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Sample records for crecimiento transformante beta-3

  1. [Beta 3 adrenergic receptor polymorphism and obesity].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Umekawa, T

    1998-07-01

    The beta 3-adrenoceptor plays a significant role in the control of lipolysis and thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue of rodents and humans. In human beta 3-adrenoceptor, a Trp to Arg replacement has recently been discovered. This change which occurs at position 64, in the first coding exon, has been correlated with increased weight gain, difficulty in losing weight, insulin resistance syndrome, and worsened diabetic situation. Higher percentages of this mutation are observed in Pima Indians (over 30%) and Japanese (20%). The possible functional mechanism of Trp54Arg is reported using human HEK293 cell line stably expressing the wild type and the [Arg64] beta 3-adrenoceptor type. Beta 3-adrenoceptor agonists available for humans are been also developing. In this paper we describe these points up-to-date.

  2. Identification and characterization of G beta 3s2, a novel splice variant of the G-protein beta 3 subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Rosskopf, Dieter; Manthey, Iris; Habich, Christiane; Kielbik, Marzena; Eisenhardt, Andreas; Nikula, Christiane; Urban, Melanie; Kohnen, Stefanie; Graf, Eva; Ravens, Ursula; Siffert, Winfried

    2003-01-01

    The T-allele of a polymorphism (C825T) in the gene for the G-protein beta 3 subunit (GNB3) is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, distinct cellular features and altered drug responses. The molecular mechanisms that give rise to this complex phenotype have been linked to the occurrence of G beta 3s, a splice variant of GNB3. G beta 3s is predominantly expressed in cells with the 825T-allele. In the present study we describe the identification and characterization of an additional G beta 3 splice variant referred to as G beta 3s2. Its mRNA is expressed in heart, blood cells and tumour tissue, and its expression is also tightly associated with the GNB3 825T-allele. G beta 3s2 is generated by alternative splicing using non-canonical splice sites. G beta subunits belong to the family of propeller proteins and consist of seven regular propeller blades. Transcripts for G beta 3s2 are lacking 129 bp of the coding sequence of the wild-type G beta 3 protein. Thus the predicted structure consists of only six propeller blades, which resembles the structure of G beta 3s. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses indicated that G beta 3s2 dimerizes with different G gamma subunits, e.g. G gamma 5, G gamma 8(C) and G gamma 12. In Sf9 insect cells, expression of G beta 3s2 together with G gamma 12 enhances receptor-stimulated activation of G alpha(i2). Expression of G beta 3s2 in mammalian cells activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Together, these results suggest that G beta 3s2 is a biologically active G beta variant which may play a role in the manifestation of the complex phenotype associated with the 825T-allele. PMID:12431187

  3. A new alternative transcript encodes a 60 kDa truncated form of integrin beta 3.

    PubMed Central

    Djaffar, I; Chen, Y P; Creminon, C; Maclouf, J; Cieutat, A M; Gayet, O; Rosa, J P

    1994-01-01

    A cDNA for integrin beta 3 isolated from a human erythroleukaemia (HEL) cell library contained a 340 bp insert at position 1281. This mRNA, termed beta 3c, results from the use of a cryptic AG donor splice site in intron 8 of the beta 3 gene, and is different from a previously described alternative beta 3 mRNA. The predicted open reading frame of beta 3C stops at a TAG stop codon 69 bp downstream from position 1281. It starts with the signal peptide and the 404 N-terminal extracellular residues of beta 3, encompassing the ligand binding sites, followed by 23 C-terminal intron-derived residues, corresponding to a truncated form of beta 3 lacking the cysteine-rich, transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Expression of beta 3C mRNA was demonstrated in human platelets, megakaryocytes, endothelial cells and HEL cells by reverse transcriptase/PCR. The beta 3C transcript was also demonstrated in the mouse, suggesting its conservation through evolution. Finally, a 60 kDa polypeptide corresponding to the beta 3C alternative transcript was demonstrated in platelets by Western blotting using a polyclonal antibody raised against a synthetic peptide designed from the beta 3C intronic sequence. Taken together, these results suggest a biological role for beta 3C, the first alternative transcript showing an altered extracellular domain of a beta integrin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8198553

  4. Beta 3-adrenoceptor in rat aorta: molecular and biochemical characterization and signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rautureau, Yohann; Toumaniantz, Gilles; Serpillon, Sabrina; Jourdon, Philippe; Trochu, Jean-Noël; Gauthier, Chantal

    2002-09-01

    1. We have previously demonstrated that beta(3)-adrenoceptor (beta(3)-AR) stimulation induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in rat aorta through the activation of an endothelial NO synthase associated with an increase in intracellular cGMP. The aim of the present study was to localise beta(3)-AR to confirm our functional study and to complete the signalling pathway of beta(3)-AR in rat aorta. 2. By RT-PCR, we have detected beta(3)-AR transcripts both in aorta and in freshly isolated endothelial cells. The absence of markers for adipsin or hormone-sensitive lipase in endothelial cells excluded the presence of beta(3)-AR from adipocytes. The localization of beta(3)-AR in aortic endothelial cells was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using a rat beta(3)-AR antibody. 3. To identify the G protein linked to beta(3)-AR, experiments were performed in rat pre-treated with PTX (10 microg kg(-1)), a G(i/0) protein inhibitor. The blockage of G(i/0) protein by PTX was confirmed by the reduction of vasorelaxation induced by UK 14304, a selective alpha(2)-AR agonist. The cumulative concentration-response curve for SR 58611A, a beta(3)-AR agonist, was not significantly modified on aorta rings from PTX pre-treated rats. 4. At the same level of contraction, the relaxations induced by 10 microM SR 58611A were significantly reduced in 30 mM-KCl pre-constricted rings (E(max)=16.7+/-8.4%, n=5), in comparison to phenylephrine (0.3 microM) pre-constricted rings (E(max)=49.11+/-11.0%, n=5, P<0.05). In addition, iberotoxin (0.1 microM), glibenclamide (1 microM) and 4-aminopyridine (1 mM), selective potassium channels blockers of K(Ca), K(ATP), and K(v) respectively, decreased the SR 58611A-mediated relaxation. 5. We conclude that beta(3)-AR is preferentially expressed in rat aortic endothelial cells. Beta(3)-AR-mediated aortic relaxation is independent of G(i/0) proteins stimulation, but results from the activation of several potassium channels, K(Ca), K(ATP), and K(v).

  5. Discovery of novel acetanilide derivatives as potent and selective beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Tatsuya; Onda, Kenichi; Hayakawa, Masahiko; Matsui, Tetsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2009-06-01

    In the search for potent and selective human beta3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists as potential drugs for the treatment of obesity and noninsulin-dependent (type II) diabetes, a novel series of acetanilide-based analogues were prepared and their biological activities were evaluated at the human beta3-, beta2-, and beta1-ARs. Among these compounds, 2-pyridylacetanilide (2f), pyrimidin-2-ylacetanilide (2u), and pyrazin-2-ylacetanilide (2v) derivatives exhibited potent agonistic activity at the beta3-AR with functional selectivity over the beta1- and beta2-ARs. In particular, compound 2u was found to be the most potent and selective beta3-AR agonist with an EC(50) value of 0.11 microM and no agonistic activity for either the beta1- or beta2-AR. In addition, 2f, 2u, and 2v showed significant hypoglycemic activity in a rodent diabetic model.

  6. Phospholipase C-beta3 mediates the thrombin-induced Ca2+ response in glial cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jong-Ik; Shin, Kum-Joo; Oh, Yong-Seok; Choi, Jung-Woong; Lee, Zee-Won; Kim, Daesoo; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Shin, Hee-Sup; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2005-06-30

    Phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta) hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and generates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in response to activation of various G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Using glial cells from knock-out mice lacking either PLC-beta1 [PLC-beta1 (-/-)] or PLC-beta3 [PLC-beta3 (-/-)], we examined which isotype of PLC-beta participated in the cellular signaling events triggered by thrombin. Generation of inositol phosphates (IPs) was enhanced by thrombin in PLC-beta1 (-/-) cells, but was negligible in PLC-beta3 (-/-) cells. Expression of PLC-beta3 in PLC-beta3 (-/-) cells resulted in an increase in pertussis toxin (PTx)-sensitive IPs in response to thrombin as well as to PAR1-specific peptide, while expression of PLC-beta1 in PLC-beta1 (-/-) cells did not have any effect on IP generation. The thrombin-induced [Ca2+]i increase was delayed and attenuated in PLC-beta3 (-/-) cells, but normal in PLC-beta1 (-/-) cells. Pertussis toxin evoked a delayed [Ca2+]i increase in PLC-beta3 (-/-) cells as well as in PLC-beta1 (-/-) cells. These results suggest that activation of PLC-beta3 by pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins is responsible for the transient [Ca2+]i increase in response to thrombin, whereas the delayed [Ca2+]i increase may be due to activation of some other PLC, such as PLC-beta4, acting via PTx-insensitive G proteins.

  7. Lewis type 1 antigen synthase (beta3Gal-T5) is transcriptionally regulated by homeoproteins.

    PubMed

    Isshiki, Soichiro; Kudo, Takashi; Nishihara, Shoko; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Togayachi, Akira; Furuya, Akiko; Shitara, Kenya; Kubota, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Kitajima, Masaki; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2003-09-19

    The type 1 carbohydrate chain, Galbeta1-3GlcNAc, is synthesized by UDP-galactose:beta-N-acetylglucosamine beta1,3-galactosyltransferase (beta3Gal-T). Among six beta3Gal-Ts cloned to date, beta3Gal-T5 is an essential enzyme for the synthesis of type 1 chain in epithelium of digestive tracts or pancreatic tissue. It forms the type 1 structure on glycoproteins produced from such tissues. In the present study, we found that the transcriptional regulation of the beta3Gal-T5 gene is controlled by homeoproteins, i.e. members of caudal-related homeobox protein (Cdx) and hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) families. We found an important region (-151 to -121 from the transcription initiation site), named the beta3Gal-T5 control element (GCE), for the promoter activity. GCE contained the consensus sequences for members of the Cdx and HNF families. Mutations introduced into this sequence abolished the transcriptional activity. Four factors, Cdx1, Cdx2, HNF1alpha, and HNF1beta, could bind to GCE and transcriptionally activate the beta3Gal-T5 gene. Transcriptional regulation of the beta3Gal-T5 gene was consistent with that of members of the Cdx and HNF1 families in two in vivo systems. 1) During in vitro differentiation of Caco-2 cells, transcriptional up-regulation of beta3Gal-T5 was observed in correlation with the increase in transcripts for Cdx2 and HNF1alpha. 2) Both transcript and protein levels of beta3Gal-T5 were determined to be significantly reduced in colon cancer. This down-regulation was correlated with the decrease of Cdx1 and HNF1beta expression in cancer tissue. This is the first finding that a glycosyltransferase gene is transcriptionally regulated under the control of homeoproteins in a tissue-specific manner. beta3Gal-T5, controlled by the intestinal homeoproteins, may play an important role in the specific function of intestinal cells by modifying the carbohydrate structure of glycoproteins.

  8. TGF-beta(3)-induced chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan mediates palatal shelf adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gato, A; Martinez, M L; Tudela, C; Alonso, I; Moro, J A; Formoso, M A; Ferguson, M W J; Martínez-Alvarez, C

    2002-10-15

    In mammals, the adhesion and fusion of the palatal shelves are essential mechanisms in the development of the secondary palate. Failure of any of these processes leads to the formation of cleft palate. The mechanisms underlying palatal shelf adhesion are poorly understood, although the presence of filopodia on the apical surfaces of the superficial medial edge epithelial (MEE) cells seems to play an important role in the adhesion of the opposing MEE. We demonstrate here the appearance of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG) on the apical surface of MEE cells only immediately prior to contact between the palatal shelves. This apical CSPG has a functional role in palatal shelf adhesion, as either the alteration of CSPG synthesis by beta-D-Xyloside or its specific digestion by chondroitinase AC strikingly alters the in vitro adhesion of palatal shelves. We also demonstrate the absence of this apical CSPG in the clefted palates of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-beta(3)) null mutant mice, and its induction, together with palatal shelf adhesion, when TGF-beta(3) is added to TGF-beta(3) null mutant palatal shelves in culture. When chick palatal shelves (that do not adherein vivo nor express TGF-beta(3), nor CSPG in the MEE) are cultured in vitro, they do not express CSPG and partially adhere, but when TGF-beta(3) is added to the media, they express CSPG and their adhesion increases strikingly. We therefore conclude that the expression of CSPG on the apical surface of MEE cells is a key factor in palatal shelf adhesion and that this expression is regulated by TGF-beta(3).

  9. Targeted inhibition of {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin with an RNA aptamer impairs endothelial cell growth and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mi Jing; Zhang Xiuwu; Giangrande, Paloma H.; McNamara, James O.; Nimjee, Shahid M.; Sarraf-Yazdi, Shiva; Sullenger, Bruce A.; Clary, Bryan M. . E-mail: mi001@duke.edu

    2005-12-16

    {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin is a crucial factor involved in a variety of physiological processes, such as cell growth and migration, tumor invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin exerts its effect by regulating endothelial cell (EC) migration, proliferation, and survival. Inhibiting the function of {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin, therefore, represents a potential anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, and anti-inflammatory strategy. In this study, we tested an RNA aptamer, Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 that binds recombinant {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin, for its ability to bind endogenous {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin on the surface of cells in culture and to subsequently affect cellular response. Our data illustrate that Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 binds {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin expressed on the surface of live HUVECs. This interaction significantly decreases both basal and PDGF-induced cell proliferation as well as inhibition of cell adhesion. Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 can also reduce PDGF-stimulated tube formation and increase HUVEC apoptosis through inhibition of FAK phosphorylation pathway. Our results demonstrate that by binding to its target, Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 can efficiently inhibit human EC proliferation and survival, resulting in reduced angiogenesis. It predicts that Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 could become useful in both tumor imaging and the treatment of tumor growth, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and inflammation.

  10. Localisation of Neuregulin 1-{beta}3 to different sub-nuclear structures alters gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ming; Trim, Carol M.; Gullick, William J.

    2011-02-15

    Neuregulins are growth factors that signal via the ErbB3 and ErbB4 receptors. Here we show using immunohistochemistry that they are often expressed in the nucleus of a range of tumour types including soft tissue and breast. The Neuregulin 1 type I-{beta}3 (NRG1-{beta}3) isoform localises to two sub-nuclear compartments in animal cells, nucleoli and spliceosomes. We used NRG1-{beta}3 tagged with photoactivatable GFP and demonstrated that this re-localised from nucleoli to spliceosomes over 90 min. Tyrosine kinase activity was not required for retaining the NRG1-{beta}3 within the nucleus. Mutation of the lysines 14 and 16 or 15 and 16 together prevented nucleolar uptake while four positively charged residues were identified which were required for spliceosome uptake. Molecular modelling suggests that three of these may form a binding site. We showed using a kinome array that NRG1-{beta}3 and a mutant exclusively localising to spliceosomes increased phosphorylation and/or expression of the HER4 and HER2 receptors. Using a transcriptomic analysis the same two constructs induced expression of several messenger RNAs and we confirmed the increased expression at the protein level of the most highly induced, Heat Shock Protein 70B'. These results suggest that Neuregulin activates receptor signalling in spliceosomes leading to altered gene expression.

  11. Beta 3-adrenoreceptor regulation of nitric oxide in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Moens, An L; Yang, Ronghua; Watts, Vabren L; Barouch, Lili A

    2010-06-01

    The presence of a third beta-adrenergic receptor (beta 3-AR) in the cardiovascular system has challenged the classical paradigm of sympathetic regulation by beta1- and beta2-adrenergic receptors. While beta 3-AR's role in the cardiovascular system remains controversial, increasing evidence suggests that it serves as a "brake" in sympathetic overstimulation - it is activated at high catecholamine concentrations, producing a negative inotropic effect that antagonizes beta1- and beta2-AR activity. The anti-adrenergic effects induced by beta 3-AR were initially linked to nitric oxide (NO) release via endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), although more recently it has been shown under some conditions to increase NO production in the cardiovascular system via the other two NOS isoforms, namely inducible NOS (iNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS). We summarize recent findings regarding beta 3-AR effects on the cardiovascular system and explore its prospective as a therapeutic target, particularly focusing on its emerging role as an important mediator of NO signaling in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders.

  12. Effects of (-)-RO363 at human atrial beta-adrenoceptor subtypes, the human cloned beta 3-adrenoceptor and rodent intestinal beta 3-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Molenaar, P; Sarsero, D; Arch, J R; Kelly, J; Henson, S M; Kaumann, A J

    1997-01-01

    1. Chronic treatment of patients with beta-blockers causes atrial inotropic hyperresponsiveness through beta 2-adrenoceptors, 5-HT4 receptors and H2-receptors but apparently not through beta 1-adrenoceptors despite data claiming an increased beta 1-adrenoceptor density from homogenate binding studies. We have addressed the question of beta 1-adrenoceptor sensitivity by determining the inotropic potency and intrinsic activity of the beta 1-adrenoceptor selective partial agonist (-)-RO363 and by carrying out both homogenate binding and quantitative beta-adrenoceptor autoradiography in atria obtained from patients treated or not treated with beta-blockers. In the course of the experiments it became apparent that (-)-RO363 also may cause agonistic effects through the third atrial beta-adrenoceptor. To assess whether (-)-RO363 also caused agonistic effects through beta 3-adrenoceptors we studied its relaxant effects in rat colon and guinea-pig ileum, as well as receptor binding and adenylyl cyclase stimulation of chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human beta 3-adrenoceptors. 2. beta-Adrenoceptors were labelled with (-)-[125I]-cyanopindolol. The density of both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors was unchanged in the 2 groups, as assessed with both quantitative receptor autoradiography and homogenate binding. The affinities of (-)-RO363 for beta 1-adrenoceptors (pKi = 8.0-7.7) and beta 2-adrenoceptors (pKi = 6.1-5.8) were not significantly different in the two groups. 3. (-)-RO363 increased atrial force with a pEC50 of 8.2 (beta-blocker treated) and 8.0 (non-beta-blocker treated) and intrinsic activity with respect to (-)-isoprenaline of 0.80 (beta-blocker treated) and 0.54 (non-beta-blocker treated) (P < 0.001) and with respect to Ca2+ (7 mM) of 0.65 (beta-blocker treated) and 0.45 (non-beta-blocker treated) (P < 0.01). The effects of (-)-RO363 were resistant to antagonism by the beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI 118,551 (50 nM). The effects of 0.3-10 nM (-)-RO

  13. Dynamic changes in the osteoclast cytoskeleton in response to growth factors and cell attachment are controlled by beta3 integrin.

    PubMed

    Faccio, Roberta; Novack, Deborah V; Zallone, Alberta; Ross, F Patrick; Teitelbaum, Steven L

    2003-08-04

    The beta3 integrin cytoplasmic domain, and specifically S752, is critical for integrin localization and osteoclast (OC) function. Because growth factors such as macrophage colony-stimulating factor and hepatocyte growth factor affect integrin activation and function via inside-out signaling, a process requiring the beta integrin cytoplasmic tail, we examined the effect of these growth factors on OC precursors. To this end, we retrovirally expressed various beta3 integrins with cytoplasmic tail mutations in beta3-deficient OC precursors. We find that S752 in the beta3 cytoplasmic tail is required for growth factor-induced integrin activation, cytoskeletal reorganization, and membrane protrusion, thereby affecting OC adhesion, migration, and bone resorption. The small GTPases Rho and Rac mediate cytoskeletal reorganization, and activation of each is defective in OC precursors lacking a functional beta3 subunit. Activation of the upstream mediators c-Src and c-Cbl is also dependent on beta3. Interestingly, although the FAK-related kinase Pyk2 interacts with c-Src and c-Cbl, its activation is not disrupted in the absence of functional beta3. Instead, its activation is dependent upon intracellular calcium, and on the beta2 integrin. Thus, the beta3 cytoplasmic domain is responsible for activation of specific intracellular signals leading to cytoskeletal reorganization critical for OC function.

  14. Heterocyclic acetamide and benzamide derivatives as potent and selective beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists with improved rodent pharmacokinetic profiles.

    PubMed

    Goble, Stephen D; Wang, Liping; Howell, K Lulu; Bansal, Alka; Berger, Richard; Brockunier, Linda; DiSalvo, Jerry; Feighner, Scott; Harper, Bart; He, Jiafang; Hurley, Amanda; Hreniuk, Donna; Parmee, Emma; Robbins, Michael; Salituro, Gino; Sanfiz, Anthony; Streckfuss, Eric; Watkins, Eloisa; Weber, Ann E; Struthers, Mary; Edmondson, Scott D

    2010-03-15

    A series of amide derived beta(3)-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists is described. The discovery and optimization of several series of compounds derived from 1, is used to lay the SAR foundation for second generation beta(3)-AR agonists for the treatment of overactive bladder.

  15. Enhanced translational efficiency of a novel transforming growth factor beta 3 mRNA in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Arrick, B A; Grendell, R L; Griffin, L A

    1994-01-01

    The mRNA for transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-beta 3) includes a long (1.1-kb) 5' noncoding region which exerts a potent inhibitory effect on translational efficiency. We now report that many human breast cancer cell lines (T47-D, SK-BR-3, ZR-75-1, and BT-474) express two mRNA species for TGF-beta 3: the 3.5-kb transcript previously described as the only TGF-beta 3 mRNA species in cells and a novel 2.6-kb transcript which lacks approximately 870 nucleotides from the 5' noncoding region. The 5' end of the shorter transcript was sequenced, establishing it to be a 5' truncation of the full-length TGF-beta 3 transcript. Estradiol decreased mRNA levels of both TGF-beta 3 mRNA transcripts to an equivalent degree in estrogen receptor-positive cells. In contrast, the synthetic progestin gestodene altered the relative abundance of the two transcripts, preferentially diminishing the expression of the 2.6-kb transcript. The potential for enhanced mRNA translation attributable to the shorter 5' noncoding region was evaluated by transfection of cells with chimeric plasmid constructs in which the transcription unit consisted of coding sequence for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase downstream of the 5' noncoding sequence from TGF-beta 3. The translational efficiency of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-encoding mRNA containing the shorter 5' noncoding region of the 2.6-kb TGF-beta 3 transcript was approximately seven times greater than with the full-length 5' noncoding region of TGF-beta 3. Polysome analysis of TGF-beta 3 mRNA in SK-BR-3 cells supported the hypothesis that the 2.6-kb transcript was more actively engaged in translation. Images PMID:8264630

  16. Structure of the integrin beta3 transmembrane segment in phospholipid bicelles and detergent micelles.

    PubMed

    Lau, Tong-Lay; Partridge, Anthony W; Ginsberg, Mark H; Ulmer, Tobias S

    2008-04-01

    Integrin adhesion receptors transduce bidirectional signals across the plasma membrane, with the integrin transmembrane domains acting as conduits in this process. Here, we report the first high-resolution structure of an integrin transmembrane domain. To assess the influence of the membrane model system, structure determinations of the beta3 integrin transmembrane segment and flanking sequences were carried out in both phospholipid bicelles and detergent micelles. In bicelles, a 30-residue linear alpha-helix, encompassing residues I693-H772, is adopted, of which I693-I721 appear embedded in the hydrophobic bicelle core. This relatively long transmembrane helix implies a pronounced helix tilt within a typical lipid bilayer, which facilitates the snorkeling of K716's charged side chain out of the lipid core while simultaneously immersing hydrophobic L717-I721 in the membrane. A shortening of bicelle lipid hydrocarbon tails does not lead to the transfer of L717-I721 into the aqueous phase, suggesting that the reported embedding represents the preferred beta3 state. The nature of the lipid headgroup affected only the intracellular part of the transmembrane helix, indicating that an asymmetric lipid distribution is not required for studying the beta3 transmembrane segment. In the micelle, residues L717-I721 are also embedded but deviate from linear alpha-helical conformation in contrast to I693-K716, which closely resemble the bicelle structure.

  17. Na, K ATPase beta3 subunit (CD298): association with alpha subunit and expression on peripheral blood cells.

    PubMed

    Chiampanichayakul, S; Khunkaewla, P; Pata, S; Kasinrerk, W

    2006-12-01

    Beta3 subunit is described as one of the Na, K ATPase subunits. Recently, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb), termed P-3E10. This mAb was shown to react with the Na, K ATPase beta3 subunit or CD298. By immunofluorescence analysis using mAb P-3E10, it was found that all peripheral blood leukocytes express Na, K ATPase beta3. The presence of beta3 subunit on leukocytes is not in a quantitative polymorphic manner. Upon phytohemagglutinin or phorbol myristate acetate activation, the expression level of the Na, K ATPase beta3 subunit on activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not altered in comparison with those of unstimulated cells. Red blood cells (RBCs) of healthy donors showed negative reactivity with mAb P-3E10. However, more than 80% of thalassemic RBCs showed positive reactivity. By immunoprecipitation, moreover, a protein band of 55-65 kDa was precipitated from normal RBC membrane using mAb P-3E10. These results evidenced that the beta3 subunit of Na, K ATPase is expressed on RBC membrane but the epitope recognized by mAb P-3E10 is hidden in normal RBCs. Furthermore, we showed the association of beta3 subunit and alpha subunit of Na, K ATPase. This information is important for further understanding of the functional roles of this molecule.

  18. Human neural cell adhesion molecule L1 and rat homologue NILE are ligands for integrin alpha v beta 3

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Integrin alpha v beta 3 is distinct in its capacity to recognize the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) in many extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components. Here, we demonstrate that in addition to the recognition of ECM components, alpha v beta 3 can interact with the neural cell adhesion molecule L1-CAM; a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF). M21 melanoma cells displayed significant Ca(++)-dependent adhesion and spreading on immunopurified rat L1 (NILE). This adhesion was found to be dependent on the expression of the alpha v-integrin subunit and could be significantly inhibited by an antibody to the alpha v beta 3 heterodimer. M21 cells also displayed some alpha v beta 3-dependent adhesion and spreading on immunopurified human L1. Ligation between this ligand and alpha v beta 3 was also observed to promote significant haptotactic cell migration. To map the site of alpha v beta 3 ligation we used recombinant L1 fragments comprising the entire extracellular domain of human L1. Significant alpha v beta 3-dependent adhesion and spreading was evident on a L1 fragment containing Ig-like domains 4, 5, and 6. Importantly, mutation of an RGD sequence present in the sixth Ig-like domain of L1 abrogated M21 cell adhesion. We conclude that alpha v beta 3-dependent recognition of human L1 is dependent on ligation of this RGD site. Despite high levels of L1 expression the M21 melanoma cells did not display significant adhesion via a homophilic L1-L1 interaction. These data suggest that M21 melanoma cells recognize and adhere to L1 through a mechanism that is primarily heterophilic and integrin dependent. Finally, we present evidence that melanoma cells can shed and deposit L1 in occluding ECM. In this regard, alpha v beta 3 may recognize L1 in a cell-cell or cell- substrate interaction. PMID:8636223

  19. Andes virus recognition of human and Syrian hamster beta3 integrins is determined by an L33P substitution in the PSI domain.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Valery S; Gorbunova, Elena E; Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Mackow, Erich R

    2010-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) causes a fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans and Syrian hamsters. Human alpha(v)beta(3) integrins are receptors for several pathogenic hantaviruses, and the function of alpha(v)beta(3) integrins on endothelial cells suggests a role for alpha(v)beta(3) in hantavirus directed vascular permeability. We determined here that ANDV infection of human endothelial cells or Syrian hamster-derived BHK-21 cells was selectively inhibited by the high-affinity alpha(v)beta(3) integrin ligand vitronectin and by antibodies to alpha(v)beta(3) integrins. Further, antibodies to the beta(3) integrin PSI domain, as well as PSI domain polypeptides derived from human and Syrian hamster beta(3) subunits, but not murine or bovine beta(3), inhibited ANDV infection of both BHK-21 and human endothelial cells. These findings suggest that ANDV interacts with beta(3) subunits through PSI domain residues conserved in both Syrian hamster and human beta(3) integrins. Sequencing the Syrian hamster beta(3) integrin PSI domain revealed eight differences between Syrian hamster and human beta(3) integrins. Analysis of residues within the PSI domains of human, Syrian hamster, murine, and bovine beta(3) integrins identified unique proline substitutions at residues 32 and 33 of murine and bovine PSI domains that could determine ANDV recognition. Mutagenizing the human beta(3) PSI domain to contain the L33P substitution present in bovine beta(3) integrin abolished the ability of the PSI domain to inhibit ANDV infectivity. Conversely, mutagenizing either the bovine PSI domain, P33L, or the murine PSI domain, S32P, to the residue present human beta(3) permitted PSI mutants to inhibit ANDV infection. Similarly, CHO cells transfected with the full-length bovine beta(3) integrin containing the P33L mutation permitted infection by ANDV. These findings indicate that human and Syrian hamster alpha(v)beta(3) integrins are key receptors for ANDV and that specific residues within the

  20. Thrombopoietin enhances the alpha IIb beta 3-dependent adhesion of megakaryocytic cells to fibrinogen or fibronectin through PI 3 kinase.

    PubMed

    Zauli, G; Bassini, A; Vitale, M; Gibellini, D; Celeghini, C; Caramelli, E; Pierpaoli, S; Guidotti, L; Capitani, S

    1997-02-01

    The effect of thrombopoietin (TPO) on the functional activity of surface alpha IIb beta 3 (GPIIbIIIa) was investigated in both primary human megakaryocytic cells, derived from peripheral blood CD34+ cells, and HEL hematopoietic cell line. TPO (100 ng/mL) induced a sixfold to ninefold enhancement of adhesion of both primary megakaryocytic and HEL cells to plates coated with either fibrinogen or fibronectin and a parallel increase of immunoreactivity to the PAC1 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-fibrinogen, both of which recognize an activated state of alpha IIb beta 3. The enhanced adhesion to fibrinogen or fibronectin was mediated by the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) recognition sequence of alpha IIb beta 3, as it was abolished by pretreatment of cells with saturating concentrations of RGDS peptide. A MoAb specific for the alpha IIb beta subunit of alpha IIb beta 3 also inhibited cell attachment to fibrinogen or fibronectin, while MoAb to anti-alpha v beta 3 or anti-alpha 5 integrins were completely ineffective, clearly indicating that alpha IIb beta 3 participates in this association. A role for PI 3 kinase (PI 3-K) in the TPO-mediated increase in alpha IIb beta 3 function in megakaryocytic cells was suggested by the ability of the PI 3-K inhibitor wortmannin (100 nmol/L) and antisense oligonucleotides directed against the p85 regulatory subunit of PI 3-K to completely block the TPO-induced increase in alpha IIb beta 3 integrin activity upon TPO stimulation. The modulation of adhesiveness to extracellular matrix proteins containing the RGD motif mediated by TPO likely plays a physiologic role in megakaryocytopoiesis, as pretreatment of CD34+ cells with RGDS or anti-alpha IIb MoAb significantly reduced the number of megakaryocytic colonies obtained in a fibrinclot semisolid assay.

  1. Tumor suppressor KAI1 affects integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated ovarian cancer cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruseva, Zlatna; Geiger, Pamina Xenia Charlotte; Hutzler, Peter; Kotzsch, Matthias; Luber, Birgit; Schmitt, Manfred; Gross, Eva; Reuning, Ute

    2009-06-10

    The tetraspanin KAI1 had been described as a metastasis suppressor in many different cancer types, a function for which associations of KAI1 with adhesion and signaling receptors of the integrin superfamily likely play a role. In ovarian cancer, integrin {alpha}v{beta}3 correlates with tumor progression and its elevation in vitro provoked enhanced cell adhesion accompanied by significant increases in cell motility and proliferation in the presence of its major ligand vitronectin. In the present study, we characterized integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated tumor biological effects as a function of cellular KAI1 restoration and proved for the first time that KAI1, besides its already known physical crosstalk with {beta}1-integrins, also colocalizes with integrin {alpha}v{beta}3. Functionally, elevated KAI1 levels drastically increased integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-dependent ovarian cancer cell adhesion. Since an intermediate level of cell adhesive strength is required for optimal cell migration, we next studied ovarian cancer cell motility as a function of KAI1 restoration. By time lapse video microscopy, we found impaired integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-mediated cell migration most probably due to strongly enhanced cellular immobilization onto the adhesion-supporting matrix. Moreover, KAI1 reexpression significantly diminished cell proliferation. These data strongly indicate that KAI1 may suppress ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-provoked tumor cell motility and proliferation as important hallmarks of the oncogenic process.

  2. Radiation-induced increase in expression of the alpha IIb beta 3 integrin in melanoma cells: effects on metastatic potential.

    PubMed

    Onoda, J M; Piechocki, M P; Honn, K V

    1992-06-01

    We investigated the effects of nonlethal gamma radiation on the metastatic potential of the murine tumor cell line, B16 melanoma. The ability of B16 cells to adhere to fibronectin, which is in part mediated by the alpha IIb beta 3 integrin receptor, is predictive of metastatic potential. We determined that exposure to 0.25-2.5 Gy gamma radiation significantly enhanced B16 cell adhesion to fibronectin. The radiation-enhanced adhesion was dependent on enhanced expression of the alpha IIb beta 3 integrin. We observed that 15 min after 0.5 Gy radiation, 99% of irradiated B16 tumor cells were positively labeled with monoclonal antibodies directed against alpha IIb beta 3 compared to 22% of sham-irradiated cells. Radiation-enhanced expression of the alpha IIb beta 3 receptor is reversible and down-regulation begins within 2-4 h postirradiation. Finally, we found that irradiation significantly enhanced the ability of B16 cells to form metastases in a lung colony assay. It is concluded that a relationship exists between radiation effects on the B16 tumor cells, alpha IIb beta 3 receptor expression, adhesion in vitro, and metastasis in vivo. We suggest that low-dose radiation, at levels comparable to those used in fractionated or hyperfractionated radiotherapy, may alter the metastatic phenotype and potential of surviving tumor cells via a rapid alteration in their surface expression of alpha IIb beta 3 integrin receptors.

  3. Expression of CD61 (beta3 integrin subunit) on canine cells.

    PubMed

    Arce, C; Moreno, A; Pérez de la Lastra, J M; Garrido, J J; Barbancho, M; De Andrés, D F; Morera, L; Llanes, D

    2001-03-01

    A monoclonal antibody (JM2E5) specific for the integrin beta3 chain, or CD61 or GPIIIa subunit, has been employed to determine the expression of the canine homologue CD41/CD61 or CD51/CD61 complex on different canine cells in peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, platelets, erythrocytes, lymph-node cells, spleen cells and breast tumour cells). The canine homologue CD41/CD61 or CD51/61 was present on peripheral blood lymphocytes, monocytes, granulocytes, breast tumour cells and spleen cells as well as on platelets and it was absent from erythrocytes and lymph-node cells. An antigen with components of molecular masses of 25/100/120 kDa (under reducing conditions) was immunoprecipitated from canine peripheral lymphocytes and platelets, but not from granulocytes or monocytes. Expression on canine lymphocytes of the canine homologue of the human beta3 integrin chain was unexpected, based on the expression pattern of this molecule in human tissue.

  4. Lateral paracapsular GABAergic synapses in the basolateral amygdala contribute to the anxiolytic effects of beta 3 adrenoceptor activation.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Yuval; Ariwodola, Olusegun J; Chappell, Ann M; Yorgason, Jordan T; Weiner, Jeff L

    2010-08-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) is known to play an integral role in the neurobiological response to stress. Exposure to stressful stimuli increases NE levels in brain regions that regulate stress and anxiety, like the basolateral amygdala (BLA). NE is thought to increase excitability in these areas through alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors (ARs), leading to increased anxiety. Surprisingly, recent studies have shown that systemic beta 3-AR agonist administration decreases anxiety-like behaviors, suggesting that beta 3-ARs may inhibit excitability in anxiety-related brain regions. Therefore, in this study we integrated electrophysiological and behavioral approaches to test the hypothesis that the anxiolytic effects of beta 3-AR agonists may be mediated by an increase in BLA GABAergic inhibition. We examined the effect of a selective beta 3-AR agonist, BRL37344 (BRL), on GABAergic synapses arising from local circuit interneurons and inhibitory synapses originating from a recently described population of cells called lateral paracapsular (LPCS) interneurons. Surprisingly, BRL selectively enhanced LPCS-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs) with no effect on local GABAergic inhibition. BRL also had no effect on glutamatergic synaptic excitation within the BLA. BRL potentiation of LPCS eIPSCs was blocked by the selective beta 3-AR antagonist, SR59230A, or by intracellular dialysis of Rp-CAMPS (cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor), and this enhancement was not associated with any changes in spontaneous IPSCs or LPCS paired-pulse ratio. BRL also increased the amplitude of unitary LPCS IPSCs (uIPSCs) with no effect on uIPSC failure rate. Finally, bilateral BLA microinjection of BRL reduced anxiety-like behaviors in an open-field assay and the elevated plus-maze. Collectively, these data suggest that beta 3-AR activation selectively enhances LPCS, but not local, BLA GABAergic synapses, and that increases in LPCS-mediated inhibition may contribute to the anxiolytic profile of

  5. Karyopherin {beta}3: A new cellular target for the HPV-16 E5 oncoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, Ewa; Hanover, John A.; Schlegel, Richard; Suprynowicz, Frank A.

    2008-07-11

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the causative agents of cervical cancer worldwide, and that HPV-16 is associated with more than half of these cases. In addition to the well-characterized E6 and E7 oncoproteins of HPV-16, recent evidence increasingly has implicated the HPV-16 E5 protein (16E5) as an important mediator of oncogenic transformation. Since 16E5 has no known intrinsic enzymatic activity, its effects on infected cells are most likely mediated by interactions with various cellular proteins and/or its documented association with lipid rafts. In the present study, we describe a new cellular target that binds to 16E5 in COS cells and in stable human ectocervical cell lines. This target is karyopherin {beta}3, a member of the nuclear import receptor family with critical roles in the nuclear import of ribosomal proteins and in the secretory pathway.

  6. UDP-GlcNAc: Gal beta 3GalNAc-mucin: (GlcNAc----GalNAc) beta 6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase and UDP-GlcNAc: Gal beta 3(GlcNAc beta 6) GalNAc-mucin (GlcNAc----Gal)beta 3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase from swine trachea epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Sivakami, S; Mendicino, J

    1991-03-13

    Two specific beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases involved in the branching and elongation of mucin oligosaccharide chains, namely, a beta 1,6 N-acetylglucosaminylsaminyltransferase that transfers N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to Gal beta 3GalNAc-mucin to yield Gal beta 3(GlcNAc beta 6)GalNAc-Mucin and a beta 3-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase that transfers N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to Gal beta 3(GlcNAc beta 6)GalNAc-mucin to yield GlcNAc beta 3Gal beta 3 (GlcNAc beta 6)GalNAc-Mucin were purified from the microsomal fraction of swine trachea epithelium. The beta 1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase was purified about 21,800-fold by procedures which included affinity chromatography on DEAE columns containing bound asialo Cowper's gland mucin glycoprotein with Gal beta 1,3GalNAc side chains. The apparent molecular weight estimated by gel filtration was found to be about 60 Kd. The purified enzyme showed a high specificity for Gal beta 1,3GalNAc chains and the most active substrates were mucin glycoproteins containing these chains. The apparent Km of the beta 6-glucosaminyltrans-ferase for Cowper's gland mucin glycoprotein containing Gal beta 1,3GalNAc chains was 0.53 microM; for UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, 12 microM; and for Gal beta 1,3GalNAc alpha NO2 phi, 4 mM. The activity of the beta 6-glucosaminyltransferase was dependent on the extent of glycosylation of the Gal beta 3GalNAc chains in Cowper's gland mucin glycoprotein. The best substrate for the partially purified beta 3-Glucosaminyltransferase was Cowper's gland mucin glycoprotein containing Gal beta 1,3(GlcNAc beta 6)GalNAc side chains. This enzyme showed little or no activity with intact sialylated Cowper's gland mucin glycoprotein or derivatives of this glycoprotein containing GalNAc or Gal beta 1,3GalNAc side chains. The radioactive oligosaccharides formed by these enzymes in large scale reaction mixtures were released from the mucin glycoproteins by treatment with

  7. Integrin alpha v beta 3 differentially regulates adhesive and phagocytic functions of the fibronectin receptor alpha 5 beta 1

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The plasma protein fibronectin is an important opsonin in wound repair and host defense. To better understand the process of fibronectin- mediated phagocytosis, we have transfected K562 cells, which endogenously express alpha 5 beta 1, with alpha v beta 3. In these transfectants, antibodies to alpha v beta 3 block phagocytosis of fibronectin-opsonized beads completely, even though half the ingestion occurs through endogenous alpha 5 beta 1 receptors. alpha 5 beta 1- mediated adhesion to fibronectin-coated surfaces is unaffected by alpha v beta 3 ligation. Neither alpha v beta 5 nor alpha M beta 2 ligation affects alpha 5 beta 1 phagocytic function in transfectants expressing these receptors. Pharmacologic data suggest that alpha v beta 3 ligation suppresses the phagocytic competence of high affinity alpha 5 beta 1 receptors through a signal transduction pathway, perhaps involving protein kinase C. In addition to its significance for phagocytosis, alpha v beta 3 regulation of alpha 5 beta 1 function may be significant for its roles in cell migration, metastasis, and angiogenesis. PMID:7525603

  8. Integrin-beta3 clusters recruit clathrin-mediated endocytic machinery in the absence of traction force

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheng-han; Rafiq, Nisha Bte Mohd; Cao, Fakun; Zhou, Yuhuan; Krishnasamy, Anitha; Biswas, Kabir Hassan; Ravasio, Andrea; Chen, Zhongwen; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Kawauchi, Keiko; Jones, Gareth E.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The turnover of integrin receptors is critical for cell migration and adhesion dynamics. Here we find that force development at integrins regulates adaptor protein recruitment and endocytosis. Using mobile RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) ligands on supported lipid membranes (RGD membranes) and rigid RGD ligands on glass (RGD-glass), we find that matrix force-dependent integrin signals block endocytosis. Dab2, an adaptor protein of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, is not recruited to activated integrin-beta3 clusters on RGD-glass; however, it is recruited to integrin-mediated adhesions on RGD membranes. Further, when force generation is inhibited on RGD-glass, Dab2 binds to integrin-beta3 clusters. Dab2 binding to integrin-beta3 excludes other adhesion-related adaptor proteins, such as talin. The clathrin-mediated endocytic machinery combines with Dab2 to facilitate the endocytosis of RGD-integrin-beta3 clusters. From these observations, we propose that loss of traction force on ligand-bound integrin-beta3 causes recruitment of Dab2/clathrin, resulting in endocytosis of integrins. PMID:26507506

  9. Alteration of medial-edge epithelium cell adhesion in two Tgf-beta3 null mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sanz, Elena; Del Río, Aurora; Barrio, Carmen; Murillo, Jorge; Maldonado, Estela; Garcillán, Beatriz; Amorós, María; Fuerte, Tamara; Fernández, Alvaro; Trinidad, Eva; Rabadán, María Angeles; López, Yamila; Martínez, María Luisa; Martínez-Alvarez, Concepción

    2008-04-01

    Although palatal shelf adhesion is a crucial event during palate development, little work has been carried out to determine which molecules are responsible for this process. Furthermore, whether altered palatal shelf adhesion causes the cleft palate presented by Tgf-beta3 null mutant mice has not yet been clarified. Here, we study the presence/distribution of some extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecules at the time of the contact of palatal shelves in both wild-type and Tgf-beta3 null mutant palates of two strains of mice (C57/BL/6J (C57), and MF1) that develop cleft palates of different severity. We have performed immunohistochemistry with antibodies against collagens IV and IX, laminin, fibronectin, the alpha5- and beta1-integrins, and ICAM-1; in situ hybridization with a Nectin-1 riboprobe; and palatal shelf cultures treated or untreated with TGF-beta3 or neutralizing antibodies against fibronectin or the alpha5-integrin. Our results show the location of these molecules in the wild-type mouse medial edge epithelium (MEE) of both strains at the time of the contact of palatal shelves; the heavier (C57) and milder (MF1) alteration of their presence in the Tgf-beta3 null mutants; the importance of TGF-beta3 to restore their normal pattern of expression; and the crucial role of fibronectin and the alpha5-integrin in palatal shelf adhesion. We thus provide insight into the molecular bases of this important process and the cleft palate presented by Tgf-beta3 null mutant mice.

  10. Beta3-adrenoceptor in the eel (Anguilla anguilla) heart: negative inotropy and NO-cGMP-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Imbrogno, S; Angelone, T; Adamo, C; Pulerà, E; Tota, B; Cerra, M C

    2006-12-01

    Neuroendocrine regulation of cardiac function involves a population of three types of beta-adrenoceptors (ARs). In various mammalian species, beta1- and beta2-AR stimulation produces an increase in contractility; whereas beta3-AR activation mediates negative inotropic effects. At the moment, nothing is known about the physiological role of beta3-AR in fish. Using an isolated working heart preparation, we show that a beta3-AR selective agonist BRL(37344) (0.1-100 nmol l(-1)) elicits a dose-dependent negative inotropism in the freshwater eel Anguilla anguilla. This effect was insensitive to the beta1/beta2-AR inhibitor nadolol (10 mumol l(-1)), but was blocked by the beta3-AR-specific antagonist SR(59230) (10 nmol l(-1)). The analysis of the percentage of stroke work (SW) variations, in terms of EC(50) values, induced by BRL(37344) alone (10 nmol l(-1)), and in presence of SR(59230) (10 nmol l(-1)), indicated a competitive antagonism of SR(59230). In addition to the classic positive inotropism, the non-specific beta agonist isoproterenol (100 nmol l(-1)) induced, in 30% of the preparations, a negative inotropic effect that was abrogated by pre-treatment with SR(59230), pointing to a beta3-mediated pathway. The BRL(37344)-induced negative inotropic effect was abolished by exposure to a G(i/o) proteins inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTx; 0.01 nmol l(-1)), suggesting a G(i/o)-dependent mechanism. Using L-N5(l-imino-ethyl)ornithine (L-NIO; 10 mumol l(-1)), as a nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) blocker and haemoglobin (Hb; 1 mumol l(-1)), as a NO scavenger, we demonstrated that NO signalling is involved in the BRL(37344)-induced response. Pre-treatment with either an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase (GC) 1H-(1,2,4) oxadiazolo-(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 10 mumol l(-1)), or an inhibitor of the cGMP-activated protein kinase (PKG) KT(5823) (100 nmol l(-1)), abolished the beta3-dependent negative inotropism, indicating the cGMP-PKG component as a crucial target of NO

  11. Expression of transforming growth factor-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs and proteins in the developing chicken embryo.

    PubMed

    Jakowlew, S B; Ciment, G; Tuan, R S; Sporn, M B; Roberts, A B

    1994-01-01

    Specific cDNA probes and antibodies for chicken transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 2 and beta 3 were used to study expression of TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs and proteins in the developing chicken embryo. Expression of the mRNAs for both TGF-beta isoforms was detected by day 1.5 of incubation (Hamburger and Hamilton stage 10) by RNA Northern blot analysis and increased with developmental age. Expression of TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs was detected in every embryonic tissue examined, with the level of expression of both isoforms being high in heart, brain and muscle and low in kidney and liver. Coordinate unidirectional upregulation of expression of TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs occurred in most embryonic tissues with development except the heart, where the steady-state level of expression of TGF-beta 2 mRNA decreased with age, while that of TGF-beta 3 mRNA increased. In situ hybridization analysis detected TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs as early as the definitive primitive streak stage (stage 4). During neurulation (stage 10), TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs were detected in cells of all three germ layers; TGF-beta 3 mRNA was detected in neurectoderm as well. Following neurulation, TGF-beta 3 mRNA was detected in the neural tube, notochord, ectoderm, endoderm, sclerotome and dermomyotome at stage 16; expression of TGF-beta 2 mRNA was not as prominent as TGF-beta 3 mRNA in these structures. By stage 29, both TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs were localized in several tissues including heart, lung, gizzard and feathers. Immunohistochemical staining analysis detected immunoreactive TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 proteins in all three germ layers of stage 4 embryos. Staining for TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 proteins was detected in several cell types and tissues in the early developing embryo frequently in the same locations as TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 mRNAs, with staining for TGF-beta 2 being less intense than TGF-beta 3. However, in some cases, localization of TGF-beta 2 and beta 3 proteins was

  12. Interactions between TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 and their role in medial edge epithelium cell death and palatal fusion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Jorge; Maldonado, Estela; Barrio, Maria Carmen; Del Río, Aurora; López, Yamila; Martínez-Sanz, Elena; González, Ignacio; Martín, Concepción; Casado, Inmaculada; Martínez-Alvarez, Concepción

    2009-02-01

    In recent decades, studies have shown that both TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) play an important role in the induction of medial edge epithelium (MEE) cell death and palatal fusion. Many of these experiments involved the addition or blockage of one of these growth factors in wild-type (WT) mouse palate cultures, where both TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) are present. Few studies have addressed the existence of interactions between TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3), which could modify their individual roles in MEE cell death during palatal fusion. We carried out several experiments to test this possibility, and to investigate how this could influence TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) actions on MEE cell death and palatal shelf fusion. We double-immunolabelled developing mouse palates with anti-TGF-beta(1) or anti-TGF-beta(3) antibodies and TUNEL, added rhTGF-beta(1) or rhTGF-beta(3) or blocked the TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) action at different concentrations to WT or Tgf-beta(3) null mutant palate cultures, performed in situ hybridizations with Tgf-beta(1) or Tgf-beta(3) riboprobes, and measured the presence of TUNEL-positive midline epithelial seam (MES) cells and MES disappearance (palatal shelf fusion) in the different in vitro conditions. By combining all these experiments, we demonstrate great interaction between TGF-beta(1) and TGF-beta(3) in the developing palate and confirm that TGF-beta(3) has a more active role in MES cell death than TGF-beta(1), although both are major inductors of MES disappearance. Finally, the co-localization of TGF-beta(1), but not TGF-beta(3), with TUNEL in the MES allows us to suggest a possible role for TGF-beta(1) in MES apoptotic clearance.

  13. Pretreatment with transforming growth factor beta-3 protects small intestinal stem cells against radiation damage in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Potten, C. S.; Booth, D.; Haley, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, with its rapid cell replacement, is sensitive to cytotoxic damage and can be a site of dose-limiting toxicity in cancer therapy. Here, we have investigated the use of one growth modulator to manipulate the cell cycle status of gastrointestinal stem cells before cytotoxic exposure to minimize damage to this normal tissue. Transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-beta3), a known inhibitor of cell cycle progression through G1, was used to alter intestinal crypt stem cell sensitivity before 12-16 Gy of gamma irradiation, which was used as a model cytotoxic agent. Using a crypt microcolony assay as a measure of functional competence of gastrointestinal stem cells, it was shown that the administration of TGF-beta3 over a 24-h period before irradiation increased the number of surviving crypts by four- to six-fold. To test whether changes in crypt survival are reflected in the well-being of the animal, survival time analyses were performed. After 14.5 Gy of radiation, only 35% of the animals survived within a period of about 12 days, while prior treatment with TGF-beta3 provided significant protection against this early gastrointestinal animal death, with 95% of the treated animals surviving for greater than 30 days. PMID:9166937

  14. Beta(3)-adrenoceptor agonist-induced increases in lipolysis, metabolic rate, facial flushing, and reflex tachycardia in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hom, G J; Forrest, M J; Bach, T J; Brady, E; Candelore, M R; Cascieri, M A; Fletcher, D J; Fisher, M H; Iliff, S A; Mathvink, R; Metzger, J; Pecore, V; Saperstein, R; Shih, T; Weber, A E; Wyvratt, M; Zafian, P; MacIntyre, D E

    2001-04-01

    The effects of two beta(3)-adrenergic receptor agonists, (R)-4-[4-(3-cyclopentylpropyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-oxo-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]-N-[4-[2-[[2-hydroxy-2-(3-pyridinyl)ethyl]amino]ethyl]phenyl]benzenesulfonamide and (R)-N-[4-[2-[[2-hydroxy-2-(3-pyridinyl)- ethyl]amino]ethyl]phenyl]-1-(4-octylthiazol-2-yl)-5-indolinesulfonamide, on indices of metabolic and cardiovascular function were studied in anesthetized rhesus monkeys. Both compounds are potent and specific agonists at human and rhesus beta(3)-adrenergic receptors. Intravenous administration of either compound produced dose-dependent lipolysis, increase in metabolic rate, peripheral vasodilatation, and tachycardia with no effects on mean arterial pressure. The increase in heart rate in response to either compound was biphasic with an initial rapid component coincident with the evoked peripheral vasodilatation and a second more slowly developing phase contemporaneous with the evoked increase in metabolic rate. Because both compounds exhibited weak binding to and activation of rhesus beta(1)-adrenergic receptors in vitro, it was hypothesized that the increase in heart rate may be reflexogenic in origin and proximally mediated via release of endogenous norepinephrine acting at cardiac beta(1)-adrenergic receptors. This hypothesis was confirmed by determining that beta(3)-adrenergic receptor agonist-evoked tachycardia was attenuated in the presence of propranolol and in ganglion-blocked animals, under which conditions there was no reduction in the evoked vasodilatation, lipolysis, or increase in metabolic rate. It is not certain whether the beta(3)-adrenergic receptor-evoked vasodilatation is a direct effect of compounds at beta(3)-adrenergic receptors in the peripheral vasculature or is secondary to the release or generation of an endogenous vasodilator. Peripheral vasodilatation in response to beta(3)-adrenergic receptor agonist administration was not attenuated in animals administered mepyramine, indomethacin, or

  15. The roles of THY1 and integrin beta3 in cell adhesion during theca cell layer formation and the effect of follicle-stimulating hormone on THY1 and integrin beta3 localization in mouse ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Itami, Saori; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Sakai, Atsushi; Yasuda, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    The mechanism of theca cell layer formation in mammalian ovaries has not been elucidated. In the present study, we examined the roles of THY1 and integrin beta3 in theca cell layer formation during mouse folliculogenesis. The localization pattern of THY1 and integrin beta3 in adult mouse ovary was investigated immunohistochemically. The strongest THY1 signal was observed in theca cell layers from secondary to preantral follicles, at which time theca cells have begun to participate in follicle formation. Integrin beta3 also localized to the theca cell layer of secondary to preantral follicles and showed a localization pattern similar to that of THY1. Moreover, the role of THY1 in theca cell layer formation was examined using a follicle culture system. When anti-THY1 antibody was added to this culture, no theca cell layers were formed, and the granulosa cells were distanced from each other. Because a THY1 signal was not observed in ovaries at stages earlier than prepuberty, THY1 localization also appeared to be affected by mouse development. This possibility was examined by determining the effect of administering follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and 17beta-estradiol to 7-day-old mice on THY1 localization in the ovary 3 days later. Only follicle-stimulating hormone induced a THY1 signal in 10-day-old mouse ovaries. No THY1 signal was observed in untreated 10-day-old ovaries. In conclusion, THY1 might play a role in cell adhesion via binding to integrin beta3 in mouse ovaries. The present results suggest that THY1 localization may be affected by follicle-stimulating hormone in mouse ovaries.

  16. Involvement of PLC-beta3 in the effect of morphine on memory retrieval in passive avoidance task.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, E; Lehmann, D; Vivoli, E; Norcini, M; Ghelardini, C

    2010-06-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) is one signalling effector enzyme whose activity is directly modulated by opioids. Several physiological studies have implicated PLC-linked pathways in in-vivo pain regulation and opioid tolerance. Co-administration of PLC-beta(2/3) activity blocker M119 with morphine resulted in a dramatic increase in morphine-induced amnesic effect in mice, proving a role for beta subunit of PLC enzyme in these processes. Administration of morphine to mice at amnesic dose increased PLC-beta(3) activity, with respect to basal value, in the membrane-soluble material from anterior cortex and hippocampal formation in brain areas. PLC-beta(3) appears to be simultaneously implicated in both analgesic and amnesic effects induced by administration of morphine to mice suggesting a commonality in the molecular mechanisms of morphine-induced analgesia and memory impairment.

  17. Two human antibodies reacting with different epitopes on integrin beta 3 of platelets and endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jallu, V; Diaz-Ricart, M; Ordinas, A; Pico, M; Vezon, G; Nurden, A T

    1994-06-15

    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia is an inherited bleeding disorder that results from a deficit of glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complexes in platelets. Patient (EBV) is an adult male with GP IIb-IIIa levels < 5% of normal values and a history of blood transfusions. Western-blot analysis revealed a strong IgG antibody to GP IIIa in his plasma. The determinants were localized to the minimum-sized fragment of GP IIIa (50 kDa) retained on chymotrypsin-treated platelets and were lost on reduction of disulphides. A female patient (AF), previously described by us [Jallu, V., Pico, M., Chevaleyre, J., Vezon, G., Kunicki, T.J. & Nurden, A.T. (1992) Hum. Antibod. Hybridomas 3, 93-106] developed her anti-GP-IIIa antibody during pregnancy. This antibody was poorly reactive with the 50-kDa proteolytic fragment, yet bound to 115-kDa and 60-kDa hydrolytic products of GP IIIa. Antibodies from both patients recognized the GP-IIIa-like protein of endothelial cells, thus confirming that they were directed against the integrin beta 3-subunit. The (EBV) antibody reacted strongly with GP IIb-IIIa in an antigen capture assay performed with each of a panel of four murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing different epitopes on GP IIb-IIIa. In contrast, that from (AF) was specifically inhibited by AP-3, a murine mAb whose epitope is thought to be localized between amino acids 324-422 of GP IIIa. The residual GP IIb and GP IIIa contents of platelets from each patient were assessed in Western blotting using chemiluminescence detection. SZ-22, a murine mAb to the GP IIb heavy chain (140 kDa), located small amounts of a 130-kDa protein in (EBV) platelets. The anti-GP IIIa mAbs XII F9, P 37 and P 97 revealed trace amounts of protein with a relative mobility identical to that of GP IIIa in both (AF) and (EBV) platelets. This residual GP IIIa represented less than 0.5% of the amount in normal platelets. When, for each patient, plasma was tested in Western blotting against their own platelets

  18. CD31/PECAM-1 is a ligand for alpha v beta 3 integrin involved in adhesion of leukocytes to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    To protect the body efficiently from infectious organisms, leukocytes circulate as nonadherent cells in the blood and lymph, and migrate as adherent cells into tissues. Circulating leukocytes in the blood have first to adhere to and then to cross the endothelial lining. CD31/PECAM- 1 is an adhesion molecule expressed by vascular endothelial cells, platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and naive T lymphocytes. It is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily (IgSF), with six Ig-like homology units mediating leukocyte-endothelial interactions. The adhesive interactions mediated by CD31 are complex and include homophilic (CD31-CD31) or heterophilic (CD31-X) contacts. Soluble, recombinant forms of CD31 allowed us to study the heterophilic interactions in leukocyte adhesion assays. We show that the adhesion molecule alpha v beta 3 integrin is a ligand for CD31. The leukocytes revealed adhesion mediated by the second Ig-like domain of CD31, and this binding was inhibited by alpha v beta 3 integrin-specific antibodies. Moreover alpha v beta 3 was precipitated by recombinant CD31 from cell lysates. These data establish a third IgSF-integrin pair of adhesion molecules, CD31-alpha v beta 3 in addition to VCAM-1, MadCAM-1/alpha 4 integrins, and ICAM/beta 2 integrins, which are major components mediating leukocyte-endothelial adhesion. Identification of a further versatile adhesion pair broadens our current understanding of leukocyte-endothelial interactions and may provide the basis for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and metastasis formation. PMID:7542249

  19. Locking the beta3 integrin I-like domain into high and low affinity conformations with disulfides.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bing-Hao; Takagi, Junichi; Springer, Timothy A

    2004-03-12

    Although integrin alpha subunit I domains exist in multiple conformations, it is controversial whether integrin beta subunit I-like domains undergo structurally analogous movements of the alpha7-helix that are linked to affinity for ligand. Disulfide bonds were introduced into the beta(3) integrin I-like domain to lock its beta6-alpha7 loop and alpha7-helix in two distinct conformations. Soluble ligand binding, ligand mimetic mAb binding and cell adhesion studies showed that disulfide-bonded receptor alpha(IIb)beta(3)(T329C/A347C) was locked in a low affinity state, and dithiothreitol treatment restored the capability of being activated to high affinity binding; by contrast, disulfide-bonded alpha(IIb)beta(3)(V332C/M335C) was locked in a high affinity state. The results suggest that activation of the beta subunit I-like domain is analogous to that of the alpha subunit I domain, i.e. that axial movement in the C-terminal direction of the alpha7-helix is linked to rearrangement of the I-like domain metal ion-dependent adhesion site into a high affinity conformation.

  20. Identification of a mutation in the human raloxifene response element of the transforming growth factor-beta 3 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Han, K. O.; Kang, Y. S.; Hwang, C. S.; Moon, I. G.; Yim, C. H.; Chung, H. Y.; Jang, H. C.; Yoon, H. K.; Han, I. K.; Choi, Y. K.

    2001-01-01

    The human transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-beta 3) is an important cytokine to maintain bone mass by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Recently raloxifene response element (RRE), a new enhancer with a polypurine sequence for estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated gene activation, was identified on the TGF-beta 3 gene. Functional analysis of the RRE-mediated pathway has shown that this would be an important pathway for bone preserving effect. We found a novel mutation in the RRE sequence by single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis in one of 200 Korean women. Cloning and sequencing revealed a heterozygote in which one allele had an insertion of 20 nucleotides (AGAGAGGGAGAGGGAGA GGG) between nucleotide +71 and +72 and a point mutation at nucleotide +75 (G-A transition), and the other allele had normal sequence. The insertion was a nearly perfect tandem duplication of the wild type DNA sequence. The bone mineral density of the affected woman was not much lower than that of age-matched controls. Transient transfection of the mutant allele showed no significantly different activity compared with that of the wild type allele. These observations suggest that the heterozygote variation of the RRE sequence seems not to be operative in determination of bone mass. PMID:11641521

  1. Human melanoma cells derived from lymphatic metastases use integrin alpha v beta 3 to adhere to lymph node vitronectin.

    PubMed Central

    Nip, J; Shibata, H; Loskutoff, D J; Cheresh, D A; Brodt, P

    1992-01-01

    Human melanoma is a highly metastatic cancer and the regional lymph nodes are generally the first site of metastasis. Adhesion to cryostat sections of human lymph nodes was therefore studied using two human melanoma models established from lymph node metastases, namely, MeWo cell lines of diverse metastatic potentials and a highly metastatic cell line of recent origin designated MIM/8. We found a good correlation between the metastatic potentials of the melanoma cells as measured in nude mice and their ability to adhere to cryostat sections of human lymph nodes. When adhesion to immobilized extracellular matrix proteins was measured, a significant increase in adhesion, which correlated with increased metastasis, was seen mainly on vitronectin and to a lesser extent on fibronectin. The adhesion to vitronectin and to the frozen sections were specifically blocked by an RGD-containing peptide, mAb 661 to vitronectin and mAb LM609 to integrin alpha v beta 3. FACS analysis revealed a significant and specific increase in cell surface expression of alpha v beta 3 on the metastatic cells as compared to the parent line. Together these results suggest that the adhesion of melanoma cells to lymph node vitronectin via the alpha v beta 3 receptor plays a role in the process of lymphatic dissemination. Images PMID:1383272

  2. Eptifibatide-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis in humans require FcgammaRIIa and the integrin beta3 cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Cunji; Boylan, Brian; Bougie, Dan; Gill, Joan C; Birenbaum, Jessica; Newman, Debra K; Aster, Richard H; Newman, Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Thrombocytopenia and thrombosis following treatment with the integrin alphaIIbbeta3 antagonist eptifibatide are rare complications caused by patient antibodies specific for ligand-occupied alphaIIbbeta3. Whether such antibodies induce platelet clearance by simple opsonization, by inducing mild platelet activation, or both is poorly understood. To gain insight into the mechanism by which eptifibatide-dependent antibodies initiate platelet clearance, we incubated normal human platelets with patient serum containing an alphaIIbbeta3-specific, eptifibatide-dependent antibody. We observed that in the presence of eptifibatide, patient IgG induced platelet secretion and aggregation as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of the integrin beta3 cytoplasmic domain, the platelet FcgammaRIIa Fc receptor, the protein-tyrosine kinase Syk, and phospholipase Cgamma2. Each activation event was inhibited by preincubation of the platelets with Fab fragments of the FcgammaRIIa-specific mAb IV.3 or with the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2. Patient serum plus eptifibatide did not, however, activate platelets from a patient with a variant form of Glanzmann thrombasthenia that expressed normal levels of FcgammaRIIa and the alphaIIbbeta3 complex but lacked most of the beta3 cytoplasmic domain. Taken together, these data suggest a novel mechanism whereby eptifibatide-dependent antibodies engage the integrin beta3 subunit such that FcgammaRIIa and its downstream signaling components become activated, resulting in thrombocytopenia and a predisposition to thrombosis.

  3. The selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists at the human beta1, beta2 and beta3 adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jillian G

    2005-02-01

    Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists ("beta-blockers") are one of the most widely used classes of drugs in cardiovascular medicine (hypertension, ischaemic heart disease and increasingly in heart failure) as well as in the management of anxiety, migraine and glaucoma. Where known, the mode of action in cardiovascular disease is from antagonism of endogenous catecholamine responses in the heart (mainly at beta1-adrenoceptors), while the worrisome side effects of bronchospasm result from airway beta2-adrenoceptor blockade. The aim of this study was to determine the selectivity of beta-antagonists for the human beta-adrenoceptor subtypes. (3)H-CGP 12177 whole cell-binding studies were undertaken in CHO cell lines stably expressing either the human beta1-, beta2- or the beta3-adrenoceptor in order to determine the affinity of ligands for each receptor subtype in the same cell background. In this study, the selectivity of well-known subtype-selective ligands was clearly demonstrated: thus, the selective beta1 antagonist CGP 20712A was 501-fold selective over beta2 and 4169-fold selective over beta3; the beta2-selective antagonist ICI 118551 was 550- and 661-fold selective over beta1 and beta3, respectively, and the selective beta3 compound CL 316243 was 10-fold selective over beta2 and more than 129-fold selective over beta1. Those beta2-adrenoceptor agonists used clinically for the treatment of asthma and COPD were beta2 selective: 29-, 61- and 2818-fold for salbutamol, terbutaline and salmeterol over beta1, respectively. There was little difference in the affinity of these ligands between beta1 and beta3 adrenoceptors. The clinically used beta-antagonists studied ranged from bisoprolol (14-fold beta1-selective) to timolol (26-fold beta2-selective). However, the majority showed little selectivity for the beta1- over the beta2-adrenoceptor, with many actually being more beta2-selective. This study shows that the beta1/beta2 selectivity of most clinically used beta-blockers is

  4. Stimulation of [3H] GABA and beta-[3H] alanine release from rat brain slices by cis-4-aminocrotonic acid.

    PubMed

    Chebib, M; Johnston, G A

    1997-02-01

    cis-4-Aminocrotonic acid (CACA; 100 microM), an analogue of GABA in a folded conformation, stimulated the passive release of [3H] GABA from slices of rat cerebellum, cerebral cortex, retina, and spinal cord and of beta-[3H]alanine from slices of cerebellum and spinal cord without influencing potassium-evoked release. In contrast, CACA (100 microM) did not stimulate the passive release of [3H]taurine from slices of cerebellum and spinal cord or of D-[3H]aspartate from slices of cerebellum and did not influence potassium-evoked release of [3H]-taurine from the cerebellum and spinal cord and D-[3H]-aspartate from the cerebellum. These results suggest that the effects of CACA on GABA and beta-alanine release are due to CACA acting as a substrate for a beta-alanine-sensitive GABA transport system, consistent with CACA inhibiting the uptake of beta-[3H]alanine into slices of rat cerebellum and cerebral cortex. The observed Ki for CACA against beta-[3H]alanine uptake in the cerebellum was 750 +/- 60 microM. CACA appears to be 10-fold weaker as a substrate for the transporter system than as an agonist for the GABAc receptor. The effects of CACA on GABA and beta-alanine release provide indirect evidence for a GABA transporter in cerebellum, cerebral cortex, retina, and spinal cord that transports GABA, beta-alanine, CACA, and nipecotic acid that has a similar pharmacological profile to that of the GABA transporter, GAT-3, cloned from rat CNS. The structural similarities of GABA, beta-alanine, CACA, and nipecotic acid are demonstrated by computer-aided molecular modeling, providing information on the possible conformations of these substances being transported by a common carrier protein.

  5. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor-2/beta3 Integrin Expression Profile: Signature of Local Progression After Chemoradiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Massabeau, Carole; Rouquette, Isabelle; Lauwers-Cances, Valerie; Mazieres, Julien; Bachaud, Jean-Marc; Armand, Jean-Pierre; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Favre, Gilles; Toulas, Christine; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, Elizabeth

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: No biologic signature of chemoradiotherapy sensitivity has been reported for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have previously demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and alphavbeta3 integrin pathways control tumor radioresistance. We investigated whether the expression of the proteins involved in these pathways might be associated with the response to treatment and, therefore, the clinical outcome. Methods and Materials: FGF-2, beta3 integrin, angiopoietin-2, and syndecan-1 expression was studied using immunohistochemistry performed on biopsies obtained, before any treatment, from 65 patients exclusively treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced NSCLC. The response to treatment was evaluated according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria using computed tomography at least 6 weeks after the end of the chemoradiotherapy. Local progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival, and disease-free survival were studied using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results: Among this NSCLC biopsy population, 43.7% overexpressed beta3 integrin (beta3{sup +}), 43% FGF-2 (FGF-2{sup +}), 41.5% syndecan-1, and 59.4% angiopoietin-2. Our results showed a strong association between FGF-2 and beta3 integrin expression (p = .001). The adjusted hazard ratio of local recurrence for FGF-2{sup +}/beta3{sup +} tumors compared with FGF-2{sup -}/beta3{sup -} tumors was 6.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-14.6, p = .005). However, the risk of local recurrence was not increased when tumors overexpressed beta3 integrin or FGF-2 alone. Moreover, the co-expression of these two proteins was marginally associated with the response to chemoradiotherapy and metastasis-free survival. Conclusion: The results of this study have identified the combined profile FGF-2/beta3 integrin expression as a signature of local control in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced

  6. Hypoplasia of spiral and Scarpa's ganglion cells in GABA(A) receptor beta(3) subunit knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ja-Won; Homanics, Gregg E; Balaban, Carey D

    2002-05-01

    This study documents morphologic alterations in the spiral ganglion and Scarpa's ganglion from gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor beta(3) subunit null mutant mice. The ganglion cells of the mutant mice were hypoplastic in hematoylin&eosin-stained sections. Hypoplasia was observed at every location of the spiral ganglion and Scarpa's ganglion except the apical cochlear turn. Calretinin immunostaining demonstrated a selective hypoplasia of calretinin-negative cells at every location of spiral and Scarpa's ganglion cells, while the soma area of calretinin-positive cells was not affected by the gene deletion. Meanwhile, in the spiral ganglion of both wild type and knockout mice, there were apical to basal gradients in the soma size and the proportion of calretinin-positive cells. The absence of statistically significant hypoplasia in hematoylin&eosin sections through the apical turn of the cochlea can be explained by the relatively higher proportion of calretinin-positive ganglion cells, which were unaffected by the gene deletion. These findings suggest that GABA(A) receptor isoforms containing the beta(3) subunit may play an important role in the development and differentiation of non-calyceal terminals of Scarpa's ganglion cells and type II and smaller type I spiral ganglion cells.

  7. [C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 gene codifying the G-protein beta3-subunit and cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Sartori, Michelangelo; Parotto, Emanuela; Ceolotto, Giulio; Papparella, Italia; Lenzini, Livia; Calò, Lorenzo A; Semplicini, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disorder of multifactorial origin that constitutes a major risk factor for cardiovascular events such as stroke and myocardial infarction. The subunits of the heterotrimeric G proteins are attractive candidate gene products for both susceptibility to essential hypertension and interindividual variation in blood pressure. A polymorphism (825C/T) in exon 10 of the GNB3 gene, that encodes for the beta3 subunit, has recently been described. The 825T allele is associated with alternative splicing of the gene and formation of a truncated but functionally active beta3 subunit. Carriers of the 825T allele appear to have an increased risk for hypertension, obesity, insulin-resistance and left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, 825T allele carriers respond with a stronger decrease in blood pressure to therapy with a thiazide diuretic and with clonidine. GNB3 825T allele may be regarded as a potential genetic marker for a better definition of the risk profile of hypertensive subjects, but further studies are needed to precisely define the impact of T allele on the prognosis of such patients.

  8. Glioblastoma expression of vitronectin and the alpha v beta 3 integrin. Adhesion mechanism for transformed glial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gladson, C L; Cheresh, D A

    1991-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant astroglial-derived tumor, grows as an adherent mass and locally invades normal brain. An examination of adult cerebral glioblastoma biopsy material for the expression of adhesive proteins that might potentiate adhesion and invasion demonstrated tumor cell-associated vitronectin (5/5). In contrast, vitronectin was not detected associated with glial cells in low grade astroglial tumors (0/4), reactive astrogliosis (0/4), or in normal adult cortex and cerebral white matter (0/5). Also, a wide variety of other adhesive ligands were absent from the glioblastoma tumor parenchyma. The alpha v beta 3 integrin was the only vitronectin receptor identified in glioblastoma tumors in situ, and was also not expressed on low grade astroglial-derived tumors, reactive astrogliosis, or on glia or neurons in normal adult cortex and cerebral white matter. In a cell attachment assay, cultured glioblastoma cells attached to the parenchyma of glioblastoma tumor cryostat sections at the sites of vitronectin expression, but failed to attach to normal brain. This adhesion was inhibited by antibodies directed against vitronectin, the alpha v beta 3 integrin, and with an Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptide. These data provide evidence for a cell adhesion mechanism in glioblastoma tumors that might potentiate glioblastoma cell invasion of normal brain. Images PMID:1721625

  9. Three-dimensional MR mapping of angiogenesis with alpha5beta1(alpha nu beta3)-targeted theranostic nanoparticles in the MDA-MB-435 xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Schmieder, Anne H; Caruthers, Shelton D; Zhang, Huiying; Williams, Todd A; Robertson, J David; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2008-12-01

    Our objectives were 1) to characterize angiogenesis in the MDA-MB-435 xenograft mouse model with three-dimensional (3D) MR molecular imaging using alpha(5)beta(1)(RGD)- or irrelevant RGS-targeted paramagnetic nanoparticles and 2) to use MR molecular imaging to assess the antiangiogenic effectiveness of alpha(5)beta(1)(alpha(nu)beta(3))- vs. alpha(nu)beta(3)-targeted fumagillin (50 mug/kg) nanoparticles. Tumor-bearing mice were imaged with MR before and after administration of either alpha(5)beta(1)(RGD) or irrelevant RGS-paramagnetic nanoparticles. In experiment 2, mice received saline or alpha(5)beta(1)(alpha(nu)beta(3))- or alpha(nu)beta(3)-targeted fumagillin nanoparticles on days 7, 11, 15, and 19 posttumor implant. On day 22, MRI was performed using alpha(5)beta(1)(alpha(nu)beta(3))-targeted paramagnetic nanoparticles to monitor the antiangiogenic response. 3D reconstructions of alpha(5)beta(1)(RGD)-signal enhancement revealed a sparse, asymmetrical pattern of angiogenesis along the tumor periphery, which occupied <2.0% tumor surface area. alpha(5)beta(1)-targeted rhodamine nanoparticles colocalized with FITC-lectin corroborated the peripheral neovascular signal. alpha(5)beta(1)(alpha(nu)beta(3))-fumagillin nanoparticles decreased neovasculature to negligible levels relative to control; alpha(nu)beta(3)-targeted fumagillin nanoparticles were less effective (P>0.05). Reduction of angiogenesis in MDA-MB-435 tumors from low to negligible levels did not decrease tumor volume. MR molecular imaging may be useful for characterizing tumors with sparse neovasculature that are unlikely to have a reduced growth response to targeted antiangiogenic therapy.

  10. Beta3 subunits promote expression and nicotine-induced up-regulation of human nicotinic alpha6* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in transfected cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tumkosit, Prem; Kuryatov, Alexander; Luo, Jie; Lindstrom, Jon

    2006-10-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) containing alpha6 subunits are typically found at aminergic nerve endings where they play important roles in nicotine addiction and Parkinson's disease. alpha6* AChRs usually contain beta3 subunits. beta3 subunits are presumed to assemble only in the accessory subunit position within AChRs where they do not participate in forming acetylcholine binding sites. Assembly of subunits in the accessory position may be a critical final step in assembly of mature AChRs. Human alpha6 AChRs subtypes were permanently transfected into human tsA201 human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell lines. alpha6beta2beta3 and alpha6beta4beta3 cell lines were found to express much larger amounts of AChRs and were more sensitive to nicotine-induced increase in the amount of AChRs than were alpha6beta2 or alpha6beta4 cell lines. The increased sensitivity to nicotine-induced up-regulation was due not to a beta3-induced increase in affinity for nicotine but probably to a direct effect on assembly of AChR subunits. HEK cells express only a small amount of mature alpha6beta2 AChRs, but many of these subunits are on the cell surface. This contrasts with Xenopus laevis oocytes, which express a large amount of incorrectly assembled alpha6beta2 subunits that bind cholinergic ligands but form large amorphous intracellular aggregates. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were made to the alpha6 and beta3 subunits to aid in the characterization of these AChRs. The alpha6 mAbs bind to epitopes C-terminal of the extracellular domain. These data demonstrate that both cell type and the accessory subunit beta3 can play important roles in alpha6* AChR expression, stability, and up-regulation by nicotine.

  11. Crystal structure of the extracellular segment of integrin {alpha}V{beta}3 in complex with an Arg-Gly-Asp ligand.

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, J.-P.; Stehle, T.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Goodman, S.; Arnaout, M. A.; Biosciences Division; Massachusetts General Hospital; Harvard Medical School

    2002-04-05

    The structural basis for the divalent cation-dependent binding of heterodimeric alpha beta integrins to their ligands, which contain the prototypical Arg-Gly-Asp sequence, is unknown. Interaction with ligands triggers tertiary and quaternary structural rearrangements in integrins that are needed for cell signaling. Here we report the crystal structure of the extracellular segment of integrin alpha Vbeta 3 in complex with a cyclic peptide presenting the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. The ligand binds at the major interface between the alpha V and beta 3 subunits and makes extensive contacts with both. Both tertiary and quaternary changes are observed in the presence of ligand. The tertiary rearrangements take place in beta A, the ligand-binding domain of beta 3; in the complex, beta A acquires two cations, one of which contacts the ligand Asp directly and the other stabilizes the ligand-binding surface. Ligand binding induces small changes in the orientation of alpha V relative to beta 3.

  12. The adhesive and migratory effects of osteopontin are mediated via distinct cell surface integrins. Role of alpha v beta 3 in smooth muscle cell migration to osteopontin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, L; Skinner, M P; Raines, E W; Ross, R; Cheresh, D A; Schwartz, S M; Giachelli, C M

    1995-01-01

    Osteopontin is an arginine-glycine-aspartate containing acidic glycoprotein postulated to mediate adhesion, migration, and biomineralization in diverse tissues. The mechanisms explaining this multifunctionality are not well understood, although it is known that one osteopontin receptor is the alpha v beta 3 integrin. In this work, we studied human smooth muscle cells varying in alpha v beta 3 levels to identify additional osteopontin receptors. We report that, in addition to alpha v beta 3, both alpha v beta 5 and alpha v beta 1 are osteopontin receptors. Moreover, the presence or absence of alpha v beta 3 on the cell surface altered the adhesive and migratory responses of smooth muscle cells to osteopontin. Adhesion of alpha v beta 3-deficient cell populations to osteopontin was only half that of cells containing alpha v beta 3, and migration toward an osteopontin gradient in the Boyden chamber was dependent on cell surface alpha v beta 3. Although alpha v beta 3-deficient smooth muscle cells were unable to migrate to osteopontin, they did migrate significantly in response to vitronectin and fibronectin. These findings represent the first description of alpha v beta 5 and alpha v beta 1 as osteopontin receptors and suggest that, while adhesion to osteopontin is supported by integrins containing beta 1, beta 3, and beta 5, migration in response to osteopontin appears to depend on alpha v beta 3. Thus, interaction with distinct receptors is one mechanism by which osteopontin may initiate multiple functions. Images PMID:7532190

  13. Immunohistochemical study of thrombospondin and its receptors alpha root of beta 3 and CD36 in normal thyroid and in thyroid tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Patey, M; Delemer, B; Bellon, G; Martiny, L; Pluot, M; Haye, B

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To describe the pattern of distribution of thrombospondin (TSP1) and its receptors, alpha root of beta 3 integrin and CD36, in normal human thyroid tissue and to compare their expression in different benign and malignant thyroid conditions. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to study TSP1 and its receptors in 40 surgical thyroidectomy specimens (normal parenchyma, 7; follicular adenoma, 4; multinodular goitre, 13; papillary carcinoma, 6; follicular carcinoma, 8; anaplastic carcinoma, 2). RESULTS: In the normal thyroid parenchyma, there was weak expression of TSP1 limited to the vessels with no staining of the extracellular matrix. In goitres, the expression of TSP1 was more pronounced in areas of fibrosis, with staining of alpha root of beta 3 on thyrocytes located in the vicinity. In thyroid adenomas, expression of TSP1 was slightly enhanced compared with normal tissue, located in the basement membrane of vessels. In papillary carcinomas, TSP1 was abundant in the desmoplastic stroma with a cytoplasmic distribution of alpha root of beta 3 integrin in thyrocytes. In follicular carcinomas, TSP1 was less abundant in the extracellular matrix, limited to the vessels of the stroma with a weaker expression of alpha root of beta 3 on thyrocytes than in papillary carcinomas. In anaplastic carcinomas, TSP1 was only present in the numerous capillaries of the stroma, with a marked positivity for alpha root of beta 3 in one case. No immunostaining of thyrocytes is observed with CD36. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the importance of the interaction between alpha root of beta 3 integrin and TSP1 during remodelling of the matrix in fibrous goitres with areas of early sclerosis comparable with wound healing. In papillary carcinomas, the overexpression of TSP1 restricted to the stroma suggests protective effects against tumour progression. Images PMID:10711252

  14. Cloning of the {beta}3 chain gene (LAMB3) of human laminin 5, a candidate gene in junctional epidermolysis bullosa

    SciTech Connect

    Pulkkinen, L.; Christiano, A.M.; Uitto, J.

    1995-01-01

    Laminin 5 consists of three polypeptides, {alpha}3, {beta}3, and {gamma}2, encoded by the genes LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, respectively. In this study, we have elucidated the exon-intron organization of the human LAMB3 gene. Characterization of five overlapping {lambda} phage DNA clones revealed that the gene was approximately 29 kb in size. Subsequent sequence data revealed that the gene consisted of 23 exons that varied from 64 to 379 bp in size, accounting for the full-length cDNA with an open reading frame of 3516 hp encoding 1172 amino acids. Comparison of the LAMB3 gene structure with the previously characterized LAMB1 gene revealed that LAMB3 was considerably more compact. Knowledge of the exon-intron organization of the LAMB3 gene will facilitate elucidation of mutations in patients with the junctional forms of epidermolysis bullosa, some of which have been associated with mutations in the laminin 5 genes. 33 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Deficiency of the beta 3 subunit of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor causes cleft palate in mice.

    PubMed

    Culiat, C T; Stubbs, L J; Woychik, R P; Russell, L B; Johnson, D K; Rinchik, E M

    1995-11-01

    In addition to its function in the nervous system, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated in mouse craniofacial development by the results of both teratological, and genetic studies. We previously reported that disruption of the cleft palate 1 (cp1) locus, closely linked to the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus on mouse chromosome 7, causes a 95% penetrant, recessive, neonatally-lethal cleft palate (CP) in mice homozygous for the p(4THO-II) deletion. We proposed that the beta 3 subunit gene (Gabrb3) of the GABAA receptor might be a candidate for cp1 (ref. 4); our earlier studies had localized cp1 to an interval beginning distal to the gene for the GABAA receptor alpha 5 subunit (Gabra5) and ending within the Gabrb3 coding region. To test the hypothesis that deletion of Gabrb3, and not another gene in the interval, causes CP, we performed an experiment to rescue the CP phenotype by introducing a Gabrb3 transgene into p(4THO-II) homozygotes. We now show that such transgenic mice are phenotypically normal, indicating that Gabrb3 is indeed the cp1 locus.

  16. Three-dimensional EM structure of the ectodomain of integrin {alpha}V{beta}3 in a complex with fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Adair, Brian D; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Maddock, Catherine; Goodman, Simon L; Arnaout, M Amin; Yeager, Mark

    2005-03-28

    Integrins are alphabeta heterodimeric cell surface receptors that mediate transmembrane signaling by binding extracellular and cytoplasmic ligands. The ectodomain of integrin alphaVbeta3 crystallizes in a bent, genuflexed conformation considered to be inactive (unable to bind physiological ligands in solution) unless it is fully extended by activating stimuli. We generated a stable, soluble complex of the Mn(2+)-bound alphaVbeta3 ectodomain with a fragment of fibronectin (FN) containing type III domains 7 to 10 and the EDB domain (FN7-EDB-10). Transmission electron microscopy and single particle image analysis were used to determine the three-dimensional structure of this complex. Most alphaVbeta3 particles, whether unliganded or FN-bound, displayed compact, triangular shapes. A difference map comparing ligand-free and FN-bound alphaVbeta3 revealed density that could accommodate the RGD-containing FN10 in proximity to the ligand-binding site of beta3, with FN9 just adjacent to the synergy site binding region of alphaV. We conclude that the ectodomain of alphaVbeta3 manifests a bent conformation that is capable of stably binding a physiological ligand in solution.

  17. ‘Normalizing' the malignant phenotype of luminal breast cancer cells via alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Tayeh, Hanan; Weidenfeld, Keren; Zhilin-Roth, Alisa; Schif-Zuck, Sagi; Thaler, Sonja; Cotarelo, Cristina; Tan, Tuan Z; Thiery, Jean P; Green, Jeffrey E; Klorin, Geula; Sabo, Edmond; Sleeman, Jonathan P; Tzukerman, Maty; Barkan, Dalit

    2016-01-01

    Reestablishing tissue organization of breast cancer cells into acini was previously shown to override their malignant phenotype. In our study, we demonstrate that alpha(v)beta(3) integrin (Int-αvβ3), previously shown to play a role in cancer progression, promoted differentiation and growth arrest of organoids derived from luminal A breast cancer cells grown in their relevant three-dimensional microenvironment. These organoids differentiated into normal-like acini resembling a benign stage of breast tissue. Likewise, we demonstrate that Int-αvβ3 is selectively expressed in the epithelium of the benign stage of breast tissues, and is lost during the early stages of luminal A breast cancer progression. Notably, the organoids' reversion into normal-like acini was mediated by cancer luminal progenitor-like cells expressing both EpCAMhighCD49flowCD24+ and Int-αvβ3. Furthermore, downregulation of Notch4 expression and downstream signaling was shown to mediate Int-αvβ3-induced reversion. Intriguingly, when luminal A breast cancer cells expressing Int-αvβ3 were injected into a humanized mouse model, differentiated tumors developed when compared with that generated by control cells. Hence, our data suggest that promoting differentiation of luminal A breast cancer cells by signaling emanating from Int-αvβ3 can potentially promote ‘normalization' of their malignant phenotype and may prevent the malignant cells from progressing. PMID:27906177

  18. Leptin upregulates beta3-integrin expression and interleukin-1beta, upregulates leptin and leptin receptor expression in human endometrial epithelial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, R R; Leavis, P

    2001-10-01

    Human endometrium and endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) either cultured alone or cocultured with human embryos express leptin and leptin receptor. This study compares the effect of leptin with that of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) on the expression of beta3-EEC integrin, a marker of endometrial receptivity. Both cytokines increased the expression of beta3-EEC at concentrations in the range of 0.06-3 nM; however, leptin exhibited a significantly greater effect than IL-1beta. We also determined the regulatory effects of IL-1beta on leptin secretion and on the expression of leptin and leptin receptor at the protein level in both EEC and endometrial stromal cell (ESC) cultures. In EEC cultures, IL-1beta upregulated secretion of leptin and expression of both leptin and leptin receptors. No effect of IL-1beta was found in the ESC cultures. However, leptin exhibited marginal upregulation of leptin receptor. The upregulation of beta3-integrin and leptin/leptin receptor expression by IL-1beta in EEC cultures indicates that both cytokines may be implicated in embryonic-maternal cross-talk during the early phase of human implantation. Our present data also raise the possibility that leptin is an endometrial molecular effector of IL-1beta action on beta3-integrin upregulation. Thus, a new role for leptin in human reproduction as an autocrine/paracrine regulator of endometrial receptivity is proposed.

  19. Integrin beta3 regions controlling binding of murine mAb 7E3: implications for the mechanism of integrin alphaIIbbeta3 activation.

    PubMed

    Artoni, Andrea; Li, JiHong; Mitchell, Beau; Ruan, Jian; Takagi, Junichi; Springer, Timothy A; French, Deborah L; Coller, Barry S

    2004-09-07

    Abciximab, a derivative of the murine mAb 7E3, protects against ischemic complications of percutaneous coronary interventions by inhibiting ligand binding to the alphaIIbbeta3 receptor. In this study we identified regions on integrin beta3 that control 7E3 binding. Murine/human amino acid substitutions were created in two regions of the betaA domain that previous studies found to influence 7E3 binding: the C177-C184 loop and K125-N133. The T182N substitution and a K125Q mutation reduced 7E3 binding to human beta3 in complex with alphaIIb. The introduction of both the human C177-C184 region and human W129 into murine beta3 was necessary and sufficient to permit 7E3 binding to the human alphaIIb/murine beta3 complex. Although we cannot exclude allosteric effects, we propose that 7E3 binds between C177-C184 and W129, which are within 15 A of each other in the crystal structure and close to the beta3 metal ion-dependent adhesion site. We previously demonstrated that 7E3 binds more rapidly to activated than unactivated platelets. Because it has been proposed that alphaIIbbeta3 changes from a bent to an extended conformation upon activation, we hypothesized that 7E3 binds less well to the bent than the extended conformation. In support of this hypothesis we found that 7E3 bound less well to an alphaIIbbeta3 construct locked in a bent conformation, and unlocking the conformation restored 7E3 binding. Thus, our data are consistent with alphaIIbbeta3 existing in variably bent conformations in equilibrium with each other on unactivated platelets, and activation resulting in alphaIIbbeta3 adopting a more extended conformation.

  20. T cell receptor repertoire differences between African Americans and Caucasians associated with polymorphism of the TCRBV3S1 (V{beta}3.1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    De Inocencio, J.; Glass, D.N.; Hirsch, R.

    1995-05-01

    The generation of TCR diversity occurs primarily through rearrangement of germline DNA. Genetic polymorphism of the TCR chains appears to be a rarer mechanism for generating repertoire differences between races. Flow cytometric analysis of the TCR V{beta} repertoire in a population of healthy African Americans (n = 30) and Caucasians (n = 30) revealed a significant difference in the frequency of cells bearing V{beta}3.1, but not V{beta}2, V{beta}5.1, V{beta}5.2-5.3, V{beta}6.7, V{beta}8.1-8.2, V{beta}12.1, V{beta}13.3, or V{beta}19. African Americans had a significantly lower frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells, in both the CD4{sup +} (2.55 {+-} 0.36% vs 4.85 {+-} 0.43%, p = 0.0001) and the CD8{sup +} (3.03 {+-} 0.54% vs 5.32 {+-} 0.57%, p = 0.004) population than did Caucasians, and this difference was independent of the age of the individuals. Analysis of genomic DNA revealed that the observed differences in frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells correlated with a recently described polymorphism of the recombination signal sequence of the TCRBV3S1 gene. Allele 1, associated with a lower frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells, was more commonly present in African Americans (0.68 vs 0.43), whereas allele 2, associated with a higher frequency of V{beta}3.1{sup +} cells, was more commonly present in Caucasians (0.31 vs 0.56). This study demonstrates the potential for TCR repertoire differences, based on genetic polymorphism, between African Americans and Caucasians. 31 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Molecular imaging of angiogenesis in nascent Vx-2 rabbit tumors using a novel alpha(nu)beta3-targeted nanoparticle and 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Winter, Patrick M; Caruthers, Shelton D; Kassner, Andrea; Harris, Thomas D; Chinen, Lori K; Allen, John S; Lacy, Elizabeth K; Zhang, Huiying; Robertson, J David; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2003-09-15

    Early noninvasive detection and characterization of solid tumors and their supporting neovasculature is a fundamental prerequisite for effective therapeutic intervention, particularly antiangiogenic treatment regimens. Emerging molecular imaging techniques now allow recognition of early biochemical, physiological, and anatomical changes before manifestation of gross pathological changes. Although new tumor, vascular, extracellular matrix, and lymphatic biomarkers continue to be discovered, the alpha(nu)beta(3)-integrin remains an attractive biochemical epitope that is highly expressed on activated neovascular endothelial cells and essentially absent on mature quiescent cells. In this study, we report the first in vivo use of a magnetic resonance (MR) molecular imaging nanoparticle to sensitively detect and spatially characterize neovascularity induced by implantation of the rabbit Vx-2 tumor using a common clinical field strength (1.5T). New Zealand White rabbits (2 kg) 12 days after implantation of fresh Vx-2 tumors (2 x 2 x 2 mm(3)) were randomized into one of three treatment groups: (a) alpha(nu)beta(3)-targeted, paramagnetic formulation; (b) nontargeted, paramagnetic formulation; and (c) alpha(nu)beta(3)-targeted nonparamagnetic nanoparticles followed by (2 h) the alpha(nu)beta(3)-targeted, paramagnetic formulation to competitively block magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal enhancement. After i.v. systemic injection (0.5 ml of nanoparticles/kg), dynamic T(1)-weighted MRI was used to spatially and temporally determine nanoparticle deposition in the tumor and adjacent tissues, including skeletal muscle. At 2-h postinjection, alpha(nu)beta(3)-targeted paramagnetic nanoparticles increased MRI signal by 126% in asymmetrically distributed regions primarily in the periphery of the tumor. Similar increases in MR contrast were also observed within the walls of some vessels proximate to the tumor. Despite their relatively large size, nanoparticles penetrated into the

  2. Regulatory elements in the first intron contribute to transcriptional regulation of the beta 3 tubulin gene by 20-hydroxyecdysone in Drosophila Kc cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bruhat, A; Tourmente, S; Chapel, S; Sobrier, M L; Couderc, J L; Dastugue, B

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the transcriptional regulation of the beta 3 tubulin gene by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OH-E) in Drosophila Kc cells. A series of hybrid genes with varying tubulin gene lengths driving the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) gene were constructed. The promoter activity was assayed after transient expression in Kc cells, in the presence or absence of 20-OH-E. We find that 0.91Kb upstream from the transcription start site contain one or several hormone independent positive cis-acting elements, responsible for the constitutive expression of the beta 3 tubulin gene. In the large (4.5 Kb) first intron of this gene, we identified additional hormone dependent negative and positive regulatory elements, which can act in both directions and in a position-independence manner. Then, the negative intron element(s), which repress the transcription in the absence of 20-OH-E has characteristics of silencer. Images PMID:2349088

  3. An RGD spacing of 440 nm is sufficient for integrin alpha V beta 3- mediated fibroblast spreading and 140 nm for focal contact and stress fiber formation

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The synthetic peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Tyr (GRGDY), which contains the RGD sequence of several adhesion molecules, was covalently grafted to the surface of otherwise poorly adhesive glass substrates and was used to determine the minimal number of ligand-receptor interactions required for complete spreading of human foreskin fibroblasts. Well- defined adhesion substrates were prepared with GRGDY between 10(-3) fmol/cm2 and 10(4) fmol/cm2. As the adhesion ligand surface concentration was varied, several distinct morphologies of adherent cells were observed and categorized. The population of fully spread cells at 4 h reached a maximum at 1 fmol/cm2, with no further increases up to 10(4) fmol/cm2. Although maximal cell spreading was obtained at 1 fmol/cm2, focal contacts and stress fibers failed to form at RGD surface concentrations below 10 fmol/cm2. The minimal peptide spacings obtained in this work correspond to 440 nm for spreading and 140 nm for focal contact formation, and are much larger than those reported in previous studies with adsorbed adhesion proteins, adsorbed RGD-albumin conjugates, or peptide-grafted polyacrylamide gels. Vitronectin receptor antiserum specific for integrin alpha V beta 3 blocked cell adhesion and spreading on substrates containing 100 fmol/cm2 of surface- bound GRGDY, while fibronectin receptor antiserum specific for alpha 5 beta 1 did not. Furthermore, alpha V beta 3 was observed to cluster into focal contacts in spread cells, but alpha 5 beta 1 did not. It was thus concluded that a peptide-to-peptide spacing of 440 nm was required for alpha V beta 3-mediated cellular spreading, while 140 nm was required for alpha V beta 3-mediated focal contact formation and normal stress fiber organization in human foreskin fibroblasts; these spacings represent much fewer ligands than were previously thought to be required. PMID:1714913

  4. Genomic organization and complete cDNA sequence of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C {beta}3 gene (PLCB3)

    SciTech Connect

    Lagercrantz, J.; Carson, E.; Phelan, C.

    1995-04-10

    We have characterized the complete cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and expression of the human phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C {beta}3 (PLC {beta}3) gene (gene symbol PLCB3). PLC {beta}3 plays an important role in initiating receptor-mediated signal transduction. Activation of PLC takes place in many cells as a response to stimulation by hormones, growth factors, neurotransmitters, and other ligands. The partial cDNA sequence of PLC {beta}3, previously published, was extended with 876 bp in the 5{prime} direction, giving a transcript of 4400 bp and a total open reading frame of 1234 amino acids. This was in accordance with expression analysis by Northern blotting that revealed a single 4.4-kb transcript in all tissues tested. Genomic data were obtained by sequencing plasmid subclones of a cosmid that contained the whole gene. The size of the complete transcription unit was estimated to be on the order of 15 kb. The gene contains 31 exons, with all splice donor and acceptor sites conforming to the GT/AG rule. No exon exceeds 571 bp in length, and the shortest exon spans only 36 bp. More than half of the introns are smaller than 200 bp, with the smallest being only 79 bp long. The transcription initiation site was determined to be within an 8-bp cluster 328-321 bp upstream of the translation initiation site. The 5{prime} flanking region is highly GC rich, with multiple CpG doublets, and contains multiple binding sites for Sp1. Lacking typical transcriptional regulatory sequences such as TATA and CAAT boxes, the putative promoter region conforms to the group of housekeeping promoters. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Endogenous IGF-I and alpha v beta3 integrin ligands regulate increased smooth muscle growth in TNBS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Hazelgrove, Krystina B; Flynn, Robert S; Qiao, Li-Ya; Grider, John R; Kuemmerle, John F

    2009-06-01

    Endogenous insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates intestinal smooth muscle growth by concomitantly stimulating proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. IGF-I-stimulated growth is augmented by the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin ligands vitronectin and fibronectin. IGF-I expression in smooth muscle is increased in both TNBS-induced colitis and Crohn's disease. We hypothesized that intestinal inflammation increased vitronectin and fibronectin expression by smooth muscle and, along with IGF-I upregulation, increased intestinal muscle growth. Intestinal smooth muscle cells were examined 7 days following the induction of TNBS-induced colitis. Although alpha(v)beta(3) integrin expression was not altered by TNBS-induced colitis, vitronectin and fibronectin levels were increased by 80 +/- 10% and 90 +/- 15%, above control levels, respectively. Basal IGF-I receptor phosphorylation in inflamed muscle from TNBS-treated rats was increased by 86 +/- 8% over vehicle-treated controls. Basal ERK1/2, p70S6 kinase, and GSK-3beta phosphorylation in muscle cells of TNBS-treated rats were also increased by 140-180%. TNBS treatment increased basal muscle cell proliferation by 130 +/- 15% and decreased apoptosis by 20 +/- 2% compared with that in vehicle-treated controls. The changes in proliferation and apoptosis were reversed by an IGF-I receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor or an alpha(v)beta(3) integrin antagonist. The results suggest that smooth muscle hyperplasia in TNBS-induced colitis partly results from the upregulation of endogenous IGF-I and ligands of alpha(v)beta(3) integrin that mediate increased smooth muscle cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis. This paper has identified one mechanism regulating smooth muscle hyperplasia, a feature of stricture formation that occurs in the chronically inflamed intestine of TNBS-induced colitis and potentially Crohn's disease.

  6. Growth factor expression during rat development: a comparison of TGF-beta 3, TGF-alpha, bFGF, PDGF and PDGF-R.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, P. B.; Quirke, P.; Sorensen, C. M.; Nehlsen-Cannarella, S. L.; Bailey, L. L.; Knight, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    At least part of the mechanism underlying fetal development appears to be the production of a number of growth factors considered important in the process of tumour formation. Using immunocytochemistry, we have investigated the temporal and spatial pattern of expression of some of the important growth factors, by the fetus. We describe here the cellular localization of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-beta 3), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor (PDGF-R), TGF-alpha and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in the fetal rat from day 13 to 21 of gestation. Using antisera raised against an N-terminal portion of TGF-beta 3, immunoreactivity peaked around day 16 and was seen predominantly within epithelial cells. However, using antisera raised against the C-terminal of this molecule immunoreactivity was seen exclusively within the extracellular matrix underlying adjacent epithelia, and was maintained up until day 21 of gestation. Strong expression of TGF-alpha was seen in cells of most organs throughout the gestation period studied. Immunoreactivity for bFGF, PDGF and PDGF-R peaked around day 18 in both epithelial and mesenchymal cells of all major organ systems and then declined by day 21. These data suggest distinct roles for each factor during embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8471538

  7. NHERF2 specifically interacts with LPA2 receptor and defines the specificity and efficiency of receptor-mediated phospholipase C-beta3 activation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yong-Seok; Jo, Nam Won; Choi, Jung Woong; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Seo, Sang-Won; Kang, Kyung-Ok; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Heo, Kyun; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, In-Hoo; Kim, Jae Ho; Banno, Yoshiko; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2004-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activates a family of cognate G protein-coupled receptors and is involved in various pathophysiological processes. However, it is not clearly understood how these LPA receptors are specifically coupled to their downstream signaling molecules. This study found that LPA(2), but not the other LPA receptor isoforms, specifically interacts with Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor2 (NHERF2). In addition, the interaction between them requires the C-terminal PDZ domain-binding motif of LPA(2) and the second PDZ domain of NHERF2. Moreover, the stable expression of NHERF2 potentiated LPA-induced phospholipase C-beta (PLC-beta) activation, which was markedly attenuated by either a mutation in the PDZ-binding motif of LPA(2) or by the gene silencing of NHERF2. Using its second PDZ domain, NHERF2 was found to indirectly link LPA(2) to PLC-beta3 to form a complex, and the other PLC-beta isozymes were not included in the protein complex. Consistently, LPA(2)-mediated PLC-beta activation was specifically inhibited by the gene silencing of PLC-beta3. In addition, NHERF2 increases LPA-induced ERK activation, which is followed by cyclooxygenase-2 induction via a PLC-dependent pathway. Overall, the results suggest that a ternary complex composed of LPA(2), NHERF2, and PLC-beta3 may play a key role in the LPA(2)-mediated PLC-beta signaling pathway.

  8. Discovery and development of avotermin (recombinant human transforming growth factor beta 3): a new class of prophylactic therapeutic for the improvement of scarring.

    PubMed

    Occleston, Nick L; O'Kane, Sharon; Laverty, Hugh G; Cooper, Mark; Fairlamb, David; Mason, Tracey; Bush, Jim A; Ferguson, Mark W J

    2011-09-01

    Scarring in the skin following surgery or trauma may be associated with adverse aesthetic, functional, growth and psychological effects, such that both physicians and patients regard it as important to minimize the appearance of scars. The prophylactic improvement of cutaneous scar appearance represents a significant opportunity to improve the well-being of patients. Human recombinant transforming growth factor beta 3 (avotermin) is the first in a new class of therapeutic agents to address this medical need. Herein we describe scar-free healing in early embryonic development, including the identification of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the scarring process. This understanding has led to the discovery of novel therapeutics such as transforming growth factor beta 3, which can be administered to improve scar appearance in human subjects through pharmacological action. We discuss the pioneering development of transforming growth factor beta 3 in this new therapeutic area showing how it has been possible to translate preclinical concepts into clinical application, namely the improvement of scar appearance following surgery.

  9. The contribution of classical (beta1/2-) and atypical beta-adrenoceptors to the stimulation of human white adipocyte lipolysis and right atrial appendage contraction by novel beta3-adrenoceptor agonists of differing selectivities.

    PubMed

    Sennitt, M V; Kaumann, A J; Molenaar, P; Beeley, L J; Young, P W; Kelly, J; Chapman, H; Henson, S M; Berge, J M; Dean, D K; Kotecha, N R; Morgan, H K; Rami, H K; Ward, R W; Thompson, M; Wilson, S; Smith, S A; Cawthorne, M A; Stock, M J; Arch, J R

    1998-06-01

    The role of beta3- and other putative atypical beta-adrenoceptors in human white adipocytes and right atrial appendage has been investigated using CGP 12177 and novel phenylethanolamine and aryloxypropanolamine beta3-adrenoceptor (beta3AR) agonists with varying intrinsic activities and selectivities for human cloned betaAR subtypes. The ability to demonstrate beta1/2AR antagonist-insensitive (beta3 or other atypical betaAR-mediated) responses to CGP 12177 was critically dependent on the albumin batch used to prepare and incubate the adipocytes. Four aryloxypropanolamine selective beta3AR agonists (SB-226552, SB-229432, SB-236923, SB-246982) consistently elicited beta1/2AR antagonist-insensitive lipolysis. However, a phenylethanolamine (SB-220646) that was a selective full beta3AR agonist elicited full lipolytic and inotropic responses that were sensitive to beta1/2AR antagonism, despite it having very low efficacies at cloned beta1- and beta2ARs. A component of the response to another phenylethanolamine selective beta3AR agonist (SB-215691) was insensitive to beta1/2AR antagonism in some experiments. Because no [corrected] novel aryloxypropanolamine had a beta1/2AR antagonist-insensitive inotropic effect, these results establish more firmly that beta3ARs mediate lipolysis in human white adipocytes, and suggest that putative 'beta4ARs' mediate inotropic responses to CGP 12177. The results also illustrate the difficulty of predicting from studies on cloned betaARs which betaARs will mediate responses to agonists in tissues that have a high number of beta1- and beta2ARs or a low number of beta3ARs.

  10. Phenotypic consequences of deletion of the gamma 3, alpha 5, or beta 3 subunit of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor in mice.

    PubMed

    Culiat, C T; Stubbs, L J; Montgomery, C S; Russell, L B; Rinchik, E M

    1994-03-29

    Three genes (Gabrg3, Gabra5, and Gabrb3) encoding the gamma 3, alpha 5, and beta 3 subunits of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor, respectively, are known to map near the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus in mouse chromosome 7. This region shares homology with a segment of human chromosome 15 that is implicated in Angelman syndrome, an inherited neurobehavioral disorder. By mapping Gabrg3 on a panel of p-locus deletions, we have determined that the order of genes within this cluster is centromere-p(D15S12h)-Gabrg3-Gabra5-Gabrb3-telom ere. Like Gabrb3, neither the Gabra5 nor Gabrg3 gene is functionally imprinted in adult mouse brain. Mice deleted for all three subunits die at birth with a cleft palate, although there are rare survivors (approximately 5%) that do not have a cleft palate but do exhibit a neurological abnormality characterized by tremor, jerky gait, and runtiness. We have previously suggested that deficiency of the beta 3 subunit may be responsible for the clefting defect. Most notably, however, in this report we describe mice carrying two overlapping, complementing p deletions that fail to express the gamma 3 transcript, as well as mice from another line that express neither the gamma 3 nor alpha 5 transcripts. Surprisingly, mice from both of these lines are phenotypically normal and do not exhibit any of the neurological symptoms characteristic of the rare survivors that are deleted for all three (gamma 3, alpha 5, and beta 3) subunits. These mice therefore provide a whole-organism type A gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptor background that is devoid of any receptor subtypes that normally contain the gamma 3 and/or alpha 5 subunits. The absence of an overt neurological phenotype in mice lacking the gamma 3 and/or alpha 5 subunits also suggests that mutations in these genes are unlikely to provide useful animal models for Angelman syndrome in humans.

  11. Association between genetic variation in transforming growth factors beta1 and beta3 and renal dysfunction in non-diabetic Chinese.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bang-Chuan; Chu, Shao-Li; Wang, Gu-Liang; Gao, Ping-Jin; Zhu, Ding-Liang; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2008-02-01

    Genetic variants of transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1 have been reported to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. Few studies investigated polymorphisms in the TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 genes in relation to renal dysfunction in non-diabetic subjects. In all, 601 non-diabetic Chinese were genotyped for the TGF-beta1 T869C and TGF-beta3 IVS3-98G>A polymorphisms by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and real-time allele-specific PCR, respectively. Renal dysfunction was defined as a predicted glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 60mL/min/1.73m(2) or less. 24-hour urinary albumin excretion was measured by an immunonephelometric assay in 352 hypertensive subjects. Our study sample included 184 (30.6%) women, 396 (65.9%) hypertensive patients (65.9%), and 94 (15.6%) patients with renal dysfunction. In men but not women, the TGF-beta1 TC genotype was significantly (p = 0.0005) overrepresented in patients with renal dysfunction (52.2% vs 36.8% in subjects with normal renal function). Accordingly, in men, with adjustment for age, body mass index, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.03) higher in the TC heterozygotes than TT and CC homozygotes. Furthermore, in 231 male hypertensive patients, with similar adjustments applied, 24-hour urinary albumin excretion was significantly (p = 0.02) higher in the IVS3-98 AA homozygotes than G allele carriers. In further multivariate regression analysis, only in men, TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 genotypes as independent predictors had statistically significant effect on serum creatinine (p = 0.007) and urinary albumin excretion (p = 0.022), respectively. Our study demonstrated the associations of genetic variants in the TGF-beta genes with renal dysfunction and albuminuria in non-diabetic Han Chinese men but not women.

  12. Monitoring the human beta1, beta2, beta3 adrenergic receptors expression and purification in Pichia pastoris using the fluorescence properties of the enhanced green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Talmont, Franck

    2009-01-01

    The three beta adrenergic receptor subtypes, beta1-, beta2- and beta3-, were expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. These receptors were N-terminally fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and the fluorescent properties of EGFP were used: (1) to select the recombinant strains, (2) to monitor the expression of the fluorescent receptors, and (3) to monitor the purification of the receptors by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. We demonstrate here that Pichia pastoris can be an alternative host to express and purify milligram amounts of human beta adrenergic receptors.

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of a near-infrared fluorescent non-peptidic bivalent integrin alpha(v)beta(3) antagonist for cancer imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Liu, Jiacheng; Jas, Gouri S; Zhang, Jiawei; Qin, Guoting; Xing, Jiong; Cotes, Claudia; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Xukui; Diaz, Laura A; Shi, Zheng-Zheng; Lee, Daniel Y; Li, King C P; Li, Zheng

    2010-02-17

    Computer modeling approaches to identify new inhibitors are essentially a very sophisticated and efficient way to design drugs. In this study, a bivalent nonpeptide intergrin alpha(v)beta(3) antagonist (bivalent IA) has been synthesized on the basis of an in silico rational design approach. A near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent imaging probe has been developed from this bivalent compound. In vitro binding assays have shown that the bivalent IA (IC(50) = 0.40 +/- 0.11 nM) exhibited improved integrin alpha(v)beta(3) affinity in comparison with the monovalent IA (IC(50) = 22.33 +/- 4.51 nM), resulting in an over 50-fold improvement in receptor affinity. NIR imaging probe, bivalent-IA-Cy5.5 conjugate, also demonstrated significantly increased binding affinity (IC(50) = 0.13 +/- 0.02 nM). Fluorescence microscopy studies showed integrin-mediated endocytosis of bivalent-IA-Cy5.5 in U87 cells which was effectively blocked by nonfluorescent bivalent IA. We also demonstrated tumor accumulation of this NIR imaging probe in U87 mouse xenografts.

  14. Further characterization of the thrombasthenia-related idiotype OG. Antiidiotype defines a novel epitope(s) shared by fibrinogen B beta chain, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor and required for binding to beta 3

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    A patient (OG) with Glanzmann thrombasthenia became refractory to platelet transfusion after the production of an immunoglobulin G (IgG) isoantibody (Ab1) specific for the integrin subunit beta 3. To determine the frequency at which the OG idiotype is found in the general population and in immune-mediated disease states, we developed a rabbit polyclonal antibody (Ab2) specific for affinity-purified OG anti-beta 3 Fab. The binding of Ab2 to Ab1 is inhibited by purified alpha IIb beta 3. Ab2 als binds to IgG specific for alpha IIb beta 3 obtained from one nonrelated Glanzmann thrombasthenia patient ES who has developed isoantibodies of similar specificity. On the other hand, Ab2 does not recognize alpha IIb beta 3-specific antibodies produced by two Glanzmann thrombasthenia patients, AF and LUC, who have developed isoantibodies with specificities distinct from that of the OG isoantibody. Moreover, Ab2 does not recognize alpha IIb beta 3-specific antibodies developed by three representative patients with (autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura or six representative patients with alloimmune thrombocytopenias, nor does it bind to IgG from any of 13 nonimmunized individuals. We have found that Ab2 also binds to selected protein ligands of alpha IIb beta 3 namely, fibrinogen, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor, but not to other protein ligands or control proteins, such a fibronectin, type I collagen, and albumin. The epitope(s) recognized by Ab2 on each adhesive protein are either very similar or identical since each protein can inhibit the binding of Ab2 to any of the other proteins. The epitope on fibrinogen recognized by Ab2 resides in the B beta chain, and is likely contained within the first 42 amino acids from the NH2 terminus. Since OG IgG inhibits fibrinogen binding to alpha IIb beta 3, the specificity of the OG idiotype defines a novel binding motif for the integrin alpha IIb beta 3 that is shared by fibrinogen, vitronectin, and von Willebrand factor, but

  15. CD36 is required for phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by human macrophages that use either a phosphatidylserine receptor or the vitronectin receptor (alpha v beta 3).

    PubMed

    Fadok, V A; Warner, M L; Bratton, D L; Henson, P M

    1998-12-01

    In vivo, apoptotic cells are efficiently removed by professional or nonprofessional phagocytes, a process thought to be essential for tissue remodeling and resolution of inflammation. Macrophages recognize apoptotic cells by several mechanisms, including recognition of exposed phosphatidylserine (PS); however, PS recognition on apoptotic cells has not been identified as a feature of human macrophages. The purpose of this study was to determine whether human monocyte-derived macrophages could be stimulated to recognize PS, defined as inhibition of phagocytosis by PS-containing liposomes. We also assessed the potential roles for scavenger receptors, CD14, and lectins. Uptake of apoptotic neutrophils into unstimulated macrophages was blocked about 50% by Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser and anti-alpha(v), and up to 20% by oxidized low density lipoprotein and N-acetylglucosamine, implying a major role for integrin and minor roles for scavenger and lectin receptors. Uptake into macrophages stimulated with beta-1,3-glucan was blocked 50% by PS liposomes and 40% by oxidized low density lipoprotein, suggesting that the macrophages had switched from using integrin to recognition of PS. MEM-18 and 61D3 (anti-CD14 mAbs) were poor inhibitors of apoptotic neutrophil uptake, but good inhibitors of apoptotic lymphocyte uptake. The switch to PS recognition was accompanied by down-regulation of alpha(v)beta3 expression and function. Anti-CD36 blocked uptake into unstimulated or stimulated macrophages, suggesting CD36 involvement not only with the alpha(v)beta3 integrin mechanism (as previously reported) but also with PS recognition. A maximum of 70% inhibition was achieved by combining anti-CD36 with either anti-a(v) or PS liposomes.

  16. Heteroclitic properties of mixed alpha- and aza-beta3-peptides mimicking a supradominant CD4 T cell epitope presented by nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Dali, Hayet; Busnel, Olivier; Hoebeke, Johan; Bi, Lanrong; Decker, Patrice; Briand, Jean-Paul; Baudy-Floc'h, Michèle; Muller, Sylviane

    2007-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed that peptide analogues containing modified peptide bonds might replace poorly stable natural peptides in therapeutic strategies. Using the model peptide 88-99 of histone H4, which contains a supradominant epitope recognized by Th cells induced to nucleosomes, we have generated twelve analogues containing aza-beta(3)-amino acid residue substitutions. The ability of this new class of peptidomimetics corresponding to the Psi[CONHNRCH(2)] modification to be recognized by T cells primed with the parent peptide was examined in BALB/c mice. An Ala-scan study revealed that residues 88 to 92 were essential for keeping antigenic activity of the nominal peptide. In good agreement, the six aza-beta(3)-analogues encompassing substitutions in the region 89-92 were antigenically inactive. Analogues PsiG94 and PsiG99 were both antigenic and immunogenic, though at levels that were slightly lower to that of the parent peptide. However, the remaining analogues PsiR95, PsiL97, PsiY98 and PsiL97-Y98 were strongly recognized by T cells generated to the homologous peptides. The PsiL97-Y98 analogue, in particular, strongly activated CD4(+) T cells as visualized in CFSE dilution assay. T cells primed to these four analogues and recalled with the nominal peptide secreted high levels of either IL-2 (PsiR95, PsiY98) or IFN-gamma (PsiL97, PsiL97-Y98). This result, supported by molecular modeling, suggests that TCRs of T cells primed to these four analogues recognized the parent peptide associated with the MHC I-A(d)/I-E(d) molecules. Since these T cells produce a distinct cytokine pattern when they are recalled with the parent sequence, this new class of analogues may have valuable applications in the context of self-tolerance and autoimmunity.

  17. Evidence for the primary role for 4-aminopyridine-sensitive K(v) channels in beta(3)-adrenoceptor-mediated, cyclic AMP-independent relaxations of guinea-pig gastrointestinal smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Takahiro; Tanaka, Yoshio; Koike, Katsuo

    2003-02-01

    Gastrointestinal smooth muscles exhibit relaxation in response to the stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors with catecholamines. Subtypes of beta-adrenoceptors which mediate catecholamine-elicited relaxations in gastrointestinal smooth muscles are predominantly atypical beta-adrenoceptors including beta(3)-adrenoceptors. Gastrointestinal smooth muscle relaxations mediated via beta(3)-adrenoceptors can occur independently of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) elevation. One of the mechanisms responsible for cyclic AMP-independent smooth muscle relaxation following activation of G(s) protein-coupled receptors could be activation of voltage-gated K(+) channels. In the present study, possible contribution of two types of K(+) (large-conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive and voltage-gated K(+), BK(Ca); voltage-gated, K(v)) channels to beta(3)-adrenoceptor-mediated, cyclic AMP-independent relaxations was compared in gastric fundus and duodenum smooth muscles isolated from the guinea-pig. In these gastrointestinal smooth muscles, three catecholamines ((-)-isoprenaline, (-)-noradrenaline and (-)-adrenaline) and two beta(3)-adrenoceptor agonists ((R(*), R(*))-(+/-)-4-[2-[(2-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl)amino]propyl]phenoxyacetic acid sodium (BRL37344) and (+/-)-[4-[3-[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropoxy] -1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one] hydrochloride ((+/-)-CGP12177A)) elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation in the presence of beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonists. The relaxations were unaffected by an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, SQ-22536 (100 microM), which indicates their characteristic of cyclic AMP-independency. On the other hand, the SQ-22536-resistant, beta(3)-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxant components were potently attenuated when the tone was raised using high-KCl (80 mM) or in the presence of a K(v) channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 1-3 mM). Iberiotoxin (100 nM), a selective blocker of BK(Ca) channels which significantly

  18. Introduction of silencing-inducing transgene against Fgf19 does not affect expression of Tbx5 and beta3-tubulin in the developing chicken retina.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Mayumi; Tomonari, Sayuri; Naito, Yuki; Saigo, Kaoru; Noji, Sumihare; Ui-Tei, Kumiko; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2008-03-01

    Fgf19 is known to be expressed in the developing chicken eye but its functions during retinal development have remained elusive. Since Fgf19 is expressed in the dorsal portion of the optic cup, it is intriguing to know whether FGF19 is required for expression of dorso-ventral morphogenetic genes in the eye. To clarify this, expression patterns of Tbx5 and Vax were examined in the developing eye after in ovo RNA interference targeted against Fgf19. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that the short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeted against Fgf19 could reduce its expression in the eye to less than 50% of a relative amount of mRNA, compared with contralateral or untreated control eyes. However, no obvious alteration in expression domains of Tbx5 or Vax was observed. Misexpression of Tbx5 or Tbx5-RNAi did not alter the Fgf19 expression either. Furthermore, although Fgf19 is expressed in the central retina before neurogenesis occurs, beta3-tubulin, a marker for early retinal differentiation was still detected in the central retina after knockdown of Fgf19. Thus, knockdown of Fgf19 supports no obvious regulations between Fgf19 and Tbx5, or exhibits no phenotypes that perturb early retinal differentiation.

  19. Frequencies of the G-protein beta3 subunit C825T polymorphism and the delta 32 mutation of the chemokine receptor-5 in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Haase, Claus G; Schmidt, Stephan; Faustmann, Pedro M

    2002-09-27

    In the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) genetic factors are known to influence autoreactive T-cell-actions like proliferation and chemotaxis across the blood-brain barrier via chemokine receptors (CCR) and G-protein coupled activating mechanisms. For the first time, we studied the frequencies of a recently described C825T polymorphism in the G-protein encoding gene for the beta3 subunit (GNB3) together with frequencies of a 32-base-pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (delta32 CCR5) in patients with MS (n = 253: relapsing-remitting (RR), n = 124 and chronic progressive course, n = 129). Apart from a trend to a reduced frequency of delta32 CCR5 and increased GNB3 825T polymorphism in primary chronic progressive patients, numbers did not reach statistical significance in any group of MS. These results could not support differences in the genetic background of MS based on that CCR5 mutation or the described GNB3 polymorphism.

  20. Synthesis of various 3-substituted 1,2,4-oxadiazole-containing chiral beta 3- and alpha-amino acids from Fmoc-protected aspartic acid.

    PubMed

    Hamzé, Abdallah; Hernandez, Jean-François; Fulcrand, Pierre; Martinez, Jean

    2003-09-19

    Various 3-substituted chiral 1,2,4-oxadiazole-containing Fmoc-beta(3)- and -alpha-amino acids were synthesized from Fmoc-(l or d)-Asp(OtBu)-OH and Fmoc-l-Asp-OtBu, respectively, in three steps (i.e., condensation of an aspartyl derivative with differentially substituted amidoximes, formation of the 1,2,4-oxadiazole, and cleavage of the tert-butyl ester). These compounds represent new series of nonnatural amino acids, which could be used in combinatorial synthesis. A simple protocol has been developed to generate the 1,2,4-oxadiazole ring. Indeed, common methods resulted in cleavage of the Fmoc group or required long reaction times. We found that sodium acetate in refluxing ethanol/water (86 degrees C) was a convenient and efficient catalyst to promote conversion of Fmoc-amino acyl amidoximes to 1,2,4-oxadiazoles, and this procedure proved to be compatible with Fmoc protection. It is shown that these compounds can be prepared without significant loss of enantiomerical purity. Furthermore, the alkaline conditions used to cleave the Fmoc protecting group from these compounds did not induce epimerization of their chiral center.

  1. Dinámica y crecimiento de los granos de polvo en la nebulosa protoplanetaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, Carlos

    2001-06-01

    En el escenario estándar de la formación planetaria, los planetesimales (cuerpos de tamaño kilométrico) crecen a partir de granos de polvo, similares a los interestelares, embebidos en un disco gaseoso denominado nebulosa protoplanetaria. Durante esta etapa, los movimientos del gas pueden tener gran influencia en la dinámica y el crecimiento de los granos de polvo, dado que el flujo kepleriano del gas frena el movimiento de los mismos haciendo que caigan hacia el Sol, y la turbulencia inhibe la inestabilidad gravitacional de la capa de polvo. Aunque se acepta que los planetesimales fueron los elementos constituyentes de los planetas, todavía se desconoce cómo se produjo la formación de los mismos. Por esta razón, en los estudios más recientes, existe un renovado interés por comprender mejor la evolución de la capa de polvo inmersa en el disco gaseoso de la Nebulosa. El gas que fluye en el disco puede engendrar estructuras carentes de simetría axial, como por ejemplo ondas espirales y vórtices, a partir de gran variedad de mecanismos de excitación e inestabilidad. En 1995, Barge y Sommeria pusieron de manifiesto que la existencia de vórtices gaseosos persistentes en la nebulosa solar tendría importantes consecuencias sobre la formación de los planetesimales y el posterior crecimiento de los planetas gigantes. La investigación desarrollada en esta Tesis analiza la relación entre el polvo y el gas debida al acoplamiento por fricción dinámica entre ambos; en concreto, se estudia el efecto del flujo medio del gas sobre la dinámica de las partículas de polvo. El primer objetivo es investigar en profundidad los procesos de captura y crecimiento de los granos de polvo dentro de un vórtice y su posible relevancia en cuanto a la formación de los planetesimales. El segundo objetivo es la exploración de los efectos de ondas espirales propagándose en el disco gaseoso sobre la dinámica y el crecimiento de las partículas. La presencia de líneas de

  2. Worldwide ethnic distribution of the G protein beta3 subunit 825T allele and its association with obesity in Caucasian, Chinese, and Black African individuals.

    PubMed

    Siffert, W; Forster, P; Jöckel, K H; Mvere, D A; Brinkmann, B; Naber, C; Crookes, R; Du P Heyns, A; Epplen, J T; Fridey, J; Freedman, B I; Müller, N; Stolke, D; Sharma, A M; Al Moutaery, K; Grosse-Wilde, H; Buerbaum, B; Ehrlich, T; Ahmad, H R; Horsthemke, B; Du Toit, E D; Tiilikainen, A; Ge, J; Wang, Y; Rosskopf, D

    1999-09-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that one allele (825T) of the gene encoding the G protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) is associated with hypertension in Germans. This study investigates a possible association with obesity in young male Germans, Chinese, and black South Africans with low, intermediate, and high 825T allele frequencies, respectively. In each of these three distinct cohorts, the 825T allele frequency was increased significantly in overweight (body mass index [BMI] > or =25 kg/m2) and obese individuals (BMI >27 kg/m2) compared to those with normal weight. The 825T allele frequencies in these three BMI groups were, respectively, 29.5, 39.3, and 47.7% in Germans, 46.8, 53.9, and 58.6% in Chinese, and 83.1, 87.7, and 90.9% in South Africans. In each of these three distinct groups, the 825T allele was significantly associated with obesity with odds ratios between 2 and 3. More urban than rural black Africans were overweight despite similar 825T allele frequencies in both populations, which underscores the role of both genetic and environmental factors. BP values in young male whites increased significantly with increasing BMI values but were independent of the C825T polymorphism, suggesting that hypertension associated with the 825T allele could be a consequence of obesity. Genotyping of 5254 individuals from 55 native population samples from Africa, the Americas, Europe, Asia, Australia, and New Guinea demonstrated highest 825T allele frequencies in black Africans (82%) and intermediate values in east Asians (47%). It is anticipated that high frequencies of the 825T allele in Africans and Asians may contribute to an obesity and hypertension epidemic if Westernization of lifestyles continues.

  3. Engagement of Na,K-ATPase beta3 subunit by a specific mAb suppresses T and B lymphocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Chiampanichayakul, Sawitree; Szekeres, Andreas; Khunkaewla, Panida; Moonsom, Seangduen; Leksa, Vladimir; Drbal, Karel; Zlabinger, Gerhard J; Hofer-Warbinek, Renate; Stockinger, Hannes; Kasinrerk, Watchara

    2002-12-01

    In order to identify new molecules involved in regulation of T cell proliferation, we generated various mAb by immunization of mice with the T cell line Molt4. We found one mAb (termed P-3E10) that down-regulated the in vitro T cell proliferation induced by CD3-specific OKT3 mAb. The P-3E10 mAb was also able to inhibit IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 production of OKT3-activated T cells. The antigen recognized by P-3E10 mAb is broadly expressed on all hematopoietic as well as on all non-hematopoietic cell lines tested so far. Within peripheral blood leukocytes, the P-3E10 antigen was detected on lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) also scored positively. By evaluating the effect of P-3E10 mAb on these cell types we found that it also inhibited anti-IgM-induced B cell proliferation. However, it did not block growth factor-mediated proliferation of HUVEC, and spontaneous proliferation of SupT-1, Jurkat, Molt4 and U937 cell lines. Moreover, it did not influence phagocytosis of human blood monocytes and granulocytes. Biochemical analysis revealed that the P-3E10 antigen is a protein with a mol. wt of 45-50 kDa under non-reducing and 50-55 kDa under reducing conditions. By using a retroviral cloning system, the P-3E10 antigen was cloned. Sequence analysis revealed the P-3E10 antigen to be identical to the beta3 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase.

  4. Human-Specific SNP in Obesity Genes, Adrenergic Receptor Beta2 (ADRB2), Beta3 (ADRB3), and PPAR γ2 (PPARG), during Primate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Akiko; Nakamura, Shin; Mitsunaga, Fusako; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Udono, Toshifumi; Suryobroto, Bambang

    2012-01-01

    Adrenergic-receptor beta2 (ADRB2) and beta3 (ADRB3) are obesity genes that play a key role in the regulation of energy balance by increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis. The Glu27 allele in ADRB2 and the Arg64 allele in ADRB3 are associated with abdominal obesity and early onset of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in many ethnic groups. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) is required for adipocyte differentiation. Pro12Ala mutation decreases PPARG activity and resistance to NIDDM. In humans, energy-expense alleles, Gln27 in ADRB2 and Trp64 in ADRB3, are at higher frequencies than Glu27 and Arg64, respectively, but Ala12 in PPARG is at lower frequency than Pro12. Adaptation of humans for lipolysis, thermogenesis, and reduction of fat accumulation could be considered by examining which alleles in these genes are dominant in non-human primates (NHP). All NHP (P. troglodytes, G. gorilla, P. pygmaeus, H. agilis and macaques) had energy-thrifty alleles, Gly16 and Glu27 in ADRB2, and Arg64 in ADRB3, but did not have energy-expense alleles, Arg16, Gln27 and Trp64 alleles. In PPARG gene, all NHP had large adipocyte accumulating type, the Pro12 allele. Conclusions These results indicate that a tendency to produce much more heat through the energy-expense alleles developed only in humans, who left tropical rainforests for savanna and developed new features in their heat-regulation systems, such as reduction of body hair and increased evaporation of water, and might have helped the protection of entrails from cold at night, especially in glacial periods. PMID:22937051

  5. G-protein beta3 subunit gene variant is unlikely to have a significant influence on serum uric acid level in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Suwazono, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Uetani, Mirei; Miura, Katsuyuki; Morikawa, Yuko; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2006-06-01

    The C825T variant of the G-protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) gene has attracted renewed attention as a candidate gene for obesity, hypertension and hyperuricemia. The main role of G-protein is to translate signals from the cell surface into a cellular response. The 825T allele is associated with a splice variant of GNB3 protein and enhanced G-protein activation. We examined the relationship between this variant and the risk of hyperuricemia in Japanese workers. The study subjects were 1,452 men and 1,169 women selected from 3,834 men and 2,591 women in 1997. On the basis of common clinical criteria, hyperuricemia I was defined as serum uric acid >or= 7.0 mg/dl in men and 6.0 mg/dl in women or taking antihyperuricemic medication. The hyperuricemia I group consisted of 186 men and 20 women and its control of 1,266 men and 1,149 women. Hyperuricemia II was defined as serum uric acid > 5.7 mg/dl (median) in men and 3.9 mg/dl (median) in women or taking antihyperuricemic medication. The hyperuricemic II group consisted of 684 men and 570 women and its control of 768 men and 599 women. To replicate previous significant results in young Caucasian men, we selected these criteria because the authors of the study in young Caucasian men adopted the median in their subjects as a cut-off. The statistical power was estimated as 99% based on the significant results in Caucasians. Genotype and allele distributions in men and women with hyperuricemia I and II were not significantly different from those in the corresponding control groups. Logistic regression analysis on hyperuricemia I and II, and multiple regression on serum uric acid level demonstrated no significant effect of the C825T genotype. Despite the sufficient statistical power, this study could not demonstrate the significant influence of C825T on hyperuricemia or serum uric acid. The targeting of this polymorphism is unlikely to be beneficial in the prevention of hyperuricemia in the general Japanese population.

  6. Early continuous white noise exposure alters l-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunit glutamate receptor 2 and gamma-aminobutyric acid type a receptor subunit beta3 protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Zhang, Jiping; Cai, Rui; Sun, Xinde

    2010-02-15

    Auditory experience during the postnatal critical period is essential for the normal maturation of auditory function. Previous studies have shown that rearing infant rat pups under conditions of continuous moderate-level noise delayed the emergence of adult-like topographic representational order and the refinement of response selectivity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) beyond normal developmental benchmarks and indefinitely blocked the closure of a brief, critical-period window. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of these physiological changes after noise rearing, we studied expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta3 in the auditory cortex after noise rearing. Our results show that continuous moderate-level noise rearing during the early stages of development decreases the expression levels of GluR2 and GABA(A)beta3. Furthermore, noise rearing also induced a significant decrease in the level of GABA(A) receptors relative to AMPA receptors. However, in adult rats, noise rearing did not have significant effects on GluR2 and GABA(A)beta3 expression or the ratio between the two units. These changes could have a role in the cellular mechanisms involved in the delayed maturation of auditory receptive field structure and topographic organization of A1 after noise rearing.

  7. Effect of (R)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-4'-{2-[(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)amino]ethyl} acetanilide (YM178), a novel selective beta3-adrenoceptor agonist, on bladder function.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Toshiyuki; Ukai, Masashi; Sato, Shuichi; Matsui, Tetsuo; Nagase, Itsuro; Maruyama, Tatsuya; Sasamata, Masao; Miyata, Keiji; Uchida, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Osamu

    2007-05-01

    We evaluated the pharmacological characteristics of (R)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-4'-{2-[(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)amino]-ethyl} acetanilide (YM178). YM178 increased cyclic AMP accumulation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells expressing human beta3-adrenoceptor (AR). The half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) value was 22.4 nM. EC50 values of YM178 for human beta1- and beta2-ARs were 10,000 nM or more, respectively. The ratio of intrinsic activities of YM178 versus maximal response induced by isoproterenol (nonselective beta-AR agonist) was 0.8 for human beta3-ARs, 0.1 for human beta1-ARs, and 0.1 for human beta2-ARs. The relaxant effects of YM178 were evaluated in rats and humans bladder strips precontracted with carbachol (CCh) and compared with those of isoproterenol and 4-[3-[(1,1-dimethylethyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropoxy]-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one hydrochloride (CGP-12177A) (beta3-AR agonist). EC50 values of YM178 and isoproterenol in rat bladder strips precontracted with 10(-6) M CCh were 5.1 and 1.4 microM, respectively, whereas those in human bladder strips precontracted with 10(-7) M CCh were 0.78 and 0.28 microM, respectively. In in vivo study, YM178 at a dose of 3 mg/kg i.v. decreased the frequency of rhythmic bladder contraction induced by intravesical filling with saline without suppressing its amplitude in anesthetized rats. These findings suggest the suitability of YM178 as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of symptoms of overactive bladder such as urinary frequency, urgency, and urge incontinence.

  8. Concordance between isolated cleft palate in mice and alterations within a region including the gene encoding the beta 3 subunit of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor.

    PubMed

    Culiat, C T; Stubbs, L; Nicholls, R D; Montgomery, C S; Russell, L B; Johnson, D K; Rinchik, E M

    1993-06-01

    Genetic and molecular analyses of a number of radiation-induced deletion mutations of the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus in mouse chromosome 7 have identified a specific interval on the genetic map associated with a neonatally lethal mutation that results in cleft palate. This interval, closely linked and distal to p, and bracketed by the genes encoding the alpha 5 and beta 3 subunits of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (Gabra5 and Gabrb3, respectively), contains a gene(s) (cp1; cleft palate 1) necessary for normal palate development. The cp1 interval extends from the distal breakpoint of the prenatally lethal p83FBFo deletion to the Gabrb3 locus. Among 20 p deletions tested, there was complete concordance between alterations at the Gabrb3 transcription unit and inability to complement the cleft-palate defect. These mapping data, along with previously described in vivo and in vitro teratological effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid or its agonists on palate development, suggest the possibility that a particular type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor that includes the beta 3 subunit may be necessary for normal palate development. The placement of the cp1 gene within a defined segment of the larger D15S12h (p)-D15S9h-1 interval in the mouse suggests that the highly homologous region of the human genome, 15q11-q13, be evaluated for a role(s) in human fetal facial development.

  9. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) binds to integrin alpha v beta 6 on porcine trophectoderm cells and integrin alpha v beta 3 on uterine luminal epithelial cells, and promotes trophectoderm cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Erikson, David W; Burghardt, Robert C; Bayless, Kayla J; Johnson, Greg A

    2009-11-01

    Conceptus implantation involves pregnancy-specific alterations in extracellular matrix at the conceptus-maternal interface. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1, osteopontin) is induced just before implantation and is present at the conceptus-maternal interface in mammals. In the present study, we investigated mechanisms by which SPP1 facilitates porcine conceptus and uterine luminal epithelial cell attachment. Native bovine milk and wild-type rat recombinant SPP1 stimulated trophectoderm cell migration. Bovine milk SPP1, ovine uterine SPP1, and recombinant wild-type, but not mutated, rat SPP1 promoted dose- and cation-dependent attachment of porcine trophectoderm and uterine luminal epithelial cells, which was markedly reduced in the presence of a linear Arg-Gly-Asp integrin-blocking peptide. Affinity chromatography and immunoprecipitation experiments revealed direct binding of alpha v beta 6 trophectoderm and alpha v beta 3 uterine epithelial cell integrins to SPP1. Immunofluorescence microscopy using SPP1-coated microspheres revealed colocalization of the alpha v integrin subunit and talin at focal adhesions as well as at the apical domain of trophectoderm cells. Similarly, immunofluorescence staining of implantation sites in frozen gravid uterine cross sections localized SPP1 and alpha v integrin to the apical surfaces of trophectoderm and luminal epithelium and beta 3 integrin to the apical surface of luminal epithelium. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to demonstrate functionally that SPP1 directly binds specific integrins to promote trophectoderm cell migration and attachment to luminal epithelium that may be critical to conceptus elongation and implantation.

  10. The remote-oxyfunctionalization of unactivated carbons in (5 beta)-3-oxobile acids by 2,6-dichloropyridine N-oxide catalyzed by ruthenium-porphyrin and HBr: a direct lactonization at C-20.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Iida, Takashi; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio

    2004-04-07

    Remote-oxyfunctionalization induced by 2,6-dichloropyridine N-oxide (DCP N-oxide) as an oxygen donor and a (5,10,15,20-tetramesitylporphyrinate) ruthenium(II) carbonyl complex (Ru-porphyrin) and HBr as catalysts was examined for a series of methyl ester-peracetylated derivatives of (5 beta)-3-oxobile acids. Using the DCP-N-oxide/Ru-porphyrin/HBr system, 5 beta-hydroxylation predominated for the substrates having a 12-acetoxyl substituent due to steric hindrance, but the presence of a 7-acetoxyl substituent decreased the reactivity of the 5 beta-position allowing for the competitive (20S)-20-oxyfunctionalization, subject to electronic constraints. A variety of novel 5 beta-hydroxylation and (20S)-24,20-gamma-lactonization products, as well as their double-oxyfunctionalization and dehydration products, were obtained in one-step. The alkaline hydrolysis of the gamma-lactones gave the corresponding stereoselective (20S)-20-hydroxy-carboxylic acids.

  11. The C-terminus of the {gamma}2 chain but not of the {beta}3 chain of laminin-332 is indirectly but indispensably necessary for integrin-mediated cell reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Navdaev, Alexei; Heitmann, Vanessa; Santana Evangelista, Karla de; Moergelin, Matthias; Wegener, Joachim; Eble, Johannes A.

    2008-02-01

    Using a recombinant mini-laminin-332, we showed that truncation of the three C-terminal amino acids of the {gamma}2 chain, but not of the C-terminal amino acid of the {beta}3 chain, completely abolished {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin binding and its cellular functions, such as attachment and spreading. However, a synthetic peptide mimicking the {gamma}2 chain C-terminus did not interfere with {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin binding or cell adhesion and spreading on laminin-332 as measured by protein interaction assays and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Nor was the soluble peptide able to restore the loss of integrin-mediated cell adhesiveness to mini-laminin-332 after deletion of the {gamma}2 chain C-terminus. These findings spoke against the hypothesis that the {gamma}2 chain C-terminus of laminin-332 is a part of the {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin interaction site. In addition, structural studies with electron microscopy showed that truncation of the {gamma}2 chain C-terminus opened up the compact supradomain structure of LG1-3 domains. Thus, by inducing or stabilizing an integrin binding-competent conformation or array of the LG1-3 domains, the {gamma}2 chain C-terminus plays an indirect but essential role in laminin-332 recognition by {alpha}3{beta}1 integrin and, hence, its cellular functions.

  12. High-throughput sample preparation procedures for the quantitation of a new bone integrin alpha(nu)beta(3) antagonist in human plasma and urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Zeng, W; Kitchen, C; Wang, A Q; Musson, D G

    2004-07-05

    High throughput LC-MS/MS assays to quantitate a new alpha(nu)beta(3) bone integrin antagonist (I) in human plasma and urine have been developed using instruments programmed to automate sample preparation procedures. Packard liquid handling system-MultiPROBE II EX was programmed for preparing calibration standards in control plasma and urine, acidifying all standards, quality control (QC), and clinical samples with necessary dilutions, and adding the internal standard to the acidified samples. TOMTEC Quadra 96 was programmed to perform the solid phase extraction (SPE) process on a 3M 96-well mixed phase cation standard density (MPC-SD) plate to isolate the analytes from the sample matrix. The extract collected from both types of matrices was directly injected into reversed-phase LC-MS/MS system with a Turbo Ion Spray (TIS) interface in the positive ionization mode. The plasma and urine assays have the calibration range of 0.5-1500 and 2-6000 ng/mL, respectively. Validation of the automated and the manual plasma assays showed that application of MultiPROBE II to sample preparation gave comparable accuracy and precision. Overall, the automated approaches with minimum manual intervention enhanced the throughput of sample preparation.

  13. A new, major C27 biliary bile acid in the red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens):25R-1beta, 3alpha,7alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-oic acid.

    PubMed

    Hagey, Lee R; Kakiyama, Genta; Muto, Akina; Iida, Takashi; Mushiake, Kumiko; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Oliveira, Cleida A; Hofmann, Alan F

    2009-04-01

    The chemical structures of the three major bile acids present in the gallbladder bile of the Red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens), an early evolving, ground-living bird related to ratites, were determined. Bile acids were isolated by preparative reversed-phase HPLC. Two of the compounds were identified as the taurine N-acylamidates of 25R-3alpha,7alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-oic acid (constituting 22% of biliary bile acids) and 25R-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-oic acid (constituting 51%). The remaining compound, constituting 21% of biliary bile acids, was an unknown C27 bile acid. Its structure was elucidated by LC/ESI-MS/MS and NMR and shown to be the taurine conjugate of 25R-1beta, 3alpha, 7alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholestan-27-oic acid, a C27 trihydroxy bile acid not previously reported. Although C27 bile acids with a 1beta-hydroxyl group have been identified as trace bile acids in the alligator, this is the first report of a major biliary C27 bile acid possessing a 1beta-hydroxyl group.

  14. The Trp64Arg mutation of the beta3 adrenergic receptor gene has no effect on obesity phenotypes in the Québec Family Study and Swedish Obese Subjects cohorts.

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, J; Mauriège, P; Roy, S; Sjöström, D; Chagnon, Y C; Dionne, F T; Oppert, J M; Pérusse, L; Sjöström, L; Bouchard, C

    1996-01-01

    The beta adrenergic system plays a key role in regulating energy balance through the stimulation of both thermogenesis and lipid mobilization in brown and white adipose tissues in human and various animal models. Recent studies have suggested that a missense Trp64Arg mutation in the beta3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) gene was involved in obesity and insulin resistance. We have investigated the effect of this mutation on obesity-related phenotypes in two cohorts: the Québec Family Study (QFS) and the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS). In QFS, no association was found between this mutation and body mass index (BMI), body fat including abdominal visceral fat, resting metabolic rate, various diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors, and changes in body weight and body fat over a 12-yr period. With the exception of RMR (P = 0.04), no evidence of linkage was detected between the mutation and phenotypes of QFS based on sib-pair data. In SOS, the frequency of the Trp64Arg allele was not significantly different between nonobese and obese female subjects and no association was found between the mutation and body weight gain over time. These findings do not support the view that there is an association between the Trp64Arg mutation in the ADRB3 gene and obesity. PMID:8903328

  15. alpha3beta3gamma complex of F1-ATPase from thermophilic Bacillus PS3 can maintain steady-state ATP hydrolysis activity depending on the number of non-catalytic sites.

    PubMed Central

    Amano, T; Matsui, T; Muneyuki, E; Noji, H; Hara, K; Yoshida, M; Hisabori, T

    1999-01-01

    Homogeneous preparations of alpha(3)beta(3)gamma complexes with one, two or three non-competent non-catalytic site(s) were performed as described [Amano, Hisabori, Muneyuki, and Yoshida (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 18128-18133] and their properties were compared with those of the wild-type complex. The ATPase activity of the complex with three non-competent non-catalytic sites decayed rapidly to an inactivated state, as reported previously [Matsui, Muneyuki, Honda, Allison, Dou, and Yoshida (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8215-8221]. In contrast, the complex with one or two non-competent non-catalytic sites displayed a substantial steady-state phase activity depending on the number of non-competent non-catalytic sites in the complex. This result indicates that one competent non-catalytic site can maintain the continuous catalytic turnover of the enzyme and can potentially relieve all three catalytic sites from inhibition by MgADP(-). Furthermore, the results suggest that the interaction between three non-catalytic sites might not be as strong as that between catalytic sites, which are all strictly required for a continuous catalytic turnover. PMID:10493921

  16. Heterogeneity in hand veins responses to acetylcholine is not associated with polymorphisms in the G-protein beta3-subunit (C825T) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (G894T) genes but with serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, M; Dobrev, D; Siffert, W; Kirch, W

    2001-06-01

    Vascular responses to acetylcholine (ACh) are notoriously variable, the reason for this phenomenon is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the variability in venous response to acetylcholine may be associated with two recently identified genetic polymorphisms for proteins involved in the signal transduction pathway, i.e. the G-protein beta3-subunit (GNB3) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). The dorsal hand vein technique was used in 37 healthy subjects. Hand veins were preconstricted with the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine and the venodilator response to local ACh infusion was measured with and without comedication of acetylsalicylic acid or co-infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). In addition, all subjects received routine laboratory tests and 26 of them were genotyped for the C825T polymorphism of the GNB3 gene and for the G894T polymorphism of the eNOS gene. A striking variability in venous response to ACh was found with dilation observed in the low ACh concentration range and reduced dilation or even constriction at high concentrations. ACh-induced venodilation was mediated by muscarinic receptors and abolished in the presence of both acetylsalicylic acid and L-NMMA suggesting dependence on endothelium. We did not find any association of the variability in ACh response with GNB3 or eNOS allele status. On the other hand, a significant positive correlation between ACh responsiveness and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol status was detected. Two recently discovered gene polymorphisms are not responsible for the profound heterogeneity in venodilator response to ACh. Surprisingly, this variability appears to relate to the lipid status of the subjects. The exact nature of this new finding requires further study.

  17. GENETIC VARIATION IN THE BETA-3-ADRENORECEPTOR GENE (TRP64ARG POLYMORPHISM) AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS AND INSULIN RESISTANCE AFTER A HIGH PROTEIN/LOW CARBOHYDRATE VERSUS A STANDARD HYPOCALORIC DIET.

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Aller, Rocío; Izaola, Olatz; de la Fuente, Beatriz; Romero, Enrique

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: la variante Trp64Arg del receptor Beta ha sido relacionada con un aumento del peso corporal y resistencia a la insulina. Objetivo: el objetivo de nuestro estudio fue investigar la influencia del polimorfismo (rs 4994) del gen del receptor adrenérgico-Beta-3 en la respuesta metabólica y la pérdida de peso en un estudio de intervención a medio plazo con una dieta con alto contenido en proteínas/baja en carbohidratos vs una dieta hipocalórica estándar (1.000 kcal / día). Material y métodos: se evaluó una muestra de 284 sujetos obesos con un diseño de ensayo aleatorio. Se realizó una evaluación nutricional al inicio y al final de un período de 9 meses en el que los sujetos recibieron una de las dos dietas (dieta HP: alta en proteínas/baja en carbohidratos vs dieta S: dieta estándar). Resultados: no hubo diferencias significativas entre los efectos positivos (sobre el peso, el índice de masa corporal, la circunferencia de la cintura, la masa grasa, la presión arterial sistólica y los niveles de leptina) en los dos genotipos con ambas dietas. Con ambas dietas y solo en el genotipo salvaje (dieta HP vs dieta S), colesterol total (-10,1 ± 3,9 mg / dl vs -10,1 ± 2,2 mg / dl; p> 0,05), colesterol LDL (-9,5 ± 2,1 mg / dl vs -8,5 ± 2,3 mg / dl; p> 0,05) y los triglicéridos (-19,1 ± 2,1 mg / dl vs -14,3 ± 2,1 mg / dl; p> 0,05) disminuyeron. La mejoría de estos parámetros fue similar en sujetos con dieta HP vs dieta HS. Con la dieta HP y solo en el genotipo salvaje, los niveles de insulina (-3,7 ± 1,9 UI / L; p.

  18. Synthesis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D sub 3 3. beta. -3 prime -(N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino)propyl ether, a second-generation photoaffinity analogue of 25-hydroxyvitamin D sub 3 : Photoaffinity labeling of rat serum vitamin D binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, R.; Holick, M.F. ); Bouillon, R.; Van Baelen, H. )

    1991-05-14

    Vulnerability of 25-hydroxy-(26,27-{sup 3}H)vitamin D{sub 3} 3{beta}-N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)glycinate, a photoaffinity analogue of 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (25-OH-D{sub 3}) toward standard conditions of carboxymethylationin promoted the authors to synthesize 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} 3{beta}-3{prime}-(N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino)propyl ether (25-ANE), a hydrolytically stable photoaffinity analogue of 25-OH-D{sub 3}, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} 3{beta}-3{prime}-(N-(4-azido-2-nitro-(3,5-{sup 3}H)phenyl)amino)propyl ether ({sup 3}H-25-ANE), the radiolabeled counterpart of 25-ANE competes for the 25-OH-D{sub 3} binding site in rat serum vitamin D binding protein (rDBP). On the other hand, UV exposure of a sample of purified rat DBP (rDBP), preincubated in the dark with {sup 3}H-25-ANE, covalently labeled the protein. However, very little covalent labeling was observed in the absence of UV light or in the presence of a large excess of 25-OH-D{sub 3}. These results provide strong evidence for the covalent labeling of the 25-OH-D{sub 3} binding site in rDPB by {sup 3}H-25-ANE.

  19. Diverse locations of amino acids in HLA-DR beta chains involved in polymorphic antibody binding epitopes on DR(alpha, beta 1*0101), DR(alpha, beta 1*1101), and DR(alpha,beta 3*0202) molecules.

    PubMed

    Fu, X T; Klohe, E; Alber, C; Yu, W Y; Ferrara, G B; Pistillo, M P; Ballas, M; Karr, R W

    1992-03-01

    In a previous study, we used transfectants expressing hybrid HLA-DR(beta 1*0403)/DR(beta 1*0701) chains to map sequences involved in polymorphic antibody binding epitopes on DR(alpha, beta 1*0403) or DR(alpha, beta 1*0701) molecules. Amino acids 1-40 of the beta 1 domain were found to make the major contributions to most of the antibody binding epitopes studied. To begin to localize sequences that contribute to polymorphic antibody epitopes on DR(alpha,beta 1*0101), DR(alpha,beta 1*1101) and DR(alpha,beta 3*0202) molecules, we used indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometry to assess the binding of mAb to transfectants expressing hybrid DR(beta 1*0101)/DR(beta 1*1101) or DR(beta 1*1101)/DR(beta 3*0202) chains that divide the DR beta chain into three segments: amino acids 1-40, 41-97, and the beta 2 domain. The results indicate that amino acids 41-97 of the beta 1 domain on DR(beta 1*0101), DR(beta 1*1101), or DR(beta 3*0202) are critical in most of the epitopes, including those recognized by human antibodies MP4 and MP12, and mouse mAb GS88.2, I-LR1, 21r5, and 7.3.19.1, whereas amino acids 1-40 of DR(beta 1*1101) are critical in the epitope recognized by the MCS-7 mAb, and both segments 1-40 and 41-97 of DR(beta 1*1101) are important in the epitopes recognized by the I-LR2 and UL-52 mAbs. Based on these data and comparison of DR beta allelic protein sequences, the residues that may play critical roles in these antibody binding epitopes are predicted.

  20. Variabilidad de la Estación de Crecimiento en la Región Sur de Tamaulipas en condiciones climaticas actuales y futuras.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Barrios, M.; Conde-Alvarez, C.; Gay-Garcia, C.

    2007-05-01

    El impacto de la variabilidad y cambio climáticos, afectan el potencial agrícola de la Región Sur de Tamaulipas. Además de los cambios estacionales, bajos rendimientos agrícolas, el manejo de los cultivos y las políticas locales de producción, existe la incertidumbre del mercado regional para los pequeños y grandes productores. La diversificación agrícola ha sido una alternativa para enfrentar las condiciones imperantes en esta región. Pero ésta ha provocado la fragmentación territorial, por lo que sólo algunos productores logran competir en un mercado nacional. Existe una preocupación generalizada por buscar soluciones que permitan que la población que es afectada por la inseguridad de la producción agrícola y económica, pueda adaptarse a las variaciones climáticas que afectan el proceso productivo. La seguridad alimentaría queda sujeta a la fluctuación de las importaciones para los sectores básicos y a las estrategias mercantiles de empresas trasnacionales. La percepción local sugiere un número creciente de eventos climatológicos extremos, constantes y severos en los últimos 20 años, con el aumento creciente de pérdidas económicas. El análisis se centra en la disponibilidad de agua, agregándose un aspecto de capital importancia como es la variabilidad interanual de la lluvia, que condiciona muy fuertemente el riesgo agrícola en el trópico seco, siendo ésta la que determina el momento de inicio de la estación favorable para el crecimiento y su duración. En este trabajo se han obtenido modelos de la distribución espacial de la precipitación y temperaturas, para el escenario base 1961-1990, el escenario actual 1971-2000, para algunos años El Niño y La Niña, así como para los escenarios de Cambio Climático HADLEY, ECHAM y GFDL, con escenarios A2 y B2, para las décadas de los 20s y 50s, para establecer el inicio y duración de la Estación de Crecimiento, utilizando Sistemas de Información Geográfica (ArcView). Estos

  1. Multiple effects of 1-[beta-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole hydrochloride (SKF 96365) on Ca2+ signaling in MDCK cells: depletion of thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ store followed by capacitative Ca2+ entry, activation of a direct Ca2+ entry, and inhibition of thapsigargin-induced capacitative Ca2+ entry.

    PubMed

    Jan, C R; Ho, C M; Wu, S N; Tseng, C J

    1999-02-01

    The effect of 1-[beta-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole hydrochloride (SKF 96365) on Ca2+ signaling in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells was examined. SKF 96365 at 25-100 microM evoked a robust [Ca2+]i transient in a dose-dependent manner, measured by fura-2 fluorimetry. A concentration of 10 microM SKF 96365 did not have an effect. The transient consisted of a slow rise, a gradual decay, and a sustained plateau in physiological Ca2+ medium. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ reduced the Ca2+ signals evoked by 50-100 microM SKF 96365 by nearly half in the area under the curve, suggesting that SKF 96365 induced intracellular Ca2+ release and also extracellular Ca2+ influx. A concentration of 100 microM SKF 96365 caused significant Mn2+ quench of fura-2 fluorescence, which was partly inhibited by La3+ (1 mM) or Gd3+ (0.1 mM), indicating that the SKF 96365-induced Ca2+ influx had two components: one is sensitive to La3+ (1 mM) or Gd3+ (0.1 mM), the other is not. The internal Ca2+ source for the SKF 96365-induced [Ca2+]i transient was the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ store because, pretreatment with thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, two inhibitors of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump nearly abolished the SKF 96365-induced [Ca2+]i increase in Ca2+-free medium. In contrast, pretreatment with 100 microM SKF 96365 only partly depleted the thapsigargin-sensitive Ca2+ store. Addition of 10 mM Ca2+ induced a significant [Ca2+]i increase after prior incubation with 100 microM SKF 96365 in Ca2+-free medium, demonstrating that SKF 96365 induced capacitative Ca2+ entry. This capacitative Ca2+ entry was about 40% of that induced by 1 microM thapsigargin. Additional to inducing its own capacitative Ca2+ entry, 100 microM SKF 96365 partly inhibited thapsigargin- or uridine trisphosphate (UTP)-induced capacitative Ca2+ entry. We also investigated the mechanisms underlying the decay of the SKF 96365-induced [Ca2+]i transient. Inhibition of the plasma

  2. Closed headpiece of integrin [alpah]IIb[beta]3 and its complex with an [alpha]IIb[beta]3-specific antagonist that does not induce opening

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jieqing; Zhu, Jianghai; Negri, Ana; Provasi, Davide; Filizola, Marta; Coller, Barry S.; Springer, Timothy A.

    2011-08-24

    The platelet integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} is essential for hemostasis and thrombosis through its binding of adhesive plasma proteins. We have determined crystal structures of the {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} headpiece in the absence of ligand and after soaking in RUC-1, a novel small molecule antagonist. In the absence of ligand, the {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} headpiece is in a closed conformation, distinct from the open conformation visualized in presence of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) antagonists. In contrast to RGD antagonists, RUC-1 binds only to the {alpha}{sub IIb} subunit. Molecular dynamics revealed nearly identical binding. Two species-specific residues, {alpha}{sub IIb} Y190 and {alpha}{sub aIIb} D232, in the RUC-1 binding site were confirmed as important by mutagenesis. In sharp contrast to RGD-based antagonists, RUC-1 did not induce {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} to adopt an open conformation, as determined by gel filtration and dynamic light scattering. These studies provide insights into the factors that regulate integrin headpiece opening, and demonstrate the molecular basis for a novel mechanism of integrin antagonism.

  3. SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER AND INTEGRIN BETA 3 GENES INTERACT TO MODULATE SEROTONIN UPTAKE IN MOUSE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Alonzo; Jessen, Tammy; Varney, Seth; Carneiro, Ana MD

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunctions in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) systems have been associated with several psychiatric illnesses, including anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Convergent evidence from genetic analyses of human subjects has implicated the integrin β3 subunit gene (ITGB3) as a modulator of serotonergic systems via genetic interactions with the 5-HT transporter gene (SLC6A4, SERT). While genetic interactions may result from contributions of each gene at several levels, we hypothesize that ITGB3 modulates the 5-HT system at the level of the synapse, through the actions of integrin αvβ3. Here we utilized a genetic approach in mouse models to examine Itgb3 contributions to SERT function both in the context of normal and reduced SERT expression. As integrin αvβ3 is expressed in postsynaptic membranes, we isolated synaptoneurosomes, which maintain intact pre- and post-synaptic associations. Citalopram binding revealed significant Slc6a4-driven reductions in SERT expression in midbrain synapses, whereas no significant changes were observed in hippocampal or cortical projections. Expecting corresponding changes to SERT function, we also measured 5-HT uptake activity in synaptoneurosomal preparations. Itgb3 single heterozygous mice displayed significant reductions in 5-HT Vmax, with no chages in Km, in midbrain preparations. However, in the presence of both Itgb3 and Slc6a4 heterozygozity, 5-HT uptake was similar to wild-type levels, revealing a significant Slc6a4 by Itgb3 genetic interaction in the midbrain. Similar findings were observed in cortical preparations, whereas in the hippocampus, most Vmax changes were driven solely by Slc6a4. Our findings provide evidence that integrin αvβ3 is involved in the regulation of serotonergic systems in some, but not all 5-HT synapses, revealing novel contributions to synaptic specificity within the central nervous system. PMID:24083985

  4. Serotonin transporter and integrin beta 3 genes interact to modulate serotonin uptake in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Alonzo; Jessen, Tammy; Varney, Seth; Carneiro, Ana M D

    2014-07-01

    Dysfunctions in serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) systems have been associated with several psychiatric illnesses, including anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorders and autism spectrum disorders. Convergent evidence from genetic analyses of human subjects has implicated the integrin β3 subunit gene (ITGB3) as a modulator of serotonergic systems via genetic interactions with the 5-HT transporter gene (SLC6A4, SERT). While genetic interactions may result from contributions of each gene at several levels, we hypothesize that ITGB3 modulates the 5-HT system at the level of the synapse, through the actions of integrin αvβ3. Here we utilized a genetic approach in mouse models to examine Itgb3 contributions to SERT function both in the context of normal and reduced SERT expression. As integrin αvβ3 is expressed in postsynaptic membranes, we isolated synaptoneurosomes, which maintain intact pre- and post-synaptic associations. Citalopram binding revealed significant Slc6a4-driven reductions in SERT expression in midbrain synapses, whereas no significant changes were observed in hippocampal or cortical projections. Expecting corresponding changes to SERT function, we also measured 5-HT uptake activity in synaptoneurosomal preparations. Itgb3 single heterozygous mice displayed significant reductions in 5-HT Vmax, with no changes in Km, in midbrain preparations. However, in the presence of both Itgb3 and Slc6a4 heterozygozity, 5-HT uptake was similar to wild-type levels, revealing a significant Slc6a4 by Itgb3 genetic interaction in the midbrain. Similar findings were observed in cortical preparations, whereas in the hippocampus, most Vmax changes were driven solely by Slc6a4. Our findings provide evidence that integrin αvβ3 is involved in the regulation of serotonergic systems in some, but not all 5-HT synapses, revealing novel contributions to synaptic specificity within the central nervous system.

  5. Platelet activating factor antagonist design. 2. X-ray structure of dimethyl 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5 beta-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-oxo-3 beta-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-3 alpha,4 alpha-furandicarboxylate.

    PubMed

    Peterson, J R; Do, H D; Rogers, R D

    1989-07-15

    C25H24O12, Mr = 516.46, triclinic, P-1, a = 8.780 (3), b = 11.298 (4), c = 13.271 (6) A, alpha = 71.77 (4), beta = 70.31 (3), gamma = 72.66 (3) degrees, V = 1189 A3, Z = 2, Dx = 1.44 g cm-3, lambda (Mo K alpha) = 0.71073 A, mu = 0.74 cm-1, F(000) = 540, T = 293 K, final R = 0.046 for 2495 observed [Fo greater than or equal to 5 sigma (Fo)] reflections. The observed structure reveals a trans disposition for the methoxycarbonyl and aryl substituents at positions 4 and 5 of the heterocycle and a cis-3,4-bis(methoxycarbonyl) relationship. There is no crystallographically imposed symmetry. Several intermolecular van der Waals interactions occur in the cell lattice of this compound.

  6. microPET Imaging of Glioma Integrin (alpha-v, beta-3) Expression Using Cu-64-Labeled Tetrameric RGD Peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yun; Zhang, , Xianzhong; Xiong, , Zhengming; Cheng, Zhen; Fisher, Darrell R.; Liu, Shu-hong; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2005-10-01

    Integrins ?v?3 and ?v?5 play a critical role in tumor-induced angiogenesis and metastasis, and have become promising diagnostic indicators and therapeutic targets of tumors. Radiolabeled RGD peptides that are integrin-specific may be used for non-invasive imaging of integrin expression level as well as for integrin-targeted radionuclide therapy. We previously conjugated a series of mono- and dimeric RGD peptides with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N?,N??,N???-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and labeled these with copper-64 for microPET imaging in various mouse xenograft models. The copper-64 tracers showed ?v?3-selective tumor uptake, but the magnitude of tumor uptake was relatively low, the tumor washout was rapid, and non-target organ/tissue retention was high. In this study we developed a tetrameric RGD peptide tracer 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of integrin ?v?3 expression in a subcutaneous U87MG glioma xenograft model in female athymic nude mice. The RGD tetramer showed significantly higher integrin binding affinity than the corresponding mono- and dimeric RGD analogs, most likely due to polyvalency effect. The radiolabeled peptide showed rapid blood clearance (0.61 ? 0.01%ID/g at 30 min and 0.21 ? 0.01 %ID/g at 4 h postinjection (p.i.), respectively) and predominantly renal excretion. Tumor uptake was rapid and high and the tumor washout was slow (9.93 ? 1.05 %ID/g at 30 min p.i. and 4.56 ? 0.51 %ID/g at 24 h post-injection). The metabolic stability of 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 was determined in mouse blood, urine, and liver and kidney homogenates at different times after tracer injection. The average fractions of intact tracer in these organs at 1 h were approximately 70, 58, 51 and 26 percent, respectively. Non-invasive microPET imaging studies showed significant tumor uptake and good contrast in the subcutaneous tumor-bearing mice, which agreed well with the biodistribution results. Integrin ?v?3 specificity was demonstrated by successful blocking of tumor uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 in the presence of excess amount of c(RGDyK) at 1 h postinjection. The highest absorbed radiation doses determined for the human reference adult were received by the urinary bladder wall (0.263 mGy/MBq), kidneys (0.0298 mGy/MBq), and liver (0.0244 mGy/MBq). Assuming 0.5-g U87MG glioma tumors in man, we calculated an absorbed dose of 65.3 mGy/MBq (242 rad/mCi) following a single injection of 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2. In conclusion, the high integrin avidity and favorable biokinetics make 64Cu-DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]2{r_brace}2 a promising agent for peptide receptor radionuclide imaging therapy of integrin-positive tumors.

  7. The role of transforming growth factors beta1 and beta3 in pre- and post-natal pulmonary surfactant development.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Deng, Chun; Fu, Zhou; Guo, Chunbao

    2011-03-01

    The aim was to explore the pulmonary surfactant regulatory effect of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 during pre- and post-natal porcine development. Pigs on embryonic day 99 (E94) (term = 114 days) and 1-h (D0) and 15-day (D20) neonates were killed to obtain whole lungs. DSPC (disaturated phosphatidylcholine) was separated from other phospholipids, and chemical methods were used to determine the amounts of DSPC, TPL (total phospholipids) and TP (total protein) in BALF (bronchoalveolar lavage fluid). TPL was elevated at E94. DSPC in TPL was significantly higher in the D20 group than in the E94 group. Reductions in TP correlated with developmental age. The levels of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 mRNA were determined by RT (reverse transcription)-PCR and Northern blot. The expression of TGF-β1 mRNA was low at E94, increased at D0 and then decreased at D20. The expression of TGF-β3 was high at E94, reduced at D0, and then elevated at D20. We further examined the effect of exogenously administered TGF-1 on the expression of SPs (surfactant proteins) and cytidine triphosphorylate: CCT (phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase) activity in porcine fetal lung cells cultured for 5 days. The results indicated that TGF-β1 inhibited the expression of all three SPs (SP-A, SP-B and SP-C) and CCT activity, but did not alter the expression level of SP-D transcripts. We conclude that TGF-1 inhibits the expression of surfactant components. The alterations of TGF-β3 seem to partly explain the pulmonary surfactant changes observed in development, but this result needs further investigation.

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis serine--aspartate repeat protein G (SdrG) binds to osteoblast integrin alpha V beta 3.

    PubMed

    Claro, T; Kavanagh, N; Foster, T J; O'Brien, F J; Kerrigan, S W

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the leading etiologic agent of orthopaedic implant infection. Contamination of the implanted device during insertion allows bacteria gain entry into the sterile bone environment leading to condition known as osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis is characterised by weakened bones associated with progressive bone loss. The mechanism through which S. epidermidis interacts with bone cells to cause osteomyelitis is poorly understood. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis can bind to osteoblasts in the absence of matrix proteins. S. epidermidis strains lacking the cell wall protein SdrG had a significantly reduced ability to bind to osteoblasts. Consistent with this, expression of SdrG in Lactococcus lactis resulted in significantly increased binding to the osteoblasts. Protein analysis identified that SdrG contains a potential integrin recognition motif. αVβ3 is a major integrin expressed on osteoblasts and typically recognises RGD motifs in its ligands. Our results demonstrate that S. epidermidis binds to recombinant purified αVβ3, and that a mutant lacking SdrG failed to bind. Blocking αVβ3 on osteoblasts significantly reduced binding to S. epidermidis. These studies are the first to identify a mechanism through which S. epidermidis binds to osteoblasts and potentially offers a mechanism through which implant infection caused by S. epidermidis leads to osteomyelitis.

  9. The integrin alphav beta3 increases cellular stiffness and cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics to facilitate cancer cell invasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-01-01

    The process of cancer cell invasion through the extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissue plays a prominent role in tumor progression and is based fundamentally on biomechanics. Cancer cell invasion usually requires cell adhesion to the ECM through the cell-matrix adhesion receptors integrins. The expression of the αvβ3 integrin is increased in several tumor types and is consistently associated with increased metastasis formation in patients. The hypothesis was that the αvβ3 integrin expression increases the invasiveness of cancer cells through increased cellular stiffness, and increased cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. Here, the invasion of cancer cells with different αvβ3 integrin expression levels into dense three-dimensional (3D) ECMs has been studied. Using a cell sorter, two subcell lines expressing either high or low amounts of αvβ3 integrins (αvβ3high or αvβ3low cells, respectively) have been isolated from parental MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. αvβ3high cells showed a threefold increased cell invasion compared to αvβ3low cells. Similar results were obtained for A375 melanoma, 786-O kidney and T24 bladder carcinoma cells, and cells in which the β3 integrin subunit was knocked down using specific siRNA. To investigate whether contractile forces are essential for αvβ3 integrin-mediated increased cellular stiffness and subsequently enhanced cancer cell invasion, invasion assays were performed in the presence of myosin light chain kinase inhibitor ML-7 and Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Indeed, cancer cell invasiveness was reduced after addition of ML-7 and Y27632 in αvβ3high cells but not in αvβ3low cells. Moreover, after addition of the contractility enhancer calyculin A, an increase in pre-stress in αvβ3low cells was observed, which enhanced cellular invasiveness. In addition, inhibition of the Src kinase, STAT3 or Rac1 strongly reduced the invasiveness of αvβ3high cells, whereas the invasiveness of β3 specific knock-down cells and αvβ3low cells was not altered. In summary, these results suggest that the αvβ3 integrin enhances cancer cell invasion through increased cellular stiffness and enhanced cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics, which enables the cells to generate and transmit contractile forces to overcome the steric hindrance of 3D ECMs.

  10. Association analysis of the beta-3 adrenergic receptor Trp64Arg (rs4994) polymorphism with urate and gout.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Tahzeeb; Altaf, Sara; Phipps-Green, Amanda; Topless, Ruth; Flynn, Tanya J; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, Tony R

    2016-02-01

    The Arg64 allele of variant rs4994 (Trp64Arg) in the β3-adrenergic receptor gene has been associated with increased serum urate and risk of gout. Our objective was to investigate the relationship of rs4994 with serum urate and gout in New Zealand European, Māori and Pacific subjects. A total of 1730 clinically ascertained gout cases and 2145 controls were genotyped for rs4994 by Taqman(®). Māori and Pacific subjects were subdivided into Eastern Polynesian (EP) and Western Polynesian (WP) sample sets. Publicly available genotype data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and the Framingham Heart Study were utilized for serum urate association analysis. Multivariate logistic and linear regression adjusted for potential confounders was carried out using R version 2.15.2. No significant association of the minor Arg64 (G) allele of rs4994 with gout was found in the combined Polynesian cohorts (OR = 0.98, P = 0.88), although there was evidence, after adjustment for renal disease, for association in both the WP (OR = 0.53, P = 0.03) and the lower Polynesian ancestry EP sample sets (OR = 1.86, P = 0.05). There was no evidence for association with gout in the European sample set (OR = 1.11, P = 0.57). However, the Arg64 allele was positively associated with urate in the WP data set (β = 0.036, P = 0.004, P Corrected = 0.032). Association of the Arg64 variant with increased urate in the WP sample set was consistent with the previous literature, although the protective effect of this variant with gout in WP was inconsistent. This association provides an etiological link between metabolic syndrome components and urate homeostasis.

  11. Phospholipase C beta3 is a key component in the Gbetagamma/PKCeta/PKD-mediated regulation of trans-Golgi network to plasma membrane transport.

    PubMed

    Díaz Añel, Alberto M

    2007-08-15

    The requirement of DAG (diacylglycerol) to recruit PKD (protein kinase D) to the TGN (trans-Golgi network) for the targeting of transport carriers to the cell surface, has led us to a search for new components involved in this regulatory pathway. Previous findings reveal that the heterotrimeric Gbetagamma (GTP-binding protein betagamma subunits) act as PKD activators, leading to fission of transport vesicles at the TGN. We have recently shown that PKCeta (protein kinase Ceta) functions as an intermediate member in the vesicle generating pathway. DAG is capable of activating this kinase at the TGN, and at the same time is able to recruit PKD to this organelle in order to interact with PKCeta, allowing phosphorylation of PKD's activation loop. The most qualified candidates for the production of DAG at the TGN are PI-PLCs (phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipases C), since some members of this family can be directly activated by Gbetagamma, utilizing PtdIns(4,5)P2 as a substrate, to produce the second messengers DAG and InsP3. In the present study we show that betagamma-dependent Golgi fragmentation, PKD1 activation and TGN to plasma membrane transport were affected by a specific PI-PLC inhibitor, U73122 [1-(6-{[17-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino}hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione]. In addition, a recently described PI-PLC activator, m-3M3FBS [2,4,6-trimethyl-N-(m-3-trifluoromethylphenyl)benzenesulfonamide], induced vesiculation of the Golgi apparatus as well as PKD1 phosphorylation at its activation loop. Finally, using siRNA (small interfering RNA) to block several PI-PLCs, we were able to identify PLCbeta3 as the sole member of this family involved in the regulation of the formation of transport carriers at the TGN. In conclusion, we demonstrate that fission of transport carriers at the TGN is dependent on PI-PLCs, specifically PLCbeta3, which is necessary to activate PKCeta and PKD in that Golgi compartment, via DAG production.

  12. Structural basis for distinctive recognition of fibrinogen [gamma]C peptide by the platelet integrin [alpha][subscript IIb][beta]3

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, Timothy A.; Zhu, Jianghai; Xiao, Tsan

    2009-01-12

    Hemostasis and thrombosis (blood clotting) involve fibrinogen binding to integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} on platelets, resulting in platelet aggregation. {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding fibrinogen via an Arg-Asp-Gly (RGD) motif in fibrinogen's {alpha} subunit. {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} also binds to fibrinogen; however, it does so via an unstructured RGD-lacking C-terminal region of the {gamma} subunit ({gamma}C peptide). These distinct modes of fibrinogen binding enable {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} and {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} to function cooperatively in hemostasis. In this study, crystal structures reveal the integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3}-{gamma}C peptide interface, and, for comparison, integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} bound to a lamprey {gamma}C primordial RGD motif. Compared with RGD, the GAKQAGDV motif in {gamma}C adopts a different backbone configuration and binds over a more extended region. The integrin metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) Mg{sup 2+} ion binds the {gamma}C Asp side chain. The adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS) Ca{sup 2+} ion binds the {gamma}C C terminus, revealing a contribution for ADMIDAS in ligand binding. Structural data from this natively disordered {gamma}C peptide enhances our understanding of the involvement of {gamma}C peptide and integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} in hemostasis and thrombosis.

  13. Pharmacological Characterization of a Novel Beta 3 Adrenergic Agonist, Vibegron: Evaluation of Antimuscarinic Receptor Selectivity for Combination Therapy for Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, J; Nagabukuro, H; Wickham, L A; Abbadie, C; DeMartino, J A; Fitzmaurice, A; Gichuru, L; Kulick, A; Donnelly, M J; Jochnowitz, N; Hurley, A L; Pereira, A; Sanfiz, A; Veronin, G; Villa, K; Woods, J; Zamlynny, B; Zycband, E; Salituro, G M; Frenkl, T; Weber, A E; Edmondson, S D; Struthers, M

    2017-02-01

    Although the physiologic role of muscarinic receptors in bladder function and the therapeutic efficacy of muscarinic antagonists for the treatment of overactive bladder are well established, the role of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3ARs) and their potential as therapeutics is just emerging. In this manuscript, we characterized the pharmacology of a novel β3AR agonist vibegron (MK-4618, KRP-114V) and explored mechanistic interactions of β3AR agonism and muscarinic antagonism in urinary bladder function. Vibegron is a potent, selective full β3AR agonist across species, and it dose dependently increased bladder capacity, decreased micturition pressure, and increased bladder compliance in rhesus monkeys. The relaxation effect of vibegron was enhanced when combined with muscarinic antagonists, but differentially influenced by muscarinic receptor subtype selectivity. The effect was greater when vibegron was co-administered with tolterodine, a nonselective antagonist, compared with coadministration with darifenacin, a selective M3 antagonist. Furthermore, a synergistic effect for bladder strip relaxation was observed with the combination of a β3AR agonist and tolterodine in contrast to simple additivity with darifenacin. To determine expression in rhesus bladder, we employed a novel β3AR agonist probe, [(3)H]MRL-037, that selectively labels β3 receptors in both urothelium and detrusor smooth muscle. Vibegron administration caused a dose-dependent increase in circulating glycerol and fatty acid levels in rhesus and rat in vivo, suggesting these circulating lipids can be surrogate biomarkers. The translation of our observation to the clinic has yet to be determined, but the combination of β3AR agonists with M2/M3 antimuscarinics has the potential to redefine the standard of care for the pharmacological treatment of overactive bladder.

  14. Lyn- and PLC-beta3-dependent regulation of SHP-1 phosphorylation controls Stat5 activity and myelomonocytic leukemia-like disease.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenbin; Ando, Tomoaki; Wang, Huan-You; Kawakami, Yuko; Kawakami, Toshiaki

    2010-12-23

    Hyperactivation of the transcription factor Stat5 leads to various leukemias. Stat5 activity is regulated by the protein phosphatase SHP-1 in a phospholipase C (PLC)-β3-dependent manner. Thus, PLC-β3-deficient mice develop myeloproliferative neoplasm, like Lyn (Src family kinase)- deficient mice. Here we show that Lyn/PLC-β3 doubly deficient lyn(-/-);PLC-β3(-/-) mice develop a Stat5-dependent, fatal myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, similar to human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). In hematopoietic stem cells of lyn(-/-);PLC-β3(-/-) mice that cause the CMML-like disease, phosphorylation of SHP-1 at Tyr(536) and Tyr(564) is abrogated, resulting in reduced phosphatase activity and constitutive activation of Stat5. Furthermore, SHP-1 phosphorylation at Tyr(564) by Lyn is indispensable for maximal phosphatase activity and for suppression of the CMML-like disease in these mice. On the other hand, Tyr(536) in SHP-1 can be phosphorylated by Lyn and another kinase(s) and is necessary for efficient interaction with Stat5. Therefore, we identify a novel Lyn/PLC-β3-mediated regulatory mechanism of SHP-1 and Stat5 activities.

  15. Cooperation between AlphavBeta3 integrin and the fibroblast growth factor receptor enhances proliferation of Hox-overexpressing acute myeloid leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Chirag A.; Bei, Ling; Wang, Hao; Altman, Jessica K.; Platanias, Leonidas C.; Eklund, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    A poor prognosis subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by increased expression of a set of homeodomain (HD) transcription factors, including HoxA9, HoxA10 and Cdx4. This encompasses AML with MLL1 gene translocations, because Mll1-fusion proteins aberrantly activate HOX transcription. We previously identified FGF2 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 2) as a target gene for HoxA9 and HoxA10 that was indirectly activated by Mll-Ell (an Mll1-fusion protein). Autocrine stimulation of Mll-Ell+ myeloid progenitor cells by Fgf2 stabilized βcatenin and increased expression of βcatenin target genes, including CDX4. Since HOXA9 and HOXA10 are Cdx4 target genes, Fgf2 indirectly augmented direct effects of Mll-Ell on these genes. ITGB3, encoding β3 integrin, is another HoxA10 target gene. In the current studies, we found activation of ITGB3 transcription in Mll-Ell+ myeloid progenitor cells via HoxA9 and HoxA10. Increased expression of αvβ3 integrin increased Syk-activation; contributing to cytokine hypersensitivity. However, inhibiting Fgf-R partly reversed αvβ3 activity in Mll-Ell+ progenitor cells by decreasing ITGB3 promoter activity in a βcatenin- and Cdx4-dependent manner. Inhibitors of Fgf-R or Syk impaired proliferation of CD34+ bone marrow cells from AML subjects with increased Hox-expression; with a greater combined effect. These studies identified a rational therapeutic approach to this AML subtype. PMID:27340869

  16. Functional Interactions Between Laminin-10, alphaV beta3 Integrin and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Promoting Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Slavin, J., and Anderson, R. L. (1999) Clin Exp Metastasis 17, 163-170 3. Eckhardt, B. L., Parker, B. S., van Laar, R. K., Restall , C. M., Natoli, A. L...Medecine Science, supplement no2 (99) p.36A. Meeting Presentations: 1. Pouliot N., E. Sloan, A.L. Natoli, B. Eckhardt, C.M. Restall , B. Parker, L...Australia. 2. Pouliot N., C.M. Restall , A.L. Natoli, 0. Narayan and R.L. Anderson (2003). The role of MMP-9 and its regulation by tumour/stromal

  17. Association between TGFBR2 gene polymorphisms and congenital heart defects in Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fuhua; Li, Li; Shen, Chong; Wang, Hairu; Chen, Jinfeng; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xin

    2014-10-31

    Antecedentes: Factor de crecimiento transformante receptor II (TGFBR2) es un componente clave de la via de señalización de TGF - .TGFBR2 puede ser detectado en la generación de corazón. Los embriones de ratón de TGFBR2 gene knockout mostraron defectos congénitos del corazon. Métodos: Hemos realizado un estudio de casos y controles para investigar la asociación entre polimorfismos del gen TGFBR2 y defectos congénitos del corazón en la población china han. 125 pacientes con defectos congénitos del corazón y 615 unrelated controles fueron reclutados. Marcado de dos polimorfismos de nucleótido único (tagsnps) en 5 ‘aguas arriba del gen TGFBR2 (rs6785358, - 3779a / g; rs764522, - 1444c / g) fueron seleccionados y genotipados por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) - polimorfismos de longitud de fragmentos de restricción (RFLP) de ensayo. Resultados: Se observó una diferencia significativa en la distribución de genotipos entre pacientes con defectos congénitos del corazón y controles para SNP rs6785358 (P = 0043). La SNP rs6785358 el porteador del alelo G (AG / GG genotipo) mostraron un importante crecimiento y mayor riesgo de defectos congénitos del corazón en comparación con AA homocigotos (OR = 1.545, IC del 95%: 1.013–2.356). Más análisis por sexo estratificación indicó que los individuos con alelo G (AG / GG genotipo) para SNP rs6785358 tienen una mayor susceptibilidad a defectos congénitos del corazón (OR = 2.088, IC del 95%: 1.123-3.883, p = 0.019) en machos, pero no en las mujeres (OR = 1.195, IC del 95%: 0.666-2.146, p = 0.55). No hay significación estadística fue detectado en la distribución de los genotipos y frecuencias de alelos de SNP rs764522 entre pacientes y controles. Conclusión: Nuestros resultados sugieren que el SNP rs6785358 de gen TGFBR2 se asoció con un mayor riesgo de defectos congénitos del corazón en los chinos han hombres y más investigación estaría justificada.

  18. Crecimiento adiabático de un agujero negro en el centro de un sistema estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigoni, M.; Carpintero, D. D.

    We present preliminary results on the dynamical influence of an adiabatically grown central black hole upon its surroundings. Young (1980), in his pioneer work, found an r-3/2 density profile for the neighborhood of a black hole, a result not confirmed by observation. In this work, we extend Young's result to a more realistic case, namely an inhomogeneous galactic center, although keeping the spherical symmetry hypothesis, in order to verify whether the final density profile changes.

  19. Platelet activation by C1q results in the induction of alpha IIb/beta 3 integrins (GPIIb-IIIa) and the expression of P-selectin and procoagulant activity

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    C1q receptors (C1qR) have been identified on a variety of somatic and cultured cells including peripheral blood platelets. Since platelets are likely to encounter both circulating C1q multimers and C1q associated with the extracellular matrix after complement activation by the classical pathway, the present study was designed to assess the effect of fluid phase and immobilized C1q on platelet function. Platelet adhesion to C1q-coated surfaces was accompanied by the induction of fibrinogen receptors. Scatchard analysis of fibrinogen binding to adherent platelets revealed the binding of approximately 10,000 molecules of fibrinogen per platelet with a Kd of 0.1 +/- 0.03 microM (mean +/- SD, n = 4). Furthermore, fluid phase C1q multimers were noted to aggregate platelets at doses > 5 micrograms/ml. This aggregation was preceded by a rise in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) (6.9 +/- 2.4 pmoles/10(9) platelets at 15 s, n = 4), and activation of GPIIb-IIIa complexes supporting fibrinogen binding. Platelet aggregation in response to C1q multimers was accompanied by the aspirin-inhibitable release of granule contents and P-selectin (CD62) expression. Platelet aggregation was inhibited by the collagenous domain of C1q (c-Clq) and a monoclonal antibody directed against C1q receptors, suggesting the direct involvement of the 67-kD platelet C1qR. Antibodies against the very late antigen 2 or CD36 collagen receptors were without effect. Platelet exposure to C1q multimers was also accompanied by the expression of procoagulant activity, as demonstrated by the dose-dependent shortening of the kaolin recalcification time of normal plasma from 108 +/- 12 s in the presence of unstimulated platelets to 62 +/- 14 s in the presence of platelets that had been preincubated (5 min, 37 degrees C) with 100 micrograms/ml multimeric C1q (n = 3). These data suggest that platelet interactions with C1q multimers or immobilized C1q, resulting in the activation of GPIIb-IIIa fibrinogen binding sites and the expression of P-selectin as well as platelet procoagulant activity, are likely to contribute to thrombotic events associated with complement activation and inflammation. PMID:7688027

  20. The effects of estrogen, its antagonist ICI 182, 780, and interferon-tau on the expression of estrogen receptors and integrin alphaV beta 3 on cycle day 16 in bovine endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Kimmins, Sarah; Russell, Gerald L; Lim, Hai Choo; Hall, Brian K; MacLaren, Leslie A

    2003-01-01

    We have shown previously that downregulation of intercaruncular stromal integrin αvβ3 in bovine endometrium on day 16 of the estrous cycle coincided with the antibody recognition of estrogen receptors (ER) in the luminal epithelium. In pregnancy, these changes were not observed. Our hypothesis was that on day 16 of the estrous cycle, estrogen from the dominant follicle causes a reduction in integrin αvβ3 and affects ERα in the luminal epithelium. The pregnancy recognition protein, interferon-τ (IFN-τ), may prevent downregulation of integrin αvβ3 and suppress ERα expression in the luminal epithelium. On days 14 to 16, heifers received uterine infusions of the anti-estrogen ICI 182, 780, estradiol 17β, IFN-τ or the saline control. On day 16, reproductive tracts were collected for analysis of integrin αvβ3 and ERα. Estrogen receptor α immunoreactivity was largely restricted to the luminal epithelium in control animals. Using anti-ERα recognizing the amino terminus, estrogen-treated animals showed reactivity in the stroma, shallow and deep glands and myometrium as is typical of estrus, whereas ICI 182, 870 treated heifers showed little or no reactivity. In contrast, carboxyl terminus-directed antibodies showed a widespread distribution of ERα with reactivity detected in the uterine epithelium, stroma and myometrium of both estrogen and ICI 182, 780 treated animals. Heifers treated with IFN-τ had low ERα reactivity overall. Control and IFN-τ treated heifers had lower intercaruncular stromal expression of integrin αvβ3 in comparison to estrogen and ICI 182, 780 treatments. Overall, the results suggest that on day 16 of the estrous cycle, estrogen effects on integrin αvβ3 are indirect and do not directly involve ERα in the luminal epithelium. During pregnancy, interferon-tau may block ERα in the luminal epithelium but likely does not rescue integrin αvβ3 expression. PMID:12756058

  1. The human [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit [beta]3 and [alpha]5 gene cluster in chromosome 15q11-q13 is rich in highly polymorphic (CA)[sub n] repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Glatt, K.; Lalande, M. ); Sinnett, D. )

    1994-01-01

    The [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA[sub A]) receptor [beta]33 (GABRB3) and [alpha]5 (GABRA5) subunit genes have been localized to the Angelman and Prader-Willi syndrome region of chromosome 15q11-q13. GABRB3, which encompasses 250 kb, is located 100 kb proximal of GABRA5, with the two genes arranged in head-to-head transcriptional orientation. In screening 135 kb of cloned DNA within a 260-kb interval extending from within GABRB3 to the 5[prime] end of GABRA5, 10 new (CA), repeats have been identified. Five of these have been analyzed in detail and found to be highly polymorphic, with the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranging from 0.7 to 0.85 and with heterozygosities of 67 to 94%. In the clones from GABRB3/GABRA5 region, therefore, the frequency of (CA)[sub n] with PICs [ge] 0.7 is 1 per 27 kb. Previous estimates of the density of (CA)[sub n] with PICs [ge] 0.7 in the human genome have been approximately 10-fold lower. The GABRB3/GABRA5 region appears, therefore, to be enriched for highly informative (CA)[sub n]. This set of closely spaced, short tandem repeat polymorphisms will be useful in the molecular analyses of Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes and in high-resolution studies of genetic recombination within this region. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. GABA{sub A} receptor open-state conformation determines non-competitive antagonist binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Ligong; Xue Ling; Giacomini, Kathleen M.; Casida, John E.

    2011-02-01

    The {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA{sub A}R) is one of the most important targets for insecticide action. The human recombinant {beta}3 homomer is the best available model for this binding site and 4-n-[{sup 3}H]propyl-4'-ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate ([{sup 3}H]EBOB) is the preferred non-competitive antagonist (NCA) radioligand. The uniquely high sensitivity of the {beta}3 homomer relative to the much-less-active but structurally very-similar {beta}1 homomer provides an ideal comparison to elucidate structural and functional features important for NCA binding. The {beta}1 and {beta}3 subunits were compared using chimeragenesis and mutagenesis and various combinations with the {alpha}1 subunit and modulators. Chimera {beta}3/{beta}1 with the {beta}3 subunit extracellular domain and the {beta}1 subunit transmembrane helices retained the high [{sup 3}H]EBOB binding level of the {beta}3 homomer while chimera {beta}1/{beta}3 with the {beta}1 subunit extracellular domain and the {beta}3 subunit transmembrane helices had low binding activity similar to the {beta}1 homomer. GABA at 3 {mu}M stimulated heteromers {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}1{beta}3 binding levels more than 2-fold by increasing the open probability of the channel. Addition of the {alpha}1 subunit rescued the inactive {beta}1/{beta}3 chimera close to wildtype {alpha}1{beta}1 activity. EBOB binding was significantly altered by mutations {beta}1S15'N and {beta}3N15'S compared with wildtype {beta}1 and {beta}3, respectively. However, the binding activity of {alpha}1{beta}1S15'N was insensitive to GABA and {alpha}1{beta}3N15'S was stimulated much less than wildtype {alpha}1{beta}3 by GABA. The inhibitory effect of etomidate on NCA binding was reduced more than 5-fold by the mutation {beta}3N15'S. Therefore, the NCA binding site is tightly regulated by the open-state conformation that largely determines GABA{sub A} receptor sensitivity. - Graphical Abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights

  3. Bioavailabilty of beta-amino acid and C-terminally derived PK/PBAN analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of linear beta amino-acid-substituted peptides (PK-betaA-1: Ac-YFT[beta3-P]RLa; PK-betaA-2: Ac-Y[beta2-homoF]TPRLa; PK-betaA-3: Ac-Y[beta3-F]TPRLa and PK-betaA-4: Ac-[beta3-F]FT[beta3-P]RLa) and unsubstituted analogs (Ac-YFTPRLa and YFTPRLa) of the pyrokinin(PK)/pheromone biosynthesis-ac...

  4. ...And That's How It All Began: Putting Information about Your Child's Growth, Health and Safety All within Your Reach...Because the First Years Last Forever! = ...Y asi es como empezo todo: Ponemos a su alcance en forma conjunta la informacion sobre el crecimiento, la salud y la seguridad de su hijo...Porque los primeros anos duran para siempre!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Partnership for Children, Raleigh.

    Smart Start is North Carolina's model early childhood initiative to help all North Carolina children enter school healthy and prepared for success. This resource guide, in Spanish and English versions, is designed to provide parents with information on infant and child development, health care, and resources for further assistance. Presented in an…

  5. Corrective transduction of human epidermal stem cells in laminin-5-dependent junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Dellambra, E; Vailly, J; Pellegrini, G; Bondanza, S; Golisano, O; Macchia, C; Zambruno, G; Meneguzzi, G; De Luca, M

    1998-06-10

    Laminin-5 is composed of three distinct polypeptides, alpha3, beta3, and gamma2, which are encoded by three different genes, LAMA3, LAMB3, and LAMC2, respectively. We have isolated epidermal keratinocytes from a patient presenting with a lethal form of junctional epidermolysis bullosa characterized by a homozygous mutation of the LAMB3 gene, which led to complete absence of the beta3 polypeptide. In vitro, beta3-null keratinocytes were unable to synthesize laminin-5 and to assemble hemidesmosomes, maintained the impairment of their adhesive properties, and displayed a decrease of their colony-forming ability. A retroviral construct expressing a human beta3 cDNA was used to transduce primary beta3-null keratinocytes. Clonogenic beta3-null keratinocytes were transduced with an efficiency of 100%. Beta3-transduced keratinocytes were able to synthesize and secrete mature heterotrimeric laminin-5. Gene correction fully restored the keratinocyte adhesion machinery, including the capacity of proper hemidesmosomal assembly, and prevented the loss of the colony-forming ability, suggesting a direct link between adhesion to laminin-5 and keratinocyte proliferative capacity. Clonal analysis demonstrated that holoclones expressed the transgene permanently, suggesting stable correction of epidermal stem cells. Because cultured keratinocytes are used routinely to make autologous grafts for patients suffering from large skin or mucosal defects, the full phenotypic reversion of primary human epidermal stem cells defective for a structural protein opens new perspectives in the long-term treatment of genodermatoses.

  6. Triterpenoidal glycosides from Justicia betonica.

    PubMed

    Kanchanapoom, Tripetch; Noiarsa, Pawadee; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kasai, Ryoji; Otsuka, Hideaki

    2004-09-01

    dFrom the aerial portion of Justicia betonica L., four triterpenoidal glycosides (justiciosides A-D) were isolated. Their structures were established through chemical and NMR spectroscopic analyses as olean-12-ene-1beta,3beta,11alpha,28-tetraol 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, olean-12-ene-1beta,3beta,11alpha,28-tetraol 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 11alpha-methoxy-olean-12-ene-1beta,3beta,28-triol 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 11alpha-methoxy-olean-12-ene-1beta,3beta,28-triol 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, respectively.

  7. Expression of the alpha(2)delta subunit interferes with prepulse facilitation in cardiac L-type calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Platano, D; Qin, N; Noceti, F; Birnbaumer, L; Stefani, E; Olcese, R

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of the accessory alpha(2)delta subunit on the voltage-dependent facilitation of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channels (alpha(1C)). alpha(1C) Channels were coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes with beta(3) and alpha(2)delta calcium channel subunits. In alpha(1C) + beta(3), the amplitude of the ionic current (measured during pulses to 10 mV) was in average approximately 1.9-fold larger after the application of a 200-ms prepulse to +80 mV. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as voltage-dependent facilitation, was not observed when alpha(2)delta was coexpressed with alpha(1C) + beta(3). In alpha(1C) + beta(3), the prepulse produced a left shift ( approximately 40 mV) of the activation curve. Instead, the activation curve for alpha(1C) + beta(3) + alpha(2)delta was minimally affected by the prepulse and had a voltage dependence very similar to the G-V curve of the alpha(1C) + beta(3) channel facilitated by the prepulse. Coexpression of alpha(2)delta with alpha(1C) + beta(3) seems to mimic the prepulse effect by shifting the activation curve toward more negative potentials, leaving little room for facilitation. The facilitation of alpha(1C) + beta(3) was associated with an increase of the charge movement. In the presence of alpha(2)delta, the charge remained unaffected after the prepulse. Coexpression of alpha(2)delta seems to set all the channels in a conformational state from where the open state can be easily reached, even without prepulse. PMID:10827975

  8. Identification of a molecular target mediating the general anesthetic actions of pentobarbital.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Anja; Arras, Margarete; Jurd, Rachel; Rudolph, Uwe

    2007-03-01

    Barbiturates were introduced into medical practice in 1934. They are widely used today as general anesthetics. Although in vitro studies revealed that the activity of a variety of ligand-gated channels is modulated by barbiturates, the target(s) mediating the anesthetic actions of barbiturates in vivo are unknown. Studying pentobarbital action in beta3(N265M) mice harboring beta3-containing GABAA receptors insensitive to a variety of general anesthetic agents, we found that the immobilizing action of pentobarbital is mediated fully, and the hypnotic action is mediated in part by this receptor subtype. It was surprising that the respiratory depressant action of pentobarbital is indistinguishable between beta3(N265M) and wild-type mice and thus is mediated by other as-yet-unidentified targets. Whereas the target for the immobilizing and hypnotic actions of pentobarbital seems to be the same as for etomidate and propofol, these latter agents' respiratory depressant actions are mediated by beta3-containing GABAA receptors. Thus, in contrast to etomidate and propofol, pentobarbital can elicit respiratory depression by a beta3-independent pathway. Pentobarbital reduced heart rate and body temperature to a slightly smaller extent in beta3(N265M) mice compared with wild-type mice, indicating that these actions are largely mediated by other targets. Pentobarbital-induced increase of heart rate variability and prolongation of ECG intervals are seen in both beta3(N265M) mice and wild-type mice, suggesting that they are not dependent on beta3-containing GABAA receptors. In summary, we show a clear pharmacological dissociation of the immobilizing/hypnotic and respiratory/cardiovascular actions of pentobarbital.

  9. Evidence for two concentration-dependent processes for beta-subunit effects on alpha1B calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Cantí, C; Davies, A; Berrow, N S; Butcher, A J; Page, K M; Dolphin, A C

    2001-01-01

    beta-Subunits of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels regulate both their expression and biophysical properties. We have injected a range of concentrations of beta3-cDNA into Xenopus oocytes, with a fixed concentration of alpha1B (Ca(V)2.2) cDNA, and have quantified the corresponding linear increase of beta3 protein. The concentration dependence of a number of beta3-dependent processes has been studied. First, the dependence of the a1B maximum conductance on beta3-protein occurs with a midpoint around the endogenous concentration of beta3 (approximately 17 nM). This may represent the interaction of the beta-subunit, responsible for trafficking, with the I-II linker of the nascent channel. Second, the effect of beta3-subunits on the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation provides evidence for two channel populations, interpreted as representing alpha1B without or with a beta3-subunit, bound with a lower affinity of 120 nM. Third, the effect of beta3 on the facilitation rate of G-protein-modulated alpha1B currents during a depolarizing prepulse to +100 mV provides evidence for the same two populations, with the rapid facilitation rate being attributed to Gbetagamma dissociation from the beta-subunit-bound alpha1B channels. The data are discussed in terms of two hypotheses, either binding of two beta-subunits to the alpha1B channel or a state-dependent alteration in affinity of the channel for the beta-subunit. PMID:11509358

  10. [A very slow-growing exophytic hemisphere glioma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Carlos; Caballero, Hugo; Bucheli, Carlos; Berciano, José; Vázquez-Barquero, Alfonso; Martino, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. Los gliomas de bajo grado presentan un patron de crecimiento caracteristico a traves de las fibras de la sustancia blanca. El crecimiento exofitico en gliomas de bajo grado hemisfericos no se ha descrito previamente. Se presenta un caso de glioma hemisferico de lenta progresion y con crecimiento exofitico. Caso clinico. Varon de 55 años, con crisis parciales motoras secundarias a un oligodendroglioma de grado II de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud. El tumor infiltraba la circunvolucion frontal superior con extension exofitica que se extendia por encima de la circunvolucion precentral. Fue seguido con controles clinicorradiologicos durante 23 años. El analisis de la evolucion radiologica del tumor demostraba un crecimiento tumoral lento, con una velocidad de crecimiento de 0,5 mm al año. Durante la exeresis quirurgica se definio un plano subaracnoideo entre el componente exofitico y la circunvolucion precentral, que se encontraba desplazada inferiormente sin infiltracion tumoral. La estimulacion electrica intraoperatoria no evidencio funcion en el componente exofitico, pero si en la circunvolucion precentral. No se observaron deficits neurologicos postoperatorios. Conclusiones. La velocidad de crecimiento en gliomas de bajo grado se ha estimado en 4-6 mm al año. El tumor que se describe aqui tiene una velocidad de crecimiento de 0,5 mm al año, muy por debajo de esta media. La identificacion de la porcion exofitica es un paso importante en la planificacion preoperatoria. Este componente es mas facil de resecar debido al plano de clivaje subaracnoideo y a la ausencia de funcion.

  11. Hemostatic effects of recombinant DisBa-01, a disintegrin from Bothrops alternatus.

    PubMed

    Kauskot, Alexandre; Cominetti, Marcia R; Ramos, Oscar H P; Bechyne, Iga; Renard, Jean-Marie; Hoylaerts, Marc F; Crepin, Michel; Legrand, Chantal; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa S; Bonnefoy, Arnaud

    2008-05-01

    A monomeric RGD-disintegrin was recently identified from a cDNA library from the venom gland of Bothrops alternatus. The corresponding 12 kDa-recombinant protein, DisBa-01, specifically interacted with alpha(v)beta3 integrin and displayed potent anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic properties. Here, the interaction of DisBa-01 with platelet alphaIIb beta3 integrin and its effects on hemostasis and thrombosis were investigated. DisBa-01 bound to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells expressing beta3 or alphaIIb beta3 and promoted their adhesion and the adhesion of resting platelets onto glass coverslips. The disintegrin inhibited the binding of FITC-fibrinogen and FITC-PAC-1 to ADP-stimulated platelets and inhibited ADP-, TRAP- and collagen-induced aggregation of murine, rabbit or human platelets. In a flow chamber assay, DisBa-01 inhibited and reverted platelet adhesion to immobilized fibrinogen. DisBa-01 inhibited the phosphorylation of FAK following platelet activation. The intravenous injection of DisBa-01 in C57Bl6/j mice, prolonged tail bleeding time as well as thrombotic occlusion time in mesenteric venules and arterioles following vessel injury with FeCl3. In conclusion, DisBa-01 antagonizes the platelet alphaIIb beta3 integrin and potently inhibits thrombosis.

  12. New insights into the possible role of bacteriophages in host defense and disease.

    PubMed

    Gorski, Andrzej; Dabrowska, Krystyna; Switala-Jeleń, Kinga; Nowaczyk, Maria; Weber-Dabrowska, Beata; Boratynski, Janusz; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Opolski, Adam

    2003-02-14

    BACKGROUND: While the ability of bacteriophages to kill bacteria is well known and has been used in some centers to combat antibiotics - resistant infections, our knowledge about phage interactions with mammalian cells is very limited and phages have been believed to have no intrinsic tropism for those cells. PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: At least some phages (e.g., T4 coliphage) express Lys-Arg-Gly (KGD) sequence which binds beta3 integrins (primarily alphaIIbbeta3). Therefore, phages could bind beta3+ cells (platelets, monocytes, some lymphocytes and some neoplastic cells) and downregulate activities of those cells by inhibiting integrin functions. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS: Binding of KGD+ phages to beta3 integrin+ cells may be detected using standard techniques involving phage - mediated bacterial lysis and plaque formation. Furthermore, the binding may be visualized by electron microscopy and fluorescence using labelled phages. Binding specificity can be confirmed with the aid of specific blocking peptides and monoclonal antibodies. In vivo effects of phage - cell interactions may be assessed by examining the possible biological effects of beta3 blockade (e.g., anti-metastatic activity). IMPLICATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS: If, indeed, phages can modify functions of beta3+ cells (platelets, monocytes, lymphocytes, cancer cells) they could be important biological response modifiers regulating migration and activities of those cells. Such novel understanding of their role could open novel perspectives in their potential use in treatment of cardiovascular and autoimmune disease, graft rejection and cancer.

  13. Differential regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism by alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta5 integrins upon smooth muscle cell migration.

    PubMed

    Paulhe, F; Racaud-Sultan, C; Ragab, A; Albiges-Rizo, C; Chap, H; Iberg, N; Morand, O; Perret, B

    2001-11-09

    Smooth muscle cell migration is a key step of atherosclerosis and angiogenesis. We demonstrate that alpha(V)beta(3) and alpha(V)beta(5) integrins synergistically regulate smooth muscle cell migration onto vitronectin. Using an original haptotactic cell migration assay, we measured a strong stimulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in migrating vascular smooth muscle cells. Phosphatidic acid production and phosphoinositide 3-kinase IA activation were triggered only upon alpha(V)beta(3) engagement. Blockade of alpha(V)beta(3) engagement or phospholipase C activity resulted in a strong inhibition of smooth muscle cell spreading on vitronectin. By contrast, blockade of alpha(V)beta(5) reinforced elongation and polarization of cell shape. Moreover, Pyk2-associated tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide 4-kinase activities measured in Pyk2 immunoprecipitates were stimulated upon cell migration. Blockade of either alpha(V)beta(3) or alpha(V)beta(5) function, as well as inhibition of phospholipase C activity, decreased both Pyk2-associated activities. We demonstrated that the Pyk2-associated phosphoinositide 4-kinase corresponded to the beta isoform. Our data point to the metabolism of phosphoinositides as a regulatory pathway for the differential roles played by alpha(V)beta(3) and alpha(V)beta(5) upon cell migration and identify the Pyk2-associated phosphoinositide 4-kinase beta as a common target for both integrins.

  14. Application of a radial-flow bioreactor in the production of beta1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-2 fused with GFPuv using stably transformed insect cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi Sun; Kato, Tatsuya; Dojima, Takashi; Park, Enoch Y

    2005-08-01

    An RFB (radial-flow bioreactor) with a reactor volume of 5 ml was applied to produce human beta3GnT (beta1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase) using two stably transformed insect cell lines. When air was supplied to the RFB, cell growth stopped at 4 days of culture and beta3GnT was not detected. However, with a supply of pure oxygen, the cell concentration, assumed from glucose consumption, increased by 1.3x10(7) cells/ml. Insect cells attached to poly(vinyl alcohol) matrixes packed in the RFB and grew confluently; 5.6 m-units/ml beta3GnT was produced under the conditions of pure oxygen supply and addition of glucose and glutamine. This RFB was first applied in beta3GnT production using stably transformed insect cells. The amount of beta3GnT production in only a 5 ml-scale RFB was comparable with that of a 100 ml shaking flask culture.

  15. [Efficacy of zinc on lineal growth on Latin American children younger than 5; systematic review].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Morán, Elsa; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: En la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos existe una deficiencia de micronutrientes, retraso en el crecimiento, y altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad infantil. En la actualidad se ha asociado la deficiencia de zinc con el retraso del crecimiento infantil. El propósito de esta revisión, fue analizar artículos sobre estudios aleatorizados que evaluaron el efecto de la suplementación con zinc y el crecimiento infantil. Metodología: Se realizó una búsqueda electrónica de la literatura en la base de datos de PubMed con las palabras claves “Micronutrient supplementation and growth”, publicados de enero de 2005 a abril de 2013. Se identificaron 34 estudios aleatorizados controlados (EAC) realizados en Latinoamérica, de los cuales cinco reunieron los criterios de inclusión. Se añadió un estudio referido por otros autores. Resultados: Los estudios se realizaron en Brasil, Cuba, Perú, Ecuador, y Guatemala. En ningún estudio se observó el efecto positivo del zinc sobre el crecimiento lineal. Conclusión: La revisión realizada sugiere que la suplementación con zinc no tiene un efecto significativo sobre el crecimiento lineal; sin embargo, podría tener beneficios sobre el crecimiento en niños con deficiencia de zinc si se añaden otros nutrientes en deficiencia.

  16. [Role of anaerobic blood culture in the simultaneous blood culture taking for the diagnosis of bacteremia].

    PubMed

    Guajardo-Lara, Claudia Elena; Saldaña-Ramírez, Martha Idalia; Ayala-Gaytán, Juan Jacobo; Valdovinos-Chávez, Salvador Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la frecuencia de la septicemia va en aumento y su mortalidad es alta; por lo tanto, su detección, la identificación del microorganismo causal y su susceptibilidad son perentorias. Metodos: se revisaron los registros de 4110 botellas de cultivo de sangre obtenida de enero de 2013 a julio de 2014 de pacientes adultos en un hospital privado de tercer nivel. Resultados: se observó crecimiento de microorganismos en 559 cultivos (12.6 %). En 2648 hemocultivos (60 %) inoculados en pares de frascos uno con medio aeróbico y el otro anaeróbico (1324 sets), se detectó crecimiento en 182 frascos a los que les fueron inoculadas las muestras tomadas al mismo tiempo a 135 pacientes (13.7 %). En 86 pares de frascos con las muestras de 54 pacientes (40 %), el crecimiento solamente se dio en el frasco aeróbico (47.5 %); en 24 pares de frascos (13.19 %) tomados a 21 pacientes (15.5 %, p < 0.05), solamente hubo crecimiento en el frasco anaeróbico. En los hemocultivos de 32 de 60 pacientes con crecimiento en ambos frascos (53 %), el crecimiento se detectó primero en el frasco anaeróbico. Conclusiones: los hemocultivos anaeróbicos tienen una utilidad baja para la detección de bacteriemias por anaerobios estrictos; no obstante, en el 15.55 % de los pacientes estuvo presente el riesgo de pasar por alto la presencia de bacteriemia, y en 53 % de los pacientes con hemocultivos positivos, el diagnóstico de bacteriemia pudo establecerse de manera más temprana, lo que permitió anticipar con mejor precisión la toma de decisiones.

  17. Recombinant GABAA receptor desensitization: the role of the gamma 2 subunit and its physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Perrot, C; Feltz, P; Poulter, M O

    1996-11-15

    1. The purpose of these investigations was to examine the role that the gamma 2 subunit plays in human GABAA receptor desensitization. Two different recombinant GABAA receptors (alpha 1 beta 3 and alpha 1 beta 3 gamma 2) were compared by measuring the relaxation of whole-cell currents during the application of GABA, isoguvacine or taurine. 2. At concentrations which trigger a maximum response (100-500 microM GABA) the current relaxation usually fitted the sum of two exponentials. For alpha 1 beta 3 subunit receptors these values were tau 1 = 145 +/- 12 ms and tau 2 = 6.3 +/- 2.1 s (means +/- S.E.M.). Receptors consisting of alpha 1 beta 3 gamma 2 subunits desensitized faster: tau 1 = 41.6 +/- 8.3 ms and tau 2 = 2.4 +/- 0.6 s. 3. The Hill slope, determined for each receptor subunit combination, was the same and greater than 1.0, implying two binding steps in the activation of both receptor subunit combinations. 4. For alpha 1 beta 3 subunit receptors the fast desensitization rates were unaltered by reducing the GABA concentration from the EC100 (100 microM) to the approximate EC50 values (10-20 microM), whereas for alpha 1 beta 3 gamma 2 subunit receptors a significant slowing was observed. The fast desensitization disappeared at agonist concentrations below the EC50 for both subunit combinations. In contrast, the slow desensitization appeared at agonist concentrations near the EC20. This rate was dependent on agonist concentration reaching a maximum near the EC60 value of GABA. 5. The fast desensitization rates were unaltered by changing the holding potential of the cell during agonist application. However, for alpha 1 beta 3 gamma 2 subunit receptors the slow desensitization rate increased by approximately 15- to 20-fold over the range of voltages of -60 to +40 mV. This indicates that the gamma 2 subunit makes GABAA receptor desensitization voltage dependent. 6. Recovery from desensitization was also biphasic. The first recovery phase was faster for alpha 1 beta 3

  18. Lateral mobility and anchoring of recombinant GABAA receptors depend on subunit composition.

    PubMed

    Peran, M; Hicks, B W; Peterson, N L; Hooper, H; Salas, R

    2001-10-01

    The clustering of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA(A)R) at discrete and functionally significant domains on the nerve cell surface is an important determinant in the integration of synaptic inputs. To discern the role that the subunits of the GABA(A)R play in determining the receptor's cell surface topography and mobility, the alpha1, beta1, beta3, and gamma2s subunits were transfected into COS7, HEK293, and PC12 cells and the distribution and cell surface mobility of these recombinant receptors were examined. Our results show that alpha1 subunits are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum while beta1 and beta3 subunits are sorted to the plasma membrane where they form clusters. Co-expression and co-assembly of alpha1 and beta3 subunits result in the rescue of intracellular alpha1 subunits, which are transported as alphabeta subunit complexes to the cell surface where they formed clusters. Fluorescence photobleach recovery and single particle tracking of recombinant receptors show that, despite clustering, beta3 subunit homooligomers are mobile within a cell surface domain. Inclusion of alpha1 in beta3 or beta3gamma2s complexes, however, dramatically reduces the receptor's lateral mobility in COS 7 and PC12 cells and anchors GABA(A)Rs on the cell surface, suggesting the formation of a direct link to a component of the cytoskeleton. The mobility of recombinant receptors that include the alpha1 subunit mirrors the mobility of GABA(A)Rs on cell bodies and dendrites of cortical and spinal cord neurons. The results suggest that incorporation of alpha1 subunits give rise to a population of GABA(A)Rs that are immobilized on the cell surface.

  19. Snail family members and cell survival in physiological and pathological cleft palates.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alvarez, Concepción; Blanco, María J; Pérez, Raquel; Rabadán, M Angeles; Aparicio, Marta; Resel, Eva; Martínez, Tamara; Nieto, M Angela

    2004-01-01

    Palate fusion is a complex process that involves the coordination of a series of cellular changes including cell death and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Since members of the Snail family of zinc-finger regulators are involved in both triggering of the EMT and cell survival, we decided to study their putative role in palatal fusion. Furthermore, Snail genes are induced by transforming growth factor beta gene (TGF-beta) superfamily members, and TGF-beta(3) null mutant mice (TGF-beta(3)-/-) show a cleft palate phenotype. Here we show that in the wild-type mouse at the time of fusion, Snail is expressed in a few cells of the midline epithelial seam (MES), compatible with a role in triggering of the EMT in a small subpopulation of the MES. We also find an intriguing relationship between the expression of Snail family members and cell survival associated to the cleft palate condition. Indeed, Snail is expressed in the medial edge epithelial (MEE) cells in TGF-beta(3)-/-mouse embryo palates, where it is activated by the aberrant expression of its inducer, TGF-beta(1), in the underlying mesenchyme. In contrast to Snail-deficient wild-type pre-adhesion MEE cells, Snail-expressing TGF-beta(3) mutant MEE cells survive as they do their counterparts in the chick embryo. Interestingly, Slug is the Snail family member expressed in the chick MEE, providing another example of interchange of Snail and Slug expression between avian and mammalian embryos. We propose that in the absence of TGF-beta(3), TGF-beta(1) is upregulated in the mesenchyme, and that in both physiological (avian) and pathological (TGF-beta(3)-/-mammalian) cleft palates, it induces the expression of Snail genes promoting the survival of the MEE cells and permitting their subsequent differentiation into keratinized stratified epithelium.

  20. Characterization of mucin-type core-1 beta1-3 galactosyltransferase homologous enzymes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Müller, Reto; Hülsmeier, Andreas J; Altmann, Friedrich; Ten Hagen, Kelly; Tiemeyer, Michael; Hennet, Thierry

    2005-09-01

    Mucin type O-glycosylation is a widespread modification of eukaryotic proteins. The transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine to selected serine or threonine residues is catalyzed by a family of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases localized in the Golgi apparatus. The most abundant elongation of O-glycans is the addition of a beta1-3 linked galactose by the core-1 beta1-3 galactosyltransferase (core-1 beta3GalT), thereby building the T-antigen or core-1 structure Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc(alpha1-O). We have isolated four Drosophila melanogaster cDNAs encoding proteins structurally similar to the human core-1 beta3GalT enzyme and expressed them as FLAG-tagged proteins in Sf9 insect cells. The identity of these D. melanogasterbeta3GalT enzymes with a core-1 beta3GalT activity was confirmed by utilization of MUC5AC mucin derived O-glycopeptide acceptors. In addition to the core-1 beta3GalT activity toward O-glycoprotein substrates, one member of this enzyme family showed a strong activity towards glycolipid acceptors, thereby building the core-1 terminated Nz6 glycosphingolipid. Transcripts of the embryonically expressed core-1 beta3GalTs were found in the maternally deposited mRNA, in salivary glands and in the amnioserosa. The presence of multiple core-1 beta3GalT genes in D. melanogaster suggests an increased complexity of core-1 O-glycan expression, which is possibly related to multiple developmental and physiological functions attributable to this class of glycans.

  1. Conformation specific spectroscopy in the complexity gap: beta-peptides and flexible bichromophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baquero, Esteban Edwin

    Flexible biomolecules with many degrees of freedom have the ability to sample a great number of structural minima. The intrinsic structural preferences of these molecules are driven by stabilizations due to intramolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding and interatomic attractive forces. These interactions become increasingly important as the atoms in the molecule come in close proximity to one another. The present work describes the conformational preferences of several model bio-relevant molecules of different sizes where different kinds of intramolecular interactions can occur. Conformation specific ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopies were utilized to obtain the spectroscopic signatures of different conformations of the jet cooled biomolecules. These experiments allowed for the assignment of conformational families and the development of a general protocol to identify the infrared signatures of amide NH stretches, which were found to vary in frequency due to their immediate chemical and structural environment. Specific examples of systems studied include molecules containing unnatural polypeptide chains and a flexible bichromophore. The unnatural polypetides (Ac-beta3-hPhe-NHMe, Ac-beta 3-hTyr-NHMe Ac-beta3-hPhe-beta3-hAla-NHMe and Ac-beta3-hAla-beta3-hPhe-NHMe) were found to have a rich conformational potential energy landscape that contained many kinds of intramolecular hydrogen bonded minima. The flexible bichromophore (HNBPA), containing two spectroscopically distinguishable chromophores (Phenol and Phenyl), was found to be an interesting case study for conformational specific electronic energy transfer and testing how well different theoretical methods manage non-covalent interactions, such as those between side-chain atoms and aromatic pi-clouds.

  2. Pathogenic hantaviruses direct the adherence of quiescent platelets to infected endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Gorbunova, Elena E; Mackow, Erich R

    2010-05-01

    Hantavirus infections are noted for their ability to infect endothelial cells, cause acute thrombocytopenia, and trigger 2 vascular-permeability-based diseases. However, hantavirus infections are not lytic, and the mechanisms by which hantaviruses cause capillary permeability and thrombocytopenia are only partially understood. The role of beta(3) integrins in hemostasis and the inactivation of beta(3) integrin receptors by pathogenic hantaviruses suggest the involvement of hantaviruses in altered platelet and endothelial cell functions that regulate permeability. Here, we determined that pathogenic hantaviruses bind to quiescent platelets via a beta(3) integrin-dependent mechanism. This suggests that platelets may contribute to hantavirus dissemination within infected patients and provides a means by which hantavirus binding to beta(3) integrin receptors prevents platelet activation. The ability of hantaviruses to bind platelets further suggested that cell-associated hantaviruses might recruit platelets to the endothelial cell surface. Our findings indicate that Andes virus (ANDV)- or Hantaan virus (HTNV)-infected endothelial cells specifically direct the adherence of calcein-labeled platelets. In contrast, cells comparably infected with nonpathogenic Tula virus (TULV) failed to recruit platelets to the endothelial cell surface. Platelet adherence was dependent on endothelial cell beta(3) integrins and neutralized by the addition of the anti-beta(3) Fab fragment, c7E3, or specific ANDV- or HTNV-neutralizing antibodies. These findings indicate that pathogenic hantaviruses displayed on the surface of infected endothelial cells bind platelets and that a platelet layer covers the surface of infected endothelial cells. This fundamentally changes the appearance of endothelial cells and has the potential to alter cellular immune responses, platelet activation, and endothelial cell functions that affect vascular permeability. Hantavirus-directed platelet quiescence and

  3. Hantaviruses direct endothelial cell permeability by sensitizing cells to the vascular permeability factor VEGF, while angiopoietin 1 and sphingosine 1-phosphate inhibit hantavirus-directed permeability.

    PubMed

    Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Gorbunova, Elena E; Mackow, Natalie A; Mackow, Erich R

    2008-06-01

    Hantaviruses infect human endothelial cells and cause two vascular permeability-based diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus infection alone does not permeabilize endothelial cell monolayers. However, pathogenic hantaviruses inhibit the function of alphav beta3 integrins on endothelial cells, and hemorrhagic disease and vascular permeability deficits are consequences of dysfunctional beta3 integrins that normally regulate permeabilizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) responses. Here we show that pathogenic Hantaan, Andes, and New York-1 hantaviruses dramatically enhance the permeability of endothelial cells in response to VEGF, while the nonpathogenic hantaviruses Prospect Hill and Tula have no effect on endothelial cell permeability. Pathogenic hantaviruses directed endothelial cell permeability 2 to 3 days postinfection, coincident with pathogenic hantavirus inhibition of alphav beta3 integrin functions, and hantavirus-directed permeability was inhibited by antibodies to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). These studies demonstrate that pathogenic hantaviruses, similar to alphav beta3 integrin-deficient cells, specifically enhance VEGF-directed permeabilizing responses. Using the hantavirus permeability assay we further demonstrate that the endothelial-cell-specific growth factor angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and the platelet-derived lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) inhibit hantavirus directed endothelial cell permeability at physiologic concentrations. These results demonstrate the utility of a hantavirus permeability assay and rationalize the testing of Ang-1, S1P, and antibodies to VEGFR2 as potential hantavirus therapeutics. The central importance of beta3 integrins and VEGF responses in vascular leak and hemorrhagic disease further suggest that altering beta3 or VEGF responses may be a common feature of additional viral hemorrhagic diseases. As a result, our findings provide a potential mechanism

  4. Cavbeta-subunit displacement is a key step to induce the reluctant state of P/Q calcium channels by direct G protein regulation.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Guillaume; Lopez-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Grunwald, Didier; Bichet, Delphine; Altafaj, Xavier; Weiss, Norbert; Ronjat, Michel; Dupuis, Alain; De Waard, Michel

    2004-04-20

    P/Q Ca(2+) channel activity is inhibited by G protein-coupled receptor activation. Channel inhibition requires a direct Gbetagamma binding onto the pore-forming subunit, Ca(v)2.1. It is characterized by biophysical changes, including current amplitude reduction, activation kinetic slowing, and an I-V curve shift, which leads to a reluctant mode. Here, we have characterized the contribution of the auxiliary beta(3)-subunit to channel regulation by G proteins. The shift in I-V to a P/Q reluctant mode is exclusively observed in the presence of beta(3). Along with the observation that Gbetagamma has no effect on the I-V curve of Ca(v)2.1 alone, we propose that the reluctant mode promoted by Gbetagamma corresponds to a state in which the beta(3)-subunit has been displaced from its channel-binding site. We validate this hypothesis with a beta(3)-I-II(2.1) loop chimera construct. Gbetagamma binding onto the I-II(2.1) loop portion of the chimera releases the beta(3)-binding domain and makes it available for binding onto the I-II loop of Ca(v)1.2, a G protein-insensitive channel. This finding is extended to the full-length Ca(v)2.1 channel by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Gbetagamma injection into Xenopus oocytes displaces a Cy3-labeled beta(3)-subunit from a GFP-tagged Ca(v)2.1 channel. We conclude that beta-subunit dissociation from the channel complex constitutes a key step in P/Q calcium channel regulation by G proteins that underlies the reluctant state and is an important process for modulating neurotransmission through G protein-coupled receptors.

  5. A stretcher fiber for use in fs chirped pulse Yb amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan; Jespersen, Kim G; Pálsdóttir, Bera

    2010-02-15

    A newly developed fiber for use in pulse stretchers for chirped pulse amplifiers working in the 1 mum wavelength range of Yb fiber amplifiers is reported. The fiber has a record high numerical third order to second order dispersion beta(3)/beta(2) ratio of -7.7 fs. The fiber has very good dispersion match to a grating compressor for second, third, and fourth order dispersion. By combining the stretcher fiber with an anomalous dispersion fiber working in a higher order mode, even higher beta(3)/beta(2) ratio of -16.8 fs is demonstrated. The combined module shows very good dispersion match to a grating compressor.

  6. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from Aster ageratoides var. pilosus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fu-Lin; Wang, Ai-Xia; Jia, Zhong-Jian

    2004-11-01

    Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids, 2beta,3beta,16alpha-trihydroxyl-24alpha-al-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 2beta,3beta-dihydroxyl-16-O-beta-D-glucopyranose-24alpha-al-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (2) and two known pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Aster ageratoides var. pilosus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, 1H, 13C and 2D NMR). In addition, the anti-bacterial activity and anti-tumor activity of compound 2 were tested.

  7. The effect of microstructure on the fracture toughness of titanium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanstone, R. H.; Low, J. R., Jr.; Shannon, J. L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The microstructure of the alpha titanium alloy Ti-5Al-2.5Sn and the metastable beta titanium alloy Beta 3 was examined. The material was from normal and extra low interstitial grade plates which were either air-cooled or furnace-cooled from an annealing treatment. Beta 3 was studied in alpha-aged and omega-aged plates which were heat treated to similar strength levels. Tensile and plane strain fracture toughness tests were conducted at room temperature on the alpha-aged material. The microstructure and fracture mechanisms of alloys were studied using optical metallography, electron microscopy, microprobe analyses, and texture pole figures. Future experiments are described.

  8. The coxsackievirus A9 RGD motif is not essential for virus viability.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, P J; Horsnell, C; Hyypiä, T; Stanway, G

    1995-01-01

    An RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) motif in coxsackievirus A9 has been implicated in internalization through an interaction with the integrin alpha v beta 3. We have produced a number of virus mutants, lacking the motif, which have a small-plaque phenotype in LLC-Mk2 and A-Vero cells and are phenotypically normal in RD cells. Substitution of flanking amino acids also affected plaque size. The results suggest that interaction between the RGD motif and alpha v beta 3 is not critical for virus viability in the cell lines tested and therefore that alternative regions of the CAV-9 capsid are involved in internalization. PMID:7494317

  9. Finding new solutions in pediatric parenteral admixtures: how to improve quality and to deal with shortages.

    PubMed

    Watrobska-Swietlikowska, Dorota; Kwidzynska, Anna; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Sznitowska, Malgorzata; Klek, Stanislaw

    2014-07-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La nutrición parenteral pediátrica permite un crecimiento normal incluso en lactantes pretérmino. Sin embargo, estos niños requieren una nutrición parenteral a medida y la formulación de tal nutrición puede suponer un reto por el riesgo de inestabilidad y el desabastecimiento.

  10. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Early Childhood, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Reviews "La Educacion Preescolar: Desafio y Aventura" (Lavanchy Bobsien); "Working towards Better Childcare" (Peeters and Vandenbroeck, editors); "Children's Savings: A Study in the Development of Economic Behavior" (Sonuga-Barke and Webley); "Curvas de Crecimiento Estaturo-ponderal en Escolares" (Saez Crespo and others); and "Helping Bereaved…

  11. Role of Jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) in infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can utilize as many as three distinct groups of receptor molecules to attach and enter a susceptible host cell. Four integrin heterodimers (alphavBeta1, alphavBeta3, alphavBeta6, and alphavBeta8) can function as the primary receptor for FMDV field strains. FMDV ...

  12. Transport of resistance-inducing sterols in phloem sap of barley.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, A T; Dugassa-Gobena, D; Vidal, S; Seifert, K

    2000-01-01

    After root application of [7alpha-3H]-7beta-hydroxysitosterol and [3alpha,6beta-3H2]-6alpha-hydroxylathosterol these sterols could be detected in the leaves and phloem sap feeding aphids. These results imply that the phloem sap is a sterol transport system in barley plants.

  13. Expression of TGF-betas in the embryonic nervous system: analysis of interbalance between isoforms.

    PubMed

    Mecha, M; Rabadán, M A; Peña-Melián, A; Valencia, M; Mondéjar, T; Blanco, M J

    2008-06-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a family of growth factors with essential and multiple roles during embryonic development. In mammals, three isoforms (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3) have been described. In the nervous system, the presence of TGF-beta1 has remained undetectable in other structures than meninges and choroids plexus, while TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 were considered as the neural members of the family. In the present study, we have analysed the expression pattern of the three isoforms in the neural tube, brain, and spinal cord during development in both mouse and chicken. The data reveal specific patterns for each isoform. This work also shows that both TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 are expressed in neural crest cells. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of interbalance between TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 with possible functional implications, which, together with the expression of TGF-beta1 in the CNS, represents one of the most important contributions of this work.

  14. Shark cartilage extract interferes with cell adhesion and induces reorganization of focal adhesions in cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Chang, C M; Wu, J C; Wang, S M

    2000-06-06

    In this study, we examined the effects of shark cartilage extract on the attachment and spreading properties and the focal adhesion structure of cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Treatment with cartilage extract resulted in cell detachment from the substratum. Immunofluorescence staining of those treated cells that remained attached showed that, instead of being present in both central and peripheral focal adhesions as in control cells, both integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and vinculin were found only in peripheral focal adhesion and thinner actin filament bundles were seen. In addition to causing cell detachment, cartilage extract partially inhibited the initial adherence of the cells to the substratum in a dose-dependent manner. Integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and vinculin staining of these cells also showed a peripheral focal adhesion distribution pattern. Vitronectin induced cell spreading in the absence of serum, but was blocked by simultaneous incubation with cartilage extract, which was shown to inhibit both integrin alpha(v)beta(3) and vinculin recruitment to focal adhesion and the formation of stress fibers. Dot binding assays showed that these inhibitory effects on cell attachment and spreading were not due to direct binding of cartilage extract components to integrin alpha(v)beta(3) or vitronectin. Shark cartilage chondroitin sulfate had no inhibitory effect on either cell attachment or spreading of endothelial cells. These results show that the inhibitory effects of cartilage extract on cell attachment and spreading are mediated by modification of the organization of focal adhesion proteins.

  15. Yuehchukene, a Novel Anti-implantation Indole Alkaloid from Murraya paniculata.

    PubMed

    Kong, Y C; Ng, K H; Wat, K H; Wong, A; Saxena, I F; Cheng, K F; But, P P; Chang, H T

    1985-08-01

    Yuehchukene, 11beta-(3'-indolyl-7,9alpha,9beta-trimethyl-5beta,8,9,10beta-tetrahydroindano-[2,3- B]indole, a novel dimeric indole alkaloid from the roots of MURRAY A PANICULATA has potent anti-implantation activity in rats at 3 mg/kg P. O. dosing on pregnancy day 2.

  16. Altered vascular endothelium integrin expression in psoriasis.

    PubMed Central

    Creamer, D.; Allen, M.; Sousa, A.; Poston, R.; Barker, J.

    1995-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that microvascular changes observed in psoriasis are a result of vascular proliferation. A critical step in the sequence of events leading to neovascularization involves interactions between endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins mediated in part by the integrin family of adhesion molecules. A number of endothelial integrins have been shown to participate in neovascularization, including members of the beta 1, beta 3, and beta 4 subfamilies. To investigate the role of these integrins in psoriasis, specimens of lesional and nonlesional skin were taken from 10 patients with active, untreated plaque disease. Vascular endothelium was labeled with monoclonal antibodies specific for alpha 2, alpha 5, alpha 6, beta 1, av beta 3, and beta 4 integrins. The use of image analysis permitted quantification of immunoperoxidase staining and comparison of endothelial labeling in lesional and nonlesional skin. There was a significant increase in endothelial staining of av beta 3 integrin in lesional compared with nonlesional skin, both in superficial and deep vasculature. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in endothelial beta 4 staining in lesional compared with nonlesional superficial dermal vessels, alpha 2, alpha 5, alpha 6, and beta 1 staining showed no significant difference between the two groups. These results demonstrate an important role of av beta 3 and beta 4 integrins in the microvascular changes of psoriatic lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7495291

  17. The linkage arrangement of four rabbit beta-like globin genes.

    PubMed

    Lacy, E; Hardison, R C; Quon, D; Maniatis, T

    1979-12-01

    Four different regions of rabbit beta-like globin gene sequences designated beta 1, beta 2, beta 3 and beta 4 were identified in a set of clones isolated from a bacteriophage lambda library of chromosomal DNA fragments (Maniatis et al., 1978). Restriction mapping and blot hybridization (Southern, 1975) studies indicate that a subset of these clones containing beta 1 and beta 2 hybridizes to an adult beta-globin cDNA clone (Maniatis et al., 1976) more efficiently than to a human gamma-globin cDNA clone (Wilson et al., 1978), while another subset containing beta 3 and beta 4 displays the converse hybridization specificity. beta 1 was identified as the adult beta-globin gene, while beta 2, beta 3 and beta 4 have not been identified with any known rabbit globin polypeptides. Cross-hybridization and transcriptional orientation experiments indicate that the set of beta-like gene clones contains overlapping restriction fragments encompassing 44 kb of rabbit chromosomal DNA. In addition, all four genes have the same transcriptional orientation and are arranged in the order 5'-beta 4-beta 3-beta 2-beta 1-3'.

  18. Lanthanum-mediated modification of GABAA receptor deactivation, desensitization and inhibitory synaptic currents in rat cerebellar neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, W J; Wang, J F; Corsi, L; Vicini, S

    1998-09-15

    1. We investigated La3+ effects on recombinant and native gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors using rapid agonist applications and on inhibitory synaptic currents (IPSCs) in granule and stellate neurons of rat cerebellar slices. 2. Rapid desensitization of currents elicited by 200 ms pulses of 1 mM GABA to small lifted cells transfected with alpha1beta3gamma2 cDNAs was greatly decreased by the coapplication of 100 microM LaCl3. 3. GABA responses were unaffected when coapplication lasted only 2 ms. In contrast, with LaCl3 pre-perfusion, a significant slowing of deactivation in response to 2 ms applications was observed. LaCl3 pre-perfusion also prolonged the duration of responses to 20 mM taurine. 4. Outside-out patches excised from cells transfected with alpha1beta3gamma2 subunit cDNAs were briefly exposed to a saturating concentration of GABA, eliciting a transient activation of single channel currents with a main conductance of 30 pS. Opening and burst durations increased by pre-equilibration of patches with LaCl3. 5. LaCl3 depressed the peak amplitude without affecting the slow deactivation and desensitization of GABA responses in cells transfected with alpha6beta3gamma2 and alpha6beta3delta cDNAs. No significant difference in La3+ modulation of GABA-gated currents was observed between alpha1beta3gamma2 and alpha1beta3delta receptors. 6. The effects of LaCl3 on deactivation and desensitization of GABA responses observed in nucleated patches excised from rat cerebellar granule and stellate neurons were comparable to those in the cells transfected with alpha1beta3gamma2 cDNAs. In addition, La3+ clearly prolonged the spontaneous IPSC time course without changing the amplitude. 7. Our results indicate that La3+ has a dual action on GABA-gated currents: it decreases desensitization and increases channel opening duration. These actions depend on receptor subunit composition and contribute to the prolongation of IPSCs.

  19. [Reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Hochmuller Fogaça, Rosalvo Tadeu; de Arruda, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: Las ratas Wistar son una de las cepas más populares y utilizadas cotidianamente para la investigación en el laboratorio sirviendo como una importante herramienta de investigación, por lo que, exige el control estricto de variables como la edad, el sexo y el peso corporal, y de esta forma poder extrapolar los resultados al modelo humano. Objetivo: Desarrollar curvas de referencia para valorar el crecimiento físico de ratas machos Wistar en función de la edad cronológica y la maduración somática desde una perspectiva no-invasiva. Metodología: Fueron estudiadas 731 ratas machos Wistar de forma transversal. Se evaluó la edad, peso corporal y la superficie corporal. Se utilizó el método LMS para construir curvas de percentil en función del peso y la maduración somática. Resultados: Las curvas de crecimiento físico propuestas sirven para realizar el seguimiento del crecimiento físico y el diagnóstico del estado nutricional de ratas machos de cepa Wistar. Los puntos de corte prepuestos son: P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 y P97. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que los científicos de diversas áreas puedan usar tales referencias, con el objetivo de extrapolar las fases del crecimiento somático de la rata de laboratorio al modelo humano y es una alternativa no-invasiva para valorar el crecimiento y el estado nutricional.

  20. Effect of a high or low ambient perinatal temperature on adult obesity in Osborne-Mendel and S5B/Pl rats.

    PubMed

    White, Christy L; Braymer, H Doug; York, David A; Bray, George A

    2005-05-01

    Perinatal environment is an important determinant of health status of adults. We tested the hypothesis that perinatal ambient temperature alters sympathetic activity and affects body composition in adult life and that this effect differs between S5B/Pl (S5B) and Osborne-Mendel (OM) strains of rat that were resistant (S5B) or susceptible (OM) to dietary obesity. From 1 wk before birth, rat litters were raised at either 18 or 30 degrees C until 2 mo of age while consuming a chow diet. Rats were then housed at normal housing temperature (22 degrees C) and provided either high-fat or low-fat diet. OM rats initially reared at 18 degrees C gained more weight on both diets than those reared at 30 degrees C. Perinatal temperature had no effect on body weight gain of the S5B rats on either diet. At 12 wk of age, OM and S5B rats reared at 18 degrees C had higher intakes of the high-fat diet than those reared at 30 degrees C but lower beta3-adrenergic receptor (beta3-AR) and uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT). The increase in metabolic rate in response to the beta3-agonist CL-316243, was greater in both OM and S5B rats reared at 18 degrees C than in those reared at 30 degrees C. Perinatal temperature differentially affects body weight in OM and S5B rats while having similar effects on food intake, response to a beta3-agonist, and BAT beta3-AR and UCP-1. The data suggest that OM rats are more susceptible to epigenetic programming than S5B rats.

  1. The effects of N-glycosylation sites and the N-terminal region on the biological function of {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 and its secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Mami; Murata, Takeomi; Park, Enoch Y. . E-mail: yspark@agr.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2005-04-08

    Human {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 ({beta}3GnT2) is thought to be an enzyme that extends the polylactosamine acceptor chains, but its function and structure analysis are unknown. To obtain insight into the structure of {beta}3GnT2, the effects of N-glycosylation on its biological function were evaluated using the addition of inhibitors, site-directed mutagenesis of potential N-glycosylation sites, and deletion of its N-terminal region using a fusion protein with GFP{sub uv} in a baculovirus expression system. Four of five potential N-glycosylation sites were found to be occupied, and their biological function and secretion were inhibited with the treatment of N-glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin. The N-glycosylation at Asn219 was necessary for the {beta}3GnT activity; moreover, N-glycosylation at Asn127 and Asn219 was critical for efficient protein secretion. When Ser221 was replaced with Thr, fusion protein was expressed as a single band, indicating that the double band of the expressed fusion protein was due to the heterogeneity of the glycosylation at Asn219. The truncated protein consisting of amino acids 82-397 (GFP{sub uv}-{beta}3GnT2{delta}83), which lacked both one N-glycosylation site at Asn79 and the stem region of glycosyltransferase, was expressed as only a small form and showed no {beta}3GnT activity. These results suggest that the N-glycosylation site at Asn219, which is conserved throughout the {beta}1,3-glycosyltransferase family, is indispensable not only with regard to its biological function, but also to its secretion. The N-terminal region, which belongs to a stem region of glycosyltransferase, might also be important to the active protein structure.

  2. Role of selective alpha and beta adrenergic receptor mechanisms in rat jejunal longitudinal muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Roland; Rickenbacher, Andreas; Shaw, Sidney; Haefliger, Simon; Balsiger, Bruno M

    2008-06-01

    Gut motility is modulated by adrenergic mechanisms. The aim of our study was to examine mechanisms of selective adrenergic receptors in rat jejunum. Spontaneous contractile activity of longitudinal muscle strips from rat jejunum was measured in 5-ml tissue chambers. Dose-responses (six doses, 10(-7) -3 x 10(-5)M) to norepinephrine (NE, nonspecific), phenylephrine (PH, alpha1), clonidine (C, alpha2), prenalterol (PR, beta1), ritodrine (RI, beta2), and ZD7714 (ZD, beta3) were evaluated with and without tetrodotoxin (TTX, nerve blocker). NE(3 x 10(-5)M) inhibited 74 +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM) of spontaneous activity. This was the maximum effect. The same dose of RI(beta2), PH(alpha1), or ZD(beta(3)) resulted in an inhibition of only 56 +/- 5, 43 +/- 4, 33 +/- 6, respectively. The calculated concentration to induce 50% inhibition (EC50) of ZD(beta3) was similar to NE, whereas higher concentrations of PH(alpha1) or RI(beta2) were required. C(alpha2) and PR(beta1) had no effect. TTX changed exclusively the EC50 of RI from 4.4 +/- 0.2 to 2.7 +/- 0.8% (p < 0.04). Contractility was inhibited by NE (nonspecific). PH(alpha1), RI(beta2), and ZD(beta3) mimic the effect of NE. TTX reduced the inhibition by RI. Our results suggest that muscular alpha1, beta2, and beta3 receptor mechanisms mediate adrenergic inhibition of contractility in rat jejunum. beta2 mechanisms seem to involve also neural pathways.

  3. Aggressive parenteral nutrition and growth velocity in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Ribed Sánchez, Almudena; Romero Jiménez, Rosa Ma; Sánchez Gómez de Orgaz, Ma Carmen; Sánchez Luna, Manuel; Sanjurjo Sáez, María

    2013-11-01

    Introducción: La administración parenteral de nutrientes para mantener el crecimiento en recién nacidos representa un importante reto terapéutico. Objetivo: Describir las prácticas de nutrición parenteral (NP) en un hospital de tercer nivel y evaluar el crecimiento postnatal en recién nacidos prematuros. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo de 3 meses de duración. Se incluyeron niños ingresados en el Servicio de Neonatología que iniciaron NP. Se recogieron datos demográficos, antropométricos, calorías diarias, ingesta de proteínas y componentes de la NP. La velocidad de crecimiento se midió mediante la media de la ganancia diaria de peso y se comparó con el crecimiento intrauterino. Resultados: 68 niños prematuros iniciaron NP durante el período de estudio. La mayoría de los niños (65%) nacieron por cesárea y la media de edad gestacional fue de 33 semanas. El 25% de los recién nacidos no recuperó el peso de nacimiento. El 75% restante recuperó el peso de nacimiento en el tercer día de NP y la media de la ganancia diaria de peso fue de 16 g/kg/d, con un rango de 12 a 22g/kg/d. A pesar de que la ganancia de peso se acercó a la tasa intrauterina, la mayoría de los niños nacidos con menos de 30 semanas de gestación no lograron la media de la población de referencia. La NP precoz e intensiva se administró con una media de 3, 11 y 3g/Kg/d de proteínas, hidratos de carbono y lípidos, respectivamente, alcanzando un máximo en el cuarto día de 4, 18, 4 g/kg/d, respectivamente. Discusión: La NP intensiva se utiliza en el ámbito hospitalario. Los recién nacidos prematuros alcanzaron antes el peso de nacimiento y presentaron una velocidad de crecimiento mayor que en otros estudios y similar al crecimiento intrauterino.

  4. [Effect of cryotherapy over the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and pigment epithelium-derived factor].

    PubMed

    Toscano-Garibay, Julia Dolores; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Espitia-Pinzón, Clara; Gil-Carrasco, Félix; Flores-Estrada, José Javier

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la crioterapia es una técnica no invasiva que usa frio intenso para congelar y destruir los tejidos cancerosos. Sus efectos en la expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular y el factor derivado del epitelio pigmentado no se han descrito. Material y métodos: estudio experimental en modelos experimentales de crioterapia. En la esclera del ojo derecho de 12 cerdos se aplicó un punto de congelamiento durante 10 segundos. Se usaron 3 cerdos como controles normales. Los animales se sacrificaron a los 7, 14 y 21 días y el tejido de coroides y retina se seccionó en áreas de aproximadamente 1 cm2 circundantes al punto de congelamiento. Los niveles de expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular y factor derivado del epitelio pigmentado se determinaron y analizaron por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa acoplada a reverso-transcripción. Resultados: los niveles de factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular disminuyeron significativamente (24%, p < 0.05) a los 7 días postratamiento, mientras que la expresión del factor derivado del epitelio pigmentado aumentó 44.8% (p< 0.05) en comparación con los niveles de las muestras normales. Los niveles de expresión se mantuvieron hasta el día 14 y regresaron a valores basales en el día 21. Conclusiones: este trabajo expone la relación entre la crioterapia y la expresión de dos factores angiogénicos. Los resultados muestran cambios significativos en la expresión del factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular y factor derivado del epitelio pigmentado, y evidencian que ambas proteínas son reguladas en respuesta al tratamiento criogénico en periodos relativamente cortos (21 días).

  5. [Increased vascular density with indirect myocardial revascularization in normal rat hearts].

    PubMed

    Riera-Kinkel, Carlos; Argüero-Sánchez, Rubén; Foyo-Niembro, Enrique; Castellanos, Emilio; Bravo-Ontiveros, Patricia; García-Hernández, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar si la interacción de los métodos de revascularización miocárdica incrementa el área vascular funcional. Métodos: se realizó un estudio con un diseño factorial de 4x3 en 11 grupos, de cinco ratas por grupo, diez muestras por rata, evaluado a 45 días del posoperatorio, con las diferentes combinaciones quirúrgicas. La magnitud de la interacción fue evaluada tanto por inmunoexpresión del factor vascular de crecimiento derivado del endotelio, factor de crecimiento de fibroblastos y receptor de tirosina, para permitir la actividad del factor vascular de crecimiento derivado del endotelio, factor de crecimiento de fibroblastos y trombina (Flk-1), así como de la medición del área vascular; ambas medidas fueron realizadas por morfometría computarizada. Resultados: se identificó un incremento de la expresión inmunohistoquímica y del área vascular en proporción directa con la interacción; se puede afirmar (ANOVA p < 0.0001), que con la interacción de todas las maniobras se logra el efecto máximo. Conclusiones: se demuestra que la revascularización miocárdica indirecta tiene un peso especifico dentro de la revascularización miocárdica integral con un impacto real en el costo-beneficio y el costo-efectividad.

  6. Redox-sensitive extracellular gates formed by auxiliary beta subunits of calcium-activated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xu-Hui; Xia, Xiao-Ming; Lingle, Christopher J

    2003-06-01

    An important step to understanding ion channels is identifying the structural components that act as the gates to ion movement. Here we describe a new channel gating mechanism, produced by the beta3 auxiliary subunits of Ca2+-activated, large-conductance BK-type K+ channels when expressed with their pore-forming alpha subunits. BK beta subunits have a cysteine-rich extracellular segment connecting two transmembrane segments, with small cytosolic N and C termini. The extracellular segments of the beta3 subunits form gates to block ion permeation, providing a mechanism by which current can be rapidly diminished upon cellular repolarization. Furthermore, this gating mechanism is abolished by reduction of extracellular disulfide linkages, suggesting that endogenous mechanisms may regulate this gating behavior. The results indicate that auxiliary beta subunits of BK channels reside sufficiently close to the ion permeation pathway defined by the alpha subunits to influence or block access of small molecules to the permeation pathway.

  7. [The antiradical activity of plant extracts and healthful preventive combinations of these exrtacts with the phospholipid complex].

    PubMed

    Baranova, V S; Rusina, I F; Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Ipatova, O M; Kasaikina, O T

    2012-01-01

    Using the chemiluminescence method, the effective concentration of antioxidants (AO) and its reactivity toward peroxyl radicals (ARA, the k7 constant) have been measured for 13 plant extracts. In fact all extracts demonstrated ARA higher than ionol. Larix dahurica, Hypericum perforatum, Potentilla fruticosa, Aronia melanocarpa and Rhaponticum carthamoides extracts showed the highest values of ARA. The combinations Aronia + Raponticum extracts; Larix + Hibiscus extracts; Schizandra +Aronia extracts were synergistic (the synergism effect beta of 38%, 33% and 22%). Apparently this phenomenon is the result of the synergistic interaction between compounds present in plant extracts. The Phospholipid complex--Lipoid S40, lacting any antioxidant effect alone, showed a potent synergistic effect with Aronia extract (beta3 = 60%), Silybum extract (beta3 = 41%). Clinical trials demonstrated, that combinations "Lipoid + Aronia extract", "Lipoid + Larix extract + Hibiscus extract", "Lipoid + Silybum extract", "Lipoid + Q10 + Rosa majalis extract" may be used as an additional component in the medicinal treatment, or as an individual prophylactic agent.

  8. Lifelong ethanol consumption and brain regional GABAA receptor subunit mRNA expression in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sarviharju, Maija; Hyytiä, Petri; Hervonen, Antti; Jaatinen, Pia; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Korpi, Esa R

    2006-11-01

    Brain regional gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subunit mRNA expression was studied in ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol) rats after moderate ethanol drinking for up to 2 years of age. In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes specific for 13 different subunits was used with coronal cryostat sections of the brains. Selective alterations were observed by ethanol exposure and/or aging in signals for several subunits. Most interestingly, the putative highly ethanol-sensitive alpha4 and beta3 subunit mRNAs were significantly decreased in several brain regions. The age-related alterations in alpha4 subunit expression were parallel to those caused by lifelong ethanol drinking, whereas aging had no significant effect on beta3 subunit expression. The results suggest that prolonged ethanol consumption leading to blood concentrations of about 10 mM may downregulate the mRNA expression of selected GABAA receptor subunits and that aging might have partly similar effects.

  9. Modulation of adhesion-dependent cAMP signaling by echistatin and alendronate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, J. H.; Ingber, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    We measured intracellular cAMP levels in cells during attachment and spreading on different extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Increases in cAMP were observed within minutes when cells attached to fibronectin, vitronectin, and a synthetic RGD-containing fibronectin peptide (Petite 2000), but not when they adhered to another integrin alpha nu beta 3 ligand, echistatin. Because echistatin also inhibits bone resorption, we measured the effects of adding another osteoporosis inhibitor, alendronate, in this system. Alendronate inhibited the cAMP increase induced by ligands that primarily utilize integrin alpha nu beta 3 (vitronectin, Peptite 2000), but not by fibronectin which can also use integrin alpha 5 beta 1. These results show that cell adhesion to ECM can increase intracellular cAPM levels and raise the possibility that inhibitors of osteoporosis may act, in part, by preventing activation of this pathway by integrins.

  10. [Programme review of somatropin deficit in pediatrics at the Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío].

    PubMed

    Lavaredas, A; de la Puerta, R; Álvarez del Vayo, C

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Elaborar una revisión del programa de déficit de somatropina aplicado en pediatría en el Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, utilizando dos grupos de pacientes, los diagnosticados con déficit de esta hormona y los nacidos pequeños para edad gestacional, con la intención de evaluar su efectividad en el primer año de tratamiento. Método: Realización de un estudio retrospectivo de la cohorte de pacientes en tratamiento con la hormona del crecimiento bajo los diagnósticos mencionados, con metodología observacional y transversal, a los cuales se aplicó un análisis estadístico con el programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences®. Resultados: Tras inicio del tratamiento la velocidad de crecimiento y la talla aumentaron y la edad ósea se aproximó a la edad cronológica. En los dos grupos tratados, en el primer año de tratamiento fueron los pacientes del sexo femenino con edad comprendida entre los 0 a 12 años con déficit de la hormona del crecimiento que respondieron mejor a la terapéutica establecida. Conclusiones: Pudimos observar que el tratamiento instituido se presentó altamente efectivo en ambos grupos de pacientes, permitiendo obtener un aumento favorable de estatura.

  11. ENG — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ENG, or endoglin, is a cell surface adhesion protein involved the regulation of angiogenesis. ENG is a major glycoprotein of the vascular endothelium and is also a component of the transforming growth factor beta receptor complex. ENG binds to the beta1 and beta3 peptides with high affinity. ENG may also be involved in preeclampsia and several types of cancer. There are several isoforms encoded by transcript variants.

  12. Stress-Related Functional Connectivity Changes Between Auditory Cortex and Cingulate in Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2015-08-01

    The question arises whether functional connectivity (FC) changes between the distress and tinnitus loudness network during resting state depends on the amount of distress tinnitus patients' experience. Fifty-five patients with constant chronic tinnitus were included in this study. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings were performed and seed-based (at the auditory cortex) source localized FC (lagged phase synchronization) was computed for the different EEG frequency bands. Results initially demonstrate that the correlation between loudness and distress is nonlinear. Loudness correlates with beta3 and gamma band activity in the auditory cortices, and distress with alpha1 and beta3 changes in the subgenual, dorsal anterior, and posterior cingulate cortex. In comparison to nontinnitus controls, seed-based FC differed between the left auditory cortices for the alpha1 and beta3 bands in a network encompassing the posterior cingulate cortex extending into the parahippocampal area, the anterior cingulate, and insula. Furthermore, distress changes the FC between the auditory cortex, encoding loudness, and different parts of the cingulate, encoding distress: the subgenual anterior, the dorsal anterior, and the posterior cingulate. These changes are specific for the alpha1 and beta3 frequency bands. These results fit with a recently proposed model that states that tinnitus is generated by multiple dynamically active separable but overlapping networks, each characterizing a specific aspect of the unified tinnitus percept, but adds to this concept that the interaction between these networks is a complex interplay of correlations and anti-correlations between areas involved in distress and loudness depending on the distress state of the tinnitus patient.

  13. Sesquiterpenoids from roots of Taraxacum laevigatum and Taraxacum disseminatum.

    PubMed

    Zielińiska, K; Kisiel, W

    2000-08-01

    Chromatographic separation of ethanolic root extracts of Taraxacum laevigatum and Taraxacum disseminatum afforded a total of eight germacrane- and eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids. including new compounds, 1beta,3beta,6alpha-trihydroxy-4alpha( 15)-dihydrocostic acid methyl ester and its 1-O-beta-glucopyranoside. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses. In addition, the structure of 4alpha(15), 11beta(13)-tetrahydroridentin B-1-O-beta-glucopyranoside was elucidated by extensive NMR studies.

  14. Reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Singal, Tushi; Dhalla, Naranjan S; Tappia, Paramjit S

    2010-06-01

    By employing a pharmacological approach, we have shown that phospholipase C (PLC) activity is involved in the regulation of gene expression of transcription factors such as c-Fos and c-Jun in cardiomyocytes in response to norepinephrine (NE). However, there is no information available regarding the identity of specific PLC isozymes involved in the regulation of c-Fos and c-Jun or on the involvement of these transcription factors in PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes. In this study, transfection of cardiomyocytes with PLC isozyme specific siRNA was found to prevent the NE-mediated increases in the corresponding PLC isozyme gene expression, protein content and activity. Unlike PLC gamma(1) gene, silencing of PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) genes with si RNA prevented the increases in c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression in response to NE. On the other hand, transfection with c-Jun si RNA suppressed the NE-induced increase in c-Jun as well as PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) gene expression, but had no effect on PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Although transfection of cardiomyocytes with c-Fos si RNA prevented NE-induced expression of c-Fos, PLC beta(1) and PLC beta(3) genes, it did not affect the increases in PLC delta(1) and PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Silencing of either c-Fos or c-Jun also depressed the NE-mediated increases in PLC beta(1), beta(3) and gamma(1) protein content and activity in an isozyme specific manner. Furthermore, silencing of all PLC isozymes as well as of c-Fos and c-Jun resulted in prevention of the NE-mediated increase in atrial natriuretic factor gene expression. These findings, by employing gene silencing techniques, demonstrate that there occurs a reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and specific PLC isozyme gene expression in cardiomyocytes.

  15. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, P<0.05) with ephedrine than with placebo, but mechanical work was not different between the ephedrine and placebo periods. Noradrenaline excretion was lower with ephedrine (0.032+/-0.011 microg/mg creatinine) compared with placebo (0.044+/-0.012 microg/mg creatinine) (P<0.05). (+/-)Ephedrine is a relatively weak partial agonist of human beta1- and beta2-adrenoreceptors, and had no detectable activity at human beta3-adrenoreceptors. Ephedrine (50 mg thrice daily) modestly increases energy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  16. The microbial oxidation of (-)-beta-pinene by Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Afgan; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Tahara, Satoshi; Rahman, Atta-ur; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Demirci, Fatih

    2002-01-01

    (-)-beta-pinene, a flavor and fragrance monoterpene is an important constituent of essential oils of many aromatic plants. It was oxidized by a plant-pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea to afford four metabolites characterized as (-)-6a-hydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-4beta,5beta-dihydroxy-beta-pinene, (-)-2beta,3beta-dihydroxypinane, and (-)-4beta-hydroxy-beta-pinene-6-one by detailed spectroscopic studies along with other known metabolites.

  17. (alpha)IIb Integrin, a novel marker for hemopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Catherine; Vaigot, Pierre; Salaün, Josselyne

    2005-01-01

    Integrin (alpha)IIb(beta)3 (abbreviated as (alpha)IIb), also known as GPIIb-IIIa or CD41/CD61, is a cell adhesion molecule expressed on cells belonging to the megakaryocytic lineage. Aiming to identify new markers of hemopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), we undertook a developmental study of this molecule since it remains controversial if this integrin is expressed by various progenitors. We reported the expression pattern of two integrins, in both of which the beta3 chain is present, respectively associated with alphaV and alpha IIb in the chick embryo. While at E3.5, the earliest time at which these integrins can be detected, (alpha)V(beta)3 becomes expressed by endothelial cells in the aorta (and only in the aorta), (alpha)IIb(beta)3 becomes detected in the well-defined intra-aortic clusters made up of HPC. The latter were found to be multilineage progenitors when sorted for (alpha)IIb expression and analyzed by means of clonogenic assays. In mice also, (alpha)IIb is expressed in the intra-embryonic site of HPC generation, the intra-arterial clusters in the embryo proper, as well as in sites where HPC migrate. Finally we provided the first evidence in two species that multipotent HPC expressing (alpha)IIb are able to differentiate not only into cells of the erythroid and myeloid lineages but also into lymphocytes. These cell populations actually coexpress (alpha)IIb and c-Kit. These data establish (alpha)IIb as a novel marker for HPC, which appears at very early stages in the embryo. Capitalizing on this finding, other investigators confirmed it and suggested that (alpha)IIb plays a role in regulating hematopoietic development.

  18. Development of Lipid-Based Nanoparticles for In Vivo Targeted Delivery of Imaging Agents into Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Prognosis, 327-358 (2006). 17 Liapis, H., Flath, A. & Kitazawa , S . Integrin alpha V beta 3 expression by bone-residing breast cancer metastases. Diagn...opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position...0716 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Anatoliy V. Popov, Ph.D. 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: avpopov

  19. VEGF-Iron Oxide Conjugate for Dual MR and PET Imaging of Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with macrocyclic chelating agent DOTA for 64Cu-labeling and cyclic RGD peptide for integrin alpha (v)beta(3...Nanoparticles We have developed two types of novel superparamagentic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO), namely, PVP -IO and PASP-IO...Polyvinylpyrrolidone ( PVP )-coated iron oxide ( PVP -IO) nanoparticles were synthesized by a one-step thermal decomposition method (Fig. 3). The overall size of the

  20. Differential effect of the inhibition of Grb2-SH3 interactions in platelet activation induced by thrombin and by Fc receptor engagement.

    PubMed Central

    Saci, Abdelhafid; Liu, Wang-Qing; Vidal, Michel; Garbay, Christiane; Rendu, Francine; Bachelot-Loza, Christilla

    2002-01-01

    The adaptor protein Grb2 (growth factor receptor-bound protein 2) is involved in cell proliferation via the Ras signalling pathway. In order to study the role of Grb2 in blood platelet responses, we used a peptide containing two proline-rich sequences derived from Sos (peptidimer), which binds to Grb2-Src homology 3 domain (SH3) with a high affinity, and hence inhibits Grb2-SH3-mediated protein interactions. Platelet aggregation and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) release measured in the presence of the peptidimer were: (i) significantly decreased when induced by thrombin; and (ii) potentiated when induced by the engagement of the Fc receptor. In thrombin-activated platelets, the Grb2-SH2 domain formed an association with the beta3 subunit of the alphaIIb-beta3 integrin (GPIIb-IIIa), Shc, Syk, Src and SHP1 (SH2-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1), whereas these associations did not occur after the engagement of the receptor for the Fc domain of IgG (FcgammaRIIa) or in resting platelets. Grb2-SH3 domains formed an association with the proline-rich sequences of Sos and Cbl in both resting and activated platelets, since the peptidimer abolished these associations. Inhibition of both fibrinogen binding and platelet aggregation by the peptide RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) had no effect on thrombin-induced Grb2-SH2 domain association with the aforementioned signalling molecules, indicating that these associations occurred during thrombin-induced 'inside-out' signalling. Platelet aggregation induced by direct activation via alphaIIb-beta3 ('outside-in' signalling) was potentiated by the peptidimer. The results show that inhibition of Grb2-SH3 interactions with signal-transduction proteins down-regulates thrombin-induced platelet activation, but also potentiates Fc receptor- and alphaIIb-beta3-mediated platelet activation. PMID:11964172

  1. Ternary Complex of Transforming Growth Factor-[beta]1 Reveals Isoform-specific Ligand Recognition and Receptor Recruitment in the Superfamily

    SciTech Connect

    Radaev, Sergei; Zou, Zhongcheng; Huang, Tao; Lafer, Eileen M.; Hinck, Andrew P.; Sun, Peter D.

    2010-11-03

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1, -{beta}2, and -{beta}3 are 25-kDa homodimeric polypeptides that play crucial nonoverlapping roles in embryogenesis, tissue development, carcinogenesis, and immune regulation. Here we report the 3.0-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the ternary complex between human TGF-{beta}1 and the extracellular domains of its type I and type II receptors, T{beta}RI and T{beta}RII. The TGF-{beta}1 ternary complex structure is similar to previously reported TGF-{beta}3 complex except with a 10{sup o} rotation in T{beta}RI docking orientation. Quantitative binding studies showed distinct kinetics between the receptors and the isoforms of TGF-{beta}. T{beta}RI showed significant binding to TGF-{beta}2 and TGF-{beta}3 but not TGF-{beta}1, and the binding to all three isoforms of TGF-{beta} was enhanced considerably in the presence of T{beta}RII. The preference of TGF-{beta}2 to T{beta}RI suggests a variation in its receptor recruitment in vivo. Although TGF-{beta}1 and TGF-{beta}3 bind and assemble their ternary complexes in a similar manner, their structural differences together with differences in the affinities and kinetics of their receptor binding may underlie their unique biological activities. Structural comparisons revealed that the receptor-ligand pairing in the TGF-{beta} superfamily is dictated by unique insertions, deletions, and disulfide bonds rather than amino acid conservation at the interface. The binding mode of T{beta}RII on TGF-{beta} is unique to TGF-{beta}s, whereas that of type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein on bone morphogenetic protein appears common to all other cytokines in the superfamily. Further, extensive hydrogen bonds and salt bridges are present at the high affinity cytokine-receptor interfaces, whereas hydrophobic interactions dominate the low affinity receptor-ligand interfaces.

  2. Transforming growth factor-{beta}2 enhances differentiation of cardiac myocytes from embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Dinender . E-mail: Dinender.Kumar@uvm.edu; Sun, Baiming

    2005-06-24

    Stem cell therapy holds great promise for the treatment of injured myocardium, but is challenged by a limited supply of appropriate cells. Three different isoforms of transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) -{beta}1, -{beta}2, and -{beta}3 exhibit distinct regulatory effects on cell growth, differentiation, and migration during embryonic development. We compared the effects of these three different isoforms on cardiomyocyte differentiation from embryonic stem (ES) cells. In contrast to TGF-{beta}1, or -{beta}3, treatment of mouse ES cells with TGF-{beta}2 isoform significantly increased embryoid body (EB) proliferation as well as the extent of the EB outgrowth that beat rhythmically. At 17 days, 49% of the EBs treated with TGF-{beta}2 exhibited spontaneous beating compared with 15% in controls. Cardiac myocyte specific protein markers sarcomeric myosin and {alpha}-actin were demonstrated in beating EBs and cells isolated from EBs. In conclusion, TGF-{beta}2 but not TGF-{beta}1, or -{beta}3 promotes cardiac myocyte differentiation from ES cells.

  3. Vitronectin enhances internalization of crocidolite asbestos by rabbit pleural mesothelial cells via the integrin alpha v beta 5.

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, A M; Sanan, D A; Sheppard, D; Broaddus, V C

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism by which pleural mesothelial cells, the likely progenitor cells of asbestos-induced mesothelioma, recognize and internalize crocidolite asbestos is unknown. Because incubation of asbestos fibers with serum increases their association with cells, we asked whether a protein coat on asbestos increased internalization of fibers via specific cellular receptors. Coating crocidolite with citronectin, but not with fibronectin or other proteins, increased fiber internalization by rabbit pleural mesothelial cells, as measured by a new technique using fluorescence confocal microscopy. Receptors for vitronectin, alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5, were identified on mesothelial cells. Inhibiting vitronectin receptors by plating cells on a vitronectin substrate or incubating cells with excess soluble vitronectin reduced internalization of vitronectin-coated crocidolite. Inhibition of alpha v beta 5, but not alpha v beta 3, with blocking antibodies similarly reduced internalization. In addition, alpha v beta 5, but not alpha v beta 3, showed immunocytochemical colocalization with fibers. Of biologic relevance, coating crocidolite with serum also increased internalization via alpha v beta 5, an effect dependent on the vitronectin in serum. We conclude that pleural mesothelial cells recognize and internalize vitronectin- and serum-coated asbestos via the integrin alpha v beta 5. Since integrins initiate some of the same signaling pathways as does asbestos, our findings may provide insights into the mechanisms of asbestos-induced biologic effects. Images PMID:7560092

  4. The influence of Tribenoside on expression and deposition of epidermal laminins in HaCaT cells.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Takaki, Shu; Matsuda, Yuji; Okabe, Koichi; Taniguchi, Masakazu; Oomachi, Kengo; Samejima, Teruyuki; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Tribenoside has been used clinically for hemorrhoidal disease associated with coagulation, inflammation, and wounds. However, the pharmacological mechanism of tribenoside activity has never been clear. In this study we examined whether tribenoside affected expression and deposition of laminins that are required for reconstruction of basement membranes (BMs) during wound healing in hemorrhoidal disease. HaCaT cells, which are derived from human epidermis, were treated in growth media supplemented with tribenoside. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers specific for laminin chains showed that HaCaT cells constitutively expressed laminin alpha3, alpha5, beta1, beta3, gamma1, and gamma2 chains. Tribenoside treatment of HaCaT cells did not induce expression of other laminin chains. We also quantified the expression of laminin chains in tribenoside-treated cells using real-time PCR. The expression level of laminin alpha3, beta1, beta3, gamma1, and gamma2 chains was not affected. In contrast, the expression of laminin alpha5 in the tribenoside-treated cells was four times higher than that of control cells. Immunocytochemistry also showed that tribenoside accelerated the focal deposition of laminin-332 (alpha3, beta3, gamma2). These results suggest that tribenoside interacts with epidermal cells and regulates the expression and localization of laminins to help reconstruct BMs in wound healing of hemorrhoids.

  5. Demonstration of tyrosinase in the vitiligo skin of human beings by a sensitive fluorometric method as well as by 14C(U)-L-tyrosine incorporation into melanin

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, I.; Vijayan, E.; Ramaiah, A.; Pasricha, J.S.; Madan, N.C.

    1982-03-01

    Tyrosinase activity (Monophenol, dihydroxyphenylalanine: oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.14.18.1) in vitiligo and normal epidermal homogenates of skin from human beings was measured by estimating beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) by a highly sensitive fluorometric method described in this paper. The tyrosine activity in the vitiligo skin was about 4 to 37% of corresponding normal skin. The activity of tyrosinase in normal human skin from different individuals and from different regions of the body was in the range of 4 to 140 picomoles of beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine formed per min/mg protein of epidermal homogenate. The enzyme from vitiligo and normal skin was severely inhibited by substance(s) of low molecular weight. The enzyme exhibits a lag of about 4 hr in the absence of added beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 1 hr in presence of 5 microM dopa. Tyrosinase from the normal and vitiligo skin was inhibited by excess concentration of tyrosine. The homogenates from vitiligo skin could synthesize melanin from C14(U)-L-Tyrosine. The rate of tyrosine incorporation into melanin by the epidermal homogenates is increased by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) disproportionate to its effect on tyrosinase activity. Based on the data presented in this paper it is concluded that melanocytes are present in the vitiligo skin. A tentative hypothesis is put forward to explain the lack of melanin synthesis by the vitiligo skin under in vivo conditions, although melanocytes are present.

  6. Subtype-specific role of phospholipase C-beta in bradykinin and LPA signaling through differential binding of different PDZ scaffold proteins.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Woong; Lim, Seyoung; Oh, Yong-Seok; Kim, Eung-Kyun; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yun-Hee; Heo, Kyun; Kim, Jaeyoon; Kim, Jung Kuk; Yang, Yong Ryul; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2010-07-01

    Among phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes (beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta and eta), PLC-beta plays a key role in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signaling. PLC-beta subtypes are often overlapped in their distribution, but have unique knock-out phenotypes in organism, suggesting that each subtype may have the different role even within the same type of cells. In this study, we examined the possibility of the differential coupling of each PLC-beta subtype to GPCRs, and explored the molecular mechanism underlying the specificity. Firstly, we found that PLC-beta1 and PLC-beta 3 are activated by bradykinin (BK) or lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), respectively. BK-triggered phosphoinositides hydrolysis and subsequent Ca(2+) mobilization were abolished specifically by PLC-beta1 silencing, whereas LPA-triggered events were by PLC-beta 3 silencing. Secondly, we showed the evidence that PDZ scaffold proteins is a key mediator for the selective coupling between PLC-beta subtype and GPCR. We found PAR-3 mediates physical interaction between PLC-beta1 and BK receptor, while NHERF2 does between PLC-beta 3 and LPA(2) receptor. Consistently, the silencing of PAR-3 or NHERF2 blunted PLC signaling induced by BK or LPA respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that each subtype of PLC-beta is selectively coupled to GPCR via PDZ scaffold proteins in given cell types and plays differential role in the signaling of various GPCRs.

  7. Effects of antenatal application of ambroxol and glucocorticoid on lung morphometry and signal transduction of bone morphogenetic protein in the fetal rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Qing; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Guo, Xi-Rong; Zhou, Xiao-Yu

    2012-07-01

    Antenatal ambroxol, dexamethasone (Dex) and betamethasone (Beta) are used to prevent neonate respiratory distress syndrome. The present study aimed to investigate the role of ambroxol, Dex and Beta administered antenatally on lung morphogenesis and signal transduction of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in rat embryo. Fetal lungs treated with ambroxol, 1-day Beta, 3-day Dex and 3-day Beta were more mature compared to the controls as determined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Expression of BMP4 and bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR‑II) mRNA was upregulated in the 1-day-Beta-, 3-day-Dex- and 3-day-Beta-treated animals. BMP4 and BMPR-II protein were significantly increased in the 1-day-Beta-, 3-day-Dex- and 3-day-Beta-treated animals. Ambroxol, Dex and Beta promoted the morphological development of rat fetal lung; Beta was more effective than Dex. A multi-dose of glucocorticoids exhited a more beneficial effect than a single dose. The effects of Beta and Dex may be mediated by regulation of BMP signal transduction in rat fetal lung.

  8. Suppression of laminin-5 expression leads to increased motility, tumorigenicity, and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen Hengwai; Ziober, Amy F.; Gopal, Pallavi; Nasrallah, Ilya; Falls, Erica M.; Meneguzzi, Guerrino; Ang, Hwee-Quan; Ziober, Barry L. . E-mail: bziober@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2005-09-10

    Laminin-5 (Ln-5) is expressed in several human carcinomas and hypothesized to contribute to tumor invasion. To understand the role of Ln-5 in human cancers, we stably delivered small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against the Ln-5 {gamma}2 chain into JHU-022-SCC cells (022), a non-invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line which secretes Ln-5. Lysates from {gamma}2 siRNA cells (022-si{gamma}2) had nearly undetectable levels of the {gamma}2 chain while the {alpha}3 and {beta}3 subunits of Ln-5 remained unchanged compared to parental and control. In conditioned medium from 022-si{gamma}2 cells, the {gamma}2 chain and the Ln-5 heterotrimer were barely detectable, similar to an invasive OSCC cell line. Conditioned medium from 022-si{gamma}2 cells contained less {alpha}3 and {beta}3 subunits than both parental and control. Although the proliferation and adhesive properties of the 022-si{gamma}2 cells remained similar to parental and control cells, 022-si{gamma}2 cells showed increased detachment and a fibroblastic morphology similar to invasive cells. Moreover, migration, in vitro invasion, and in vivo tumorigenicity were enhanced in 022-si{gamma}2 cells. Our results suggest that the Ln-5 {gamma}2 chain regulates the secretion of the {alpha}3 and {beta}3 subunits. More importantly, suppression of Ln-5 results in a phenotype that is representative of invasive tumor cells.

  9. TGF-{beta}'s delay skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation in an isoform-independent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Schabort, Elske J.; Merwe, Mathilde van der; Loos, Benjamin; Moore, Frances P.; Niesler, Carola U.

    2009-02-01

    Satellite cells are a quiescent heterogenous population of mononuclear stem and progenitor cells which, once activated, differentiate into myotubes and facilitate skeletal muscle repair or growth. The Transforming Growth Factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) superfamily members are elevated post-injury and their importance in the regulation of myogenesis and wound healing has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Most studies suggest a negative role for TGF-{beta} on satellite cell differentiation. However, none have compared the effect of these three isoforms on myogenesis in vitro. This is despite known isoform-specific effects of TGF-{beta}1, -{beta}2 and -{beta}3 on wound repair in other tissues. In the current study we compared the effect of TGF-{beta}1, -{beta}2 and -{beta}3 on proliferation and differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell-line. We found that, irrespective of the isoform, TGF-{beta} increased proliferation of C2C12 cells by changing the cellular localisation of PCNA to promote cell division and prevent cell cycle exit. Concomitantly, TGF-{beta}1, -{beta}2 and -{beta}3 delayed myogenic commitment by increasing MyoD degradation and decreasing myogenin expression. Terminal differentiation, as measured by a decrease in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression, was also delayed. These results demonstrate that TGF-{beta} promotes proliferation and delays differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in an isoform-independent manner.

  10. Differential localization of TGF-beta-precursor isotypes in normal human skin.

    PubMed

    Wataya-Kaneda, M; Hashimoto, K; Kato, M; Miyazono, K; Yoshikawa, K

    1994-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) can act as a multi-functional regulator of both cell growth and differentiation. Three isotypes of TGF-beta s namely TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3, have been found in human tissues. Up to now, little is known about the distribution patterns of the TGF-beta isotypes in human skin. Using the TGF-beta-precursor (latency-associated peptides) specific antibodies to confirm the specificity, we studied the immunohistochemical distribution of TGF-beta 1-3 in human skin. TGF-beta 2 was found mainly in the intercellular space of all the layers of the epidermis as well as in the cytoplasm with a weak staining. In contrast, TGF-beta 3 was present in the subepidermal area of the dermis. TGF-beta 1 was observed obviously in neither epidermis nor dermis. These results showed the differential localization of TGF-beta isotypes in human skin, suggesting that the TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 may regulate the human skin function in an epithelial autocrine or mesenchymal-epithelial interaction manner.

  11. Chemical cross-linking of the urease complex from Helicobacter pylori and analysis by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsohn, Elisabet; Ångström, Jonas; Emmett, Mark R.; Marshall, Alan G.; Nilsson, Carol L.

    2004-05-01

    Chemical cross-linking of proteins is a well-established method for structural mapping of small protein complexes. When combined with mass spectrometry, cross-linking can reveal protein topology and identify contact sites between the peptide surfaces. When applied to surface-exposed proteins from pathogenic organisms, the method can reveal structural details that are useful in vaccine design. In order to investigate the possibilities of applying cross-linking on larger protein complexes, we selected the urease enzyme from Helicobacter pylori as a model. This membrane-associated protein complex consists of two subunits: [alpha] (26.5 kDa) and [beta] (61.7 kDa). Three ([alpha][beta]) heterodimers form a trimeric ([alpha][beta])3 assembly which further associates into a unique dodecameric 1.1 MDa complex composed of four ([alpha][beta])3 units. Cross-linked peptides from trypsin-digested urease complex were analyzed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) and molecular modeling. Two potential cross-linked peptides (present in the cross-linked sample but undetectable in [alpha], [beta], and native complex) were assigned. Molecular modeling of urease [alpha][beta] complex and trimeric urease units ([alpha][beta])3 revealed a linkage site between the [alpha]-subunit and the [beta]-subunit, and an internal cross-linkage in the [beta]-subunit.

  12. Regional divergence of palate medial edge epithelium along the anterior to posterior axis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiu-Zhen; Warner, Dennis R; Ding, Jixiang

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that mouse palatal mesenchymal cells undergo regional specification along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis defined by anterior Shox2 and Msx1 expression and posterior Meox2 expression. A-P regional specification of the medial edge epithelium, which is directly responsible for palate fusion, has long been proposed, but it has not yet been demonstrated due to the lack of regional specific markers. In this study, we have demonstrated that the palate medial edge epithelium is regionalized along the A-P axis, similar to that for the underlying mesenchyme. Mmp13, a medial edge epithelium specific marker, was uniformly expressed from anterior to posterior in wild-type mouse palatal shelves. Previous studies demonstrated that medial edge epithelium expression of Mmp13 was regulated by TGF-beta3. We have found that the changes in Mmp13 expression in TGF-beta3 knockouts varied along the A-P axis, and can be broken down into three distinct regions. These regions correlated with regional specification of the underlying medial edge mesenchymal cells and timing of palate fusion. Mouse palate medial edge epithelium along the A-P axis can be divided into different regions according to the differential response to the loss of TGF-beta3.

  13. Insect molting hormone and sterol biosynthesis in spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Grebenok, R.J.; Adler, J.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Insect molting hormones, which are produced by plants and are effective molecules in the control of insect crop pests, are biosynthesized in developing spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L.). The major sterols biosynthesized by spinach are avenasterol (24{alpha}-ethyl-5{alpha}-cholesta-7,24(28)-dien-3{beta}-ol), spinasterol (24{alpha}-ethyl-5{alpha}-cholesta-7,22-dien-3{beta}-ol), and 22-dihydrospinasterol (24{alpha}-ethyl-5{alpha}-cholest-7-en-3{beta}-ol). The major ecdysteroids biosynthesized are ecdysterone (2{beta},3{beta},14{alpha},20R,22R,25-hexahydroxy-5{beta}-cholest-7-en-6-one) and polypodine B (2{beta},3{beta},5{beta},14{alpha},20R,22R,25-heptahycroxycholest-7-en-6-one) and polypodine B (2{beta},3{beta},5{beta},14{alpha},20R,22R,25-heptahydroxycholest-7-en-6-one). When labeled 2-{sup 14}C-mevalonic acid was incorporated into young leaves isolated squalene, sterols and ecdysteroids contained the label. During a short (16 h) incorporation period in intact young leaves of 100 day old plants, the avenasterol has the highest specific activity in counts per minute per {mu}g of sterol followed by 22-dihydrospinasterol which is more highly labeled than spinasterol. The ecdysteroids synthesized, on an entire plant basis, account for 20% of the total steroid (sterol and ecdysteroid) isolated from the plant.

  14. The mammalian beta-tubulin repertoire: hematopoietic expression of a novel, heterologous beta-tubulin isotype

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    We describe the structure of a novel and unusually heterologous beta- tubulin isotype (M beta 1) isolated from a mouse bone marrow cDNA library, and a second isotype (M beta 3) isolated from a mouse testis cDNA library. Comparison of M beta 1 and M beta 3 with the completed (M beta 4, M beta 5) or extended (M beta 2) sequence of three previously described beta-tubulin isotypes shows that each includes a distinctive carboxy-terminal region, in addition to multiple amino acid substitutions throughout the polypeptide chain. In every case where a mammalian interspecies comparison can be made, both the carboxy- terminal and internal amino acid substitutions that distinguish one isotype from another are absolutely conserved. We conclude that these characteristic differences are important in determining functional distinctions between different kinds of microtubule. The amino acid homologies between M beta 2, M beta 3, M beta 4, and M beta 5 are in the range of 95-97%; however the homology between M beta 1 and all the other isotypes is very much less (78%). The dramatic divergence in M beta 1 is due to multiple changes that occur throughout the polypeptide chain. The overall level of expression of M beta 1 is low, and is restricted to those tissues (bone marrow, spleen, developing liver and lung) that are active in hematopoiesis in the mouse. We predict that the M beta 1 isotype is functionally specialized for assembly into the mammalian marginal band. PMID:3782288

  15. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Azzeh, Firas S; Alazzeh, Awfa Y; Dabbour, Ibrahim R; Jazar, Abdelelah S; Obeidat, Ahmed A

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: Los bebés con bajo peso al nacer reciben asistencia nutricional hospitalaria para reforzar su supervivencia y peso corporal. Sin embargo, cada hospital tiene su propia fórmula de asistencia nutricional. Por lo tanto, la efectividad de esta asistencia nutricional debería ser investigada. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la asistencia nutricional hospitalaria sobre la velocidad del crecimiento velocidad del crecimiento y el estado nutricional de bebés con bajo peso al nacer en el hospital Al-Noor, Arabia Saudita. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio interseccional entre octubre de 2010 y diciembre de 2012. Se seleccionó a trescientos recién nacidos del hospital Al-Noor de la ciudad de Makkah, Arabia Saudita. Los bebés fueron seleccionados según su peso al nacer y fueron separados en tres grupos iguales: (i) Bajo peso al nacer (BPN) (peso de nacimiento 1501- 2500 g), (ii) Muy Bajo peso al nacer (MBPN) (peso de nacimiento 1001-1500 g) y (iii) Peso extremadamente bajo al nacer (PEBN) (peso de nacimiento < 1000 g). Los datos fueron recopilados en el momento del nacimiento y en el momento del alta. Los pesos fueron registrados y se calculó la velocidad del crecimiento. Se hizo la medición de algunos tests bioquímicos y niveles minerales. Resultados: los valores de índice de masa corporal del VBPN y EBPN fueron menores (p < 0.05) que los del grupo BPN. La velocidad de crecimiento de los niños de todos los grupos osciló entre 8.7 y 10.2 g/kg/d sin diferencias (p > 0.05) observadas entre grupos. Los niveles de suero, calcio, fósforo y potasio en el momento del alta fueron superiores (p < 0.05) que los del momento del nacimiento para los grupos de EBPN y VBPN, mientras que los niveles de sodio descendieron en el grupo de EBPN hasta un rango normal. El nivel de albúmina mejoró (p < 0.05) en el grupo de EBPN. Conclusión: La gestión de la atención sanitaria para bebés con bajo peso al nacer en el hospital Al-Noor no fue suficiente para alcanzar

  16. Vascular remodeling in primary pulmonary hypertension. Potential role for transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed Central

    Botney, M. D.; Bahadori, L.; Gold, L. I.

    1994-01-01

    Active exogenous transforming growth factor-beta s (TGF-beta s) are potent modulators of extracellular matrix synthesis in cell culture and stimulate matrix synthesis in wounds and other remodeling tissues. The role of endogenous TGF-beta s in remodeling tissues is less well defined. Vascular remodeling in the pulmonary arteries of patients with primary pulmonary hypertension is characterized, in part, by abnormal deposition of immunohistochemically detectable procollagen, thereby identifying actively remodeling vessels. We used this marker of active matrix synthesis to begin defining the in vivo role of TGF-beta in the complex milieu of actively remodeling tissues. Immunohistochemistry using isoform-specific anti-TGF-beta antibodies was performed to determine whether TGF-beta was present in actively remodeling hypertensive pulmonary arteries 20 to 500 microns in diameter. Intense, cell-associated TGF-beta 3 immunoreactivity was observed in the media and neointima of these hypertensive muscular arteries. Immunostaining was present, but less intense, in normal arteries of comparable size. TGF-beta 2 immunoreactivity was observed in normal vessels and was increased slightly in hypertensive vessels, in a pattern resembling TGF-beta 3 immunoreactivity. No staining was associated with the adventitia. TGF-beta 1 immunostaining was either faint or absent in both normal and hypertensive vessels. Comparison of procollagen and TGF-beta localization demonstrated that TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 colocalized at all sites of procollagen synthesis. However, TGF-beta was observed in vessels, or vascular compartments, where there was no procollagen synthesis. Procollagen immunoreactivity was not present in normal vessels that showed immunoreactivity for TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3. These observations suggest: a) the stimulation of procollagen synthesis by TGF-beta in vivo is more complex than suggested by in vitro studies and b) a potential role for TGF-beta 2 or TGF-beta 3, but not

  17. Tumor-specific expression of αvβ3 integrin promotes spontaneous metastasis of breast cancer to bone

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Erica K; Pouliot, Normand; Stanley, Kym L; Chia, Jenny; Moseley, Jane M; Hards, Daphne K; Anderson, Robin L

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Studies in xenograft models and experimental models of metastasis have implicated several β3 integrin-expressing cell populations, including endothelium, platelets and osteoclasts, in breast tumor progression. Since orthotopic human xenograft models of breast cancer are poorly metastatic to bone and experimental models bypass the formation of a primary tumor, however, the precise contribution of tumor-specific αvβ3 to the spontaneous metastasis of breast tumors from the mammary gland to bone remains unclear. Methods We used a syngeneic orthotopic model of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis to test whether exogenous expression of αvβ3 in a mammary carcinoma line (66cl4) that metastasizes to the lung, but not to bone, was sufficient to promote its spontaneous metastasis to bone from the mammary gland. The tumor burden in the spine and the lung following inoculation of αvβ3-expressing 66cl4 (66cl4beta3) tumor cells or control 66cl4pBabe into the mammary gland was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. The ability of these cells to grow and form osteolytic lesions in bone was determined by histology and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining of bone sections following intratibial injection of tumor cells. The adhesive, migratory and invasive properties of 66cl4pBabe and 66cl4beta3 cells were evaluated in standard in vitro assays. Results The 66cl4beta3 tumors showed a 20-fold increase in metastatic burden in the spine compared with 66cl4pBabe. A similar trend in lung metastasis was observed. αvβ3 did not increase the proliferation of 66cl4 cells in vitro or in the mammary gland in vivo. Similarly, αvβ3 is not required for the proliferation of 66cl4 cells in bone as both 66cl4pBabe and 66cl4beta3 proliferated to the same extent when injected directly into the tibia. 66cl4beta3 tumor growth in the tibia, however, increased osteoclast recruitment and bone resorption compared with 66cl4 tumors. Moreover, αvβ3 increased 66cl4 tumor cell

  18. [Predictive value of cerebellar growth and general movements assessments for neurodevelopment of very preterm infants at 18-24 months' corrected age].

    PubMed

    Cunha, M; Correa, F; Cadete, A; Oliveira, A; Figueiredo, H; Valerio, P; Barroso, R; Carreiro, H

    2017-01-16

    Introduccion. La evaluacion de los movimientos de ajetreo es sumamente sensible a la hora de predecir el desenlace a largo plazo o la paralisis cerebral del neonato prematuro, un tipo de paciente en el que se ha descrito el crecimiento anomalo del cerebelo. Objetivo. Comparar el valor pronostico de la determinacion ecografica del crecimiento anomalo del cerebelo y el de la evaluacion de los movimientos de ajetreo en el neurodesarrollo de grandes prematuros a los 18-24 meses de edad corregida. Sujetos y metodos. Estudio prospectivo con una cohorte de 88 neonatos (32 semanas o menos de gestacion) en que se analizo el diametro transversal del cerebelo por medio de una ecografia semanal hasta las 40 semanas de edad corregida. Los movimientos de ajetreo se evaluaron a los tres meses de edad corregida. El estado de maduracion neurologica a los 18-24 meses de edad corregida se evaluo en 68 neonatos con la escala de evaluacion de las competencias en el desarrollo infantil (SGS-II) y la escala de evaluacion neurologica de Amiel-Tison (ATNA). Resultados. En la edad a termino, el crecimiento del cerebelo fue inferior al tercer percentil en 11 neonatos (10,3%). Los movimientos de ajetreo eran normales en 42 (61,8%), y anormales o ausentes, en 7 (10,3%). A los 18-24 meses de edad corregida, 54 (79,4%) mostraron resultados normales en la SGS-II y 6 (8,8%) fueron calificados como afectados por paralisis cerebral segun la ATNA. El diametro cerebelar inferior al tercer percentil a termino estuvo asociado con un desenlace motor anomalo y los movimientos de ajetreo normales se correlacionaron con el neurodesarrollo normal. Conclusion. La estimacion del tamaño del cerebelo y las exploraciones funcionales (movimientos de ajetreo) poseen un importante papel complementario en el pronostico del desarrollo nervioso en el gran prematuro.

  19. Effects of neurosteroids on epileptiform activity induced by picrotoxin and 4-aminopyridine in the rat hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Patricia; Tapia, Ricardo; Rogawski, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    The neurosteroids allopregnanolone (5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one; 5alpha,3alpha-P) and its 5beta-epimer pregnanolone (5beta,3alpha-P), and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) were examined for effects on spontaneous epileptiform discharges induced by 100 microM picrotoxin (PTX) and 55 microM 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in the CA3 region of the rat hippocampal slice. At a concentration of 10 microM, 5alpha,3alpha-P partially reduced PTX-induced bursting and at 30 and 90 microM completely suppressed bursting. In contrast, 100 microM 5beta,3alpha-P failed to alter the discharge frequency. 5alpha,3alpha-P depressed 4-AP-induced bursting with similar potency as in the PTX model; 100 microM 5beta,3alpha-P was also partially effective. In the 4-AP model, 5alpha,3alpha-P inhibited both the more frequent predominantly positive-going potentials as well as the less frequent negative-going potentials that may be generated by synchronous GABAergic interneuron firing. PS enhanced the PTX bursting frequency and, in the 4-AP model, increased the frequency of negative potentials but did not alter the frequency of positive potentials. By itself, PS did not induce bursting. The effects of the steroids in the in vitro seizure models largely correspond with their activities on GABA(A) receptors; suppression of discharges may occur as a result of direct activation of these receptors rather than modulation of GABA-mediated synaptic responses. PTX and 4-AP-induced bursting in the hippocampal slice are useful models for directly assessing neurosteroid effects on seizure susceptibility under conditions that eliminate the factor of brain bioavailability.

  20. EGFR plays a pivotal role in the regulation of polyamine-dependent apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ray, Ramesh M; Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Johnson, Leonard R

    2007-12-01

    Intracellular polyamine synthesis is regulated by the enzyme ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), and its inhibition by alpha-difluromethylornithine (DFMO), confers resistance to apoptosis. We have previously shown that DFMO leads to the inhibition of de novo polyamine synthesis, which in turn rapidly activates Src, STAT3 and NF-kappaB via integrin beta3 in intestinal epithelial cells. One mechanism to explain these effects involves the activation of upstream growth factor receptors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We therefore hypothesized that EGFR phosphorylation regulates the early response to polyamine depletion. DFMO increased EGFR phosphorylation on tyrosine residues 1173 (pY1173) and 845 (pY845) within 5 min. Phosphorylation declined after 10 min and was prevented by the addition of exogenous putrescine to DFMO containing medium. Phosphorylation of EGFR was concomitant with the activation of ERK1/2. Pretreatment with either DFMO or EGF for 1 h protected cells from TNF-alpha/CHX-induced apoptosis. Exogenous addition of polyamines prevented the protective effect of DFMO. In addition, inhibition of integrin beta3 activity (with RGDS), Src activity (with PP2), or EGFR kinase activity (with AG1478), increased basal apoptosis and prevented protection conferred by either DFMO or EGF. Polyamine depletion failed to protect B82L fibroblasts lacking the EGFR (PRN) and PRN cells expressing either a kinase dead EGFR (K721A) or an EGFR (Y845F) mutant lacking the Src phosphorylation site. Conversely, expression of WT-EGFR (WT) restored the protective effect of polyamine depletion. Fibronectin activated the EGFR, Src, ERKs and protected cells from apoptosis. Taken together, our data indicate an essential role of EGFR kinase activity in MEK/ERK-mediated protection, which synergizes with integrin beta3 leading to Src-mediated protective responses in polyamine depleted cells.

  1. Identification of the Drosophila core 1 beta1,3-galactosyltransferase gene that synthesizes T antigen in the embryonic central nervous system and hemocytes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hideki; Fuwa, Takashi J; Arima, Mikiko; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Norihiko; Ichimiya, Tomomi; Osawa, Ken-Ichi; Ueda, Ryu; Nishihara, Shoko

    2008-12-01

    T antigen (Galbeta1-3GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr), the well-known tumor-associated antigen, is a core 1 mucin-type O-glycan structure that is synthesized by core 1 beta1,3-galactosyltransferase (C1beta3GalT), which transfers Gal from UDP-Gal to Tn antigen (GalNAcalpha1-Ser/Thr). Three putative C1beta3GalTs have been identified in Drosophila. However, although all three are expressed in embryos, their roles during embryogenesis have not yet been clarified. In this study, we used P-element inserted mutants to show that CG9520, one of the three putative C1beta3GalTs, synthesizes T antigen expressed on the central nervous system (CNS) during embryogenesis. We also found that T antigen was expressed on a subset of the embryonic hemocytes. CG9520 mutant embryos showed the loss of T antigens on the CNS and on a subset of hemocytes. Then, the loss of T antigens was rescued by precise excision of the P-element inserted into the CG9520 gene. Our data demonstrate that T antigens expressed on the CNS and on a subset of hemocytes are synthesized by CG9520 in the Drosophila embryo. In addition, we found that the number of circulating hemocytes was reduced in third instar larvae of CG9520 mutant. We, therefore, named the CG9520 gene Drosophila core 1 beta1,3-galactosyltransferase 1 because it is responsible for the synthesis and function of T antigen in vivo.

  2. Structural and functional characterization of Delphinus delphis hemoglobin system.

    PubMed

    Manconi, Barbara; Messana, Irene; Maggiani, Federica; Olianas, Alessandra; Pellegrini, Mariagiuseppina; Crnjar, Roberto; Castagnola, Massimo; Giardina, Bruno; Sanna, Maria Teresa

    2009-11-01

    Structural analysis of the hemoglobin (Hb) system of Delphinus delphis revealed a high globin multiplicity: HPLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis evidenced three major beta (beta1 16,022 Da, beta2 16,036 Da, beta3 16,036 Da, labeled according to their progressive elution times) and two major alpha globins (alpha1 15,345 Da, alpha2 15,329 Da). ESI-tandem mass and nucleotide sequence analyses showed that beta2 globin differs from beta1 for the substitution Val126 --> Leu, while beta3 globin differs from beta2 for the isobaric substitution Lys65 --> Gln. The alpha2 globin differs from the alpha1 for the substitution Ser15 --> Ala. Anion-exchange chromatography allowed the separation of two Hb fractions and HPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed that the fraction with higher pI (HbI) contained beta1, beta2 and both the alpha globins, and the fraction with lower pI (HbII) contained beta3 and both the alpha globins. Both D. delphis Hb fractions displayed a lower intrinsic oxygen affinity, a decreased effect of 2,3-BPG and a reduced cooperativity with respect to human HbA(0), with HbII showing the more pronounced differences. With respect to HbA(0), either the substitution Probeta5 --> Gly or the Probeta5 --> Ala is present in all the cetacean beta globins sequenced so far, and it has been hypothesized that position 5 of beta globins may have a role in the interaction with 2,3-BPG. Regarding the particularly lowered cooperativity of HbII, it is interesting to observe that the variant human HbA, characterized by the substitution Lysbeta65 --> Gln (HbJ-Cairo) has a decreased cooperativity with respect to HbA(0).

  3. A peptide isolated from phage display libraries is a structural and functional mimic of an RGD-binding site on integrins

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Many integrins recognize short RGD-containing amino acid sequences and such peptide sequences can be identified from phage libraries by panning with an integrin. Here, in a reverse strategy, we have used such libraries to isolate minimal receptor sequences that bind to fibronectin and RGD-containing fibronectin fragments in affinity panning. A predominant cyclic motif, *CWDDG/LWLC*, was obtained (the asterisks denote a potential disulfide bond). Studies using the purified phage and the corresponding synthetic cyclic peptides showed that *CWDDGWLC*-expressing phage binds specifically to fibronectin and to fibronectin fragments containing the RGD sequence. The binding did not require divalent cations and was inhibited by both RGD and *CWDDGWLC*-containing synthetic peptides. Conversely, RGD-expressing phage attached specifically to immobilized *CWDDGWLC*-peptide and the binding could be blocked by the respective synthetic peptides in solution. Moreover, fibronectin bound to a *CWDDGWLC*-peptide affinity column, and could be eluted with an RGD-containing peptide. The *CWDDGWLC*-peptide inhibited RGD-dependent cell attachment to fibronectin and vitronectin, but not to collagen. A region of the beta subunit of RGD-binding integrins that has been previously demonstrated to be involved in ligand binding includes a polypeptide stretch, KDDLW (in beta 3) similar to WDDG/LWL. Synthetic peptides corresponding to this region in beta 3 were found to bind RGD-displaying phage and conversion of its two aspartic residues into alanines greatly reduced the RGD binding. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the *CWDDGWLC*- peptide recognized beta 1 and beta 3 in immunoblots. These data indicate that the *CWDDGWLC*-peptide is a functional mimic of ligand binding sites of RGD-directed integrins, and that the structurally similar site in the integrin beta subunit is a binding site for RGD. PMID:7657703

  4. Association between body composition and blood pressure in a contemporary cohort of 9-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Brion, M A; Ness, A R; Davey Smith, G; Leary, S D

    2007-04-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) in children is an early risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is positively associated with body mass index (BMI). However, BMI does not distinguish between fat and lean masses, and the relationship of BP in children to different elements of body composition is not well established. BP, BMI and body composition were measured in 6863 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Fat mass, lean mass and trunk fat were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After full adjustment for confounders, total body fat and BMI were positively associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) (beta=3.29, 95% confidence interval CI 3.02, 3.57 mm Hg/standard deviation (s.d.) and beta=3.97, 95% CI 3.73, 4.21 mm Hg/s.d., respectively) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (beta=1.26, 95% CI 1.05, 1.46 mm Hg/s.d. and beta=1.37, 95% CI 1.19, 1.54 mm Hg/s.d., respectively). SBP was also positively associated with lean mass (beta=3.38, 95% CI 2.95, 3.81 mm Hg/s.d.), and weakly associated with trunk fat (beta=1.42, 95% CI -0.06, 2.90 mm Hg/s.d., independent of total fat mass), which was robust in girls only. The association between lean mass and SBP remained even after accounting for fat mass. SBP in 9-year-old children is independently associated with fat mass and lean mass and, to a lesser extent, trunk fat in girls. In this analysis, because both fat and lean masses are associated with BP, BMI predicts BP at least as well as these components of body composition.

  5. A model of the quaternary structure of the Escherichia coli F1 ATPase from X-ray solution scattering and evidence for structural changes in the delta subunit during ATP hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Svergun, D I; Aldag, I; Sieck, T; Altendorf, K; Koch, M H; Kane, D J; Kozin, M B; Grüber, G

    1998-01-01

    The shape and subunit arrangement of the Escherichia coli F1 ATPase (ECF1 ATPase) was investigated by synchrotron radiation x-ray solution scattering. The radius of gyration and the maximum dimension of the enzyme complex are 4.61 +/- 0.03 nm and 15.5 +/- 0.05 nm, respectively. The shape of the complex was determined ab initio from the scattering data at a resolution of 3 nm, which allowed unequivocal identification of the volume occupied by the alpha3beta3 subassembly and further positioning of the atomic models of the smaller subunits. The delta subunit was positioned near the bottom of the alpha3beta3 hexamer in a location consistent with a beta-delta disulfide formation in the mutant ECF1 ATPase, betaY331W:betaY381C:epsilonS108C, when MgADP is bound to the enzyme. The position and orientation of the epsilon subunit were found by interactively fitting the solution scattering data to maintain connection of the two-helix hairpin with the alpha3beta3 complex and binding of the beta-sandwich domain to the gamma subunit. Nucleotide-dependent changes of the delta subunit were investigated by stopped-flow fluorescence technique at 12 degrees C using N-[4-[7-(dimethylamino)-4-methyl]coumarin-3-yl]maleimide (CM) as a label. Fluorescence quenching monitored after addition of MgATP was rapid [k = 6.6 s-1] and then remained constant. Binding of MgADP and the noncleavable nucleotide analog AMP . PNP caused an initial fluorescent quenching followed by a slower decay back to the original level. This suggests that the delta subunit undergoes conformational changes and/or rearrangements in the ECF1 ATPase during ATP hydrolysis. PMID:9788916

  6. Brain gangliosides: functional ligands for myelin stability and the control of nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vyas, A A; Schnaar, R L

    2001-07-01

    Gangliosides, sialylated glycosphingolipids which are the predominant glycans on vertebrate nerve cell surfaces, are emerging as components of membrane rafts, where they can mediate important physiological functions. Myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG), a minor constituent of myelin, is a sialic acid binding lectin with two established physiological functions: it is involved in myelin-axon stability and cytoarchitecture, and controls nerve regeneration. MAG is found selectively on the myelin membranes directly apposed to the axon surface, where it has been proposed to mediate myelin-axon interactions. Although the nerve cell surface ligands for MAG remain to be established, evidence supports a functional role for sialylated glycoconjugates. Here we review recent studies that reflect on the role of gangliosides, sialylated glycosphingolipids, as functional MAG ligands. MAG binds to gangliosides with the terminal sequence 'NeuAc alpha 3Gal beta 3GalNAc' which is found on the major nerve gangliosides GD1a and GT1b. Gangliosides lacking that terminus (e.g., GM1 or GD1b), or having any biochemical modification of the terminal NeuAc residue fail to support MAG binding. Genetically engineered mice lacking the GalNAc transferase required for biosynthesis of the 'NeuAc alpha 3Gal beta 3GalNAc' terminus have grossly impaired myelination and progressive neurodegeneration. Notably the MAG level in these animals is dysregulated. Furthermore, removal of NeuAc residues from nerve cells reverses MAG-mediated inhibition of neuritogenesis, and neurons from mice lacking the 'NeuAc alpha 3 Gal beta 3GalNAc' terminus have an attenuated response to MAG. Cross-linking nerve cell surface gangliosides can mimic MAG-mediated inhibition of nerve regeneration. Taken together these observations implicate gangliosides as functional MAG ligands.

  7. Fluorescently tagged laminin subunits facilitate analyses of the properties, assembly and processing of laminins in live and fixed lung epithelial cells and keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Susan B; DeBiase, Phillip J; Kligys, Kristina; Hamill, Kevin; Jones, Jonathan C R

    2008-09-01

    Recent analyses of collagen, elastin and fibronectin matrix assembly, organization and remodeling have been facilitated by the use of tagged proteins that can be visualized without the need for antibody labeling. Here, we report the generation of C-terminal tagged, full-length and "processed" (alpha3DeltaLG4-5) human alpha3 as well as C-terminal tagged, full-length human beta3 laminin subunits in adenoviral vectors. Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) and human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells, which assemble laminin-332-rich matrices, as well as primary rat lung alveolar type II (ATII) cells, which elaborate a fibrous network rich in laminin-311, were infected with adenovirus encoding the tagged human laminin subunits. In HEKs and BEP2D cells, tagged, full-length alpha3, alpha3DeltaLG4-5 and beta3 laminin subunits incorporate into arrays of matrix organized into patterns that are comparable to those observed when such cells are stained using laminin-332 subunit antibody probes. Moreover, HEKs and BEP2Ds move over these tagged, laminin-332-rich matrix arrays. We have also used the tagged beta3 laminin subunit-containing matrices to demonstrate that assembled laminin-332 arrays influence laminin matrix secretion and/or assembly. In the case of rat ATII cells, although tagged alpha3 laminin subunits are not detected in the matrix of rat ATII cells infected with virus encoding full-length human alpha3 laminin protein, processed human alpha3 laminin subunits are incorporated into an extracellular fibrous array. We discuss how these novel laminin reagents can be used to study the organization, processing and assembly of laminin matrices and how they provide new insights into the potential functional importance of laminin fragments.

  8. Central roles of alpha5beta1 integrin and fibronectin in vascular development in mouse embryos and embryoid bodies.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sheila E; Goh, Keow Lin; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan; Bader, Bernhard L; Stark, Margaret; Davidson, Duncan; Hynes, Richard O

    2002-06-01

    Vascular development and maturation are dependent on the interactions of endothelial cell integrins with surrounding extracellular matrix. Previous investigations of the primacy of certain integrins in vascular development have not addressed whether this could also be a secondary effect due to poor embryonic nutrition. Here, we show that the alpha5 integrin subunit and fibronectin have critical roles in blood vessel development in mouse embryos and in embryoid bodies (EBs) differentiated from embryonic stem cells (a situation in which there is no nutritional deficit caused by the mutations). In contrast, vascular development in vivo and in vitro is not strongly dependent on alpha(v) or beta3 integrin subunits. In mouse embryos lacking alpha5 integrin, greatly distended blood vessels are seen in the vitelline yolk sac and in the embryo itself. Additionally, overall blood vessel pattern complexity is reduced in alpha5-null tissues. This defective vascular phenotype is correlated with a decrease in the ligand for alpha5 integrin, fibronectin (FN), in the endothelial basement membranes. A striking and significant reduction in early capillary plexus formation and maturation was apparent in EBs formed from embryonic stem cells lacking alpha5 integrin or FN compared with wild-type EBs or EBs lacking alpha(v) or beta3 integrin subunits. Vessel phenotype could be partially restored to FN-null EBs by the addition of whole FN to the culture system. These findings confirm a clear role for alpha5 and FN in early blood vessel development not dependent on embryo nutrition or alpha(v) or beta3 integrin subunits. Thus, successful early vasculogenesis and angiogenesis require alpha5-FN interactions.

  9. Micro-CT molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis using a magnetite nano-cluster probe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Li, Jing; Zhang, Chunfu; Xu, Lisa X

    2013-06-01

    Due to its high resolution, micro-CT is desirable for molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis. However, the sensitivity of micro-CT to contrast agents is relatively low. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop high micro-CT sensitive molecular imaging probes for direct visualization and dynamic monitoring of tumor angiogenesis. To this end, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptides conjugated magnetite nano clusters (RGD-MNCs) were developed by assembling individual magnetite nano particles into clusters with amphiphilic (maleimide) methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) ((Mal)mPEG-PLA) copolymer and subsequently encoding RGD peptides onto the clusters for specific targeting alpha(v)beta3 integrin. The hydrodynamic size of RGD-MNCs was about 85 nm. To test its specificity, alpha(v)beta3 positive cells (H1299) were incubated with magnetite nano clusters (MNCs), RGD-MNCs or RGD-MNCs competition with free RGD peptides. Prussian Blue staining and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) measurements indicated that the cell uptake of RGD-MNCs was significantly more than that of MNCs, which could be inhibited by free RGD peptides. For detection of tumor angiogenesis, mice bearing H1299 tumors were injected intravenously with RGD-MNCs at the dose of 400 micro mol Fe/kg. Tumor angiogenic hot spots as well as individual angiogenic vessels could be clearly manifested by micro-CT imaging 12 h post injection, which was dynamically monitored with the extension of probe circulation time. Subsequent histological studies of tumor tissues verified that RGD-MNCs registered tumor angiogenic vessels. Our study demonstrated that RGD-MNC probes fabricated in this study could be used to effectively target alpha(v)beta3 integrin. Using high resolution micro-CT in combination with the probes, tumor angiogenesis could be studied dynamically.

  10. Contraction-induced increases in Na+-K+-ATPase mRNA levels in human skeletal muscle are not amplified by activation of additional muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Thomassen, Martin; Lundby, Carsten; Pilegaard, Henriette; Bangsbo, Jens

    2005-07-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise with a large compared with a small active muscle mass results in a higher contraction-induced increase in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase mRNA expression due to greater hormonal responses. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit alpha(1), alpha(2), alpha(3), alpha(4), beta(1), beta(2), and beta(3) mRNA in human skeletal muscle was investigated. On two occasions, eight subjects performed one-legged knee extension exercise (L) or combined one-legged knee extension and bilateral arm cranking (AL) for 5.00, 4.25, 3.50, 2.75, and 2.00 min separated by 3 min of rest. Leg exercise power output was the same in AL and L, but heart rate at the end of each exercise interval was higher in AL compared with L. One minute after exercise, arm venous blood lactate was higher in AL than in L. A higher level of blood epinephrine and norepinephrine was evident 3 min after exercise in AL compared with L. Nevertheless, none of the exercise-induced increases in alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(1), and beta(3) mRNA expression levels were higher in AL compared with L. The most abundant Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit at the mRNA level was beta(1), which was expressed 3.4 times than alpha(2). Expression of alpha(1), beta(2), and beta(3) was less than 5% of the alpha(2) expression, and no reliable detection of alpha(3) and alpha(4) was possible. In conclusion, activation of additional muscle mass does not result in a higher exercise-induced increase in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit-specific mRNA.

  11. Brain testosterone metabolism in thyroidectomized and thyroxine-treated chickens.

    PubMed

    Klandorf, H; Lucini, V; Harvey, S

    1984-10-01

    The metabolism of testosterone to reduced derivatives was studied in the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus, and the hyperstriatum dorsale of thyroidectomized, sham-operated, and thyroxine (T4)-injected immature cockerels. The levels of plasma thyroid hormones were markedly reduced (P less than 0.001) in thyroidectomized cockerels whereas thyroidectomized or sham-operated birds injected daily with 100 micrograms/kg thyroxine had significantly elevated (P less than 0.001) levels in comparison with sham-operated control birds. Each tissue was found to produce significant amounts of 5 beta-androstane-17 beta-ol-3-one (5 beta-DHT), 5 beta-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (5 beta-3 alpha-diol), and androstenedione. Irrespective of thyroid state 5 beta-DHT and 5 beta-3 alpha-diol were produced to the greatest extent by the hyperstriatum dorsale whereas androstenedione was maximally produced in the pituitary gland. In comparison with the hyperstriatum dorsale and the hypothalamus only small quantities of 5 beta-DHT were produced in the pituitary gland. In the hyperstriatum dorsale of thyroidectomized birds both 5 beta-DHT (P less than 0.05) and 5 beta-3 alpha-diol (P less than 0.1) were formed to a greater extent than in sham-operated birds. This effect was reversed by administration of T4 to the operated birds which reduced the levels to those measured in the sham-operated controls. Similarly, injection of T4 into sham-operated birds decreased (P less than 0.05) the production of 5 beta-DHT in the hypothalamus while in the pituitary gland injection of T4 into thyroidectomized birds reduced the production of androstenedione (P less than 0.05). It was concluded that in the cockerel thyroid hormone is likely to play a role in the metabolism of testosterone. The physiological significance of 5 beta-reductase activity in the neuroendocrine tissues is discussed.

  12. Autoimmune diabetes-prone NOD mice express the Lyt2{sup a} (Lyt2.1) and Lyt3{sup a} (Lyt3.1) alleles of CD8

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson-Tardieu, J.M.; Cornelius, J.G.; Ye, X.

    1996-06-01

    Predisposition to Type I insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) has a strong underlying genetic basis involving class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes as well as several non-MHC genetic systems. In the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, a model for human IDD, genes associated with the appearance of immune cell infiltrates in the pancreatic islets (insulitis) and/or overt IDD have been mapped to chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 11, and 17. A recent report has suggested that CD8+ lymphocytes of the NOD mouse might be deficient in the expression of the CD8{Beta} molecule, a protein encoded by a gene on chromosome 6. The CD8{Beta} molecule is a T-cell surface marker, the lack of which could affect selection in the thymus, possibly permitting auto-reactive T-cell clones to populate the peripheral lymphoid tissues. For this reason, we examined the expression of the CD8 molecule by lymphocytes in the NOD mouse. Results indicate that the NOD mouse is not deficient in its transcription of detectable mRNA encoding either the CD8{alpha} or {Beta} subunits. However, the NOD mouse expresses the Lyt2{sup a} and Lyt3{sup a} alleles, suggesting that a portion of chromosome 6 centromeric to the diabetes-susceptibility genetic region is derived from an ancestry common to AKR and, like AKR, the CD8{alpha} and CD8{Beta}3.1 (but not CD8{Beta}3.2) subunits are detected on the cell surface of T lymphocytes of the NOD mouse. Interestingly, though, the CD8{Beta}3.1 molecule may not be expressed in the NOD mouse to the same extent as it is expressed in the AKR/J mouse, suggesting the possibility that the NOD mouse possesses a defect somewhere between transcription and cell surface expression of the CD8{Beta} molecule. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Expression of adhesion molecules during tooth resorption in feline teeth: a model system for aggressive osteoclastic activity.

    PubMed

    Shigeyama, Y; Grove, T K; Strayhorn, C; Somerman, M J

    1996-09-01

    Tooth resorption, a common feline dental problem, is often initiated at the cemento-enamel junction and hence is called cat 'neck' lesion. Studies have demonstrated that osteoclasts/odontoclasts are increased and activated at resorption sites, and that areas of resorption are partly repaired by formation of tissues resembling bone, cementum, and possibly dentin. However, the cellular/molecular mechanisms/factors involved in resorption and repair are unknown. In this study of tissues from cats with 'neck' lesions, we used specific antibodies and immunohistochemical analyses to examine adhesion molecules associated with mineralized tissues, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN), and a cell-surface receptor linked with these molecules, alpha v beta 3, for their localization in these lesions. In addition, to determine general cellular activity during repair, we performed in situ hybridization using a type I collagen riboprobe. Results showed OPN localized to resorption fronts and reversal lines, while BSP was localized to reversal lines. However, some osteoclasts and odontoblasts "sat" on mineralized surfaces not associated with OPN. The cell-surface receptor, alpha v beta 3, was localized to surfaces of osteoclasts/odontoclasts. Type I collagen mRNA was expressed where osteoblasts attempted to repair mineralized tissue. In contrast, odontoblasts did not express mRNA for type I collagen. This study suggests that osteoclastic resorption is the predominant activity in 'neck' lesions and that this activity was accompanied, at least in part, by increased concentrations of OPN and an associated integrin, alpha v beta 3, at resorption sites. Lack of collagen expression by odontoblasts indicates that odontoblasts do not play an active role in attempts at repair.

  14. Mechanism of activation and functional role of protein kinase Ceta in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Bynagari, Yamini S; Nagy, Bela; Tuluc, Florin; Bhavaraju, Kamala; Kim, Soochong; Vijayan, K Vinod; Kunapuli, Satya P

    2009-05-15

    The novel class of protein kinase C (nPKC) isoform eta is expressed in platelets, but not much is known about its activation and function. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of activation and functional implications of nPKCeta using pharmacological and gene knock-out approaches. nPKCeta was phosphorylated (at Thr-512) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by 2MeSADP. Pretreatment of platelets with MRS-2179, a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, or YM-254890, a G(q) blocker, abolished 2MeSADP-induced phosphorylation of nPKCeta. Similarly, ADP failed to activate nPKCeta in platelets isolated from P2Y1 and G(q) knock-out mice. However, pretreatment of platelets with P2Y12 receptor antagonist, AR-C69331MX did not interfere with ADP-induced nPKCeta phosphorylation. In addition, when platelets were activated with 2MeSADP under stirring conditions, although nPKCeta was phosphorylated within 30 s by ADP receptors, it was also dephosphorylated by activated integrin alpha(IIb)beta3 mediated outside-in signaling. Moreover, in the presence of SC-57101, a alpha(IIb)beta3 receptor antagonist, nPKCeta dephosphorylation was inhibited. Furthermore, in murine platelets lacking PP1cgamma, a catalytic subunit of serine/threonine phosphatase, alpha(IIb)beta3 failed to dephosphorylate nPKCeta. Thus, we conclude that ADP activates nPKCeta via P2Y1 receptor and is subsequently dephosphorylated by PP1gamma phosphatase activated by alpha(IIb)beta3 integrin. In addition, pretreatment of platelets with eta-RACK antagonistic peptides, a specific inhibitor of nPKCeta, inhibited ADP-induced thromboxane generation. However, these peptides had no affect on ADP-induced aggregation when thromboxane generation was blocked. In summary, nPKCeta positively regulates agonist-induced thromboxane generation with no effects on platelet aggregation.

  15. Expression of 10 GABA(A) receptor subunit messenger RNAs in the motor-related thalamic nuclei and basal ganglia of Macaca mulatta studied with in situ hybridization histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Kultas-Ilinsky, K; Leontiev, V; Whiting, P J

    1998-07-01

    In situ hybridization histochemistry technique with [35S]UTP-labelled riboprobes was used to study the expression pattern of 10 GABA(A) receptor subunit messenger RNAs in the basal ganglia and motor thalamic nuclei of rhesus monkey. Human transcripts were used for the synthesis of alpha2, alpha4, beta2, beta3, gamma1 and delta subunit messenger RNA probes. Rat complementary DNAs were used for generating alpha1, alpha3, beta1 and gamma2 subunit messenger RNA probes. Nigral, pallidal and cerebellar afferent territories in the ventral tier thalamic nuclei all expressed alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, beta1, beta2, beta3, delta and gamma2 subunit messenger RNAs but at different levels. Each intralaminar nucleus displayed its own unique expression pattern. In the thalamus, gamma1 subunit messenger RNA was detected only in the parafascicular nucleus. Comparison of the expression patterns with the known organization of GABA(A) connections in thalamic nuclei suggests that (i) the composition of the receptor associated with reticulothalamic synapses, except for those in the intralaminar nuclei, may be alpha1alpha4beta2delta, (ii) receptors of various other subunit compositions may operate in the local GABAergic circuits, and (iii) the composition of receptors at nigro- and pallidothalamic synapses may differ, with those at nigrothalamic probably containing beta1 and gamma2 subunits. In the medial and lateral parts of the globus pallidus, the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra pars reticularis, the alpha1, beta2 and gamma2 messenger RNAs were co-expressed at a high level suggesting that this subunit composition was associated with all GABAergic synapses in the direct and indirect striatal output pathways. Various other subunit messenger RNAs were also expressed but at a lower level. In the substantia nigra pars compacta the most highly expressed messenger RNAs were alpha3, alpha4 and beta3; all other subunit messenger RNAs studied, except for gamma1, alpha1 and

  16. Flavonoids from Aconitum napellus subsp. neomontanum.

    PubMed

    Fico, G; Braca, A; De Tommasi, N; Tomè, F; Morelli, I

    2001-06-01

    Three flavonol glycosides quercetin 7-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1), kaempferol 7-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (2), and kaempferol 7-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-rhamnopyranoside-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside (3), together with the known beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl beta-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the flowers of Aconitum napellus subsp. neomontanum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR spectral techniques.

  17. ANGPTL3 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ANGPTL3, or angiopoietin-like 3, is a member of the angiopoietin-like family of secreted factors. It is a secreted protein expressed primarily in the liver, and also weakly expressed in the kidney. ANGPTL3 has the characteristic angiopoietin structure, consisting of a signal peptide, N-terminal coiled-coil domain and the C-terminal fibrinogen (FBN)-like domain. The FBN-like domain in angiopoietin-like 3 protein was shown to bind alpha-5/beta-3 integrins, and this binding induced endothelial cell adhesion and migration. ANGPTL3 is also thought to be involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.

  18. Assembly of PRR-containing receptors on scaffolds: a model for imidazoline I(1)-receptor action.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, I F; Dehle, F C; Piletz, J

    2003-12-01

    IRAS, a putative clone of the I(1)-imidazoline receptor, possesses a proline-rich region (PRR) motif, which might interact with SH3 regions on tyrosine kinases, and an integrin-binding motif. Receptors with a PRR motif can generally assemble onto multi-element signaling complexes (eg., the beta(3)-receptor on the EGF receptor) and thereby modulate signal transduction. Integrins serve as scaffolds for multi-element signaling complexes, similar to that assembled with the EGF receptor. It is therefore possible that IRAS signals through a complex with other receptors.

  19. Routine synthesis of L-(18F)6-fluorodopa with fluorine-18 acetyl hypofluorite

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, M.J.; Ruth, T.J.; Grierson, J.R.; Abeysekera, B.; Pate, B.D.

    1986-09-01

    The synthesis of L-(/sup 18/F)6-fluorodopa (2.4-10.6 mCi) was done by passing gaseous (/sup 18/F)acetyl hypofluorite through a solution of L-methyl-N- acetyl-(beta-(3-methoxy-4-acetoxyphenyl))alaninate in acetic acid at room temperature followed by the hydrolysis of the intermediate products with concentrated hydriodic acid. The desired fluorodopa isomer was isolated in 8% EOB radiochemical yield by high performance liquid chromatography in an overall synthesis time of 100 min.

  20. Production of amino acids by analog-resistant mutants of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed Central

    Riccardi, G; Sora, S; Ciferri, O

    1981-01-01

    Mutants of Spirulina platensis resistant to 5-fluorotryptophan, beta-3-thienyl-alanine, ethionine, p-fluorophenylalanine, or azetidine-2-carboxylic acid were isolated. Some of these mutants appeared to be resistant to more than one analog and to overproduce the corresponding amino acids. A second group was composed of mutants that were resistant to one analog only. Of the latter mutants, one resistant to azetidine-2-carboxylic acid was found to overproduce proline only, whereas one resistant to fluorotryptophan and one resistant to ethionine did not overproduce any of the tested amino acids. PMID:6792182

  1. Chromosomal localization of the gene for the human trifunctional enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, R; Barton, D; Du, J; Hum, D W; MacKenzie, R E; Francke, U

    1989-01-01

    A trifunctional protein in man, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, catalyzes three consecutive steps in the interconversion of tetrahydrofolate derivatives; these derivatives supply one-carbon units for intermediary metabolism. Somatic cell hybridization and in situ hybridization were used to localize the functional gene coding for this protein--to human chromosome 14q24, near the c-fos and TGF-beta 3 loci. A second hybridizing sequence, possibly a pseudogene, was identified near the centromere of the X chromosome, at Xp11. Images Figure 1 PMID:2786332

  2. Transforming growth factor-(beta)s and mammary gland involution; functional roles and implications for cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Flanders, Kathleen C; Wakefield, Lalage M

    2009-06-01

    During rodent mammary gland involution there is a dramatic increase in the expression of the transforming growth factor-beta isoform, TGF-beta3. The TGF-betas are multifunctional cytokines which play important roles in wound healing and in carcinogenesis. The responses that are activated in the remodeling of the gland during involution have many similarities with the wound healing process and have been postulated to generate a mammary stroma that provides a microenvironment favoring tumor progression. In this review we will discuss the putative role of TGF-beta during involution, as well as its effects on the mammary microenvironment and possible implications for pregnancy-associated tumorigenesis.

  3. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  4. CHOQUES AGREGADOS E INVERSIÓN EN CAPITAL HUMANO: EL LOGRO EDUCATIVO SUPERIOR DURANTE LA DÉCADA PERDIDA EN MÉXICO

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Pablo A.

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo documenta una respuesta agregada negativa del logro educativo superior (más de 12 años de escolaridad) en México a la recesión de 1982–83 y el estancamiento que le siguió. La respuesta no fue homogénea entre géneros, regiones y entornos familiares. Los hombres experimentaron una caída en el logro mientras que las mujeres experimentaron un crecimiento más lento. En promedio, los estados con un mayor logro antes del choque experimentaron mayores caídas. La respuesta entre distintos entornos familiares no presenta un patrón claro. Sin embargo, el efecto negativo en el logro se observa incluso entre hermanos. La evidencia sugiere una historia por el lado de la demanda: la caída en el ingreso de los hogares parece ser el determinante de la caída/desaceleración del logro educativo superior. La conclusión es que la recesión y la falta de crecimiento que le siguió tuvieron un efecto negativo importante y duradero en la formación de capacidades en México. PMID:25328251

  5. La guerra de los Estados Unidos contra la inmigración. Efectos paradójicos1

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Pren, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen A finales de la década de los cincuenta, Estados Unidos permitía la entrada de aproximadamente medio millón de inmigrantes mexicanos al año, de los cuales 450.000 entraban con visados de trabajo temporal y 50.000 llegaban con visados de residentes permanentes. A mediados de los años sesenta, los cambios en la política migratoria de Estados Unidos realizados en nombre de los derechos civiles redujeron drásticamente las oportunidades de entrada legal a Estados Unidos. Se eliminaron los visados de trabajo temporal y se limitaron los visados de residentes a 20.000 por año. Con las oportunidades de entrada legal restringidas, los flujos migratorios ya establecidos simplemente continuaron, fuera de los límites legales, dando comienzo a una inesperada reacción en cadena de eventos que culminaron en una guerra total contra los inmigrantes y el rápido crecimiento -sin precedentes- de población residente no autorizada en Estados Unidos. El presente artículo demuestra que el aumento de inmigración indocumentada en los Estados Unidos y el crecimiento de la población sin papeles son un producto de políticas migratorias y fronterizas mal concebidas. PMID:27076695

  6. Interaction between G-protein beta and gamma subunit types is selective.

    PubMed Central

    Pronin, A N; Gautam, N

    1992-01-01

    Signal-transducing guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are made up of three subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma. Each of these subunits comprises a family of proteins. The rules for association between members of one family with members of another to form a multimer are not known; it is not clear whether associations are specific or nonspecific. Other than transducin (Gt), the G protein in rod photoreceptors, most purified G proteins contain more than one subtype of beta or gamma subunits. The Gt alpha subunit is associated only with beta 1 and gamma 1. It is not known whether this specificity is due to the differential expression of these subunit types in a cell type or due to intrinsically different affinities between different beta and gamma subunit types. We have used a transfected cell assay system to examine the association of the beta 1, beta 2, and beta 3 proteins with the gamma 1 and gamma 2 proteins. Results show that gamma 1 does not associate with beta 2 and that beta 3 does not associate with gamma 1 or gamma 2. Differences in affinities between types of G protein subunits will impose restrictions on the formation of certain heterotrimers and determine which G protein will be active in a cell. A chimeric molecule of beta 1 and beta 2 was used to broadly map the regions on these subunits that determine specificity of association. Images PMID:1631113

  7. A nonsynonymous SNP in the ITGB3 gene disrupts the conserved membrane-proximal cytoplasmic salt bridge in the alphaIIbbeta3 integrin and cosegregates dominantly with abnormal proplatelet formation and macrothrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Ghevaert, Cedric; Salsmann, Alexandre; Watkins, Nicholas A; Schaffner-Reckinger, Elisabeth; Rankin, Angela; Garner, Stephen F; Stephens, Jonathan; Smith, Graham A; Debili, Najet; Vainchenker, William; de Groot, Philip G; Huntington, James A; Laffan, Mike; Kieffer, Nelly; Ouwehand, Willem H

    2008-04-01

    We report a 3-generation pedigree with 5 individuals affected with a dominantly inherited macrothrombocytopenia. All 5 carry 2 nonsynonymous mutations resulting in a D723H mutation in the beta3 integrin and a P53L mutation in glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha. We show that GPIbalpha-L53 is phenotypically silent, being also present in 3 unaffected pedigree members and in 7 of 1639 healthy controls. The beta3-H723 causes constitutive, albeit partial, activation of the alphaIIbbeta3 complex by disruption of the highly conserved cytoplasmic salt bridge with arginine 995 in the alphaIIb integrin as evidenced by increased PAC-1 but not fibrinogen binding to the patients' resting platelets. This was confirmed in CHO alphaIIbbeta3-H723 transfectants, which also exhibited increased PAC-1 binding, increased adhesion to von Willebrand factor (VWF) in static conditions and to fibrinogen under shear stress. Crucially, we show that in the presence of fibrinogen, alphaIIbbeta3-H723, but not wild-type alphaIIbbeta3, generates a signal that leads to the formation of proplatelet-like protrusions in transfected CHO cells. Abnormal proplatelet formation was confirmed in the propositus's CD34+ stem cell-derived megakaryocytes. We conclude that the constitutive activation of the alphaIIbbeta3-H723 receptor causes abnormal proplatelet formation, leading to incorrect sizing of platelets and the thrombocytopenia observed in the pedigree.

  8. Hypoxia stimulates the autocrine regulation of migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via HIF-1alpha-dependent expression of thrombospondin-1.

    PubMed

    Osada-Oka, Mayuko; Ikeda, Takako; Akiba, Satoshi; Sato, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells from the media to intima and their subsequent proliferation are critical causes of arterial wall thickening. In atherosclerotic lesions increases in the thickness of the vascular wall and the impairment of oxygen diffusion capacity result in the development of hypoxic lesions. We investigated the effect of hypoxia on the migration of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) via HIF-1alpha-dependent expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1). When the cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions, mRNA and protein levels of TSP-1, and mRNA levels of integrin beta(3) were increased with the increase in HIF-1alpha protein. DNA synthesis and migration of the cells were stimulated under the conditions, and a neutralizing anti-TSP-1 antibody apparently suppressed the migration, but not DNA synthesis. The migration was also inhibited by RGD peptide that binds to integrin beta(3). Furthermore, the migration was completely suppressed in HIF-1alpha-knockdown cells exposed to hypoxia, while it was significantly enhanced in HIF-1alpha-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that the hypoxia induces the migration of CASMCs, and that the migration is elicited by TSP-1 of which induction is fully dependent on the stabilization of HIF-1alpha, in autocrine regulation. Thus we suggest that HIF-1alpha plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  9. Direct determination of plutonium(V) and neptunium(V) complexation by carbonate ligand with CE-ICP-sector field MS.

    PubMed

    Topin, Sylvain; Aupiais, Jean; Moisy, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Direct determination of the stability constants of some pentavalent actinides (Np and Pu) with carbonate ligands was investigated by CE-ICP-sector field MS (SFMS). The high sensitivity of ICP-SFMS coupled with the high separation power of CE makes it possible to determine the mobility of each species as well as the stability constants with good accuracy. A procedure for preparing pentavalent plutonium at trace level has been successfully tested enabling the study of Pu(V) complexation by CE-ICP-SFMS. Stability constants beta1, beta2 and beta3 have been obtained at 25 +/- 1 degrees C at a constant ionic strength of 0.37 M in NaClO4 for K1 and NaCl for beta2 and beta3. The results were extrapolated to zero ionic strength and compared with data available in the literature for Np(V). The following stability constants were obtained for a Pu(V)/CO3 system: logbeta(1)(0) = 4.95 +/- 0.10, logbeta(2)(0) = 6.34 +/- 0.10, and logbeta(3)(0) = 5.61 +/- 0.16.

  10. Neurological morphofunctional differentiation induced by REAC technology in PC12. A neuro protective model for Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Margherita; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Migheli, Rossana; Pigliaru, Gianfranco; Rocchitta, Gaia; Santaniello, Sara; Basoli, Valentina; Castagna, Alessandro; Fontani, Vania; Ventura, Carlo; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2015-05-15

    Research for the use of physical means, in order to induce cell differentiation for new therapeutic strategies, is one of the most interesting challenges in the field of regenerative medicine, and then in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson's disease (PD) included. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of the radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) technology on the PC12 rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cell line, as they display metabolic features of PD. PC12 cells were cultured with a REAC regenerative tissue optimization treatment (TO-RGN) for a period ranging between 24 and 192 hours. Gene expression analysis of specific neurogenic genes, as neurogenin-1, beta3-tubulin and Nerve growth factor, together with the immunostaining analysis of the specific neuronal protein beta3-tubulin and tyrosine hydroxylase, shows that the number of cells committed toward the neurogenic phenotype was significantly higher in REAC treated cultures, as compared to control untreated cells. Moreover, MTT and Trypan blue proliferation assays highlighted that cell proliferation was significantly reduced in REAC TO-RGN treated cells. These results open new perspectives in neurodegenerative diseases treatment, particularly in PD. Further studies will be needed to better address the therapeutic potential of the REAC technology.

  11. Light-induced geometric isomerization of 1,2-diphenylcyclopropanes included within Y zeolites: role of cation-guest binding.

    PubMed

    Kaanumalle, Lakshmi S; Sivaguru, J; Sunoj, R B; Lakshminarasimhan, P H; Chandrasekhar, J; Ramamurthy, V

    2002-12-13

    Through a systematic study of several diphenylcyclopropane derivatives, we have inferred that the cations present within a zeolite control the excited-state chemistry of these systems. In the parent 1,2-diphenylcylopropane, the cation binds to the two phenyl rings in a sandwich-type arrangement, and such a mode of binding prevents cis-to-trans isomerization. Once an ester or amide group is introduced into the system (derivatives of 2beta,3beta-diphenylcyclopropane-1alpha-carboxylic acid), the cation binds to the carbonyl group present in these chromophores and such a binding has no influence on the cis-trans isomerization process. Cation-reactant structures computed at density functional theory level have been very valuable in rationalizing the observed photochemical behavior of diphenylcyclopropane derivatives included in zeolites. While the parent system, 1,2-diphenylcylopropane, has been extensively investigated in the context of chiral induction in solution, owing to its failure to isomerize from cis to trans, the same could not be investigated in zeolites. However, esters of 2beta,3beta-diphenylcyclopropane-1alpha-carboxylic acid could be studied within zeolites in the context of chiral induction. Chiral induction as high 20% ee and 55% de has been obtained with selected systems. These numbers, although low, are much higher than what has been obtained in solution with the same system or with the parent system by other investigators (maximum approximately 10% ee).

  12. EGF AND TGF-{alpha} motogenic activities are mediated by the EGF receptor via distinct matrix-dependent mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Ian R.; Schor, Ana M.; Schor, Seth L. . E-mail: s.l.schor@dundee.ac.uk

    2007-02-15

    EGF and TGF-{alpha} induce an equipotent stimulation of fibroblast migration and proliferation. In spite of their homologous structure and ligation by the same receptor (EGFR), we report that their respective motogenic activities are mediated by different signal transduction intermediates, with p70{sup S6K} participating in EGF signalling and phospholipase C{gamma} in TGF-{alpha} signalling. We additionally demonstrate that EGF and TGF-{alpha} motogenic activities may be resolved into two stages: (a) cell 'activation' by a transient exposure to either cytokine, and (b) the subsequent 'manifestation' of an enhanced migratory phenotype in the absence of cytokine. The cell activation and manifestation stages for each cytokine are mediated by distinct matrix-dependent mechanisms: motogenetic activation by EGF requires the concomitant functionality of EGFR and the hyaluronan receptor CD44, whereas activation by TGF-{alpha} requires EGFR and integrin {alpha}v{beta}3. Manifestation of elevated migration no longer requires the continued presence of exogenous cytokine and functional EGFR but does require the above mentioned matrix receptors, as well as their respective ligands, i.e., hyaluronan in the case of EGF, and vitronectin in the case of TGF-{alpha}. In contrast, the mitogenic activities of EGF and TGF-{alpha} are independent of CD44 and {alpha}v{beta}3 functionality. These results demonstrate clear qualitative differences between EGF and TGF-{alpha} pathways and highlight the importance of the extracellular matrix in regulating cytokine bioactivity.

  13. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the aerial parts of Lantana camara and their nematicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sabira; Zehra, Syeda Qamar; Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Fayyaz, Shahina; Ramzan, Musarrat

    2008-09-01

    Two new olean-12-ene triterpenoids, camarolic acid (1) and lantrigloylic acid (2), have been isolated from the aerial parts of Lantana camara, along with ten known triterpenes, namely, camaric acid, lantanolic acid, lantanilic acid, pomolic acid, camarinic acid, lantoic acid, camarin, lantacin, camarinin, and ursolic acid. The new compounds have been characterized as 3,25-epoxy-3alpha-hydroxy-22beta-{[(S)-3-hydroxy-2-methylidenebutanoyl]oxy}olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1) and 3,25-epoxy-3alpha-hydroxy-22beta-[(3-methylbut-2-enoyl)oxy]olea-9(11),12-dien-28-oic acid (2) through spectroscopic studies and a chemical transformation. Seven of the constituents, namely pomolic acid, lantanolic acid, lantoic acid, camarin, lantacin, camarinin, and ursolic acid, were tested for nematicidal activity against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Pomolic acid, lantanolic acid, and lantoic acid showed 100% mortality at 1 mg/ml concentration after 24 h, while camarin, lantacin, camarinin, and ursolic acid exhibited 100% mortality at this concentration after 48 h. These results are comparable to those obtained with the conventional nematicide furadan (100% mortality at 1 mg/ml concentration after 24 h).

  14. Mass spectral study of hybrid peptides derived from (R)-aminoxy ester and [beta]-amino acids: The influence of aminoxy peptide bond (CO-NH-O) on peptide fragmentation under electrospray ionization conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, V.; Ramesh, M.; Srinivas, R.; Sharma, G. V. M.; Manohar, V.

    2009-04-01

    A new class of Boc-protected aminoxy hybrid peptides containing repeats of [beta]-hAla-(R)-Ama-, and [beta]-Caa-(R)-Ama- ([beta]-hAla = [beta]3-(S)-hAlanine, (R)-Ama = (R)-aminoxy ester, and [beta]-Caa = (R)-C-linked carbo-[beta]3-amino acid) have been studied by electrospray ionization (ESI) ion-trap and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) of their protonated, cationized, and negative ions. MS3 CID of protonated aminoxy peptides of [beta]-hAla-(R)-Ama- yield intense [beta]-amino acid characteristic retro-Mannich fragmentation. The bn+ and [bn-methyl imine]+ (n = 3, 5) ions formed by cleavage of aminoxy peptide bond (CO-NH-O) are more intense than bn+ (n = 2, 4) formed by that of peptide bond (CO-NH-C) cleavage. Another characteristic ion observed is due to loss of H3NO from yn+ ions. The cationized (Li+, and Na+) peptides dissociate differently compared to protonated peptides. Intense cationized cn and zn ions are formed due to the cleavage of N-O bond. The deprotonated peptides also show abundant cn- and zn- ions (n = 1, 3, 5) and do not form any yn- ions. All these results clearly indicate the influence of aminoxy peptide bond on fragmentation of these hybrid peptides.

  15. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extract on morphological and functional changes in adult male gonads of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy; De, Neela; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2011-09-01

    Green tea, prepared from the steamed and dried leaves of the shrub Camellia sinensis, is known for its antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, its effects on male gonadal functions have not been explored adequately and the present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of green tea extract on gonads of adult male albino rats. Results of in vivo studies showed that green tea extract (GTE) at mild (1.25 g%, identical to 5 cups of tea/day), moderate (2.5 g%, identical to 10 cups of tea/day) and high (5.0 g%, identical to 20 cups of tea/day) doses, for a period of 26 days, altered morphology and histology of testis and accessory sex organs. A significant dose-dependent decrease in the sperm counts, inhibited activities of testicular delta(5)3beta-and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta5-3beta3-HSD and 17beta3-HSD respectively) and decreased serum testosterone level were noticed. Significant increase in serum LH level was observed after moderate and high doses; serum FSH level also increased but not significantly. Histopathological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis evidenced by preferential loss of matured and elongated spermatids. Results of this study showed that GTE at relatively high dose may cause impairment of both the morphological and normal functional status of testis in rodents and thus its consumption at relatively high doses raises concern on male reproductive function in spite of its other beneficial effects.

  16. Gene expression assay in blood and various tissues using a single-tube real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method using an oligodeoxythymidine-immobilized polymerase chain reaction tube.

    PubMed

    Harikai, N; Saito, S; Tanaka, A; Kinoshita, K

    2009-06-01

    A single-tube real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method has been developed which makes it possible to conduct the entire procedure, from nucleic acid extraction to product detection, in a single PCR tube. In this study, we developed the method using an oligodeoxythymidine-immobilized PCR tube, which enables simple and rapid mRNA extraction and quantification of target genes in blood and other tissues. The beta-actin gene was analyzed from lysates of blood and various tissues using this method. The data showed a good correlation between the plotted threshold cycle values and log(10) of blood and tissue amounts without a reduction in PCR efficiency. Gene expression of interleukin-1beta in blood from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated rats and of beta(3)-adrenoceptors in adipose tissue from SHRSP.Z-Lepr (fa)/IzmDmcr (obese SHRSP) rats was also analyzed using the single-tube method, as well as a general real-time RT-PCR method, using RNA purified with a silica membrane column. In both methods, the copy number ratio of interleukin-1beta to beta-actin in LPS-stimulated rats was higher than in control rats, and the ratio of beta(3)-adrenoceptors to beta-actin in obese SHRSP rats was lower than in lean littermates. These results indicate that the single-tube method can provide results equivalent to those from general real-time RTPCR methods in gene expression analysis.

  17. Control of the ATP synthase beta subunit expression by RNA-binding proteins TIA-1, TIAR, and HuR.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, José M

    2006-09-22

    The beta-subunit of the mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (beta-F1-ATPase) catalyzes the rate-limiting step of ATP formation in eukaryotic cells. Here, we examined the post-transcriptional regulation of human beta-F1-ATPase mediated by the 3'-untranslated region of the mRNA (beta-3'-UTR). Biochemical analysis revealed that the adenosine/uridine (AU)-rich element-binding proteins TIA-1 (T-cell intracellular antigen-1), TIAR (TIA-1-related protein), and HuR (Hu antigen R) interact with the beta-F1-ATPase mRNA through an AU-rich sequence located to the 3'-UTR. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) knocked-out for TIA-1 or RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of endogenous TIA-1, TIAR, or HuR in HeLa cells resulted in a decrease in beta-F1-ATPase protein expression. The expression of GFP from a chimeric reporter containing human beta-3'-UTR was also abolished in HeLa cells depleted of TIA-1, TIAR, or HuR. MEFs knocked-in for TIA-1 or the overexpression of RNAi-resistant TIA-1, TIAR, or HuR proteins in the RNAi-treated HeLa cells significantly restored the levels of the expression of both endogenous mouse beta-F1-ATPase protein or recombinant GFP.

  18. Clozapine augments delta, theta, and right frontal EEG alpha power in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Maccrimmon, D; Brunet, D; Criollo, M; Galin, H; Lawson, J S

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To explore the Quantitative EEG (QEEG) effects of established clozapine therapy regimes compared to those of previous ineffective antipsychotic regimes among 64 chronic (DSM-IV) schizophrenic patients. Methods. Data from 20 EEG channels referenced to linked ears were collected before and during maintenance clozapine therapy (mean duration 1.4 years). Absolute power was calculated in six frequency bands: delta (0.4-3.6 Hz), theta (4.2-7.8 Hz), alpha (8.2-11.8 Hz), beta1 (12.2-15.8 Hz), beta2 (16.2-19.8 Hz), and beta3 (20.2-23.8 Hz). Results. Clozapine augments power globally in the delta and theta bands, but this effect is more pronounced over frontal areas. Beta3 power was reduced. Alpha showed a frontal increase, more pronounced in the right, coupled with a posterior decrease with no net change in overall power. Conclusion. The demonstration of a significant clozapine-induced alpha topographic shift frontally and to the right is a novel discovery that may serve to encourage further investigations of subcortical structures in attempts to better understand the diverse aetiologies and optimal treatments of the schizophrenias.

  19. Clozapine Augments Delta, Theta, and Right Frontal EEG Alpha Power in Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    MacCrimmon, D.; Brunet, D.; Criollo, M.; Galin, H.; Lawson, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To explore the Quantitative EEG (QEEG) effects of established clozapine therapy regimes compared to those of previous ineffective antipsychotic regimes among 64 chronic (DSM-IV) schizophrenic patients. Methods. Data from 20 EEG channels referenced to linked ears were collected before and during maintenance clozapine therapy (mean duration 1.4 years). Absolute power was calculated in six frequency bands: delta (0.4–3.6 Hz), theta (4.2–7.8 Hz), alpha (8.2–11.8 Hz), beta1 (12.2–15.8 Hz), beta2 (16.2–19.8 Hz), and beta3 (20.2–23.8 Hz). Results. Clozapine augments power globally in the delta and theta bands, but this effect is more pronounced over frontal areas. Beta3 power was reduced. Alpha showed a frontal increase, more pronounced in the right, coupled with a posterior decrease with no net change in overall power. Conclusion. The demonstration of a significant clozapine-induced alpha topographic shift frontally and to the right is a novel discovery that may serve to encourage further investigations of subcortical structures in attempts to better understand the diverse aetiologies and optimal treatments of the schizophrenias. PMID:23738206

  20. The roles of PDZ-containing proteins in PLC-beta-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Suh, P G; Hwang, J I; Ryu, S H; Donowitz, M; Kim, J H

    2001-10-19

    Mammalian phospholipase C-beta isozymes are activated by a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein linked to various cell surface receptors. Recent reports suggest that PDZ domain proteins play a significant role of PDZ-containing proteins in the regulation of mammalian PLC-beta isozymes. PDZ-containing proteins mediate the clustering of receptors and signaling molecules and thereby regulate agonist-induced signal transduction in polarized cells such as neuronal and epithelial cells. NORPA, a Drosophila PLC-beta, is known to be a component of a signaling complex that includes TRP and rhodopsin through interaction with INAD, a PDZ-containing protein. Mammalian PLC-beta1 and -beta2 isoforms interact with a PDZ-containing protein NHERF which is coupled to Trp4, a Ca(2+) channel. In addition, PLC-beta3 specifically interacts with E3KARP, another protein closely related to NHERF, through its C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. E3KARP up-regulates the PLC-beta3 activation coupled to muscarinic receptor. In this review, the role of signaling complexes mediated by PDZ-containing proteins in the regulation of PLC-beta isoforms will be discussed.

  1. Temporomandibular joint cytokine profiles in the horse.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L; Gordon, John R; Allen, Andrew L

    2006-06-01

    It has been suggested that dental abnormalities lead to temporomandibular joint inflammation and pain that may be mitigated by regular dental care. There is considerable literature on the pathophysiology of equine joint disease including studies on cytokine profiles in diseased appendicular joints. This study examined the effects of age and dental malocclusions summarized as a dental pathology score on equine temporomandibular joint cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF alpha and TGF-beta1, -beta2, -beta3) concentrations. TGF-beta3 was not detected in any joint sample. IL-1, IL-6 and TNF alpha were not influenced by age. Foals had significantly lower concentrations of lL-8 and TGF-beta1, and higher levels of TGF-beta2 compared with older horses. Age did not effect cytokine concentration in older horses although there was a trend towards increasing 1L-8 with age. The dental pathology score increased with age in mature horses, however there was no effect of dental pathology score on cytokine concentration. There was no effect of incisor eruption, and presence or number of periodontal lesions on temporomandibular joint cytokine concentration. Our findings indicate that age but not dental pathology affected temporomandibular joint proinflammatory cytokine concentration in this population of horses.

  2. Assessing the influence of electrostatic schemes on molecular dynamics simulations of secondary structure forming peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monticelli, Luca; Simões, Carlos; Belvisi, Laura; Colombo, Giorgio

    2006-04-01

    Electrostatic interactions play a fundamental role in determining the structure and dynamics of biomolecules in solution. However the accurate representation of electrostatics in classical mechanics based simulation approaches such as molecular dynamics (MD) is a challenging task. Given the growing importance that MD simulation methods are taking on in the study of protein folding, protein stability and dynamics, and in structure prediction and design projects, it is important to evaluate the influence that different electrostatic schemes have on the results of MD simulations. In this paper we performed long timescale simulations (500 ns) of two peptides, beta3 and RN24 forming different secondary structures, using for each peptide four different electrostatic schemes (namely PME, reaction field correction, and cut-off schemes with and without neutralizing counterions) for a total of eight 500 ns long MD runs. The structural and conformational features of each peptide under the different conditions were evaluated in terms of the time dependence of the flexibility, secondary structure evolution, hydrogen-bonding patterns, and several other structural parameters. The degree of sampling for each simulation as a function of the electrostatic scheme was also critically evaluated. Our results suggest that, while in the case of the short peptide RN24 the performances of the four methods are comparable, PME and RF schemes perform better in maintaining the structure close to the native one for the β-sheet peptide beta3, in which long range contacts are mostly responsible for the definition of the native structure.

  3. Crouzon's syndrome: differential in vitro secretion of bFGF, TGFbeta I isoforms and extracellular matrix macromolecules in patients with FGFR2 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Tiziano; Lilli, Cinzia; Marinucci, Lorella; Bellocchio, Silvia; Pezzetti, Furio; Carinci, Francesco; Stabellini, Giordano; Balducci, Chiara; Locci, Paola

    2002-07-21

    In the Crouzon's syndrome the cranial morphogenic processes are altered due to the early fusion of cranial sutures. We analysed the phenotype of cultured fibroblasts from normal subjects and from Crouzon patients with a specific fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 mutation resulting in a Cys 342 Tyr substitution within the third immunoglobulin domain. Crouzon fibroblasts differed from normal fibroblasts in their extracellular matrix macromolecule accumulation. In Crouzon fibroblasts glycosaminoglycans and fibronectin were decreased and type I collagen increased. As transforming growth factors beta (TGF beta) and basic fibroblasts growth factor (bFGF) together regulate extracellular matrix deposition, we evaluated TGF beta(1), TGF beta(3) and bFGF production by Crouzon and normal fibroblasts. TGF beta(1), TGFb(3) and bFGF levels were lower while TGF beta(1) mRNA transcripts were higher in Crouzon cells. As the increased TGF beta(1) gene expression did not translate into a parallel increase of secreted TGF beta(1), control of TGF beta(1) secretion may be mainly post-transcriptional. Furthermore, adding bFGF increased TGF beta(1) and TGF beta(3) secretion, suggesting the drop may be due to the altered signal transduction of bFGF. These innovative data suggest the in vitro differences between normal and Crouzon fibroblasts may be due to an imbalance in TGF beta and bFGF levels which alters the microenvironment where morphogenesis takes place.

  4. Experimental correlation between the pKa value of sulfonphthaleins with the nature of the substituents groups.

    PubMed

    Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Ramírez-Silva, María Teresa; Romero-Romo, Mario; Palomar-Pardavé, Manuel; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; Barrera-Diaz, Carlos; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto

    2008-04-01

    This work presents the results obtained from a spectrophotometry study performed on some indicators of the sulfonphtaleins like phenol red (PR), thymol blue (TB), bromothymol blue (BTB), xylenol orange (XO) and methylthymol blue (MTB). During the first stage the acidity constants of some of the indicators were determined using the data from spectrophotometry, potentiometry and with the use of the software SQUAD. These were as follows: for the equilibrium 2H+BTB<-->H(2)BTB, log beta(2)=15.069+/-0.046 and for H+BTB<-->HBTB, log beta(1)=8.311+/-0.044. For the XO and the MTB five values were calculated for each, namely, for MTB: log beta(5)=42.035, log beta(4)=38.567+/-0.058, log beta(3)=32.257+/-0.057, log beta(2)=23.785+/-0.057, and log beta(1)=12.974+/-0.045 while for XO: log beta(5)=40.120+/-0.102, log beta(4)=35.158+/-0.062, log beta(3)=29.102+/-0.053, log beta(2)=21.237+/-0.044, and log beta(1)=11.682+/-0.044. During the second stage, a study was conducted on the effect of the substituents present in the indicators to determine the effect of different functional groups on the pK(a) value corresponding to the last indicator's dissociation.

  5. Stem cell repair of physeal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae I; Terry Canale, S; Butler, Stephanie D; Hasty, Karen A

    2004-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to repair physeal defects, MSC-matrix constructs with 5% gelatin (group A), 10% gelatin/Gelfoam (Pharmacia, Peapack, NJ) (group B), and MSC grown in the presence of TGF-beta3 with Gelfoam (group C) were implanted in proximal tibial physeal defects created in 20 immature rabbits. Control groups (untreated partial defect and partial defect treated with Gelfoam) showed bony bar formation with varus deformities of 30 degrees and 28 degrees, respectively. Group A had an average 23 degrees varus deformity with bony bridge formation, and group B had mild varus angulation (average 14 degrees) of the proximal tibia. In group C, there was no significant varus deformity (average 9 degrees), and histologic examination showed that some of the columnation areas interspersed with chondrocytes were irregularly arranged in the matrix. These findings suggest that repair of physeal defects can be enhanced by the implantation of MSC cultured with TGF-beta3.

  6. Characterization of integrin receptors in normal and neoplastic human brain.

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, W.; Baur, I.; Schuppan, D.; Roggendorf, W.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the immunohistochemical expression of integrin alpha and beta chains in the normal and neoplastic human brain. Normal astrocytes expressed alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, beta 1, and beta 4 chains in some areas facing major interstitial tissues, but they were consistently negative for the other integrins examined (alpha 4, alpha 5, alpha V, alpha L, alpha M, alpha X, beta 2, beta 3). Neoplastic astrocytes in vivo and in vitro showed increased expression of alpha 3 and beta 1, and some also of alpha 5, alpha V, beta 3, and beta 4. Neoexpression of alpha 4 and reduced levels of beta 4 were detected in glioblastoma vascular proliferations compared with normal endothelial cells. Oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, choroid plexus papilloma, pituitary adenoma, and meningioma cells showed the same integrin pattern as their normal counterparts. Adhesion assays using the astrocytoma cell lines U-138 MG and U-373 MG revealed strong attachment to collagen types I to VI and undulin, which was inhibited by antibodies to beta 1, but not by those to alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 6, and alpha V. We conclude that astrocytomas show increased levels or neoexpression of various integrins and strong attachment to various extracellular matrix components, which appears to be almost exclusively mediated by beta 1-integrins. Images Figure 1 PMID:8317546

  7. alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor mechanisms in spontaneous contractile activity of rat ileal longitudinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Roland; Rickenbacher, Andreas; Shaw, Sidney; Balsiger, Bruno M

    2005-02-01

    Gastrointestinal motility is influenced by adrenergic modulation. Our aim was to identify specific subtypes of adrenergic receptors involved in inhibitory mechanisms that modulate gut smooth muscle contractile activity. Muscle strips of rat ileal longitudinal muscle were evaluated for spontaneous contractile activity and for equimolar dose-responses (10(-7) to 3 x 10(-5) M) to the adrenergic agents norepinephrine (nonselective agonist), phenylephrine (alpha(1)-agonist), clonidine (alpha(2)-agonist), prenalterol (beta(1)-agonist), ritodrine (beta(2)-agonist), and ZD7114 (beta(3)-agonist) in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin (nonselective nerve blocker). Norepinephrine (3 x 10(-5) M) inhibited 65 +/- 6% (mean +/- SEM) of spontaneous contractile activity. The same molar dose of ritodrine, phenylephrine, or ZD7114 resulted in less inhibition (46 +/- 7%, 31 +/- 5%, and 39 +/- 3%, respectively; P < 0.05). The calculated molar concentration of ZD7114 needed to induce 50% inhibition was similar to that of norepinephrine, whereas higher concentrations of phenylephrine or ritodrine were required. Clonidine and prenalterol had no effect on contractile activity. Blockade of intramural neural transmission by tetrodotoxin affected the responses to ritodrine and phenylephrine (but not to norepinephrine or ZD7114), suggesting that these agents exert part of their effects via neurally mediated enteric pathways. Our results suggest that adrenergic modulation of contractile activity in the rat ileum is mediated primarily by muscular beta(3)-, beta(2)-, and alpha(1)-receptor mechanisms; the latter two also involve neural pathways.

  8. Similarity and difference in the unfolding of thermophilic and mesophilic cold shock proteins studied by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2006-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to unfold a homologous pair of thermophilic and mesophilic cold shock proteins at high temperatures. The two proteins differ in just 11 of 66 residues and have very similar structures with a closed five-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel. A long flexible loop connects the N-terminal side of the barrel, formed by three strands (beta1-beta3), with the C-terminal side, formed by two strands (beta4-beta5). The two proteins were found to follow the same unfolding pathway, but with the thermophilic protein showing much slower unfolding. Unfolding started with the melting of C-terminal strands, leading to exposure of the hydrophobic core. Subsequent melting of beta3 and the beta-hairpin formed by the first two strands then resulted in unfolding of the whole protein. The slower unfolding of the thermophilic protein could be attributed to ion pair formation of Arg-3 with Glu-46, Glu-21, and the C-terminal. These ion pairs were also found to be important for the difference in folding stability between the pair of proteins. Thus electrostatic interactions appear to play similar roles in the difference in folding stability and kinetics between the pair of proteins.

  9. Platelet membrane glycoproteins and their function: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kunicki, T J

    1989-07-01

    The membrane glycoproteins (GP) of human platelets act as receptors that mediate two important functions, adhesion to the subendothelial matrix and platelet-platelet cohesion, or aggregation. Many of these glycoprotein receptors exist as noncovalently linked heterodimers, including those that belong to the supergene family of adhesion receptors called the integrins. Human platelets contain at least five members of this integrin family, including a collagen receptor (GP Ia-IIa; alpha 2, beta 1), a fibronectin receptor (GP Ic-IIa; alpha 5, beta 1), a laminin receptor (GP Ic'-IIa; alpha 6, beta 1), a vitronectin receptor (VnR; alpha v, beta 3), and a promiscuous, activation-dependent receptor that is thought to be the receptor most responsible for fibrinogen-dependent, platelet-platelet cohesion (GP IIb-IIIa; alpha IIb, beta 3). Some, but not all, of the integrins bind to a tripeptide sequence, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD), on the adhesive proteins. In addition to the integrins, platelets contain other membrane glyco-proteins: GP Ib-IX, a receptor for von Willebrand factor, which is thought to be the receptor most responsible for platelet adhesion to the subendothelial matrix in a flowing system; GP V, which may be associated with GP Ib-IX and whose function remains unknown; and GP IV (GP IIIb), which functions as a receptor for thrombospondin and collagen.

  10. Identification of vitronectin as an extrinsic inducer of cancer stem cell differentiation and tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Elaine M; Chan, King; Serrat, Maria Ana Duhagon; Thomas, Suneetha B; Veenstra, Timothy D; Farrar, William L

    2010-03-31

    There is mounting evidence that tumors are initiated by a rare subset of cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs are generally quiescent, self-renew, form tumors at low numbers, and give rise to the heterogeneous cell types found within a tumor. CSCs isolated from multiple tumor types differentiate both in vivo and in vitro when cultured in serum, yet the factors responsible for their differentiation have not yet been identified. Here we show that vitronectin is the component of human serum driving stem cell differentiation through an integrin alpha V beta 3-dependent mechanism. CSCs cultured on vitronectin result in downregulation of stem cell genes, modulation of differentiation markers, and loss of beta-catenin nuclear localization. Blocking integrin alpha V beta 3 inhibits differentiation and subsequently tumor formation. Thus, CSCs must be engaged by one or more extracellular signals to differentiate and initiate tumor formation, defining a new axis for future novel therapies aimed at both the extrinsic and intracellular pathways.

  11. [Effect of nutrition on growth and neurodevelopment in the preterm infant: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Aguilar Cordero, María José; Sánchez López, A M; Mur Villar, N; Hermoso Rodríguez, E; Latorre García, J

    2014-10-31

    Introducción: Las necesidades energéticas de los bebés pretérmino son elevadas y se incrementan en la medida en que el peso corporal es menor; para ello, es importante el aporte calórico óptimo, como garantía del desarrollo posterior. Objetivo: Analizar los principales artículos relacionados con la nutrición del recién nacido pretérmino y los efectos en su crecimiento y desarrollo. Método: Revisión sistemática, con etapas dirigidas a la selección de los estudios y estrategia de búsqueda y entre los meses de marzo y septiembre del año 2014. Para la búsqueda bibliográfica se siguieron los métodos: Análisis de documentos y síntesis de la información para hacer posible la ordenación y la combinación de la información extractada, así como una evaluación comparativa. La validez de los artículos seleccionados estuvo dada por el grado de evidencias demostrado, por las recomendaciones del artículo y por la aplicabilidad a nuestro contexto. Resultados: El proceso de búsqueda permitió seleccionar 79 estudios que cumplieron con los criterios de selección. Se trata de un tema ampliamente tratado por la literatura y se constata su frecuencia en los estudios referidos a la nutrición del prematuro a corto plazo. Se evidencia la relación directa entre la ingesta nutricional y el crecimiento de la longitud de los recién nacidos prematuros. Conclusiones: Una nutrición adecuada del recién nacido pretérmino tiene efectos positivos en su crecimiento y neurodesarrollo. Se constata que, a mayor ingesta de proteínas y lípidos, la altura de los bebés prematuros resulta favorecida, pero no el peso corporal. Los estudios denotan el efecto beneficioso de la leche materna sobre el cerebro, la retina y los vasos arteriales, pero una correlación negativa entre la adiposidad y el volumen cerebral.

  12. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN PRE-PREGNANCY OBESITY AND WEIGHT GAIN IN PREGNANCY, WITH GROWTH DEVIATIONS IN NEWBORNS.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Buenrostro, Dennis; Pérez-Molina, J Jesús; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Panduro-Barón, J Guadalupe

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: la obesidad en el embarazo se ha relacionado con mayor morbilidad para la madre y el feto. Objetivo: cuantificar la asociación entre obesidad en el embarazo con desviaciones del crecimiento de sus recién nacidos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio de casos y controles, no pareado, basado en el Nuevo Hospital Civil de Guadalajara “Dr. Juan I Menchaca” de 2012 a 2013. Las variables dependientes fueron recién nacido grande (GEG) y pequeño para edad gestacional (PEG), y la independiente obesidad pre-gestacional. Se recabaron datos socioeconómicos y ginecoobstétricos. La asociación entre las variables dependientes con las independientes, se evaluó con regresión logística. Resultados: se estudiaron 143 díadas madre-hijo con desviaciones en el crecimiento de sus RN, y 137 díadas madre-hijo sin desviaciones. La edad de las embarazadas fue 24.7 ± 6.3 vs 24.0 ± 6.0 años, y la edad gestacional 38±1.2 vs 38±1.5. Los factores asociados con desviaciones en el crecimiento fueron: obesidad pre-gestacional (RM 2.65, IC95% 1.29-5.44), ganancia de peso durante el embarazo elevada (RM 1.98, IC95% 1.04-3.76) y enfermedades durante el embarazo (RM 2.62, IC95% 1.05-6.76). Un modelo multivariado, con la variable dependiente GEG, y las covariables asociadas, demostró que la obesidad pregestacional y ganancia de peso gestacional elevada fueron predictores de GEG (RM 2.43, IC95% 1.10- 5.40) y (RM 3.31, IC95% 1.83-5.96). Conclusiones: en una población de mujeres jóvenes de escasos recursos económicos, la obesidad pregestacional y la ganancia de peso durante el embarazo alta, fueron predictores de productos GEG.

  13. Simultaneous quantification of GABAergic 3alpha,5alpha/3alpha,5beta neuroactive steroids in human and rat serum.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Alward, Sarah E; Marx, Christine E; Shampine, Lawrence J; Girdler, Susan S; Morrow, A Leslie

    2009-01-01

    The 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite substantial information on the progesterone derivative (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP, allopregnanolone), the physiological significance of the other endogenous GABAergic neuroactive steroids has remained elusive. Here, we describe the validation of a method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to simultaneously identify serum levels of the eight 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone. The method shows specificity, sensitivity and enhanced throughput compared to other methods already available for neuroactive steroid quantification. Administration of pregnenolone to rats and progesterone to women produced selective effects on the 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced neuroactive steroids, indicating differential regulation of their biosynthetic pathways. Pregnenolone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1488%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THDOC, +205%, p<0.01), (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5alpha-A, +216%, p<0.001), (3alpha,5alpha,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5alpha-A-diol, +190%, p<0.01). (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THP) and (3alpha,5beta)-3-hydroxyandrostan-17-one (3alpha,5beta-A) were not altered, while (3alpha,5beta)-3,21-dihydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-THDOC) and (3alpha,5beta,17beta)-androstane-3,17-diol (3alpha,5beta-A-diol) were increased from undetectable levels to 271+/-100 and 2.4+/-0.9 pg+/-SEM, respectively (5/8 rats). Progesterone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1806%, p<0.0001), 3alpha,5beta-THP (+575%, p<0.001), 3alpha,5alpha

  14. Subunit-specific coupling between gamma-aminobutyric acid type A and P2X2 receptor channels.

    PubMed

    Boué-Grabot, Eric; Toulmé, Estelle; Emerit, Michel B; Garret, Maurice

    2004-12-10

    ATP and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are two fast neurotransmitters co-released at central synapses, where they co-activate excitatory P2X and inhibitory GABAA (GABA type A) receptors. We report here that co-activation of P2X2 and various GABAA receptors, co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes, leads to a functional cross-inhibition dependent on GABAA subunit composition. Sequential applications of GABA and ATP revealed that alphabeta- or alphabetagamma-containing GABAA receptors inhibited P2X2 channels, whereas P2X2 channels failed to inhibit gamma-containing GABAA receptors. This functional cross-talk is independent of membrane potential, changes in current direction, and calcium. Non-additive responses observed between cation-selective GABAA and P2X2 receptors further indicate the chloride independence of this process. Overexpression of minigenes encoding either the C-terminal fragment of P2X2 or the intracellular loop of the beta3 subunit disrupted the functional cross-inhibition. We previously demonstrated functional and physical cross-talk between rho1 and P2X2 receptors, which induced a retargeting of rho1 channels to surface clusters when co-expressed in hippocampal neurons (Boue-Grabot, E., Emerit, M. B., Toulme, E., Seguela, P., and Garret, M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 6967-6975). Co-expression of P2X2 and chimeric rho1 receptors with the C-terminal sequences of alpha2, beta3, or gamma2 subunits indicated that only rho1-beta3 and P2X2 channels exhibit both functional cross-inhibition in Xenopus oocytes and co-clustering/retargeting in hippocampal neurons. Therefore, the C-terminal domain of P2X2 and the intracellular loop of beta GABAA subunits are required for the functional interaction between ATP- and GABA-gated channels. This gamma subunit-dependent cross-talk may contribute to the regulation of synaptic activity.

  15. Activated platelets form protected zones of adhesion on fibrinogen and fibronectin-coated surfaces

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Leukocytes form zones of close apposition when they adhere to ligand- coated surfaces. Because plasma proteins are excluded from these contact zones, we have termed them protected zones of adhesion. To determine whether platelets form similar protected zones of adhesion, gel-filtered platelets stimulated with thrombin or ADP were allowed to adhere to fibrinogen- or fibronectin-coated surfaces. The protein- coated surfaces with platelets attached were stained with either fluorochrome-conjugated goat anti-human fibrinogen or anti-human fibronectin antibodies, or with rhodamine-conjugated polyethylene glycol polymers. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that F(ab')2 anti- fibrinogen (100 kD) did not penetrate into the contact zones between stimulated platelets and the underlying fibrinogen-coated surface, while Fab antifibrinogen (50 kD) and 10 kD polyethylene glycol readily penetrated and stained the substrate beneath the platelets. Thrombin- or ADP-stimulated platelets also formed protected zones of adhesion on fibronectin-coated surfaces. F(ab')2 anti-fibronectin and 10 kD polyethylene glycol were excluded from these adhesion zones, indicating that they are much less permeable than those formed by platelets on fibrinogen-coated surfaces. The permeability properties of protected zones of adhesion formed by stimulated platelets on surfaces coated with both fibrinogen and fibronectin were similar to the zones of adhesion formed on fibronectin alone. mAb 7E3, directed against the alpha IIb beta 3 integrin blocked the formation of protected adhesion zones between thrombin-stimulated platelets and fibrinogen or fibronectin coated surfaces. mAb C13 is directed against the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin on platelets. Stimulated platelets treated with this mAb formed protected zones of adhesion on surfaces coated with fibronectin. These protected zones were impermeable to F(ab')2 antifibronectin but were permeable to 10 kD polyethylene glycol. These results show that activated

  16. Metabolic aspects of the 1 beta-proton and the 19-methyl group of androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione during aromatization by placental microsomes and inactivation of aromatase.

    PubMed

    Numazawa, M; Midzuhashi, K; Nagaoka, M

    1994-02-11

    Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione to estrogen through sequential oxygenations at the 19-methyl group. Androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione (AT) is a suicide substrate of aromatase, and the mechanism of inactivation of aromatase has been postulated to involve enzymatic oxygenation at the 19-position. [1 beta-3H,4-14C]-, [19-3H3,4-14C]-, and [1 beta-3H,19-14C]ATs, with high specific activities, were synthesized to study metabolic aspects and the inactivation mechanism. Incubation of the labeled AT with human placental microsomes yielded the 19-oxygenated derivatives, 19-hydroxy-AT and 19-oxo-AT, as well as the aromatization products, 6-oxoestrone and 6-oxoestradiol. A stereospecific 1 beta-proton elimination occurred during the aromatization of [1 beta-3H,4-14C]AT, and a marked tritium isotope effect was observed in the first hydroxylation at C-19 of [19-3H3,4-14C]AT. After incubation of the three double-labeled ATs, the solubilized proteins were subjected to SDS-PAGE and the 3H/14C ratio of the aromatase-bound metabolite in a 46-69 kDa fraction was analyzed. A marked decrease of the 3H/14C ratio of the metabolite was observed in the experiment using [19-3H3,4-14C]AT, compared with that of the labeled AT used, but there were no significant changes in the other experiments, indicating that the adduct retains the 1 beta-proton, the 19-carbon, and one of the three 19-methyl protons of AT. Thus, we conclude that further oxygenation of 19-oxo-AT produced by the two initial hydroxylations of AT at C-19 yields not only 6-oxoestrogen (by a mechanism similar to that involved in the aromatization of the natural substrate) but also a reactive electrophile that immediately binds to the active site in an irreversible manner, resulting in inactivation of aromatase.

  17. Complexes of 5,5'-aminoacido-substituted 2,2'-bipyridyl ligands: control of diastereoselectivity with a pH switch and a chloride-responsive combinatorial library.

    PubMed

    Telfer, Shane G; Yang, Xiao-Juan; Williams, Alan F

    2004-03-07

    The synthesis and coordination chemistry of a new chiral ligand, 2,2'-bipyridine substituted at the 5 and 5' positions by N-methyl-L-valine methyl ester (5), is presented. The ligand readily forms complexes [M(5)3]2+ where M = Co(II) and Fe(II) in CH3CN, and the complexation reaction is slightly diastereoselective (d.e. =ca. 20%) in favour of the Delta diastereomer. The addition of six equivalents of HCl to these complexes [M(II)(5)3]2+ leads to formation of Delta-[M(II)(5H2)3]8+ with a d.e. of 100%. This high diastereoselectivity can be reversed by the addition of base i.e. the diastereoselectivity can be controlled by the pH. Delta-[Fe(5H2)3]8+ was found to bind chloride ions in CD3OD-CD3CN (6:1) with a binding constant of 260 M(-1). [Co(II)(5)3]2+ can be oxidised to Delta-[Co(III)(5H2)3]9+. Formation constants for both [Co(II)(5)3]2+ and [Co(II)(5H2)3]8+ in acetonitrile were obtained by spectrophotometric titrations. In the former case, the stability constant, log beta3 = 19.5(8), is very similar to that measured for [Co(II)(bipy)3]2+ (log beta3 = 19.3(7)) but this drops significantly when the amine groups of are protonated (log beta3 = 16.5(2)). A dynamic combinatorial library was prepared by mixing three equivalents of, three equivalents of bipy, and two equivalents of Co(II) in CD3CN. The presence of all possible Delta- and Lambda-[Co(II)(5)x(bipy)(3-x)]2+ complexes was inferred from 1H NMR and ES-MS spectra. Addition of protons to this library reduced the number of components by inducing diastereoselectivity, and presence of chloride further simplified the 1H NMR spectrum, indicating that [Cl2 ligand Delta-[Co(II)(5H2)3

  18. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  19. [SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN THE CANARY ISLANDS].

    PubMed

    Bello Lujan, Luis M; Saavedra Santana, Pedro; Gutiérrez García, Luisa Esther; García Hernández, José Angel; Serra Majem, Lluis

    2015-10-01

    Introducción y objetivo: desde 1976, el término bajo peso al nacer (BPN) se aplica a todos los recién nacidos con un peso inferior a 2.500 g. y constituye el factor más importante que afecta a la mortalidad neonatal y a la morbilidad en la infancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar las asociaciones entre los factores biológicos, socioeconómicos y sanitarios y el bajo peso en el recién nacido en las islas Canarias. Material y método: se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal, con los ficheros de las gestantes del 2011 y 2012 (n = 11,768) del Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno de Gran Canaria, que representó el 66,3% de todos los partos de la provincia para esos años, excluyéndose del análisis los datos correspondientes a los embarazos múltiples (393) (3,3%). Se analizaron la distribución y la frecuencia del peso según características sociodemográficas; los porcentajes se compararon con el test de la 2, las medias con el t-test y las medianas con el test de Wilcoxon para datos independientes. Aquellas variables que mostraron asociación con el bajo peso en el análisis univariado fueron introducidas en un análisis logístico multidimensional. Resultados: en la distribución del peso al nacer se observó un exceso de niños con bajo peso (9,3%), de los cuales el 62,1% fueron pretérmino. Las madres de estos niños son más delgadas, de menor talla y tienen un IMC promedio de < 18,5 kg/m2, así como un promedio de edad de 31,5 años. Se observó igualmente que existe un incremento entre la edad de la madre y el bajo peso, aunque el efecto no es lineal; de hecho, los aumentos del riesgo de BPN se aceleran a medida que aumenta la edad. Cuando el IMC de la madre decrece, aproximadamente por debajo de 25, aumenta linealmente el riesgo de bajo peso. Las OR más elevadas corresponden al retraso fetal en el crecimiento intrauterino (CIR) (OR = 6,3; IC-95% = 5,3; 7,4), la hipertensión/eclampsia (OR = 3,2; IC-95% = 2

  20. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from Monterrey, Nuevo León].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo Jorge; Mathiew-Quirós, Álvaro; Díaz-Sánchez, Oscar; Reyes-Treviño, Norma Orelia; Álvarez-Álvarez, Criselda; Villanueva-Montemayor, Daniel; de la Garza-Salinas, Laura Hermila; González-Guajardo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: la obesidad infantil es un problema de salud pública mundial y se ha incrementado en forma alarmante en las últimas décadas hasta en 30 % en el 2010. El objetivo de este estudio fue establecer la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en niños de cero a 14 años de tres unidades de medicina familiar (UMF). MÉTODOS: estudio prospectivo, de prevalencia, que incluyó a niños de ambos sexos que acudieron a tres UMF y una escuela primaria. Se evaluó la somatometría y se comparó de acuerdo con estándares y referencias de crecimiento de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) 2006-2007.

  1. [The height target prediction by the Tanner method infra evaluates the final height in youths from the rural area of South East Spain].

    PubMed

    Ríos, Rafael; Bosch, Vicente; Santonja, Fernando; López, José Manuel; Garaulet, Marta

    2014-10-16

    Introducción: Conocer la talla final de un individuo antes de finalizar el crecimiento presenta utilidad clínica para el seguimiento de la salud infantil. Objetivo: Calcular la talla diana de una población rural del sudeste de España y comparar con la talla final alcanzada. Métodos: Fueron incluidos 50 jóvenes de 18 a 22 años (44% hombres) y 100 progenitores. La selección de los jóvenes se realizó en 2 fases: 1. Estudio retrospectivo a partir de historias clínicas. 2. Estudio prospectivo: reclutamiento y determinaciones antropométricas. Se calculó talla diana y el desvío de talla. Resultados: La talla final de los chicos fue de 4,44 cm superior a la talla diana (p.

  2. [Increased height in obese schoolchildren versus healthy weight schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Larrosa-Haro, Alfredo; González-Pérez, Guillermo Julián; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar Manuel; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Chávez-Palencia, Clío; Salazar-Preciado, Laura Leticia; Lizárraga-Corona, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    IBTRODUCCIÓN: la asociación entre crecimiento y obesidad ha sido poco estudiada en la población de escolares obesos mexicanos. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la talla para la edad entre escolares obesos y con peso saludable. MÉTODOS: estudio transversal realizado en 369 escolares con peso saludable y 162 obesos en una escuela primaria; 49.4 % era de sexo femenino. Se utilizó la clasificación percentilar del Índice de masa corporal: peso saludable: del percentil 5 al 84, obesidad: valor > percentil 95; se agruparon por sexo e intervalos de clase de un año. El análisis estadístico se hizo con U de Mann-Whitney.

  3. [Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. A series of 27 patients: their epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The current situation of the patients and the opinions of their caregivers regarding the diagnostic process].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Lago, Raquel; Málaga, Ignacio; García-Peñas, Juan José; García-Ron, Adrián

    2013-07-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn (SWH) es una cromosomopatia producida por una delecion en la region distal del brazo corto del cromosoma 4. Se caracteriza por la presencia de un fenotipo peculiar, retraso en el crecimiento, retraso del desarrollo psicomotor y epilepsia. Objetivos. Describir las caracteristicas de una serie de niños con SWH, incluido el tiempo medio empleado para el diagnostico, y valorar la opinion de las familias sobre el proceso diagnostico. Pacientes y metodos. Se contacto con la Asociacion Nacional de SWH y, a traves de ella, con 29 familias afectadas. Se recogio informacion sobre la clinica del niño y la opinion sobre el proceso diagnostico, y se solicitaron informes medicos que confirmaran la informacion facilitada. Constituida una base de datos de pacientes, se procedio a su analisis estadistico. Resultados. Se obtuvo informacion de 27 familias. Los pacientes presentan una edad media actual de 6,94 ± 6,37 años. La edad media de diagnostico fue de 14,34 meses. Existe retraso del crecimiento intrauterino en el 92,6% de los embarazos. Un 92,6% de los pacientes presenta epilepsia, el 44,4% de ellos en monoterapia. Existe retraso del desarrollo psicomotor/cognitivo en todos los pacientes. Camina sin ayuda el 33%. Los padres califican con una nota media de 7,25 ± 2,17 el trato ofrecido por los facultativos y de 6,29 ± 2,11 la informacion recibida. Conclusiones. No se han encontrado referencias a la edad media de diagnostico para el SWH. En nuestra muestra, existen variaciones importantes en este aspecto, posiblemente condicionadas por el fenotipo del caso y la experiencia del medico. Las caracteristicas clinicas son similares a las esperadas. El grado de dependencia estimado es alto y la calidad de la informacion recibida por la familia, baja.

  4. [Exposition to drugs of abuse in pregnancy and breastfed babies growth in CONIN Valparaíso, Chile].

    PubMed

    Piñuñuri, Raúl; Mardones, Constanza; Valenzuela, Carina; Estay, Pamela; Llanos, Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: Las consecuencias de la exposición fetal a drogas de abuso en niños han sido estudiadas extensamente. El presente estudio pretende describir la realidad chilena en esta materia, caracterizando el crecimiento de niños expuestos a drogas durante la vida fetal. Objetivo: Comparar la antropometría entre neonatos expuestos a drogas por consumo materno durante el embarazo y controles no expuestos, de los 0 a 6 meses de vida. Materiales y métodos: Se obtuvieron los datos antropométricos desde el nacimiento y hasta los 6 meses de vida de 74 individuos sanos atendidos en Centros de Salud de la comuna de Valparaíso, y de 61 individuos con antecedentes de consumo de drogas de la madre durante el embarazo, atendidos en la Corporación para la Nutrición Infantil (CONIN). Posteriormente se compararon las diferencias entre ambos grupos mediante (T-Student por grupos). Resultados: Según la edad gestacional hay diferencias en la proporción de individuos de pretérmino entre grupos de estudio, observándose una prevalencia de menos del 11% en el grupo no expuesto y superior al 25% en el grupo expuesto. En base a las curvas de los Dres. Pittaluga y Alarcón para crecimiento intrauterino, el grupo expuesto tuvo mayor cantidad de sujetos pequeños para la edad gestacional en ambos sexos, con 37% en CONIN y menos del 6% en el grupo no expuesto. El análisis estadístico muestra que existen diferencias significativas (p.

  5. Prevalence and determinants of the dual burden of malnutrition at the household level in Puna and Quebrada of Humahuaca, Jujuy, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bassete, M N; Romaguera, D; Giménez, M A; Lobo, M O; Samman, N C

    2014-02-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar los hogares en los que coexisten el sobrepeso y bajo peso (doble carga de malnutrición) y explorar los factores que podrían contribuir a la doble carga de malnutrición en los hogares de esta población. Después de aplicar los criterios de exclusión, se incluyeron 136 hogares. Las madres fueron clasificadas como de peso normal o con sobrepeso/ obesidad basado en puntos de corte del índice de masa corporal (IMC), los niños y adolescentes fueron clasificados según z–score de la talla para la edad, si tenían o no retraso en el crecimiento (Stunted). Los hogares con una madre obesa y niños o adolescentes con retraso en el crecimiento fueron clasificados como hogares de doble carga. La prevalencia de hogares con doble carga fue del 12 %. En comparación con los otros hogares, en los hogares con doble carga de malnutrición habitan un mayor número de personas en la casa, y el nivel de educación del jefe de familia fue menor. Las personas que viven en hogares de doble carga mostraron ingestas de energía global más bajas y eran más propensos a tener una ingesta insuficiente de calcio y hierro. Una de las principales causas de la doble carga de malnutrición observada en esta comunidad podría ser la transición nutricional. Los resultados presentados aquí indican la necesidad de considerar a los programas que se centran en un solo tipo de problema nutricional y que en realidad podrían exacerbar el otro.

  6. [Infraorbital schwannoma. Case report].

    PubMed

    Mora-Ríos, Laura Evelyn; Ríos Y Valles-Valles, Dolores; Flores-Estrada, José Javier; Rodríguez-Reyes, Abelardo Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el schwannoma infraorbitario es un tumor benigno de la vaina nerviosa periférica compuesto por células de Schwann. Suele aparecer entre los 20 y 70 años de edad, asintomático y producir proptosis progresiva e indolora durante su crecimiento. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 32 años de edad que ingresó al hospital debido a un tumor no doloroso de crecimiento lentamente progresivo sobre el saco lagrimal izquierdo. A la exploración oftalmológica el tumor era de consistencia ahulada y estaba firmemente adherido a las estructuras vecinas. La transiluminación resultó negativa. El ultrasonido modo B mostró un ojo fáquico y un tumor infraorbitario homogéneo, bien circunstrito, con diámetro mayor de 19.7 mm, sin afectación de la vía lagrimal. El ultrasonido modo A mostró una reflectividad media-alta, con escasa vascularidad interna. La tomografía computada mostró un tumor de densidad homogénea, bien circunscrito a la región anterior y por debajo del globo ocular, sin erosión ósea. El tumor se extirpó mediante una incisión subdérmica. El diagnóstico histopatológico fue: schwannoma infraorbitario. Conclusiones: el schwannoma es un tumor benigno, poco frecuente en la órbita. Su diagnóstico definitivo se establece con base en los hallazgos histopatológicos, como: cápsula verdadera, áreas hiper e hipocelulares, engrosamiento y hialinización de las paredes vasculares. Sin esos hallazgos puede confundirse con tumores fusocelulares benignos. Se informa un nuevo caso de schwannoma infraorbitario y se compara con los casos previamente reportados.

  7. Triterpenoids and flavonoids from celery (Apium graveolens).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kailan; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Zhihui; Zhuang, Yulei; Chen, Lixia; Qiu, Feng

    2009-09-01

    Three new triterpenoids, 11,21-dioxo-2beta,3beta,15alpha-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 11,21-dioxo-3beta,15alpha,24-trihydroxyurs-12-ene-24-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), and 11,21-dioxo-3beta,15alpha,24-trihydroxyolean-12-ene-24-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), and two new flavonoids, apigenin-7-O-[2''-O-(5'''-O-feruloyl)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4) and chrysoeriol-7-O-[2''-O-(5'''-O-feruloyl)-beta-D-apiofuranosyl]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (5), were isolated from the whole plant of fresh celery (Apium graveolens), together with 10 known flavonoids. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data. The inhibitory effects of the compounds isolated on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccaride-activated macrophages were evaluated.

  8. RGD-conjugated mesoporous silica-encapsulated gold nanorods enhance the sensitization of triple-negative breast cancer to megavoltage radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ning; Yang, Zhangru; Li, Bingxin; Meng, Jin; Shi, Zeliang; Li, Ping; Fu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoprobes have great potential as effective radiosensitizers and drug carriers. RGD-modified gold nanorods could increase the uptake of nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis in integrin alphaV beta3-overexpressing breast cancer cells, which could enhance the effects of radiation on tumor cells, leading to further radiosensitization. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate that RGD-conjugated mesoporous silica-encapsulated gold nanorods significantly enhanced the sensitization of triple-negative breast cancer to megavoltage energy. The results indicated that RGD-conjugated mesoporous silica-encapsulated gold nanorod multifunctional nanoprobes could achieve radiosensitization in vitro and in vivo, which suggests the potential translation of this nanotechnology to clinical applications in tumor-targeting and selective therapy. PMID:27822038

  9. The role of von Willebrand factor in thrombus formation.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Zaverio M

    2007-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a large multimeric glycoprotein produced in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes and present in subendothelial matrix, blood plasma and platelets. VWF mediates adhesion and aggregation of platelets at sites of vascular injury, processes that are critical for both haemostasis and thrombosis. Thrombus formation involves complex events that are influenced by different environmental conditions. Progress in understanding the structure and function of VWF and the mechanisms that underlie its interactions with platelets has led to important insight into the differentiation between normal haemostasis and pathological arterial thrombosis. The conventional view of signalling-induced platelet aggregation has recently been extended to include activation-independent aggregation. A novel mechanism has been demonstrated for initiating thrombus formation under high haemodynamic forces that involves alpha(IIb)beta(3)-independent platelet aggregation at the interface between immobilised and soluble VWF. This VWF-mediated process may be a key determinant of platelet accumulation in stenotic arteries leading to acute thrombotic occlusion.

  10. A specific interface between integrin transmembrane helices and affinity for ligand.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bing-Hao; Springer, Timothy A; Takagi, Junichi

    2004-06-01

    Conformational communication across the plasma membrane between the extracellular and intracellular domains of integrins is beginning to be defined by structural work on both domains. However, the role of the alpha and beta subunit transmembrane domains and the nature of signal transmission through these domains have been elusive. Disulfide bond scanning of the exofacial portions of the integrin alpha(IIbeta) and beta(3) transmembrane domains reveals a specific heterodimerization interface in the resting receptor. This interface is lost rather than rearranged upon activation of the receptor by cytoplasmic mutations of the alpha subunit that mimic physiologic inside-out activation, demonstrating a link between activation of the extracellular domain and lateral separation of transmembrane helices. Introduction of disulfide bridges to prevent or reverse separation abolishes the activating effect of cytoplasmic mutations, confirming transmembrane domain separation but not hinging or piston-like motions as the mechanism of transmembrane signaling by integrins.

  11. Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) Flight Testing of the Lidar Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soreide, David C.; Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Hannon, Stephen M.; Bowdle, David A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the ACLAIM program is ultimately to establish the viability of light detection and ranging (lidar) as a forward-looking sensor for turbulence. The goals of this flight test are to: 1) demonstrate that the ACLAIM lidar system operates reliably in a flight test environment, 2) measure the performance of the lidar as a function of the aerosol backscatter coefficient (beta), 3) use the lidar system to measure atmospheric turbulence and compare these measurements to onboard gust measurements, and 4) make measurements of the aerosol backscatter coefficient, its probability distribution and spatial distribution. The scope of this paper is to briefly describe the ACLAIM system and present examples of ACLAIM operation in flight, including comparisons with independent measurements of wind gusts, gust-induced normal acceleration, and the derived eddy dissipation rate.

  12. [Progress on study of achromatopsia and targeted gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Dai, Xu-feng; Pang, Ji-jing

    2012-08-01

    Achromatopsia is an early onset retinal dystrophy that causes severe visual impairment. To date, four genes have been found to be implicated in achromatopsia-associated mutations: guanine nucleotide-binding protein (GNAT2), cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha-3 (CNGA3), cyclic nucleotide-gated channel beta-3 (CNGB3) and phosphodiesterase 6C (PDE6C). Even with early onset, the slow progress and the good responses to gene therapy in animal models render achromatopsia a very attractive candidate for human gene therapy after the successful of the Phase I clinical trials of Leber's congenital amaurosis. With the development of molecular genetics and the therapeutic gene replacement technology, the adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy for achromatopsia in the preclinical animal experiments achieved encouraging progress in the past years. This article briefly reviews the recent research achievements of achromatopsia with gene therapy.

  13. Focally regulated endothelial proliferation and cell death in human synovium.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, D. A.; Wade, M.; Mapp, P. I.; Blake, D. R.

    1998-01-01

    Angiogenesis and vascular insufficiency each may support the chronic synovial inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis. We have shown by quantitative immunohistochemistry and terminal uridyl deoxynucleotide nick end labeling that endothelial proliferation and cell death indices were each increased in synovia from patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with osteoarthritic and noninflamed controls, whereas endothelial fractional areas did not differ significantly among disease groups. Markers of proliferation were associated with foci immunoreactive for vascular endothelial growth factor and integrin alpha(v)beta3, whereas cell death was observed in foci in which immunoreactivities for these factors were weak or absent. No association was found with thrombospondin immunoreactivity. The balance between angiogenesis and vascular regression in rheumatoid synovitis may be determined by the focal expression of angiogenic and endothelial survival factors. Increased endothelial cell turnover may contribute to microvascular dysfunction and thereby facilitate persistent synovitis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9502411

  14. New flavonol glycosides from the flowers of Aconitum napellus ssp. tauricum.

    PubMed

    Fico, G; Braca, A; Bilia, A R; Tomè, F; Morelli, I

    2001-04-01

    From the methanolic extract of the flowers of A. napellus spp. tauricum four new flavonol glycosides: quercetin 3-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranoside-7- O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-(6-trans-caffeoyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta- glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (2), quercetin 3-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta- glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (3), and kaempferol 3-O-(6-trans-p-coumaroyl)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta- glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside (4), together with the known beta-3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl beta-glucopyranoside were isolated. The structural elucidation of all compounds was deduced on the basis of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral data, including those derived from 2D-NMR, as well as on HPLC-MS results.

  15. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia resulting from sensitivity to oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Brian R; Kaliszewski, James; Marques, Marisa B; Saif, M Wasif; Nabelle, Lisle; Blank, Jules; McFarland, Janice G; Aster, Richard H

    2006-03-01

    Thrombocytopenia developing in the course of chemotherapy for malignant disease is usually attributed to drug-induced marrow suppression and/or marrow replacement by tumor. We describe two patients who developed severe thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic symptoms while being treated with oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and leukovorin for metastatic colon cancer in whom platelet destruction appears to have been caused by oxaliplatin-dependent antibodies specific for the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex (alpha(IIb)/beta(3) integrin). Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DITP) should be considered in patients who experience a sudden, isolated drop in platelet levels while being treated with chemotherapeutic agents, especially when adequate numbers of megakaryocytes are present in the bone marrow.

  16. Herd Behaviors in Financial Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Yoon, Seong-Min; Choi, J.-S.; Takayasu, Hideki

    2004-03-01

    We investigate the herd behavior of returns for the yen-dollar exchange rate in the Japanese financial market. It is obtained that the probability distribution $P(R)$ of returns $R$ satisfies the power-law behavior $P(R) \\simeq R^{-\\beta}$ with the exponents $ \\beta=3.11$(the time interval $\\tau=$ one minute) and 3.36($\\tau=$ one day). The informational cascade regime appears in the herding parameter $H\\ge 2.33$ at $\\tau=$ one minute, while it occurs no herding at $\\tau=$ one day. Especially, we find that the distribution of normalized returns shows a crossover to a Gaussian distribution at one time step $\\Delta t=1$ day.

  17. Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of long-acting beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists incorporating metabolic inactivation: an antedrug approach.

    PubMed

    Procopiou, Panayiotis A; Barrett, Victoria J; Bevan, Nicola J; Biggadike, Keith; Box, Philip C; Butchers, Peter R; Coe, Diane M; Conroy, Richard; Emmons, Amanda; Ford, Alison J; Holmes, Duncan S; Horsley, Helen; Kerr, Fern; Li-Kwai-Cheung, Anne-Marie; Looker, Brian E; Mann, Inderjit S; McLay, Iain M; Morrison, Valerie S; Mutch, Peter J; Smith, Claire E; Tomlin, Paula

    2010-06-10

    A series of saligenin beta(2) adrenoceptor agonist antedrugs having high clearance were prepared by reacting a protected saligenin oxazolidinone with protected hydroxyethoxyalkoxyalkyl bromides, followed by removal of the hydroxy-protecting group, alkylation, and final deprotection. The compounds were screened for beta(2), beta(1), and beta(3) agonist activity in CHO cells. The onset and duration of action in vitro of selected compounds were assessed on isolated superfused guinea pig trachea. Compound 13f had high potency, selectivity, fast onset, and long duration of action in vitro and was found to have long duration in vivo, low oral bioavailability in the rat, and to be rapidly metabolized. Crystalline salts of 13f (vilanterol) were identified that had suitable properties for inhaled administration. A proposed binding mode for 13f to the beta(2)-receptor is presented.

  18. Development of MHC class I and II B primers in common carp and its molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhiying; Chi, Xifeng; Li, Chitao; Shi, Lianyu

    2010-08-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has an important role in immune response and is known as the most polymorphic locus in vertebrates. We developed three pairs of polymerase chain reaction primers of the alpha-2 domain (exon 3) of MHC class I and the beta-2 (exon 3) and beta-3 domains (exon 4) of MHC class II B gene in the German mirror common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). We analyzed the three loci in a population of 65 individuals that had suffered the serious disease of gill rot. Five to six variable nucleotide sites and two to six variable amino acid sites (71.43%) were detected in the exon sequence of the sampled populations, indicating that many of them corresponded to amino acids involved in antigen recognition. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium were differentially found in some loci, which will be important for further study of disease resistance/susceptibility and population evolution.

  19. TGF beta suppresses casein synthesis in mouse mammary explants and may play a role in controlling milk levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Mammary explants from 14-15-d-pregnant mice synthesize and secrete milk proteins in culture in response to insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin. Here we demonstrate that transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) treatment suppresses, in a dose dependent and reversible manner, the ability of explants to synthesize and secrete milk caseins. TGF beta does not affect the level of casein mRNA within explants but inhibits casein synthesis posttranscriptionally. We also show increased expression of TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in intact mammary gland as pregnancy progresses, with reduced expression of all three TGF betas at the onset of lactation. These findings suggest that endogenously produced TGF beta may limit the accumulation of milk caseins that are produced in the mammary gland during pregnancy. PMID:8416990

  20. Activation of the platelet collagen receptor integrin alpha(2)beta(1): its mechanism and participation in the physiological functions of platelets.

    PubMed

    Jung, S M; Moroi, M

    2000-10-01

    When platelets are stimulated by agonists, integrin alpha(2)beta(1) (GP Ia/IIa), one of the platelet collagen receptors, is activated to forms with high affinities for its ligand collagen. Here we describe our studies to characterize the binding kinetics of the activated integrin forms and the activation mechanism. Under low agonist concentrations, integrin alpha(2)beta(1) is activated through a mechanism involving ADP/ADP receptors; and under high agonist concentrations, multiple signaling pathways are involved in its activation. Such differences in mechanism at low and high agonist concentrations are also suggested in the activation of integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3), the platelet fibrinogen receptor. We describe our flow adhesion studies, from which evidence was obtained about the involvement of integrin alpha(2)beta(1) activation in the physiological function of platelets, adhesion and thrombus formation.

  1. A role for the Drosophila neurogenic genes in mesoderm differentiation.

    PubMed

    Corbin, V; Michelson, A M; Abmayr, S M; Neel, V; Alcamo, E; Maniatis, T; Young, M W

    1991-10-18

    The neurogenic genes of Drosophila have long been known to regulate cell fate decisions in the developing ectoderm. In this paper we show that these genes also control mesoderm development. Embryonic cells that express the muscle-specific gene nautilus are overproduced in each of seven neurogenic mutants (Notch, Delta, Enhancer of split, big brain, mastermind, neuralized, and almondex), at the apparent expense of neighboring, nonexpressing mesodermal cells. The mesodermal defect does not appear to be a simple consequence of associated neural hypertrophy, suggesting that the neurogenic genes may function similarly and independently in establishing cell fates in both ectoderm and mesoderm. Altered patterns of beta 3-tubulin and myosin heavy chain gene expression in the mutants indicate a role for the neurogenic genes in development of most visceral and somatic muscles. We propose that the signal produced by the neurogenic genes is a general one, effective in both ectoderm and mesoderm.

  2. Chlorine adsorption on the InAs (001) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Bakulin, A. V.; Eremeev, S. V.; Tereshchenko, O. E.; Kulkova, S. E.

    2011-01-15

    Chlorine adsorption on the In-stabilized InAs(001) surface with {zeta}-(4 Multiplication-Sign 2) and {beta}3 Prime -(4 Multiplication-Sign 2) reconstructions and on the Ga-stabilized GaAs (001)-{zeta}-(4 Multiplication-Sign 2) surface has been studied within the electron density functional theory. The equilibrium structural parameters of these reconstructions, surface atom positions, bond lengths in dimers, and their changes upon chlorine adsorption are determined. The electronic characteristics of the clean surface and the surface with adsorbed chlorine are calculated. It is shown that the most energetically favorable positions for chlorine adsorption are top positions over dimerized indium or gallium atoms. The mechanism of chlorine binding with In(Ga)-stabilized surface is explained. The interaction of chlorine atoms with dimerized surface atoms weakens surface atom bonds and controls the initial stage of surface etching.

  3. Multimodality nanotracers for cardiovascular applications.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Willem J M; Cormode, David P; Hak, Sjoerd; Lobatto, Mark E; Silvera, Stephane; Fayad, Zahi A

    2008-08-01

    Targeted imaging and therapeutics is becoming a field of prime importance in the study and treatment of cardiovascular disease; it promises to enable early diagnosis, promote improved understanding of pathology, and offer a way to improve therapeutic efficacy. Agents, particularly for cardiovascular disease, have been reported to permit the in vivo imaging, by multiple modalities, of macrophages, vascular targets such as vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and markers for angiogenesis such as alpha(v)beta(3) integrin. In this Article, we first discuss the general concept of multimodality nanoparticles and then focus in greater depth on their clinical application for molecular imaging and therapy. Lastly, several examples of cardiovascular applications are discussed, including combined imaging and therapy approaches.

  4. A hantavirus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome requires gC1qR/p32 for efficient cell binding and infection

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yun; Kwon, Young-Chan; Kim, Soo-In; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Ahn, Byung-Yoon

    2008-11-25

    Hantaan virus (HTNV) is a pathogenic hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). HTNV infection is mediated by {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin. We used protein blots of Vero E6 cell homogenates to demonstrate that radiolabeled HTNV virions bind to gC1qR/p32, the acidic 32-kDa protein known as the receptor for the globular head domain of complement C1q. RNAi-mediated suppression of gC1qR/p32 markedly reduced HTNV binding and infection in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Conversely, transient expression of either simian or human gC1qR/p32 rendered non-permissive CHO cells susceptible to HTNV infection. These results suggest an important role for gC1qR/p32 in HTNV infection and pathogenesis.

  5. [Glycoproteins, inherited diseases of platelets, and the role of platelets in wound healing].

    PubMed

    Nurden, Alan T; Nurden, Paquita

    2013-02-01

    Recognition that platelets have a glycocalyx rich in membrane glycoproteins prompted the discovery in France that inherited bleeding syndromes due to defects of platelet adhesion and aggregation were caused by deficiencies in major receptors at the platelet surface. Identification of the alpha IIb beta3 integrin prompted the development of powerful anti-thrombotic drugs that have gained worldwide use. Since these discoveries, the genetic causes of many other defects of platelet function and production have been elucidated, with the identification of an ADP receptor, P2 Y12, another widespread target for anti-thrombotic drugs. Discovery of the molecular basis of a rare disease of storage of biologically active proteins in platelet alpha-granules has been accompanied by the recognition of the roles of platelets in inflammation, the innate immune system and tissue repair, opening new avenues for therapeutic advances.

  6. Electron and ion reactions with hexamethyldisiloxane and pentamethyldisiloxane.

    PubMed

    Carles, S; Le Garrec, J L; Mitchell, J B A

    2007-10-14

    The dissociative recombination of electrons with the hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) cation ((CH(3))(3)Si-O-Si(CH(3))(3))(+) and the pentamethyldisiloxane cation ((CH(3))(3)Si-O-Si(CH(2))(2))(+) as well as the ion-molecule reaction between Ar(+) and HMDSO have been studied at 300 K using a flowing afterglow Langmuir probe-mass spectrometer apparatus. The rate constants for these reactions, measured directly for the first time, are, respectively, alpha(1)=1.8 x 10(-6), alpha(2)=3.6 x 10(-6) cm(3)s, and k=2.0 x 10(-9) cm(3)s with uncertainties of +/-30%. In addition, the electronic attachment to neutral HMDSO was also studied and an upper limit value of the rate constant was determined to be beta=3.3 x 10(-11) cm(3)s.

  7. Vitaxin applied molecular evolution.

    PubMed

    Mikecz, K

    2000-10-01

    Vitaxin is a humanized version of LM-609 (an mAb licensed from the Scripps Research Institute and Dr David Cheresh in May 1994, which blocks the integrin receptor, alpha v beta 3) [172038]. It is in phase II trials for the potential treatment of leiomyosarcoma [316471] and is also being studied in phase I trials as an anti-inflammatory and potential rheumatoid arthritis therapy [364031,313665]. Vitaxin and non-peptides are under evaluation for use in the treatment of other diseases in which vitronectin is reputed to play a role, e.g., arthritis, psoriasis and other inflammatory diseases. Patent positions are being established on these and other applications, as well as on the structure and use of the non-RGD proteins [182507].

  8. Knee range of motion after total knee arthroplasty: how important is this as an outcome measure?

    PubMed

    Miner, Andrew L; Lingard, Elizabeth A; Wright, Elizabeth A; Sledge, Clement B; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the relationship of knee range of motion (ROM) and function in a prospective, observational study of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Preoperative and 12-month data were collected on 684 patients, including knee ROM, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function questionnaire scores, patient satisfaction, and perceived improvement in quality of life (QOL). Only modest correlations were found between knee ROM and WOMAC function (r<0.34). At 12 months we found significantly worse WOMAC function scores for patients with <95 degrees flexion compared with patients with > or =95 degrees (mean, 61.9 vs 75.0; P<.0001). In linear regression models, WOMAC pain and function scores at 12 months were both correlates of patient satisfaction and perceived improvement in QOL (standardized beta>3.5; P<.0001), but knee flexion was not. For assessment of these outcomes, WOMAC function appears to be more important than knee flexion.

  9. A homo-isoflavonoid and a cytotoxic saponin from Dracaena draco.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Juan C; León, Francisco; Estévez, Francisco; Quintana, José; Bermejo, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    Two new compounds, dracol (= (3R)-2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-3-[(4-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-8-methyl-4H-[1]benzopyran-4-one; 1) and icodeside (= (1beta,3beta,23S,24S)-3,23-dihydroxy-1-{[2-O-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl]oxy}spirosta-5,25(27)-dien-24-yl alpha-L-arabinopyranoside; 2), were isolated from the EtOH extract of the leaves of Dracaena draco, together with 17 known constituents. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by in-depth spectroscopic analysis, and those of the known compounds were identified by comparison of their NMR and MS data with those reported in the literature. Icodeside (2) showed moderate cytotoxicity against human HL-60 and A-431 cells (Table 3).

  10. An autoinhibitory helix in the C-terminal region of phospholipase C-[beta] mediates G[alpaha subscript q] activation

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Angeline M.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Dhamsania, Vishan D.; Thal, David M.; Gutierrez, Joanne; Chowdhury, Shoaib; Suddala, Krishna C.; Northup, John K.; Tesmer, John J.G.

    2012-03-16

    The enzyme phospholipase C-{beta} (PLC{beta}) is a crucial regulator of intracellular calcium levels whose activity is controlled by heptahelical receptors that couple to members of the G{sub q} family of heterotrimeric G proteins. We have determined atomic structures of two invertebrate homologs of PLC{beta} (PLC21) from cephalopod retina and identified a helix from the C-terminal regulatory region that interacts with a conserved surface of the catalytic core of the enzyme. Mutations designed to disrupt the analogous interaction in human PLC{beta}3 considerably increase basal activity and diminish stimulation by G{alpha}{sub q}. G{alpha}{sub q} binding requires displacement of the autoinhibitory helix from the catalytic core, thus providing an allosteric mechanism for activation of PLC{beta}.

  11. Acylperoxylated and seco-mexicanolides from stems of Khaya anthotheca.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Izabel C Piloto; Cortez, Diógenes A Garcia; das G F da Silva, M Fátima; Fo, Edson Rodrigues; Vieira, Paulo C; Fernandes, João B

    2005-03-01

    The stems of Khaya anthotheca yielded two new limonoids, which were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis as 1alpha,8alpha-oxido-3beta-acetoxy-2alpha-acylperoxy-1alpha,14alpha-dihydroxy-[3.3.1(10,2)]-bicyclomeliac-7,19-olide (3) and 3-acetoxy-8,14-dien-8,30-seco-khayalactone (4). Methyl 1alpha,2beta,3alpha,6,8alpha,14beta-hexahydroxy-[4.2.1(10,30).1(1,4)]-tricyclomeliac-7-oate, scopoletin, and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylsitosterol were also isolated. The limonoids were of little value to clarify the basis of the nonresistance against Hypsipyla grandella.

  12. Studies on the phenylethanoid glycosides with anti-complement activity from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood.

    PubMed

    Si, Chuan-Ling; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Zhong; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Four epimeric phenylethanoid glycosides, including a new one, R,S-beta-ethoxy-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-(6-O-E-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside named isoilicifolioside A (1), and three known compounds, ilicifolioside A (2), campneoside II (3), and isocampneoside II (4), were isolated from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood. The structures of the four compounds were elucidated by the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectra. This is the first report of the chemical profile of this tree. Compounds 1-4 exhibited excellent anti-complement activity with IC(50) values less than 74 microM, compared with tiliroside (IC(50) = 104 microM) and rosmarinic acid (IC(50) = 182 microM) that were used as positive controls.

  13. A stereochemical examination of the equine metabolism of 17alpha-methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Andrew R; Suann, Craig J; Stenhouse, Allen M

    2007-01-09

    An investigation was conducted into the stereochemistry of the equine urinary metabolites of 17alpha-methyltestosterone observed after oral administration. Standards of the complete range of C3/C5/C16 stereoisomeric 17alpha-methylandrostane-3,17beta-diols, 17alpha-methylandrostane-3,16,17beta-triols and 17alpha-hydroxymethylandrostane-3,17beta-diols were purchased or synthesised, and were used to unequivocally identify the absolute structures of the metabolites. Phase I metabolism was found to involve combinations of Delta(4)-3-ketone reduction with both 5alpha,3beta- and 5beta,3alpha-stereochemistry, hydroxylation at C16 with both 16alpha- and 16beta-stereochemistry and hydroxylation of the 17alpha-methyl substituent. Phase II metabolism involved mainly sulfation with a lesser degree of beta-glucuronidation.

  14. Study on the stability of adrenaline and on the determination of its acidity constants.

    PubMed

    Corona-Avendaño, S; Alarcón-Angeles, G; Rojas-Hernández, A; Romero-Romo, M A; Ramírez-Silva, M T

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the results are presented concerning the influence of time on the spectral behaviour of adrenaline (C(9)H(13)NO(3)) (AD) and of the determination of its acidity constants by means of spectrophotometry titrations and point-by-point analysis, using for the latter freshly prepared samples for each analysis at every single pH. As the catecholamines are sensitive to light, all samples were protected against it during the course of the experiments. Each method rendered four acidity constants corresponding each to the four acid protons belonging to the functional groups present in the molecule; for the point-by-point analysis the values found were: log beta(1) = 38.25 +/- 0.21, log beta(2) = 29.65 +/- 0.17, log beta (3) = 21.01 +/- 0.14, log beta(4) = 11.34 +/- 0.071.

  15. Study on the stability of noradrenaline and on the determination of its acidity constants.

    PubMed

    Corona-Avendaño, S; Rojas-Hernández, A; Romero-Romo, M A; Pardavé, M Palomar; Ramírez-Silva, M T

    2005-10-01

    Noradrenaline is a catecholamine which has been largely recognised to play a very important role in biological systems. In view of the neurotransmitter's alleged importance, this work aimed at showing the influence of time on its spectral behaviour using different analytical methods and determining its acidity constants through spectrophotometric titration and by the so-called point-by-point analysis, where the samples are freshly prepared for each pH value investigated at the instant required. Because the catecholamines are light-sensitive and likely to react with the oxygen in the surrounding air, both methods used preclude its incidence onto the samples being analysed under the presence of a nitrogen atmosphere maintained over the solutions. The constants obtained through point-by-point analysis were log beta1 = 30.71+/-0.16, log beta2 = 22.00+/-0.15 and log beta3 = 11.69+/-0.16.

  16. Study on the stability of the serotonin and on the determination of its acidity constants.

    PubMed

    Corona-Avendaño, S; Romero-Romo, M A; Rojas-Hernández, A; Ramírez-Silva, M T

    2005-02-01

    The present work aimed at describing the spectral behaviour of the serotonin and to evaluate its acidity constants using three different methods, using two spectrophotometry titrations and a third method that involved point-by-point analysis, which permitted to monitor closely and determine the evolution of the serotonin species in solution as a function of time. The three methods allowed estimation of three acidity constants associated to the same number of functional groups that form part of the molecule. The results given by the point-by-point analysis were: log(beta1) = 24.95 +/- 0.12; log(beta2) = 20.20 +/- 0.10; log(beta3) = 10.89 +/- 0.018.

  17. Mercapto steroids in protection against mercury and lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Blickenstaff, R T; Cox, B; Foster, E; Roberts, L; Steinrauf, L K

    1980-05-01

    When thiocholesterol is administered as liposomes, it provides significant protection against methylmercuric chloride in mice when given in three intraperitoneal injections, 0.5 hr before and 2 and 8 hr after the methylmercuric chloride. Thiositosterol, 5 alpha-cholestane-2 beta, 3 alpha-dithiol, and 5 beta-cholane-3 beta, 24-dithiol also are active, but 3 alpha-mercapto-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, 6 beta-mercapto-5 alpha-cholestane-3 beta, 5 alpha-diol, 3 beta-mercapto-5 beta-cholanic acid, and adamantanethiol are ineffective under these conditions. Adamantanethiol is somewhat effective when administered in soybean oil. Cholestanyl amine was treated with acetylthiosuccinic anhydride to give the half amide; cleavage with hydroxylamine liberated the thiol group. This product is active against both methylmercuric chloride and lead nitrate.

  18. Precision Spectroscopy of Hydrogen with a Lamb-Shift Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, R.; Schug, G.; Stroeher, H.; Vasilyev, A.; Grigoryev, K.; Mikirtytchyants, M.; Schieck, H. Paetz gen.; Westig, M.

    2009-08-04

    A spinfilter, the most important component of a Lamb-shift polarimeter, is used to produce a beam of metastable hydrogen (deuterium) atoms in one hyperfine state (HFS)(alpha1, alpha2 and together with the Sona transition beta3). As function of a magnetic field separated transitions between the 2s{sub 1/2} metastable Zeeman states seem to be observable as well as single transitions into the short-lived 2P{sub 1/2} and 2P{sub 3/2} states. The Breit-Rabi diagrams for these states and, therefore, the g factors can be measured with good precision. Furthermore, the hyperfine splittings and the Lamb shift can be observed as well. Application of this method to anti-hydrogen atoms is suggested.

  19. RGD-conjugated mesoporous silica-encapsulated gold nanorods enhance the sensitization of triple-negative breast cancer to megavoltage radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ning; Yang, Zhangru; Li, Bingxin; Meng, Jin; Shi, Zeliang; Li, Ping; Fu, Shen

    Multifunctional nanoprobes have great potential as effective radiosensitizers and drug carriers. RGD-modified gold nanorods could increase the uptake of nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis in integrin alphaV beta3-overexpressing breast cancer cells, which could enhance the effects of radiation on tumor cells, leading to further radiosensitization. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate that RGD-conjugated mesoporous silica-encapsulated gold nanorods significantly enhanced the sensitization of triple-negative breast cancer to megavoltage energy. The results indicated that RGD-conjugated mesoporous silica-encapsulated gold nanorod multifunctional nanoprobes could achieve radiosensitization in vitro and in vivo, which suggests the potential translation of this nanotechnology to clinical applications in tumor-targeting and selective therapy.

  20. Recombinant albumins containing additional peptide sequences smaller than barbourin retain the ability of barbourin-albumin to inhibit platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, William P; Wilson, Brianna; Eltringham-Smith, Louise J; Gataiance, Sharon; Bhakta, Varsha

    2005-05-01

    The previously described fusion protein BLAH(6) (Marques JA et al.,Thromb Haemost 2001; 86: 902-8) is a recombinant protein that combines the small disintegrin barbourin with hexahistidine-tagged rabbit serumalbumin (RSA) produced in Pichia pastoris yeast. We sought to determine: (1) if BLAH(6) was immunogenic; and (2) if its barbourin domain could be productively replaced with smaller peptides. Purified BLAH(6) was injected into rabbits, and anti-barbourin antibodies were universally detected in plasma 28 days later; BLAH(6) was, however, equally effective in reducing platelet aggregation in both naive and pre-treated rabbits. Thrombocytopenia was not observed, and complexing BLAH(6) to alpha(IIb)beta(3) had no effect on antibody detection. The barbourin moiety of BLAH(6) was replaced with each of four sequences: Pep I (VCKGDWPC); PepII (VCRGDWPC); PepIII (bar-bourin 41-54); and PepIV (LPSPGDWR). The corresponding fusion proteins were tested for their ability to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation. PepIII-LAH(6) inhibited neither rabbit nor human platelets. PepI-LAH(6) and PepIV-LAH(6) inhibited rabbit platelet aggregation as effectively as BLAH(6), but PepIV-LAH(6) did not inhibit human platelet aggregation. PepI-LAH(6) and PepIILAH(6) inhibited human platelet aggregation with IC(50)s 10- and 20-fold higher than BLAH(6). Cross-immunoprecipitation assays with human platelet lysates confirmed that all proteins and peptides interacted with the platelet integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3), but with greatly varying affinities. Our results suggest that the antiplatelet activity of BLAH(6) can be retained in albumin fusion proteins in which smaller peptides replace the barbourin domain; these proteins may be less immunogenic than BLAH(6).

  1. Functional characterization of Kv channel beta-subunits from rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, S H; Rettig, J; Graack, H R; Pongs, O

    1996-01-01

    1. The potassium channel beta-subunit from rat brain, Kv beta 1.1, is known to induce inactivation of the delayed rectifier channel Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 delta 1-110. 2. Kv beta 1.1 was co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes with various other potassium channel alpha-subunits. Kv beta 1.1 induced inactivation in members of the Kv1 subfamily with the exception of Kv 1.6; no inactivation of Kv 2.1, Kv 3.4 delta 2-28 and Kv4.1 channels could be observed. 3. The second member of the beta-subunit subfamily, Kv beta 2, had a shorter N-terminal end, accelerated inactivation of the A-type channel Kv 1.4, but did not induce inactivation when co-expressed with delayed rectifiers of the Kv1 channel family. 4. To test whether this subunit co-assembles with Kv alpha-subunits, the N-terminal inactivating domains of Kv beta 1.1 and Kv beta 3 were spliced to the N-terminus of Kv beta 2. The chimaeric beta-subunits (beta 1/ beta 2 and beta 3/ beta 2) induced fast inactivation of several Kv1 channels, indicating that Kv beta 2 associates with these alpha-subunits. No inactivation was induced in Kv 1.3, Kv 1.6, Kv2.1 and Kv3.4 delta 2-28 channels. 5. Kv beta 2 caused a voltage shift in the activation threshold of Kv1.5 of about -10 mV, indicating a putative physiological role. Kv beta 2 had a smaller effect on Kv 1.1 channels. 6. Kv beta 2 accelerated the activation time course of Kv1.5 but had no marked effect on channel deactivation. PMID:8799886

  2. Functional characterization of Kv channel beta-subunits from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, S H; Rettig, J; Graack, H R; Pongs, O

    1996-06-15

    1. The potassium channel beta-subunit from rat brain, Kv beta 1.1, is known to induce inactivation of the delayed rectifier channel Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 delta 1-110. 2. Kv beta 1.1 was co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes with various other potassium channel alpha-subunits. Kv beta 1.1 induced inactivation in members of the Kv1 subfamily with the exception of Kv 1.6; no inactivation of Kv 2.1, Kv 3.4 delta 2-28 and Kv4.1 channels could be observed. 3. The second member of the beta-subunit subfamily, Kv beta 2, had a shorter N-terminal end, accelerated inactivation of the A-type channel Kv 1.4, but did not induce inactivation when co-expressed with delayed rectifiers of the Kv1 channel family. 4. To test whether this subunit co-assembles with Kv alpha-subunits, the N-terminal inactivating domains of Kv beta 1.1 and Kv beta 3 were spliced to the N-terminus of Kv beta 2. The chimaeric beta-subunits (beta 1/ beta 2 and beta 3/ beta 2) induced fast inactivation of several Kv1 channels, indicating that Kv beta 2 associates with these alpha-subunits. No inactivation was induced in Kv 1.3, Kv 1.6, Kv2.1 and Kv3.4 delta 2-28 channels. 5. Kv beta 2 caused a voltage shift in the activation threshold of Kv1.5 of about -10 mV, indicating a putative physiological role. Kv beta 2 had a smaller effect on Kv 1.1 channels. 6. Kv beta 2 accelerated the activation time course of Kv1.5 but had no marked effect on channel deactivation.

  3. Properties of recombinant mouse thrombospondin 2 expressed in Spodoptera cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Sottile, J; O'Rourke, K M; Dixit, V M; Mosher, D F

    1994-12-23

    A baculovirus system was used to express full-length recombinant mouse thrombospondin 2 (rTSP2) as a disulfide-bonded homotrimer with an NH2 terminus beginning with Asp20.rTSP2, like TSP1, was more sensitive to trypsin digestion if depleted of calcium ion. The trypsin digestion pattern of rTSP2 and TSP1 differed in that trypsin cut between the first and second type 1 modules of rTSP2. For bovine aortic endothelial cells adhering to TSP-coated polystyrene plates, reduction after coating caused both TSPs to be much more adhesive; these adhesions were blocked completely by RGDS peptide or antibody to alpha v beta 3 integrin.rTSP2 and TSP1 also mediated the adhesion of HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells that carry alpha v beta 5 but not alpha v beta 3 integrin. Antibody to alpha v beta 5 did not inhibit adhesion of HT-29 cells to TSP1 or rTSP2. Rather, adhesion of HT-29 cells was decreased by treatment of TSPs with EDTA, abolished by reduction of the TSPs, and, in the case of rTSP2, blocked by heparin. Adhesion of MG63 cells to both TSPs was complex. Treatment with EDTA enhanced the adhesive activity of rTSP2 but decreased the adhesive activity of TSP1. These results show that TSP2 can be processed and secreted when overexpressed using baculovirus, TSP1 and rTSP2 differ in protease susceptibility in the type 1 module region, and TSP1 and rTSP2 mediate cell adhesion by complex and similar but not identical mechanisms.

  4. A gamma 2(R43Q) mutation, linked to epilepsy in humans, alters GABAA receptor assembly and modifies subunit composition on the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Frugier, Guillaume; Coussen, Françoise; Giraud, Marie-France; Odessa, Marie-Françoise; Emerit, Michel B; Boué-Grabot, Eric; Garret, Maurice

    2007-02-09

    Genetic defects leading to epilepsy have been identified in gamma2 GABA(A) receptor subunit. A gamma2(R43Q) substitution is linked to childhood absence epilepsy and febrile seizure, and a gamma2(K289M) mutation is associated with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. To understand the effect of these mutations, surface targeting of GABA(A) receptors was analyzed by subunit-specific immunofluorescent labeling of living cells. We first transfected hippocampal neurons in culture with recombinant gamma2 constructs and showed that the gamma 2(R43Q) mutation prevented surface expression of the subunit, unlike gamma2(K289M) substitution. Several gamma2-subunit constructs, bearing point mutations within the Arg-43 domain, were expressed in COS-7 cells with alpha3- and beta3-subunits. R43Q and R43A substitutions dramatically reduced surface expression of the gamma2-subunit, whereas R43K, P44A, and D39A substitutions had a lesser, but still significant, impact and K289M substitution had no effect. Whereas the mutant gamma2(R43Q) was retained within intracellular compartments, alphabeta complexes were still targeted at the cell membrane. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that gamma2(R43Q) was able to associate with alpha3- or beta3-subunits, although the stoichiometry of the complex with alpha3 was altered. Our data show that gamma2(R43Q) is not a dominant negative and that the mutation leads to a modification of GABA(A) receptor subunit composition on the cell surface that impairs the synaptic targeting in neurons. This study reveals an involvement of the gamma2-Arg-43 domain in the control of receptor assembly that may be relevant to the effect of the heterozygous gamma2(R43Q) mutation leading to childhood absence epilepsy and febrile seizure.

  5. The glucocorticoid-glucocorticoid receptor signal transduction pathway, transforming growth factor-beta, and embryonic mouse lung development in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jaskoll, T; Choy, H A; Melnick, M

    1996-05-01

    Lung morphogenesis has been shown to be regulated by glucocorticoids (CORT). Because CORT has been primarily thought to affect fetal lung development, previous studies have focused on the role of CORT receptor (GR)-mediated regulation of fetal lung development. Although endogenous CORT increases during embryonic and fetal stages and exogenous CORT treatment in vivo and in vitro clearly accelerates embryonic lung development, little is known about the morphoregulatory role of the embryonic CORT-GR signal transduction pathway during lung development. In this study, we characterize the embryonic mouse CORT-GR pathway and demonstrate: stage-specific in situ patterns of GR immunolocalization; similarity in GR relative mobility with progressive (E13 --> E17) development; that embryonic GR can be activated to bind a GR response element (GRE); significantly increasing levels of functional GR with increasing lung maturation; and the presence of heat shock protein (hsp) 70 and hsp90 from early (E13) to late (E17) developmental stages. These results support the purported importance of the embryonic CORT-GR signal transduction pathway in progressive lung differentiation. To demonstrate that the embryonic CORT-GR directed pathway plays a role in lung development, early embryonic (E12) lungs were exposed to CORT in utero and surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) expression was analyzed; CORT treatment up-regulates SP-A mRNA expression and spatiotemporal protein distribution. Finally, to determine whether CORT-GR-directed pulmonary morphogenesis in vivo involves the modulation of growth factors, we studied the effect of CORT on TGF-beta gene expression. Northern analysis of TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2, and TGF-beta 3 transcript levels in vivo indicates that CORT regulates the rate of lung morpho- and histodifferentiation by down-regulating TGF-beta 3 gene expression.

  6. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1)/variant. A novel immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by dysfunctional beta2 integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Kuijpers, T W; Van Lier, R A; Hamann, D; de Boer, M; Thung, L Y; Weening, R S; Verhoeven, A J; Roos, D

    1997-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is characterized by the inability of leukocytes, in particular neutrophilic granulocytes, to emigrate from the bloodstream towards sites of inflammation. Infectious foci are nonpurulent and may eventually become necrotic because of abnormal wound healing. LAD-1 is characterized by the absence of the beta2 integrins (CD11/CD18) on leukocytes. When expression is completely absent, patients often die within the first year. However, low levels of beta2 expression may result in a milder clinical picture of recurrent infection, which offers a better prognosis. In this paper, we describe the in vivo and in vitro findings on a patient with clinical features of a mild LAD-1 disorder, i.e., suffering from bacterial infections without apparent pus formation in the presence of a striking granulocytosis, showing no delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction upon skin testing, no specific antibody generation, but normal in vitro T cell proliferation responses after immunization. Expression levels of CD11/CD18 proteins were completely normal, but leukocyte activation did not result in CD11/ CD18 activation and high-avidity ligand-binding. In vitro chemotaxis and endothelial transmigration of the neutrophils as well as leukocyte aggregation responses were almost absent. On the other hand, beta1 and beta3 integrin-mediated adhesion functions were completely normal. During follow-up, a bleeding tendency related to decreased beta3 activation became clinically apparent, different from previously described cellular adhesion molecule variants. Therefore, this is the first well-documented case of a clinical combined immunodeficiency syndrome that results from nonfunctional CD11/CD18 molecules, and thus designated LAD-1/ variant. PMID:9312170

  7. Synthesis of ponasterone A derivatives with various steroid skeleton moieties and evaluation of their binding to the ecdysone receptor of Kc cells.

    PubMed

    Arai, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Bunta; Nakagawa, Yoshiaki; Miyagawa, Hisashi

    2008-12-22

    A series of ponasterone A (PNA) derivatives with various steroid moieties were synthesized to measure their binding activity to the ecdysone receptors of Drosophila Kc cells. The activity of compounds was evaluated by determining the concentration required to give the 50% inhibition (IC(50) in M) of the incorporation of [(3)H]PNA to Drosophila Kc cells. Compounds with no functional groups such as OH and CO group in the steroid skeleton moiety were inactive. By the introduction of functional groups such as the OH and the CO group in the steroidal structure, these compounds became active. Some compounds containing the A/B-trans ring fusion, which is different from that (A/B-cis) of ecdysteroids were also active. The oxidation of CH(2) at 6-position to CO, enhanced the activity 19 times, but the activity was erased by the reduction of oxo to OH group at 6-position. The activity was enhanced about 250 times by the conversion of A/B ring configuration from trans [(20R,22R)-2beta,3beta,20,22-tetrahydroxy-5alpha-cholestan-6-one: pIC(50)=4.84] to cis [(20R,22R)-2beta,3beta,20,22-tetrahydroxy-5beta-cholestan-6-one: pIC(50)=7.23]. The latter cis-type compound which is the most potent among compounds synthesized in this study was equipotent to the natural molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, even though it is 1/50 of PNA.

  8. Effects of polyphenol-rich extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa on the markers of oxidative stress and blood platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Kedzierska, Magdalena; Wachowicz, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2010-01-01

    Bioactive substances found in numerous foods can be successfully and safely used to modify various cellular functions and affect the oxidative stress. Aronia melanocarpa fruits (Rosaceae) are one of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances shown to have anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidative and antiplatelet activities. We investigated antioxidant properties of the extract from berries of A. melanocarpa by the estimation of the selected and other biomarkers of oxidative stress, i.e. the level of 8-epi-prostaglandin F(2) (8-EPI) (by immunoassay kit) and the amount of glutathione (by HPLC method) in control platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2). The expression of alpha(IIb)beta(3) (a marker of platelet activation) was measured by flow cytometer. The antioxidative and antiplatelet properties of the tested extract were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative and antiplatelet commercial monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol. The extract from berries of A. melanocarpa (at the highest tested concentration -100 microg/ml) decreased the production of 8-EPI (a marker of lipid peroxidation) in control blood platelets and platelets treated with H(2)O(2) (2 mM). A combined action of the tested plant extract and H(2)O(2) evoked a significant increase of reduced form of glutathione in platelets compared with cells treated with H(2)O(2) only. Moreover, the tested plant extract (at the highest used concentration -100 microg/ml) reduced the expression of alpha(IIb)beta(3) on blood platelets. Comparative studies indicate that the tested plant extract was found to be more reactive in blood platelets than the solution of pure resveratrol.

  9. Leptin serves as an upstream activator of an obligatory signaling cascade in the embryo-implantation process.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M P; Rueda, B R; Leavis, P C; Gonzalez, R R

    2005-02-01

    Leptin is essential for mouse reproduction, but the exact roles it serves are yet to be determined. Treatment of cultured endometrial cells with leptin increases the level of beta3-integrin, IL-1, leukemia inhibitory factor, and their corresponding receptors. These leptin-induced effects are eliminated by inhibitors of leptin receptor (OB-R) signaling. Herein the impact of blocking leptin/OB-R signaling in the mouse endometrium was assessed. Intrauterine injection of either leptin peptide antagonists (LPA-1 or -2) or OB-R antibody on d 3 of pregnancy impaired mouse implantation in comparison to intrauterine injection of scrambled peptides (LPA-Sc) or species-matched IgGs. Significant reduction in the number of implantation sites and uterine horns with implanted embryos was found after intrauterine injection of LPA-1 (1 of 22) vs. LPA-1Sc (11 of 15) and LPA-2 (3 of 17) vs. LPA-2Sc (14 of 16). The impact of disruption of leptin signaling on the endometrial expression of several molecules in pregnant mice was assessed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and confocal microscopy. Disruption of leptin signaling resulted in a significant reduction of IL-1 receptor type I, leukemia inhibitory factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and beta3-integrin levels. The levels of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor and OB-R were unaltered after treatment with LPAs compared with controls. Expression of OB-R protein was pregnancy dependent and found only in glandular epithelium after implantation occurred. Our findings support previous observations that leptin signaling is critical to the implantation process and suggest that molecules downstream of leptin-activated receptor may serve obligatory roles in endometrial receptivity and successful implantation.

  10. Leptin regulation of the interleukin-1 system in human endometrial cells.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ruben Rene; Leary, Kristen; Petrozza, John Christopher; Leavis, Paul Clifton

    2003-03-01

    We have previously shown that (i). leptin and leptin receptor (Ob-R) are expressed in the human endometrium, and (ii). leptin secretion is regulated in blastocyst and endometrial epithelial cell (EEC) co-cultures. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) up-regulates leptin and Ob-R, and both cytokines up-regulate beta3 integrin expression in EEC. In the present investigation we examined the effect of leptin on the expression of the IL-1 system in EEC and endometrial stromal cells (ESC) cultured in a medium containing insulin, leptin or IL-1beta (0-3 nmol/l). Leptin stimulated IL-1 antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-1beta secretion and expression of IL-1 receptor type I (IL-1R tI) in both cell types. IL-1beta and IL-1Ra secretion were down-regulated by IL-1R tI blockade using specific antibodies. Interestingly, leptin partially neutralized this effect. The blockade of Ob-R neutralized the effects of both leptin and IL-1beta on expression of the IL-1beta system and beta3 integrin and on phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3). These results suggest that leptin regulates the IL-1 system and that the blockade of functional Ob-R impairs leptin and IL-1beta functions at the endometrial level. Leptin could be an important molecule for implantation and a molecular mediator for actions of the IL-1 system. The fact that leptin, in the absence of IL-1, can trigger the expression of markers of endometrial receptivity and of the invasive trophoblast phenotype (as does IL-1), suggest that leptin could substitute for these IL-1 functions during the implantation process.

  11. Cementogenesis and the induction of periodontal tissue regeneration by the osteogenic proteins of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, U; Petit, J-C; Teare, J

    2009-04-01

    The antiquity and severity of periodontal diseases are demonstrated by the hard evidence of alveolar bone loss in gnathic remains of the Pliocene/Pleistocene deposits of the Bloubank Valley at Sterkfontein, Swartkrans and Kromdrai in South Africa. Extant Homo has characterized and cloned a superfamily of proteins which include the bone morphogenetic proteins that regulate tooth morphogenesis at different stages of development as temporally and spatially connected events. The induction of cementogenesis, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone regeneration are regulated by the co-ordinated expression of bone morphogenetic proteins. Naturally derived and recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins induce periodontal tissue regeneration in mammals. Morphological analyses on undecalcified sections cut at 3-6 mum on a series of mandibular molar Class II and III furcation defects induced in the non-human primate Papio ursinus show the induction of cementogenesis. Sharpey's fibers nucleate as a series of composite collagen bundles within the cementoid matrix in close relation to embedded cementocytes. Osteogenic protein-1 and bone morphogenetic protein-2 possess a structure-activity profile, as shown by the morphology of tissue regeneration, preferentially cementogenic and osteogenic, respectively. In Papio ursinus, transforming growth factor-beta(3) also induces cementogenesis, with Sharpey's fibers inserting into newly formed alveolar bone. Capillary sprouting and invasion determine the sequential insertion and alignment of individual collagenic bundles. The addition of responding stem cells prepared by finely mincing fragments of autogenous rectus abdominis muscle significantly enhances the induction of periodontal tissue regeneration when combined with transforming growth factor-beta(3) implanted in Class II and III furcation defects of Papio ursinus.

  12. Spatiotemporal segregation of endothelial cell integrin and nonintegrin extracellular matrix-binding proteins during adhesion events

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) attachments to laminin, fibronectin, and fibrinogen are inhibited by soluble arginine-glycine- aspartate (RGD)-containing peptides, and YGRGDSP activity is responsive to titration of either soluble peptide or matrix protein. To assess the presence of RGD-dependent receptors, immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting studies were conducted and demonstrated integrin beta 1, beta 3, and associated alpha subunits as well as a beta 1 precursor. Immunofluorescence of BAECs plated on laminin, fibronectin, and fibrinogen reveals different matrix-binding specificities of each of these integrin subclasses. By 1 h after plating, organization of beta 1 integrin into fibrillar streaks is influenced by laminin and fibronectin, whereas beta 3 integrin punctate organization is influenced by fibrinogen and the integrin spatial distribution changes with time in culture. In contrast, the nonintegrin laminin-binding protein LB69 only organizes after cell-substrate contact is well established several hours after plating. Migration of BAECs is also mediated by both integrin and nonintegrin matrix-binding proteins. Specifically, BAEC migration on laminin is remarkably sensitive to RGD peptide inhibition, and, in its presence, beta 1 integrin organization dissipates and reorganizes into perinuclear vesicles. However, RGD peptides do not alter LB69 linear organization during migration. Similarly, agents that block LB69--e.g., antibodies to LB69 as well as YIGSR-NH2 peptide--do not inhibit attachment of nonmotile BAECs to laminin. However, both anti-LB69 and YIGSR-NH2 inhibit late adhesive events such as spreading. Accordingly, we propose that integrin and nonintegrin extracellular matrix-binding protein organizations in BAECs are both temporally and spatially segregated during attachment processes. High affinity nonintegrin interaction with matrix may create necessary stable contacts for longterm attachment, while lower affinity integrins may be important

  13. Altered GABA(A) receptor subunit expression and pharmacology in human Angelman syndrome cortex.

    PubMed

    Roden, William H; Peugh, Lindsey D; Jansen, Laura A

    2010-10-15

    The neurodevelopmental disorder Angelman syndrome is most frequently caused by deletion of the maternally derived chromosome 15q11-q13 region, which includes not only the causative UBE3A gene, but also the beta(3)-alpha(5)-gamma(3) GABA(A) receptor subunit gene cluster. GABAergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to contribute to the occurrence of epilepsy and cognitive and behavioral impairments in this condition. In the present study, analysis of GABA(A) receptor subunit expression and pharmacology was performed in cerebral cortex from four subjects with Angelman syndrome and compared to that from control tissue. The membrane fraction of frozen postmortem neocortical tissue was isolated and subjected to quantitative Western blot analysis. The ratios of beta(3)/beta(2) and alpha(5)/alpha(1) subunit protein expression in Angelman syndrome cortex were significantly decreased when compared with controls. An additional membrane fraction was injected into Xenopus oocytes, resulting in incorporation of the brain membrane vesicles with their associated receptors into the oocyte cellular membrane. Two-electrode voltage-clamp analysis of GABA(A) receptor currents was then performed. Studies of GABA(A) receptor pharmacology in Angelman syndrome cortex revealed increased current enhancement by the alpha(1)-selective benzodiazepine-site agonist zolpidem and by the barbiturate phenobarbital, while sensitivity to current inhibition by zinc was decreased. GABA(A) receptor affinity and modulation by neurosteroids were unchanged. This shift in GABA(A) receptor subunit expression and pharmacology in Angelman syndrome is consistent with impaired extrasynaptic but intact to augmented synaptic cortical GABAergic inhibition, which could contribute to the epileptic, behavioral, and cognitive phenotypes of the disorder.

  14. Isolation, characterization, and purification to homogeneity of an endogenous polypeptide with agonistic action on benzodiazepine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, A; Forchetti, C M; Corda, M G; Konkel, D; Bennett, C D; Costa, E

    1983-01-01

    A brain polypeptide termed diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) and thought to be chemically and functionally related to the endogenous effector of the benzodiazepine recognition site was purified to homogeneity. This peptide gives a single band of protein on NaDodSO4 and acidic urea gel electrophoresis. A single UV-absorbing peak was obtained by HPLC using three different columns and solvent systems. DBI has a molecular mass of approximately equal to 11,000 daltons. Carboxyl-terminus analysis shows that tyrosine is the only residue while the amino-terminus was blocked. Cyanogen bromide treatment of DBI yields three polypeptide fragments, and the sequences of two of them have been determined for a total of 45 amino acids. DBI is a competitive inhibitor for the binding of [3H]diazepam, [3H]flunitrazepam, beta-[3H]carboline propyl esters, and 3H-labeled Ro 15-1788. The Ki for [3H]-diazepam and beta-[3H]carboline binding were 4 and 1 microM, respectively. Doses of DBI that inhibited [3H]diazepam binding by greater than 50% fail to change [3H]etorphine, gamma-amino[3H]butyric acid, [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate, [3H]dihydroalprenolol, [3H]adenosine, and [3H]imipramine binding tested at their respective Kd values. DBI injected intraventricularly at doses of 5-10 nmol completely reversed the anticonflict action of diazepam on unpunished drinking and, similar to the anxiety-inducing beta-carboline derivative FG 7142 (beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester), facilitated the shock-induced suppression of drinking by lowering the threshold for this response. Images PMID:6304714

  15. Asymmetry of the alpha subunit of the chloroplast ATP synthase as probed by the binding of Lucifer Yellow vinyl sulfone.

    PubMed

    Lowe, K M; McCarty, R E

    1998-02-24

    The catalytic portion of the chloroplast ATP synthase (CF1) is structurally asymmetric. Asymmetry of the otherwise symmetrical alpha3beta3 heterohexamer is induced by the presence of tightly bound nucleotides and interactions with the single-copy, smaller subunits. Lucifer Yellow vinyl sulfone (4-amino-N-[3-(vinylsulfonyl)phenyl]naphthalimide-3,6-disulfonic acid) rapidly and covalently binds to lysine 378 on one alpha subunit [Nalin, C. M., Snyder, B., and McCarty, R. E., (1985) Biochemistry 24, 2318-2324] [Shapiro, A. B. (1991) Ph.D. Thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY). The asymmetrical binding of Lucifer Yellow to CF1 provides a method to investigate the cause of asymmetry in the alpha subunits. The reaction of CF1 with Lucifer Yellow was monitored by total fluorescence of bound Lucifer Yellow as well as by quantitative determination of Lucifer Yellow bound to the tryptic peptide that contains lysine 378 of the alpha subunit. The total binding of Lucifer Yellow to CF1 was not affected by the presence of tightly bound nucleotides or nucleotide in the medium. Neither the total binding of Lucifer Yellow to CF1 nor the reaction of alpha-lysine 378 with Lucifer Yellow was changed by the removal of the epsilon subunit, the delta subunit, or both subunits. The extent of incorporation of Lucifer Yellow into lysine 378 of the alpha subunit in (alphabeta)n was about three times that of Lucifer Yellow incorporation into CF1. Reconstitution of (alphabeta)n with gamma restored the binding of one Lucifer Yellow per alpha3beta3gamma. Therefore, the interactions between gamma and the alphabeta heterohexamer are important in conferring asymmetry to the alpha subunits of CF1.

  16. GABA A receptor abnormalities in Prader-Willi syndrome assessed with positron emission tomography and [11C]flumazenil.

    PubMed

    Lucignani, Giovanni; Panzacchi, Andrea; Bosio, Laura; Moresco, Rosa Maria; Ravasi, Laura; Coppa, Isabella; Chiumello, Giuseppe; Frey, Kirk; Koeppe, Robert; Fazio, Ferruccio

    2004-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a multi-system disorder characterized clinically by abnormal mental and physical development. PWS patients have a deletion in an imprinted region on paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-13), maternal disomy for this segment, or rarely, a chromosomal imprinting center deletion that gives rise to suppression of the equivalent paternal genes. Within the affected segment of chromosome 15 are genes encoding the alpha(5), beta(3) and gamma(3) subunits of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABA(A)) receptor. Therefore, altered neurobehavioral function could arise in PWS due directly to altered GABA(A) receptor composition and expression, or alternatively, from brain developmental and maturational effects of these or other genes in the imprinted region. The aim of the present study was to assess cerebral GABA(A) receptors in PWS with the use of positron emission tomography of the benzodiazepine binding site employing [11C]flumazenil ([11C]FMZ). A reduction in [11C]FMZ binding was found predominantly in the cingulate, frontal and temporal neocortices and insula in six adult PWS patients compared to nine normal subjects. A possible role for the deleted beta(3) subunit gene in PWS is supported in part by the wide cortical distribution of its mRNA expression and the effects of experimental knockouts on benzodiazepine binding described in prior studies. Altered GABA(A) receptor composition or number in these cortical regions may account for neurobehavioral abnormalities in PWS including mild mental retardation, poor impulse control, and impaired responses to somatic pain.

  17. Isolation of a highly specific ligand for the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin from a phage display library

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin selects cysteine pair-containing RGD peptides from a phage display library based on a random hexapeptide. We have therefore searched for more selective peptides for this integrin using a larger phage display library, where heptapeptides are flanked by cysteine residues, thus making the inserts potentially cyclic. Most of the phage sequences that bound to alpha 5 beta 1 (69 of 125) contained the RGD motif. Some of the heptapeptides contained an NGR motif. As the NGR sequence occurs in the cell-binding region of the fibronectin molecule, this sequence could contribute to the specific recognition of fibronectin by alpha 5 beta 1. Selection for high affinity peptides for alpha 5 beta 1 surprisingly yielded a sequence RRETAWA that does not bear obvious resemblance to known integrin ligand sequences. The synthetic cyclic peptide GACRRETAWACGA (*CRRETAWAC*) was a potent inhibitor of alpha 5 beta 1-mediated cell attachment to fibronectin. This peptide is nearly specific for the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin, because much higher concentrations were needed to inhibit the alpha v beta 1 integrin, and there was no effect on alpha v beta 3- and alpha v beta 5-mediated cell attachment to vitronectin. The peptide also did not bind to the alpha IIb beta 3 integrin. *CRRETAWAC* appears to interact with the same or an overlapping binding site in alpha 5 beta 1 as RGD, because cell attachment to *CRRETAWAC* coated on plastic was divalent cation dependent and could be blocked by an RGD-containing peptide. These results reveal a novel binding specificity in the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin. PMID:7507494

  18. Y chromosome gr/gr subdeletion is associated with lower semen quality in young men from the general Japanese population but not in fertile Japanese Men.

    PubMed

    Sato, Youichi; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Shinka, Toshikatsu; Nozawa, Shiari; Yoshiike, Miki; Koh, Eitetsue; Kanaya, Jiro; Namiki, Mikio; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Tsujimura, Akira; Komatsu, Kiyoshi; Itoh, Naoki; Eguchi, Jiro; Yamauchi, Aiko; Nakahori, Yutaka

    2014-06-01

    Several case-control studies have investigated whether Y chromosome haplogroups or deletions are associated with spermatogenic failure. However, the relationships between Y chromosome haplogroups or deletions and semen quality in general population have not been elucidated. In this study, we assessed relationships between Y chromosome haplogroups or deletions and semen parameters in 791 fertile Japanese men and 1221 young men from the general Japanese population. We found that the haplogroup D2 (M55 lineage) was significantly associated with lower semen parameters, especially total motile sperm count (P = 0.00051, beta = -0.097), in men from the general population but not in fertile men. In addition, we found that the gr/gr subdeletion was associated with semen quality and in particular, strongly associated with decreased sperm motility (P = 0.00041, beta = -3.14) and total motile sperm count (P = 0.00031, beta = -0.099) in men from the general population but not in fertile men. The combined analysis of fertile Japanese men and men from the general Japanese population showed that the haplogroup D2 (M55 lineage) and the gr/gr subdeletion were strongly associated with reduced sperm motility (P = 0.00056, beta = -2.71, and P = 7.7 × 10(-5), beta = -3.05, respectively) and that haplogroup O2b1 was strongly associated with elevated sperm motility (P = 0.00089, beta = 2.94). These observations add further support for the view that the gr/gr subdeletion diminishes sperm motility that consequently may result in male infertility.

  19. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. )

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  20. Common variants in the CRP promoter are associated with a high C-reactive protein level in Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Jung; Yun, Sin Weon; Yu, Jeong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Lim; Lee, Kyung-Yil; Kil, Hong-Ryang; Kim, Gi Beom; Han, Myung Ki; Song, Min Seob; Lee, Hyoung Doo; Byeon, Jung Hye; Sohn, Saejung; Hong, Young Mi; Jang, Gi Young; Lee, Jong-Keuk

    2015-02-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute self-limiting form of vasculitis that afflicts infants and children and manifests as fever and signs of mucocutaneous inflammation. Children with KD show various laboratory inflammatory abnormalities, such as elevations in their white blood cell (WBC) count, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). We here performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 178 KD patients to identify the genetic loci that influence 10 important KD laboratory markers: WBC count, neutrophil count, platelet count, CRP, ESR, hemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, and total protein. A total of 165 loci passed our arbitrary stage 1 threshold for replication (p < 1 × 10(-5)). Of these, only 2 SNPs (rs12068753 and rs4786091) demonstrated a significant association with the CRP level in replication study of 473 KD patients (p < 0.05). The SNP located at the CRP locus (rs12068753) demonstrated the most significant association with CRP in KD patients (beta = 4.73 and p = 1.20 × 10(-6) according to the stage 1 GWAS; beta = 3.65 and p = 1.35 × 10(-8) according to the replication study; beta = 3.97 and p = 1.11 × 10(-13) according to combined analysis) and explained 8.1% of the phenotypic variation observed. However, this SNP did not demonstrate any significant association with CRP in the general population (beta = 0.37 and p = 0.1732) and only explained 0.1% of the phenotypic variation in this instance. Furthermore, rs12068753 did not affect the development of coronary artery lesions or intravenous immunoglobulin resistance in KD patients. These results indicate that common variants in the CRP promoter can play an important role in the CRP levels in KD.

  1. Anti-tumor efficacy of ultrasonic cavitation is potentiated by concurrent delivery of anti-angiogenic drug in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Huang, Pintong; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Jian; Shentu, Weihui; Sun, Yu; Yang, Zhijian; Chen, Shuyuan

    2014-05-28

    This study investigated the efficacy of concurrent delivery of an anti-angiogenic drug and ultrasonic cavitation therapy in a mouse model of human colon cancer. A biotinylated form of the anti-angiogenic drug Endostar was conjugated to a streptavidin-coated microbubble (MB). Mice bearing subcutaneous tumors (HT29) were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 served as an untreated control. Group 2 served as a cavitation control and received naked microbubbles and sham ultrasonic cavitation (MB+sham cavitation). Group 3 received naked microbubbles and ultrasonic cavitation (MB+cavitation). Group 4 received Endostar loaded microbubbles and ultrasonic cavitation (Endostar-MB+cavitation). Ultrasonic cavitation was performed using a high-power custom built sonicator. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging (CEUS) was used to measure tumor blood flow before and after ultrasonic cavitation. In vivo fluorescence imaging was performed to monitor changes in tumor volume. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess CD31, VEGFR-2 and alpha-v beta-3 integrin expression within the tumor. Apoptosis of the tumor cells was determined by TUNEL assay, and ultrastructural changes within the tumor were examined by electron microcopy. Ultrasonic cavitation with Endostar-MB demonstrated a significantly greater inhibition of tumor blood flow on day 7 and tumor growth on day 16 compared with naked MB and control groups. The Endostar-MB treated mice showed significantly decreased expression VEGFR-2 and alpha-v beta-3 integrin, and increased apoptosis of tumor cells and degradation of the tumor ultrastructure. Our findings indicated that the anti-vascular and anti-tumor effects of ultrasonic cavitation could be potentiated by simultaneously delivering an anti-angiogenic drug in colon cancer.

  2. Cyclic stretching force selectively up-regulates transforming growth factor-beta isoforms in cultured rat mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Riser, B. L.; Cortes, P.; Heilig, C.; Grondin, J.; Ladson-Wofford, S.; Patterson, D.; Narins, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    Glomerular distention from increased intraglomerular pressure stretches mesangial cells (MCs). Stretching MCs in culture stimulates extracellular matrix accumulation, suggesting that this may be a mechanism for glomerular hypertension-associated glomerulosclerosis. We examined whether mechanical stretching serves as a stimulus for the synthesis and activation of the prosclerotic molecule transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, thus providing a potential system for auto-induction of extracellular matrix. Rat MCs cultured on flexible-bottom plates were subjected to cyclic stretching for up to 3 days and then assayed for TGF-beta mRNA, secretion of TGF-beta, and localization of active TGF-beta by immunostaining. MCs contained mRNA for all three mammalian isoforms of TGF-beta. Cyclic stretching for 36 hours increased TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 mRNA levels approximately twofold, without altering the levels of TGF-beta2 mRNA. This was followed at 48 to 72 hours by the increased secretion of both latent and active TGF-beta1. Latent, but not active, TGF-beta3 secretion also increased whereas the levels of TGF-beta2 were unaffected by mechanical force. The stretching force in this system is unequally distributed over the culture membrane. Localization of active TGF-beta by immunostaining demonstrated that the quantity of cell-associated cytokine across the culture was directly proportional to the zonal amplitude of the stretching force. These results demonstrate that stretching force stimulates MCs to selectively release and activate TGF-beta1. This mechanical induction of TGF-beta1 may help explain the increased extracellular matrix associated with intraglomerular hypertension. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:8669477

  3. Coexistence of at least three distinct beta-adrenoceptors in human internal mammary artery.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, M; Omrani, G; Mahmoudian, M

    2000-01-01

    The internal mammary artery (IMA) is currently the preferred conduit for myocardial revascularization. However, perioperative vasospasm and a hypoperfusion state during maximal exercise may limit its use as a bypass graft. The mechanism of spasm has not been clearly defined. Since beta-adrenoceptor activation plays a major role in vasorelaxation, the present study was carried out to investigate the beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness of human IMA smooth muscle. Isoproterenol produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in endothelium-denuded IMA segments, precontracted with phenylephrine (maximal relaxation 46.33+/-5.45%). Atenolol (10(-6)M) and propranolol (2x10(-7)M) inhibited isoproterenol-induced relaxation. While atenolol produced partial inhibition, propranolol caused a complete inhibition in a majority of the segments and a partial inhibition in a minority. BRL 37344, a selective beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist, produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in phenylephrine-precontracted rings of endothelium-denuded IMA (maximal relaxation 40.35+/-4.07%). Cyanopindolol, a beta-adrenoceptor partial agonist, produced a marked relaxation (58.65+/-6.2%) in endothelium-denuded IMA rings, precontracted with phenylephrine. Cyanopindolol-induced relaxation was resistant to blockade by propranolol (2x10(-7)M). Spontaneous contractions of IMA rings were also observed in some cases that were inhibited by isoproterenol and BRL 37344. This observation implies the important role of beta-adrenoceptor activation in prevention of human IMA spasm. The results obtained in present study indicate that human IMA smooth muscle possesses an atypical beta-adrenoceptor together with beta1- and beta2-adrenoceptors. Regarding the relaxation induced in IMA rings by adding BRL 37344, the possible identical entities of IMA atypical beta-adrenoceptors and beta 3-adrenoceptors are suggested.

  4. Expression of alphaVbeta3 integrin in the chick embryo aortic endothelium.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Catherine

    2002-09-01

    The integrin chain alphaV, expressed in association with beta3, by cells of the megakaryocytic/thrombocytic and endothelial lineages is thought to play an important role in angiogenesis. alphaVbeta3 expression by endothelial cells is not constitutive but induced by various stimuli in avian and human models. Here the developmental pattern of alphaVbeta3 expression was analysed in the chick embryo by immunocytochemistry, using a specific monoclonal antibody. On day 2 of development alphaVbeta3 expression was restricted to rare cells in the blood stream, in the embryo proper and in the yolk sac blood islands. AlphaVbeta3 expression by endothelial cells became detectable on day 3 and was restricted to the dorsal aorta. Interestingly it was absent from the intra-aortic hemopoietic clusters (E3.5) which, as we have showed previously, express the alphaIIbbeta3 integrin and display progenitor potentialities. However the endothelium underlying intra-embryonic hemopoietic clusters expressed this integrin. In contrast E6-7 para-aortic hemopoietic foci contained numerous alphaVbeta3 positive cells. Both alphaVbeta3 and alphaIIbbeta3 were expressed in these latter hemopoietic sites, while alphaVbeta3 was still selectively expressed by the aortic endothelium until E6. Thereafter, at E7 the pulmonary artery also expressed it. Since alphaIIbbeta3 is expressed by avian and murine multilineage hemopoietic progenitors, we then studied the hemopoietic potentialities of alphaVbeta3/alphaIIbeta3 double positive cells from embryonic bone marrow differentiating in vitro in erythro-myeloid conditions. Thrombocytic, erythroid and myeloid progenitor potentialities were found within the cell population expressing both beta3 integrins.

  5. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human beta-like globin gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, E F; Lawn, R M; Maniatis, T

    1980-04-01

    The genes encoding human embryonic (epsilon), fetal (G gamma, A gamma) and adult (delta, beta) beta-like globin polypeptides were isolated as a set of overlapping cloned DNA fragments from bacteriophage lambda libraries of high molecular weight (15-20 kb) chromosomal DNA. The 65 kb of DNA represented in these overlapping clones contains the genes for all five beta-like polypeptides, including the embryonic epsilon-globin gene, for which the chromosomal location was previously unknown. All five genes are transcribed from the same DNA strand and are arranged in the order 5'-epsilon-(13.3 kb)-G gamma-(3.5 kb)-A gamma-(13.9 kb)-delta-(5.4 kb)-beta-3'. Thus the genes are positioned on the chromosome in the order of their expression during development. In addition to the five known beta-like globin genes, we have detected two other beta-like globin sequences which do not correspond to known polypeptides. One of these sequences has been mapped to the A gamma-delta intergenic region while the other is located 6-9 kb 5' to the epsilon gene. Cross hybridization experiments between the intergenic sequences of the gene cluster have revealed a nonglobin repeat sequence (*) which is interspersed with the globin genes in the following manner: 5'-**epsilon-*G gamma-A gamma*-**delta-beta*-3'. Fine structure mapping of the region located 5' to the delta-globin gene revealed two repeats with a maximum size of 400 bp, which are separated by approximately 700 bp of DNA not repeated within the cluster. Preliminary experiments indicate that this repeat family is also repeated many times in the human genome.

  6. Tumor targeting with RGD peptide ligands-design of new molecular conjugates for imaging and therapy of cancers.

    PubMed

    Garanger, Elisabeth; Boturyn, Didier; Dumy, Pascal

    2007-09-01

    Development of molecular devices endowed with tumor-targeting functions and carrying cytotoxic components should enable the specific delivery of chemotherapeutics to malignant tissues, thus increasing their local efficacy while limiting their peripheral toxicity. Such molecular vectors can pave the way for the development of new classes of therapeutics, fighting against protagonists of neoplastic development. In line with this concept, peptide ligands containing the Arginine-Glycine-Aspartate (RGD) triad, which display a strong affinity and selectivity to the alpha(V)beta(3) integrin, have been developed to target the tumor-associated cells expressing the alpha (V)beta (3) receptors. Among the validated ligands, the leader compound is the cyclic pentapeptide c[-RGDf(NMe)V-] (Cilengitide) developed by kessler et al. (J. Med. Chem., 1999, 42, 3033-3040). This compound has entered phase II clinical trials as an anti-angiogenic agent. Further studies have been directed to develop molecular conjugates of the parent c[-RGDfK-] with conventional chemotherapeutics or with labels for non-invasive imaging technologies. More recently, multimeric RGD containing compounds have been exploited to improve the targeting potential as well as cell-membrane breaching, through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The latter have been constructed on various scaffolds (polylysines or polyglutamates, liposomes, nanoparticles...). Our group has developed a chemical system combining all these properties where multivalent RGD targeting functions are associated with functional molecules through a cyclopeptide template. The latter represents a relevant non-viral vector for tumor targeting, imaging and therapy. This review describes the considerations for the design of the diverse RGD ligands developed so far and reports an overview of the main applications of these structures in cancer research.

  7. A specific tryptophan in the I-II linker is a key determinant of beta-subunit binding and modulation in Ca(V)2.3 calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Berrou, L; Klein, H; Bernatchez, G; Parent, L

    2002-01-01

    The ancillary beta subunits modulate the activation and inactivation properties of high-voltage activated (HVA) Ca(2+) channels in an isoform-specific manner. The beta subunits bind to a high-affinity interaction site, alpha-interaction domain (AID), located in the I-II linker of HVA alpha1 subunits. Nine residues in the AID motif are absolutely conserved in all HVA channels (QQxExxLxGYxxWIxxxE), but their contribution to beta-subunit binding and modulation remains to be established in Ca(V)2.3. Mutations of W386 to either A, G, Q, R, E, F, or Y in Ca(V)2.3 disrupted [(35)S]beta3-subunit overlay binding to glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing the mutated I-II linker, whereas mutations (single or multiple) of nonconserved residues did not affect the protein-protein interaction with beta3. The tryptophan residue at position 386 appears to be an essential determinant as substitutions with hydrophobic (A and G), hydrophilic (Q, R, and E), or aromatic (F and Y) residues yielded the same results. beta-Subunit modulation of W386 (A, G, Q, R, E, F, and Y) and Y383 (A and S) mutants was investigated after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. All mutant channels expressed large inward Ba(2+) currents with typical current-voltage properties. Nonetheless, the typical hallmarks of beta-subunit modulation, namely the increase in peak currents, the hyperpolarization of peak voltages, and the modulation of the kinetics and voltage dependence of inactivation, were eliminated in all W386 mutants, although they were preserved in part in Y383 (A and S) mutants. Altogether these results suggest that W386 is critical for beta-subunit binding and modulation of HVA Ca(2+) channels. PMID:12202369

  8. Reversible binding of tolmetin, zomepirac, and their glucuronide conjugates to human serum albumin and plasma.

    PubMed

    Ojingwa, J C; Spahn-Langguth, H; Benet, L Z

    1994-02-01

    Acyl glucuronides of drugs and bilirubin have been shown in the past decade to be reactive metabolites undergoing acyl migration and irreversible binding. The latter reaction has been hypothesized to be facilitated by or to proceed through the formation of a reversible complex. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the decreased binding seen in patients with compromised excretory function may be due to competition by elevated plasma concentrations of the glucuronides. In these reversible binding studies, we characterized the extent and the "site" of binding of tolmetin, zomepirac, their glucuronides and isomeric conjugates. We also examined the displacement between the parent drugs and their glucuronide conjugates using a rapid ultrafiltration method. Tolmetin exhibited three classes of binding sites with a primary association constant of 1.7 x 10(6) M-1 (Kd1 = 0.60 microM). The primary association constant of zomepirac (1.16 x 10(6) M-1, Kd1 = 0.86 microM) is similar to that of tolmetin. The beta 1 and alpha/beta 3 glucuronides of both compounds bind to a lesser extent than their parent aglycones. The isomeric glucuronide conjugates of both compounds showed much stronger binding than the beta/1 conjugates. Of the four glucuronides investigated, tolmetin glucuronide-alpha/beta 3 isomer was bound by fatty acid free human serum albumin with the highest affinity (4.6 x 10(5) M-1, Kd = 2.22 microM). Protein binding of the parent drugs and conjugates were decreased significantly at pH 5.0. In displacement studies, except for salicylate and acetylsalicylate, drugs known to bind to Sites I and II as well as the digitoxin and tamoxifen binding sites had little inhibitory effect on the binding of tolmetin, zomepirac, and their glucuronide conjugates.

  9. The Leu33Pro polymorphism in the ITGB3 gene does not modify BRCA1/2-associated breast or ovarian cancer risks: results from a multicenter study among 15,542 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Anna; Rozkrut, Dominik; Antoniou, Antonis; Hamann, Ute; Lubinski, Jan

    2010-06-01

    Integrins containing the beta(3) subunit are key players in tumor growth and metastasis. A functional Leu33Pro polymorphism (rs5918) in the beta(3) subunit of the integrin gene (ITGB3) has previously been suggested to act as a modifier of ovarian cancer risk in Polish BRCA1 mutation carriers. To investigate the association further, we genotyped 9,998 BRCA1 and 5,544 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 34 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for the ITGB3 Leu33Pro polymorphism. Data were analysed within a Cox-proportional hazards framework using a retrospective likelihood approach. There was marginal evidence that the ITGB3 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.23, p-trend 0.05). However, when the original Polish study was excluded from the analysis, the polymorphism was no longer significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96-1.19, p-trend 0.25). There was no evidence of an association with ovarian cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.89-1.32). The polymorphism was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The ITGB3 Leu33Pro polymorphism does not modify breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.

  10. BAP31 and its caspase cleavage product regulate cell surface expression of tetraspanins and integrin-mediated cell survival.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Marina; Germain, Marc; Nguyen, Mai; Shore, Gordon C

    2005-08-26

    BAP31, a resident integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, regulates the export of other integral membrane proteins to the downstream secretory pathway. Here we show that cell surface expression of the tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 is compromised in mouse cells from which the Bap31 gene has been deleted. CD9 and CD81 facilitate the function of multiprotein complexes at the plasma membrane, including integrins. Of note, BAP31 does not appear to influence the egress of alpha5beta1 or alpha(v)beta3 integrins to the cell surface, but in Bap31-null mouse cells, these integrins are not able to maintain cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix in the presence of reduced serum. Consequently, Bap31-null cells are sensitive to serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Reconstitution of wild-type BAP31 into these Bap31-null cells restores integrin-mediated cell attachment and cell survival after serum stress, whereas interference with the functions of CD9, alpha5beta1, or alpha(v)beta3 by antagonizing antibodies makes BAP31 cells act similar to Bap31-null cells in these respects. Finally, in human KB epithelial cells protected from apoptosis by BCL-2, the caspase-8 cleavage product, p20 BAP31, inhibits egress of tetraspanin and integrin-mediated cell attachment. Thus, p20 BAP31 can operate upstream of BCL-2 in living cells to influence cell surface properties due to its effects on protein egress from the endoplasmic reticulum.

  11. Implementation of indicators through balanced scorecards in a nutritional therapy company.

    PubMed

    de Matos Nasser, Emanuele; Reis da Costa, Stella Regina

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La Balanced Scorecard (BSC) es una herramienta que ayuda en la gestión estratégica, bajo las siguientes cuatro perspectivas: la financiera, la del cliente, los procesos internos de la empresa, y los procesos de crecimiento y aprendizaje. Con el fin de medir el rendimiento de las entidades, la BSC emplea como plataforma indicadores financieros y no financieros. Objetivos: Implantar la BSC en una empresa de terapias nutricionales. Material y métodos: Esta investigación comprende el estudio de un caso que tuvo lugar en una empresa de terapia nutricional, entre enero y noviembre de 2010. Para el análisis de la perspectiva de aprendizaje y crecimiento, se consideraron los 45 colaboradores de la compañía y para el análisis de los clientes, 124 clientes de atención domiciliaria. La muestra del estudio consistió de 39 colaboradores y 44 clientes que participaron en la investigación. Se elaboró material para la recogida de los datos y verificación de las tendencias de las perspectivas mediante el análisis de los principales procesos de la compañía, encuestas de satisfacción del colaborador y hojas de cálculo para la verificación del beneficio neto y el porcentaje de anulaciones. Los datos se introdujeron en una hoja de cálculo de la aplicación informática Excel. Resultados y discusión: Se escogieron los indicadores en función de los objetivos estratégicos y los perfiles organizativos. Perspectivas de aprendizaje y crecimiento personal: eficacia en la capacitación 94%, participación 77%, fidelidad/ retención 93%, satisfacción 75%, ambiente organizativo 88%, bienestar 100%, perspectiva del proceso: análisis microbiológico 100%, auditoría interna 100%, productividad 100%, evaluación nutricional 81%, soporte nutricional 100%, indicación de atención domiciliaria 94%, visitas s domicilio 98%, perspectiva del cliente: percepción de la compañía 97%, priorización 94%, retención 59%, insatisfacción 24%, logística 94%, servicio

  12. [Placental weight percentiles and its relationship with fetal weight according to gestational age in an urban area of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlos; Roman, Estela; Dipierri, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: El peso placentario (PP) y los índices de su relación con el peso al nacer (PN) (PN/PP, PP/PN) predicen morbi-mortalidad perinatal y resultados alejados de la salud. Objetivos: Calcular percentilos del PP e índices por sexo y edad gestacional correspondientes a 867 RNV de la Maternidad Sardá de Buenos Aires, Argentina y compararlos con referencias internacionales. Material y métodos: Se excluyeron feto muerto, embarazo múltiple, edad gestacional <22 y >42 semanas y PP<100g y >2500g. Características maternas y fetales: edad, educación, tabaco, paridad, diabetes, preeclampsia, corioamnionitis, restricción del crecimiento, malformación congénita y prematurez. Se calcularon estadísticos de resumen y percentilos con el método LMS. Las comparaciones se realizaron con test t-Student, ANOVA y referencias internacionales. Resultados: Edad materna media 24 años, educación 10.1 años, 24.5% primíparas, 12.6% fumadoras, 4.9% presentaron diabetes, 8.7% preeclampsia, 7.9% corioamnionitis y 13.0% restricción del crecimiento fetal. El 55.3% de los RN fueron varones, 51.6% prematuros, 18.9% PEG y 7.1% malformados. El PN y EG promedio fue de 2581g y 35.6 semanas respectivamente. Elevada correlación positiva de la EG con PP y PN/PP y negativa con PP/PN (p%lt;0.001); el peso de la placenta e índices fueron mayores en varones. Se presentan los percentiles de PP, PN/PP y PP/PN. Las diferencias con las referencias oscilaron de 0.46% -13%, 4.91% -12.1% y 5.81% -14% para el PP, PN/PP y PP/PN respectivamente. Conclusiones: los percentilos generados son aplicables en investigaciones sobre la relación de la placenta con resultados perinatales y la salud durante el ciclo vital.

  13. [Effect of high altitude on birth weight and adverse perinatal outcomes in two Argentine populations].

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlos; Dipierri, José; Luchtenberg, Guillermo; Moresco, Angélica; Alfaro, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: existe poca información sobre la relación entre tamaño al nacer y altura geográfica ajustada para factores maternos y obstétricos potencialmente confusores. Objetivo: analizar la variación, en función de la altitud geográfica, del Peso al Nacimiento (PN) y resultados perinatales adversos, en dos poblaciones argentinas. Material y Métodos: 4000 registros de recién nacidos (RN) de Jujuy y 4000 de Buenos Aires (Maternidad Sardá) (1996-2000), seleccionados y aleatorizados del Sistema Informático Perinatal. Los datos provenían de la Maternidad Sarda (20 msnm) y las regiones jujeñas: Ramal (500 msnm), Valle (1200 msnm), Quebrada (2500 msnm) y Puna (3500 msnm). Variables resultado: PN >3000 g, PN <2500 g, Índice Ponderal (IP), prematurez, pequeño para edad gestacional (PEG) y restricción del crecimiento intrauterino (FGR). Variables confusoras: edad, tipo de pareja, educación, sobrepeso-obesidad, tabaquismo, hipertensión arterial, preeclampsia, infección urinaria, restricción del crecimiento y terminación cesárea. Resultados: Se observó un gradiente altitudinal creciente para madres adolescentes y decreciente para las variables obstétrico-maternas. El PN, PN >3000 g, PN <2500 g e Índice Ponderal se asociaron negativamente con altitud (p<0.001). La prevalencia de prematurez, PEG y FGR mostraron un comportamiento opuesto (p<0.001). Ajustados para variables confusoras el PN<3000 g, PEG, FGR < 0.90 e IP<2.53 mostraron mayor riesgo con la altitud geográfica (p<0.05). Conclusiones: La altitud se asoció independientemente con restricción del PN y resultados perinatales adversos. Dado el impacto de la reducción del PN en el riesgo de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, se debería evaluar esta relación en otras poblaciones, independientemente de su localización altitudinal.

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, José Manuel

    2016-07-12

    El desarrollo durante el periodo fetal y los primeros años de vida se caracteriza por su crecimiento rápido y la maduración de órganos y sistemas. Los cambios tanto en la calidad como en la cantidad de los nutrientes que consumen la mujer embarazada y el niño en ese periodo pueden influir de forma permanente sobre esos órganos en desarrollo. Esos efectos se conocen como "programación" y constituyen un factor importante en la aparición de enfermedades no transmisibles a lo largo de toda la vida, fundamentalmente en la edad adulta; en especial, la enfermedad cardiovascular, el síndrome metabólico y la intolerancia a los hidratos de carbono. Las carencias nutricionales durante el embarazo que ocasionan un crecimiento intrauterino retardado se asocian a un riesgo aumentado de diabetes tipo 2 y de enfermedad coronaria en la descendencia. Esa influencia en la aparición de enfermedades no transmisibles en la vida adulta también está marcada por el tipo y duración de la lactancia y por la alimentación complementaria. La explicación más plausible es que estos factores nutricionales -junto a otros no nutricionales- modifican la expresividad de determinados genes, modificando la respuesta de determinados órganos y tejidos, remodelando su estructura y su función. Estos cambios epigenéticos pueden transmitirse de una generación a la siguiente, por lo que se pone aún más en evidencia la importancia del fenómeno de la programación metabólica temprana. Pero al mismo tiempo abren una ventana de oportunidad a que modificando las pautas de alimentación de la mujer embarazada y del niño pequeño podamos disminuir la carga asociada a este tipo de enfermedades.

  15. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen A; Larrosa-Haro, Alfredo; M Vásquez Garibay, Edgar; Rodríguez-Anguiano, Ana K; Cámara-López, María E

    2016-02-16

    Introducción: la ingestión de cáusticos (IC) en niños y adolescentes puede ocasionar esofagitis erosiva, estenosis esofágica y disfagia, entidades que pueden alterar el proceso de alimentación y originar desnutrición y retraso en el crecimiento.Objetivos: evaluar el estado nutricio de niños con IC y su asociación con disfagia y estenosis esofágica.Métodos: estudio transversal analítico en el que se incluyó a 62 niños atendidos en un hospital pediátrico de referencia que sufrieron IC. Lasvariables independientes fueron la presencia/ausencia de disfagia y/o estenosis esofágica; las dependientes fueron el crecimiento y el estado nutricio evaluados mediante antropometría. Análisis estadístico: c2, OR, IC 95%, kappa y t de Student.Resultados: la edad promedio fue 39,7 meses, el 39,7% eran niñas. Cuarenta y dos (77,8%) presentaron esofagitis erosiva (II-b, III-a, and III-b) en la endoscopia. En 24 (38,7%) ocurrió disfagia y en 40 (64,5%) estenosis esofágica. El puntaje z de la talla para la edad fue <-2 DE en cinco niños (8,1%) y el puntaje z del IMC < -2 DE en tres (4,8%). En 24.2% la z-IMC fue > +1 DE. El puntaje z de los indicadores del brazo relacionados a reservas grasa y masa muscular tanto en el grupo de estenosis como de disfagia se localizó en el lado negativo de la curva y ambos fueron significativamente menores a los del grupo sin disfagia o estenosis.Conclusiones: la proporción de esofagitis erosiva, estenosis o disfagia fue elevada. En los niños con disfagia o estenosis esofágica se identificaron reservas de grasa y masa muscular menores a las de los niños sin estas complicaciones.

  16. The influence of changes in hospital drug formulary on the prescription of proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Mourelle, Raquel; Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar el impacto de introducir el omeprazol en el formulario del Hospital de Barbanza sobre las prescripciones intrahospitalarias y extrahospitalarias (consultas externas y atención primaria) de todos los Inhibidores de la Bomba de Protones (IBP). Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de 36 meses en un hospital de nivel I. Las unidades básicas de trabajo son las dosis-habitantes-día en el ámbito extrahospitalario y las dosis diarias definidas/estancias-día para hospitalización; como medida de eficiencia se utiliza el porcentaje de DDD de omeprazol sobre el resto de IBP. Para el análisis estadístico construimos un modelo de regresión segmentada. Resultados: En consultas externas sufren cambios estadísticamente significativos el pantoprazol y el rabeprazol; el primero, estacionado antes de la intervención, sufre una disminución inmediata; el rabeprazol, en crecimiento antes de la intervención, presenta una posterior tendencia decreciente. En atención primaria se constata un cambio estadísticamente significativo en el pantoprazol, con tendencia decreciente a largo plazo. En hospitalización se observan cambios estadísticamente significativos para el pantoprazol y el omeprazol; el primero con disminución inmediata y tendencia al decrecimiento a largo plazo; el segundo experimenta un aumento inmediato y crecimiento a largo plazo. La evolución del % de omeprazol respecto al total de IBP mostró aumentos en los tres escenarios. Conclusiones: Se observa un cambio hacia una prescripción de IBP más eficiente en todos los ámbitos asistenciales tras la introducción del omeprazol en la guía farmacoterapéutica del hospital. La inclusión de medicamentos eficientes, o la retirada de ineficientes, puede ser una herramienta potencialmente útil para mejorar los perfiles de prescripción.

  17. [Zinc deficiency and associated factors in colombian children; results from the 2010 national nutrition survey; a cross sectional study].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Torres, Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2014-04-01

    Introducción: El zinc (Zn) es un micronutriente esencial en el crecimiento celular, la síntesis proteica y la diferenciación celular. La deficiencia de Zn afecta el crecimiento y desarrollo del niño, el metabolismo energético y la respuesta inmune. Objetivo: Examinar los factores asociados a la deficiencia de Zn en una muestra representativa de colombianos niños. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal, secundario de la información obtenida en la Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional 2010 (ENSIN 2010), en 4.279 niños entre 12 y 59 meses. Los niveles plasmáticos de Zn se determinaron por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, y los factores asociados (sexo, edad, etnia, puntaje de SISBEN, región y área geográfica) se recogieron por encuesta estructurada. Se establecieron asociaciones mediante la construcción de modelos de regresión y factores asociados. Resultados: Se encontró un valor promedio de Zinc de 78,5 μg/dl (IC 95% = 76,7-80,4 μg/dl). El 43,3% (IC 95% 42,2-44,3%) de los niños presentaron niveles de Zn menores a 65 μg/dl. Los niños pertenecientes a grupos étnicos (indígena) o que residen en áreas rurales; presentaron mayor déficit de Zn (56,3% y 47,8%) respectivamente. Los modelos de regresión muestran que; ser indígena (OR 1,76 IC 95% 1,29-2,41); y residir en zonas rurales (OR 1,39 IC 95% 1,16-1,67), se asociaron al déficit de Zn. Conclusiones: La población estudiada presenta una alta prevalencia de déficit de Zn, por lo que se recomienda intervenciones integrales donde estén involucrados el componente nutricional y educativo.

  18. Magnetic structure of light nuclei from lattice QCD

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, Emmanuel; Detmold, William; Orginos, Kostas; ...

    2015-12-09

    Lattice QCD with background magnetic fields is used to calculate the magnetic moments and magnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons and of light nuclei withmore » $$A\\le4$$, along with the cross-section for the $M1$ transition $$np\\rightarrow d\\gamma$$, at the flavor SU(3)-symmetric point where the pion mass is $$m_\\pi\\sim 806$$ MeV. These magnetic properties are extracted from nucleon and nuclear energies in six uniform magnetic fields of varying strengths. The magnetic moments are presented in a recent Letter. For the charged states, the extraction of the polarizability requires careful treatment of Landau levels, which enter non-trivially in the method that is employed. The nucleon polarizabilities are found to be of similar magnitude to their physical values, with $$\\beta_p=5.22(+0.66/-0.45)(0.23) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$ and $$\\beta_n=1.253(+0.056/-0.067)(0.055) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$, exhibiting a significant isovector component. The dineutron is bound at these heavy quark masses and its magnetic polarizability, $$\\beta_{nn}=1.872(+0.121/-0.113)(0.082) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$ differs significantly from twice that of the neutron. A linear combination of deuteron scalar and tensor polarizabilities is determined by the energies of the $$j_z=\\pm 1$$ deuteron states, and is found to be $$\\beta_{d,\\pm 1}=4.4(+1.6/-1.5)(0.2) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$. The magnetic polarizabilities of the three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems are found to be positive and similar in size to those of the proton, $$\\beta_{^{3}\\rm He}=5.4(+2.2/-2.1)(0.2) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$, $$\\beta_{^{3}\\rm H}=2.6(1.7)(0.1) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$, $$\\beta_{^{4}\\rm He}=3.4(+2.0/-1.9)(0.2) \\times 10^{-4}$$ fm$^3$. Mixing between the $$j_z=0$$ deuteron state and the spin-singlet $np$ state induced by the background magnetic field is used to extract the short-distance two-nucleon counterterm, $${\\bar L}_1$$, of the pionless effective theory for $NN$ systems (equivalent to the

  19. Magnetic structure of light nuclei from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Emmanuel; Detmold, William; Orginos, Kostas; Parreño, Assumpta; Savage, Martin J.; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Beane, Silas R.

    2015-12-09

    Lattice QCD with background magnetic fields is used to calculate the magnetic moments and magnetic polarizabilities of the nucleons and of light nuclei with $A\\le4$, along with the cross-section for the $M1$ transition $np\\rightarrow d\\gamma$, at the flavor SU(3)-symmetric point where the pion mass is $m_\\pi\\sim 806$ MeV. These magnetic properties are extracted from nucleon and nuclear energies in six uniform magnetic fields of varying strengths. The magnetic moments are presented in a recent Letter. For the charged states, the extraction of the polarizability requires careful treatment of Landau levels, which enter non-trivially in the method that is employed. The nucleon polarizabilities are found to be of similar magnitude to their physical values, with $\\beta_p=5.22(+0.66/-0.45)(0.23) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$ and $\\beta_n=1.253(+0.056/-0.067)(0.055) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$, exhibiting a significant isovector component. The dineutron is bound at these heavy quark masses and its magnetic polarizability, $\\beta_{nn}=1.872(+0.121/-0.113)(0.082) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$ differs significantly from twice that of the neutron. A linear combination of deuteron scalar and tensor polarizabilities is determined by the energies of the $j_z=\\pm 1$ deuteron states, and is found to be $\\beta_{d,\\pm 1}=4.4(+1.6/-1.5)(0.2) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$. The magnetic polarizabilities of the three-nucleon and four-nucleon systems are found to be positive and similar in size to those of the proton, $\\beta_{^{3}\\rm He}=5.4(+2.2/-2.1)(0.2) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$, $\\beta_{^{3}\\rm H}=2.6(1.7)(0.1) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$, $\\beta_{^{4}\\rm He}=3.4(+2.0/-1.9)(0.2) \\times 10^{-4}$ fm$^3$. Mixing between the $j_z=0$ deuteron state and the spin-singlet $np$ state induced by the background magnetic field is used to extract the short-distance two-nucleon counterterm, ${\\bar L}_1$, of the pionless effective theory for $NN$ systems (equivalent to the meson-exchange current

  20. Subunit regulation of the neuronal alpha 1A Ca2+ channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    De Waard, M; Campbell, K P

    1995-01-01

    1. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are multi-protein complexes composed of at least three subunits: alpha 1, alpha 2 delta and beta. Ba2+ currents were recorded in Xenopus oocytes expressing the neuronal alpha 1A Ca2+ channel, using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Various subunit combinations were studied: alpha 1A, alpha 1A alpha 2 delta b, alpha 1A beta or alpha 1A alpha 2 delta b beta. 2. The alpha 1A subunit alone directs the expression of functional Ca2+ channels. It carries all the properties of the channel: gating, permeability, voltage dependence of activation and inactivation, and pharmacology. The alpha 1A channel is activated by low voltages when physiological concentrations of the permeant cation are used. Both ancillary subunits alpha 2 delta and beta induced considerable changes in the biophysical properties of the alpha 1A current. The subunit specificity of the changes in current properties was analysed for all four beta gene products by coexpressing beta 1b, beta 2a, beta 3 and beta 4. 3. All beta subunits induce a stimulation in the current amplitude, a change in inactivation kinetics, and two hyperpolarizing shifts--one in the voltage dependence of activation and a second in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. The most significant difference in regulation among beta subunits is the induction of variable rate constants of current inactivation. Rates of inactivation were induced in the following order (fastest to slowest): beta 3 > beta 1b = beta 4 > beta 2a. 4. The alpha 2 delta b subunit does not modify the properties of alpha 1A Ca2+ channels in the absence of beta subunits. However, this subunit increases the beta-induced stimulation in current amplitude and also regulates the beta-induced change in inactivation kinetics. 5. Of all the subunit combinations tested, Ca2+ channels that included a beta subunit were the most prone to decrease in activity. It is concluded that beta subunits are the primary target for the

  1. Risk assessment of hand washing efficacy using literature and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Montville, Rebecca; Chen, Yuhuan; Schaffner, Donald W

    2002-03-01

    This study simulated factors that influence the levels of bacteria on foodservice workers' hands. Relevant data were collected from the scientific literature and from laboratory experiments. Literature information collected included: initial bacterial counts on hands and water faucet spigots, bacterial population changes during hand washing as effected by soap type, sanitizing agent, drying method, and the presence of rings. Experimental data were also collected using Enterobacter aerogenes as a surrogate for transient bacteria. Both literature and experimental data were translated into appropriate discrete or probability distribution functions. The appropriate statistical distribution for each phase of the hand washing process was determined. These distributions were: initial count on hands, beta (2.82, 2.32, 7.5); washing reduction using regular soap, beta (3.01, 1.91, -3.00, 0.60); washing reduction using antimicrobial soap, beta (4.19, 2.99, -4.50, 1.50); washing reduction using chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), triangular (-4.75, -1.00, 0); reductions from hot air drying, beta (3.52, 1.92, -0.20, 1.00); reduction from paper towel drying, triangular (-2.25, -0.75, 0); reduction due to alcohol sanitizer, gamma (-1.23, 4.42) -5.8; reduction due to alcohol-free sanitizer, gamma (2.22, 5.38) -5.00; and the effect of rings, beta (8.55, 23.35, 0.10, 0.45). Experimental data were fit to normal distributions (expressed as log percentage transfer rate): hand-to-spigot transfer, normal (-0.80, 1.09); spigot to hand, normal (0.36, 0.90). Soap with an antimicrobial agent (in particular, CHG) was observed to be more effective than regular soap. Hot air drying had the capacity to increase the amount of bacterial contamination on hands, while paper towel drying caused a slight decrease in contamination. There was little difference in the efficacy of alcohol and alcohol-free sanitizers. Ring wearing caused a slight decrease in the efficacy of hand washing. The experimental data

  2. Differential pattern of integrin receptor expression in differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, S; Maschuw, K; Hassan, I; Reckzeh, B; Wunderlich, A; Lingelbach, S; Zielke, A

    2005-09-01

    Adhesion of tumor cells to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a crucial step for the development of metastatic disease and is mediated by specific integrin receptor molecules (IRM). The pattern of metastatic spread differs substantially among the various histotypes of thyroid cancer (TC). However, IRM have only occasionally been characterized in TC until now. IRM expression was investigated in 10 differentiated (FTC133, 236, 238, HTC, HTC TSHr, XTC, PTC4.0/4.2, TPC1, Kat5) and two anaplastic TC cell lines (ATC, C643, Hth74), primary cultures of normal thyroid tissue (Thy1,3), and thyroid cancer specimens (TCS). Expression of 16 IRM (beta1-4, beta7, alpha1-6, alphaV, alphaIIb, alphaL, alphaM, alphaX) and of four IRM heterodimers (alpha2beta1, alpha5beta1, alphaVbeta3, alphaVbeta5), was analyzed by fluorescent-activated cell sorter (FACS) and immunohistochemical staining. Thyroid tumor cell adhesion to ECM proteins and their IRM expression in response to thyrotropin (TSH) was assessed. Follicular TC cell lines presented high levels of integrins alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, beta1, beta3 and low levels of alpha1, whereas papillary lines expressed a heterogenous pattern of IRM, dominated by alpha5 and beta1. ATC mainly displayed integrins alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, alpha6, beta1 and low levels of alpha1, alpha4 and alphaV. Integrin heterodimers correlated with monomer expression. Evaluation of TCS largely confirmed these results with few exceptions, namely alpha4, alpha6, and beta3. The ability of TC cell lines to adhere to purified ECM proteins correlated with IRM expression. TSH induced TC cell adhesion in a dose-dependent fashion, despite an unchanged array of IRM expression or level of a particular IRM. Thyroid carcinoma cell lines of different histogenetic background display profoundly different patterns of IRM expression that appear to correlate with tumor aggressiveness. In vitro adhesion to ECM proteins and IRM expression concur. Finally, TSH-stimulated adhesion of

  3. Quantitation and structures of oligosaccharide chains in human trachea mucin glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sangadala, S; Bhat, U R; Mendicino, J

    1992-12-02

    Human respiratory mucin glycoproteins from patients with cystic fibrosis were purified and oligosaccharide chains were released by treatment with alkaline borohydride. A neutral oligosaccharide alditol fraction was isolated from mucin obtained from a patient with A blood group determinant by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and individual oligosaccharide chains were then isolated by gel filtration on BioGel P-6 columns and high performance liquid chromatography with gradient and isocratic solvent systems. The structures of the purified oligosaccharides were determined by methylation analysis, sequential glycosidase digestion and 'H-NMR spectroscopy. The amount of each chain was determined by compositional analysis. A wide array of discrete branched oligosaccharide structures that contain from 3 to 22 sugar residues were found. Many of the oligosaccharides are related and appear to be precursors of larger chains. The predominant branched oligosaccharides which accumulate contain terminal blood group H (Fuc alpha 2Ga1 beta 4) or blood group A (Fuc alpha 2(Ga1NAc alpha 3) (Ga1 beta 4) determinants which stop further branching and chain elongation. The elongation of oligosaccharide chains in respiratory mucins occurs on the beta 3-linked G1cNAc at branch points, whereas the beta 6-linked G1cNAc residue ultimately forms short side chains with a Fuc alpha 2(Ga1NAc alpha 3) Ga1 beta 4 G1cNAc beta 6 structure in individuals with A blood group determinant. The results obtained in the current studies further suggest that even higher molecular weight oligosaccharide chains with analogous branched structures are present in some human respiratory mucin glycoproteins. Increasing numbers of the repeating sequence shown in the oligosaccharide below is present in the higher molecular weight chains. [formula: see text] This data in conjunction with our earlier observations on the extensive branching of these oligosaccharide chains helps to define and explain the enormous range of

  4. Spontaneous mobility of GABAA receptor M2 extracellular half relative to noncompetitive antagonist action.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ligong; Durkin, Kathleen A; Casida, John E

    2006-12-15

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor beta(3) homopentamer is spontaneously open and highly sensitive to many noncompetitive antagonists(NCAs) and Zn(2+). Our earlier study of the M2 cytoplasmic half (-1' to 10') established a model in which NCAs bind at pore-lining residues Ala(2)', Thr(6)', and Leu(9)'. To further define transmembrane 2 (M2) structure relative to NCA action, we extended the Cys scanning to the extra cellular half of the beta(3) homopentamer (11' to 20'). Spontaneous disulfides formed with T13'C, L18'C, and E20'C from M2/M2 cross-linking and with I14'C (weak), H17'C, and R19'Con bridging M2/M3 intersubunits, based on single (M2 Cys only) and dual (M2 Cys plus M3 C289S) mutations. Induced disulfides also formed with T16'C, but there were few or none with M11'C, T12'C, and N15'C. These findings show conformational flexibility/mobility in the M2 extracellular half 17' to 20' region interpreted as a deformed beta-like conformation in the open channel. The NCA radioligands used were [(3)H]1-(4-ethynylphenyl)-4-n-propyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane ([(3)H]EBOB) and [(3)H]3,3-bis-trifluoromethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,2-dicarbonitrile with essentially the same results. NCA binding was disrupted by individual Cys substitutions at 13',14',16',17', and 19'. The inactivity of T13'C/T13'S may have been due to disturbance of the channel gate; I14'S and T16'S showed much better binding activity than their Cys counterparts, and the low activities of H17'C and R19'C were reversed by dithiothreitol. Zn(2+) potency for inhibition of [(3)H]EBOB binding was lowered 346-fold by the mutation H17'A. We propose that NCAs enter their binding site both directly, through the channel pore, and indirectly, through the water cavity of adjacent subunits.

  5. 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 causes a rapid increase in phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC-beta activity via phospholipase A2-dependent production of lysophospholipid.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Z; Shaked, D; Hardin, R R; Gruwell, S; Dean, D D; Sylvia, V L; Boyan, B D

    2003-05-01

    1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) activates protein kinase C (PKC) in rat growth plate chondrocytes via mechanisms involving phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). The purpose of this study was to determine if 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) activates PI-PLC directly or through a PLA(2)-dependent mechanism. We determined which PLC isoforms are present in the growth plate chondrocytes, and determined which isoform(s) of PLC is(are) regulated by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Inhibitors and activators of PLA(2) were used to assess the inter-relationship between these two phospholipid-signaling pathways. PI-PLC activity in lysates of prehypertrophic and upper hypertrophic zone (growth zone) cells that were incubated with 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3), was increased within 30s with peak activity at 1-3 min. PI-PLC activity in resting zone cells was unaffected by 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). 1beta,25(OH)(2)D(3), 24R,25(OH)(2)D(3), actinomycin D and cycloheximide had no effect on PLC in lysates of growth zone cells. Thus, 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) regulation of PI-PLC enzyme activity is stereospecific, cell maturation-dependent, and nongenomic. PLA(2)-activation (mastoparan or melittin) increased PI-PLC activity to the same extent as 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3); PLA(2)-inhibition (quinacrine, oleyloxyethylphosphorylcholine (OEPC), or AACOCF(3)) reduced the effect of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Neither arachidonic acid (AA) nor its metabolites affected PI-PLC. In contrast, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) activated PI-PLC (LPE>LPC). 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) stimulated PI-PLC and PKC activities via Gq; GDPbetaS inhibited activity, but pertussis toxin did not. RT-PCR showed that the cells express PLC-beta1a, PLC-beta1b, PLC-beta3 and PLC-gamma1 mRNA. Antibodies to PLC-beta1 and PLC-beta3 blocked the 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) effect; antibodies to PLC-delta and PLC-gamma did not. Thus, 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) regulates PLC-beta through PLA(2)-dependent production of

  6. Thrombospondin modulates melanoma--platelet interactions and melanoma tumour cell growth in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Boukerche, H.; Berthier-Vergnes, O.; Tabone, E.; Bailly, M.; Doré, J. F.; McGregor, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the role of thrombospondin (TSP) as a possible ligand playing a key role in human M3Da. melanoma cell interaction with platelets and in tumour growth. TSP is secreted (80 +/- 6 ng TSP 10(-6) cells) and bound to the surface of M3Da. cells via receptors different from CD36, as shown by biosynthetic labelling and immunofluorescence studies. The levels of TSP binding to M3Da. cells evaluated by binding studies, using an anti-TSP monoclonal antibody (MAb) (LYP8), shows 367,000 +/- 58,000 (mean +/- s.d.) LYP8 binding sites per cell with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 67 nM. TSP binding to M3Da. cells shows 400,000 +/- 50,000 TSP binding sites per cell with a Kd of 10 nM. The capacity of anti-TSP MAb (LYP8) to inhibit M3Da.-platelet interactions was followed on an aggregometer and evaluated by electron microscopy studies. The biological role of TSP binding to M3Da. cells was investigated by implanting subcutaneously the M3Da. cell line in nude mice and following the size and time of in vivo tumour growth. Reducing the availability or the functional level of TSP by using an anti-TSP MAb (LYP8) resulted in a significant decrease in platelet aggregates interacting with M3Da. melanoma cells. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, purified alpha nu beta 3 was shown to bind TSP. Moreover, LYP8-coated M3Da. cells showed a reduced capacity to form tumours in vivo. M3Da. cells were observed to attach and spread on human platelet TSP-coated plastic wells. This attachment by M3Da. cells was inhibited in a similar way by LYP8 and an anti-alpha nu beta 3 MAb (LYP18). The results obtained in this study show that TSP secreted and bound to the surface of a human melanoma cell line (M3Da.) acts as a link between aggregated platelets and the M3Da. cell surface. Moreover, these results shows that TSP can modulate tumour growth in vivo. Reagents such as MAbs directed against TSP and peptides derived from TSP could not only be used as a new therapeutic

  7. Competitive product inhibition of aromatase by natural estrogens.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Yarborough, C; Osawa, Y

    1993-03-01

    In order to better understand the function of aromatase, we carried out kinetic analyses to assess the ability of natural estrogens, estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), 16 alpha-OHE1, and estriol (E3), to inhibit aromatization. Human placental microsomes (50 micrograms protein) were incubated for 5 min at 37 degrees C with [1 beta-3H]testosterone (1.24 x 10(3) dpm 3H/ng, 35-150 nM) or [1 beta-3H,4-14C]androstenedione (3.05 x 10(3) dpm 3H/ng, 3H/14C = 19.3, 7-65 nM) as substrate in the presence of NADPH, with and without natural estrogens as putative inhibitors. Aromatase activity was assessed by tritium released to water from the 1 beta-position of the substrates. Natural estrogens showed competitive product inhibition against androgen aromatization. The Ki of E1, E2, 16 alpha-OHE1, and E3 for testosterone aromatization was 1.5, 2.2, 95, and 162 microM, respectively, where the Km of aromatase was 61.8 +/- 2.0 nM (n = 5) for testosterone. The Ki of E1, E2, 16 alpha-OHE1, and E3 for androstenedione aromatization was 10.6, 5.5, 252, and 1182 microM, respectively, where the Km of aromatase was 35.4 +/- 4.1 nM (n = 4) for androstenedione. These results show that estrogen inhibit the process of androgen aromatization and indicate that natural estrogens regulate their own synthesis by the product inhibition mechanism in vivo. Since natural estrogen binds to the active site of human placental aromatase P-450 complex as competitive inhibitors, natural estrogens might be further metabolized by aromatase. This suggests that human placental estrogen 2-hydroxylase activity is catalyzed by the active site of aromatase cytochrome P-450 and also agrees with the fact that the level of catecholestrogens in maternal plasma increases during pregnancy. The relative affinities and concentration of androgens and estrogens would control estrogen and catecholestrogen biosynthesis by aromatase.

  8. Visceral adiposity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Heno F; Corrêa-Giannella, Maria Lúcia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M; Egan, Brent M

    2016-01-01

    The association of anthropometric (waist circumference) and hemodynamic (blood pressure) changes with abnormalities in glucose and lipid metabolism has been motivation for a lot of discussions in the last 30 years. Nowadays, blood pressure, body mass index/abdominal circumference, glycemia, triglyceridemia, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations are considered in the definition of Metabolic syndrome, referred as Visceral adiposity syndrome (VAS) in the present review. However, more than 250 years ago an association between visceral and mediastinal obesity with hypertension, gout, and obstructive apnea had already been recognized. Expansion of visceral adipose tissue secondary to chronic over-consumption of calories stimulates the recruitment of macrophages, which assume an inflammatory phenotype and produce cytokines that directly interfere with insulin signaling, resulting in insulin resistance. In turn, insulin resistance (IR) manifests itself in various tissues, contributing to the overall phenotype of VAS. For example, in white adipose tissue, IR results in lipolysis, increased free fatty acids release and worsening of inflammation, since fatty acids can bind to Toll-like receptors. In the liver, IR results in increased hepatic glucose production, contributing to hyperglycemia; in the vascular endothelium and kidney, IR results in vasoconstriction, sodium retention and, consequently, arterial hypertension. Other players have been recognized in the development of VAS, such as genetic predisposition, epigenetic factors associated with exposure to an unfavourable intrauterine environment and the gut microbiota. More recently, experimental and clinical studies have shown the autonomic nervous system participates in modulating visceral adipose tissue. The sympathetic nervous system is related to adipose tissue function and differentiation through beta1, beta2, beta3, alpha1, and alpha2 adrenergic receptors. The relation is bidirectional: sympathetic denervation of

  9. Cyclic RGD conjugated poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(lactic acid) micelle enhances paclitaxel anti-glioblastoma effect.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Changyou; Gu, Bing; Xie, Cao; Li, Jin; Liu, Yu; Lu, Weiyue

    2010-04-02

    The use of glioblastoma-targeted drug delivery system facilitates efficient delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to malignant gliomas in the central nervous system while minimizing high systemic doses associated with debilitating toxicities. To employ the high binding affinity of a cyclic RGD peptide (c(RGDyK), cyclic Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-D-Tyrosine-Lysine) with integrin alpha(v)beta(3) over-expressed on tumor neovasculature and U87MG glioblastoma cells, we prepared paclitaxel-loaded c(RGDyK)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) micelle (c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA-PTX). In vitro physicochemical characterization of these novel micelles showed satisfactory encapsulated efficiency, loading capacity and size distribution. In vitro cytotoxicity studies proved that the presence of c(RGDyK) enhanced the anti-glioblastoma cell cytotoxic efficacy by 2.5 folds. The binding affinity of c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA micelle with U87MG cells was also investigated. The competitive binding IC(50) value of c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA micelle was 26.30 nM, even lower than that of c(RGDyK) (56.23 nM). In U87MG glioblastoma-bearing nude mice model, biodistribution of (125)I-radiolabeled c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA or DiR encapsulated micelles and anti-glioblastoma pharmacological effect was investigated after intravenous administration. c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA micelle accumulated in the subcutaneous and intracranial tumor tissue, and when loaded with PTX (c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA-PTX), exhibited the strongest tumor growth inhibition among the studied paclitaxel formulations. The anti-glioblastoma effect of c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA-PTX micelle was also reflected in the median survival time of mice bearing intracranial U87MG tumor xenografts where the median survival time of c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA-PTX micelle-treated mice (48 days) was significantly longer than that of mice treated with PEG-PLA-PTX micelle (41.5 days), Taxol (38.5 days) or saline (34 days). Therefore, our results suggested that c(RGDyK)-PEG-PLA micelle may be a potential

  10. Capsaicin stimulates the non-store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry but inhibits the store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry in neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.-P. . E-mail: w1994@vghtc.gov.tw; Tseng, C.-S.; Sun, S.-P.; Chen, Y.-S.; Tsai, C.-R.; Hsu, M.-F.

    2005-12-01

    Rat neutrophils express the mRNA encoding for transient receptor potential (TRP) V1. However, capsaicin-stimulated [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation occurred only at high concentrations ({>=}100 {mu}M). This response was substantially decreased in a Ca{sup 2+}-free medium. Vanilloids displayed similar patterns of Ca{sup 2+} response with the rank order of potency as follows: scutigeral>resiniferatoxin>capsazepine>capsaicin=olvanil>isovelleral. Arachidonyl dopamine (AAD), an endogenous ligand for TRPV1, failed to desensitize the subsequent capsaicin challenge. Capsaicin-induced Ca{sup 2+} response was not affected by 8-bromo-cyclic ADP-ribose (8-Br-cADPR), the ryanodine receptor blocker, but was slightly attenuated by 1-[6-[17{beta}-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-yl]amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,= 5-dione (U-73122), the inhibitor of phospholipase C-coupled processes, 1-[{beta}-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxyphenethyl]-1H-imidazole (SKF-96365), the blocker of receptor-gated and store-operated Ca{sup 2+} (SOC) channels, 2-aminoethyldiphenyl borate (2-APB), the blocker of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphospahte (IP{sub 3}) receptor and Ca{sup 2+} influx, and by ruthenium red, a blocker of TRPV channels, and enhanced by the Ca{sup 2+} channels blocker, cis-N-(2-phenylcyclopentyl)azacyclotridec-1-en-2-amine (MDL-12330A) and Na{sup +}-deprivation. In addition, capsaicin had no effect on the plasma membrane Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activity or the production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) or on the total thiols content. Capsaicin ({>=}100 {mu}M) inhibited the cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-induced store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE). In the absence of external Ca{sup 2+}, the robust Ca{sup 2+} entry after subsequent addition of Ca{sup 2+} was decreased by capsaicin in CPA-activated cells. Capsaicin alone increased the actin cytoskeleton, and also increased the actin filament content in cell activation with CPA. These results indicate that capsaicin

  11. 4A11, a monoclonal antibody recognizing a novel antigen expressed on aberrant vascular endothelium. Upregulation in an in vivo model of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, A. E.; Nickoloff, B. J.; Holgersson, J.; Seed, B.; Haines, G. K.; Burrows, J. C.; Leibovich, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the production and characterization of a novel monoclonal antibody (MAb) that recognizes a human endothelial cell antigen expressed mainly in inflamed and malignant disease states. We have used immunohistochemistry to determine the spectrum of reactivity of this MAb compared with that of a MAb to factor VIII-related antigen (MAb FVIII). MAb 4A11 does not react with several myeloid or lymphoid cell lines or with peripheral blood cells. Unlike MAb FVIII, MAb 4A11 does not react with platelets. MAb 4A11 reacts with most vascular endothelial cells in lymphoid tissue but with few (< 10%) endothelial cells in thymus, spleen, liver, lung, adrenal gland, placenta, testes, and skin. MAb 4A11 detects endothelial cells in diseased tissues such as rheumatoid and osteoarthritic synovium and psoriatic skin. Vascular endothelial cells in both adrenal tumors and cutaneous Kaposi's sarcomas lesions are MAb 4A11 reactive. In vitro the 4A11 antigen is not detectable on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and its expression is not induced on these cells by treatment with lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma, interleukin-1 and -6, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, in an in vivo model of allergic contact dermatitis the 4A11 antigen is upregulated differentially from other endothelial markers such as E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. In this dermal model of inflammation, poison ivy extract is applied to the skin and biopsies taken at 0, 6, and 24 hours. In addition to focal keratinocyte expression, 4A11 antigen is found on 11% of dermal endothelial cells at time 0 and antigen expression increases with time until 24 hours, when 4A11 antigen is present on 63% of the endothelial cells. Using thin layer chromatography, MAb 4A11 reacts with the H-5-2 [Fuc alpha 2Gal beta 4GlcNAc beta 3Gal beta 4Glc beta 1Cer] and Lewis(y)-6 [Fuc alpha 2Gal beta 4(Fuc alpha 3)GlcNAc beta 3Gal beta 4-Glc beta 1Cer] blood group

  12. Regulation of ITAM adaptor molecules and their receptors by inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT signalling during late stage osteoclast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zawawi, M.S.F.; Dharmapatni, A.A.S.S.K.; Cantley, M.D.; McHugh, K.P.; Haynes, D.R.; Crotti, T.N.

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors FK506 and VIVIT treated human PBMC derived osteoclasts in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential regulation of ITAM receptors and adaptor molecules by calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FK506 and VIVIT suppress ITAM factors during late phase osteoclast differentiation. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts are specialised bone resorptive cells responsible for both physiological and pathological bone loss. Osteoclast differentiation and activity is dependent upon receptor activator NF-kappa-B ligand (RANKL) interacting with its receptor RANK to induce the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1). The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent pathway has been identified as a co-stimulatory pathway in osteoclasts. Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) and triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM2) are essential receptors that pair with adaptor molecules Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcR{gamma}) and DNAX-activating protein 12 kDa (DAP12) respectively to induce calcium signalling. Treatment with calcineurin-NFAT inhibitors, Tacrolimus (FK506) and the 11R-VIVIT (VIVIT) peptide, reduces NFATc1 expression consistent with a reduction in osteoclast differentiation and activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhibiting calcineurin-NFAT signalling on the expression of ITAM factors and late stage osteoclast genes including cathepsin K (CathK), Beta 3 integrin ({beta}3) and Annexin VIII (AnnVIII). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated with RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) over 10 days in the presence or absence of FK506 or VIVIT. Osteoclast formation (as assessed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)) and activity (assessed by dentine pit resorption) were significantly reduced with treatment. Quantitative real

  13. Release of free and conjugated forms of the putative pheromonal steroid 11-oxo-etiocholanolone by reproductively mature male round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1814).

    PubMed

    Katare, Yogesh Kumar; Scott, Alexander P; Laframboise, Alyson J; Li, Weiming; Alyasha'e, Zena; Caputo, Christopher B; Loeb, Stephen J; Zielinski, Barbara

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies of the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1814), an invasive fish species in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America, have shown that this species has the ability to both synthesize and smell steroids that have a 5 beta-reduced and 3 alpha-hydroxyl (5 beta,3 alpha) configuration. An enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) for 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstane-11,17-dione (11-O-ETIO) has been used to show a substantial rise in the rate of release of immunoreactive compounds into the water when males are injected with salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue. Similar increases were noted for 11-ketotestosterone and 17,20 beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one. Partitioning of the extracts between diethyl ether and water showed the presence of both free and conjugated immunoreactive 11-O-ETIO. Only conjugated immunoreactivity was found in urine (implying that free steroid is released via the gills). The identity of the conjugates was probed by using HPLC, EIA, and mass spectrometry and removal of sulfate and glucosiduronate groups. Immunoreactivity in the conjugated fraction was found to be due mainly to 3 alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-androstan-11-one 17-sulfate. However, the evidence was also strong for the presence in water extracts of substantial amounts of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstane-11,17-dione 3-glucosiduronate (which could be detected only by EIA after removal of the glucosiduronate group with beta-glucuronidase). There were also small amounts of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-androstane-11,17-dione 3-sulfate and 3 alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5 beta-androstan-11-one 17-glucosiduronate. These studies give some idea of the types, amounts, and ratios of 11-O-ETIO derivatives that are released by reproductive N. melanostomus and will aid further research into the putative pheromonal roles of 5 beta,3 alpha-reduced androgens in this species.

  14. Expression of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit mRNAs in rat hippocampal GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Son, Jong-Hyun; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H

    2008-11-10

    Hippocampal inhibitory interneurons are a diverse population of cells widely scattered in the hippocampus, where they regulate hippocampal circuit activity. The hippocampus receives cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain, and functional studies have suggested the presence of different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons. Single-cell polymerase chain reaction analysis had confirmed that several nAChR subunit mRNAs are co-expressed with glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), the marker for GABAergic interneurons. In this anatomical study, we systematically investigated the co-expression of GAD67 with different nAChR subunits by using double in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled GAD67 probe and (35)S-labeled probes for nAChR subunits (alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, alpha7, beta2, beta3, and beta4). The results revealed that most GAD67-positive interneurons expressed beta2, and 67 % also expressed alpha7 mRNA. In contrast, mRNA expression of other subunits was limited; only 13 % of GAD67-positive neurons co-expressed alpha4, and less than 10% expressed transcripts for alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, or beta4. Most GAD67/alpha2 co-expression was located in CA1/CA3 stratum oriens, and GAD67/alpha5 co-expression was predominantly detected in CA1/CA3 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare and the dentate gyrus. Expression of alpha6 and beta3 mRNAs was rarely detected in the hippocampus, and mRNAs were not co-expressed with GAD67. These findings suggest that the majority of nicotinic responses in GABAergic interneurons should be mediated by a homomeric alpha7 or heteromeric alpha7*-containing nAChRs. Other possible combinations such as alpha2beta2*, alpha4beta2*, or alpha5beta2* heteromeric nAChRs could contribute to functional nicotinic response in subsets of GABAergic interneurons but overall would have a minor role.

  15. Pharmacological characterisation of the thermogenic effect of bupropion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Ling; Connoley, Ian P; Heal, David J; Stock, Michael J

    2004-09-13

    The pharmacological mechanism of bupropion's thermogenic effect has been investigated in female Wistar rats by measuring oxygen consumption at thermoneutrality (29 degrees C). Bupropion (30 mg/kg) rapidly increased oxygen consumption (VO2) with a maximum effect at 30 min, and VO2 remained elevated throughout the 4-h experimental period. The nonselective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin) receptor antagonist, metergoline (1 mg/kg), and the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (1 mg/kg), had no effect on the VO2 response to bupropion, whereas the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, RS79948 [(8aR, 12aS, 13aS)-5,8,8a,9,10,11,12,12a,13,13a-decahydro-3-methoxy-12-(ethylsulphonyl)-6H-isoquino[2,1-g][1,6]-naphthyridine hydrochloride] (1 mg/kg), potentiated the response. The VO2 response to bupropion during the first 60 min was significantly inhibited by a high dose of the nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (20 mg/kg), but it had no effect at a low dose (1 mg/kg). Pretreatment with the dopamine D2/D1 receptor antagonist, (+)butaclamol (200 microg/kg), caused a partial, but significant, inhibition (P<0.01) of the VO2 response to bupropion during the first 60 min, and this antagonist abolished the effect of bupropion between 90 and 240 min. Pretreatment with a combination of a high dose of propranolol (20 mg/kg) and (+)butaclamol (200 microg/kg) prevented any increase in VO2 induced by bupropion. It is concluded that the beta3-adrenoceptor subtype, as well as dopamine D2/D1 receptors, is responsible for the increase in oxygen consumption induced by bupropion. We have previously demonstrated that bupropion did not significantly reduce food intake in rats. Hence, in this species, its weight-reducing action predominantly results from thermogenesis mediated via activation of beta3-adrenergic and dopamine D2/D1 receptors. Because bupropion has also been reported not to alter food intake in the clinic, thermogenesis may also contribute to its antiobesity

  16. [Nutrition and child development II; a comparison of physical development in two school children groups with different income level (Rev Clin Esp 1944; 12:155-164) ].

    PubMed

    Grande Covián, F; Rof Carballo, J; Jiménez García, F

    2014-09-01

    El estudio comparativo de dos grupos de niños en edad escolar y de nivel económico diferente demuestra que los que pertenecen a un suburbio madrileño económicamente pobre sufren un retraso en el crecimiento que se caracteriza por una talla y un peso inferiores en relación con la edad. El retraso del peso corporal es proporcionalmente mayor al de la talla. Cuando se calcula según WETZEL la edad que teóricamente corresponde al desarrollo corporal de estos niños se observa un retraso de 2,94 años para una edad término medio de 10,14 años. El retraso global del desarrollo somático representa por tanto el 29 por 100 de la edad cronológica media. Este retraso en el desarrollo debe atribuirse principalmente a causas dietéticas y no solo a carencias específicas, sino sobre todo a insuficiencia cuantitativa en la dieta consumida. Desde el punto de vista cualitativo es probablemente la falta de leche en la dieta uno de los más importantes factores en la génesis de este trastorno del desarrollo.

  17. The growth cone as seen through Cajal's original histological preparations and publications.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marin, Virginia; Garcia-Lopez, Pablo; Freire, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    During the development of the nervous system, each neuron must contact its appropriate target cell in order to establish its specific connections. More than a century ago, Ramon y Cajal discovered an amoeboid-like structure at the end of the axon of developing nerve cells. He called this structure the growth cone [cono de crecimiento] and he proposed that this structure was guided towards its target tissue by chemical substances secreted by the different cells that line its course. We have reviewed the discovery of the growth cone by Cajal using his original publications, his original scientific drawings, and by studying his histological preparations conserved at the "Instituto Cajal" (Madrid, Spain).(1) We found a very good correlation between the structure of the growth cone in the Golgi-impregnated and reduced silver-nitrate-stained material used by Cajal, and that which is revealed with present-day methods. Finally, Cajal's view of the function of the growth cone and his chemotactic hypothesis will also be considered in the light of present-day knowledge.

  18. [Anthropometric measures in urban child population from 6 to 12 years from the northwest of México].

    PubMed

    Brito-Zurita, Olga Rosa; López-Leal, Josefa; Exiga-González, Emma Beatriz; Armenta-Llanes, Oscar; Jorge-Plascencia, Blanca; Domínguez-Banda, Alberto; López-Morales, Mónica; Ornelas-Aguirre, José Manuel; Sabag-Ruiz, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el grado de sobrepeso-obesidad tendrá variaciones de acuerdo con las condiciones de cada población, según el ámbito geográfico, la raza o etnia, el status socioeconómico y la susceptibilidad de cada individuo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar medidas antropométricas en la población infantil urbana de 6 a 12 años de Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. MÉTODOS: se estudiaron 684 escolares de 6 a 12 años de edad, sanos y de ambos géneros de la zona urbana de Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, en quienes se midieron peso, talla, perímetro braquial (PB), cintura e índice de masa corporal (IMC). Se realizó estadística descriptiva mediante frecuencias, porcentajes, e inferencial mediante t de Student para comparar las tablas de crecimiento de Ramos Galván y las del Centro para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC).

  19. [Applicability of BMI in adolescent students living at moderate altitude of Perú].

    PubMed

    Cossio Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Viveros Flores, Antonio; Eduardo Hespanhol, Jefferson; Camargo, Cristiane; Gomez Campos, Rossana

    2014-11-01

    Introducción y objetivos: El uso del IMC es muy cuestionado, sobretodo, en poblaciones en fase de crecimiento que se caracterizan por presentar baja estatura para su edad. El objetivo es verificar si el IMC es aplicable a una muestra de escolares adolescentes que viven en una región de moderada altitud del Perú. Material y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en 319 adolescentes escolares (181 hombres y 138 mujeres) de 12,0 a 17,9 años de edad. Se evaluó las variables antropométricas del peso y la estatura. Se calculó el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC). Se utilizó la referencia del CDC-2000 para comparar el peso y estatura a partir del Z-score y el IMC por medio de diferencia de medias. Resultados: El Z-score para el peso corporal mostró pequeñas variaciones (entre -0,3 a 0,3 kg). En la estatura se observa valores negativos para ambos sexos (hombres entre -0,3 a -1,3 cm y mujeres entre -0,5 a 1,3 cm). Respecto al IMC, hubo diferencias significativas en todas la edades y en ambos sexos (p.

  20. [Hemorrhagic colloid cyst of the third ventricle: fulminant deterioration].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gómez, Debora; Joanes, Vicente; Herrera, Juan Manuel; Rivera-Paz, Marlon; Vanaclocha, Vicente

    2015-03-16

    Introduccion. Los quistes coloides son tumores benignos del tercer ventriculo. La mayoria permanecen asintomaticos. Sin embargo, algunos pacientes pueden desarrollar desde cefaleas intermitentes hasta un deterioro agudo e incluso muerte subita. Existen varias teorias por las que se produciria una muerte subita en estos pacientes, entre las que se incluyen el rapido crecimiento del quiste, su rotura, la alteracion del control cardiovascular reflejo mediado por el hipotalamo y, rara vez, el sangrado del quiste, con solo 15 casos descritos en la bibliografia. Caso clinico. Varon de 45 años, con hipertension arterial como unico antecedente de interes, que sufre un deterioro brusco del nivel de consciencia a causa de una hidrocefalia aguda debida a un quiste coloide hemorragico del tercer ventriculo. Se implanto un drenaje ventricular externo en cada lado e ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, donde se certifico la muerte encefalica. Tras la extirpacion del quiste mediante abordaje transcortical frontal, se confirmo el diagnostico de quiste coloide con restos de material hemolizado subagudo. Conclusion. La hemorragia en los quistes coloides es excepcional y puede producirse en pacientes tanto sintomaticos como asintomaticos, lo que dificulta, de forma extraordinaria, el reconocimiento de esta complicacion.

  1. [Recurring post-traumatic growing skull fracture].

    PubMed

    San Martín-García, Isabel; Aguilera-Albesa, Sergio; Zazpe-Cenoz, Idoya; Yoldi-Petri, M Eugenia

    2015-04-16

    Introduccion. La fractura craneal evolutiva, tambien llamada absorcion osea postraumatica o quiste leptomeningeo, es una rara complicacion de los traumatismos craneoencefalicos y ocurre de forma casi exclusiva en ninos menores de 3 anos. Caso clinico. Nino de 6 meses que presentaba, dos meses despues de un traumatismo craneal aparentemente banal, persistencia de cefalohematoma temporooccipital izquierdo sin otros signos. El estudio de ecografia transfontanelar revelo un defecto oseo con herniacion cerebral, y la tomografia computarizada y la resonancia magnetica confirmaron, ademas, una fractura evolutiva. Se realizo reseccion del quiste encefalomeningeo, cierre dural y reparacion del defecto oseo con placas y material de lactato. Tres meses despues de la intervencion, presentaba persistencia de coleccion liquida y se confirmo recidiva de la fractura evolutiva. Tras la reintervencion, se coloco casco ortesico para evitar nuevas recidivas. Un ano despues del traumatismo, el paciente continua asintomatico. Conclusiones. Todo nino menor de 3 anos con cefalohematoma postraumatico deberia ser revisado de forma periodica hasta comprobar la resolucion de la coleccion, en particular si presenta fractura craneal. La presencia de un cefalohematoma persistente mas de dos semanas despues de un traumatismo craneoencefalico debe hacernos sospechar un proceso de fractura creciente, y son necesarias la reparacion de la duramadre y una craneoplastia para su tratamiento. La colocacion de material reabsorbible permite su remodelacion con el crecimiento craneal del paciente, pero su fragilidad conlleva riesgo de recidiva. La colocacion de un casco ortesico tras la intervencion podria prevenir complicaciones.

  2. Regulación del flujo sanguíneo uterino. II. Funciones de estrógeno y receptores estrogénicos α/β en acciones genómicas y no-genómicas del endotelio uterino *

    PubMed Central

    Mayra, Pastore R.; Rosalina, Villalón L.; López, Gladys; Iruretagoyena, Jesús; Magness, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El embarazo está marcado por cambios y adaptaciones cardiovasculares que son importantes para el crecimiento y mantenimiento de la placenta y el feto. Durante este periodo, las adaptaciones vasculares uterinas manifiestan cambios clasificados como de corto o largo plazo los cuales están relacionados con adaptaciones vasodilatadoras, angiogénicas o de remodelación. El estrógeno y los receptores estrogénicos clásicos (REs), RE-α y RE-β, han demostrado ser parcialmente responsables por facilitar el incremento dramático en el fluido sanguíneo uterino necesario durante el embarazo. En ésta revisión bibliográfica se discuten la base estructural para la diversidad y selectividad funcional de los REs por el estrógeno, el papel de los REs sobre los efectos genómicos y no-genómicos en células endoteliales de arterias uterinas (CEAU). Estos temas integran el conocimiento científico sobre la regulación molecular de CEAU para mantener el incremento fisiológico en la perfusión útero-placentaria observada durante un embarazo normal. PMID:26113751

  3. [Neuronal communication and synaptic metabolism in childhood epilepsy].

    PubMed

    García-Cazorla, Àngels; Cortès-Saladelafont, Elisenda; Duarte, Sofia

    2015-03-01

    Introduccion. Los conocimientos que la neurociencia basica y el neurometabolismo estan aportando en epilepsia pediatrica, y en concreto en mecanismos de comunicacion sinaptica, crecen rapidamente. Existe, no obstante, una desconexion entre estos avances y una vision que los integre de manera global y en la practica clinica y terapeutica. Objetivos. Ofrecer una vision integradora de los diferentes mecanismos moleculares y metabolicos que se conocen y postulan en epilepsia pediatrica, y sugerir conceptos como el de 'metabolismo sinaptico' y 'fenotipos sinapticos' como herramientas utiles para desarrollar este enfoque. Desarrollo. Se revisan los estudios mas destacados que intentan explicar las caracteristicas esenciales de la comunicacion sinaptica en el cerebro en desarrollo, a traves de diferentes moleculas, basicamente proteinas sinapticas, canales ionicos (cotransportadores de cloro, sodio y potasio), la compartimentalizacion pre y postsinaptica, y los principales actores metabolicos (neurotransmisores, metabolismo energetico, factores de crecimiento y lipidos). A partir de esta combinacion de mecanismos biologicos se sugieren ejemplos de 'fenotipos sinapticos' en dos casos concretos de epilepsia genetica (SCN1A) y metabolica (epilepsia con respuesta a la piridoxina). Conclusiones. Una perspectiva holistica, entendiendo la diversidad de elementos relacionados y que suceden en determinados momentos del neurodesarrollo, puede ayudar a delinear fenotipos, vias de metabolismo sinaptico y conectividad cerebral, que faciliten no solo la comprension de la fisiopatologia, sino nuevas aproximaciones terapeuticas en epilepsia pediatrica.

  4. La dinámica demográfica y la desigualdad educativa en Méxicoa

    PubMed Central

    Giorguli Saucedo, Silvia E.; Vargas Valle, Eunice D.; Ulloa, Viviana Salinas; Hubert, Celia; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta una investigación sobre el vínculo entre los procesos educativos y la dinámica demográfica en México. La tradición del pensamiento sobre población y desarrollo ha partido de la hipótesis de que el ritmo de crecimiento poblacional, el tamaño de las familias y la migración influyen sobre la acumulación de capital humano entre la población en edades escolares. Se explora aquí la relación del desempeño educativo de los jóvenes entre 14 y 23 años y la razón de dependencia juvenil, la fecundidad adolescente y la migración interna e internacional; para ello se utilizan datos agregados a escala municipal del año 2000. El análisis incluye indicadores de la oferta educativa municipal basados en estadísticas administrativas de la SEP. PMID:26146427

  5. Hysteresis loop behaviors of ferroelectric thin films: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Bedoya-Hincapié, C.; H. Ortiz-Álvarez, H.; Restrepo-Parra, E.; J. Olaya-Flórez, J.; E. Alfonso, J.

    2015-11-01

    The ferroelectric response of bismuth titanate Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) thin film is studied through a Monte Carlo simulation of hysteresis loops. The ferroelectric system is described by using a Diffour Hamiltonian with three terms: the electric field applied in the z direction, the nearest dipole-dipole interaction in the transversal (x-y) direction, and the nearest dipole-dipole interaction in the direction perpendicular to the thin film (the z axis). In the sample construction, we take into consideration the dipole orientations of the monoclinic and orthorhombic structures that can appear in BIT at low temperature in the ferroelectric state. The effects of temperature, stress, and the concentration of pinned dipole defects are assessed by using the hysteresis loops. The results indicate the changes in the hysteresis area with temperature and stress, and the asymmetric hysteresis loops exhibit evidence of the imprint failure mechanism with the emergence of pinned dipolar defects. The simulated shift in the hysteresis loops conforms to the experimental ferroelectric response. Project sponsored by the research departments of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia DIMA and DIB under Project 201010018227-“Crecimiento y caracterización eléctrica y estructural de películas delgadas de BixTiyOz producidas mediante Magnetrón Sputtering” and Project 12920-“Desarrollo teóricoexperimental de nanoestructuras basadas en Bismuto y materiales similares” and “Bisnano Project.”

  6. [Weight-for-age percentile curves for the population of Catamarca province (Argentina)].

    PubMed

    López Barbancho, Diego; Terán de Frutos, José Manuel; Candelas González, Nieves; Díaz de Luna, María Cristina; Marrodán Serrano, María Dolores; Lomaglio, Delia Beatriz

    2014-09-12

    Introducción: La evaluación del desarrollo fetal y del peso al nacimiento es un objetivo prioritario en el ámbito de la epidemiología nutricional y de la salud pública. En la actualidad, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) no dispone de curvas específicas de peso al nacimiento para las distintas semanas gestacionales al considerar que las características socioeconómicas, ecológicas y étnicas de los distintos grupos humanos influyen en sus propios patrones de crecimiento. Objetivo: La presente investigación desarrolla las curvas percentilares de peso por edad gestacional para las poblaciones residentes en la provincia de Catamarca. Métodos: El procesamiento de los datos se llevó a cabo con el programa SPSS y para la posterior realización de las curvas percentilares se utilizó el programa LMS Chart Maker pro, a partir de un total de 22.576 nacimientos ocurridos entre 1994 y 2003. Discusión y conclusiones: Dichas curvas posibilitarán en el futuro una mejor valoración del desarrollo intrauterino y del peso de los recién nacidos en esta región del Noroeste de Argentina.

  7. [Anorexia-cachexia frequency and its gastrointestinal symptoms association in paliative patients at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México].

    PubMed

    Pérez Camargo, Dana Aline; Allende Pérez, Silvia R; Meneses García, Abelardo; De Nicola Delfin, Luigina; Copca Mendoza, Erika Thalía; Sánchez López, Miriam S; Flores García, Martha Karen; Verástegui Avilés, Emma

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: La anorexia-caquexia es un síndrome frecuente en pacientes oncológicos, particularmente en etapas avanzadas: la prevalencia global de anorexia-caquexia para-neoplásica oscila entre el 20-40% en los enfermos en la fase diagnóstica, y entre el 70–80% en la fase avanzada de la enfermedad. En los enfermos oncológicos es frecuente la coexistencia de alteraciones digestivas estructurales o funcionales, secundarias al crecimiento tumoral y a los fenómenos sistémicos de carácter metabólico, determinados por la interrelación tumor-huésped específicos de la anorexia-caquexia. Objetivo: El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer la frecuencia de anorexia-caquexia, y su asociación con síntomas gastrointestinales en pacientes en terreno paliativo del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Ciudad de México, atendidos en el servicio de Cuidados Paliativos. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico. Se incluyeron 100 pacientes con diagnóstico de cáncer avanzado, con un rango de edad de 18 y 80 años, y una puntuación de Karnofsky > 50, así como un ECOG.

  8. [Pathogenesis of spinal cord injuries and mechanisms of repair induced by olfactory ensheathing cells].

    PubMed

    Botero, Lucía; Gomez, Rosa Margarita; Chaparro, Orlando

    2013-05-16

    Introduccion. La lesion medular es un evento catastrofico, cuyas consecuencias persisten durante toda la vida del paciente. La investigacion en tratamiento se ha basado principalmente en el desarrollo de terapias que reduzcan la discapacidad, pero desde los anos noventa hay un avance significativo y se han probado varios trasplantes celulares en modelos animales de lesion medular, celulas de Schwann, astrocitos y celulas de la glia envolvente olfatoria (CGEO). Objetivo. Hacer un recuento detallado de la patogenia de la lesion medular primaria y secundaria y de los mecanismos por los cuales las CGEO inducirian sus posibles efectos regenerativos descritos en la bibliografia. Desarrollo. Despues del traumatismo, la lesion se desarrolla en dos fases, la primaria se caracteriza por las lesiones de compresion y la secundaria se produce por una serie de factores que se dan en paralelo y que incluyen factores vasculares, celulares, moleculares y formacion de cicatriz glial. La mayoria de los modelos de lesion medular y trasplante con CGEO han comunicado recuperacion funcional, remielinizacion y regeneracion axonal. Estas celulas ejercen su accion de manera indirecta a traves de la produccion de factores de crecimiento y de manera directa induciendo regeneracion neuronal, axonal y remielinizacion. Conclusiones. Las CGEO son una opcion terapeutica en pacientes con lesion medular debido a que inducen de modo directo o indirecto regeneracion neuronal, axonal, remielinizacion de axones, disminucion de cicatriz glial y otros efectos que conducen a la recuperacion funcional.

  9. [Low grade fibromixoid sarcoma: a purpose of 3 cases and review of the bibliography].

    PubMed

    Citores-Pascual, Miguel Angel; Tinoco-Carrasco, Claudia; Arenal-Vera, Juan José; Benito-Fernández, César; Torres-Nieto, María de Los Ángeles; Zamora-Martínez, Tomás

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: el sarcoma fibromixoide de bajo grado o tumor de Evans es una variedad de sarcoma de partes blandas que representa el 1% de todos los tumores malignos. Más frecuente en extremidades y tronco (50%), presentamos tres nuevos casos de localización retroperitoneal. Se revisan sus características y se realiza actualización bibliográfica. Casos clínicos: en su localización retroperitoneal destaca lo inespecífico de su sintomatología clínica, se manifiesta en función de su crecimiento y tamaño, como una tumoración abdominal, habitualmente indolora, o por la compresión y/o invasión de estructuras próximas. Los casos presentados se manifestaron, por la presencia de tumoración abdominal, sin otra sintomatología; a pesar de infiltrar a otros órganos. Conclusiones: el diagnóstico preoperatorio es difícil, y debe tenerse la presunción clínica para solicitar el estudio histológico, con tipificación inmuno-histo-química para su dentificación precisa.

  10. RGD peptides and monoclonal antibodies, antagonists of alpha(v)-integrin, enter the cells by independent endocytic pathways.

    PubMed

    Castel, S; Pagan, R; Mitjans, F; Piulats, J; Goodman, S; Jonczyk, A; Huber, F; Vilaró, S; Reina, M

    2001-12-01

    Cyclic synthetic peptides containing the arginine-glycine-aspartate motif (cRGD) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeted for individual integrins have been developed as potential therapeutic drugs for the treatment of several diseases. We showed that a cRGD peptide targeted for alpha(v)beta(3) was internalized in alpha(v)-integrin expressing and nonexpressing melanoma cells by an integrin independent fluid-phase endocytosis pathway that does not alter the number of functional integrin receptors at the cell surface. In contrast, a blocking mAb directed to alpha(v) was internalized by an integrin-dependent endocytosis pathway that reduced the number of functional integrin receptors at the cell surface. We prove that melanoma cells pretreated with the mAb do not readhere to the substrate, whereas cells pretreated with cRGD peptide retain their readhesion capacity. Given the growing importance of RGD peptides, knowledge of these cellular mechanisms is required to improve the development of antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  11. Physical and biological characterization of a growth-inhibitory activity purified from the neuroepithelioma cell line A673.

    PubMed Central

    Stam, K; Stewart, A A; Qu, G Y; Iwata, K K; Fenyö, D; Chait, B T; Marshak, D R; Haley, J D

    1995-01-01

    Epithelial- and haematopoietic-cell growth-inhibitory activities have been identified in the conditioned medium of the human peripheral neuroepithelioma cell line A673. An A673-cell-derived growth-inhibitory activity was previously fractionated into two distinct components which inhibited the proliferation of human carcinoma and leukaemia cells in culture. One inhibitory activity was shown to comprise interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha). Here, we have purified to homogeneity a distinct activity which inhibited the growth of the epithelial cells in vitro. Using a combination of protein-sequence analysis and mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that biological activity can be assigned to a dimeric protein with a molecular mass of 25,576 (+/- 4) Da and an N-terminal sequence identical with that of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). Further characterization of the growth inhibitor with TGF-beta-isoform-specific antibodies showed that > 90% of the bioactivity consists of TGF-beta 1 and not TGF-beta 2 or TGF-beta 3. Although A673 cells were growth-inhibited by exogenous TGF-beta 1, we showed that TGF-beta 1 in A673-cell-conditioned media was present in the latent, biologically inactive, form which did not act as an autocrine growth modulator of A673 cells in vitro. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7826358

  12. Exercise before or after refeeding prevents refeeding-induced recovery of cell size after fasting with a different pattern of metabolic gene expressions in rat epididymal adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takuya; Takei, Megumi; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Ueda, Hiroshi; Kizaki, Takako; Ohno, Hideki; Izawa, Tetsuya

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the effect of exercise before or after refeeding on cell size and on the expression of several messenger RNAs (mRNAs) involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis in fasted rat epididymal adipocytes. Fasting for 65 hours reduced the diameter of adipocytes to 72.0 microm from 78.4 microm in fed control rats, whereas refeeding for 1 or 2 days restored adipocyte size to 74.0 or 75.8 microm, respectively. Exercise before or after refeeding blocked refeeding-induced restoration of adipocyte size and led to adipocyte size similar to that observed after fasting. Fasting dramatically reduced expression of the fatty acid synthase mRNA, although expression of this gene returned to the control level after refeeding. However, exercise after but not before refeeding inhibited recovery of the expression of fatty acid synthase mRNA resulting from refeeding. In contrast, exercise before but not after refeeding led to enhanced expression of mRNAs encoding the hormone-sensitive lipase and beta(3)-aderenoceptor. Thus, exercise before or after refeeding prevents refeeding-induced restoration of adipocyte size after fasting via different pathways. Exercise before and after refeeding enhanced the expression of lipolytic mRNAs or inhibited the expression of lipogenic mRNAs, respectively.

  13. An exome sequencing study of Moebius syndrome including atypical cases reveals an individual with CFEOM3A and a TUBB3 mutation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, David; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Jhangiani, Shalini; Lu, James T.; Sutton, V. Reid; Fernbach, Susan D.; Azamian, Mahshid; White, Lisa; Edmond, Jane C.; Paysse, Evelyn A.; Belmont, John W.; Muzny, Donna; Lupski, James R.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lewis, Richard Alan; Lee, Brendan H.; Lalani, Seema R.

    2017-01-01

    Moebius syndrome is characterized by congenital unilateral or bilateral facial and abducens nerve palsies (sixth and seventh cranial nerves) causing facial weakness, feeding difficulties, and restricted ocular movements. Abnormalities of the chest wall such as Poland anomaly and variable limb defects are frequently associated with this syndrome. Most cases are isolated; however, rare families with autosomal dominant transmission with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity have been described. The genetic basis of this condition remains unknown. In a cohort study of nine individuals suspected to have Moebius syndrome (six typical, three atypical), we performed whole-exome sequencing to try to identify a commonly mutated gene. Although no such gene was identified and we did not find mutations in PLXND1 and REV3L, we found a de novo heterozygous mutation, p.E410K, in the gene encoding tubulin beta 3 class III (TUBB3), in an individual with atypical Moebius syndrome. This individual was diagnosed with near-complete ophthalmoplegia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and absence of the septum pellucidum. No substantial limb abnormalities were noted. Mutations in TUBB3 have been associated with complex cortical dysplasia and other brain malformations and congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3A (CFEOM3A). Our report highlights the overlap of genetic etiology and clinical differences between CFEOM and Moebius syndrome and describes our approach to identifying candidate genes for typical and atypical Moebius syndrome. PMID:28299356

  14. Fibrin and collagen differentially but synergistically regulate sprout angiogenesis of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells in 3-dimensional matrix.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaodong; Tonnesen, Marcia G; Mousa, Shaker A; Clark, Richard A F

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a highly regulated event involving complex, dynamic interactions between microvascular endothelial cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Alteration of ECM composition and architecture is a hallmark feature of wound clot and tumor stroma. We previously reported that during angiogenesis, endothelial cell responses to growth factors are modulated by the compositional and mechanical properties of a surrounding three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) that is dominated by either cross-linked fibrin or type I collagen. However, the role of 3D ECM in the regulation of angiogenesis associated with wound healing and tumor growth is not well defined. This study investigates the correlation of sprout angiogenesis and ECM microenvironment using in vivo and in vitro 3D angiogenesis models. It demonstrates that fibrin and type I collagen 3D matrices differentially but synergistically regulate sprout angiogenesis. Thus blocking both integrin alpha v beta 3 and integrin alpha 2 beta 1 might be a novel strategy to synergistically block sprout angiogenesis in solid tumors.

  15. Sustained phenotypic reversion of junctional epidermolysis bullosa dog keratinocytes: Establishment of an immunocompetent animal model for cutaneous gene therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Spirito, Flavia; Capt, Annabelle; Rio, Marcela Del; Larcher, Fernando; Guaguere, Eric; Danos, Olivier; Meneguzzi, Guerrino . E-mail: meneguzz@unice.fr

    2006-01-20

    Gene transfer represents the unique therapeutic issue for a number of inherited skin disorders including junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), an untreatable genodermatose caused by mutations in the adhesion ligand laminin 5 ({alpha}3{beta}3{gamma}2) that is secreted in the extracellular matrix by the epidermal basal keratinocytes. Because gene therapy protocols require validation in animal models, we have phenotypically reverted by oncoretroviral transfer of the curative gene the keratinocytes isolated from dogs with a spontaneous form of JEB associated with a genetic mutation in the {alpha}3 chain of laminin 5. We show that the transduced dog JEB keratinocytes: (1) display a sustained secretion of laminin 5 in the extracellular matrix; (2) recover the adhesion, proliferation, and clonogenic capacity of wild-type keratinocytes; (3) generate fully differentiated stratified epithelia that after grafting on immunocompromised mice produce phenotypically normal skin and sustain permanent expression of the transgene. We validate an animal model that appears particularly suitable to demonstrate feasibility, efficacy, and safety of genetic therapeutic strategies for cutaneous disorders before undertaking human clinical trials.

  16. Nanomechanics of Engineered Articular Cartilage: Synergistic Influences of Transforming Growth Factor-β3 and Oscillating Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Van Wie, Bernard J.

    2016-01-01

    Articular cartilage (AC), tissue with the lowest volumetric cellular density, is not supplied with blood and nerve resulting in limited ability for self-repair upon injury. Because there is no treatment capable of fully restoring damaged AC, tissue engineering is being investigated. The emphasis of this field is to engineer functional tissues in vitro in bioreactors capable of mimicking in vivo environments required for appropriate cellular growth and differentiation. In a step towards engineering AC, human adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated in a unique centrifugal bioreactor under oscillating hydrostatic pressure (OHP) and supply of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) that mimic in vivo environments. Static micromass and pellet cultures were used as controls. Since withstanding and absorbing loads are among the main functions of an AC, mechanical properties of the engineered AC tissues were assayed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) under a controlled indentation depth of 100 nm. Young's moduli of elasticity were quantified by modeling AFM force-indentation data using the Hertz model of contact mechanics. We found exposure to OHP causes cartilage constructs to have 45-fold higher Young's moduli compared to static cultures. Addition of TGF-β3 further increases Young's moduli in bioreactor samples by 1.9-fold bringing it within 70.6% of the values estimated for native cartilage. Our results imply that OHP and TGF-β3 act synergistically to improve the mechanics of engineered tissues. PMID:27455774

  17. Specific expression of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 fusion protein in fat body of Bombyx mori silkworm larvae using signal peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y. . E-mail: yspark@agr.shizuoka.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    Bombyxin (bx) and prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppae) signal peptides from Bombyx mori, their modified signal peptides, and synthetic signal peptides were investigated for the secretion of GFP{sub uv}-{beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 (GGT2) fusion protein in B. mori Bm5 cells and silkworm larvae using cysteine protease deficient B. mori multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmMNPV-CP{sup -} ) and its bacmid. The secretion efficiencies of all signal peptides were 15-30% in Bm5 cells and 24-30% in silkworm larvae, while that of the +16 signal peptide was 0% in Bm5 cells and 1% in silkworm larvae. The fusion protein that contained the +16 signal peptide was expressed specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and in the fractions of cell precipitations. Ninety-four percent of total intracellular {beta}1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ({beta}3GnT) activity was detected in cell precipitations following the 600, 8000, and 114,000g centrifugations. In the case of the +38 signal peptide, 60% of total intracellular activity was detected in the supernatant from the 114,000g spin, and only 1% was found in the precipitate. Our results suggest that the +16 signal peptide might be situated in the transmembrane region and not cleaved by signal peptidase in silkworm or B. mori cells. Therefore, the fusion protein connected to the +16 signal peptide stayed in the fat body of silkworm larvae with biological function, and was not secreted extracellularly.

  18. Novel approach for formation of platelet-like particles from mouse embryonic stem cells without using feeder cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kayoko; Ohnuma, Masaaki; Jung, Stephanie M; Moroi, Masaaki

    2009-01-01

    Megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelet-like particles (PLPs) have generally been obtained by culturing embryonic stem (ES) cells over feeder cells. However, using feeder cells need many labor-consuming processes and the MK and PLP fractions obtained are often contaminated by such cells and their fragments. Here we describe our new culture system for differentiating mouse ES cells to MKs and PLPs without using feeder cells. ES cells are differentiated to cells with MK-like morphology and properties, including proplatelet formation, high ploidy (>8N), and CD41 expression. The culture medium contained PLPs expressing platelet glycoproteins, CD41 and GPIb. Integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) of PLPs can be activated by thrombin. Addition of the metalloproteinase inhibitor TAPI-2 to the culture increased the surface expression of GPIbalpha and augmented the adhesion of PLPs to immobilized von Willebrand factor through decreasing the shedding of GPIbalpha. Thus our mouse ES cells culture system is a suitable and efficient method for obtaining MKs and functional PLPs that obviates the need for feeder cells.

  19. Impaired megakaryocytopoiesis in type 2B von Willebrand disease with severe thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Nurden, Paquita; Debili, Najet; Vainchenker, William; Bobe, Regis; Bredoux, Raymonde; Corvazier, Elisabeth; Combrie, Robert; Fressinaud, Edith; Meyer, Dominique; Nurden, Alan T; Enouf, Jocelyne

    2006-10-15

    In type 2B von Willebrand disease, there is spontaneous binding of mutated von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers to platelets. Here we report a family in which severe thrombocytopenia may also be linked to abnormal megakaryocytopoiesis. A heterozygous mutation in the VWF A1 domain gave a R1308P substitution in an interactive site for glycoprotein Ibalpha (GPIbalpha). Electron microscopy showed clusters of platelets in close contact. Binding of antibodies to the GPIbalpha N-terminal domain was decreased, whereas GPIX and GPV were normally detected. In Western blotting (WB), GPIbalpha, alphaIIb, and beta3 were normally present. Proteins involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis were analyzed by quantitating platelet mRNA or by WB. Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA)-4b and type III inositol trisphosphate receptor (InsP(3)-R3) were selectively increased. The presence of degradation products of polyadenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose polymerase protein (PARP) suggested ongoing caspase-3 activity. These were findings typical of immature normal megakaryocytes cultured from peripheral blood CD34(+) cells with TPO. Significantly, megakaryocytes from the patients in culture produced self-associated and interwoven proplatelets. Immunolocalization showed VWF not only associated with platelets, but already on the megakaryocyte surface and within internal channels. In this family, type 2B VWD is clearly associated with abnormal platelet production.

  20. A soluble form of ammonia monooxygenase in Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Gilch, Stefan; Meyer, Ortwin; Schmidt, Ingo

    2009-09-01

    Ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) of Nitrosomonas europaea is a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia to hydroxylamine. This study shows that AMO resides in the cytoplasm of the bacteria in addition to its location in the membrane and is distributed approximately equally in both subcellular fractions. AMO in both fractions catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia and binds [(14)C]acetylene, a mechanism-based inhibitor which specifically interacts with catalytically active AMO. Soluble AMO was purified 12-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity with a yield of 8%. AMO has a molecular mass of approximately 283 kDa with subunits of ca. 27 kDa (alpha-subunit, AmoA), ca. 42 kDa (beta-subunit, AmoB), and ca. 24 kDa (gamma-subunit, cytochrome c(1)) in an alpha(3)beta(3)gamma(3) sub-unit structure. Different from the beta-subunit of membrane-bound AMO, AmoB of soluble AMO possesses an N-terminal signal sequence. AMO contains Cu (9.4+/-0.6 mol per mol AMO), Fe (3.9+/-0.3 mol per mol AMO), and Zn (0.5 to 2.6 mol per mol AMO). Upon reduction the visible absorption spectrum of AMO reveals absorption bands characteristic of cytochrome c. Electron para-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of air-oxidized AMO at 50 K shows a paramagnetic signal originating from Cu(2+) and at 10 K a paramagnetic signal characteristic of heme-Fe.

  1. Nicotine metabolic rate predicts successful smoking cessation with transdermal nicotine: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Schnoll, Robert A; Patterson, Freda; Wileyto, E Paul; Tyndale, Rachel F; Benowitz, Neal; Lerman, Caryn

    2009-03-01

    Transdermal nicotine is widely used for smoking cessation, but only approximately 20% of smokers quit successfully with this medication. Interindividual variability in nicotine metabolism rate may influence treatment response. This study sought to validate, and extend in a larger sample, our previous finding that the ratio of plasma nicotine metabolites 3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC)/cotinine, a measure of nicotine metabolism rate, predicts response to nicotine patch. A sample of 568 smokers was enrolled in a study that provided counseling and 8-weeks of 21 mg nicotine patch. Pretreatment 3-HC/cotinine ratio was examined as a predictor of 7-day point prevalence abstinence, verified with breath carbon monoxide (CO), 8 weeks after the quit date. Controlling for sex, race, age, and nicotine dependence, smokers in the upper 3 quartiles of 3-HC/cotinine ratio (faster metabolizers) were approximately 50% less likely to be abstinent vs. smokers in the first quartile (slow metabolizers; 28% vs. 42%; OR=.54 [95% CI:.36-.82], p=.003). Among abstainers, plasma nicotine levels (assessed 1 week after treatment began) decreased linearly across the 3-HC/cotinine ratio (beta=-3.38, t[355]=-3.09, p<.05). These data support the value of the 3-HC/cotinine ratio as a biomarker to predict success with transdermal nicotine for smoking cessation.

  2. Calystegine B4, a novel trehalase inhibitor from Scopolia japonica.

    PubMed

    Asano, N; Kato, A; Kizu, H; Matsui, K; Watson, A A; Nash, R J

    1996-10-31

    GLC-MS analysis has been developed for screening plants of the family Solanaceae for new calystegines. GLC-MS analyses of the extract of Scopolia japonica showed the presence of a new tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane alkaloid in addition to the known calystegines A3, A5, B1, B2, B3, and C1. We gave this new alkaloid the trivial name calystegine B4. The structure of calystegine B4 was determined as 1 alpha, 2 beta, 3 alpha, 4 alpha-tetrahydroxy-nor-tropane from a variety of NMR spectral data. Calystegines B1, B2, and C1 are potent competitive inhibitors with Ki values ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-7) M for almond beta-glucosidase, while calystegine B4 inhibited this enzyme in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of 7.3 microM. Calystegine B2 is also a potent inhibitor of green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase, whereas calystegine B4 exhibited no significant activity for this enzyme. Among rat intestinal glycosidases, only trehalase was potently inhibited by calystegine B4, with an IC50 value of 9.8 microM. Furthermore, calystegine B4 potently inhibited pig kidney trehalase in a competitive manner, with a Ki value of 1.2 microM, but it was almost inactive against yeast and fungal trehalases.

  3. Phospholipase cbeta is critical for T cell chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Bach, Tami L; Chen, Qing-Min; Kerr, Wesley T; Wang, Yanfeng; Lian, Lurong; Choi, John K; Wu, Dianqing; Kazanietz, Marcelo G; Koretzky, Gary A; Zigmond, Sally; Abrams, Charles S

    2007-08-15

    Chemokines acting through G protein-coupled receptors play an essential role in the immune response. PI3K and phospholipase C (PLC) are distinct signaling molecules that have been proposed in the regulation of chemokine-mediated cell migration. Studies with knockout mice have demonstrated a critical role for PI3K in G(alphai) protein-coupled receptor-mediated neutrophil and lymphocyte chemotaxis. Although PLCbeta is not essential for the chemotactic response of neutrophils, its role in lymphocyte migration has not been clearly defined. We compared the chemotactic response of peripheral T cells derived from wild-type mice with mice containing loss-of-function mutations in both of the two predominant lymphocyte PLCbeta isoforms (PLCbeta2 and PLCbeta3), and demonstrate that loss of PLCbeta2 and PLCbeta3 significantly impaired T cell migration. Because second messengers generated by PLCbeta lead to a rise in intracellular calcium and activation of PKC, we analyzed which of these responses was critical for the PLCbeta-mediated chemotaxis. Intracellular calcium chelation decreased the chemotactic response of wild-type lymphocytes, but pharmacologic inhibition of several PKC isoforms had no effect. Furthermore, calcium efflux induced by stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha was undetectable in PLCbeta2beta3-null lymphocytes, suggesting that the migration defect is due to the impaired ability to increase intracellular calcium. This study demonstrates that, in contrast to neutrophils, phospholipid second messengers generated by PLCbeta play a critical role in T lymphocyte chemotaxis.

  4. The co-occurrence of two pyridine alkaloids, mimosine and trigonelline, in Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Ogita, Shinjiro; Kato, Misako; Watanabe, Shin; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a nitrogen-fixing tropical leguminous tree that produces two pyridine alkaloids, i. e. mimosine [beta-(3-hydroxy-4-pyridon-1-yl)-L-alanine] and trigonelline (1-methylpyridinium-3-carboxylate). Mimosine has been detected in leaves, flowers, pods, seeds, and roots, and it is one of the principal non-protein amino acids that occurs in all organs. Asparagine was the most abundant amino acid in flowers. The mimosine content varied from 3.3 micromol/g fresh weight (FW) in developing flowers to 171 micromol/g FW in mature seeds. Trigonelline was also detected in leaves, flowers, pods, and seeds, but not roots. The trigonelline content was lower than that of mimosine in all organs. It varied from 0.12 micromol/g FW in developing seeds to 2.6 micromol/g FW in mature seeds. [2-14C]Nicotinic acid supplied to the developing seeds was incorporated into trigonelline but not mimosine. This indicates that the pyridine and dihydroxypyridine structures of these two alkaloids are derived from distinct precursors. The physiological functions of mimosine and trigonelline are discussed briefly.

  5. High-throughput chemiluminometric genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms of histamine, serotonin, and adrenergic receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Toubanaki, Dimitra K; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Ioannou, Penelope C; Flordellis, Christodoulos S

    2009-02-01

    Several pharmacogenetic studies are focused on the investigation of the relation between the efficacy of various antipsychotic agents (e.g., clozapine) and the genetic profile of the patient with an emphasis on genes that code for neurotransmitter receptors such as histamine, serotonin, and adrenergic receptors. We report a high-throughput method for genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the genes of histamine H2 receptor (HRH2), serotonin receptor (HTR2A1 and HTR2A2), and beta(3) adrenergic receptor (ADRB3). The method combines the high specificity of allele discrimination by oligonucleotide ligation reaction (OLR) and the superior sensitivity and simplicity of chemiluminometric detection in a microtiter well assay configuration. The genomic region that spans the locus of interest is first amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Subsequently, an oligonucleotide ligation reaction is performed using a biotinylated common probe and two allele-specific probes that are labeled at the 3' end with digoxigenin and fluorescein. The ligation products are immobilized in polystyrene wells via biotin-streptavidin interaction, and the hybrids are denatured. Detection is accomplished by the addition of alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-digoxigenin or anti-fluorescein antibodies in combination with a chemiluminogenic substrate. The ratio of the luminescence signals obtained from digoxigenin and fluorescein indicates the genotype of the sample. The method was applied successfully to the genotyping of 23 blood samples for all four SNPs. The results were in concordance with both PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing.

  6. Cooperative Assembly of TGF-Beta Superfamily Signaling Complexes Is Mediated By Two Disparate Mechanisms And Distinct Modes of Receptor Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Groppe, J.; Hinck, C.S.; Samavarchi-Tehrani, P.; Zubieta, C.; Schuermann, J.P.; Taylor, A.B.; Schwarz, P.M.; Wrana, J.L.; Hinck, A.P.; /Texas U. /Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto /SLAC, SSRL /Texas A-M

    2009-04-30

    Dimeric ligands of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily signal across cell membranes in a distinctive manner by assembling heterotetrameric complexes of structurally related serine/threonine-kinase receptor pairs. Unlike complexes of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) branch that apparently form due to avidity from membrane localization, TGF-beta complexes assemble cooperatively through recruitment of the low-affinity (type I) receptor by the ligand-bound high-affinity (type II) pair. Here we report the crystal structure of TGF-beta3 in complex with the extracellular domains of both pairs of receptors, revealing that the type I docks and becomes tethered via unique extensions at a composite ligand-type II interface. Disrupting the receptor-receptor interactions conferred by these extensions abolishes assembly of the signaling complex and signal transduction (Smad activation). Although structurally similar, BMP and TGF-beta receptors bind in dramatically different modes, mediating graded and switch-like assembly mechanisms that may have coevolved with branch-specific groups of cytoplasmic effectors.

  7. Structures of an ActRIIB:activin A complex reveal a novel binding mode for TGF-beta ligand:receptor interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.B.; Woodruff, T.K.; Jardetzky, T.S.

    2010-03-08

    The TGF-{beta} superfamily of ligands and receptors stimulate cellular events in diverse processes ranging from cell fate specification in development to immune suppression. Activins define a major subgroup of TGF-{beta} ligands that regulate cellular differentiation, proliferation, activation and apoptosis. Activins signal through complexes formed with type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors. We have solved the crystal structure of activin A bound to the extracellular domain of a type II receptor, ActRIIB, revealing the details of this interaction. ActRIIB binds to the outer edges of the activin finger regions, with the two receptors juxtaposed in close proximity, in a mode that differs from TGF-{beta}3 binding to type II receptors. The dimeric activin A structure differs from other known TGF-{beta} ligand structures, adopting a compact folded-back conformation. The crystal structure of the complex is consistent with recruitment of two type I receptors into a close packed arrangement at the cell surface and suggests that diversity in the conformational arrangements of TGF-{beta} ligand dimers could influence cellular signaling processes.

  8. Peptide array-based screening of human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides derived from fibronectin type III domain

    SciTech Connect

    Okochi, Mina; Nomura, Shigeyuki; Kaga, Chiaki; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2008-06-20

    Human mesenchymal stem cell-adhesive peptides were screened based on the amino acid sequence of fibronectin type III domain 8-11 (FN-III{sub 8-11}) using a peptide array synthesized by the Fmoc-chemistry. Using hexameric peptide library of FN-III{sub 8-11} scan, we identified the ALNGR (Ala-Leu-Asn-Gly-Arg) peptide that induced cell adhesion as well as RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide. After incubation for 2 h, approximately 68% of inoculated cells adhere to the ALNGR peptide disk. Adhesion inhibition assay with integrin antibodies showed that the ALNGR peptide interacts with integrin {beta}1 but not with {alpha}v{beta}3, indicating that the receptors for ALNGR are different from RGDS. Additionally, the ALNGR peptide expressed cell specificities for adhesion: cell adhesion was promoted for fibroblasts but not for keratinocytes or endotherial cells. The ALNGR peptide induced cell adhesion and promoted cell proliferation without changing its property. It is therefore useful for the construction of functional biomaterials.

  9. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Chi H. L.; Szabo, Alexander; Yu, Yinghua; Camer, Danielle; Zhang, Qingsheng; Wang, Hongqin; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Obesity results in changes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology, leading to fat deposition, inflammation, and alterations in sympathetic nerve activity. Bardoxolone methyl (BARD) has been extensively studied for the treatment of chronic diseases. We present for the first time the effects of oral BARD treatment on BAT morphology and associated changes in the brainstem. Three groups (n = 7) of C57BL/6J mice were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD), a high-fat diet supplemented with BARD (HFD/BARD), or a low-fat diet (LFD) for 21 weeks. BARD was administered daily in drinking water. Interscapular BAT, and ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC) in the brainstem, were collected for analysis by histology, immunohistochemistry and Western blot. BARD prevented fat deposition in BAT, demonstrated by the decreased accumulation of lipid droplets. When administered BARD, HFD mice had lower numbers of F4/80 and CD11c macrophages in the BAT with an increased proportion of CD206 macrophages, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. BARD increased phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in BAT and VLM. In the VLM, BARD increased energy expenditure proteins, including beta 3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α). Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:26066016

  10. Transmembrane movement of a water-soluble analogue of mannosylphosphoryldolichol is mediated by an endoplasmic reticulum protein

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Based on topological studies mannosylphosphoryldolichol (Man-P-Dol) is synthesized on the cytoplasmic face of the RER, but functions as a mannosyl donor in Glc3Man9GlcNAc2-P-P-dolichol biosynthesis after the mannosyl-phosphoryl headgroup diffuses transversely to the luminal compartment. The transport of mannosylphosphorylcitronellol (Man-P- Cit), a water-soluble analogue of Man-P-Dol, by microsomal vesicles from mouse liver, has been investigated as a potential experimental approach to determine if a membrane protein(s) mediates the transbilayer movement of Man-P-Dol. For these studies beta-[3H]Man-P- Cit was synthesized enzymatically with a partially purified preparation of Man-P-undecaprenol synthase from Micrococcus luteus. The uptake of the radiolabeled water-soluble analogue was found to be (a) time dependent; (b) stereoselective; (c) dependent on an intact permeability barrier; (d) saturable; (e) protease-sensitive; and (f) highest in ER- enriched vesicles relative to Golgi complex-enriched vesicles and intact mitochondria. Consistent with the involvement of a membrane protein, the analogue did not enter synthetic phosphatidylcholine- liposomes. [3H]Man-P-Cit also was not transported by human erythrocytes. These results indicate that the transport of Man-P-Cit by sealed microsomal vesicles from mouse liver is mediated by a membrane protein transport system. It is possible that the same membrane protein(s) participates in the transbilayer movement of Man-P-Dol in the ER. PMID:7622555

  11. Commonly occurring plant flavonoids have estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Miksicek, R J

    1993-07-01

    A remarkable diversity of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds have been shown to mimic the biological effects of 17 beta-estradiol by virtue of their ability to bind to and activate the nuclear estrogen receptor. This report extends the family of nonsteroidal estrogens to include several multiply hydroxylated chalcones, flavanones, and flavones. The hormone-like activity of these natural plant products is indicated by their ability to stimulate an estrogen receptor-dependent transcriptional response and to promote growth of estrogen-dependent MCF7 cells in culture. The transcriptional response can be inhibited by the steroidal estrogen antagonist ICI-164,384 and is specific for the estrogen receptor. Evidence is presented to show that selected hydroxylated flavonoids interact directly with the estrogen receptor, based on their ability to compete for the binding of 17 beta-[3H]estradiol to the receptor in cell-free extracts. These compounds are less active, on a molar basis, than 17 beta-estradiol or the synthetic dihydroxystilbene estrogens, but they have potencies comparable to those of other known phytoestrogens. Together, these findings broaden our understanding of the structure-activity relationships for nonsteroidal estrogens and present a series of new chemical prototypes for the future development of potentially useful agonists and antagonists for this nuclear receptor. The wide distribution of weakly estrogenic flavonoid pigments in food crops and medicinal plants raises additional questions about the possible health risks and benefits of these compounds, meriting closer examination of their presence in the human diet.

  12. The intermediate filament protein vimentin binds specifically to a recombinant integrin {alpha}2/{beta}1 cytoplasmic tail complex and co-localizes with native {alpha}2/{beta}1 in endothelial cell focal adhesions

    SciTech Connect

    Kreis, Stephanie; Schoenfeld, Hans-Joachim; Melchior, Chantal; Steiner, Beat; Kieffer, Nelly . E-mail: kieffer@cu.lu

    2005-04-15

    Integrin receptors are crucial players in cell adhesion and migration. Identification and characterization of cellular proteins that interact with their short {alpha} and {beta} cytoplasmic tails will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which integrins mediate bi-directional signaling across the plasma membrane. Integrin {alpha}2{beta}1 is a major collagen receptor but to date, only few proteins have been shown to interact with the {alpha}2 cytoplasmic tail or with the {alpha}2{beta}1 complex. In order to identify novel binding partners of a {alpha}2{beta}1cytoplasmic domain complex, we have generated recombinant GST-fusion proteins, incorporating the leucine zipper heterodimerization cassettes of Jun and Fos. To ascertain proper functionality of the recombinant proteins, interaction with natural binding partners was tested. GST-{alpha}2 and GST-Jun {alpha}2 bound His-tagged calreticulin while GST-{beta}1 and GST-Fos {beta}1 proteins bound talin. In screening assays for novel binding partners, the immobilized GST-Jun {alpha}2/GST-Fos {beta}1 heterodimeric complex, but not the single subunits, interacted specifically with endothelial cell-derived vimentin. Vimentin, an abundant intermediate filament protein, has previously been shown to co-localize with {alpha}v{beta}3-positive focal contacts. Here, we provide evidence that this interaction also occurs with {alpha}2{beta}1-enriched focal adhesions and we further show that this association is lost after prolonged adhesion of endothelial cells to collagen.

  13. Multiple forms of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus sp. strain 100-100.

    PubMed Central

    Lundeen, S G; Savage, D C

    1992-01-01

    Four isozymes of bile salt hydrolase (BSH) have been purified from the cytosol of cells of Lactobacillus sp. strain 100-100. The four proteins were designated BSH A, B, C, and D. They eluted from anion-exchange high-pressure liquid chromatography columns at 0.15, 0.18, 0.21, and 0.25 M NaCl, respectively. They are catalytically similar, except that the Vmax of BSH D is about 10-fold lower than those of the other three isozymes. All four proteins consist of one or two polypeptides. The peptides have molecular weights of 42,000 and 38,000 and are designated alpha and beta, respectively. The approximate native molecular weights of BSH A, B, C, and D are 115,000, 105,000, 95,000, and 80,000, respectively. The native proteins are probably trimers; the four isozymes are the array of possible subunit combinations alpha 3, alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 1 beta 2, and beta 3 for A, B, C, and D, respectively. The two subunits are antigenically distinct. Polyclonal antibodies raised against BSH A (all alpha peptide) react in Western blots (immunoblots) only with proteins containing the alpha peptide; such antibodies raised against BSH D (all beta peptide) react only with proteins containing the beta peptide. The amino acid compositions of the two peptides differ. This is the first report of a bacterium that makes four BSH isozymes. Images PMID:1429446

  14. Fecal steroid monitoring for assessing gonadal and adrenal activity in the golden eagle and peregrine falcon.

    PubMed

    Staley, Airica M; Blanco, Juan M; Dufty, Alfred M; Wildt, David E; Monfort, Steven L

    2007-08-01

    We examined the efficacy of noninvasive monitoring of endocrine function via fecal steroid immunoassays in the golden eagle and peregrine falcon. High-pressure liquid chromatography analyses of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCM) revealed that minor percentages of immunoreactive fGCM co-eluted with [(3)H]corticosterone in both sexes of the eagle (2.5-2.7%) and falcon (7.5-11.9%). In contrast, most fecal estrogen metabolites in eagle and falcon females co-eluted with radiolabeled estradiol-17beta ([(3)H]; 57.6, 64.6%, respectively) or estrone ([(3)H]; 26.9, 4.1%, respectively). Most fecal progestin metabolite immunoreactivity in the female eagle (24.8%) and falcon (21.7%) co-eluted with progesterone ([(14)C]). Most fecal androgen metabolite immunoreactivity in eagle (55.8%) and falcon (63.7%) males co-eluted with testosterone ([(14)C]). Exogenous adrenocorticotropin hormone induced increased fGCM excretion above pre-treatment in both species, but only significantly (P < 0.05) in the eagle. Both species showed increased fGCM after saline administration, suggesting the detection of 'handling stress.' Both species exhibited enterohepatic and renal recirculation of administered steroids as demonstrated by biphasic and triphasic excretion patterns. Thus, noninvasive fecal hormone monitoring is a valid and promising tool for assessing gonadal and adrenal status in rare and threatened birds-of-prey.

  15. Platelet-mimicry of cancer cells: epiphenomenon with clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Tímár, József; Tóvári, József; Rásó, Erzsébet; Mészáros, Livia; Bereczky, Bíborka; Lapis, Károly

    2005-01-01

    Stem cell mimicry of cancer cells has been known for a long time and is considered to be responsible for ectopic gene expressions. The stem cell characteristics of tumor cells are shown to be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and in the phenomenon of vascular mimicry. Certain cancer types acquire a geno-phenotype closely resembling the platelets and express several megakaryocytic genes (adhesion receptors alpha IIb beta 3, thrombin receptor and PECAM/CD 31 and/or platelet-type 12-LOX) able to activate the coagulation cascade or the platelets themselves. Here we define these potentials as platelet mimicry of cancer cells typical of pancreatic, breast, prostate, colorectal and urogenital cancers and melanoma. Data all support that platelet mimicry of certain cancer types is an important factor in their hematogenous dissemination and provides an attractive therapeutic target. Besides the long-available preclinical data, clinical trials have only recently provided evidence that targeting platelet mimicry of cancers is an efficient way to prevent tumor progression. The systematic discovery of the markers of platelet mimicry in various cancer types and their molecular targeting may provide new supportive therapeutic modalities for the management of the progressing disease.

  16. Embryonic development of the nervous system in the planarian Schmidtea polychroa.

    PubMed

    Monjo, Francisco; Romero, Rafael

    2015-01-15

    The development of a nervous system is a key innovation in the evolution of metazoans, which is illustrated by the presence of a common developmental toolkit for the formation of this organ system. Neurogenesis in the Spiralia, in particular the Platyhelminthes, is, however, poorly understood when compared with other animal groups. Here, we characterize embryonic neurogenesis in the freshwater flatworm Schmidtea polychroa and analyze the expression of soxB and a set of proneural bHLH genes, which are gene families with a well-established role in metazoan early neural development. We show that the nervous system is fully de novo assembled after the early embryo ingests the maternal nutrients. At early stages of neurogenesis, soxB1 genes are expressed in putative neural progenitor cells, whereas soxB2 and neural bHLH genes (achaete-scute, neuroD and beta3) are associated with late neurogenesis and the specification of neural subpopulations of the central and peripheral nervous system. Our findings are consistent with the role of proneural genes in other bilaterians, suggesting that the ancestral neural-specific gene regulatory network is conserved in triclads, despite exhibiting a divergent mode of development.

  17. Platelet and endothelial adhesion on fluorosurfactant polymers designed for vascular graft modification.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chad; Kligman, Faina; Larsen, Coby C; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Marchant, Roger E

    2009-02-01

    A prominent failure mechanism of small diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts is platelet-mediated thrombosis. We have designed a surface modification for ePTFE consisting of a self-assembling fluorosurfactant polymer (FSP) bearing biologically active ligands, including adhesive peptides and polysaccharide moieties. The goal of this biomimetic construct is to improve graft hemocompatibility by promoting rapid surface endothelialization, whereas minimizing platelet adhesion. Here we present a direct comparison of platelet and endothelial cell (EC) adhesion to FSPs containing one of three cell-adhesion peptides: cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Glu (cRGD), cyclic *Cys-Arg-Arg-Glu-Thr-Ala-Trp-Ala-Cys* (cRRE, *denotes disulfide bond cyclization), linear Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro-Ala (RGD), or a polysaccharide moiety: oligomaltose (M-7), later designed to prevent nonspecific protein adhesion. Measurements of soluble peptide-integrin binding indicated that cRRE exhibits very low affinity for the alpha(IIb)beta(3) platelet fibrinogen receptor. Static and dynamic adhesion of washed, activated platelets on FSP-modified surfaces revealed that M-7 and cRRE promote significantly less platelet adhesion compared to RGD and cRGD FSPs, whereas EC adhesion was similar on all peptide FSPs and minimal on M-7 FSP. These results illustrate the potential for ligands presented in a FSP surface modification to selectively adhere ECs with limited platelet attachment.

  18. [Triterpenoid sapogenins in the genus Grindelia].

    PubMed

    Kreutzer, S; Schimmer, O; Waibel, R

    1990-08-01

    A saponin fraction has been isolated from the ethanolic extract of Grindeliae herba. The saponin fraction showed strong haemolytic activity. The saponins were detected after separation on TLC by their color reactions and Rf values as well as by their haemolytic activity on blood agar. After hydrolysis, the chemical reactions and Rf values of the sapogenins were described. The main sapogenin was isolated by preparative chromatography and its structure was elucidated by mass, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, and UV spectra. The compound is a new natural triterpenoid sapogenin lactone and is named grindeliasapogenin D. Spectral evidence is presented to establish its structure as 2 beta,3 beta,16 alpha,23-tetrahydroxyoleanan-28,13 beta-olide. Two further sapogenins present in small amounts were identified chromatographically as oleanolic acid and bayogenin using authentic reference substances. The aerial parts of Grindelia robusta Nutt, and G. lanceolata Nutt. (Asteraceae) (as well as two commercial extracts) were also investigated with respect to their saponin fraction. The 3 sapogenins mentioned above were detected in all samples. The antibiotic potency of the crude drug is not associated with the saponin fraction but is at least partially due to the resin fraction.

  19. The molecular biology of distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bouletreau, Pierre J; Warren, Stephen M; Longaker, Michael T

    2002-02-01

    Distraction osteogenesis has become a mainstay in bone tissue engineering and has significantly improved our armamentarium for reconstructive craniomaxillofacial procedures. However, although the biomechanical, histological, and ultrastructural changes associated with distraction osteogenesis have been widely described, the molecular mechanisms governing the formation of new bone in the interfragmental gap of gradually distracted bone segments remain largely unclear. Recently, a rat model of mandibular distraction was described that provides an excellent environment for deciphering the molecular mechanisms that mediate distraction osteogenesis. This article presents the hypotheses and current research that have furthered knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that govern distraction osteogenesis. Recent studies have implicated a growing number of cytokines that are intimately involved in the regulation of bone synthesis and turnover. The gene regulation of numerous cytokines (transforming growth factor-beta1, -beta2, -beta3, bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor-1, fibroblast growth factor-2) and extracellular matrix proteins (osteonectin, osteopontin) during distraction osteogenesis have been best characterized and are discussed in this article. It is believed that understanding the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate membranous distraction osteogenesis may guide the development of targeted strategies designed to improve distraction osteogenesis and accelerate bone healing.

  20. Changes in expression of genes involved in apoptosis in activated human T-cells in response to modeled microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Nancy E.; Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diana; Risin, Semyon A.; Liu, Wenbin

    2006-09-01

    Space flights result in remarkable effects on various physiological systems, including a decline in cellular immune functions. Previous studies have shown that exposure to microgravity, both true and modeled, can cause significant changes in numerous lymphocyte functions. The purpose of this study was to search for microgravity-sensitive genes, and specifically for apoptotic genes influenced by the microgravity environment and other genes related to immune response. The experiments were performed on anti-CD3 and IL-2 activated human T cells. To model microgravity conditions we have utilized the NASA rotating wall vessel bioreactor. Control lymphocytes were cultured in static 1g conditions. To assess gene expression we used DNA microarray chip technology. We had shown that multiple genes (approximately 3-8% of tested genes) respond to microgravity conditions by 1.5 and more fold change in expression. There is a significant variability in the response. However, a certain reproducible pattern in gene response could be identified. Among the genes showing reproducible changes in expression in modeled microgravity, several genes involved in apoptosis as well as in immune response were identified. These are IL-7 receptor, Granzyme B, Beta-3-endonexin, Apo2 ligand and STAT1. Possible functional consequences of these changes are discussed.

  1. Dysfunctional platelet membrane receptors: from humans to mice.

    PubMed

    Ware, Jerry

    2004-09-01

    Insights into hemostasis and thrombosis have historically benefited from the astute diagnosis of human bleeding and thrombotic disorders followed by decades of careful biochemical characterization. This work has set the stage for the development of a number of mouse models of hemostasis and thrombosis generated by gene targeting strategies in the mouse genome. The utility of these models is the in depth analysis that can be performed on the precise molecular interactions that support hemostasis and thrombosis along with efficacy testing of various therapeutic strategies. Already the mouse has proven to be an excellent model of the processes that support hemostasis and thrombosis in the human vasculature. A brief summary of the salient phenotypes from knockout mice missing key platelet receptors is presented, including the glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V and GP IIb/IIIa (alphaIIb/beta3) receptors; the collagen receptors, GP VI and alpha2/beta1; the protease activated receptors (PARs); and the purinergic receptors, P2Y(1) and P2Y(12). A few differences exist between mouse and human platelets and where appropriate those will be highlighted in this review. Concluding remarks focus on the importance of understanding the power and limitations of various in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models currently being used and the impact of the mouse strain on the described platelet phenotype.

  2. [Microbial alpha-amylases: physicochemical properties, substrate specificity and domain structure].

    PubMed

    Avdiiuk, K V; Varbanets', L D

    2013-01-01

    The current literature data on producers, physico-chemical properties and substrate specificity of a-amylases produced by microbes from different taxonomic groups such as bacteria, fungi and yeasts are discussed in the survey. Synthesis of alpha-amylase majority is an inducible process which is stimulated in the presence of starch or products of its hydrolysis. It is possible to increase enzymes activity level by optimization of cultivation conditions of strains-producers. alpha-Amylases, isolated from different sources are distinguished in their physico-chemical properties, particularly in their molecular weights, pH- and thermooptimums, inhibitors and activators. The enzymes hydrolyse soluble starch, amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, maltodextrins, alpha- and beta3-cyclodextrins and other carbohydrate substrates. It is well known that alpha-amylases belong to GH-13 family of glycosyl-hydrolases, which contain the catalytic domain A as (beta/alpha)8-barrel. In addition to domain A, alpha-amylases contain two other domains: B and C, which are localized approximately on opposite sides of (beta/alpha)8-barrel. Most of the known alpha-amylases contain calcium ion, which is located on the surface between domains A and B and plays an important role in stability and activity of the enzyme.

  3. Isomaltulose synthase (PalI) of Klebsiella sp. LX3. Crystal structure and implication of mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daohai; Li, Nan; Lok, Shee-Mei; Zhang, Lian-Hui; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam

    2003-09-12

    Isomaltulose synthase from Klebsiella sp. LX3 (PalI, EC 5.4.99.11) catalyzes the isomerization of sucrose to produce isomaltulose (alpha-D-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-D-fructofuranose) and trehalulose (alpha-D-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose). The PalI structure, solved at 2.2-A resolution with an R-factor of 19.4% and Rfree of 24.2%, consists of three domains: an N-terminal catalytic (beta/alpha)8 domain, a subdomain between N beta 3 and N alpha 3, and a C-terminal domain having seven beta-strands. The active site architecture of PalI is identical to that of other glycoside hydrolase family 13 members, suggesting a similar mechanism in substrate binding and hydrolysis. However, a unique RLDRD motif in the proximity of the active site has been identified and shown biochemically to be responsible for sucrose isomerization. A two-step reaction mechanism for hydrolysis and isomerization, which occurs in the same pocket is proposed based on both the structural and biochemical data. Selected C-terminal truncations have been shown to reduce and even abolish the enzyme activity, consistent with the predicted role of the C-terminal residues in the maintenance of enzyme conformation and active site topology.

  4. Comparative effects of indole and aminoacetonitrile derivatives on dimethylnitrosamine-demethylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities.

    PubMed

    Arcos, J C; Myers, S C; Neuburger, B J; Argus, M F

    1980-04-01

    The effect of in vivo administration of indole and five 3-indolyl derivatives including L-tryptophan, as well as of aminoacetonitrile and 3 of its derivatives, were studied on the carcinogen-metabolizing hepatic mixed-function oxidases dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-demethylase I and II and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH). Indole, 3-indolylmethanol, 3-indolyl-acetonitrile, 3-indolylacetone and L-tryptophan induce AHH activity from 3- to 6-fold of the control level, whereas beta-3-indolylethanol has no effect; the latter compound produces a 21% decrease of the endoplasmic reticulum content in the tissue. Only L-tryptophan induces DMN-demethylase I and only L-tryptophan and 3-indolylmethanol induce DMN-demethylase II, representing a doubling of enzyme activity in all 3 instances. Aminoacetonitrile is a potent repressor of DMN-demethylase I. Substitutions on the amino group bring about strong decrease or abolishment of mixed-function oxidase repressor activity; thus, iminodiacetonitrile has only about 1/5th the repressor activity of the parent compound, whereas nitrilotriacetonitrile and dimethylaminoacetonitrile appear to be inactive. Aminoacetonitrile and its derivatives studied have no effect on DMN-demethylase II and AHH activities. The mixed-function oxidase-modifying effects of the indole compounds and of aminoacetonitrile and its derivatives illustrate the potential complexity of effects of dietary constituents on the carcinogenic responses.

  5. BU74, a complex oripavine derivative with potent kappa opioid receptor agonism and delayed opioid antagonism.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Stephen M; Neilan, Claire L; Broadbear, Jillian; Grundt, Peter; Breeden, Simon; Aceto, Mario D; Woods, James H; Lewis, John W; Traynor, John R

    2005-02-21

    In the search for opioid agonists with delayed antagonist actions as potential treatments for substance abuse, the bridged morphinan BU74 (17-cyclopropylmethyl-3-hydroxy-[5beta,7beta,3',5']-pyrrolidino-2'[S]-phenyl-7alpha-methyl-6,14-endoetheno morphinan) (3f) was synthesized. In isolated tissue and [35S]GTPgammaS opioid receptor functional assays BU74 was shown to be a potent long-lasting kappa opioid receptor agonist, delta opioid receptor partial agonist and mu opioid receptor antagonist. In antinociceptive tests in the mouse, BU74 showed high efficacy and potent kappa opioid receptor agonism. When its agonist action had waned BU74 became an antagonist of kappa and mu opioid receptor agonists in the tail flick assay and of delta, kappa and mu opioid receptor agonists in the acetic acid writhing assay. The slow onset, long-duration kappa opioid receptor agonist effects of BU74 suggests that it could be a lead compound for the discovery of a treatment for cocaine abuse.

  6. Linkage study of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate using candidate genes and mapped polymorphic markers

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.D.; Nelson, L.D.; Conner, B.J.

    1994-09-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) involves fusion or growth failure of facial primordia during development. Complex segregation analysis of clefting populations suggest that an autosomal dominant gene may play a role in this common craniofacial disorder. We have ascertained 16 multigenerational families with CL(P) and tested linkage to 29 candidate genes and 139 mapped short tandem repeat markers. The candidate genes were selected based on their expression in craniofacial development or were identified through murine models. These include: TGF{alpha}, TGF{beta}1, TGF{beta}2, TGF{beta}3, EGF, EGFR, GRAS, cMyc, FGFR, Jun, JunB, PDFG{alpha}, PDGF{beta}, IGF2R, GCR Hox7, Hox8, Hox2B, twirler, 5 collagen and 3 extracellular matrix genes. Linkage was tested assuming an autosomal dominant model with sex-specific decreased penetrance. Linkage to all of the candidate loci was excluded in 11 families. RARA was tested and was not informative. However, haplotype analysis of markers flanking RARA on 17q allowed exclusion of this candidate locus. We have previously excluded linkage to 61 STR markers in 11 families. Seventy-eight mapped short tandem repeat markers have recently been tested in 16 families and 30 have been excluded. The remaining are being analyzed and an exclusion map is being developed based on the entire study results.

  7. Genetics of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Groop, L

    2000-03-01

    The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance in the same persons has been called the metabolic or insulin-resistance syndrome. In 1998 WHO proposed a unifying definition for the syndrome and chose to call it the metabolic syndrome rather than the insulin-resistance syndrome. Although insulin resistance has been considered as a common denominator for the different components of the syndrome, there is still debate as to whether it is pathogenically involved in all of the different components of the syndrome. Clustering of the syndrome in families suggests a genetic component. It is plausible that so-called thrifty genes, which have ensured optimal storage of energy during periods of fasting, could contribute to the phenotype of the metabolic syndrome. Common variants in a number of candidate genes influencing fat and glucose metabolism can probably, together with environmental triggers, increase susceptibility to the syndrome. Among these, the genes for beta 3-adrenergic receptor, hormone-sensitive lipase, lipoprotein lipase, IRS-1, PC-1, skeletal muscle glycogen synthase, etc. appear to increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, novel genes may be identified by genome-wide searches.

  8. Biochemical aspects of lipid accumulation in silicon deficient cyclotella cryptica

    SciTech Connect

    Roessler, P.G. )

    1987-06-01

    The experiments described in this report were designed to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms responsible for lipid accumulation in silicon-deficient Cyclotella cryptica T13L cells. Studies using NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} as a tracer indicated that the fraction of newly assimilated carbon partitioned into lipids doubled after 4 h of Si deficiency, while the fraction partitioned into chrysolaminarin decreased by 51%. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that a slow redistribution of previously assimilated carbon into lipids also occurred. Several enzymes were assayed in cell-free extracts made from Si-replete and Si-deficient cells. Si deficiency did not affect the specific activity of UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase, the first enzyme of the chrysolaminarin synthesis pathway, but led to a 31% reduction in the activity of chrysolaminarin synthase (UDP glucose: {beta}-1, 3-glucan {beta}-3-glucosyl transferase). The activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (the first committed step in lipid biosynthesis) increased by 87% in response to Si deficiency, suggesting either covalent activation or increased levels of this enzyme. The activities of citrate synthase and acetyl-CoA synthetase were not affected by Si deficiency. These results suggest that lipid accumulation in Si deficient cells may be due in part to changes in the activities of chrysolaminarin synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

  9. Suppression of erythro-megakaryocytopoiesis and the induction of reversible thrombocytopenia in mice transgenic for the thymidine kinase gene targeted by the platelet glycoprotein alpha IIb promoter [published erratum appears in J Exp Med 1995 Oct 1;182(4):1177

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate the commitment of a totipotent stem cell to the megakaryocytic lineage are largely unknown. Using a molecular approach to the study of megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet production, mice in which thrombocytopoiesis could be controlled were produced by targeting the expression of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase toxigene to megakaryocytes using the regulatory region of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the platelet integrin alpha IIb beta 3. The programmed eradication of the megakaryocytic lineage was induced by treating transgenic mice bearing the hybrid construct (alpha IIbtk) with the antiherpetic drug ganciclovir (GCV). After 10 d of treatment, the platelet number was reduced by > 94.6%. After discontinuing GCV, the bone marrow was repopulated with megakaryocytes and the platelet count was restored within 7 d. Prolonged GCV treatment induced erythropenia in the transgenic mice. Assays of myeloid progenitor cells in vitro demonstrated that the transgene was expressed in early erythro- megakaryocytic progenitor cells. The reversibility and facility of this system provides a powerful model to determine both the critical events in megakaryocytic and erythroid lineage development and for evaluating the precise role that platelets play in the pathogenesis of a number of vascular occlusive disorders. PMID:7760003

  10. Glioblastoma multiforme associated with klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sasayama, Takashi; Mizukawa, Katsu; Sakagami, Yoshio; Mizowaki, Takashi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kitazawa, Sohei; Kohmura, Eiji

    2009-11-01

    A 54-year-old man with Klinefelter syndrome presented with glioblastoma multiforme manifesting as a 2-week history of motor weakness of the bilateral extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple heterogeneously enhanced tumors in the bilateral frontal lobes. Angiography showed no tumor stain or arteriovenous shunt. The tumor was partially removed through a right craniotomy. The histological diagnosis was glioblastoma. Immunohistochemical examination showed no O(6)-methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase protein expression. Postoperative local radiotherapy (60 Gy/30 fractions) combined with temozolomide (75 mg/m(2) x 42 days) and interferon-beta (3,000,000 U, 3 times/week) was performed. The patient's clinical status rapidly deteriorated during chemoradiotherapy, and he died of tumor progression 3.5 months after the surgery. Postmortem examination revealed widespread glioblastoma infiltrating the basal ganglia and thalamus. Klinefelter syndrome is associated with increased cancer predisposition, especially for male breast cancer and germ cell tumors, but glioma is extremely rare. The abnormal genetic constitution of this patient may have been directly responsible for the poor outcome.

  11. Procalcitonin NH2-terminal cleavage peptide has no mitogenic effect on normal human osteoblast-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hassager, C.; Bonde, S.K.; Anderson, M.A.; Rink, H.; Spelsberg, T.C.; Riggs, B.L. )

    1991-05-01

    The NH2-terminal cleavage peptide of procalcitonin (N-proCT) recently was reported to be a bone cell mitogen. The authors have investigated the effect of N-proCT on the proliferation of normal human cells that have the phenotype of mature osteoblasts (hOB cells). N-proCT treatment for 24, 48, or 96 h in concentrations from 1 nM to 1 microM did not significantly increase (3H)thymidine uptake (means ranged from -19% to 38% of control, no significant differences) in hOB cells (6-10 cell strains per experiment) plated at four different densities. However, the hOB cells responded significantly to treatment with transforming growth factor {beta} (3 ng/ml), bovine insulin (300 micrograms/ml), or 30% fetal calf serum, which were included in all experiments as positive controls. The (3H)thymidine uptake data were confirmed in a direct cell count experiment tested at 96 h. Thus they data do not support the hypothesis that N-proCT is a potent mitogen for normal human osteoblasts.

  12. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4-quinolone signal molecules HHQ and PQS play multifunctional roles in quorum sensing and iron entrapment.

    PubMed

    Diggle, Stephen P; Matthijs, Sandra; Wright, Victoria J; Fletcher, Matthew P; Chhabra, Siri Ram; Lamont, Iain L; Kong, Xiaole; Hider, Robert C; Cornelis, Pierre; Cámara, Miguel; Williams, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS), a quorum-sensing (QS) signal that regulates numerous virulence genes including those involved in iron scavenging. Biophysical analysis revealed that 2-alkyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolones form complexes with iron(III) at physiological pH. The overall stability constant of 2-methyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone iron(III) complex was log beta(3) = 36.2 with a pFe(3+) value of 16.6 at pH 7.4. PQS was found to operate via at least three distinct signaling pathways, and its precursor, 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ), which does not form an iron complex, was discovered to function as an autoinducer molecule per se. When PQS was supplied to a P. aeruginosa mutant unable to make pyoverdine or pyochelin, PQS associated with the cell envelope and inhibited bacterial growth, a finding that reveals a secondary function for PQS in iron entrapment to facilitate siderophore-mediated iron delivery.

  13. HGF/scatter factor selectively promotes cell invasion by increasing integrin avidity.

    PubMed

    Trusolino, L; Cavassa, S; Angelini, P; Andó, M; Bertotti, A; Comoglio, P M; Boccaccio, C

    2000-08-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) controls a genetic program known as 'invasive growth', which involves as critical steps cell adhesion, migration, and trespassing of basement membranes. We show here that in MDA-MB-231 carcinoma cells, these steps are elicited by HGF/SF but not by epidermal growth factor (EGF). Neither factor substantially alters the production or activity of extracellular matrix proteases. HGF/SF, but not EGF, selectively promotes cell adhesion on laminins 1 and 5, fibronectin, and vitronectin through a PI3-K-dependent mechanism. Increased adhesion is followed by enhanced invasiveness through isolated matrix proteins as well as through reconstituted basement membranes. Inhibition assays using function-blocking antibodies show that this phenomenon is mediated by multiple integrins including beta1, beta3, beta4, and beta5. HGF/SF triggers clustering of all these integrins at actin-rich adhesive sites and lamellipodia but does not quantitatively modify their membrane expression. These data suggest that HGF/SF promotes cell adhesion and invasiveness by increasing the avidity of integrins for their specific ligands.

  14. Default mode network activation and Transcendental Meditation practice: Focused Attention or Automatic Self-transcending?

    PubMed

    Travis, Frederick; Parim, Niyazi

    2017-02-01

    This study used subjective reports and eLORETA analysis to assess to what extent Transcendental Meditation (TM) might involve focused attention-voluntary control of mental content. Eighty-seven TM subjects with one month to five years TM experience participated in this study. Regression analysis of years TM practice and self-reported transcendental experiences (lack of time, space and body sense) during meditation practice was flat (r=.07). Those practicing Transcendental Meditation for 1month reported as much transcending as those with 5years of practice. The eLORETA comparison of eyes-closed rest/task and TM practice/task identified similar areas of activation: theta and alpha activation during rest and TM in the posterior cingulate and precuneus, part of the default mode network, and beta2 and beta3 activation during the task in anterior cingulate, ventral lateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, part of the central executive network. In addition, eLORETA comparison of rest and TM identified higher beta temporal activation during rest and higher theta orbitofrontal activation during TM. Thus, it does not seem accurate to include TM practice with meditations in the catgory of Focused Attention, which are characterized by gamma EEG and DMN deactivation. Mixing meditations with different procedures into a single study confounds exploration of meditation effects and confounds application of meditation practices to different subject populations.

  15. D:C-friedooleanane-type triterpenoids from Lagenaria siceraria and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiy-Rong; Chen, Hung-Wei; Chang, Chi-I

    2008-03-01

    Four new D:C-friedooleanane-type triterpenes, 3 beta-O-(E)-feruloyl-D:C-friedooleana-7,9(11)-dien-29-ol (1), 3 beta-O-(E)-coumaroyl-D:C-friedooleana-7,9(11)-dien-29-ol (2), 3 beta-O-(E)-coumaroyl-D:C-friedooleana-7,9(11)-dien-29-oic acid (3), and methyl 2 beta,3 beta-dihydroxy-D:C-friedoolean-8-en-29-oate (6), together with five known triterpenes with the same skeleton, 3-epikarounidiol (4), 3-oxo-D:C-friedoolena-7,9(11)-dien-29-oic acid (5), bryonolol (7), bryononic acid (8), and 20-epibryonolic acid (9), were isolated from the methanol extract of the stems of Lagenaria siceraria. The structures of those compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Compounds 3 and 9 showed significant cytotoxic activity against the SK-Hep 1 cell line with IC50 values of 4.8 and 2.1 microg/ml, respectively. Based on these initially promising results, the two D:C-friedooleanane triterpenes merit further study as potential anticancer agents.

  16. Influence of channel subunit composition on L-type Ca2+ current kinetics and cardiac wave stability.

    PubMed

    Gudzenko, Vadim; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Savalli, Nicoletta; Vyas, Roshni; Weiss, James N; Olcese, Riccardo

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the slope of the function relating the action potential duration (APD) and the diastolic interval, known as the APD restitution curve, plays an important role in the initiation and maintenance of ventricular fibrillation. Since the APD restitution slope critically depends on the kinetics of the L-type Ca(2+) current, we hypothesized that manipulation of the subunit composition of these channels may represent a powerful strategy to control cardiac arrhythmias. We studied the kinetic properties of the human L-type Ca(2+) channel (Ca(v)1.2) coexpressed with the alpha(2)delta-subunit alone (alpha(1C) + alpha(2)delta) or in combination with beta(2a), beta(2b), or beta(3) subunits (alpha(1C) + alpha(2)delta + beta), using Ca(2+) as the charge carrier. We then incorporated the kinetic properties observed experimentally into the L-type Ca(2+) current mathematical model of the cardiac action potential to demonstrate that the APD restitution slope can be selectively controlled by altering the subunit composition of the Ca(2+) channel. Assuming that beta(2b) most closely resembles the native cardiac L-type Ca(2+) current, the absence of beta, as well as the coexpression of beta(2a), was found to flatten restitution slope and stabilize spiral waves. These results imply that subunit modification of L-type Ca(2+) channels can potentially be used as an antifibrillatory strategy.

  17. Effect of different growth factors on human osteoblasts activities: a possible application in bone regeneration for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bosetti, Michela; Boccafoschi, Francesca; Leigheb, Massimiliano; Cannas, Mario F

    2007-12-01

    Cultured human primary osteoblasts reproduce the phenotypic differentiation and maturation of cells in vivo. We have investigated the influence of three isoforms of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3), three fibroblast growth factors (FGF-2, FGF-4 and FGF-6) and the active metabolite of Vitamin D [1,25-(OH)(2)D3] on proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization of human osteoblasts during a period of 24 days of culture. TGF-beta isoforms and three FGFs examined have been proved to be inducers of osteoblasts proliferation (higher extent for TGF-beta and FGF-2) and inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblasts mineralization. Combination of these growth factors with the active form of Vitamin D induced osteodifferentiation. In fact Vitamin D showed an additive effect on alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium content, induced by FGF-2 and TGF-beta in human osteoblast. These results highlight the potential of proliferating cytokines' combination with mineralizing agents for in vitro bone growth induction in bone tissue engineering.

  18. [Thyroid hormones, obesity and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis].

    PubMed

    Zaninovich, A A

    2001-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the main site for hormone-dependent (non-shivering) thermogenesis in response to cold in lower mammals. The hypothalamus controls the cold-induced BAT activation by stimulating the sympathetic nerves and the secretion of norepinephrine (NE) in BAT. Mediated by beta-3 noradrenergic receptor and in the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), NE promotes the synthesis of the uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). UCP1 is a 32 kDa protein located in the inner membrane of BAT mitochondria, where it dissipates the proton gradient created by oxidations in the mitochondria. UCP1 functions as a proton translocator, substituting for another translocator, the ATP synthetase. The uncoupling of oxidations and phosphorylations and the inhibition of ATP synthesis lead to dissipation as heat of all energy produced in the respiratory chain. The supply of adequate amounts of T3 is ensured by the cold-induced enhancement of the enzyme 5'-deiodinase type II activity, which deiodinates thyroxine (T4) to T3. The absence of T3 blocks UCP1 synthesis, leading to hypothermia. BAT has a limited significance in humans, except in the newborn, where it serves for a rapid acclimation to ambient temperature. The study of BAT physiology will provide more insight into the mechanisms regulating energy balance and body weight in humans, thus contributing to prevent and treat human obesity.

  19. Occurrence of two different forms of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase in a Moraxella sp.

    PubMed Central

    Sterjiades, R; Pelmont, J

    1989-01-01

    Two alternative forms of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase (PCase) have been purified from Moraxella sp. strain GU2, a bacterium that is able to grow on guaiacol or various other phenolic compounds as the sole source of carbon and energy. One of these forms (PCase-P) was induced by protocatechuate and had an apparent molecular weight of 220,000. The second form (PCase-G) was induced by guaiacol or other phenolic compounds, such as 2-ethoxyphenol or 4-hydroxybenzoate. It appeared to be smaller (Mr 158,000), and its turnover number was about double that of the former enzyme. Both dioxygenases had similar properties and were built from the association of equal amounts of nonidentical subunits, alpha and beta, which were estimated to have molecular weights of 29,500 and 25,500, respectively. The (alpha beta)3 and (alpha beta)4 structures were suggested for PCases G and P, respectively. On the basis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the alpha and beta polypeptides of PCase-G differed from those of PCase-P. Amino acid analysis supported this conclusion. Both PCases, however, had several other properties in common. It is proposed that both isoenzymes were generated from different sets of alpha and beta subunits, and the significance of these data is discussed. Images PMID:2541659

  20. Solution structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA, a novel antagonist of {alpha}6 subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Lee, Si-Hyung; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Jae-Sung; Olivera, Baldomero M.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Han, Kyou-Hoon . E-mail: khhan600@kribb.re.kr

    2005-12-30

    {alpha}-Conotoxin PIA is a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist isolated from Conus purpurascens that targets nAChR subtypes containing {alpha}6 and {alpha}3 subunits. {alpha}-conotoxin PIA displays 75-fold higher affinity for rat {alpha}6/{alpha}3{beta}2{beta}3 nAChRs than for rat {alpha}3{beta}2 nAChRs. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The {alpha}-conotoxin PIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology as other {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Yet, unlike other neuronally targeted {alpha}4/7-conotoxins, its N-terminal tail Arg{sup 1}-Asp{sup 2}-Pro{sup 3} protrudes out of its main molecular body because Asp{sup 2}-Pro{sup 3}-Cys{sup 4}-Cys{sup 5} forms a stable type I {beta}-turn. In addition, a kink introduced by Pro{sup 15} in the second loop of this toxin provides a distinct steric and electrostatic environment from those in {alpha}-conotoxins MII and GIC. By comparing the structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA with other functionally related {alpha}-conotoxins we suggest structural features in {alpha}-conotoxin PIA that may be associated with its unique receptor recognition profile.

  1. Urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) as a new therapeutic target in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Montuori, Nunzia; Pesapane, Ada; Rossi, Francesca W; Giudice, Valentina; De Paulis, Amato; Selleri, Carmine; Ragno, Pia

    2016-01-01

    The urokinase (uPA)-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored receptor that focuses urokinase (uPA) proteolytic activity on the cell surface. uPAR also regulates cell adhesion, migration and proliferation, protects from apoptosis and contributes to epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), independently of uPA enzymatic activity. Indeed, uPAR interacts with beta1, beta2 and beta3 integrins, thus regulating their activities. uPAR cross-talks with receptor tyrosine kinases through integrins and regulates cancer cell dormancy, proliferation and angiogenesis. Moreover, uPAR mediates uPA-dependent cell migration and chemotaxis induced by fMet-Leu-Phe (fMLF), through its association with fMLF-receptors (fMLF-Rs). Further, uPAR is an adhesion receptor because it binds vitronectin (VN), a component of provisional extracellular matrix. High uPAR expression predicts for more aggressive disease in several cancer types for its ability to increase invasion and metastasis. In fact, uPAR has been hypothesized to be the link between tumor cell dormancy and proliferation that usually precedes the onset of metastasis. Thus, inhibiting uPAR could be a feasible approach to affect tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we review the more recent advances in the development of uPAR-targeted anti-cancer therapeutic agents suitable for further optimization or ready for the evaluation in early clinical trials. PMID:27896223

  2. G protein modulation of recombinant P/Q-type calcium channels by regulators of G protein signalling proteins.

    PubMed

    Mark, M D; Wittemann, S; Herlitze, S

    2000-10-01

    1. Fast synaptic transmission is triggered by the activation of presynaptic Ca2+ channels which can be inhibited by Gbetagamma subunits via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Regulators of G protein signalling (RGS) proteins are GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs), which are responsible for >100-fold increases in the GTPase activity of G proteins and might be involved in the regulation of presynaptic Ca2+ channels. In this study we investigated the effects of RGS2 on G protein modulation of recombinant P/Q-type channels expressed in a human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cell line using whole-cell recordings. 2. RGS2 markedly accelerates transmitter-mediated inhibition and recovery from inhibition of Ba2+ currents (IBa) through P/Q-type channels heterologously expressed with the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (mAChR M2). 3. Both RGS2 and RGS4 modulate the prepulse facilitation properties of P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. G protein reinhibition is accelerated, while release from inhibition is slowed. These kinetics depend on the availability of G protein alpha and betagamma subunits which is altered by RGS proteins. 4. RGS proteins unmask the Ca2+ channel beta subunit modulation of Ca2+ channel G protein inhibition. In the presence of RGS2, P/Q-type channels containing the beta2a and beta3 subunits reveal significantly altered kinetics of G protein modulation and increased facilitation compared to Ca2+ channels coexpressed with the beta1b or beta4 subunit.

  3. Structural and functional characterization of synapse-associated protein-97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei

    Synapse-associated protein-97 (SAP97) as a scaffold protein plays an important role in regulating neural signal transmission in the central nervous system by coupling with activated membrane receptors, ion channels, and downstream signaling proteins. SAP97 consists of six functional domains: L27, PDZ1, PDZ2, PDZ3, SH3, and GK. Each of these domains mediates the interactions of SAP97 with other proteins. Understanding the molecular mechanism of these interactions in neural signal transmission is a goal of this study. Here high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and fluorescence anisotropy are employed towards the goal of the structural and functional characterization of SAP97; specifically, we (a) characterize the binding of the PDZ domains of SAP97 with the C-terminus of NR2B, and determine the structure of the PDZ1-NR2B; (b) characterize the binding of the PDZ domains with the C-terminus of stargazin and multiple mutants, and identify the perturbed amino acids in PDZ2 upon the binding of stargazin; (c) characterize the binding specificity carried by the beta2/beta3 loop of the PDZ3 domain. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanism for the binding specificities of the PDZ domains of SAP97, thereby furthering the development of drugs that target these domains to treat neurological diseases.

  4. Concept of a Helias ignition experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobig, H.; Andreeva, T.; Beidler, C. D.; Harmeyer, E.; Herrnegger, F.; Igitkhanov, Y.; Kisslinger, J.; Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Lutsenko, V. V.; Marchenko, V. S.; Nührenberg, C.; Sidorenko, I.; Turkin, Y.; Wieczorek, A.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.

    2003-09-01

    The Helias ignition experiment is an upgraded version of the Wendelstein 7-X experiment. The magnetic configuration is a four-period Helias configuration (major radius 18 m, plasma radius 2.0 m, B = 4.5 T), which presents a more compact option than the five-period configuration. Much effort has been focused on two versions of the four-period configuration. One option is the power reactor HSR4/18 providing at least 3 GW of fusion power and the second is the ignition experiment HSR 4/18i aiming at a minimum of fusion power and the demonstration of self-sustaining burn. The design criteria of the ignition experiment HSR 4/18i are the following: The experiment should demonstrate a safe and reliable route to ignition; self-sustained burn without external heating; steady-state operation during several hundred seconds; reliability of the technical components and tritium breeding in a test blanket. The paper discusses the technical issues of the coil system and describes the vacuum vessel and the shielding blanket. The power balance will be modelled with a transport code and the ignition conditions will be investigated using current scaling laws of energy confinement in stellarators. The plasma parameters of the ignition experiment are: peak density 2-3×1020 m-3, peak temperature 11-15 keV, average beta 3.6% and fusion power 1500-1700 MW.

  5. An adenovirus with enhanced infectivity mediates molecular chemotherapy of ovarian cancer cells and allows imaging of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, A; Belousova, N; Zinn, K R; Liu, B; Wang, M; Chaudhuri, T R; Rogers, B E; Buchsbaum, D J; Siegal, G P; Barnes, M N; Gomez-Navarro, J; Curiel, D T; Alvarez, R D

    2001-09-01

    The adenovirus (Ad) is a useful vector for cancer gene therapy due to its unparalleled gene transfer efficiency to dividing and quiescent cells. Primary cancer cells, however, often have highly variable or low levels of the requisite coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). Also, assessment of gene transfer and vector persistence has been logistically difficult in human clinical trials. We describe here two novel bicistronic adenoviral (Ad) vectors, AdTKSSTR and RGDTKSSTR, which contain the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (TK) for molecular chemotherapy and bystander effect. In addition, the viruses contain the human somatostatin receptor subtype-2 gene (SSTR2), the expression of which can be noninvasively imaged. We enhanced the infectivity of RGDTKSSTR by genetically incorporating the RGD-4C motif into the HI-loop of the fiber. This allows the virus to circumvent CAR deficiency by binding to alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(v)beta(5) integrins, which are highly expressed on most ovarian cancers. The expanded tropism of RGDTKSSTR results in increased infectivity of purified primary ovarian cancer cells and allows enhanced gene transfer in the presence of malignant ascites containing anti-Ad antibodies. RGDTKSSTR may be a useful agent for treating ovarian cancer in clinical trials.

  6. Anti-platelet effect of cumanastatin 1, a disintegrin isolated from venom of South American Crotalus rattlesnake.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Manuel; Lucena, Sara; Aguilar, Irma; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Salazar, Ana M; Sánchez, Elda E; Girón, Maria E; Carvajal, Zoila; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Guerrero, Belsy

    2009-03-01

    Disintegrins have been previously described in the venom of several snake families inhibiting signal transduction, cell-cell interactions, and cell-matrix interactions and may have therapeutic potential in heart attacks, thrombotic diseases, and cancers. This investigation describes the first disintegrin isolated from South American Crotalus venom (Venezuelan rattlesnake Crotalus durissus cumanensis), which inhibits platelet adhesion to matrix proteins. C. d. cumanensis crude venom was first separated on a Sephadex G-100 column into 4 fractions (SI to SIV). Crude venom and SIII fraction significantly diminished platelet adhesion to fibrinogen (Fg) and to fibronectin (Fn). Anti-adhesive SIII fraction was further separated by DEAE-Sephacel followed by C-18 reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The platelet anti-adhesive fraction obtained was designated as cumanastatin-1. This disintegrin has a mass of 7.442 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and pI of 8.5. Cumanastatin-1 also inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 158 nM. However, it did not significantly inhibit collagen and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Cumanastatin-1 considerably inhibited anti-alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin binding to platelets in a dose-dependent manner; however, it did not present any effect on the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin or on P-selectin.

  7. Endothelial Cells Organize Fibrin Clots into Structures That Are More Resistant to Lysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray Jerome, W.; Handt, Stefan; Hantgan, Roy R.

    2005-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of death and disability in the United States. Introducing thrombolytic agents into the clot to dissolve occlusive coronary artery thrombi is one method of treatment. However, despite advances in our knowledge of thrombosis and thrombolysis, survival rates following thrombolytic therapy have not improved substantially. This failure highlights the need for further study of the factors mediating clot stabilization. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy of clots formed from fluorescein-labeled fibrinogen, we investigated what effect binding of fibrin to the endothelial surface has on clot structure and resistance to lysis. Fluorescent fibrin clots were produced over human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the clot structure analyzed. In the presence of HUVEC, fibrin near the endothelial surface was more organized and occurred in tighter bundles compared to fibrin just 50 [mu]m above. The HUVEC influence on fibrin architecture was blocked by inhibitory concentrations of antibodies to [alpha]V or [beta]3 integrin subunits. The regions of the clots associated with endothelial cells were more resistant to lysis than the more homogenous regions distal to endothelium. Thus, our data show that binding of fibrin to integrins on endothelial surfaces produces clots that are more resistant to lysis.

  8. Effects of dynamic contact angle on liquid infiltration into horizontal capillary tubes: (semi)-analytical solutions.

    PubMed

    Hilpert, Markus

    2009-09-01

    We generalize Washburn's analytical solution for capillary flow in a horizontally oriented tube by accounting for a dynamic contact angle. We consider two general models for dynamic contact angle: the uncompensated Young force on the contact line depends on the capillary number in the form of either (1) a power law with exponent beta or (2) a power series. By considering the ordinary differential equation (ODE) for the velocity of the gas-liquid interface instead of the ODE for the interface position, we are able to derive new analytical solutions. For both dynamic contact angle models, we derive analytical solutions for the travel time of the gas-liquid interface as a function of interface velocity. The interface position as a function of time can be obtained through numerical integration. For the power law and beta=1 (an approximation of Cox's model for dynamic contact angle), we obtain an analytical solution for both interface position and velocity as a function of time. For the power law and beta=3, we can express the interface velocity as a function of time.

  9. Conformational study of (8alpha,8'beta)-bis(substituted phenyl)-lignano-9,9'-lactones by means of combined computational, database mining, NMR, and chemometric approaches.

    PubMed

    Kiralj, Rudolf; Ferreira, Marcia M C; Donate, Paulo M; da Silva, Rosangela; Albuquerque, Sergio

    2007-07-19

    Beta-(3,4-Methylenedioxybenzyl)-gamma-butyrolactone (MDBL) and (-)-hinokinin (HK) were obtained by partial synthesis and characterized by 1H NMR and computational methods (conformational analysis, molecular modeling, structural data mining and chemometrics). Three conformers were detected for MDBL and nine were found for HK. The energy differences are around 1 and 2 kcal mol(-1) and rotation barriers are less than 3 and 5 kcal mol(-1) for MDBL and HK conformers, respectively. The geometries of these conformers, obtained from semiempirical PM3 and density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP 6-31G** calculations agree satisfactorily with 1H NMR data (vicinal proton-proton coupling constants) and structures retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (torsion angles). DFT combined with some variants of the Haasnoot-de Leeuuw-Altona equations gives the best predictions for the coupling constants. The molecular conformation of MDBL, of HK, and of related systems depends not only on intramolecular interactions but also on crystal packing forces and solvent-solute interactions, in particular hydrogen bonds and polar interactions. Hydration favors more stable HK conformers, which can be important for their behavior in chemical and biological systems.

  10. Land surface temperature measurements from EOS MODIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Zhengming

    1995-01-01

    A significant progress has been made in TIR instrumentation which is required to establish the spectral BRDF/emissivity knowledge base of land-surface materials and to validate the land-surface temperature (LST) algorithms. The SIBRE (spectral Infrared Bidirectional Reflectance and Emissivity) system and a TIR system for measuring spectral directional-hemispherical emissivity have been completed and tested successfully. Optical properties and performance features of key components (including spectrometer, and TIR source) of these systems have been characterized by integrated use of local standards (blackbody and reference plates). The stabilization of the spectrometer performance was improved by a custom designed and built liquid cooling system. Methods and procedures for measuring spectral TIR BRDF and directional-hemispheric emissivity with these two systems have been verified in sample measurements. These TIR instruments have been used in the laboratory and the field, giving very promising results. The measured spectral emissivities of water surface are very close to the calculated values based on well established water refractive index values in published papers. Preliminary results show that the TIR instruments can be used for validation of the MODIS LST algorithm in homogeneous test sites. The beta-3 version of the MODIS LST software is being prepared for its delivery scheduled in the early second half of this year.

  11. Biologic activity of the iodoestrogens and their use in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Longcope, C; Arunachalam, T; Rafkind, I; Caspi, E

    1981-01-01

    Several iodinated estrogens, 6-iodoestra-1,3,5(10), 6-tetraene-3, 17 beta-diol (4) 16 beta-iodo-estradiol (3) were shown to displace 3H-estradiol (1b) from the uterine cytosol receptor by a competitive type of inhibition. The three compounds translocated the cytosol receptor to the nucleus in vitro and increased mouse uterine weight in vivo. In all tests the relative activities were 16 alpha-(2a) greater than 16 beta-(3a) greater than 6-(4a). When the compounds were made with [125I] the 16 alpha-[125I]-iodoestradiol (2b) bound with high affinity, Kd = 0.4 x 10(-10), to the 8S cytosol receptor. No high affinity binding could be demonstrated for the 6-[125I]-iodoestratetraene (4b). In in vivo experiments following the administration of 16 alpha-[125]-iodoestradiol (2b) to rats, high levels of radioactivity were found in the uterus, liver and thyroid but only in the liver and thyroid following administration of 6-[125I]-iodoestratetraene (4b). After administration of (2b) to rats with DMBA-induced mammary tumors, no tumor concentration of radioactivity could be detected by imaging. When (4b) was administered similarly, radioactivity could be detected in some of the tumors by imaging. The radioactivity was associated with non-specific 4S proteins.

  12. Electron and ion reactions with hexamethyldisiloxane and pentamethyldisiloxane

    SciTech Connect

    Carles, S.; Le Garrec, J. L.; Mitchell, J. B. A.

    2007-10-14

    The dissociative recombination of electrons with the hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) cation ((CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Si-O-Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}){sup +} and the pentamethyldisiloxane cation ((CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Si-O-Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}){sup +} as well as the ion-molecule reaction between Ar{sup +} and HMDSO have been studied at 300 K using a flowing afterglow Langmuir probe-mass spectrometer apparatus. The rate constants for these reactions, measured directly for the first time, are, respectively, {alpha}{sub 1}=1.8x10{sup -6}, {alpha}{sub 2}=3.6x10{sup -6} cm{sup 3}/s, and k=2.0x10{sup -9} cm{sup 3}/s with uncertainties of {+-}30%. In addition, the electronic attachment to neutral HMDSO was also studied and an upper limit value of the rate constant was determined to be {beta}=3.3x10{sup -11} cm{sup 3}/s.

  13. Influence of random and oriented electrospun fibrous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) scaffolds on neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Laura E; Reis, Karina P; Pozzobon, Laura G; Girardi, Carolina S; Pranke, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    Engineering neural tissue by combining biodegradable materials, cells and growth factors is a promising strategy for the treatment of central and peripheral nervous system injuries. In this study, neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) was investigated in combination with three dimensional (3D) electrospun nanofibers as a substitute for the extracellular matrix (ECM). Nano/microfibrous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 3D scaffolds were fabricated through electrospinning and characterized. The scaffolds consisted of either a randomly oriented or an aligned structure of PLGA fibers. The mESCs were induced to differentiate into neuronal lineage and the effect of the polymer and fiber orientation on cell survival, morphology and differentiation efficiency was studied. The neural progenitors derived from the mESCs could survive and migrate onto the fibrous scaffolds. Aligned fibers provided more contact guidance with the neurites preferentially extending along the long axis of fiber. The mESCs differentiated into neural lineages expressing neural markers as seen by the immunocytochemistry. The nestin and beta3-tubulin expression was enhanced on the PLGA aligned fibers in comparison with the other groups, as seen by the quantitative analysis. Taken together, a combination of electrospun fiber scaffolds and mESC derived neural progenitor cells could provide valuable information about the effects of topology on neural differentiation and axonal regeneration. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1333-1345, 2017.

  14. Pharmacogenetics of Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Crisafulli, Concetta; Fabbri, Chiara; Porcelli, Stefano; Drago, Antonio; Spina, Edoardo; De Ronchi, Diana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Up to 60% of depressed patients do not respond completely to antidepressants (ADs) and up to 30% do not respond at all. Genetic factors contribute for about 50% of the AD response. During the recent years the possible influence of a set of candidate genes as genetic predictors of AD response efficacy was investigated by us and others. They include the cytochrome P450 superfamily, the P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), the tryptophan hydroxylase, the catechol-O-methyltransferase, the monoamine oxidase A, the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR), the norepinephrine transporter, the dopamine transporter, variants in the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3A, 5-HT3B, and 5-HT6), adrenoreceptor beta-1 and alpha-2, the dopamine receptors (D2), the G protein beta 3 subunit, the corticotropin releasing hormone receptors (CRHR1 and CRHR2), the glucocorticoid receptors, the c-AMP response-element binding, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Marginal associations were reported for angiotensin I converting enzyme, circadian locomotor output cycles kaput protein, glutamatergic system, nitric oxide synthase, and interleukin 1-beta gene. In conclusion, gene variants seem to influence human behavior, liability to disorders and treatment response. Nonetheless, gene × environment interactions have been hypothesized to modulate several of these effects. PMID:21687501

  15. Kinetics of membrane adhesion mediated by ligand-receptor interaction studied with a biomimetic system.

    PubMed Central

    Boulbitch, A; Guttenberg, Z; Sackmann, E

    2001-01-01

    We report the first measurement of the kinetics of adhesion of a single giant vesicle controlled by the competition between membrane-substrate interaction mediated by ligand-receptor interaction, gravitation, and Helfrich repulsion. To model the cell-tissue interaction, we doped the vesicles with lipid-coupled polymers (mimicking the glycocalix) and the reconstituted ligands selectively recognized by alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin-mediating specific attraction forces. The integrin was grafted on glass substrates to act as a target cell. The adhesion of the vesicle membrane to the integrin-covered surface starts with the spontaneous formation of a small (approximately 200 nm) domain of tight adhesion, which then gradually grows until the whole adhesion area is in the state of tight adhesion. The time of adhesion varies from few tens of seconds to about one hour depending on the ligand and lipopolymer concentration. At small ligand concentrations, we observed the displacement xi of the front of tight adhesion following the square root law xi approximately t(1/2), whereas, at high concentrations, we found a linear law xi approximately t. We show both experimentally and theoretically that the t(1/2)-regime is dominated by diffusion of ligands, and the xi approximately t-regime by the kinetics of ligands-receptors association. PMID:11606287

  16. A novel PPAR{gamma} agonist, KR62776, suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting MAP kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ju-Young; Bae, Myung-Ae; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Kim, Sung Soo; Hong, Jung-Min; Kim, Tae-Ho; Choi, Je-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lim, Jiwon; Choi, Chang-Hyuk; Shin, Hong-In; Kim, Shin-Yoon Park, Eui Kyun

    2009-01-16

    We investigated the effects of a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, KR62776, on osteoclast differentiation and function, and on the underlying signaling pathways. KR62776 markedly suppressed differentiation into osteoclasts in various osteoclast model systems, including bone marrow mononuclear (BMM) cells and a co-culture of calvarial osteoblasts and BMM cells. KR62776 suppressed the activation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and the expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, such as TRAP, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR). Furthermore, KR62776 reduced resorption pit formation in osteoclasts, and down-regulated genes essential for osteoclast activity, such as Src and {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin. An analysis of a signaling pathway showed that KR62776 inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). Together, these results demonstrate that KR62776 negatively affects osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting the RANKL-induced activation of MAP kinases and NF-{kappa}B.

  17. Analysis of Mlsc genetics. A novel instance of genetic redundancy

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The identity of the self determinants involved in the selection of the T cell repertoire has been a matter of considerable interest. In addition to the apparent critical role of MHC gene products, accumulated experimental results indicate the importance of non-MHC gene products in T cell repertoire selection. In particular, murine Mlsa and Mlsc determinants have been shown to be highly stimulatory to allogeneic T cells and to be involved in the negative selection (elimination) of self-reactive T cells expressing selected TCR V beta segments. In this work, a unique phenomenon of genetic redundancy is described in the control of Mlsc expression: Mlsc appears to be controlled by at least two unlinked loci, and the product of either one of these loci is sufficient to evoke Mlsc-specific T cell response and to act as a ligand in the deletion of self Mlsc-reactive V beta 3+ T cells. Based on these findings, we propose a possible explanation for the fact that Mls-like genes or gene products have not been identified in other species such as man. PMID:2477483

  18. Geosmin biosynthesis in Streptomyces avermitilis. Molecular cloning, expression, and mechanistic study of the germacradienol/geosmin synthase.

    PubMed

    Cane, David E; He, Xiaofei; Kobayashi, Seiji; Omura, Satoshi; Ikeda, Haruo

    2006-08-01

    Geosmin (1) is responsible for the characteristic odor of moist soil. The Gram-positive soil bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis produces geosmin (1) as well as its precursor germacradienol (3). The S. avermitilis gene SAV2163 (geoA) is extremely similar to the S. coelicolor A3(2) SCO6073 gene that encodes a germacradienol/geosmin synthase. S. avermitilis mutants with a deleted geoA were unable to produce either germacradienol (3) or geosmin (1). Biosynthesis of both compounds was restored by introducing an intact geoA gene into the mutants. Incubation of recombinant GeoA, encoded by the SAV2163 gene of S. avermitilis, with farnesyl diphosphate (2) in the presence of Mg2+ gave a mixture of (4S,7R)-germacra-1(10)E,5E-diene-11-ol (3) (66%), (7S)-germacrene D (4) (24%), geosmin (1) (8%), and a hydrocarbon, tentatively assigned the structure of octalin 5 (2%). Incubation of this germacradienol/geosmin synthase with [1,1-(2)H2] FPP (2a) gave geosmin-d1 (1a), as predicted. When recombinant GeoA from either S. avermitilis or S. coelicolor A3(2) was incubated with nerolidyl diphosphate (8), only the acyclic elimination products beta3-farnesene (10), (Z)-alpha-farnesene (11), and (E)-alpha-farnesene (12) were formed, thereby ruling out nerolidyl diphosphate as an intermediate in the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to geosmin, germacradienol, and germacrene D.

  19. Prototype Foamy Virus Bet Impairs the Dimerization and Cytosolic Solubility of Human APOBEC3G

    PubMed Central

    Jaguva Vasudevan, Ananda Ayyappan; Perković, Mario; Bulliard, Yannick; Cichutek, Klaus; Trono, Didier; Häussinger, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Cellular cytidine deaminases from the APOBEC3 family are potent restriction factors that are able to block the replication of retroviruses. Consequently, retroviruses have evolved a variety of different mechanisms to counteract inhibition by APOBEC3 proteins. Lentiviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) express Vif, which interferes with APOBEC3 proteins by targeting these restriction factors for proteasomal degradation, hence blocking their ability to access the reverse transcriptase complex in the virions. Other retroviruses use less-well-characterized mechanisms to escape the APOBEC3-mediated cellular defense. Here we show that the prototype foamy virus Bet protein can protect foamy viruses and an unrelated simian immunodeficiency virus against human APOBEC3G (A3G). In our system, Bet binds to A3G and prevents its encapsidation without inducing its degradation. Bet failed to coimmunoprecipitate with A3G mutants unable to form homodimers and dramatically reduced the recovery of A3G proteins from soluble cytoplasmic cell fractions. The Bet-A3G interaction is probably a direct binding interaction and seems to be independent of RNA. Together, these data suggest a novel model whereby Bet uses two possibly complementary mechanisms to counteract A3G: (i) Bet prevents encapsidation of A3G by blocking A3G dimerization, and (ii) Bet sequesters A3G in immobile complexes, impairing its ability to interact with nascent virions. PMID:23760237

  20. TGF β 3 immunoassay standardization: comparison of NIBSC reference preparation code 98/608 with avotermin lot 205-0505-005.

    PubMed

    Little, John A; Murdy, Rebecca; Cossar, Natalie; Getliffe, Katherine M; Hanak, Julian; Ferguson, Mark W J

    2012-01-01

    Juvista™ drug product contains human recombinant active transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3; avotermin). Juvista is being developed for the prevention and reduction of human scarring. Phase II and III clinical and development batches of Juvista were assayed for content by an immunoenzymometric assay (IEMA) using a National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) TGFβ3 reference material (98/608) and avotermin standard (Lot 205-0505-005). Paired Juvista TGFβ3 data were compared directly, pooled, and processed using the statistical analysis described by Bland and Altman. A direct comparison of the two standards was also made. The Bland-Altman result was 1.958, the best estimate of the relationship between Lot 205-0505-005 and reference material 98/608. By IEMA, reference material 98/608 has approximately 50% of the immunoreactivity of Lot 205-0505-005. During clinical development, no change in Juvista TGFβ3 dosage was made, but the standard used for Juvista TGFβ3 assay was changed from 98/608 to 205-0505-005. The stated amount of Juvista TGFβ3 in phase III trials was approximately one-half of that in phase II trials. This article highlights the importance of early adoption of an appropriate and representative standard to achieve accurate quantification of protein drug during clinical development.

  1. Tumstatin, the NC1 domain of {alpha}3 chain of type IV collagen, is an endogenous inhibitor of pathological angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth

    SciTech Connect

    Hamano, Yuki; Kalluri, Raghu . E-mail: rkalluri@bidmc.harvard.edu

    2005-07-29

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is required for physiological development of vertebrates and repair of damaged tissue, but in the pathological setting contributes to progression of cancer. During tumor growth, angiogenesis is supported by up-regulation of angiogenic stimulators (pro-angiogenic) and down-regulation of angiogenic inhibitors (anti-angiogenic). The switch to the angiogenic phenotype (angiogenic switch) allows the tumors to grow and facilitate metastasis. The bioactive NC1 domain of type IV collagen {alpha}3 chain, called tumstatin, imparts anti-tumor activity by inducing apoptosis of proliferating endothelial cells. Tumstatin binds to {alpha}V{beta}3 integrin via a mechanism independent of the RGD-sequence recognition and inhibits cap-dependent protein synthesis in the proliferating endothelial cells. The physiological level of tumstatin is controlled by matrix metalloproteinase-9, which most effectively cleaves it from the basement membrane and its physiological concentration in the circulation keeps pathological angiogenesis and tumor growth in check. These findings suggest that tumstatin functions as an endogenous inhibitor of pathological angiogenesis and functions as a novel suppressor of proliferating endothelial cells and growth of tumors.

  2. Generation of functional platelets from human embryonic stem cells in vitro via ES-sacs, VEGF-promoted structures that concentrate hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Naoya; Nishikii, Hidekazu; Usui, Joichi; Tsukui, Hiroko; Sawaguchi, Akira; Hiroyama, Takashi; Eto, Koji; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2008-06-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) could potentially represent an alternative source for blood transfusion therapies and a promising tool for studying the ontogeny of hematopoiesis. When we cultured hESCs on either C3H10T1/2 or OP-9 cells to facilitate hematopoiesis, we found that exogenous administration of vascular endothelial growth factor promoted the emergence of sac-like structures, which we named embryonic stem cell-derived sacs (ES-sacs). These ES-sacs consisted of multiple cysts demarcated by cellular monolayers that retained some of the properties of endothelial cells. The spherical cells inside ES-sacs expressed primarily CD34, along with VE-cadherin, CD31, CD41a, and CD45, and were able to form hematopoietic colonies in semisolid culture and to differentiate into mature megakaryocytes by day 24 in the presence of thrombopoietin. Apparently, ES-sacs provide a suitable environment for hematopoietic progenitors. Relatively large numbers of mature megakaryocytes could be induced from the hematopoietic progenitors within ES-sacs, which were then able to release platelets that displayed integrin alpha IIb beta 3 activation and spreading in response to ADP or thrombin. This novel protocol thus provides a means of generating platelets from hESCs, which could serve as the basis for efficient production of platelets for clinical transfusion and studies of thrombopoiesis.

  3. Chemical composition and anti-inflammation activity of essential oils from Citrus unshiu flower.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Jin; Yang, Kyong-Wol; Kim, Sang Suk; Park, Suk Man; Park, Kyung Jin; Kim, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Hun; Cho, Kwang Keun; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2014-05-01

    Though many essential oils from citrus peels are claimed to have several medicinal functions, the chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils of Citrus flowers have not been well described. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory potential of essential oils from C. unshiu flower (CEO) to support its purported beneficial health effects. The chemical constituents of the CEO, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), included y-terpinene (24.7%), 2-beta-pinene (16.6%), 1-methyl-2-isopropylbenzene (11.5%), L-limonene (5.7%), beta3-ocimene (5.6%), and alpha-pinene (4.7%). The effects of the CEO on nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also examined. The results indicate that the CEO is an effective inhibitor of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, CEO was shown to suppress the production of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-6. Based on these results, CEO may be considered a potential anti-inflammatory candidate with human health benefits.

  4. Rieske business: structure-function of Rieske non-heme oxygenases.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Daniel J; Gakhar, Lokesh; Ramaswamy, S

    2005-12-09

    Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases (RO) catalyze stereo- and regiospecific reactions. Recently, an explosion of structural information on this class of enzymes has occurred in the literature. ROs are two/three component systems: a reductase component that obtains electrons from NAD(P)H, often a Rieske ferredoxin component that shuttles the electrons and an oxygenase component that performs catalysis. The oxygenase component structures have all shown to be of the alpha3 or alpha3beta3 types. The transfer of electrons happens from the Rieske center to the mononuclear iron of the neighboring subunit via a conserved aspartate, which is shown to be involved in gating electron transport. Molecular oxygen has been shown to bind side-on in naphthalene dioxygenase and a concerted mechanism of oxygen activation and hydroxylation of the ring has been proposed. The orientation of binding of the substrate to the enzyme is hypothesized to control the substrate selectivity and regio-specificity of product formation.

  5. Probing transmembrane mechanical coupling and cytomechanics using magnetic twisting cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, N.; Ingber, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    We recently developed a magnetic twisting cytometry technique that allows us to apply controlled mechanical stresses to specific cell surface receptors using ligand-coated ferromagnetic microbeads and to simultaneously measure the mechanical response in living cells. Using this technique, we have previously shown the following: (i) beta 1 integrin receptors mediate mechanical force transfer across the cell surface and to the cytoskeleton, whereas other transmembrane receptors (e.g., scavenger receptors) do not; (ii) cytoskeletal stiffness increases in direct proportion to the level of stress applied to integrins; and (iii) the slope of this linear stiffening response differs depending on the shape of the cell. We now show that different integrins (beta 1, alpha V beta 3, alpha V, alpha 5, alpha 2) and other transmembrane receptors (scavenger receptor, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule) differ in their ability to mediate force transfer across the cell surface. In addition, the linear stiffening behavior previously observed in endothelial cells was found to be shared by other cell types. Finally, we demonstrate that dynamic changes in cell shape that occur during both cell spreading and retraction are accompanied by coordinate changes in cytoskeletal stiffness. Taken together, these results suggest that the magnetic twisting cytometry technique may be a powerful and versatile tool for studies analyzing the molecular basis of transmembrane mechanical coupling to the cytoskeleton as well as dynamic relations between changes in cytoskeletal structure and alterations in cell form and function.

  6. Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1B 531K Allele Carriers Sustain a Higher Respiratory Quotient after Aerobic Exercise, but β3-Adrenoceptor 64R Allele Does Not Affect Lipolysis: A Human Model

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Gómez, Eduardo; Ríos-Martínez, Martín Efrén; Castro-Rodríguez, Elena Margarita; Del-Toro-Equíhua, Mario; Ramírez-Flores, Mario; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan; Pérez-Huitimea, Ana Lilia; Baltazar-Rodríguez, Luz Margarita; Velasco-Pineda, Gilberto; Muñiz-Murguía, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IB (CPT1B) and adrenoceptor beta-3 (ADRB3) are critical regulators of fat metabolism. CPT1B transports free acyl groups into mitochondria for oxidation, and ADRB3 triggers lipolysis in adipocytes, and their respective polymorphisms E531K and W64R have been identified as indicators of obesity in population studies. It is therefore important to understand the effects of these mutations on ADRB3 and CPT1B function in adipose and skeletal muscle tissue, respectively. This study aimed to analyze the rate of lipolysis of plasma indicators (glycerol, free fatty acids, and beta hydroxybutyrate) and fat oxidation (through the non-protein respiratory quotient). These parameters were measured in 37 participants during 30 min of aerobic exercise at approximately 62% of maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 30 min of recovery. During recovery, mean respiratory quotient values were higher in K allele carriers than in non-carriers, indicating low post-exercise fatty acid oxidation rates. No significant differences in lipolysis or lipid oxidation were observed between R and W allele carriers of ADRB3 at any time during the aerobic load. The substitution of glutamic acid at position 531 by lysine in the CPT1B protein decreases the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway, which increases the non-protein respiratory quotient value during recovery from exercise. This may contribute to weight gain or reduced weight-loss following exercise. PMID:24905907

  7. Cardiovascular pharmacogenetics: on the way toward individually tailored drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Siffert, Winfried

    2003-05-01

    G proteins are important mediators of hormone action in all cells of the human body. Therefore, functional polymorphisms in genes encoding G protein subunits are expected to have a marked influence upon cell activation and cardiovascular responses to hormones and drugs. The 825T allele of a common C825T polymorphism in the gene, GNB3, encoding the G beta 3 subunit, was found to be associated with increased intracellular signal transduction via G protein-coupled receptors. Originally defined as a candidate gene associated with an increased risk for essential hypertension, the 825T allele turns out to be an interesting marker in cardiovascular pharmacogenetics. Carriers of the 825T allele show an increased vasoconstriction in the skin microcirculation in response to noradrenaline, angiotensin II, and endothelin I. Coronary vasoconstriction is enhanced in 825T allele carriers in response to azepexol. On the other hand, some drugs like hydrochlorothiazide, clonidine, and endothelin receptor antagonist evoke increased effects in 825T allele carriers. It appears that the GNB3 C825T polymorphism could be an attractive marker to discriminate responders and nonresponders and might, therefore, represent an excellent candidate gene in cardiovascular pharmacogenetics.

  8. Renormalization constants for 2-twist operators in twisted mass QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrou, C.; Constantinou, M.; Panagopoulos, H.; Stylianou, F.; Korzec, T.

    2011-01-01

    Perturbative and nonperturbative results on the renormalization constants of the fermion field and the twist-2 fermion bilinears are presented with emphasis on the nonperturbative evaluation of the one-derivative twist-2 vector and axial-vector operators. Nonperturbative results are obtained using the twisted mass Wilson fermion formulation employing two degenerate dynamical quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gluon action. The simulations have been performed for pion masses in the range of about 450-260 MeV and at three values of the lattice spacing a corresponding to {beta}=3.9, 4.05, 4.20. Subtraction of O(a{sup 2}) terms is carried out by performing the perturbative evaluation of these operators at 1-loop and up to O(a{sup 2}). The renormalization conditions are defined in the RI{sup '}-MOM scheme, for both perturbative and nonperturbative results. The renormalization factors, obtained for different values of the renormalization scale, are evolved perturbatively to a reference scale set by the inverse of the lattice spacing. In addition, they are translated to MS at 2 GeV using 3-loop perturbative results for the conversion factors.

  9. Gelatin Scaffolds Containing Partially Sulfated Cellulose Promote Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gloria Portocarrero; Menezes, Roseline; Vincent, Richard; Hammond, Willis; Rizio, Louis; Collins, George; Arinzeh, Treena Livingston

    2017-03-12

    Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal after damage from injury or degenerative disease. Tissue engineering constructs that more closely mimic the native cartilage microenvironment can be utilized to promote repair. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), a major component of the cartilage extracellular matrix, have the ability to sequester growth factors due to their level and spatial distribution of sulfate groups. This study evaluated the use of a GAG mimetic, cellulose sulfate, as a scaffolding material for cartilage tissue engineering. Cellulose sulfate can be synthesized to have a similar level and spatial distribution of sulfates as chondroitin sulfate C (CSC), the naturally occurring GAG. This partially sulfated cellulose (pSC) was incorporated into a fibrous gelatin construct by the electrospinning process. Scaffolds were characterized for fiber morphology and overall stability over time in an aqueous environment, growth factor interaction, and for supporting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis in vitro. All scaffold groups had micron-sized fibers and maintained overall stability in aqueous environments. Increasing concentrations of the transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-β3) were detected on scaffolds with increasing pSC. MSC chondrogenesis was enhanced on the scaffold with the highest pSC concentration as seen with the highest collagen type II production, collagen type II immunostaining, expression of cartilage-specific genes, and ratio of collagen type II to collagen type I production. These studies demonstrated the potential of partially sulfated cellulose sulfate as a scaffolding material for cartilage tissue engineering.

  10. [Molecular mechanisms of wound scarring].

    PubMed

    Borel, J P; Maquart, F X

    1998-01-01

    A few years ago, the discovery of growth factors, their pharmaceutical obtention at a purified grade, their powerful effects on cells in vitro, resulted in demeasured hopes that they could be applied easily and successfully to the treatment of wounds. Now, the process of healing is still uncompletely understood. The interplay of epithelial and matrix cells, the multiplicity of cell types involved, the huge number of growth factors implicated and the difficulties in describing the specific timing of their action on the cells present in wounds, explain why therapy of wound has not yet been revolutioned. An important distinction must be made between normal healing, which leads to a solid functional, reparation tissue, and scarring which opposes any functional healing by making extensive granulation tissue or even keloids. Recent studies pointed out the necessity of a convenient balance between the concentrations of growth factors present in the wound during the different stages of healing. Excess connective tissue production (scarring) would be more particularly due to an excess of TGF beta 1, whereas predominance of TGF beta 3 c