at Ser 133, induces BDNF expression and promotes neuronal survival. Activation of extrasynaptic NMDAR (comprised of GluN2B>GluN2), dephosphorylates CREB (Ser 133), reduces BDNF expression and triggers neuronal death. These results led us to hypothesize that chronic inhibition of GluN2B-containing NMDAR would increase CREB (Ser 133) phosphorylation, increase BDNF levels and subsequently alter downstream dynorphin (DYN) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression. We focused on DYN and NPY because these neuropeptides can decrease excitatory neurotransmission and seizure occurrence and we reported previously that seizure-like events are reduced following chronic treatment with GluN2B antagonists. Consistent with our hypothesis, chronic treatment (17-21 days) of hippocampal slice cultures with the GluN2B-selective antagonists ifenprodil or Ro25,6981 increased both CREB (Ser 133) phosphorylation and granule cell mossy fiber pathway DYN expression. Similar treatment with the non-subtype-selective NMDAR antagonists D-APV or memantine had no significant effect on either CREB (Ser 133) phosphorylation or DYN expression. In contrast to our hypothesis, BDNF levels were decreased following chronic treatment with Ro25,6981, but not ifenprodil, D-APV or memantine. Blockade of BDNF actions and TrkB activation did not significantly augment hilar DYN expression in vehicle-treated cultures and had no effect in Ro25,6981 treated cultures. These finding suggest that chronic exposure to GluN2B-selective NMDAR antagonists increased DYN expression through a putatively pCREB-dependent, but BDNF/TrkB-independent mechanism. PMID:24769103

  10. Chronic nicotine treatment reverses hypothyroidism-induced impairment of L-LTP induction phase: critical role of CREB.

    PubMed

    Alzoubi, K H; Alkadhi, K A

    2014-06-01

    We have previously shown that adult onset hypothyroidism impairs late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and reduces basal protein levels of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB), mutagen-activated protein kinase (MAPKp42/44), and calcium calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV) in area Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) of the hippocampus. These changes were reversed by chronic nicotine treatment. In the present study, levels of signaling molecules important for L-LTP were determined in CA1 area of the hippocampus during the induction phase. Standard multiple high-frequency stimulation (MHFS) was used to evoke L-LTP in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of hypothyroid, nicotine-treated hypothyroid, nicotine, and sham control anaesthetized adult rats. Chronic nicotine treatment reversed hypothyroidism-induced impairment of L-LTP at the induction phase. Five minutes after MHFS, Western blotting showed an increase in the levels of P-CREB, and P-MAPKp42/44 in sham-operated control, nicotine, and nicotine-treated hypothyroid animals, but not in hypothyroid animals. The protein levels of total CREB, total MAPK p42/44, BDNF, and CaMKIV were not altered in all groups 5 min after MHFS. Therefore, normalized phosphorylation of essential kinases such as P-CREB and P-MAPK p42/44 in the CA1 area of nicotine-treated hypothyroid animals plays a crucial role in nicotine-induced rescue of L-LTP induction during hypothyroidism.

  11. AGE-RELATED IMPAIRMENTS IN MEMORY AND IN CREB AND pCREB EXPRESSION IN HIPPOCAMPUS AND AMYGDALA FOLLOWING INHIBITORY AVOIDANCE TRAINING

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Ken A.; Gold, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment examined whether age-related changes in CREB and pCREB contribute to the rapid forgetting seen in aged animals. Young (3-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) Fischer-344 rats received inhibitory avoidance training with a low (0.2 mA, 0.4 sec) or moderate (0.5 mA, 0.5 sec) footshock; memory was measured 7 days later. Other rats were euthanized 30 minutes after training, and CREB and pCREB expression levels were examined in the hippocampus, amygdala, and piriform cortex using immunohistochemistry. CREB levels decreased with age in the hippocampus and amygdala. After training with either shock level, young rats exhibited good memory and increases in pCREB levels in the hippocampus and amygdala. Aged rats exhibited good memory for the moderate but not the low shock but did not show increases in pCREB levels after either shock intensity. These results suggest that decreases in total CREB and in pCREB activation in the hippocampus and amygdala may contribute to rapid forgetting in aged rats. After moderate footshock, the stable memory in old rats together with absence of CREB activation suggests either that CREB was phosphorylated in a spatiotemporal pattern other than analyzed here or that the stronger training conditions engaged alternate mechanisms that promote long-lasting memory. PMID:22445851

  12. Metformin inhibits StAR expression in human endometriotic stromal cells via AMPK-mediated disruption of CREB-CRTC2 complex formation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia-Ning; Zeng, Cheng; Zhou, Yan; Peng, Chao; Zhou, Ying-Fang; Xue, Qing

    2014-08-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease affecting reproductive women. Metformin could have a therapeutic effect on endometriosis through regulation of local estrogen production. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular and cellular mechanism by which metformin regulates StAR expression in human endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs). ESCs derived from ovarian endometriomas were cultured with metformin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). StAR mRNA was measured by quantitative PCR; pregnenolone, progesterone, and estrogen production were measured by ELISA kits; steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), AMP-activated protein kinase, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) protein expression were measured by Western blot assay; and CRTC2 translocation and its association with CREB were assessed by coimmunoprecipitation assay and CRTC2-CREB complex binding by a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. 1) StAR mRNA levels in ESCs are 264 times higher than those in endometrial cells. 2) Metformin downregulates the StAR mRNA expression (maximum 31.7%) stimulated by PGE2 (2.4-fold) in ESCs. 3) PGE2 induces CRTC2 translocation and enhances its association with CREB to form a transcription complex that binds to the StAR promoter region. 4) Metformin prevents the nuclear translocation of CRTC2 by increasing AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. This inhibits transcription of StAR by disrupting formation of the CREB-CRTC2 complex, involved in activation of the StAR promoter cAMP response element. We have demonstrated a detailed mechanistic analysis of StAR expression regulated by metformin in ESCs. Our data highlight a role for CRTC2 in the mechanism by which metformin inhibits StAR expression.

  13. Regulation of mATG9 trafficking by Src- and ULK1-mediated phosphorylation in basal and starvation-induced autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Changqian; Ma, Kaili; Gao, Ruize; Mu, Chenglong; Chen, Linbo; Liu, Qiangqiang; Luo, Qian; Feng, Du; Zhu, Yushan; Chen, Quan

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy requires diverse membrane sources and involves membrane trafficking of mATG9, the only membrane protein in the ATG family. However, the molecular regulation of mATG9 trafficking for autophagy initiation remains unclear. Here we identified two conserved classic adaptor protein sorting signals within the cytosolic N-terminus of mATG9, which mediate trafficking of mATG9 from the plasma membrane and trans-Golgi network (TGN) via interaction with the AP1/2 complex. Src phosphorylates mATG9 at Tyr8 to maintain its endocytic and constitutive trafficking in unstressed conditions. In response to starvation, phosphorylation of mATG9 at Tyr8 by Src and at Ser14 by ULK1 functionally cooperate to promote interactions between mATG9 and the AP1/2 complex, leading to redistribution of mATG9 from the plasma membrane and juxta-nuclear region to the peripheral pool for autophagy initiation. Our findings uncover novel mechanisms of mATG9 trafficking and suggest a coordination of basal and stress-induced autophagy. PMID:27934868

  14. AtNUDT7, a negative regulator of basal immunity in Arabidopsis, modulates two distinct defense response pathways and is involved in maintaining redox homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaochun; Li, Guo-Jing; Wang, Sheng-Bing; Zhu, Huifen; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Xun; Xia, Yiji

    2007-09-01

    Plants have evolved complicated regulatory systems to control immune responses. Both positive and negative signaling pathways interplay to coordinate development of a resistance response with the appropriate amplitude and duration. AtNUDT7, a Nudix domain-containing protein in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that hydrolyzes nucleotide derivatives, was found to be a negative regulator of the basal defense response, and its loss-of-function mutation results in enhanced resistance to infection by Pseudomonas syringae. The nudt7 mutation does not cause a strong constitutive disease resistance phenotype, but it leads to a heightened defense response, including accelerated activation of defense-related genes that can be triggered by pathogenic and nonpathogenic microorganisms. The nudt7 mutation enhances two distinct defense response pathways: one independent of and the other dependent on NPR1 and salicylic acid accumulation. In vitro enzymatic assays revealed that ADP-ribose and NADH are preferred substrates of NUDT7, and the hydrolysis activity of NUDT7 is essential for its biological function and is sensitive to inhibition by Ca(2+). Further analyses indicate that ADP-ribose is not likely the physiological substrate of NUDT7. However, the nudt7 mutation leads to perturbation of cellular redox homeostasis and a higher level of NADH in pathogen-challenged leaves. The study suggests that the alteration in cellular antioxidant status caused by the nudt7 mutation primes the cells for the amplified defense response and NUDT7 functions to modulate the defense response to prevent excessive stimulation.

  15. The epithelial polarity regulator LGALS9/galectin-9 induces fatal frustrated autophagy in KRAS mutant colon carcinoma that depends on elevated basal autophagic flux

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, Valerie R; de Bruyn, Marco; Wei, Yunwei; van Ginkel, Robert J; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Niki, Toshiro; Nishi, Nozomu; Zhou, Jin; Pouwels, Simon D; Samplonius, Douwe F; Nijman, Hans W; Eggleton, Paul; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutation of KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) in colorectal cancer (CRC) confers resistance to both chemotherapy and EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)-targeted therapy. We uncovered that KRAS mutant (KRASmut) CRC is uniquely sensitive to treatment with recombinant LGALS9/Galectin-9 (rLGALS9), a recently established regulator of epithelial polarity. Upon treatment of CRC cells, rLGALS9 rapidly internalizes via early- and late-endosomes and accumulates in the lysosomal compartment. Treatment with rLGALS9 is accompanied by induction of frustrated autophagy in KRASmut CRC, but not in CRC with BRAF (B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase) mutations (BRAFmut). In KRASmut CRC, rLGALS9 acts as a lysosomal inhibitor that inhibits autophagosome-lysosome fusion, leading to autophagosome accumulation, excessive lysosomal swelling and cell death. This antitumor activity of rLGALS9 directly correlates with elevated basal autophagic flux in KRASmut cancer cells. Thus, rLGALS9 has potent antitumor activity toward refractory KRASmut CRC cells that may be exploitable for therapeutic use. PMID:26086204

  16. Induction by staurosporine of nitric oxide synthase expression in vascular smooth muscle cells: role of NF-κB, CREB and C/EBPβ

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Markus; Preiß, Christiane; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different protein kinase inhibitors on the expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) was investigated in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) isolated from the rat aorta.The non-selective protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, staurosporine, but not the more selective PKC inhibitors, calphostin C and Ro 31-8220, or the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genistein and erbstatin analogue (erbstatin A), elicited a distinct (up to six fold) up-regulation of iNOS gene expression in these cells, as demonstrated by a parallel increase in iNOS mRNA and protein abundance as well as an accumulation of nitrite (NO2−) in the conditioned medium. Actinomycin D and cycloheximide inhibited the effect of staurosporine, suggesting an involvement of both DNA transcription and de novo protein synthesis.Staurosporine also synergistically potentiated the stimulating effect of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but not that of the adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, on NO2− production and iNOS protein abundance. Staurosporine, on the other hand, had no effect on the IL-1β-mediated increase in iNOS mRNA abundance. The effect of staurosporine on both basal and IL-1β-stimulated NO2− production was concentration-dependent with an apparent maximum at 3 nM. Among the other protein kinase inhibitors tested, only calphostin C also enhanced the stimulant effect of IL-1β approximately two fold, while genistein, erbstatin A and Ro 31-8220 inhibited rather than potentiated it.Staurosporine did not influence basal activity of the transcription factors CREB and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), but increased that of C/EBP. Moreover, staurosporine significantly augmented the activation of C/EBP by IL-1β and forskolin.These findings suggest that in cultured VSMC a staurosporine-sensitive protein kinase exists, which is unlikely to be related to PKC, that prevents iNOS gene expression presumably by suppressing basal C/EBP activity. They also indicate that NF

  17. Menin and PRMT5 suppress GLP1 receptor transcript and PKA-mediated phosphorylation of FOXO1 and CREB.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Abdul Bari; Xing, Bowen; Liu, Chengyang; Naji, Ali; Ma, Xiaosong; Simmons, Rebecca A; Hua, Xianxin

    2017-03-07

    Menin is a scaffold protein that interacts with several epigenetic mediators to regulate gene transcription, and suppresses pancreatic beta cell proliferation. Tamoxifen inducible deletion of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene, which encodes the protein menin, increases beta cell mass in multiple murine models of diabetes and ameliorates diabetes. Glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP1) is another key physiological modulator of beta cell mass and glucose homeostasis. However, it is not clearly understood whether menin crosstalks with GLP1 signaling. Here we show that menin and protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) suppress GLP1 receptor (GLP1R) transcript levels. Notably, a GLP1R agonist induces phosphorylation of forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) at S253, and the phosphorylation is mediated by protein kinase A (PKA). Interestingly, menin suppresses GLP1-induced and PKA-mediated phosphorylation of both FOXO1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB), likely through a protein arginine methyltransferase. Menin mediated suppression of FOXO1 and CREB phosphorylation increases FOXO1 levels and suppresses CREB target genes, respectively. A small molecule menin inhibitor reverses menin-mediated suppression of both FOXO1 and CREB phosphorylation. In addition, ex vivo treatment of both mouse and human pancreatic islets with a menin inhibitor increases levels of proliferation marker Ki67. In conclusion, our results suggest that menin and PRMT5 suppress GLP1R transcript levels and PKA-mediated phosphorylation of FOXO1 and CREB, and a menin inhibitor may reverse this suppression to induce beta cell proliferation.

  18. Rit-mediated Stress Resistance Involves a p38-Mitogen- and Stress-activated Protein Kinase 1 (MSK1)-dependent cAMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Activation Cascade*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Geng-Xian; Cai, Weikang; Andres, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    The cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) is a key regulatory factor of gene transcription, and plays an essential role in development of the central nervous system and for neuroprotection. Multiple signaling pathways have been shown to contribute to the regulation of CREB-dependent transcription, including both ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases cascades. Recent studies have identified the Ras-related small G-protein, Rit, as a central regulator of a p38-MK2-HSP27 signaling cascade that functions as a critical survival mechanism for cells adapting to stress. Here, we examine the contribution of Rit-p38 signaling to the control of stress-dependent gene transcription. Using a pheochromocytoma cell model, we find that a novel Rit-p38-MSK1/2 pathway plays a critical role in stress-mediated CREB activation. RNAi-mediated Rit silencing, or inhibition of p38 or MSK1/2 kinases, was found to disrupt stress-mediated CREB-dependent transcription, resulting in increased cell death. Furthermore, ectopic expression of active Rit stimulates CREB-Ser133 phosphorylation, induces expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and BclXL proteins, and promotes cell survival. These data indicate that the Rit-p38-MSK1/2 signaling pathway may have an important role in the stress-dependent regulation of CREB-dependent gene expression. PMID:23038261

  19. Distinct Effects of Mitogens and the Actin Cytoskeleton on CREB and Pocket Protein Phosphorylation Control the Extent and Timing of Cyclin A Promoter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Buzzai, Monica; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Desdouets, Chantal; Bréchot, Christian; Assoian, Richard K.

    2001-01-01

    Soluble mitogens and adhesion-dependent organization of the actin cytoskeleton are required for cells to enter S phase in fibroblasts. The induction of cyclin A is also required for S-phase entry, and we now report that distinct effects of mitogens and the actin cytoskeleton on the phosphorylation of CREB and pocket proteins regulate the extent and timing of cyclin A promoter activity, respectively. First, we show that CREB phosphorylation and binding to the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) determines the extent, but not the timing, of cyclin A promoter activity. Second, we show that pocket protein inactivation regulates the timing, but not the extent, of cyclin A promoter activity. CREB phosphorylation and CRE occupancy are regulated by soluble mitogens alone, while the phosphorylation of pocket proteins requires both mitogens and the organized actin cytoskeleton. Mechanistically, cytoskeletal integrity controls pocket protein phosphorylation by allowing for sustained ERK signaling and, thereby, the expression of cyclin D1. Our results lead to a model of cyclin A gene regulation in which mitogens play a permissive role by stimulating early G1-phase phosphorylation of CREB and a distinct regulatory role by cooperating with the organized actin cytoskeleton to regulate the duration of ERK signaling, the expression of cyclin D1, and the timing of pocket protein phosphorylation. PMID:11604497

  20. The Membrane-Bound Transcription Factor CREB3L1 Is Activated in Response to Virus Infection to Inhibit Proliferation of Virus-Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Denard, Bray; Seemann, Joachim; Chen, Qiuyue; Gay, Austin; Huang, Hua; Chen, Yan; Ye, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Summary CREB3L1/OASIS is a cellular transcription factor synthesized as a membrane-bound precursor and activated by regulated intramembrane proteolysis in response to stimuli like ER stress. Comparing gene expression between Huh7 subclones that are permissive for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication versus the non-permissive parental Huh7 cells, we identified CREB3L1 as a cellular factor that inhibits proliferation of virus-infected cells. Upon infection with diverse DNA and RNA viruses including murine γ-herpesvirus 68, HCV, West Nile virus (WNV) and Sendai virus, CREB3L1 was proteolytically cleaved, allowing its NH2-terminus to enter the nucleus to induce multiple genes encoding inhibitors of the cell cycle to block cell proliferation. Consistent with this, we observed a necessity for CREB3L1 expression to be silenced in proliferating cells that harbor replicons of HCV or WNV. Our results indicate that CREB3L1 may play an important role in limiting virus spread by inhibiting proliferation of virus-infected cells. PMID:21767813

  1. CREB-2, a Cellular CRE-Dependent Transcription Repressor, Functions in Association with Tax as an Activator of the Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Gachon, Frederic; Peleraux, Annick; Thebault, Sabine; Dick, Joelle; Lemasson, Isabelle; Devaux, Christian; Mesnard, Jean-Michel

    1998-01-01

    The Tax protein of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been implicated in human T-cell immortalization. The primary function of Tax is to transcriptionally activate the HTLV-1 promoter, but Tax is also known to stimulate expression of cellular genes. It has been reported to associate with several transcription factors, as well as proteins not involved in transcription. To better characterize potential cellular targets of Tax present in infected cells, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae two-hybrid screening was performed with a cDNA library constructed from the HTLV-1-infected MT2 cell line. From this study, we found 158 positive clones representing seven different cDNAs. We focused our attention on the cDNA encoding the transcription factor CREB-2. CREB-2 is an unconventional member of the ATF/CREB family in that it lacks a protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site and has been reported to negatively regulate transcription from the cyclic AMP response element of the human enkephalin promoter. In this study, we demonstrate that CREB-2 cooperates with Tax to enhance viral transcription and that its basic-leucine zipper C-terminal domain is required for both in vitro and in vivo interactions with Tax. Our results confirm that the activation of the HTLV-1 promoter through Tax and factors of the ATF/CREB family is PKA independent. PMID:9733879

  2. Distinct roles of methamphetamine in modulating spatial memory consolidation, retrieval, reconsolidation and the accompanying changes of ERK and CREB activation in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Cao, Guofen; Zhu, Jie; Zhong, Qing; Shi, Chaofeng; Dang, Yonghui; Han, Wei; Liu, Xinshe; Xu, Ming; Chen, Teng

    2013-04-01

    Drugs of abuse modulated learning and memory in humans yet the underlying mechanism remained unclear. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) were involved in neuroplastic changes associated with learning and memory. In the current study, we used a Morris water maze to examine the effect of methamphetamine (METH) on different processes of spatial memory in mice. We then investigated the status of ERK and CREB in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). We found that 1.0 mg/kg dose of METH facilitated spatial memory consolidation when it was injected immediately after the last learning trial. In contrast, the same dose of METH had no effect on spatial memory retrieval when it was injected 30 min before the test. Furthermore, 1.0 mg/kg dose of METH injected immediately after retrieval had no effect on spatial memory reconsolidation. Activation of both ERK and CREB in the hippocampus was found following memory consolidation but not after retrieval or reconsolidation in METH-treated mouse groups. In contrast, activation of both ERK and CREB in the PFC was found following memory retrieval but not other processes in METH-treated mouse groups. These results suggested that METH facilitated spatial memory consolidation but not retrieval or reconsolidation. Moreover, activation of the ERK and CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus might be involved in METH-induced spatial memory changes.

  3. Wnt/β-catenin pathway transactivates microRNA-150 that promotes EMT of colorectal cancer cells by suppressing CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Lu-Qin; Li, Bin; Xu, Hui; Yang, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Li-Si; Yu, Peng; Zhou, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Yin; Xie, Shu-Juan; Liang, Zi-Rui; Zhang, Chen-Min; Zhou, Hui; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2016-07-05

    A hallmark of aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway has been observed in most colorectal cancers (CRC), but little is known about the role of non-coding RNAs regulated by this pathway. Here, we found that miR-150 was the most significantly upregulated microRNA responsive to elevated of Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity in both HCT116 and HEK293T cells. Mechanistically, the β-catenin/LEF1 complex binds to the conserved TCF/LEF1-binding element in the miR-150 promoter and thereby transactivates its expression. Enforced expression of miR-150 in HCT116 cell line transformed cells into a spindle shape with higher migration and invasion activity. miR-150 markedly suppressed the CREB signaling pathway by targeting its core transcription factors CREB1 and EP300. Knockdown of CREB1 or EP300 and knockout of CREB1 by CRISPR/Cas9 phenocopied the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) observed in HCT116 cells in response to miR-150 overexpression. In summary, our data indicate that miR-150 is a novel Wnt effector that may significantly enhance EMT of CRC cells by targeting the CREB signaling pathway.

  4. Steap4 Plays a Critical Role in Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro by Regulating Cellular Iron/Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Levels and cAMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Ye, Shiqiao; Fujiwara, Toshifumi; Manolagas, Stavros C.; Zhao, Haibo

    2013-01-01

    Iron is essential for osteoclast differentiation, and iron overload in a variety of hematologic diseases is associated with excessive bone resorption. Iron uptake by osteoclast precursors via the transferrin cycle increases mitochondrial biogenesis, reactive oxygen species production, and activation of cAMP response element-binding protein, a critical transcription factor downstream of receptor activator of NF-κB-ligand-induced calcium signaling. These changes are required for the differentiation of osteoclast precursors to mature bone-resorbing osteoclasts. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular iron metabolism in osteoclasts remain largely unknown. In this report, we provide evidence that Steap4, a member of the six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate (Steap) family proteins, is an endosomal ferrireductase with a critical role in cellular iron utilization in osteoclasts. Specifically, we show that Steap4 is the only Steap family protein that is up-regulated during osteoclast differentiation. Knocking down Steap4 expression in vitro by lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNAs inhibits osteoclast formation and decreases cellular ferrous iron, reactive oxygen species, and the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein. These results demonstrate that Steap4 is a critical enzyme for cellular iron uptake and utilization in osteoclasts and, thus, indispensable for osteoclast development and function. PMID:23990467

  5. CREB SUMOylation by the E3 ligase PIAS1 enhances spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Chu; Hsu, Wei-Lun; Ma, Yun-Li; Tai, Derek J C; Lee, Eminy H Y

    2014-07-16

    cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and signaling plays an important role in long-term memory formation, but other posttranslational modifications of CREB are less known. Here, we found that CREB1Δ, the short isoform of CREB, could be sumoylated by the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) at Lys271 and Lys290 and PIAS1 SUMOylation of CREB1Δ increased the expression level of CREB1Δ. CREB1Δ could also be sumoylated by other PIAS family proteins, but not by the E3 ligases RanBP2 and Pc2 or by the E2 ligase Ubc9. Furthermore, water maze training increased the level of endogenous CREB SUMOylation in rat CA1 neurons determined by in vitro SUMOylation assay, but this effect was not observed in other brain areas. Moreover, transduction of Lenti-CREBWT to rat CA1 area facilitated, whereas transduction of Lenti-CREB double sumo-mutant (CREBK271RK290R) impaired, spatial learning and memory performance. Transduction of Lenti-CREBWT-SUMO1 fusion vector to rat CA1 area showed a more significant effect in enhancing spatial learning and memory and CREB SUMOylation. Lenti-CREBWT transduction increased, whereas Lenti-CREBK271RK290R transduction decreased, CREB DNA binding to the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) promoter and decreased bdnf mRNA expression. Knock-down of PIAS1 expression in CA1 area by PIAS1 siRNA transfection impaired spatial learning and memory and decreased endogenous CREB SUMOylation. In addition, CREB SUMOylation was CREB phosphorylation dependent and lasted longer. Therefore, CREB phosphorylation may be responsible for signal transduction during the early phase of long-term memory formation, whereas CREB SUMOylation sustains long-term memory.

  6. Chronic CXCL10 alters the level of activated ERK1/2 and transcriptional factors CREB and NF-kB in hippocampal neuronal cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Bajova, Hilda; Nelson, Thomas E.; Gruol, Donna L.

    2008-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways may be important targets of chemokines during neuroinflammation. In the current study, Western blot analyses show that in rat hippocampal neuronal/glial cell cultures chronic CXCL10 increases the level of protein for ERK1/2 as well as for the transcriptional factors CREB and NF-κB. Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein whose expression can be regulated by a pathway involving ERK1/2, CREB and NF-κB, was also increased in the CXCL10 treated cultures. These results implicate a role for ERK1/2, CREB and NF-κB in effects of CXCL10 on hippocampal cells and suggest that chronic CXCL10 may have a protective role during certain neuroinflammatory conditions. PMID:18329727

  7. Involvement of phosphorylated Apis mellifera CREB in gating a honeybee's behavioral response to an external stimulus

    PubMed Central

    Gehring, Katrin B.; Heufelder, Karin; Feige, Janina; Bauer, Paul; Dyck, Yan; Ehrhardt, Lea; Kühnemund, Johannes; Bergmann, Anja; Göbel, Josefine; Isecke, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is involved in neuronal plasticity. Phosphorylation activates CREB and an increased level of phosphorylated CREB is regarded as an indicator of CREB-dependent transcriptional activation. In honeybees (Apis mellifera) we recently demonstrated a particular high abundance of the phosphorylated honeybee CREB homolog (pAmCREB) in the central brain and in a subpopulation of mushroom body neurons. We hypothesize that these high pAmCREB levels are related to learning and memory formation. Here, we tested this hypothesis by analyzing brain pAmCREB levels in classically conditioned bees and bees experiencing unpaired presentations of conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US). We demonstrate that both behavioral protocols display differences in memory formation but do not alter the level of pAmCREB in bee brains directly after training. Nevertheless, we report that bees responding to the CS during unpaired stimulus presentations exhibit higher levels of pAmCREB than nonresponding bees. In addition, Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that is thought to enhance histone acetylation by CREB-binding protein, increases the bees’ CS responsiveness. We conclude that pAmCREB is involved in gating a bee's behavioral response driven by an external stimulus. PMID:27084927

  8. Distinctive Roles for Amygdalar CREB in Reconsolidation and Extinction of Fear Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronson, Natalie C.; Wiseman, Shari L.; Neve, Rachael L.; Nestler, Eric J.; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) plays a critical role in fear memory formation. Here we determined the role of CREB selectively within the amygdala in reconsolidation and extinction of auditory fear. Viral overexpression of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) or the dominant-negative mCREB, specifically within the lateral…

  9. Distinctive Roles for Amygdalar CREB in Reconsolidation and Extinction of Fear Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronson, Natalie C.; Wiseman, Shari L.; Neve, Rachael L.; Nestler, Eric J.; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) plays a critical role in fear memory formation. Here we determined the role of CREB selectively within the amygdala in reconsolidation and extinction of auditory fear. Viral overexpression of the inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) or the dominant-negative mCREB, specifically within the lateral…

  10. Basal cell carcinoma: pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Chatterjee, Kingshuk; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer in humans, which typically appears over the sun-exposed skin as a slow-growing, locally invasive lesion that rarely metastasizes. Although the exact etiology of BCC is unknown, there exists a well-established relationship between BCC and the pilo-sebaceous unit, and it is currently thought to originate from pluri-potential cells in the basal layer of the epidermis or the follicle. The patched/hedgehog intracellular signaling pathway plays a central role in both sporadic BCCs and nevoid BCC syndrome (Gorlin syndrome). This pathway is vital for the regulation of cell growth, and differentiation and loss of inhibition of this pathway is associated with development of BCC. The sonic hedgehog protein is the most relevant to BCC; nevertheless, the Patched (PTCH) protein is the ligand-binding component of the hedgehog receptor complex in the cell membrane. The other protein member of the receptor complex, smoothened (SMO), is responsible for transducing hedgehog signaling to downstream genes, leading to abnormal cell proliferation. The importance of this pathway is highlighted by the successful use in advanced forms of BCC of vismodegib, a Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, that selectively inhibits SMO. The UV-specific nucleotide changes in the tumor suppressor genes, TP53 and PTCH, have also been implicated in the development of BCC.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis of basal and zygote-located tip regions of peanut ovaries provides insight into the mechanism of light regulation in peanut embryo and pod development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Wang, Pengfei; Xia, Han; Zhao, Chuanzhi; Hou, Lei; Li, Changsheng; Gao, Chao; Zhao, Shuzhen; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-08-11

    Peanut zygotes typically divide a few times to form a pre-embryo before further embryonic development halts under normal day/night photoperiods. Ovary elongation, however, continuesforming a downward growing peg-like structure. When the peg is buried in the soil, embryo development resumes in the darkness. The embryo-located region (ER) of the peg begins to enlarge and form a pod, while the basal region (BR) of the peg has a distinct fate. The molecular mechanisms governing these unique embryo development processes are unknown. In this study, histological analysis demonstrated that from 4 days after pollination to 3 days after soil penetration, the peanut pre-embryo remained morphologically similar. By 9 days after soil penetration, the embryo had changed to a globular embryo. Transcriptome analysis revealed differentially expressed genes in the ER and BR before and after peg soil penetration. In addition to light signaling and plant hormone metabolism genes, we identified differentially expressed genes in the ER that contribute to embryo development and pod formation processes, including MADS-box transcription factors, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase protein, cellulose synthase, homeobox-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) protein family genes, amino acid permease, and seed growth and embryo morphogenesis regulators (DA1, TCP3, and YABBY). A large number of genes were found to be differentially expressed in the ER and BR across three developmental peg stages. Exact changes in gene expression were also identified in the ER during early embryo and pod development. This information provides an expanded knowledgebase for understanding the mechanisms of early peanut pod formation.

  12. The Ability of Proteus mirabilis To Sense Surfaces and Regulate Virulence Gene Expression Involves FliL, a Flagellar Basal Body Protein

    PubMed Central

    Belas, Robert; Suvanasuthi, Rooge

    2005-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a urinary tract pathogen that differentiates from a short swimmer cell to an elongated, highly flagellated swarmer cell. Swarmer cell differentiation parallels an increased expression of several virulence factors, suggesting that both processes are controlled by the same signal. The molecular nature of this signal is not known but is hypothesized to involve the inhibition of flagellar rotation. In this study, data are presented supporting the idea that conditions inhibiting flagellar rotation induce swarmer cell differentiation and implicating a rotating flagellar filament as critical to the sensing mechanism. Mutations in three genes, fliL, fliF, and fliG, encoding components of the flagellar basal body, result in the inappropriate development of swarmer cells in noninducing liquid media or hyperelongated swarmer cells on agar media. The fliL mutation was studied in detail. FliL− mutants are nonmotile and fail to synthesize flagellin, while complementation of fliL restores wild-type cell elongation but not motility. Overexpression of fliL+ in wild-type cells prevents swarmer cell differentiation and motility, a result also observed when P. mirabilis fliL+ was expressed in Escherichia coli. These results suggest that FliL plays a role in swarmer cell differentiation and implicate FliL as critical to transduction of the signal inducing swarmer cell differentiation and virulence gene expression. In concert with this idea, defects in fliL up-regulate the expression of two virulence genes, zapA and hpmB. These results support the hypothesis that P. mirabilis ascertains its location in the environment or host by assessing the status of its flagellar motors, which in turn control swarmer cell gene expression. PMID:16166542

  13. Gene Network Inference and Biochemical Assessment Delineates GPCR Pathways and CREB Targets in Small Intestinal Neuroendocrine Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Drozdov, Ignat; Svejda, Bernhard; Gustafsson, Bjorn I.; Mane, Shrikant; Pfragner, Roswitha; Kidd, Mark; Modlin, Irvin M.

    2011-01-01

    Small intestinal (SI) neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are increasing in incidence, however little is known about their biology. High throughput techniques such as inference of gene regulatory networks from microarray experiments can objectively define signaling machinery in this disease. Genome-wide co-expression analysis was used to infer gene relevance network in SI-NETs. The network was confirmed to be non-random, scale-free, and highly modular. Functional analysis of gene co-expression modules revealed processes including ‘Nervous system development’, ‘Immune response’, and ‘Cell-cycle’. Importantly, gene network topology and differential expression analysis identified over-expression of the GPCR signaling regulators, the cAMP synthetase, ADCY2, and the protein kinase A, PRKAR1A. Seven CREB response element (CRE) transcripts associated with proliferation and secretion: BEX1, BICD1, CHGB, CPE, GABRB3, SCG2 and SCG3 as well as ADCY2 and PRKAR1A were measured in an independent SI dataset (n = 10 NETs; n = 8 normal preparations). All were up-regulated (p<0.035) with the exception of SCG3 which was not differently expressed. Forskolin (a direct cAMP activator, 10−5 M) significantly stimulated transcription of pCREB and 3/7 CREB targets, isoproterenol (a selective ß-adrenergic receptor agonist and cAMP activator, 10−5 M) stimulated pCREB and 4/7 targets while BIM-53061 (a dopamine D2 and Serotonin [5-HT2] receptor agonist, 10−6 M) stimulated 100% of targets as well as pCREB; CRE transcription correlated with the levels of cAMP accumulation and PKA activity; BIM-53061 stimulated the highest levels of cAMP and PKA (2.8-fold and 2.5-fold vs. 1.8–2-fold for isoproterenol and forskolin). Gene network inference and graph topology analysis in SI NETs suggests that SI NETs express neural GPCRs that activate different CRE targets associated with proliferation and secretion. In vitro studies, in a model NET cell system, confirmed that transcriptional

  14. Differential role of long terminal repeat control elements for the regulation of basal and Tat-mediated transcription of the human immunodeficiency virus in stimulated and unstimulated primary human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Moses, A V; Ibanez, C; Gaynor, R; Ghazal, P; Nelson, J A

    1994-01-01

    Primary human macrophages induced to differentiate through contact with autologous activated nonadherent cells were used to investigate the transcriptional mechanisms involved in reactivation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. Through transient transfection experiments with an HIV long terminal repeat (LTR)-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct, we show that macrophage differentiation results in a 20-fold upregulation of basal LTR activity. To identify sequence elements responsive to the differentiation process, point mutations introduced into the LTR were tested in differentiated and undifferentiated macrophages. Several elements were identified as positive regulators of basal transcription. TATA, Sp1, and NF-kappa B binding sites were the most influential. The low-affinity site for LBP-1 (UBP-1) functioned as a negative regulator of LTR activity in undifferentiated macrophages, but this influence was lost upon differentiation. When tat was cotransfected into the expression system, the requirement for LTR elements identified as important for positive regulation of basal transcription remained in undifferentiated macrophages. Interestingly, however, the mutations in positive control elements which debilitated activity in undifferentiated macrophages had no effect on LTR activity in differentiated macrophages. Thus, it appears that while HIV-LTR activity is highly dependent on cellular transcription factors in undifferentiated cells, in differentiated macrophages the viral protein Tat confers pliability on the LTR and facilitates autonomy from absolute cellular control mechanisms. In vivo, release from either positive or negative regulation via cellular proteins may facilitate reactivation of HIV in macrophages.

  15. Sertoli-secreted FGF-2 induces PFKFB4 isozyme expression in mouse spermatogenic cells by activation of the MEK/ERK/CREB pathway.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Marta; Manzano, Anna; Figueras, Agnes; Viñals, Francesc; Ventura, Francesc; Rosa, Jose Luis; Bartrons, Ramon; Navarro-Sabaté, Àurea

    2012-09-15

    Sertoli cells play a central role in the control and maintenance of spermatogenesis by secreting growth factors, in response to hormonal stimulation, that participate in the paracrine regulation of this process. In this study, we investigated how the hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis modulates 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB) isozyme expression in two mouse spermatogenic cell lines, GC-1 spg and GC-2 spd (ts). For this purpose, TM4 Sertoli cells were used to obtain conditioned medium that was treated or not with dihydrotestosterone for 2 days [dihydrotestosterone conditioned medium (TCM) and basal conditioned medium (BCM), respectively]. We observed an increase in the expression of PFKFB4 along with a decrease in PFKFB3 in spermatogenic cell lines treated with TCM. These effects were inhibited by the antiandrogen drug flutamide and by heat-inactivated TCM, indicating the protein nature of the TCM mediator and its dependence on Sertoli cell stimulation by dihydrotestosterone. In addition, adult rat testes treated with the GnRH antagonist Degarelix exhibited a reduction in the expression of PFKFB4 in germ cells. Addition of exogenous FGF-2 mimicked the changes in the Pfkfb gene expression, whereas neutralizing antibodies against FGF-2 abolished them. Interestingly, similar effects on Pfkfb gene expression were observed using different MAPK inhibitors (U-0126, PD-98059, and H-89). Luciferase analysis of Pfkfb4 promoter constructs demonstrated that a putative CRE-binding sequence located at -1,463 relative to the transcription start site is required to control Pfkfb4 gene expression after TCM treatment. Pulldown assays showed the binding of the CREB transcription factor to this site. Altogether, these results show how the paracrine regulation orchestrated by Sertoli cells in response to testosterone controls glycolysis in germ cells.

  16. Overlapping ETS and CRE Motifs ((G/C)CGGAAGTGACGTCA) preferentially bound by GABPα and CREB proteins.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Raghunath; Zhao, Jianfei; He, Ximiao; Shlyakhtenko, Andrey; Mann, Ishminder; Waterfall, Joshua J; Meltzer, Paul; Sathyanarayana, B K; FitzGerald, Peter C; Vinson, Charles

    2012-10-01

    Previously, we identified 8-bps long DNA sequences (8-mers) that localize in human proximal promoters and grouped them into known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We now examine split 8-mers consisting of two 4-mers separated by 1-bp to 30-bps (X(4)-N(1-30)-X(4)) to identify pairs of TFBS that localize in proximal promoters at a precise distance. These include two overlapping TFBS: the ETS⇔ETS motif ((C/G)CCGGAAGCGGAA) and the ETS⇔CRE motif ((C/G)CGGAAGTGACGTCAC). The nucleotides in bold are part of both TFBS. Molecular modeling shows that the ETS⇔CRE motif can be bound simultaneously by both the ETS and the B-ZIP domains without protein-protein clashes. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) shows that the ETS protein GABPα and the B-ZIP protein CREB preferentially bind to the ETS⇔CRE motif only when the two TFBS overlap precisely. In contrast, the ETS domain of ETV5 and CREB interfere with each other for binding the ETS⇔CRE. The 11-mer (CGGAAGTGACG), the conserved part of the ETS⇔CRE motif, occurs 226 times in the human genome and 83% are in known regulatory regions. In vivo GABPα and CREB ChIP-seq peaks identified the ETS⇔CRE as the most enriched motif occurring in promoters of genes involved in mRNA processing, cellular catabolic processes, and stress response, suggesting that a specific class of genes is regulated by this composite motif.

  17. Overlapping ETS and CRE Motifs (G/CCGGAAGTGACGTCA) Preferentially Bound by GABPα and CREB Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Raghunath; Zhao, Jianfei; He, Ximiao; Shlyakhtenko, Andrey; Mann, Ishminder; Waterfall, Joshua J.; Meltzer, Paul; Sathyanarayana, B. K.; FitzGerald, Peter C.; Vinson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Previously, we identified 8-bps long DNA sequences (8-mers) that localize in human proximal promoters and grouped them into known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). We now examine split 8-mers consisting of two 4-mers separated by 1-bp to 30-bps (X4-N1-30-X4) to identify pairs of TFBS that localize in proximal promoters at a precise distance. These include two overlapping TFBS: the ETS⇔ETS motif (C/GCCGGAAGCGGAA) and the ETS⇔CRE motif (C/GCGGAAGTGACGTCAC). The nucleotides in bold are part of both TFBS. Molecular modeling shows that the ETS⇔CRE motif can be bound simultaneously by both the ETS and the B-ZIP domains without protein-protein clashes. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) shows that the ETS protein GABPα and the B-ZIP protein CREB preferentially bind to the ETS⇔CRE motif only when the two TFBS overlap precisely. In contrast, the ETS domain of ETV5 and CREB interfere with each other for binding the ETS⇔CRE. The 11-mer (CGGAAGTGACG), the conserved part of the ETS⇔CRE motif, occurs 226 times in the human genome and 83% are in known regulatory regions. In vivo GABPα and CREB ChIP-seq peaks identified the ETS⇔CRE as the most enriched motif occurring in promoters of genes involved in mRNA processing, cellular catabolic processes, and stress response, suggesting that a specific class of genes is regulated by this composite motif. PMID:23050235

  18. dCREB2-Mediated Enhancement of Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Tubon, Thomas C.; Zhang, Jiabin; Friedman, Eugenia L.; Jin, Haining; Gonzales, Erin D.; Zhou, Hong; Drier, Diana; Gerstner, Jason R.; Paulson, Emily A.; Fropf, Robin; Yin, Jerry C. P.

    2013-01-01

    CREB-responsive transcription has an important role in adaptive responses in all cells and tissue. In the nervous system, it has an essential and well established role in long-term memory formation throughout a diverse set of organisms. Activation of this transcription factor correlates with long-term memory formation and disruption of its activity interferes with this process. Most convincingly, aug-menting CREB activity in a number of different systems enhances memory formation. In Drosophila, a sequence rearrangement in the original transgene used to enhance memory formation has been a source of confusion. This rearrangement prematurely terminates translation of the full-length protein, leaving the identity of the “enhancing molecule” unclear. In this report, we show that a naturally occurring, downstream, in-frame initiation codon is used to make a dCREB2 protein off of both transgenic and chromosomal substrates. This protein is a transcriptional activator and is responsible for memory enhancement. A number of parameters can affect enhancement, including the short-lived activity of the activator protein, and the time-of-day when induction and behavioral training occur. Our results reaffirm that overexpression of a dCREB2 activator can enhance memory formation and illustrate the complexity of this behavioral enhancement. PMID:23616553

  19. Berberine Suppresses Adipocyte Differentiation via Decreasing CREB Transcriptional Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Tang, Hongju; Deng, Ruyuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yuqing; Wang, Yao; Liu, Yun; Li, Fengying; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Libin

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, one of the major constituents of Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, has been demonstrated to lower blood glucose, blood lipid, and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The anti-obesity effect of berberine has been attributed to its anti-adipogenic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that berberine significantly suppressed the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), and other adipogenic genes in the process of adipogenesis. Berberine decreased cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression at the early stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, CREB phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and forskolin were also attenuated by berberine. The binding activities of cAMP responsive element (CRE) stimulated by IBMX and forskolin were inhibited by berberine. The binding of phosphorylated CREB to the promoter of C/EBPβ was abrogated by berberine after the induction of preadipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that berberine blocks adipogenesis mainly via suppressing CREB activity, which leads to a decrease in C/EBPβ-triggered transcriptional cascades.

  20. Berberine Suppresses Adipocyte Differentiation via Decreasing CREB Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ruyuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yuqing; Wang, Yao; Liu, Yun; Li, Fengying; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Libin

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, one of the major constituents of Chinese herb Rhizoma coptidis, has been demonstrated to lower blood glucose, blood lipid, and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The anti-obesity effect of berberine has been attributed to its anti-adipogenic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that berberine significantly suppressed the expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), and other adipogenic genes in the process of adipogenesis. Berberine decreased cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression at the early stage of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. In addition, CREB phosphorylation and C/EBPβ expression induced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and forskolin were also attenuated by berberine. The binding activities of cAMP responsive element (CRE) stimulated by IBMX and forskolin were inhibited by berberine. The binding of phosphorylated CREB to the promoter of C/EBPβ was abrogated by berberine after the induction of preadipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that berberine blocks adipogenesis mainly via suppressing CREB activity, which leads to a decrease in C/EBPβ-triggered transcriptional cascades. PMID:25928058

  1. Hemorrhage induces rapid in vivo activation of CREB and NF-kappaB in murine intraparenchymal lung mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Shenkar, R; Abraham, E

    1997-02-01

    Increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines appears to be an important factor contributing to the development of acute lung injury. In murine models, mRNA levels of proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines, including IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TGF-beta1, and TNF-alpha, are increased in intraparenchymal lung mononuclear cells 1 h after hemorrhage. Binding elements for the nuclear transcriptional regulatory factors, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta), serum protein 1 (Sp1), activator protein 1 (AP-1), and the cyclic AMP response-element binding protein (CREB) are present in the promoter regions of numerous cytokine genes, including those whose expression is increased after blood loss. To investigate early transcriptional mechanisms which may be involved in regulating pulmonary cytokine expression after hemorrhage, we examined in vivo activation of these five nuclear transcriptional factors among intraparenchymal lung mononuclear cells obtained in the immediate post-hemorrhage period. Activation of NF-kappaB and CREB, but not C/EBPbeta, Sp1, or AP-1, was present in lung mononuclear cells isolated from mice 15 min after hemorrhage. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by prior feeding with either an allopurinol-supplemented or a tungsten-enriched diet prevented hemorrhage-induced activation of CREB, but not NF-kappaB. These results demonstrate that hemorrhage leads to rapid in vivo activation in the lung of CREB through a xanthine oxidase-dependent mechanism and of NF-kappaB through other pathways, and suggest that the activation of these transcriptional factors may have an important role in regulating pulmonary cytokine expression and the development of acute lung injury after blood loss.

  2. CP-154,526 Modifies CREB Phosphorylation and Thioredoxin-1 Expression in the Dentate Gyrus following Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference.

    PubMed

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Camejo, Daymi M; Almela, Pilar; Jiménez, Ana; Milanés, María-Victoria; Sevilla, Francisca; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) acts as neuro-regulator of the behavioral and emotional integration of environmental and endogenous stimuli associated with drug dependence. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is a functional protein controlling the redox status of several proteins, which is involved in addictive processes. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the rewarding properties of morphine by using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. We also investigate the effects of the CRF1R antagonist, CP-154,526, on the morphine CPP-induced activation of CRF neurons, CREB phosphorylation and Trx expression in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dentate gyrus (DG) of the mice brain. CP-154,526 abolished the acquisition of morphine CPP and the increase of CRF/pCREB positive neurons in PVN. Moreover, this CRF1R antagonist prevented morphine-induced CRF-immunoreactive fibers in DG, as well as the increase in pCREB expression in both the PVN and DG. In addition, morphine exposure induced an increase in Trx-1 expression in DG without any alterations in PVN. We also observed that the majority of pCREB positive neurons in DG co-expressed Trx-1, suggesting that Trx-1 could activate CREB in the DG, a brain region involved in memory consolidation. Altogether, these results support the idea that CRF1R antagonist blocked Trx-1 expression and pCREB/Trx-1 co-localization, indicating a critical role of CRF, through CRF1R, in molecular changes involved in morphine associated behaviors.

  3. Prevention of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia by CREB-mediated p21 induction: An insight from a plant polyphenol.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lan; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Weiku; He, GuoRong; Yang, Shengqian; Song, Junke; Du, Guanhua

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) signaling cascade negatively regulates platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, which is a critical event in the initiation and development of restenosis and atherosclerotic lesions. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) is one of the most abundant polyphenols extracted from salvia. The aim of this study is to investigate whether SAA exerts an action on PDGF-BB-induced proliferation via cAMP/PKA/CREB mechanism. SAA blunts PDGF-BB-induced human umbilical artery smooth muscle cell (hUASMC) proliferation via p21 induction, as evidenced by its increased mRNA and protein expression levels. The SAA-induced upregulation of p21 involves the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway; a cAMP analog mimicked the effects of SAA and a specific cAMP/PKA inhibitor opposed these effects. SAA also activated CREB, including phosphorylation at Ser133, and induced its nuclear translocation. Deletion and mutational analysis of p21 promoters, co-immunoprecipitation, and western blot analysis showed that CRE is essential for SAA-induced p21 protein expression. Transfection of dominant-negative CREB (mutated Ser133) plasmids into hUASMCs attenuated SAA-stimulated p21 expression. SAA upregulated p21 expression and activated CREB in the neointima of balloon-injured arteries in vivo. Our results indicate that SAA promotes p21 expression in SMCs through the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling cascade in vitro and prevents injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia.

  4. Evidence for Conservation of the Calcitonin Superfamily and Activity-regulating Mechanisms in the Basal Chordate Branchiostoma floridae: INSIGHTS INTO THE MOLECULAR AND FUNCTIONAL EVOLUTION IN CHORDATES.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Toshio; Kuwasako, Kenji; Ogasawara, Michio; Takahashi, Hiroki; Matsubara, Shin; Osugi, Tomohiro; Muramatsu, Ikunobu; Sasayama, Yuichi; Suzuki, Nobuo; Satake, Honoo

    2016-01-29

    The calcitonin (CT)/CT gene-related peptide (CGRP) family is conserved in vertebrates. The activities of this peptide family are regulated by a combination of two receptors, namely the calcitonin receptor (CTR) and the CTR-like receptor (CLR), and three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). Furthermore, RAMPs act as escort proteins by translocating CLR to the cell membrane. Recently, CT/CGRP family peptides have been identified or inferred in several invertebrates. However, the molecular characteristics and relevant functions of the CTR/CLR and RAMPs in invertebrates remain unclear. In this study, we identified three CT/CGRP family peptides (Bf-CTFPs), one CTR/CLR-like receptor (Bf-CTFP-R), and three RAMP-like proteins (Bf-RAMP-LPs) in the basal chordate amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). The Bf-CTFPs were shown to possess an N-terminal circular region typical of the CT/CGRP family and a C-terminal Pro-NH2. The Bf-CTFP genes were expressed in the central nervous system and in endocrine cells of the midgut, indicating that Bf-CTFPs serve as brain and/or gut peptides. Cell surface expression of the Bf-CTFP-R was enhanced by co-expression with each Bf-RAMP-LP. Furthermore, Bf-CTFPs activated Bf-CTFP-R·Bf-RAMP-LP complexes, resulting in cAMP accumulation. These results confirmed that Bf-RAMP-LPs, like vertebrate RAMPs, are prerequisites for the function and translocation of the Bf-CTFP-R. The relative potencies of the three peptides at each receptor were similar. Bf-CTFP2 was a potent ligand at all receptors in cAMP assays. Bf-RAMP-LP effects on ligand potency order were distinct to vertebrate CGRP/adrenomedullin/amylin receptors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular and functional characterization of an authentic invertebrate CT/CGRP family receptor and RAMPs. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels in the regulation of basal and agonist-elevated tones in isolated conduit arteries. Short communication.

    PubMed

    Pataricza, J; Márton, Z; Hegedus, Z; Krassói, Irén; Kun, A; Varró, A; Papp, J Gy

    2004-01-01

    Functional role of calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels on the basal and agonist-elevated arterial tones was investigated in isolated rabbit aorta, porcine and canine coronary arteries as well as in human internal mammary artery. The vascular tones enhanced by contractile agents were increased further by preincubation of these conduit blood vessels with selective (charybdotoxin or iberiotoxin) or nonselective (tetraethylammonium) inhibitors of KCa channels. The basal tone (without an agonist) was increased only in the canine coronary artery. The results indicate a feed-back regulatory role of KCa channels counteracting the vasospasm of conduit arteries.

  6. Creb coactivators direct anabolic responses and enhance performance of skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Nelson E; Kelly, Kimberly A; Hawkins, Richard; Bramah-Lawani, Mariam; Amelio, Antonio L; Nwachukwu, Jerome C; Nettles, Kendall W; Conkright, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    During the stress response to intense exercise, the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) induces rapid catabolism of energy reserves through the release of catecholamines and subsequent activation of protein kinase A (PKA). Paradoxically, chronic administration of sympathomimetic drugs (β-agonists) leads to anabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle, suggesting that sympathetic outflow also regulates myofiber remodeling. Here, we show that β-agonists or catecholamines released during intense exercise induce Creb-mediated transcriptional programs through activation of its obligate coactivators Crtc2 and Crtc3. In contrast to the catabolic activity normally associated with SNS function, activation of the Crtc/Creb transcriptional complex by conditional overexpression of Crtc2 in the skeletal muscle of transgenic mice fostered an anabolic state of energy and protein balance. Crtc2-overexpressing mice have increased myofiber cross-sectional area, greater intramuscular triglycerides and glycogen content. Moreover, maximal exercise capacity was enhanced after induction of Crtc2 expression in transgenic mice. Collectively these findings demonstrate that the SNS-adrenergic signaling cascade coordinates a transient catabolic stress response during high-intensity exercise, which is followed by transcriptional reprogramming that directs anabolic changes for recovery and that augments subsequent exercise performance. PMID:24674967

  7. Antiproliferative effect of panaxynol on RASMCs via inhibition of ERK1/2 and CREB.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Ping; Lu, Yang; Nie, Bao-Ming; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2008-02-15

    Panaxynol (PNN) occurs in many foods such as carrot, celery, and several reports have shown that it has neuritogenic and neuroprotective properties. In this study, we have investigated the antiproliferative effect and the mechanism of PNN on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (RASMCs). PNN significantly inhibited PDGF-BB-induced proliferation and DNA synthesis of RASMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis showed that PNN blocked the cell cycle progression at the G(1)/S phase. Preincubation of RASMCs with 9 microM PNN resulted in a significant inhibition of PDGF-BB-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation expression and PDGF-BB-induced CREB phosphorylation expression. The results indicated that the inhibitory effect of PNN on the PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of RASMCs might be mediated by blocking phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and that of CREB.

  8. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic condition. The gene linked to the syndrome is known as PTCH (" ...

  9. Transcription factors NF-IL6 and CREB recognize a common essential site in the human prointerleukin 1 beta gene.

    PubMed Central

    Tsukada, J; Saito, K; Waterman, W R; Webb, A C; Auron, P E

    1994-01-01

    A site located between -2782 and -2729 of the human prointerleukin-1 beta (IL1B) gene functions as a strong lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-responsive enhancer independent of the previously identified enhancer located between -2896 and -2846 (F. Shirakawa, K. Saito, C.A. Bonagura, D.L. Galson, M. J. Fenton, A. C. Webb, and P. E. Auron, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:1332-1344, 1993). Although these two enhancers appear to function cooperatively in the native sequence context, they function independently as LPS-responsive elements upon removal of an interposed silencer sequence. The new enhancer is not induced by dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) alone but is superinduced by costimulation with LPS-dbcAMP. This pattern of induction depends upon the nature of the sequence, a composite NF-IL6-cAMP response element (CRE) binding site. This pseudosymmetrical sequence is shown to contrast with a classical symmetric CRE which responds to dbcAMP but not LPS. DNA binding studies using in vivo nuclear extract, recombinant proteins, and specific antibodies show that LPS induces the formation of two different complexes at the enhancer: (i) an NF-IL6-CREB heterodimer and (ii) a heterodimer consisting of NF-IL6 and a non-CREB, CRE-binding protein. Cotransfection studies using NF-IL6 and CREB expression vectors show that NF-IL6 transactivates the enhancer in the presence of LPS, whereas CREB acts either positively or negatively, depending upon its cAMP-regulated phosphorylation state. Our data demonstrate that the newly identified enhancer is a specialized LPS-responsive sequence which can be modulated by cAMP as a result of the involvement of NF-IL6-CRE-binding protein heterodimers. Images PMID:7935442

  10. NALP1 is a transcriptional target for cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) in myeloid leukaemia cells

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    NALP1 (also called DEFCAP, NAC, CARD7) has been shown to play a central role in the activation of inflammatory caspases and processing of pro-IL1β (pro-interleukin-1β). Previous studies showed that NALP1 is highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In the present study, we report that expression of NALP1 is absent from CD34+ haematopoietic blast cells, and its levels are upregulated upon differentiation of CD34+ cells into granulocytes and to a lesser extent into monocytes. In peripheral blood cells, the highest levels of NALP1 were observed in CD3+ (T-lymphocytes), CD15+ (granulocytes) and CD14+ (monocytes) cell populations. Notably, the expression of NALP1 was significantly increased in the bone marrow blast cell population of some patients with acute leukaemia, but not among tissue samples from thyroid and renal cancer. A search for consensus sites within the NALP1 promoter revealed a sequence for CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein) that was required for transcriptional activity. Moreover, treatment of TF1 myeloid leukaemia cells with protein kinase C and protein kinase A activators induced CREB phosphorylation and upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of NALP1. Conversely, ectopic expression of a dominant negative form of CREB in TF1 cells blocked the transcriptional activity of the NALP1 promoter and significantly reduced the expression of NALP1. Thus NALP1 is transcriptionally regulated by CREB in myeloid cells, a mechanism that may contribute to modulate the response of these cells to pro-inflammatory stimuli. PMID:15285719

  11. Early-onset sleep defects in Drosophila models of Huntington's disease reflect alterations of PKA/CREB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Erin D.; Tanenhaus, Anne K.; Zhang, Jiabin; Chaffee, Ryan P.; Yin, Jerry C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurological disorder whose non-motor symptoms include sleep disturbances. Whether sleep and activity abnormalities are primary molecular disruptions of mutant Huntingtin (mutHtt) expression or result from neurodegeneration is unclear. Here, we report Drosophila models of HD exhibit sleep and activity disruptions very early in adulthood, as soon as sleep patterns have developed. Pan-neuronal expression of full-length or N-terminally truncated mutHtt recapitulates sleep phenotypes of HD patients: impaired sleep initiation, fragmented and diminished sleep, and nighttime hyperactivity. Sleep deprivation of HD model flies results in exacerbated sleep deficits, indicating that homeostatic regulation of sleep is impaired. Elevated PKA/CREB activity in healthy flies produces patterns of sleep and activity similar to those in our HD models. We were curious whether aberrations in PKA/CREB signaling were responsible for our early-onset sleep/activity phenotypes. Decreasing signaling through the cAMP/PKA pathway suppresses mutHtt-induced developmental lethality. Genetically reducing PKA abolishes sleep/activity deficits in HD model flies, restores the homeostatic response and extends median lifespan. In vivo reporters, however, show dCREB2 activity is unchanged, or decreased when sleep/activity patterns are abnormal, suggesting dissociation of PKA and dCREB2 occurs early in pathogenesis. Collectively, our data suggest that sleep defects may reflect a primary pathological process in HD, and that measurements of sleep and cAMP/PKA could be prodromal indicators of disease, and serve as therapeutic targets for intervention. PMID:26604145

  12. Imaging basal ganglia function

    PubMed Central

    BROOKS, DAVID J.

    2000-01-01

    In this review, the value of functional imaging for providing insight into the role of the basal ganglia in motor control is reviewed. Brain activation findings in normal subjects and Parkinson's disease patients are examined and evidence supporting the existence for functionally independent distributed basal ganglia-frontal loops is presented. It is argued that the basal ganglia probably act to focus and filter cortical output, optimising the running of motor programs. PMID:10923986

  13. Hedgehog signaling regulates prosensory cell properties during the basal-to-apical wave of hair cell differentiation in the mammalian cochlea.

    PubMed

    Tateya, Tomoko; Imayoshi, Itaru; Tateya, Ichiro; Hamaguchi, Kiyomi; Torii, Hiroko; Ito, Juichi; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

    2013-09-01

    Mechanosensory hair cells and supporting cells develop from common precursors located in the prosensory domain of the developing cochlear epithelium. Prosensory cell differentiation into hair cells or supporting cells proceeds from the basal to the apical region of the cochleae, but the mechanism and significance of this basal-to-apical wave of differentiation remain to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling in cochlear development by examining the effects of up- and downregulation of Hh signaling in vivo. The Hh effector smoothened (Smo) was genetically activated or inactivated specifically in the developing cochlear epithelium after prosensory domain formation. Cochleae expressing a constitutively active allele of Smo showed only one row of inner hair cells with no outer hair cells (OHCs); abnormal undifferentiated prosensory-like cells were present in the lateral compartment instead of OHCs and their adjacent supporting cells. This suggests that Hh signaling inhibits prosensory cell differentiation into hair cells or supporting cells and maintains their properties as prosensory cells. Conversely, in cochlea with the Smo conditional knockout (Smo CKO), hair cell differentiation was preferentially accelerated in the apical region. Smo CKO mice survived after birth, and exhibited hair cell disarrangement in the apical region, a decrease in hair cell number, and hearing impairment. These results indicate that Hh signaling delays hair cell and supporting cell differentiation in the apical region, which forms the basal-to-apical wave of development, and is required for the proper differentiation, arrangement and survival of hair cells and for hearing ability.

  14. Creb1-Mecp2-mCpG Complex Transactivates Postnatal Murine Neuronal Glucose Transporter Isoform 3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongjun; Shin, Bo-Chul; Thamotharan, Shanthie

    2013-01-01

    The murine neuronal facilitative glucose transporter isoform 3 (Glut3) is developmentally regulated, peaking in expression at postnatal day (PN)14. In the present study, we characterized a canonical CpG island spanning the 5′-flanking region of the glut3 gene. Methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing identified methylation of this CpG (mCpG) island of the glut3 gene, frequency of methylation increasing 2.5-fold with a 1.6-fold increase in DNA methyl transferase 3a concentrations noted with advancing postnatal age (PN14 vs PN3). 5′-flanking region of glut3-luciferase reporter transient transfection in HT22 hippocampal neurons demonstrated that mCpGs inhibit glut3 transcription. Contrary to this biological function, glut3 expression rises synchronously with mCpGs in PN14 vs PN3 neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (IP) revealed that methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2) bound the glut3-mCpGs. Depending on association with specific coregulators, Mecp2, a dual regulator of gene transcription, may repress or activate a downstream gene. Sequential chromatin IP uncovered the glut3-mCpGs to bind Mecp2 exponentially upon recruitment of Creb1 rather than histone deacetylase 1. Co-IP and coimmunolocalization confirmed that Creb1 associated with Mecp2 and cotransfection with glut3-mCpG in HT22 cells enhanced glut3 transcription. Separate 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine pretreatment or in combination with trichostatin A reduced mCpG and specific small interference RNAs targeting Mecp2 and Creb1 separately or together depleting Mecp2 and/or Creb1 binding of glut3-mCpGs reduced glut3 expression in HT22 cells. We conclude that Glut3 is a methylation-sensitive neuronal gene that recruits Mecp2. Recruitment of Creb1-Mecp2 by glut3-mCpG contributes towards transactivation, formulating an escape from mCpG-induced gene suppression, and thereby promoting developmental neuronal glut3 gene transcription and expression. PMID:23493374

  15. Basal cell cancer (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... biopsy is needed to prove the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. Treatment varies depending on the size, depth, and location of the cancer. Early treatment by a dermatologist may result in a cure ... is required to watch for new sites of basal cell cancer.

  16. Haplotype-specific modulation of a SOX10/CREB response element at the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C locus SH3TC2.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Megan Hwa; Ma, Ki Hwan; Beecham, Gary W; Gopinath, Chetna; Baas, Frank; Choi, Byung-Ok; Reilly, Mary M; Shy, Michael E; Züchner, Stephan; Svaren, John; Antonellis, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and tetratricopeptide repeats 2 (SH3TC2) gene cause autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. The SH3TC2 protein has been implicated in promyelination signaling through axonal neuregulin-1 and the ERBB2 Schwann cell receptor. However, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the SH3TC2 gene. We performed computational and functional analyses that revealed two cis-acting regulatory elements at SH3TC2-one at the promoter and one ∼150 kb downstream of the transcription start site. Both elements direct reporter gene expression in Schwann cells and are responsive to the transcription factor SOX10, which is essential for peripheral nervous system myelination. The downstream enhancer harbors a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that causes an ∼80% reduction in enhancer activity. The SNP resides directly within a predicted binding site for the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and we demonstrate that this regulatory element binds to CREB and is activated by CREB expression. Finally, forskolin induces Sh3tc2 expression in rat primary Schwann cells, indicating that SH3TC2 is a CREB target gene. These findings prompted us to determine if SNP genotypes at SH3TC2 are associated with differential phenotypes in the most common demyelinating peripheral neuropathy, CMT1A. Interestingly, this revealed several associations between SNP alleles and disease severity. In summary, our data indicate that SH3TC2 is regulated by the transcription factors CREB and SOX10, define a regulatory SNP at this disease-associated locus and reveal SH3TC2 as a candidate modifier locus of CMT disease phenotypes.

  17. Methylmercury, an environmental electrophile capable of activation and disruption of the Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signal transduction pathway in SH-SY5Y cells

    PubMed Central

    Unoki, Takamitsu; Abiko, Yumi; Toyama, Takashi; Uehara, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Nishida, Motohiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) modifies cellular proteins via their thiol groups in a process referred to as “S-mercuration”, potentially resulting in modulation of the cellular signal transduction pathway. We examined whether low-dose MeHg could affect Akt signaling involved in cell survival. Exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells of up to 2 μM MeHg phosphorylated Akt and its downstream signal molecule CREB, presumably due to inactivation of PTEN through S-mercuration. As a result, the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was up-regulated by MeHg. The activation of Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling mediated by MeHg was, at least in part, linked to cellular defence because either pretreatment with wortmannin to block PI3K/Akt signaling or knockdown of Bcl-2 enhanced MeHg-mediated cytotoxicity. In contrast, increasing concentrations of MeHg disrupted Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling. This phenomenon was attributed to S-mercuration of CREB through Cys286 rather than Akt. These results suggest that although MeHg is an apoptosis-inducing toxicant, this environmental electrophile is able to activate the cell survival signal transduction pathway at lower concentrations prior to apoptotic cell death. PMID:27357941

  18. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 tax mutants that selectively abrogate NFkappaB or CREB/ATF activation fail to transform primary human T cells.

    PubMed

    Ross, T M; Narayan, M; Fang, Z Y; Minella, A C; Green, P L

    2000-03-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) Tax protein has been implicated in the HTLV oncogenic process, primarily due to its pleiotropic effects on cellular genes involved in growth regulation and cell cycle control. To date, several approaches attempting to correlate Tax activation of the CREB/activating transcription factor (ATF) or NFkappaB/Rel transcriptional activation pathway to cellular transformation have yielded conflicting results. In this study, we use a unique HTLV-2 provirus (HTLV(c-enh)) that replicates by a Tax-independent mechanism to directly assess the role of Tax transactivation in HTLV-mediated T-lymphocyte transformation. A panel of well-characterized tax-2 mutations is utilized to correlate the respective roles of the CREB/ATF or NFkappaB/Rel signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate that viruses expressing tax-2 mutations that selectively abrogate NFkappaB/Rel or CREB/ATF activation display distinct phenotypes but ultimately fail to transform primary human T lymphocytes. One conclusion consistent with our results is that the activation of NFkappaB/Rel provides a critical proliferative signal early in the cellular transformation process, whereas CREB/ATF activation is required to promote the fully transformed state. However, complete understanding will require correlation of Tax domains important in cellular transformation to those Tax domains important in the modulation of gene transcription, cell cycle control, induction of DNA damage, and other undefined activities.

  19. Intrathecal baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, inhibits the expression of p-CREB and NR2B in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Guo, Wen-Ya; Zhao, Xiao-Nan; Bai, Hui-Ping; Wang, Qian; Wang, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of baclofen, a γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABAB) receptor agonist, on the expression of p-CREB and NR2B in the spinal dorsal horn of rats with diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP). The DNP rats, which were successfully induced with streptozocin, were distributed among 3 groups that were treated with saline (D1 group), baclofen (D2 group), or CGP55845 + baclofen (D3 group) continuously for 4 days. The rats induced with saline and subsequently treated with saline were used as controls (C group). The times for the paw withdrawal threshold and thermal withdrawal latency of the D1 group were lower than those for the C group, and were significantly increased after baclofen treatment, but not when GABA receptor was pre-blocked with CGP55845 (D3 group). Increased protein expression levels of NR2B and p-CREB and mRNA levels of NR2B were found in the D1 group when compared with the controls. Baclofen treatment significantly suppressed their expression, bringing it close to the levels of controls. However, in the D3 group, the expression of p-CREB and NR2B were still significantly higher than that of the controls. Activation of GABAB receptor by baclofen attenuates diabetic neuropathic pain, which may partly be accomplished via down-regulating the expression of p-CREB and NR2B.

  20. Involvement of the cAMP Response Element Binding Protein, CREB, and Cyclin D1 in LPA-Induced Proliferation of P19 Embryonic Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Jung; Sun, Yuanjie; Yang, Haijie; Kim, Nam-Ho; Jeon, Sung Ho; Huh, Sung-Oh

    2012-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid growth factor that induces proliferation of fibroblasts by activating the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Here, we further investigated whether LPA induces proliferation of P19 cells, a line of pluripotent embryonic carcinoma cells. 5′-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation and cell viability as-says showed that LPA stimulated proliferation of P19 cells. Immunoblot experiments with P19 cells revealed that the mitogen activated protein kinases, including p-ERK, p38, pAKT, glycogen synthase kinase 3β, and CREB were phosphorylated by treatment with 10 μM LPA. LPA-induced phosphorylation of CREB was efficiently blocked by U0126 and H89, inhibitors of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 and mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1, respectively. Involvement of cyclin D1 in LPA-induced P19 cell proliferation was verified by immunoblot analysis in combination with pharmacological inhibitor treatment. Furthermore, LPA up-regulated CRE-harboring cyclin D1 promoter activity, suggesting that CREB and cyclin D1 play significant roles in LPA-induced proliferation of P19 embryonic carcinoma cells. PMID:22847216

  1. Alterations in the hippocampal phosphorylated CREB expression in drug state-dependent learning.

    PubMed

    Alijanpour, Sakineh; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sepehri, Houri; Delphi, Ladan

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the possible alterations of hippocampal CREB phosphorylation in drug state-dependent memory retrieval. One-trial step-down passive avoidance task was used to assess memory retrieval in adult male NMRI mice. Pre-training administration of ethanol (1g/kg, i.p.) induced amnesia. Pre-test administration of ethanol (1g/kg, i.p) or nicotine (0.7 mg/kg, s.c.) reversed ethanol-induced amnesia, indicating ethanol- or ethanol-nicotine induced state-dependent learning (STD). Using Western blot analysis, it was found that the p-CREB/CREB ratio in the hippocampus increased in the mice that showed successful memory retrieval as compared with untrained mice. In contrast, pre-training administration of ethanol (1g/kg, i.p.) decreased the hippocampal p-CREB/CREB ratio in comparison with the control group. The hippocampal p-CREB/CREB ratio enhanced in ethanol- and ethanol-nicotine induced STD. Moreover, memory impairment induced by pre-training administration of WIN (1 mg/kg, i.p.) improved in the animals that received pre-test administration of WIN (1 mg/kg, i.p.), ethanol (0.5 g/kg, i.p.) or nicotine (0.7 mg/kg, s.c.), suggesting a cross STD between the drugs. The p-CREB/CREB ratio in the hippocampus decreased in the of WIN-induced amnesia and STD groups in comparison with the control group. In addition, cross state-dependent learning between WIN and ethanol or nicotine was associated with the increase of the hippocampal p-CREB/CREB ratio. It can be concluded that phosphorylation of CREB in the hippocampus is a critical event underlying the interaction of co-administration of drugs on memory retrieval in passive avoidance learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Involvement of Specific PKC Isoenzymes in Phorbol Ester-Mediated Regulation of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Expression and Steroid Synthesis in Mouse Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manna, Pulak R.; Soh, Jae-Won; Stocco, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a multigene family of serine/threonine kinases. PKC is involved in regulating adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis; however, the functional relevance of the different PKC isoenzymes remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrate that MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells express several PKC isoforms to varying levels and that the activation of PKC signaling, by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) elevated the expression and phosphorylation of PKCα, -δ, -ε, and -μ/protein kinase D (PKD). These responses coincided with the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein and progesterone synthesis. Targeted silencing of PKCα, δ, and ε and PKD, using small interfering RNAs, resulted in deceases in basal and PMA-mediated StAR and steroid levels and demonstrated the importance of PKD in steroidogenesis. PKD was capable of controlling PMA and cAMP/PKA-mediated synergism involved in the steroidogenic response. Further studies pointed out that the regulatory events effected by PKD are associated with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and c-Jun/c-Fos-mediated transcription of the StAR gene. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that the activation of phosphorylated CREB, c-Jun, and c-Fos by PMA was correlated with in vivo protein-DNA interactions and the recruitment of CREB-binding protein, whereas knockdown of PKD suppressed the association of these factors with the StAR promoter. Ectopic expression of CREB-binding protein enhanced the trans-activation potential of CREB and c-Jun/c-Fos in StAR gene expression. Using EMSA, a −83/−67-bp region of the StAR promoter was shown to bind PKD-transfected MA-10 nuclear extract in a PMA-responsive manner, targeting CREB and c-Jun/c-Fos proteins. These findings provide evidence for the presence of multiple PKC isoforms and demonstrate the molecular events by which selective isozymes, especially PKD, influence PMA/PKC signaling involved in the regulation of the

  3. Transcriptional regulation of the bovine leukemia virus promoter by the cyclic AMP-response element modulator tau isoform.

    PubMed

    Nguyên, Thi Lien-Anh; de Walque, Stéphane; Veithen, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Ann; Martinelli, Valérie; de Launoit, Yvan; Burny, Arsène; Harrod, Robert; Van Lint, Carine

    2007-07-20

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) expression is controlled at the transcriptional level through three Tax(BLV)-responsive elements (TxREs) responsive to the viral transactivator Tax(BLV). The cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) has been shown to interact with CRE-like sequences present in the middle of each of these TxREs and to play critical transcriptional roles in both basal and Tax(BLV)-transactivated BLV promoter activity. In this study, we have investigated the potential involvement of the cAMP-response element modulator (CREM) in BLV transcriptional regulation, and we have demonstrated that CREM proteins were expressed in BLV-infected cells and bound to the three BLV TxREs in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using BLV-infected cell lines demonstrated in the context of chromatin that CREM proteins were recruited to the BLV promoter TxRE region in vivo. Functional studies, in the absence of Tax(BLV), indicated that ectopic CREMtau protein had a CRE-dependent stimulatory effect on BLV promoter transcriptional activity. Cross-link of the B-cell receptor potentiated CREMtau transactivation of the viral promoter. Further experiments supported the notion that this potentiation involved CREMtau Ser-117 phosphorylation and recruitment of CBP/p300 to the BLV promoter. Although CREB and Tax(BLV) synergistically transactivated the BLV promoter, CREMtau repressed this Tax(BLV)/CREB synergism, suggesting that a modulation of the level of Tax(BLV) transactivation through opposite actions of CREB and CREMtau could facilitate immune escape and allow tumor development.

  4. Up-regulation of the isoenzymes MAO-A and MAO-B in the human basal ganglia and pons in Huntington's disease revealed by quantitative enzyme radioautography.

    PubMed

    Richards, Grayson; Messer, Juerg; Waldvogel, Henry J; Gibbons, Hannah M; Dragunow, Mike; Faull, Richard L M; Saura, Josep

    2011-01-25

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a rare genetic disease associated with the degeneration of GABAergic striatal projection neurons in the basal ganglia leading to movement disorders with behavioral symptoms for which there is presently no therapy. Abnormally high levels of monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, which are potentially linked to cytotoxic free radical formation, are known to occur during aging and in neurodegenerative disorders (MAO-B is markedly increased in plaque-associated astrocytes in Alzheimer's disease). We therefore measured, with anatomical resolution, MAO-A and -B activities in 5 cases of HD (severity grades 1-3) and age-matched controls by quantitative enzyme radioautography using radiolabeled enzyme inhibitors (3)H-Ro 41-1049 and (3)H-lazabemide, respectively, as high-affinity ligands in vitro. MAO-A was increased significantly (ca. 50%; p<0.01) in the putamen and substantia nigra pars compacta of the basal ganglia and in the pons. Higher increases in MAO-B (75%-200%; p<0.01) occurred in the putamen, ventral striatum, globus pallidus externus and internus of the basal ganglia and in the insular cortex. The increased enzyme levels (especially of MAO-B) seemed to correlate with the grade of disease severity. We conclude that MAO increases in those regions of HD brains which are known to undergo neurodegeneration accompanied by glioses. Whether or not this increased enzyme activity is a cause or effect of the resulting loss of the GABAergic projection neurons in HD is yet to be clarified. Moreover, it remains to be seen if selective enzyme inhibitors have therapeutic utility in the treatment of HD by reducing oxidative stress locally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Induction of bcl-2 expression by phosphorylated CREB proteins during B-cell activation and rescue from apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, B E; Mochon, E; Boxer, L M

    1996-01-01

    Engagement of surface immunoglobulin on mature B cells leads to rescue from apoptosis and to proliferation. Levels of bcl-2 mRNA and protein increase with cross-linking of surface immunoglobulin. We have located the major positive regulatory region for control of bcl-2 expression in B cells in the 5'-flanking region. The positive region can be divided into an upstream and a downstream regulatory region. The downstream regulatory region contains a cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE). We show by antibody supershift experiments and UV cross-linking followed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis that both CREB and ATF family members bind to this region in vitro. Mutations of the CRE site that result in loss of CREB binding also lead to loss of functional activity of the bcl-2 promoter in transient-transfection assays. The presence of an active CRE site in the bcl-2 promoter implies that the regulation of bcl-2 expression is linked to a signal transduction pathway in B cells. Treatment of the mature B-cell line BAL-17 with either anti-immunoglobulin M or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate leads to an increase in bcl-2 expression that is mediated by the CRE site. Treatment of the more immature B-cell line, Ramos, with phorbol esters rescues the cells from calcium-dependent apoptosis. bcl-2 expression is increased following phorbol ester treatment, and the increased expression is dependent on the CRE site. These stimuli result in phosphorylation of CREB at serine 133. The phosphorylation of CREB that results in activation is mediated by protein kinase C rather than by protein kinase A. Although the CRE site is necessary, optimal induction of bcl-2 expression requires participation of the upstream regulatory element, suggesting that phosphorylation of CREB alters its interaction with the upstream regulatory element. The CRE site in the bcl-2 promoter appears to play a major role in the induction of bcl-2 expression during the activation of mature B cells and during

  6. Differential effects of chronic amphetamine and baclofen administration on cAMP levels and phosphorylation of CREB in distinct brain regions of wild type and monoamine oxidase B-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hsiang-Shu; Chen, Kevin; Kalpana, Sriram; Shih, Jean C

    2006-12-15

    Roles of GABA(B) transmission were explored in the action of amphetamine (Amph) on the brain. Adult male wild type (WT) and monoamine oxidase B-knocked out (MAOBKO) mice received i.p. injections of saline, d-Amph (5 mg/kg), plus baclofen (GABA(B) receptor agonist, 10 mg/kg), or baclofen and Amph, twice daily for 3 days and single treatments on day 4, followed by immuno-cyclic-AMP (cAMP) and immunoblotting assays on the brain tissue. The WT mice responded with higher levels of behavioral responses than the KO to the daily Amph injection; however, baclofen blocked the Amph-induced behavioral hyperactivity of both WT and KO mice. After the last treatment, levels of cAMP and phosphorylated (p) cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CREB) were up-regulated in the striatum and somatosensory cortex of Amph-treated WT mice, while similar to the saline-controls in the baclofen+Amph-treated group, indicating the blockade by baclofen to Amph. Baclofen similarly suppressed the Amph-induced increases in pCREB levels of WT hippocampus and amygdala, and decreases of olfactory bulb and thalamus. For MAOBKO mice, baclofen hindered the Amph-generated increases in motor cortical cAMP and pCREB, and amygdaloid pCREB, and the decrease in olfactory bulb pCREB, whereas did not affect the Amph-raised hippocampal pCREB. Furthermore, the levels of CREB were variably modified in distinct regions by the drug exposures. The data reveal that the GABA(B)-mediated intracellular signaling differentially participates in mechanisms underlying Amph perturbation to various regions, and may thereby contribute explanations to the behavioral consequences. Moreover, MAOB is region-dependently involved in responses of the brain to Amph and baclofen, supporting interactions between GABA and monoamines.

  7. Redox Regulation by Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2: Gatekeeping for the Basal and Diabetes-Induced Expression of Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoqing; Ma, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor activated by a range of oxidants and electrophiles. The transcriptional response to endogenous oxidative cues by Nrf2 plays an important role in mammalian redox physiology and oxidative pathology. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in the heart where it leads to apoptosis and ultimately cardiomyopathy. Here we investigated the mechanism by which Nrf2 suppresses oxidative stress in diabetic mouse heart. Knockout (KO) of Nrf2 induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in KO heart; diabetes further increased oxidative damage. A pathway-focused gene array revealed that Nrf2 controls the expression of 24 genes in the heart, including the gene encoding thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Nrf2 suppressed the basal expression of Txnip in the heart and blocked induction of Txnip by high glucose by binding to an antioxidant response element (ARE) (−1286 to −1276) of the Txnip promoter. Binding of Nrf2 to ARE also suppressed the binding of MondoA to the carbohydrate response element with or without high glucose. TXNIP promoted reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis by inhibiting thioredoxin. On the other hand, Nrf2 boosted thioredoxin activity by inhibiting Txnip. The findings revealed, for the first time, that Nrf2 is a key gatekeeper of Txnip transcription, suppressing both its basal expression and MondoA-driven induction to control the thioredoxin redox signaling in diabetes. PMID:22869588

  8. Activating PIK3CA Mutations Induce an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Paracrine Signaling Axis in Basal-like Breast Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Young, Christian D.; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Hoshino, Daisuke; Formisano, Luigi; Hanker, Ariella B.; Gatza, Michael L.; Morrison, Meghan M.; Moore, Preston D.; Whitwell, Corbin A.; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Stricker, Thomas; Bhola, Neil E.; Silva, Grace O.; Patel, Premal; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M.; Levin, Maren; Horiates, Marina; Palma, Norma A.; Wang, Kai; Stephens, Philip J.; Perou, Charles M.; Weaver, Alissa M.; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A.; Chang, Jenny C.; Park, Ben Ho; Liebler, Daniel C.; Cook, Rebecca S.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to transform human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). These mutations are present in all breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified 72 protein expression changes in human basal-like MECs with knock-in E545K or H1047R PIK3CA mutations versus isogenic MECs with wild-type PIK3CA. Several of these were secreted proteins, cell surface receptors or ECM interacting molecules and were required for growth of PIK3CA mutant cells as well as adjacent cells with wild-type PIK3CA. The proteins identified by MS were enriched among human BLBC cell lines and pointed to a PI3K-dependent amphiregulin/EGFR/ERK signaling axis that is activated in BLBC. Proteins induced by PIK3CA mutations correlated with EGFR signaling and reduced relapse-free survival in BLBC. Treatment with EGFR inhibitors reduced growth of PIK3CA mutant BLBC cell lines and murine mammary tumors driven by a PIK3CA mutant transgene, all together suggesting that PIK3CA mutations promote tumor growth in part by inducing protein changes that activate EGFR. PMID:25953087

  9. Activating PIK3CA Mutations Induce an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (ERK) Paracrine Signaling Axis in Basal-like Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, Christian D; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Hoshino, Daisuke; Formisano, Luigi; Hanker, Ariella B; Gatza, Michael L; Morrison, Meghan M; Moore, Preston D; Whitwell, Corbin A; Dave, Bhuvanesh; Stricker, Thomas; Bhola, Neil E; Silva, Grace O; Patel, Premal; Brantley-Sieders, Dana M; Levin, Maren; Horiates, Marina; Palma, Norma A; Wang, Kai; Stephens, Philip J; Perou, Charles M; Weaver, Alissa M; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A; Chang, Jenny C; Park, Ben Ho; Liebler, Daniel C; Cook, Rebecca S; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the p110α catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) have been shown to transform human mammary epithelial cells (MECs). These mutations are present in all breast cancer subtypes, including basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified 72 protein expression changes in human basal-like MECs with knock-in E545K or H1047R PIK3CA mutations versus isogenic MECs with wild-type PIK3CA. Several of these were secreted proteins, cell surface receptors or ECM interacting molecules and were required for growth of PIK3CA mutant cells as well as adjacent cells with wild-type PIK3CA. The proteins identified by MS were enriched among human BLBC cell lines and pointed to a PI3K-dependent amphiregulin/EGFR/ERK signaling axis that is activated in BLBC. Proteins induced by PIK3CA mutations correlated with EGFR signaling and reduced relapse-free survival in BLBC. Treatment with EGFR inhibitors reduced growth of PIK3CA mutant BLBC cell lines and murine mammary tumors driven by a PIK3CA mutant transgene, all together suggesting that PIK3CA mutations promote tumor growth in part by inducing protein changes that activate EGFR. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. TRPA1 Channels Are Regulators of Astrocyte Basal Calcium Levels and Long-Term Potentiation via Constitutive d-Serine Release

    PubMed Central

    Shigetomi, Eiji; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Huckstepp, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes are found throughout the brain where they make extensive contacts with neurons and synapses. Astrocytes are known to display intracellular Ca2+ signals and release signaling molecules such as d-serine into the extracellular space. However, the role(s) of astrocyte Ca2+ signals in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity involved in learning and memory, remains unclear. Here, we explored a recently discovered novel TRPA1 channel-mediated transmembrane Ca2+ flux pathway in astrocytes. Specifically, we determined whether block or genetic deletion of TRPA1 channels affected LTP of Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal neuron synapses. Using pharmacology, TRPA1−/− mice, imaging, electrophysiology, and d-serine biosensors, our data indicate that astrocyte TRPA1 channels contribute to basal Ca2+ levels and are required for constitutive d-serine release into the extracellular space, which contributes to NMDA receptor-dependent LTP. The findings have broad relevance for the study of astrocyte–neuron interactions by demonstrating how TRPA1 channel-mediated fluxes contribute to astrocyte basal Ca2+ levels and neuronal function via constitutive d-serine release. PMID:23761909

  11. PEGylated Curcumin Derivative Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis via CREB/PPAR-γ/CD36 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Cheng, Fei; Luo, Yuxuan; Zhan, Zhu; Ren, Hong; Tang, Huadong

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin has the potential to cure dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, its therapeutic effects are curbed by poor bioavailability. Our previous work has shown that modification of curcumin with polyethylene glycol (PEG) improves blood concentration and tissue distribution. This study sought to investigate the role of a novel PEGylated curcumin derivative (Curc-mPEG454) in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in a high-fat-diet- (HFD-) fed C57BL/6J mouse model. Mice were fed either a control chow diet (D12450B), an HFD (D12492) as the NAFLD model, or an HFD with Curc-mPEG454 administered by intraperitoneal injection at 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg for 16 weeks. We found that Curc-mPEG454 significantly lowered the body weight and serum triglyceride (TG) levels and reduced liver lipid accumulation in HFD-induced NAFLD mice. It was also shown that Curc-mPEG454 suppressed the HFD-induced upregulated expression of CD36 and hepatic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), a positive regulator of CD36. Moreover, Curc-mPEG454 dramatically activated cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, which negatively controls hepatic PPAR-γ expression. These findings suggest that Curc-mPEG454 reverses HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via the activation of CREB inhibition of the hepatic PPAR-γ/CD36 pathway, which may be an effective therapeutic for high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD. PMID:28770225

  12. Methamphetamine induces Shati/Nat8L expression in the mouse nucleus accumbens via CREB- and dopamine D1 receptor-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Kyosuke; Miyazaki, Toh; Sodeyama, Kengo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Shati/Nat8L significantly increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice after repeated methamphetamine (METH) treatment. We reported that Shati/Nat8L overexpression in mouse NAc attenuated METH-induced hyperlocomotion, locomotor sensitization, and conditioned place preference. We recently found that Shati/Nat8L overexpression in NAc regulates the dopaminergic neuronal system via the activation of group II mGluRs by elevated N-acetylaspartylglutamate following N-acetylaspartate increase due to the overexpression. These findings suggest that Shati/Nat8L suppresses METH-induced responses. However, the mechanism by which METH increases the Shati/Nat8L mRNA expression in NAc is unclear. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of Shati/Nat8L mRNA expression, we performed a mouse Shati/Nat8L luciferase assay using PC12 cells. Next, we investigated the response of METH to Shati/Nat8L expression and CREB activity using mouse brain slices of NAc, METH administration to mice, and western blotting for CREB activity of specific dopamine receptor signals in vivo and ex vivo. We found that METH activates CREB binding to the Shati/Nat8L promoter to induce the Shati/Nat8L mRNA expression. Furthermore, the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390, but not the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride, inhibited the upregulation of Shati/Nat8L and CREB activities in the mouse NAc slices. Thus, the administration of the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 increased the Shati/Nat8L mRNA expression in mouse NAc. These results showed that the Shati/Nat8L mRNA was increased by METH-induced CREB pathway via dopamine D1 receptor signaling in mouse NAc. These findings may contribute to development of a clinical tool for METH addiction. PMID:28319198

  13. Kai-Xin-San, a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, exerts antidepressive and neuroprotective effects by promoting pCREB upstream pathways

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xian-Zhe; Wang, Dong-Xiao; Yu, Bing-Ying; Liu, Ping; Hu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Kai-Xin-San (KXS) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used for the treatment of emotion-related disease. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine whether phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and upstream components, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phospho-ERK (pERK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and pGSK3β are associated with the antidepressive effect of KXS. In total, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, including control (n=8, no treatment), induced with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) (n=8), and CMS rats treated with KXS at dosage of 370 mg/kg/day orally. Primary hippocampal neuronal cultures were prepared from Wistar rats for cell survival and proliferation assays. In KXS rats, increased protein expression levels of pCREB, BDNF and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) were observed in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, compared with the CMS model group. Furthermore, increased expression levels of ERK, pERK, PI3K, Akt, and GSK3β were also detected in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of KXS-treated rats compared with CMS model rats and in primary hippocampal neuronal cells treated with KXS. These results suggest that pCREB and upstream components, including TrkB/ERK/CREB and TrkB/PI3 K/CREB, may contribute to the antidepressive effect induced by KXS. Further studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:27882154

  14. Kai-Xin-San, a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, exerts antidepressive and neuroprotective effects by promoting pCREB upstream pathways.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xian-Zhe; Wang, Dong-Xiao; Yu, Bing-Ying; Liu, Ping; Hu, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    Kai-Xin-San (KXS) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used for the treatment of emotion-related disease. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine whether phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and upstream components, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phospho-ERK (pERK), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and pGSK3β are associated with the antidepressive effect of KXS. In total, 24 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, including control (n=8, no treatment), induced with chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) (n=8), and CMS rats treated with KXS at dosage of 370 mg/kg/day orally. Primary hippocampal neuronal cultures were prepared from Wistar rats for cell survival and proliferation assays. In KXS rats, increased protein expression levels of pCREB, BDNF and tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) were observed in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, compared with the CMS model group. Furthermore, increased expression levels of ERK, pERK, PI3K, Akt, and GSK3β were also detected in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of KXS-treated rats compared with CMS model rats and in primary hippocampal neuronal cells treated with KXS. These results suggest that pCREB and upstream components, including TrkB/ERK/CREB and TrkB/PI3 K/CREB, may contribute to the antidepressive effect induced by KXS. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.

  15. Mdivi-1 Protects Against Ischemic Brain Injury via Elevating Extracellular Adenosine in a cAMP/CREB-CD39-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Cui, Mei; Ding, Hongyan; Chen, Fangzhe; Zhao, Yanxin; Yang, Qi; Dong, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether the neuroprotective effects of Mdivi-1 are attributable to extracellular ATP and adenosine. Mdivi-1 was administered prior to or post middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The extracellular adenosine was measured by in vivo microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in MCAO mouse model. Western blot was done to determine the influence of Mdivi-1 on the expression of CD39 and CREB phosphorylation both in vivo and in the cultured astrocytes. Intracellular cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) activity were detected in primary astrocytes. Results showed that Mdivi-1 significantly reduced infarct volume and neurological scores when administered either prior to or post MCAO. Interestingly, pretreatment with Mdivi-1 resulted in marked increase of extracellular adenosine and concomitant decrease in ATP. The expression of CD39, but not CD73, was upregulated by Mdivi-1, which was associated with the elevated phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor potentially regulating CD39 expression. In primary astrocytes, Mdivi-1 treatment induced increases in intracellular cAMP, PKA activity and CREB phosphorylation, and PKA-specific inhibitor completely reversed Mdivi-1-induced CD39 expression. Our results demonstrate that Mdivi-1 protects against ischemic brain injury through increasing extracellular adenosine, a process involving elevated CD39 expression that is likely modulated by cAMP/PKA/CREB cascade. Figure Potential mechanisms by which Mdivi-1 mediates the neuroprotection on cerebral ischemic stroke. Results from the present study indicate that Mdivi-1 protects against ischemic brain injury through increasing extracellular adenosine, a process involving elevated CD39 expression that is likely modulated by the cAMP/PKA/CREB cascades.

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanoue, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly occurring cancer in the world and overall incidence is still on the rise. While typically a slow-growing tumor for which metastases is rare, basal cell carcinoma can be locally destructive and disfiguring. Given the vast prevalence of this disease, there is a significant overall burden on patient well-being and quality of life. The current mainstay of basal cell carcinoma treatment involves surgical modalities, such as electrodessication and curettage, excision, cryosurgery, and Mohs micrographic surgery. Such methods are typically reserved for localized basal cell carcinoma and offer high five-year cure rates, but come with the risk of functional impairment, disfigurement, and scarring. Here, the authors review the evidence and indications for nonsurgical treatment modalities in cases where surgery is impractical, contraindicated, or simply not desired by the patient. PMID:27386043

  17. Basal cell nevus syndrome.

    PubMed

    High, Alec; Zedan, Walid

    2005-03-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), is a hereditary condition transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait exhibiting high penetrance and variable expressivity. Inherited or spontaneous mutations in the human homologue of the Drosophila patched gene underlie the disorder and in addition to tumor predisposition, are associated with a range of 'patterning' defects. Recent advances, with glimpses of possible therapies are emerging, but because of the wide-ranging nature of phenotypic expression and overlap with other syndromes, there is difficulty. Finally, because of the importance of PTCH and paralogous genes in many species other than humans, reports appear in a correspondingly wide range of journals, which makes 'keeping abreast' difficult. Progress has been achieved in understanding the role of Gli-1, 2, & 3 in development of 'sporadic' BCCs and BCNS. Expression of PTCH1 is now known to be regulated by alternative promoters and a single functional Gli-binding site. Expression of FOXE1 as a new transcriptional target of Gli2 has been demonstrated in human epidermis and BCCs. Finally, the discovery of Shh pathway inhibitors such as cyclopamine, a naturally occurring alkaloid and ornithine decarboxylase inhibition suggest possible interventional therapies. In BCNS, phenotype does not correlate with position of mutations within Patched, suggesting genetic makeup and environment modulate effects of premature protein truncation induced by PTCH mutation. These developmental abnormalities occur as a result of haplo-insufficiency in heterozygotes for the mutated gene, whereas neoplastic complications arise from a classical two-hit tumor suppressor gene model. Attention is therefore turning toward TP53 and PTCH associations.

  18. Proliferation of hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by phosphorylation of CREB on serine 133.

    PubMed Central

    Houglum, K; Lee, K S; Chojkier, M

    1997-01-01

    Proliferating, activated, hepatic stellate cells have a high level of collagen type I expression. Therefore, stellate cell proliferation is a critical step in hepatic fibrosis. Here we show that proliferation of activated primary rat stellate cells was blocked by elevation of cAMP with 8 Br-cAMP or isomethylbutyl xanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, and by stimulation of Ca2+ fluxes with the Ca2+ ionophore A-23187. Because phosphorylation of CREB on Ser133 is an important mediator of cAMP-protein kinase (PKA) and Ca2+-calmodulin kinase II (CAMK-II) activation, we tested whether CREB-PSer133 was essential for stellate cell quiescence. Nuclear extracts from quiescent, but not from activated, stellate cells contained CREB-PSer133. Moreover, the phosphorylation of CREB on Ser133 was stimulated in activated cells by inducing the activity of PKA or CAMK-II. In addition, coexpression of CREB and either a constitutively active PKA or a constitutively active CAMK-II inhibited the proliferation of activated stellate cells. In contrast, expression of CREB alone, PKA or CAMK-II alone, CREB-Ala 133 (which lacks the Ser133 phosphoacceptor) with PKA or CAMK-II, or CREB with inactive PKA or CAMK-II mutants did not affect stellate cell proliferation, suggesting that CREB-PSer133 is necessary for blocking the stellate cell cycle. Conversely, expression of a trans-dominant negative CREB-Ala 133 mutant (which competes with CREB/CREB-PSer133 for cognate DNA binding sites and presumably for protein interactions) induced a greater than fivefold entry into S-phase of quiescent stellate cells, compared with control cells expressing either beta-galactosidase or wt CREB, indicating that CREB-PSer133 may be indispensable for the quiescent stellate cell phenotype. This study suggests that PKA and CAMK-II play an essential role on stellate cell activation through the induction of CREB phosphorylation on Ser133, and provides potential approaches for the treatment of hepatic fibrogenesis in

  19. Oral Administration of Sitagliptin Activates CREB and Is Neuroprotective in Murine Model of Brain Trauma

    PubMed Central

    DellaValle, Brian; Brix, Gitte S.; Brock, Birgitte; Gejl, Michael; Rungby, Jørgen; Larsen, Agnete

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We have previously shown that the injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, liraglutide, significantly improved the outcome in mice after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study we are interested in the effects of oral treatment of a different class of GLP-1 based therapy, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition on mice after TBI. DPP-IV inhibitors reduce the degradation of endogenous GLP-1 and extend circulation of this protective peptide in the bloodstream. This class has yet to be investigated as a potential therapy for TBI. Methods: Mice were administrated once-daily 50 mg/kg of sitagliptin in a Nutella® ball or Nutella® alone throughout the study, beginning 2 days before severe trauma was induced with a stereotactic cryo-lesion. At 2 days post trauma, lesion size was determined. Brains were isolated for immunoblotting for assessment of selected biomarkers for pathology and protection. Results: Sitagliptin treatment reduced lesion size at day 2 post-injury by ~28% (p < 0.05). Calpain-driven necrotic tone was reduced ~2-fold in sitagliptin-treated brains (p < 0.001) and activation of the protective cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) system was significantly more pronounced (~1.5-fold, p < 0.05). The CREB-regulated, mitochondrial antioxidant protein manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was increased in sitagliptin-treated mice (p < 0.05). Conversely, apoptotic tone (alpha-spectrin fragmentation, Bcl-2 levels) and the neuroinflammatory markers IL-6, and Iba-1 were not affected by treatment. Conclusions: This study shows, for the first time, that DPP-IV inhibition ameliorates both anatomical and biochemical consequences of TBI and activates CREB in the brain. Moreover, this work supports previous studies suggesting that the effect of GLP-1 analogs in models of brain damage relates to GLP-1 receptor stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID

  20. Oral Administration of Sitagliptin Activates CREB and Is Neuroprotective in Murine Model of Brain Trauma.

    PubMed

    DellaValle, Brian; Brix, Gitte S; Brock, Birgitte; Gejl, Michael; Rungby, Jørgen; Larsen, Agnete

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. We have previously shown that the injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, liraglutide, significantly improved the outcome in mice after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study we are interested in the effects of oral treatment of a different class of GLP-1 based therapy, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibition on mice after TBI. DPP-IV inhibitors reduce the degradation of endogenous GLP-1 and extend circulation of this protective peptide in the bloodstream. This class has yet to be investigated as a potential therapy for TBI. Methods: Mice were administrated once-daily 50 mg/kg of sitagliptin in a Nutella® ball or Nutella® alone throughout the study, beginning 2 days before severe trauma was induced with a stereotactic cryo-lesion.