Science.gov

Sample records for creek chennai india

  1. Acid-leachable trace metals in sediments from an industrialized region (Ennore Creek) of Chennai City, SE coast of India: An approach towards regular monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaprakash, M.; Jonathan, M. P.; Srinivasalu, S.; Muthuraj, S.; Ram-Mohan, V.; Rajeshwara-Rao, N.

    2008-02-01

    The article presents the results for enrichment of acid-leachable trace metals (ALTMs) from Ennore Creek in north Chennai, a metropolis on the southeast coast of India. ALTMs Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn and Cd along with sediment texture, OC and CaCO 3 were analyzed in surface sediments collected during two different seasons, pre-monsoon (PRM) and post-monsoon (POM) seasons to identify and observe the input of trace metals in the creek from various sources in the city limits. The most prominent feature of the ALTMs is the enrichment of Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sediments, which is mainly attributed to the intense industrial activities around Chennai, and to the rapid industrialization policies. The ALTMs also indicate their association with the finer fractions, OC and Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides. The enrichment is very well supported by the correlation, grouping and clustering of ALTMs in statistical analysis. The differential behavior of ALTMs in POM season compared to PRM season is possibly due to the excess level of industrial effluents in the channel feeding Ennore Creek. Comparative results of ALTMs with other estuarine regions also indicate that the study area has been enriched with trace metals during the past two decades. The results of the present study suggest the need for a regular monitoring program which will help to improve the quality of Ennore Creek.

  2. Bioaccumulation of metals in fish species from water and sediments in macrotidal Ennore creek, Chennai, SE coast of India: A metropolitan city effect.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, M; Kumar, R Senthil; Giridharan, L; Sujitha, S B; Sarkar, S K; Jonathan, M P

    2015-10-01

    Accumulation of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd) were investigated in water, sediment (n=20) along with six fish of diverse feeding guilds (Sillago sihama, Liza parsia, Etroplus suratensis, Oreochromis mossambicus, Arius parkii and Gerres oyena) from the Ennore creek, northern part of Chennai metropolitan megacity, southeast coast of India. Dissolved trace metals (DTMs) in surface water samples and total trace metals (TTMs) in surface sediments (top 0-10cm) indicate that concentration pattern of metals was higher in the discharge point of the river/channels entering the main creek. The maximum mean values of DTMs exhibited the following decreasing order (expressed in µg/L): Fe (1698)>Mn (24)>Zn (14.50)>Pb (13.89)>Ni (6.73)>Cu (3.53)>Co (3.04)>Cr (2.01) whereas the trend is somewhat different in sediments (µgg(-1)): Fe (4300)>Mn (640)>Cr (383)>Zn (155)>Cu (102)>Ni (35)>Pb (32)>Cd (0.51) are mainly due to the industrial complexes right on the banks of the river/channels. Species-specific heterogeneous patterns of tissue metal loads were apparent and the overall metal enrichment exhibited the following decreasing order (expressed in µgg(-1)): Cu (7.33)>Fe (6.53)>Zn (4.91)>Cr (1.67)>Pb (1.33)>Ni (0.44)>Mn (0.43)>Co (0.36)>Cd (0.11). This indicates that metals are absorbed onto the different organs, which is also endorsed by the calculated values of bioaccumulation factor (BAFs) (avg. muscle 117, gill 126, liver 123, intestine 118) in fishes. The high calculated biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) (0.437) for the species Arius parkii is considered to be a potential bioindicator in this region. The enrichment of trace metals is also supported by the association of metals in water, sediments and different body organs (muscle, gill, liver, intestine) of fish samples. Comparative studies with other coastal regions indicate considerable enrichment of DTMs & TTMs in sediments as well as in various organs of fish samples. Holistic spatial, temporal

  3. Temperature trends of Chennai City, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran

    2013-02-01

    Chennai is the fourth largest metropolitan city in India, and it is one of India's chief industrial and economic growth centers. The temperature change in Chennai is studied in this research by analyzing the mean maximum temperature (MMaxT), mean minimum temperature (MMinT), and mean annual temperature (MAT) from 1951 to 2010. Data are analyzed in three parts by running linear regression and by taking anomalies of all time periods: (a) the whole period from 1951 to 2010; (b) phase 1, 1951-1980; and (c) phase 2, 1981-2010. The trends have been evaluated by Student's t statistics and supported by Mann Kendall rank statistics. The observed change in temperature is positive, which has been clear increasing trends in MMaxT, MMinT, and MAT. MAT has increased 1.3°C since the last 60 years. MMaxT has increased up to 1.6°C, in which the second phase accounts for 75 % of the total change during the last 60 years. MMinT over Chennai has increased 1.0°C. There is a high rise in temperature during winter season.

  4. Mortality of tuberculosis patients in Chennai, India.

    PubMed Central

    Kolappan, C.; Subramani, R.; Karunakaran, K.; Narayanan, P. R.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to measure the mortality rate and excess general mortality as well as identify groups at high risk for mortality among a cohort of tuberculosis patients treated in Chennai Corporation clinics in south India. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study we followed up 2674 patients (1800 males and 874 females) who were registered and treated under the DOTS strategy in Chennai Corporation clinics in 2000. The follow-up period from the date of start of treatment to either the date of interview, or death was 600 days. FINDINGS: The mortality rate among this cohort of tuberculosis patients was 60/1000 person-years. The excess general mortality expressed as standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 6.1 (95% confidence interval (CI)=5.4-6.9). Younger patients, men, patients with Category II disease, patients who defaulted on, or failed courses of treatment, and male smokers who were alcoholics, all had higher mortality ratios when compared to the rest of the cohort. CONCLUSION: The excess mortality in this cohort was six times more than that in the general population. Young age, male sex, smear-positivity, treatment default, treatment failure and the combination of smoking and alcoholism were identified as risk factors for tuberculosis mortality. We suggest that mortality rate and excess mortality be routinely used as a monitoring tool for evaluating the efficiency of the national control programme. PMID:16878229

  5. 78 FR 70278 - Automotive Trade Mission to New Delhi, Pune and Chennai, India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration Automotive Trade Mission to New Delhi, Pune and Chennai, India April 24-April... automotive trade mission to India (New Delhi, Pune and Chennai), April 24-30, 2014. The purpose of the... cities, New Delhi, Pune and Chennai, where participants will receive market briefings and participate in...

  6. The Chennai Declaration: India's landmark national commitment to antibiotic stewardship demonstrates that 'truth alone triumphs'.

    PubMed

    Holmes, A H; Sharland, M

    2013-07-01

    A joint meeting of the medical societies in India took place in Chennai in August 2012, giving rise to national recommendations and an action plan to address the challenge of antimicrobial resistance in India. The 'Chennai Declaration', published in November 2012, has a pragmatic achievable plan and represents a bold national commitment to antibiotic stewardship and infection control across India. The global importance of implementing such an antibiotic policy as a national strategy needs to be recognized and supported internationally.

  7. High levels of organochlorines in mothers' milk from Chennai (Madras) city, India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Annamalai; Ohtake, Masako; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-06-01

    Mothers' milk from Chennai (formerly Madras), India and three other places Perungudi, the municipal dumping site of south Chennai area (situated at the suburb of Chennai), Chidambaram, a predominantly agricultural town situated 250 km south of Chennai and Parangipettai, a fishing village 15 km north of Chidambaram, all situated at or near the southeastern Bay of Bengal coast of India were found to contain measurable concentrations of HCHs, DDTs, PCBs, CHLs and HCB. A notable finding in this study is that Chennai mothers have higher levels of HCHs in their milk and hence may transfer considerably higher amounts of the chemical than the mothers from all the other three places of the present study indicating a higher health risk to Chennai's children. It was also found that the levels of the two organochlorine pesticides (HCHs and DDTs) increased in Chennai mothers' milk in the last decade. Food items collected from Chennai markets did not show any remarkably higher levels of any of the chemicals measured in this study. Levels of the two classical organochlorines (DDTs and HCHs) have declined in many of the food items when compared with our data collected two decades before in the same locations, showing the effectiveness of the recent ban on both these chemicals in the country. The sources, possible health risks and the ways to curtail the effects of HCHs, especially at Chennai, should be investigated further.

  8. Surface ozone measurements at urban coastal site Chennai, in India.

    PubMed

    Pulikesi, M; Baskaralingam, P; Rayudu, V N; Elango, D; Ramamurthi, V; Sivanesan, S

    2006-10-11

    The present study was carried out to gain knowledge of current surface ozone concentrations and the effects of meteorological parameters in the highly populated urban area of Chennai, in South India. We have reported measurement results of surface ozone (O(3)) and meteorological parameters from 17th March to 10th October 2005. A photometric ozone analyzer continuously recorded the ozone concentrations at this site. The present study deals with the statistical characteristics of daily and monthly mean ozone levels under different meteorological conditions. The highest ozone concentrations were recorded in ESE-SE sectors. The monthly mean concentrations were higher in May (23+/-14 ppb) and lower in April at this site (10+/-8 ppb). The maximum hourly ozone concentration reached 69 ppb on 21st April.

  9. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-10-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing métier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested métier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers of Chennai (former Madras). Research took place in 2007 and 2008 (N = 137). Results suggest a general satisfaction with being in the fishery. However, a little over three-fifths of fishers said they would be willing to change fishing métier and about one-half said they would leave the occupation. About one-half also said they would not advise a young person to enter the occupation. The tendency to move away from the fishery is argued to reflect a growing pessimism about the future of the shrimp trawl fisheries, but also an increasing awareness of other economic opportunities.

  10. The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Solomon, Sunil S.; Kuganantham, Periaswamy; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K.; Iqbal, Syed H.; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue and chikungunya are rapidly expanding viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, and a high suitability for transmission. Methods and findings We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty randomly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Participants were asked to provide a venous blood sample and to complete a brief questionnaire with basic demographic and daily activity information. Previous exposure to dengue and chikungunya was determined using IgG indirect ELISA (Panbio) and IgG ELISA (Novatec), respectively. We used this data to estimate key transmission parameters (force of infection and basic reproductive number) and to explore factors associated with seropositivity. While only 1% of participants reported history of dengue and 20% of chikungunya, we found that 93% (95%CI 89-95%) of participants were seropositive to dengue virus, and 44% (95%CI 37-50%) to chikungunya. Age-specific seroprevalence was consistent with long-tem, endemic circulation of dengue and suggestive of epidemic chikungunya transmission. Seropositivity to dengue and chikungunya were significantly correlated, even after adjusting for individual and household factors. We estimate that 23% of the susceptible population gets infected by dengue each year, corresponding to approximately 228,000 infections. This transmission intensity is significantly higher than that estimated in known hyperendemic settings in Southeast Asia and the Americas. Conclusions These results provide unprecedented insight into the very high transmission potential of dengue and chikungunya in Chennai and underscore the need for enhanced surveillance and control methods. PMID:26181441

  11. Awareness of Forensic Odontology among Legal Professionals, Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Selvajothi, Packiaraj; Lavanya, Chandra; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Umadevi K.; Ranganathan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The forensic discipline of law is a multidisciplinary team comprising of specialists in forensic medicine, forensic odontology, security and law. Aim: The study was to find the awareness level of scope and utility of forensic odontology among lawyers in Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self administered structured questionnaire was conducted in 200 lawyers between August and September of 2013. The data was analyzed depending on age, gender, type and years of practice. Results: Lawyers above 40 years of experience were more aware of palatal rugae analysis (P = 0.02), and those with more than 20 years were aware of lip print (P = 0.001) and bite mark analysis (P = 0.001). Males were more aware of forensic odontology with respect to criminal identification (P = 0.001). The knowledge of bite mark analysis was higher among male lawyers (P = 0.001), civil and criminal practicing lawyers (P = 0.004). All participants were aware that loss or fracture of tooth constitutes a grievous injury under Indian Penal Code (IPC) 320 clause 7(5). Conclusion: This study highlighted the knowledge of forensic odontology among legal professionals and also identified the areas in which they need further appraisal. PMID:25535602

  12. Awareness of Forensic Odontology among Legal Professionals, Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Selvajothi, Packiaraj; Lavanya, Chandra; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, Kannan

    2014-11-01

    The forensic discipline of law is a multidisciplinary team comprising of specialists in forensic medicine, forensic odontology, security and law. The study was to find the awareness level of scope and utility of forensic odontology among lawyers in Chennai, South India. A cross-sectional study using a self administered structured questionnaire was conducted in 200 lawyers between August and September of 2013. The data was analyzed depending on age, gender, type and years of practice. Lawyers above 40 years of experience were more aware of palatal rugae analysis (P = 0.02), and those with more than 20 years were aware of lip print (P = 0.001) and bite mark analysis (P = 0.001). Males were more aware of forensic odontology with respect to criminal identification (P = 0.001). The knowledge of bite mark analysis was higher among male lawyers (P = 0.001), civil and criminal practicing lawyers (P = 0.004). All participants were aware that loss or fracture of tooth constitutes a grievous injury under Indian Penal Code (IPC) 320 clause 7(5). This study highlighted the knowledge of forensic odontology among legal professionals and also identified the areas in which they need further appraisal.

  13. 77 FR 31581 - U.S. Architecture Services Trade Mission to India; Chennai, Kolkata and Bangalore, India; October...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... populous city in India; the urban agglomeration, which comprises the city and its suburbs, was home to... region. CS Chennai has supported the CII initiated Green building movement, with the U.S. ] Agency for International Development (USAID) supported Green Building council, established in Hyderabad in cooperation with...

  14. Associations between Extreme Precipitation and Gastrointestinal-Related Hospital Admissions in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Marie S.; Li, Shi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hu, Howard; Ghosh, Santu; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

    2013-01-01

    Background: Understanding the potential links between extreme weather events and human health in India is important in the context of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change. Research exploring such linkages in India is sparse. Objectives: We evaluated the association between extreme precipitation and gastrointestinal (GI) illness-related hospital admissions in Chennai, India, from 2004 to 2007. Methods: Daily hospital admissions were extracted from two government hospitals in Chennai, India, and meteorological data were retrieved from the Chennai International Airport. We evaluated the association between extreme precipitation (≥ 90th percentile) and hospital admissions using generalized additive models. Both single-day and distributed lag models were explored over a 15-day period, controlling for apparent temperature, day of week, and long-term time trends. We used a stratified analysis to explore the association across age and season. Results: Extreme precipitation was consistently associated with GI-related hospital admissions. The cumulative summary of risk ratios estimated for a 15-day period corresponding to an extreme event (relative to no precipitation) was 1.60 (95% CI: 1.29, 1.98) among all ages, 2.72 (95% CI: 1.25, 5.92) among the young (≤ 5 years of age), and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.70) among the old (≥ 65 years of age). The association was stronger during the pre-monsoon season (March–May), with a cumulative risk ratio of 6.50 (95% CI: 2.22, 19.04) for all ages combined compared with other seasons. Conclusions: Hospital admissions related to GI illness were positively associated with extreme precipitation in Chennai, India, with positive cumulative risk ratios for a 15-day period following an extreme event in all age groups. Projected changes in precipitation and extreme weather events suggest that climate change will have important implications for human health in India, where health disparities already exist. Citation: Bush KF, O

  15. Estimation of construction and demolition waste using waste generation rates in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Ram, V G; Kalidindi, Satyanarayana N

    2017-06-01

    A large amount of construction and demolition waste is being generated owing to rapid urbanisation in Indian cities. A reliable estimate of construction and demolition waste generation is essential to create awareness about this stream of solid waste among the government bodies in India. However, the required data to estimate construction and demolition waste generation in India are unavailable or not explicitly documented. This study proposed an approach to estimate construction and demolition waste generation using waste generation rates and demonstrated it by estimating construction and demolition waste generation in Chennai city. The demolition waste generation rates of primary materials were determined through regression analysis using waste generation data from 45 case studies. Materials, such as wood, electrical wires, doors, windows and reinforcement steel, were found to be salvaged and sold on the secondary market. Concrete and masonry debris were dumped in either landfills or unauthorised places. The total quantity of construction and demolition debris generated in Chennai city in 2013 was estimated to be 1.14 million tonnes. The proportion of masonry debris was found to be 76% of the total quantity of demolition debris. Construction and demolition debris forms about 36% of the total solid waste generated in Chennai city. A gross underestimation of construction and demolition waste generation in some earlier studies in India has also been shown. The methodology proposed could be utilised by government bodies, policymakers and researchers to generate reliable estimates of construction and demolition waste in other developing countries facing similar challenges of limited data availability.

  16. The adoption of a climate disaster resilience index in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Joerin, Jonas; Shaw, Rajib; Takeuchi, Yukiko; Krishnamurthy, Ramasamy

    2014-07-01

    Results derived from the Climate Disaster Resilience Index (CDRI)-consisting of five dimensions (economic, institutional, natural, physical, and social), 25 parameters, and 125 variables-reflect the abilities of people and institutions to respond to potential climate-related disasters in Chennai, India. The findings of this assessment, applied in the 10 administrative zones of the city, reveal that communities living in the northern and older parts of Chennai have lower overall resilience as compared to the flourishing areas (vis-à-vis economic growth and population) along the urban fringes. The higher resilience of communities along the urban fringes suggests that urbanisation may not necessarily lead to a deterioration of basic urban services, such as electricity, housing, and water. This indication is confirmed by a strong statistical correlation between physical resilience and population growth in Chennai. The identification of the resilience of different urban areas of Chennai has the potential to support future planning decisions on the city's scheduled expansion. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  17. An institutional outbreak of leptospirosis in Chennai, South India.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, R; Patel, M S; Gupte, M D; Manickam, P; Venkataraghavan, S

    2003-03-01

    The emergence of an outbreak of leptospirosis in a nurses' hostel in Chennai presented a challenge to identify and control the source of the outbreak. Sixty-nine residents and staff members were interviewed to assess exposure factors. Blood samples from the acute and convalescent patients were tested with the Microscopic Agglutination Test using the serovars prevalent in Chennai. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was conducted on serum and water samples. Based on preliminary investigation, control measures with standard hygienic measures were instituted. The attack rate was 35%. The epidemic curve suggested continuous or intermittent exposure to infection over a five-week period. Twenty residents (three asymptomatic) developed laboratory confirmed Leptospira icterohemorrhagiae. Residents collected water from an underground storage tank that was filled twice weekly from a mobile water tanker with a bucket on a rope, and the tank was usually left open. PCR tests confirmed the presence of leptospires from this water. Other control measures included cleaning the large backyard with its many stray dogs and rats, chlorinating water supplies, boiling drinking water and health education. No further cases occurred twelve days after implementing control measures. Access to clean water, not only for drinking but also for bathing, brushing and washing is essential to prevent water-borne outbreaks.

  18. GMT007_09_33_Terry Virts_India Maldives night zoom chennai colum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-06

    ISS042eE01551 (01/06/2015) --- NASA astronaut Terry Virts tweeted this night image out with the twinkling city lights of the coast of India and the Maldives. The Maldives is a tropical nation in the Indian Ocean composed of 26 coral atolls, which stretch for hundreds of islands. It’s known for its beaches, blue lagoons and extensive reefs. Terry tweeted this comment along with the image: " Moonlit clouds over southeast #India coastline, with Chennai, Bangalore, and Hyderabad."

  19. Spatial variation of temperature and indicative of the urban heat island in Chennai Metropolitan Area, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeganathan, Anushiya; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Kumar, Divya Subash

    2016-01-01

    Heat island is the main product of urban climate, and one of the important problems of twenty-first century. Cities in tropical countries suffer extensively due to the urban heat island effect, and urban climate studies are necessary to improve the comfort level and city planning. Chennai is the tropical city; it is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and industrial growth centers in South Asia. The spatial distribution of heat intensity in Chennai Metropolitan Area was studied, and the influence of land use and green cover were analyzed in the present work. Mobile measurements were carried out throughout the study area using a grid network to represent various land use patterns of the city. The study revealed some heat and cool pockets within the city limit; the maximum intensities of temperature were noticed in the central core city and north Chennai, which are distinguished for their commercial centers and densely populated residential areas. In morning time, temperature differences between fringes and central parts of heat packets were in the range of 3-4.5 °C. Land use and green cover play a critical role in microclimate and influences it. Green cover has a significant negative correlation with observed microclimate variations. Thus, the study urges city administration, policy makers, and architects to take up effective mitigation and adaptation strategies in the city to make people more comfortable.

  20. Spatial changes in water quality of urban lakes in Chennai (India)--a case study.

    PubMed

    Raveen, R; Daniel, M

    2010-07-01

    Manifold increase in population of Chennai city (India) has resulted in a rapid decrease in the groundwater level due to its over exploitation. The Government of Tamil Nadu has been exploring various ways and means to combat this problem. The present study was undertaken to assess the quality of water in three important major lakes of Chennai and its suburbs such as Porur lake, Puzhal lake and Chembarambakkam lake which recharge the groundwater as well as these lakes are harnessed by the Tamil Nadu Government to supply potable water to the residents of Chennai. The parameters studied were colour, odour, taste, turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, alkalinity, acidity, chlorides, Total Suspended Solids, Total Dissolved Solids and total hardness. Results indicate that the quality of water from these lakes is within the acceptable values. However, the TDS values were on the higher side in all the three lakes even though within the permissible limit prescribed by BIS. All the three lakes appear to be vulnerable to pollution as they are situated within or in close proximity to heavily populated areas.

  1. Metal enrichment in beach sediments from Chennai Metropolis, SE coast of India.

    PubMed

    Santhiya, G; Lakshumanan, C; Jonathan, M P; Roy, P D; Navarrete-Lopez, M; Srinivasalu, S; Uma-Maheswari, B; Krishnakumar, P

    2011-11-01

    A survey on the Partially Extracted Trace Metals (PETMs) concentration (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd) in beach sediments is reported for the first time from 57 different locations in Chennai Metropolitan City of Southeast coast of India. The concentration of PETMs suggests that they are mainly concentrated with organic matter in the crowded part of the industrial regions in the beaches from the northern part rather than the tourist beaches in the southern part of the city. The comparison on enrichment of trace metals indicates higher values of Pb, Ni in the beaches than lowest effect level (LEL) and effects range low (ERL) than the tourist beaches.

  2. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  3. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  4. The ban on smokeless tobacco products is systematically violated in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Vidhubala, E; Pisinger, C; Basumallik, B; Prabhakar, D S

    2016-01-01

    India is the world's third largest consumer of tobacco. There are twice as many users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) as cigarette smokers. The Government of Tamil Nadu has banned the sale of gutkha and pan masala in 2013. Our aim was to identify the varieties of illegal STP available in Chennai, India. In systematically chosen zones and regions of Chennai city, we randomly identified three kinds of kiosks (n = 18) and asked for "gutkha" and "pan masala," one of each product available. Details of each product were reviewed based on the information printed on the sachets. Totally 65 STPs were collected; 26 distinct products and 23 brands. All products were claimed to be "tobacco" by the shop keepers. Sixty-five percent of the products informed to contain tobacco and 15.4% to contain pan masala. Five sachets did not inform about the content; 30.8% did not have a pictorial warning; a text warning was printed on 80.8%, but only two products had the messages in Tamil; 70% had promotional messages printed, and 57% had their registration numbers printed. The ban on STP is being systematically violated in Chennai. STP are cheap and easily available and due to promotional laudatory messages and lacking information about the content and warning of health damage, the consumers are left with the perception that they buy more or less harmless product. The Indian Government must introduce policies to control production, import, and sale of illicit STP but we also call for a coordinated international solution.

  5. Asian-Indian Parents' Attributions about the Causes of Child Behavior: A Replication and Extension with Parents from Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Raymond; Ranganathan, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Using hypothetical vignettes, 152 parents of children 10-17 years old living in Chennai, India, made attributions about whether the origins of 2 positive and 2 negative behaviors performed by their own child or another child were due to the child's personality or the situation, or to parenting or nonparenting influences based on the frequency,…

  6. Asian-Indian Parents' Attributions about the Causes of Child Behavior: A Replication and Extension with Parents from Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Raymond; Ranganathan, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Using hypothetical vignettes, 152 parents of children 10-17 years old living in Chennai, India, made attributions about whether the origins of 2 positive and 2 negative behaviors performed by their own child or another child were due to the child's personality or the situation, or to parenting or nonparenting influences based on the frequency,…

  7. An Integrated Framework for Analysis of Water Supply Strategies in a Developing City: Chennai, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Gorelick, S.; Goulder, L.

    2009-12-01

    Indian cities are facing a severe water crisis: rapidly growing population, low tariffs, high leakage rates, inadequate reservoir storage, are straining water supply systems, resulting in unreliable, intermittent piped supply. Conventional approaches to studying the problem of urban water supply have typically considered only centralized piped supply by the water utility. Specifically, they have tended to overlook decentralized actions by consumers such as groundwater extraction via private wells and aquifer recharge by rainwater harvesting. We present an innovative integrative framework for analyzing urban water supply in Indian cities. The framework is used in a systems model of water supply in the city of Chennai, India that integrates different components of the urban water system: water flows into the reservoir system, diversion and distribution by the public water utility, groundwater flow in the urban aquifer, informal water markets and consumer behavior. Historical system behavior from 2002-2006 is used to calibrate the model. The historical system behavior highlights the buffering role of the urban aquifer; storing water in periods of surplus for extraction by consumers via private wells. The model results show that in Chennai, distribution pipeline leaks result in the transfer of water from the inadequate reservoir system to the urban aquifer. The systems approach also makes it possible to evaluate and compare a wide range of centralized and decentralized policies. Three very different policies: Supply Augmentation (desalination), Efficiency Improvement (raising tariffs and fixing pipe leaks), and Rainwater Harvesting (recharging the urban aquifer by capturing rooftop and yard runoff) were evaluated using the model. The model results suggest that a combination of Rainwater Harvesting and Efficiency Improvement best meets our criteria of welfare maximization, equity, system reliability, and utility profitability. Importantly, the study shows that

  8. Evaluation of measures to meet future supply demand gap in Chennai city, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmanan, E.; Paul, N.

    2016-12-01

    Availability of water forever has daunted all the major cities of the world and the cities of India are no exception. Even with high annual average rainfall of 1200 mm the Chennai city has an availability of just 108 lpcd of water, which is much lower than 150 lpcd prescribed by the World Health Organisation. The water requirement presently is met mainly from five reservoirs and partly from groundwater pumping which has given rise to seawater intrusion. The objective of this study is to find effective measures for overcoming the chronic demand supply gap and to predict the results of such measures quantitatively by modelling with the Water Evaluation and Planning System(WEAP). The modelling of city's water demand and supply system was carried out using WEAP and calibration was done using PEST. The data required for this study was obtained from various sources as well as by field investigations. There has been a continuous decrease in the actual water supply even with high availability as predicted by the model. About 60 percent of the city's supplied water ends in sewage and after treatment is presently supplied to industries, on its reuse it is found to meet completely the city's demand alone. The modelled heavy rainfall scenario demonstrates an increase in the water availability up to 20 percent during the years of heavy rainfall. The rejuvenation of existing water bodies in the outskirts of Chennai will increase the water availability for agriculture by 60 percent and hence more groundwater can be pumped for city's water supply. With addition of a new desalination plant over the existing two, the city's water supply-demand gap can be reduced by about 80%. If all the measures are implemented the water availability will exceed the demand. Thus, the WEAP model was successfully used to suggest means for sustainable water management plans for the Chennai city.

  9. Organ donation and transplantation-the Chennai experience in India.

    PubMed

    Shroff, S; Rao, S; Kurian, G; Suresh, S

    2007-04-01

    Tamil Nadu has been at the forefront of medical care in the country. It was the first state in the country that started a living kidney transplant program. It is also the first state to successfully start the cadaver programme after the passing of the "Transplantation of Human Organ Act" of 1994 and in the last 5 years has formed a network between hospitals for organ sharing. From the year 2000 to 2006 an organ sharing network was started in Tamil Nadu and the facilitator of this programme has been a non-government organization called MOHAN (acronym for Multi Organ Harvesting Aid Network) Foundation. The organs shared during the period number over 460 organs in two regions (both Tamil Nadu and Hyderabad). In Tamil Nadu the shared organs have included 166 Kidneys, 24 livers, 6 hearts, and 180 eyes. In 2003 sharing network was initiated by MOHAN in Hyderabad and to some extent the Tamil Nadu model was duplicated. with some success and 96 cadaver organs have been transplanted in the last 3 years. There are many advantages of organ sharing including the cost economics. At present there is a large pool of brain dead patients who could become potential organ donors in the major cities in India. Their organs are not being utilized for various support logistics. A multi-pronged strategy is required for the long term success of this program. These years in Tamil Nadu have been the years of learning, un-learning and relearning and the program today has matured slowly into what can perhaps be evolved as an Indian model. In all these years there have been various difficulties in its implementation and some of the key elements for the success of the program is the need to educate our own medical fraternity and seek their cooperation. The program requires trained counselors to be able to work in the intensive cares. The government's support is pivotal if this program to provide benefit to the common man. MOHAN Foundation has accumulated considerable experience to be able to

  10. Development of a driving cycle for intra-city buses in Chennai, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesamani, K. S.; Subramanian, K. P.

    2011-10-01

    In India the emissions rate and fuel consumption of intra-city buses are estimated using the European driving cycles, which don't represent Indian driving conditions and in-use operation of vehicles. This leads to underestimation or overestimation of emissions and fuel consumption. In this context, this paper offers some insight into the driving characteristics of intra-city buses using a Global Positioning System. The study has revealed that irrespective of road type and time of travel, a higher percentage of time is spent in idle mode. This is primarily due to alighting and boarding of passengers at regular intervals and fixed delays caused by traffic lights. More than 90 percent of trips have an average speed of less than 30 km h -1. This study has also developed an intra-city bus driving cycle for Chennai and compared it with some well-known international driving cycles. It has revealed that Chennai has unique driving characteristics and, therefore, it may not be appropriate to adopt a driving cycle of another country or city.

  11. Housing Reconstruction in Disaster Recovery: A Study of Fishing Communities Post-Tsunami in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Disaster recovery after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 led to a number of challenges and raised issues concerning land rights and housing reconstruction in the affected countries. This paper discusses the resistance to relocation of fishing communities in Chennai, India. Qualitative research methods were used to describe complexities in the debate between the state and the community regarding relocation, and the paper draws attention to the dimensions of the state–community interface in the recovery process. The results of this study highlight the effects of differences in the values held by each of the stakeholders regarding relocation, the lack of community participation, and thereby the interfaces that emerge between the state and the community regarding relocation. The failure to establish a nexus between disaster recovery and the importance of a sustainable livelihood for fishing communities severely delayed housing reconstruction. PMID:23591625

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Chitosan-Producing Bacteria from Beaches of Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Kuldeep; Dattajirao, Vikrant; Shrivastava, Vikas; Bhardwaj, Uma

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan is a deacetylated product of chitin produced by chitin deacetylase, an enzyme that hydrolyses acetamido groups of N-acetylglucosamine in chitin. Chitosan is a natural polymer that has great potential in biotechnology and in the biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Commercially, it is produced from chitin via a harsh thermochemical process that shares most of the disadvantages of a multistep chemical procedure. It is environmentally unsafe and not easily controlled, leading to a broad and heterogeneous range of products. An alternative or complementary procedure exploiting the enzymatic deacetylation of chitin could potentially be employed, especially when a controlled and well-defined process is required. In this study, 20 strains of bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from different beaches of Chennai, India. Of these 20 bacterial strains, only 2 strains (S3, S14) are potent degrader of chitin and they are also a good producer of the enzyme chitin deacetylase so as to release chitosan. PMID:22919468

  13. Housing reconstruction in disaster recovery: a study of fishing communities post-tsunami in chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Raju, Emmanuel

    2013-04-03

    Disaster recovery after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 led to a number of challenges and raised issues concerning land rights and housing reconstruction in the affected countries. This paper discusses the resistance to relocation of fishing communities in Chennai, India. Qualitative research methods were used to describe complexities in the debate between the state and the community regarding relocation, and the paper draws attention to the dimensions of the state-community interface in the recovery process. The results of this study highlight the effects of differences in the values held by each of the stakeholders regarding relocation, the lack of community participation, and thereby the interfaces that emerge between the state and the community regarding relocation. The failure to establish a nexus between disaster recovery and the importance of a sustainable livelihood for fishing communities severely delayed housing reconstruction.

  14. Stomach contents of cetaceans incidentally caught along Mangalore and Chennai coasts of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Anoop A.; Yousuf, K. S.; Kumaran, P. L.; Harish, N.; Anoop, B.; Afsal, V. V.; Rajagopalan, M.; Vivekanandan, E.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Jayasankar, P.

    2008-03-01

    The stomachs of 32 individuals of seven cetacean species incidentally caught in gill net and purseseine fisheries along Mangalore and Chennai coasts (India) between 2004 and 2006 were examined. The whole stomach (fore-gut, mid-gut and hind-gut) was examined in all cases. Prey remains (666 prey items comprising six species of teleosts, one crustacean and one squid species) were found in the stomachs of eight individuals (the remaining 24 stomachs were found to be empty). All cetaceans were found to feed mostly on teleosts with wide range of trophic levels. Based on an index that included frequency of occurrence, percentage by number and by weight, the oil sardine Sardinella longiceps was the main prey in the sample. Cetaceans appear to favour both pelagic as well as demersal prey, possibly indicating surface and benthic feeding habits.

  15. Distribution and characteristics of marine litter on the Marina beach, Chennai, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanapal, R.

    2013-05-01

    The types, quantities, and distribution of marine litter found on the beach of the Marina, Chennai, India were surveyed during 2010-2011 season wise. Litter items were sorted into material and usage categories. The counts and weights of the litter were counted and measured. The plastic-type litter (63.4 kg) is the most dominant material category followed by polythene (10.6 kg), metal (5.3 kg) and glass (15.2 kg). Cloth (66.0 kg) is the dominant usage category followed by rubber (45.7 kg) and wood (70.0 kg). Based on the typological results three dominant litter sources were identified viz., land-based, vessel-based and fishery-based sources. t test help recognize dominant litter sources.t; t;

  16. Work-related heat stress concerns in automotive industries: a case study from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Ayyappan, Ramalingam; Sankar, Sambandam; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

    2009-11-11

    Work-related heat stress assessments, the quantification of thermal loads and their physiological consequences have mostly been performed in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries (many of which are also tropical), limited attempts have been made to create detailed job-exposure profiles for various sectors. We present here a case study from Chennai in southern India that illustrates the prevalence of work-related heat stress in multiple processes of automotive industries and the efficacy of relatively simple controls in reducing prevalence of the risk through longitudinal assessments. We conducted workplace heat stress assessments in automotive and automotive parts manufacturing units according to the protocols recommended by NIOSH, USA. Sites for measurements included indoor locations with process-generated heat exposure, indoor locations without direct process-generated heat exposure and outdoor locations. Nearly 400 measurements of heat stress were made over a four-year period at more than 100 locations within eight units involved with automotive or automotive parts manufacturing in greater Chennai metropolitan area. In addition, cross-sectional measurements were made in select processes of glass manufacturing and textiles to estimate relative prevalence of heat stress. Results indicate that many processes even in organised large-scale industries have yet to control heat stress-related hazards adequately. Upwards of 28% of workers employed in multiple processes were at risk of heat stress-related health impairment in the sectors assessed. Implications of longitudinal baseline data for assessing efficacy of interventions as well as modelling potential future impacts from climate change (through contributions from worker health and productivity impairments consequent to increases in ambient temperature) are described. The study re-emphasises the need for recognising heat stress as an important occupational health risk in both formal

  17. Work-related heat stress concerns in automotive industries: a case study from Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Ayyappan, Ramalingam; Sankar, Sambandam; Rajkumar, Paramasivan; Balakrishnan, Kalpana

    2009-01-01

    Background Work-related heat stress assessments, the quantification of thermal loads and their physiological consequences have mostly been performed in non-tropical developed country settings. In many developing countries (many of which are also tropical), limited attempts have been made to create detailed job-exposure profiles for various sectors. We present here a case study from Chennai in southern India that illustrates the prevalence of work-related heat stress in multiple processes of automotive industries and the efficacy of relatively simple controls in reducing prevalence of the risk through longitudinal assessments. Methods We conducted workplace heat stress assessments in automotive and automotive parts manufacturing units according to the protocols recommended by NIOSH, USA. Sites for measurements included indoor locations with process-generated heat exposure, indoor locations without direct process-generated heat exposure and outdoor locations. Nearly 400 measurements of heat stress were made over a four-year period at more than 100 locations within eight units involved with automotive or automotive parts manufacturing in greater Chennai metropolitan area. In addition, cross-sectional measurements were made in select processes of glass manufacturing and textiles to estimate relative prevalence of heat stress. Results Results indicate that many processes even in organised large-scale industries have yet to control heat stress-related hazards adequately. Upwards of 28% of workers employed in multiple processes were at risk of heat stress-related health impairment in the sectors assessed. Implications of longitudinal baseline data for assessing efficacy of interventions as well as modelling potential future impacts from climate change (through contributions from worker health and productivity impairments consequent to increases in ambient temperature) are described. Conclusions The study re-emphasises the need for recognising heat stress as an important

  18. Factors associated with the perpetration of sexual violence among wine-shop patrons in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Go, Vivian F.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Salter, Megan L.; Mehta, Shruti; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Davis, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.

    2010-01-01

    With an estimated 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS, India has the third highest number of HIV-infected people in the world. Despite reductions in prevalence among the general population, the percentage of all infections occurring among Indian women is continuing to rise. Women s risk of HIV infection from their partner and observed associations between sexual violence and HIV infection in India underscore the importance of understanding determinants of forced sex. A probability survey was conducted from June 2003 to August 2007 in Chennai, India among alcohol venue (“wine shops”) patrons to estimate the prevalence of sexual violence and to identify risk factors associated with perpetrating forced sex. Among 1499 men, 28.5% reported forced sex with at least one partner in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, earning income for less than 12 months a year, visiting the wine shop with friends, STD symptoms, perpetration of physical violence, and number of sexual partners were statistically significantly associated with perpetrating forced sex. Men who reported having 3 or more close friends were less likely to perpetrate violence. HIV interventions that facilitate formal groups that foster positive social support and address a range of HIV risk behaviors including sexually and physically abusive behaviors are recommended to reduce sexual violence. PMID:20692757

  19. Factors associated with the perpetration of sexual violence among wine-shop patrons in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Go, Vivian F; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Salter, Megan L; Mehta, Shruti; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Sivaram, Sudha; Davis, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

    2010-10-01

    With an estimated 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS, India has the third highest number of HIV-infected people in the world. Despite reductions in prevalence among the general population, the percentage of all infections occurring among Indian women is continuing to rise. Women's risk of HIV infection from their partner and observed associations between sexual violence and HIV infection in India underscore the importance of understanding determinants of forced sex. A probability survey was conducted from June 2003 to August 2007 in Chennai, India, among alcohol venue ("wine shops") patrons to estimate the prevalence of sexual violence and to identify risk factors associated with perpetrating forced sex. Among 1499 men, 28.5% reported forced sex with at least one partner in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, earning income for less than 12 months a year, visiting the wine shop with friends, STD symptoms, perpetration of physical violence, and number of sexual partners were statistically significantly associated with perpetrating forced sex. Men who reported having 3 or more close friends were less likely to perpetrate violence. HIV interventions that facilitate formal groups that foster positive social support and address a range of HIV risk behaviors including sexually and physically abusive behaviors are recommended to reduce sexual violence.

  20. Alcohol use and HIV sexual risk among MSM in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, M J; Thomas, B; Mayer, K H; Reisner, S L; Menon, S; Swaminathan, S; Periyasamy, M; Johnson, C V; Safren, S A

    2011-03-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are a core risk group for HIV. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with increased sexual risk-taking behaviours in many cultures, in particular among MSM. However, no studies to date have explored alcohol use and HIV risk among MSM in India. MSM in Chennai, India (n = 210) completed an interviewer-administered behavioural and psychosocial assessment. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression procedures examined behavioural and demographic associations with weekly alcohol consumption. Twenty-eight percent of the sample (n = 58) reported using alcohol at least weekly to the point of being buzzed/intoxicated, which was associated with older age, being married to a woman, being panthi (masculine appearing, predominantly insertive partners) versus kothi (feminine acting/appearing and predominantly receptive partners), weekly tobacco use, unprotected anal sex and unprotected vaginal sex in the three months prior to study enrollment (all P < 0.05). In a multivariable model, unprotected vaginal sex in the previous three months and being married to a women were unique variables associated with weekly alcohol use (all P < 0.01). Further investigation of alcohol use within the context of sexual risk taking is warranted among Indian MSM. Panthis and MSM who are married to women may be particularly likely to benefit from interventions to decrease alcohol intake and concurrent unsafe sex.

  1. The relationship between drug use stigma and HIV injection risk behaviors among injection drug users in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Yang, Cui; Johnson, Sethulakshmi; Solomon, Sunil S; Kumar, Suresh; Celentano, David D; Solomon, Suniti

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived drug use stigma, acquiescence response bias, and HIV injection risk behaviors among current injection drug users in Chennai, India. Methods The sample consists of 851 males in Chennai, India who reported having injected drugs in the last month and were recruited through street outreach. Results Results indicate a strong and consistent positive association between drug use stigma and HIV injection drug use risk behaviors. This association held across the injection behaviors of frequency of sharing needles, cookers, cotton filters, rinse water, prefilled syringes and common drug solutions, even after controlling for acquiescence response bias, frequency of injection, and HIV/HCV serostatus. Conclusions These findings suggest that future HIV prevention and harm reduction programs for injection drug users and service providers should address drug use stigma. PMID:20462707

  2. A Step Towards Improving Food Safety in India: Determining Baseline Knowledge and Behaviors Among Restaurant Food Handlers in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Manes, Mindi R; Kuganantham, Paraswami; Jagadeesan, Murugesan; Laxmidevi, M; Dworkin, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    With the establishment of the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) and new food safety regulations, a precedent has been set to prevent foodborne illness in India. The objective of the authors' study was to identify knowledge gaps among food handlers in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, to establish priorities for future intervention. A 44-question survey was administered to 156 food handlers at 36 restaurants in Chennai between April and June of 2011. The overall mean knowledge score was 49% and knowledge gaps related to hand hygiene, proper food cooking and holding temperatures, and cross contamination were identified. Food handlers with a Medical Fitness Certificate scored significantly higher than those without a certificate, after controlling for food safety training and level of education (p < .05). As the FSSAI standards now require a medical certificate for restaurant licensure and registration, consideration should be given to include an educational component to this certification with an explanation of expected food safety behavior.

  3. Burden of Liver Disease among Community-Based People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Sunil S.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; McFall, Allison M.; Kumar, M. Suresh; Saravanan, Shanmugam; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Thomas, David L.; Sulkowski, Mark S.; Mehta, Shruti H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective We characterize the burden of liver disease in a cohort of PWID in Chennai, India, with a high prevalence of HCV. Materials and Methods 1,042 PWID were sampled through community outreach in Chennai. Participants underwent fasting blood draw, questionnaire and an examination that included liver stiffness assessment using transient elastography (Fibroscan) and assessment of steatosis via ultrasound. Results The median age was 39 years, all were male, 14.8% were HIV infected and 35.6% were HCV antibody positive, of whom 78.9% were chronically infected (HCV RNA positive). Median liver stiffness was 6.2 kPA; 72.9% had no evidence of or mild stiffness, 14.5% had moderate stiffness, and 12.6% had evidence of severe stiffness/cirrhosis. Prevalence of severe stiffness/cirrhosis was significantly higher among persons who were older, had a longer duration of injecting drugs, higher body mass index, higher prevalence of insulin resistance, higher prevalence of steatosis, higher HCV RNA levels and evidence of alcohol dependence. An estimated 42.1% of severe stiffness/cirrhosis in this sample was attributable to HCV. 529 (53.0%) had some evidence of steatosis. Prevalence of steatosis was higher among those who had larger waist circumference, insulin resistance, higher HDL cholesterol and a history of antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions We observed a high burden of liver disease in this relatively young cohort that was primarily driven by chronic HCV infection, metabolic factors (insulin resistance and steatosis) and heavy alcohol use. Interventions to improve access to HCV treatment and reduce alcohol use are needed to prevent further progression of liver disease. PMID:26812065

  4. Burden of Liver Disease among Community-Based People Who Inject Drugs (PWID) in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Sunil S; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; McFall, Allison M; Kumar, M Suresh; Saravanan, Shanmugam; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Solomon, Suniti; Thomas, David L; Sulkowski, Mark S; Mehta, Shruti H

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the burden of liver disease in a cohort of PWID in Chennai, India, with a high prevalence of HCV. 1,042 PWID were sampled through community outreach in Chennai. Participants underwent fasting blood draw, questionnaire and an examination that included liver stiffness assessment using transient elastography (Fibroscan) and assessment of steatosis via ultrasound. The median age was 39 years, all were male, 14.8% were HIV infected and 35.6% were HCV antibody positive, of whom 78.9% were chronically infected (HCV RNA positive). Median liver stiffness was 6.2 kPA; 72.9% had no evidence of or mild stiffness, 14.5% had moderate stiffness, and 12.6% had evidence of severe stiffness/cirrhosis. Prevalence of severe stiffness/cirrhosis was significantly higher among persons who were older, had a longer duration of injecting drugs, higher body mass index, higher prevalence of insulin resistance, higher prevalence of steatosis, higher HCV RNA levels and evidence of alcohol dependence. An estimated 42.1% of severe stiffness/cirrhosis in this sample was attributable to HCV. 529 (53.0%) had some evidence of steatosis. Prevalence of steatosis was higher among those who had larger waist circumference, insulin resistance, higher HDL cholesterol and a history of antiretroviral therapy. We observed a high burden of liver disease in this relatively young cohort that was primarily driven by chronic HCV infection, metabolic factors (insulin resistance and steatosis) and heavy alcohol use. Interventions to improve access to HCV treatment and reduce alcohol use are needed to prevent further progression of liver disease.

  5. Orofacial and systemic manifestations in 212 paediatric HIV patients from Chennai, South India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Kannan; Geethalakshmi, Elumalai; Krishna Mohan Rao, Umadevi; Vidya, Kaazhiyur Mudimbaimannar; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Solomon, Suniti

    2010-07-01

    Lesions in the mouth and in other tissues and organs (oral and systemic lesions) in paediatric HIV infection are diverse and show differences in clinical presentation and severity from that of adults. Very little data exist for oral lesions in paediatric population in India. To document and study oral and more widespread lesions in paediatric HIV seropositive patients. A cross-sectional study. Paediatric HIV seropositive patients at tertiary centers: Ragas Dental College and Hospital and YRG CARE, Chennai, India. Two hundred and twelve paediatric HIV patients aged 0-14 years seen over a period of 1 year were included in the study. Clinical history, oral and systemic examinations were recorded by qualified dental surgeons and physicians. One hundred and thirty-two patients had oral lesions ranging in number from one to three. Oral lesions included oral candidiasis (OC) (56.1%), gingivitis (10.8%), oral pigmentation (6.1%), depapillation of the tongue (5.7%), ulcers (4.2%), and oral hairy leukoplakia (1.4%). The most common systemic lesion observed was nonspecific lymphadenopathy (74.1%) followed by pruritic eruptions (53.8%), measles (51.4%), and tuberculosis (TB) (49.1%). Thirty-three (26%) patients were not immunosuppressed, 74 (58%) were moderately immunosuppressed, and 20 (15%) were severely immunosuppressed. Oral lesions exhibited positive correlation with lesions in other parts of the body. Oral lesions are a common feature in paediatric HIV infection. Their management is vital to improve the quality of life of the infected children.

  6. Influence of Media in the Choice of Oral Hygiene Products Used Among the Population of Maduravoyal, Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Logaranjani, Anitha; Mahendra, Jaideep; Perumalsamy, Rajapriya; Narayan, Rajeshree Rangari; Rajendran, Sathish; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan

    2015-10-01

    To assess the factors influencing the awareness and practice of oral hygiene among the local population Maduravoyal, Chennai, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted to understand the factors influencing the choice and practice of oral hygiene products among the population of Maduravoyal, Chennai, India. Data was collected by means of a self administered structured questionnaire written in English and validated through a pilot survey. One thousand two hundred and nine subjects, with an age range of 15 to 70 years, who visited the Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai were selected for investigation. The data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS version 13.0. The frequency of distribution and percentages were calculated. The results of the study showed that tooth brush (98.5%) and toothpaste (98%) were the main products used for the maintenance of oral hygiene and around 84.6% of the population brushed once daily. Information from the media (59.4%) and decay prevention (49.7%) were the major factors that influenced the choice of toothpaste among the study population. The major factor which influenced the choice of oral hygiene products was based on information obtained from advertisements and other sources. There is a need for the dental professionals to be aware of the ever-increasing development and marketing of oral hygiene products from various databases. Hence, the education of people regarding the importance of oral hygiene maintenance, proper selection of oral hygiene products is essential.

  7. Safe emergency evacuation of a Tertiary Care Hospital during the "once in a century" floods in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Kaliamoorthy, Ilankumaran; Reddy, Mettu Srinivas; Rajakumar, Akila; Varghese, Joy; Pandey, Sanjay; Pillai, Balaji; Micheal, Jothi Clara J; Kancherla, Ravindranath; Rela, Mohamed

    2016-02-01

    The coastal city of Chennai, India, was inundated by unprecedented heavy rains during the last week of November 2015, in what was billed as a "once in a century" floods. Over 350 people lost their lives in the floods. Global Hospital, a 250-bedded tertiary care hospital in Chennai, was heavily flooded leaving more than 100 patients and their relatives stranded inside with access totally cutoff from the rest of the world. This article describes how these patients, many in the Intensive Care Unit on ventilators, were safely managed within the hospital for over 48 h on very limited power supply and resources and then safely evacuated by fishing boats to three other city hospitals. Careful planning, anticipating hazards, identifying critical areas, effective communication and team work contributed to the successful management of this situation.

  8. Safe emergency evacuation of a Tertiary Care Hospital during the “once in a century” floods in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Kaliamoorthy, Ilankumaran; Reddy, Mettu Srinivas; Rajakumar, Akila; Varghese, Joy; Pandey, Sanjay; Pillai, Balaji; Micheal, Jothi Clara J.; Kancherla, Ravindranath; Rela, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The coastal city of Chennai, India, was inundated by unprecedented heavy rains during the last week of November 2015, in what was billed as a “once in a century” floods. Over 350 people lost their lives in the floods. Global Hospital, a 250-bedded tertiary care hospital in Chennai, was heavily flooded leaving more than 100 patients and their relatives stranded inside with access totally cutoff from the rest of the world. This article describes how these patients, many in the Intensive Care Unit on ventilators, were safely managed within the hospital for over 48 h on very limited power supply and resources and then safely evacuated by fishing boats to three other city hospitals. Careful planning, anticipating hazards, identifying critical areas, effective communication and team work contributed to the successful management of this situation. PMID:27076711

  9. Dietary carbohydrates, glycaemic load, food groups and newly detected type 2 diabetes among urban Asian Indian population in Chennai, India (Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study 59).

    PubMed

    Mohan, Viswanathan; Radhika, Ganesan; Sathya, Rangaswamy Mohan; Tamil, Selvi Ramjothi; Ganesan, Anbazhagan; Sudha, Vasudevan

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association of dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic load with the risk of type 2 diabetes among an urban adult Asian Indian population. Adult subjects aged >20 years (n 1843) were randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study, in Chennai city in southern India. Dietary carbohydrates, glycaemic load and food groups were assessed using FFQ. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using 75 g glucose in all subjects. Diagnosis of diabetes was based on WHO Consulting Group criteria. OR for newly detected diabetes were calculated for carbohydrates, glycaemic load and specific food groups comparing subjects in the highest with those in the lowest quartiles, after adjustment for potential confounders such as age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes, physical activity, current smoking, alcohol consumption and relevant dietary factors. We identified 156 (8.5 %) newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes. Refined grain intake was positively associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 5.31 (95 % CI 2.98, 9.45); P < 0.001). In the multivariate model, after adjustment for potential confounders, total carbohydrate (OR 4.98 (95 % CI 2.69, 9.19), P < 0.001), glycaemic load (OR 4.25 (95 % CI 2.33, 7.77); P < 0.001) and glycaemic index (OR 2.51 (95 % CI 1.42, 4.43); P = 0.006) were associated with type 2 diabetes. Dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with diabetes (OR 0.31 (95 % CI 0.15, 0.62); P < 0.001). In urban south Indians, total dietary carbohydrate and glycaemic load are associated with increased, and dietary fibre with decreased, risk of type 2 diabetes.

  10. A hydrologic-economic modeling approach for analysis of urban water supply dynamics in Chennai, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Veena; Gorelick, Steven M.; Goulder, Lawrence

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss a challenging water resources problem in a developing world city, Chennai, India. The goal is to reconstruct past system behavior and diagnose the causes of a major water crisis. In order to do this, we develop a hydrologic-engineering-economic model to address the complexity of urban water supply arising from consumers' dependence on multiple interconnected sources of water. We integrate different components of the urban water system: water flowing into the reservoir system; diversion and distribution by the public water utility; groundwater flow in the aquifer beneath the city; supply, demand, and prices in the informal tanker-truck-based water market; and consumer behavior. Both the economic and physical impacts of consumers' dependence on multiple sources of water are quantified. The model is calibrated over the period 2002-2006 using a range of hydrologic and socio-economic data. The model's results highlight the inadequacy of the reservoir system and the buffering role played by the urban aquifer and consumers' coping investments during multiyear droughts.

  11. MARSpline model for lead seven-day maximum and minimum air temperature prediction in Chennai, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, K.; Anitha, R.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) based lead seven days minimum and maximum surface air temperature prediction system is modelled for station Chennai, India. To emphasize the effectiveness of the proposed system, comparison is made with the models created using statistical learning technique Support Vector Machine Regression (SVMr). The analysis highlights that prediction accuracy of MARS models for minimum temperature forecast are promising for short term forecast (lead days 1 to 3) with mean absolute error (MAE) less than 1 °C and the prediction efficiency and skill degrades in medium term forecast (lead days 4 to 7) with slightly above 1 °C. The MAE of maximum temperature is little higher than minimum temperature forecast varying from 0.87 °C for day-one to 1.27 °C for lag day-seven with MARS approach. The statistical error analysis emphasizes that MARS models perform well with an average 0.2 °C of reduction in MAE over SVMr models for all ahead seven days and provide significant guidance for the prediction of temperature event. The study also suggests that the correlation between the atmospheric parameters used as predictors and the temperature event decreases as the lag increases with both approaches.

  12. Acceptability of a microenterprise intervention among female sex workers in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Susan G; Srikrishnan, A K; Rivett, Katharine A; Liu, Su-Hsun; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

    2010-06-01

    Female sex workers have been central in India's HIV epidemic since it was first diagnosed among them in 1989. Female sex workers' risk of HIV is primarily economically motivated. The Pi pilot study examined the feasibility and association of a microenterprise intervention, the tailoring of canvas bags, on sexual risk behaviors among female sex workers (N = 100) in Chennai. Women were randomized to an intervention or control arm. Between-group comparisons at baseline and at six-month follow-up were performed. Multivariate linear regression with bootstrapping was conducted to estimate the intervention effect. At baseline, women were a median of 35 years old, 61% were married and they had an average of two children. Intervention participants reported a significantly lower number of sex partners and significant increases in income at the 6-month follow-up compared to control participants. In a multivariate model, intervention participants had a significantly lower number of paying clients per month at follow-up compared to control participants. By graduation, 75% of intervention arm participants had made at least one sellable canvas bag and 6 months after the study's end, 60% have continued involvement in bag production. The pilot study demonstrated that microenterprise interventions are successful in both providing FSWs with licit income opportunities and was associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviors.

  13. Measurement of self, experienced, and perceived HIV/AIDS stigma using parallel scales in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Zelaya, Carla E; Sivaram, Sudha; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Srikrishnan, A K; Suniti, Solomon; Celentano, David D

    2012-01-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma can severely compromise the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) by reducing access and quality of care, adherence to therapy, and disclosure of HIV status, thereby potentially increasing transmission. The objective of this study was to develop and psychometrically test three parallel scales measuring self, experienced, and perceived stigma among PLHA (n=188) in Chennai, India. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), which was used to facilitate item reduction and assess construct validity, confirmed the presence of three underlying theoretical domains. The final number of items and Cronbach's Alpha for each scale were: 8 items, Alpha of 0.84, for self stigma; 7 items, Alpha of 0.86, for experienced stigma; and 7 items, Alpha of 0.83, for perceived stigma. External validity was ascertained by confirming a significant positive association between the measure of each type of stigma and depression (measured using CES-D), using structural equation modeling (SEM). Therefore, scales were parsimonious, reliable, and were found to be valid measures of HIV/AIDS stigma. Using these validated scales, researchers can accurately collect data to inform the design of stigma reduction programs and interventions and enable subsequent evaluation of their effectiveness.

  14. Retrospective Analysis of Locally Advanced Noninflammatory Breast Cancer From Chennai, South India, 1990-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Shanta, Viswanathan Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Rama, Ranganathan M.Sc.; Radhika, Ramachandran M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This was a retrospective observational study to elicit the outcome of the therapeutic strategy of concurrent neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy protocol for locally advanced breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A large series of 1,117 consecutive cases of locally advanced breast cancer treated at the Cancer Institute (WIA), in Chennai, South India, between 1990 and 1999 and followed through 2004 formed the basis for this study. Disease-free survival was the main outcome, and nodal and tumor downstaging were the intermediate outcome measures studied. Results: Primary tumor downstaging was observed in 45% and nodal downstaging in 57.5%. The disease-free survival rate of nodal downstaged patients at 5, 10, and 15 years was 75%, 65%, and 58%, respectively. The corresponding rates for pre- and postoperative node-negative patients were 70%, 60%, and 59%. The best survival was seen among those who were tumor and node negative postoperatively. Nodal downstaging halved the risk of disease recurrence and death compared with node positivity, irrespective of tumor sterility. Conclusions: A randomized trial using cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil vs. an anthracycline-based regimen in the setting of concurrent chemoradiotherapy appears indicated. Additional preoperative chemotherapy to maximize nodal and tumor downstaging should be investigated. A change in postoperative chemotherapy according to nodal status could also be explored.

  15. Genotyping of erythromycin resistant group C & G streptococci isolated in Chennai, south India

    PubMed Central

    Prabu, D.; Menon, Thangam

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Increasing resistance to erythromycin has been observed worldwide in group C and group G streptococci (GCS/GGS). The information available from India is scanty. The aim of the study was to identify erythromycin resistant GCS/GGS isolates in Chennai, south India, and to compare erythromycin resistant genotypes with emm types. Methods: One hundred and thirty one GCS/GGS isolates were tested for erythromycin resistance by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. Erythromycin resistance genotypes [erm(A), erm(B) and mef(A)] were determined by a multiplex PCR. emm types of erythromycin resistant GCS/GGS isolates was also assessed using emm gene sequencing method. Results: Sixteen of the 131 isolates (12.21%) were resistant to erythromycin. Majority of the isolates were GGS (15/16). Eight of the 16 (50%) were S. dysgalactiae subsps. equisimilis. Twelve isolates (75%) were MLSB phenotype and four (25%) were M phenotype. Of the 12 isolates which exhibited MLSB resistance, seven showed cMLSB phenotype and were positive for erm(B) gene. The remaining five were iMLSB phenotype of which three were positive for erm(A) gene and two for erm(B) gene. erm(A) was common among carriers whereas erm(B) was common among clinical isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: MLSB was the predominant phenotype and erm(B) was the common genotype in the present study. The emm type stC1400.0 was frequently associated with erythromycin resistant GCS/GGS in our study. PMID:23481067

  16. Perceptions of Private Medical Practitioners on Tuberculosis Notification: A Study from Chennai, South India

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Beena Elizabeth; Velayutham, Banurekha; Thiruvengadam, Kannan; Nair, Dina; Barman, Sukendu Bikas; Jayabal, Lavanya; Ovung, Senthanro; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Background The Government of India declared TB as a notifiable disease in 2012. There is a paucity of information on the government's mandatory TB notification order from the perspective of private medical practitioners (PPs). Objective To understand the awareness, perception and barriers on TB notification among PPs in Chennai, India. Methods Total of 190 PPs were approached in their clinics by trained field staff who collected data using a semi-structured and pre-coded questionnaire after getting informed consent. The data collected included PPs' specialization, TB management practices, awareness about the TB notification order, barriers in its implementation and their suggestions to improve notification. Results Of 190 PPs from varied specializations, 138 (73%) had diagnosed TB cases in the prior three months, of whom 78% referred these patients to government facilities. Of 138 PPs, 73% were aware of the order on mandatory TB notification, of whom 46 (33%) had ever notified a TB case. Of 120 PPs, 63% reported reasons for not notifying TB cases. The main reasons reported for not notifying were lack of time (50%), concerns regarding patients' confidentiality (24%) and fear of offending patients (11%). Of 145 PPs, 76% provided feedback about information they felt uncomfortable reporting during notification. PPs felt most uncomfortable reporting patient's government-issued Aadhar number (77%), followed by patient's phone number (37%) and residential address (26%). The preferred means of notification was through mobile phone communication (24%), SMS (18%) and e-mail (17%). Conclusion This study highlights that one-fourth of PPs were not aware of the TB notification order and not all those who were aware were notifying. While it is important to sensitize PPs on the importance of TB notification it is also important to understand the barriers faced by PPs and to make the process user-friendly in order to increase TB notification. PMID:26820750

  17. Reproductive health status and life skills of adolescent girls dwelling in slums in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sharanya, T

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls dwelling in slums are vulnerable to poor reproductive health due to lack of awareness about reproductive health and low life skills. These girls are in a crucial stage of their life cycle and their health can impact the health of future generations. Despite adolescents comprising almost one-quarter of the Indian population they are ill served in terms of reproductive health. This cross-sectional study was done among 130 slum-dwelling adolescent girls, aged 13-19 years, using multistage sampling method from five slums in Chennai, southern India. The reproductive and menstrual morbidity profile, personal and environmental menstrual hygiene was assessed to determine their reproductive health-seeking behaviour and life skills. Ninety-five (73%) girls (95% CI 66.23-81.36) reported menstrual morbidity and 66 (51%; 95% CI 50.74-52.25) had symptoms suggestive of reproductive/urinary tract infection. Of the girls surveyed, 55 (42%) were married. Nearly 25% (95% CI 23.07-26.92) of the married girls had a history of abortion and 18% (95% CI 11.32-25.07) had self-treated with medications for the same. Contraceptive use among ever-married girls was 22.7% (95% CI 20.83-24.56). Even though 75% of respondents knew about HIV/AIDS, their knowledge of modes of transmission and prevention were low (39% and 19%, respectively). Almost 39% of respondents felt shame or insecurity as the key barrier for not seeking reproductive healthcare. About 52% had low life skill levels. On logistic regression, menstrual morbidity was high among those with low life skills, symptoms suggestive of reproductive/urinary tract infection were high among those who were married before 14 years of age and life skills were high among those who belonged to the scheduled caste community. There is a high prevalence of menstrual/reproductive morbidity, self-treated abortion and low knowledge about modes of HIV transmission/prevention and use of contraceptives among adolescent girls in slums in

  18. Barriers to free antiretroviral treatment access for female sex workers in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Kurian, Abraham K; Dubrow, Robert

    2009-11-01

    India's National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) provides free first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) at government centers for people living with HIV. To assist in developing policies and programs to ensure equity in ART access, we explored barriers to ART access among female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV in Chennai. Between August and November 2007, we conducted three focus group discussions and two key informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis to identify categories and derive themes. We found interrelated barriers at the family/social, health care system/programmatic, and individual levels. Major barriers included fear of adverse consequences of disclosure of HIV status due to stigma and discrimination associated with HIV and sex work, lack of family support, negative experiences with health care providers, lack of adequate counseling services at government centers and by outreach workers employed by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), perceived biased treatment of FSWs who are not referred by NGOs, lack of adequate knowledge about ART, and fatalism. Barriers can be addressed by: creating effective measures to reduce stigma associated with HIV/AIDS and sex work at the familial, societal, and health care system levels; incorporating information about ART into targeted interventions among FSWs; training counselors at government hospitals and NGO outreach workers on treatment issues; improving infrastructure and staffing levels at government centers to allow adequate time and privacy for counseling; and implementing government mass media campaigns on ART availability. Finally, it is crucial that NACO begin monitoring ART coverage of FSWs and other marginalized populations to ensure equitable ART access.

  19. Influence of Media in the Choice of Oral Hygiene Products Used Among the Population of Maduravoyal, Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Logaranjani, Anitha; Perumalsamy, Rajapriya; Narayan, Rajeshree Rangari; Rajendran, Sathish; Namasivayam, Ambalavanan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims To assess the factors influencing the awareness and practice of oral hygiene among the local population Maduravoyal, Chennai, India. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted to understand the factors influencing the choice and practice of oral hygiene products among the population of Maduravoyal, Chennai, India. Data was collected by means of a self administered structured questionnaire written in English and validated through a pilot survey. One thousand two hundred and nine subjects, with an age range of 15 to 70 years, who visited the Department of Periodontology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai were selected for investigation. The data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS version 13.0. The frequency of distribution and percentages were calculated. Results The results of the study showed that tooth brush (98.5%) and toothpaste (98%) were the main products used for the maintenance of oral hygiene and around 84.6% of the population brushed once daily. Information from the media (59.4%) and decay prevention (49.7%) were the major factors that influenced the choice of toothpaste among the study population. Conclusion The major factor which influenced the choice of oral hygiene products was based on information obtained from advertisements and other sources. There is a need for the dental professionals to be aware of the ever-increasing development and marketing of oral hygiene products from various databases. Hence, the education of people regarding the importance of oral hygiene maintenance, proper selection of oral hygiene products is essential. PMID:26557606

  20. Accumulation of total trace metals due to rapid urbanization in microtidal zone of Pallikaranai marsh, South of Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, M; Urban, B; Velmurugan, P M; Srinivasalu, S

    2010-11-01

    The article presents the results for enrichment of total trace metals (TTMs) from Pallikaranai salt marsh in South Chennai, a metropolis on the southeast coast of India. TTMs Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd, Sr, V, and Hg along with sediment texture, OC, and CaCO3 were analyzed in 36 surface sediments collected during August 2008 to recognize and observe the input of TTMs in the marsh from various sources in the city limits. In view of the rapid urbanization and industrialization in Chennai City, especially on the southern side, uncontrolled input of sewage, garbage, and industrial effluents into the Pallikaranai marsh land, the elevated concentrations are not surprising. The level of enrichment of TTMs has also increased by 20% to 60% for most of the elements when compared with all other ecosystems in the world as well as the nearby area. The results also indicate that the marshy region is more heavily contaminated with Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn than other regions on the southeast coast of India. The Enrichment Factor, Contamination Factor, and I (geo) indexes are calculated, and these values are useful to assess the degree of pollution in sediments. The spatial distributions of TTMs are also controlled by other factors like geochemical, precipitation, and flocculation of particulate substances in the marsh. The results of the present study suggest the need for a regular monitoring and management program which will help to improve the quality of Pallikaranai pristine marsh land.

  1. IMPACT OF LEATHER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES ON CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER SOUTH OF CHENNAI CITY, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elango, L.; Brindha, K.; G. Rajesh, V.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater quality is under threat due to disposal of effluents from a number of industries. Poor practice of treatment of wastes from tanning industries or leather processing industries lead to pollution of groundwater. This study was carried out with the objective of assessing the impact of tanneries on groundwater quality in Chromepet area which is a part of the metropolitan area of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. This area serves as the home town for a number of small and large scale tanning industries. People in certain parts of this area depend on the groundwater for their domestic needs as there is no piped drinking water supply system. Topographically this region is generally flat with gentle slope towards east and north east. The charnockite rocks occur as basement at the depth of about 15m from the surface of this area. Weathered charnockite rock occurs at the depth from 7m to 15m from the ground surface. The upper layer consists of loamy soil. Groundwater occurs in the unconfined condition at a depth from 0.5m to 5m. Thirty six groundwater samples were collected during March 2008 and the groundwater samples were analysed for their heavy metal (chromium) content using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) recommended the maximum permissible limit of chromium in drinking water as 0.05 mg/l. Considering this, it was found that 86% of the groundwater samples possessed concentration of chromium above the maximum permissible limit recommended by BIS. The tanneries use chrome sulphate to strengthen the leather and make it water repellent. The excess of chromium gets washed off and remains in the wastewater. This wastewater is disposed into open uncovered drains either untreated or after partial treatment. Thus the chromium leaches through the soil and reaches the groundwater table. Apart from this, there is also huge quantity of solid waste resulting from the hides and skins which are dumped off without suitable treatment. The

  2. Determination of environmental radioactivity (238U, 232Th and 40K) and indoor natural background radiation level in Chennai city (Tamilnadu State), India.

    PubMed

    Babai, K S; Poongothai, S; Punniyakotti, J

    2013-01-01

    An extensive study on the determination of the natural radioactivity ((238)U, (232)Th and (40)K) levels in soil samples of Chennai city, India has been undertaken and the results of the same are compared with the levels reported in other Indian cities as well as other parts of the world. The radioactivity content in the soil samples, the absorbed dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, internal and external hazard indices were calculated and compared with UNSCEAR 2000 recommended values. In addition to the above, mapping of indoor natural background gamma radiation levels has been made using thermo luminescent dosemeters throughout Chennai city and the same are reported.

  3. Air quality simulation of NOX over the tropical coastal city Chennai in southern India with FLEXPART-WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madala, Srikanth; Hari Prasad, K. B. R. R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2016-03-01

    Chennai is a rapidly growing metropolitan coastal city in southern India with several major sources of pollution. The complex coastal meteorology influences the pollutant transport in different seasons. In this study, the air quality pattern in Chennai with respect of NOX over different seasons are simulated with FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) considering release inventory of industrial, vehicular and domestic sources of pollution from seven different locations in Chennai. The meteorological fields for dispersion calculation are simulated using Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model at a high resolution (3 km). Air quality data in the study region available at six different places are used for comparing model outputs over 12 days in each season (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon). The Hanna diffusion scheme in FLEXPART-WRF is modified with new seasonal empirical turbulent intensity relationships derived as a function of atmospheric stability from turbulence data. Simulated concentrations are evaluated by varying the diffusion schemes (Hanna, modified Hanna) in FLEXPART and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes [YSU, ACM2 and MYNN2] in ARW. Simulations revealed distinct seasonal variation of dispersion patterns of NOX due to seasonal flow-field variation in the study region. It is found that, the new turbulence intensity relationships provide better comparisons for concentrations of NOX relative to the default Hanna relationship. Further, simulations using ACM2 PBL significantly reduced the negative bias and errors in concentration due to capturing the flow-field and other meteorological variables well. The study demonstrates the utility of FLEXPART for air quality modeling in the coastal city.

  4. Determinants of sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men accessing public sex environments in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Newman, P A; Chakrapani, V; Cook, C; Shunmugam, M; Kakinami, L

    2008-01-01

    We conducted structured interviews with 200 men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited using time-space sampling from public sex environments (PSEs) in Chennai, India. Predictors of sexual risk behavior were assessed with chi2 tests and multiple logistic regression. One-third reported unprotected receptive anal sex (URAS) last time and 36% inconsistent condom use in the past month. URAS was associated with younger age, less than high school education, low income, and low HIV transmission knowledge (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.1, 2.5, 3.7 and 2.5, respectively). Inconsistent condom use was associated with less than high school education (AOR = 3.2) and low HIV transmission knowledge (AOR = 3.5). Multilevel HIV prevention strategies tailored for low socioeconomic kothis and other MSM in PSEs in Chennai should include peer interventions to increase knowledge of HIV transmission risks and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and structural interventions to expand economic and educational opportunities, and accessible STI testing and treatment.

  5. Soft systems methodology and the ecosystem approach: a system study of the Cooum River and environs in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Martin J

    2003-02-01

    This paper discusses the integration of soft systems methodology (SSM) within an ecosystem approach in research to support rehabilitation and management of the Cooum River and environs in Chennai, India. The Cooum is an extremely polluted urban stream. Its management is complicated by high rates of population growth, poverty, uncontrolled urban development, jurisdictional conflicts, institutional culture, flat topography, tidal action, blockage of the river mouth, and monsoon flooding. The situation is characterized by basic uncertainty about main processes and activities, and the nature of relationships among actors and elements in the system.SSM is an approach for dealing with messy or ill-structured problematic situations involving human activity. In this work SSM contributed techniques (such as "rich picture" and "CATWOE" tools) to description of the Cooum situation as a socioecological system and informed the approach itself at a theoretical level. Application of three general phases in SSM is discussed in the context of the Cooum River research: (1) problem definition and exploration of the problem situation, (2) development of conceptual models of relevant systems, and (3) the use of these to generate insight and stimulate debate about desirable and feasible change. Its use here gives weight to the statement by others that SSM would be a particularly appropriate methodology to operate the ecosystem approach. As well as informing efforts at management of the Cooum system, this work led the way to explore an adaptive ecosystem approach more broadly to management of the urban environment for human health in Chennai.

  6. Heavy metals accumulation in crab and shrimps from Pulicat lake, north Chennai coastal region, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Batvari, B Prabhu Dass; Sivakumar, S; Shanthi, K; Lee, Kui-Jae; Oh, Byung-Taek; Krishnamoorthy, R R; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) was examined in crab (Scylla serrata) and shrimps (Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus indicus, and Penaeus monodon) collected from Pulicat lake that receives effluents from industries located in north Chennai, southeast coast of India. The results showed limited difference between crab and prawns as well as significant variations between the organs. Pb is the highly accumulated metal in both crab and shrimps, except P. monodon. The highest metal concentration was mostly found in the liver followed by other organs. The concentration of metals in edible parts (muscle) was within the permissible level and safe for consumption. However, the results of the study clearly indicate the biomagnification of metals in Pulicat lake.

  7. Asian-Indian parents' attributions about the causes of child behavior: a replication and extension with parents from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Montemayor, Raymond; Ranganathan, Chitra

    2012-01-01

    Using hypothetical vignettes, 152 parents of children 10-17 years old living in Chennai, India, made attributions about whether the origins of 2 positive and 2 negative behaviors performed by their own child or another child were due to the child's personality or the situation, or to parenting or nonparenting influences based on the frequency, intensity, and cross-situational consistency of the behavior. Parents attributed the positive behaviors of all children to the personality of the child and to parenting. Parents attributed negative behavior of their own children to situational influences and nonparenting effects, but attributed the negative behavior of other children to their personality and to parenting, a pattern that enhances and reinforces parent self-esteem. Results were discussed in terms of the self-serving bias and the actor-observer bias, cognitive distortions that protect and enhance parents' views of themselves and their children.

  8. Parental efficacy, parental monitoring efficacy, and monitoring among Asian-Indian parents of adolescents living in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Chitra; Montemayor, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parental efficacy and a new concept entitled parental monitoring efficacy, and to examine the association between parental monitoring efficacy and monitoring. We conducted two studies on two samples of Asian-Indian parents and adolescents living in Chennai, India. In the first study of 241 parents of adolescents in grades, 9-12, we constructed a new measure of parental efficacy that included two factors. The first factor, responding competently to negative adolescent behavior was more strongly predictive of parental monitoring efficacy than the second factor, instilling positive behavior. In the second study of 215 parents and adolescents in grades 10 and 12, parental monitoring efficacy predicted monitoring, especially adolescent disclosure and parental control. The importance of parental control as a monitoring technique among traditional Indian parents was discussed.

  9. Prevalence of Tobacco Use in Urban, Semi Urban and Rural Areas in and around Chennai City, India

    PubMed Central

    Chockalingam, Kolappan; Vedhachalam, Chandrasekaran; Rangasamy, Subramani; Sekar, Gomathi; Adinarayanan, Srividya; Swaminathan, Soumya; Menon, Pradeep Aravindan

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco use leads to many health complications and is a risk factor for the occurrence of cardio vascular diseases, lung and oral cancers, chronic bronchitis etc. Almost 6 million people die from tobacco-related causes every year. This study was conducted to measure the prevalence of tobacco use in three different areas around Chennai city, south India. Methods A survey of 7510 individuals aged > = 15 years was undertaken covering Chennai city (urban), Ambattur (semi-urban) and Sriperumbudur (rural) taluk. Details on tobacco use were collected using a questionnaire adapted from both Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Global Adults Tobacco Survey. Results The overall prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher in the rural (23.7%) compared to semi-urban (20.9%) and urban (19.4%) areas (P value <0.001) Tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.3%, 13.9% and 12.4% in rural, semi-urban and urban areas respectively. The corresponding values for smokeless tobacco use were 9.5%, 7.0% and 7.0% respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of using tobacco (with smoke or smokeless forms) was significantly higher among males, older individuals, alcoholics, in rural areas and slum localities. Behavioural pattern analysis of current tobacco users led to three groups (1) those who were not reached by family or friends to advice on harmful effects (2) those who were well aware of harmful effects of tobacco and even want to quit and (3) those are exposed to second hand/passive smoking at home and outside. Conclusions Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher in rural areas, slum dwellers, males and older age groups in this region of south India. Women used mainly smokeless tobacco. Tobacco control programmes need to develop strategies to address the different subgroups among tobacco users. Public health facilities need to expand smoking cessation counseling services as well as provide pharmacotherapy where necessary. PMID:24098418

  10. Conservation of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary, India.

    PubMed

    Nikam, Vinay S; Kumar, Arun; Lalla, Kamal; Gupta, Kapil

    2009-07-01

    There has been a steady decrease in the area occupied by wetlands in creeks and estuaries adjacent urban areas due to unprecedented urban growth in coastal cities, for example, Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary near Mumbai, India. Urban cities serve as centres of employment and attract a large number of migrants from other places. In case of coastal cities, due to inadequate infrastructure, wastewater and solid waste are disposed of into wetlands and estuary. Discharge of sediments and solid waste into the creeks from drains and construction activities has resulted in decreased flow depth in the coastal waters of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary. Various researchers have studied individual elements of Thane Creek and Ulhas River Estuary at micro level. However, a holistic approach for restoration and conservation of the creek and estuary is required. This paper presents the details of an integrated approach incorporating different conservation measures such as sewerage and sewage treatment, urban drainage management, solid waste management, mangrove plantation and dredging.

  11. Paediatric leptospirosis: A population based case-control study from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, R; Sumathi, G; Prabhakaran, S G; Shanmughapriya, S; Natarajaseenivasan, K

    2016-01-01

    The surveillance in Chennai identified 134 children and 443 adults clinically suspected for leptospirosis. Of these, 35 (26.1%) children and 118 (26.6%) adults had laboratory confirmed diagnosis for leptospirosis. The paediatric leptospirosis exhibited a higher frequency of classic features of Weil's disease. The prevalent serovar encountered was Icterohaemorrhagiae with no difference in the pattern of infecting serovars between the two groups. Further, confirmation of diagnosis was achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a positivity of 28.4% (specificity 96%). Univariate analysis showed significant association of paediatric leptospirosis with rat infestation (odds ratio 87.4). Thus, PCR facilitates early diagnosis of febrile illness among paediatric cases.

  12. Environmental sensitivity mapping and risk assessment for oil spill along the Chennai Coast in India.

    PubMed

    Kankara, R S; Arockiaraj, S; Prabhu, K

    2016-05-15

    Integration of oil spill modeling with coastal resource information could be useful for protecting the coastal environment from oil spills. A scenario-based risk assessment and sensitivity indexing were performed for the Chennai coast by integrating a coastal resource information system and an oil spill trajectory model. The fate analysis of spilled oil showed that 55% of oil out of a total volume of 100m(3) remained in the water column, affecting 800m of the shoreline. The seasonal scenarios show major impact during the southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons and more fatal effects on marine pelagic organisms during SW monsoon. The Oil Spill Risk Assessment Modeler tool was constructed in a geographic information systems (GIS) platform to analyze the risks, sensitivity mapping, and priority indexing of resources that are likely to be affected by oil spills along the Chennai coast. The results of sensitivity mapping and the risk assessment results can help organizations take measures to combat oil spills in a timely manner.

  13. Consumer Acceptance and Preference Study (CAPS) on brown and undermilled Indian rice varieties in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Hong, Biling; Malik, Vasanti; Jones, Clara; Wedick, Nicole M; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Ponnalagu, Muthu Mariyammal; Arumugam, Kokila; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    To study consumer acceptance of unmilled brown and undermilled rice among urban south Indians. Overweight and normal weight adults living in slum and nonslum residences in Chennai participated (n = 82). Bapatla (BPT) and Uma (red pigmented) rice varieties were chosen. These rice varieties were dehusked (unmilled, 0% polish) and further milled to 2.3% and 4.4% polishing (undermilled). Thus, 9 rice samples in both raw and parboiled forms were provided for consumer tasting over a period of 3 days. A 7-point hedonic scale was used to rate consumer preferences. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, anthropometric, medical history, physical activity, dietary intake data, and willingness of the consumers to switch over to brown rice. Consumers reported that the color, appearance, texture, taste, and overall quality of the 4.4% polished rice was strongly preferred in both varieties and forms. Ratings for 0% polished (brown rice) were substantially lower than those of 2.3% polished rice, which were intermediate in ratings between 0% and 4.4% polishing. However, most of the consumers (93%) expressed a willingness to substitute brown or 2.3% polished rice, if affordable, after the taste tests and education on nutritional and health benefits of whole grains. Though most consumers preferred polished white rice, education regarding health benefits may help this population switch to brown or undermilled rice. Cooking quality and appearance of the grains were perceived as the most important factors to consider when purchasing rice among Chennai urban adults.

  14. Barriers and facilitators to voluntary HIV testing uptake among communities at high risk of HIV exposure in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Woodford, Michael R; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali

    2015-08-28

    In India, increasing uptake of voluntary HIV testing among 'core risk groups' is a national public health priority. While HIV testing uptake has been studied among key populations in India, limited information is available on multi-level barriers and facilitators to HIV testing, and experiences with free, publicly available testing services, among key populations. We conducted 12 focus groups (n = 84) and 12 key informant interviews to explore these topics among men who have sex with men, transgender women, cisgender female sex workers, and injecting drug users in the city of Chennai. We identified inter-related barriers at social-structural, health-care system, interpersonal, and individual levels. Barriers included HIV stigma, marginalised-group stigma, discrimination in health-care settings, including government testing centres, and fears of adverse social consequences of testing HIV positive. Facilitators included outreach programmes operated by community-based/non-governmental organisations, accurate HIV knowledge and risk perception for HIV, and access to drug dependence treatment for injecting drug users. Promoting HIV testing among these key populations requires interventions at several levels: reducing HIV-related and marginalised-group stigma, addressing the fears of consequences of testing, promoting pro-testing peer and social norms, providing options for rapid and non-blood-based HIV tests, and ensuring non-judgmental and culturally competent HIV counselling and testing services.

  15. High prevalence of forced sex among non-brothel based, wine shop centered sex workers in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Go, Vivian F.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Parker, Corette Breeden; Salter, Megan; Green, Annette M.; Sivaram, Sudha; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Latkin, Carl; Davis, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence has been shown to increase women’s risk of HIV infection. India is a country where the HIV epidemic is growing among women and intimate partner violence is pervasive. This study examined prevalence of and factors associated with forced sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. We conducted a probability survey among FSWs in 24 slum venues and identified predictive factors for recent forced sex using univariate and multivariable proportional odds models. Among 522 FSWs, 28% reported having forced sex with 1 partner and 35% with 2+ partners. In the final multivariable model, women who had a high number of partners who had a strong tendency to drink alcohol before sex were more likely to have experienced forced sex, and women who had both unprotected sex with a nonspousal partner and > 20 days of alcohol consumption in the last 30 days were more likely to have experienced forced sex. Discussion about family violence with larger social networks was independently associated with lower odds of forced sex among FSWs. HIV interventions for FSWs and their clients aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and encouraging condom use could be enhanced by violence prevention interventions to facilitate discourse about sexual violence. PMID:20628897

  16. High prevalence of forced sex among non-brothel based, wine shop centered sex workers in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Go, Vivian F; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Parker, Corette Breeden; Salter, Megan; Green, Annette M; Sivaram, Sudha; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Latkin, Carl; Davis, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

    2011-01-01

    Sexual violence has been shown to increase women's risk of HIV infection. India is a country where the HIV epidemic is growing among women and intimate partner violence (IPV) is pervasive. This study examined prevalence of and factors associated with forced sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. We conducted a probability survey among FSWs in 24 slum venues and identified predictive factors for recent forced sex using univariate and multivariable proportional odds models. Among 522 FSWs, 28% reported having forced sex with one partner and 35% with 2+ partners. In the final multivariable model, women who had a high number of partners who had a strong tendency to drink alcohol before sex were more likely to have experienced forced sex, and women who had both unprotected sex with a nonspousal partner and > 20 days of alcohol consumption in the last 30 days were more likely to have experienced forced sex. Discussion about family violence with larger social networks was independently associated with lower odds of forced sex among FSWs. HIV interventions for FSWs and their clients aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and encouraging condom use could be enhanced by violence prevention interventions to facilitate discourse about sexual violence.

  17. Male Alcohol use and unprotected sex with non-regular partners: Evidence from wine shops in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Sivaram, S.; Srikrishnan, A.K.; Latkin, C.; Iriondo-Perez, J.; Go, V.F.; Solomon, S.; Celentano, D.D.

    2008-01-01

    Background In India, heterosexual transmission accounts for approximately 80% of the spread of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Male alcohol use and its putative association with sexual risk are explored to inform HIV prevention interventions. Methods A survey of 1196 male patrons of wine shops or bars was conducted from August 2002 - Jan 2003 as part of an ongoing HIV prevention trial in Chennai city in south India. In the analysis, we explored associations between covariates related to sexual behavior and alcohol use and our outcome of unprotected sexual intercourse with non-regular partners among men Results Nearly half (43%) of the respondents reported any unprotected sex with non-regular partners and 24% had four or more recent sexual partners. Over 85% reported using alcohol at least 10 days a month (17% reported drinking everyday). During a typical drinking day, 49% reported consuming five or more drinks. Alcohol use before sex was reported by 89% of respondents. Unprotected sex with non-regular partners was significantly higher among unmarried men (OR=3.25), those who reported irregular income (OR=1.38), who used alcohol before sex (OR=1.75) and who had higher numbers of sexual partners (OR=14.5). Conclusions Our findings suggest that future HIV prevention interventions in India might consider discussing responsible alcohol use and its possible role in sexual risk. These interventions should particularly consider involving unmarried men and weigh the role of structural factors such as access to income in developing prevention messages. PMID:18187270

  18. Structural violence against Kothi-identified men who have sex with men in Chennai, India: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; McLuckie, Alan; Melwin, Fredrick

    2007-08-01

    This qualitative investigation explored the experiences and contexts of stigma and discrimination among HIV-positive and high-risk kothi-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chennai, India, and ramifications for HIV prevention. MSM were recruited through community agencies (n = 10) and public sex environments (n = 8), along with three key informants. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Narrative thematic analysis and a constant comparative method were used to identify themes. Findings revealed multiple intersecting social and institutional contexts and experiences of stigmatization, discrimination, and violence across police, community, family, and health care systems, as well as illuminating consequences for MSM. Multisystemic structural violence places kothis at extreme vulnerability for HIV infection and AIDS. Public mass media antidiscrimination campaigns, education and training of health care providers and police, funding of indigenous MSM community organizations, and decriminalization of consensual sex between same-sex adults may help to combat stigma, discrimination, and violence against MSM, which is fundamental to effective HIV prevention.

  19. Prevalence and concordance of human papillomavirus infection at multiple anatomic sites among HIV-infected women from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Lynette J; Poongulali, Selvamuthu; Tommasino, Massimo; Lin, Hui-Yi; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Fisher, Kate J; Saravanan, Shanmugam; Gheit, Tarik; Ezhilarasi, Chandrasekaran; Jeeva, Arumugham; Lu, Beibei; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection at the cervix, anus and oropharynx has been rarely concurrently estimated among HIV-infected women. Using multiplex polymerase chain reaction testing, we prospectively evaluated HPV genotype distribution across three anatomic sites among 50 eligible HIV-infected women from Chennai, India, who provided biological specimens and answered a sexual behaviour questionnaire. We also assessed clinical and behavioural factors related to HPV prevalence. Oncogenic HPV prevalence was comparable between the anus and cervix at 52.2% and 52.0% and lower at the oropharynx at 13.2%; 78% of women with a cervical HPV infection had the same type in the anus. Newly acquired oncogenic HPV infections were lower at cervix (24%) than anus (35%) at three months. 'Any type' cervical HPV prevalence was higher among women with low education and less than five years since HIV diagnosis. CD4+ count and antiretroviral therapy status were not associated with HPV prevalence at the three anatomic sites; however, enrolment cervical HPV16 prevalence was elevated among women with nadir CD4+ <200 cells/µL and enrolment CD4+ <350 cells/µL. Regular cervical screening is essential in HIV-infected Indian women irrespective of CD4+ count and antiretroviral therapy status. Additional research clarifying the natural history of anal HPV infection is also needed in this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Multidrug-resistant Fusarium in keratitis: a clinico-mycological study of keratitis infections in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Tupaki-Sreepurna, Ananya; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Kindo, Anupma J; Sundaram, Murugan; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we aimed to present the first molecular epidemiological data from Chennai, India, analyse keratitis cases that have been monitored in a university hospital during 2 years, identify the responsible Fusarium species and determine antifungal susceptibilities. A total of 10 cases of keratitis were included in the study. Fusarium isolates were identified using the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2) and the translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1). Antifungal susceptibility was tested by the broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) methodology. The aetiological agents belonged to Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) (n = 9) and Fusarium sambucinum species complex (FSAMSC) (n = 1), and the identified species were Fusarium keratoplasticum (n = 7), Fusarium falciforme (n = 2) and Fusarium sporotrichioides (n = 1). All strains showed multidrug resistance to azoles and caspofungin but exhibited lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to natamycin and amphotericin B. Fusarium keratoplasticum and Fusarium falciforme belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex were the major aetiological agents of Fusarium keratitis in this study. Early presentation and 5% topical natamycin was associated with better patient outcome. Preventative measures and monitoring of local epidemiological data play an important role in clinical practice.

  1. Assessment of trace metal contamination in a historical freshwater canal (Buckingham Canal), Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R; Velmurugan, P M; Sathiyamoorthy, J; Krishnamurthy, R R; Urban, B

    2012-12-01

    The present study was done to assess the sources and the major processes controlling the trace metal distribution in sediments of Buckingham Canal. Based on the observed geochemical variations, the sediments are grouped as South Buckingham Canal and North Buckingham Canal sediments (SBC and NBC, respectively). SBC sediments show enrichment in Fe, Ti, Mn, Cr, V, Mo, and As concentrations, while NBC sediments show enrichment in Sn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Hg. The calculated Chemical Index of Alteration and Chemical Index of Weathering values for all the sediments are relatively higher than the North American Shale Composite and Upper Continental Crust but similar to Post-Archaean Average Shale, and suggest a source area with moderate weathering. Overall, SBC sediments are highly enriched in Mo, Zn, Cu, and Hg (geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) class 4-6), whereas NBC sediments are enriched in Sn, Cu, Zn, and Hg (I(geo) class 4-6). Cu, Ni, and Cr show higher than Effects-Range Median values and hence the biological adverse effect of these metals is 20%; Zn, which accounts for 50%, in the NBC sediments, has a more biological adverse effect than other metals found in these sediments. The calculated I(geo), Enrichment Factor, and Contamination Factor values indicate that Mo, Hg, Sn, Cu, and Zn are highly enriched in the Buckingham Canal sediments, suggesting the rapid urban and industrial development of Chennai Metropolitan City have negatively influenced on the surrounding aquatic ecosystem.

  2. Studies on community knowledge and behavior following a dengue epidemic in Chennai city, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, V; Rajendran, R; Manavalan, R; Tewari, S C; Arunachalam, N; Ayanar, K; Krishnamoorthi, R; Tyagi, B K

    2010-08-01

    In 2001, a major dengue outbreak was recorded in Chennai city, with 737 cases (90%) out of a total of 861 cases recorded from Tamil Nadu state. A KAP survey was carried out to assess the community knowledge, attitude and practice on dengue fever (DF), following the major dengue outbreak in 2001. A pre- tested, structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The multistage cluster sampling method was employed and 640 households (HHs) were surveyed. Among the total HHs surveyed, 34.5% of HHs were aware of dengue and only 3.3% of HHs knew that virus is the causative agent for DF. Majority of the HHs (86.5%) practiced water storage and only 3% of them stored water more than 5 days. No control measures were followed to avoid mosquito breeding in the water holding containers by majority of HHs (65%). Sixty percent of HHs did not know the biting behaviour of dengue vector mosquitoes. The survey results indicate that the community knowledge was very poor on dengue, its transmission, vector breeding sources, biting behavior and preventive measures. The lack of basic knowledge of the community on dengue epidemiology and vector bionomics would be also a major cause of increasing trend of dengue in this highly populated urban environment. There is an inevitable need to organize health education programmes about dengue disease to increase community knowledge and also to sensitize the community to participate in integrated vector control programme to resolve the dengue problem.

  3. Heavy metal accumulation in certain marine animals along the East Coast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Arun Kumar, K; Achyuthan, Hema

    2007-07-01

    Heavy metals disposed through anthropogenic activities find their way into the oceans and seas through the rivers or through direct fall out from factory effluents. These heavy metals resuspend back into the water column along with the sediments and are known to affect the marine animals. Marine animals like fish, prawn, crab and mussel were collected along the East Coast (off Pulicat lake to Chennai Harbour) to evaluate trace metal concentrations in various tissues. The above specimens accumulated heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni and Cd. Fish, prawn, crab and mussel revealed higher concentration of heavy metals such as Zn, Pb, Cr Co, Cu and Ni and Cd in low levels. The results revealed that the heavy metal concentrations in the marine animals are below the threshold levels associated with the toxicological effects and the regulatory limits. The bioconcentration factors revealed that the animals have accumulated heavy metals along the food chain rather than from the water column and sediment.

  4. Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Knowledge of Obesity and Diabetes among Adolescents in Chennai, South India

    PubMed Central

    Panuganti, Pranati; Mehreen, T. S.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mayer-Davis, E.; Ranjani, Harish

    2017-01-01

    The Obesity Reduction and Awareness of Non-communicable disease through Group Education (ORANGE) Phase II program, is a school-based intervention aimed at healthy lifestyle practices for sixth and seventh grade adolescents (n = 2345) attending private (n = 1811) and government (n = 534) schools in Chennai. The objectives of this paper are (a) to describe the intervention activities and their outcomes qualitatively and (b) to report changes in body mass index (BMI) of the intervention group participants. This intervention strategy used a teacher-peer-training model in each school for long-term sustainability of the lessons learned from this program. During each intervention session, teachers led a classroom discussion on the health topic of interest, and peers facilitated small-group learning activities. Anthropometric measurements of participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention. We found government school students perceived hygienic actions (e.g., drinking clean water, taking baths daily) as healthy habits for preventing diabetes, whereas private school students associated an expensive lifestyle (e.g., eating at restaurants, riding a car) with diabetes prevention. Overall, the mean post-intervention BMI (18.3 kg/m2) was in the normal range compared to the pre-intervention BMI (17.7 kg/m2) (p < 0.0001). These results suggest that future interventions should be tailored for adolescents from different socio-economic groups while acknowledging their varied perceptions. PMID:28757589

  5. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Dhanabal, Jeevitha; Selvadoss, Pradeep Pushparaj; Muthuswamy, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%), Cyclospora sp. (22.2%), Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%), Giardia intestinalis (14.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%), Trichuris trichiura (1.1%), and Hymenolepis nana (2.7%) were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas. PMID:24587897

  6. Transactional sex and the challenges to safer sexual behaviors: a study among male sex workers in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Biello, Katie B; Thomas, Beena E; Johnson, Blake E; Closson, Elizabeth F; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Menon, Sunil; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Male sex workers (MSW) are a significant but invisible population in India who are at risk for HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Few studies from India have documented HIV risk factors and motivations for sex work in this population. Between 2013 and 2014, a community-based convenience sample of 100 MSW in Chennai (south India) completed a baseline risk assessment as part of a behavioral intervention. Participants were ≥18 years, and reported current sex work. We report medians and proportions, and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests are used to examine differences between sex work and sexual behavior measures by income source. Participants were engaged in sex work for 5.0 years (IQR = 2.3-10.0), and earned 3000 (IQR = 2000-8000) Rupees (<50 USD) per month from sex work. Sixty-four percent reported ever testing for HIV and 20.2% for any STI. The most common reasons for starting sex work were money (83.0%) and pleasure (56.0%). Compared to participants with an additional source of income, those whose only source of income was sex work reported more male clients in the past month (10.0 vs. 6.0, p = .017), as well as more condomless anal sex acts with male clients (8.0 vs. 5.0, p = .008). Nearly 70.0% were offered more money not to use a condom during sex with a client, and 74.2% reported accepting more money not to use a condom. Three-quarters reported having experienced difficulty using condoms with clients. MSW in India engage in high levels of sexual risk for HIV/STIs. Money appears to be a driving factor for engaging in sex work and condomless sex with clients. HIV prevention interventions with MSW should focus on facilitating skills that will support their ability to negotiate sexual safety in the context of monetary disincentives.

  7. Barriers to antiretroviral treatment access for injecting drug users living with HIV in Chennai, South India

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Velayudham, Jaikumar; Shunmugam, Murali; Newman, Peter A.; Dubrow, Robert

    2014-01-01

    India’s National AIDS Control Organization provides free antiretroviral treatment (ART) to people living with HIV (PLHIV), including members of marginalized groups such as injecting drug users (IDUs). To help inform development of interventions to enhance ART access, we explored barriers to free ART access at government ART centers for IDUs living with HIV in Chennai by conducting three focus groups (n = 19 IDUs) and four key informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis to identify categories and derive themes. We found interrelated barriers at the family and social, health-care system, and individual levels. Family and social level barriers included lack of family support and fear of societal discrimination, as well as unmet basic needs, including food and shelter. Health-care system barriers included actual or perceived unfriendly hospital environment and procedures such as requiring proof of address and identity from PLHIV, including homeless IDUs; provider perception that IDUs will not adhere to ART, resulting in ART not being initiated; actual or perceived inadequate counseling services and lack of confidentiality; and lack of effective linkages between ART centers, needle/syringe programs, and drug dependence treatment centers. Individual-level barriers included active drug use, lack of self-efficacy in ART adherence, low motivation to initiate ART stemming from a fatalistic attitude, and inadequate knowledge about ART. These findings indicate that to facilitate IDUs gaining access to ART, systemic changes are needed, including steps to make the environment and procedures at government ART centers more IDU-friendly and steps to decrease HIV- and drug use-related stigma and discrimination faced by IDUs from the general public and health-care providers. Housing support for homeless IDUs and linkage of IDUs with drug dependence treatment are also essential. PMID:24283220

  8. Associations between Greenness, Impervious Surface Area, and Nighttime Lights on Biomarkers of Vascular Aging in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Lane, Kevin J; Stokes, Eleanor C; Seto, Karen C; Thanikachalam, Sadagopan; Thanikachalam, Mohan; Bell, Michelle L

    2017-08-02

    India is undergoing rapid urbanization with simultaneous increases in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). As urban areas become home to an increasing share of the world's population, it is important to understand relationships between the built environment and progression towards CVD. We assessed associations between multiple measures of the built environment and biomarkers of early vascular aging (EVA) in the Population Study of Urban, Rural and Semiurban Regions for the Detection of Endovascular Disease and Prevalence of Risk Factors and Holistic Intervention Study (PURSE-HIS) in Chennai, India. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 3,150 study participants. EVA biomarkers included systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), central pulse pressure (cPP) and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Multiple approaches were used to assign residential exposure to factors of the built environment: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a measure of vegetation health and greenness; Landsat-derived impervious surface area (ISA); and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)-derived nighttime lights (NTL). Multivariable regression models were used to assess associations between each built environment measure and biomarkers of EVA, adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), cooking fuel type, energy intake, sex, physical activity, smoking, socioeconomic status, and stress. Residing in areas with higher ISA or NTL, or lower greenness, was significantly associated with elevated SBP, DBP, and cPP, and with lower FMD, adjusting for age, BMI, sex, smoking status, and other CVD risk factors. An interquartile range decrease in greenness had the largest increase in SBP [4.3 mmHg (95% CI: 2.9, 5.6)], DBP [1.2 mmHg (95% CI: 0.4, 2.0)] and cPP [3.1 mmHg (95% CI: 2.0, 4.1)], and the largest decrease in FMD [-1.5% (95%CI: -2.2%, -0.9%]. Greenness, ISA, and NTL were associated with

  9. CBR Models and Training Viable for India. Proceedings of the Workshop (Chennai, India, March 3-5, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spastics Society, Tamil Nadu (India).

    This report describes the proceedings of a three-day workshop on community-based rehabilitation (CBR) models and training in India. The workshop included 72 professionals from India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Canada, and the United Kingdom. Sessions and papers from the workshop are summarized and address the following topics: (1) a training module for the…

  10. An approach to addressing ethical issues in a community-based risk assessment for HIV: a case from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, Aylur Kailasom; Murgavel, Kailapuri G; Mayer, Kenneth H; Anand, S; Celentano, David D; Solomon, Suniti

    2005-06-01

    Community-based assessment of HIV prevalence and behavioural risk factors is the basis for deciding priorities of prevention and care programmes. Here, upholding the human rights of participants in assessment is of utmost importance. The objective of the paper was to describe the process of implementation of an epidemiological survey to assess HIV-related behavioural and biological factors in Chennai city in South India and to suggest an ethical framework for conducting similar assessment activities in developing-country settings. A survey was conducted with participation from residents (n=1,659) of low-income urban communities (slums) as part of a community-based HIV/STD-prevention trial. Administration of the survey was preceded by extensive community contact and household visits to inform community members about the trial and assessment activities. Formative research further strengthened rapport with community, highlighted community concerns, and identified HIV-related risk behaviours that informed questionnaire design. The process of obtaining informed consent began before assessment activities and provided an opportunity for individuals to discuss participation with their families and friends. Privacy during assessment, comprehensive follow-up care for those who tested positive for HIV/STDs, such as nutritional and prevention counselling, referral services for opportunistic infections, and antenatal-care options for pregnant women increased trust and credibility of the project. The sustained availability of trial staff to facilitate access to resources to address non-HIV/STD-related felt-needs further strengthened participation of the community members. These resources included liaison services with local government to obtain public services, such as water and electricity and resources, to address concerns, such as alcohol abuse and domestic violence. Based on this experience, an ethical framework is suggested for conducting HIV epidemiological risk assessment

  11. HIV-1 drug resistance among newly HIV-1 infected individuals attending tertiary referral center in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Hussain Syed; Solomon, Sunil Suhas; Saravanan, Shanmugam; Vidya, Madhavan; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Solomon, Suniti; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu

    2011-11-01

    In the era of free HAART, accessibility and availability of ARV has been dramatically increased in India. However, rates of treatment literacy and adherence appear to be sub-optimal. Therefore, it is essential to monitor the extent of primary drug resistance in such settings. Between July and October 2006, 18 anti-retroviral-naοve individuals were identified as recent infected by the BED-Capture enzyme immunoassay in a VCTC clinic in Chennai. Specimens from these individuals were subjected to genotypic drug resistance testing. Phylogenetic trees were generated using MEGA for Windows version 4.0 using neighbor-joining method. The significant differences in polymorphic mutation frequencies between the study specimens and established subtype C-specific polymorphisms were examined using the Chi-square test. Amino acid substitution (K103N and V106MV) at drug resistance positions occurred in two (11%) isolates, conferring high-level resistance to the non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV), delavirdine (DLV) and notably extensive genetic variations were observed. K122E (94.4%) and K49R/KR (11.1%) polymorphisms identified in this study have not been previously described in established subtype-C specific polymorphisms. The rate of polymorphisms showed marked difference at the locations V60, D121, V35, and D123 (P < 0.0001). All the sequences showed maximum homology with Indian HIV-1 subtype C reference strain C.IN.95IN21068. The finding of resistance to NNRTIs is of public health importance. There is an urgent need to establish surveillance for primary drug resistance in large scale. Further studies are required to determine the phenotype impact of newer polymorphic mutations in relation to drug resistance and viral fitness.

  12. Household Contact Screening and Yield of Tuberculosis Cases—A Clinic Based Study in Chennai, South India

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Dina; Rajshekhar, Nandita; Klinton, Joel Shyam; Watson, Basilea; Velayutham, Banurekha; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Jawahar, Mohideen Shaheed; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Background Contact investigation is an active case finding strategy to increase detection of Tuberculosis (TB) and a key component of TB control programs. The household contacts are at a higher risk of exposure than members of the general population. The information on the value and yield of household contact screening and the approaches used in high incidence settings like India is limited. Objective To evaluate the yield of active case finding in household contacts of newly diagnosed smear positive TB patients and the factors associated with increased yield. Method Retrospective record review of the household contacts of newly diagnosed sputum smear positive patients (index case) enrolled in a clinical trial at National Institute of Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai during the period 2007–2014. A sequential screening algorithm with chest x-ray followed by symptom screen was employed to identify presumptive TB patients. Results 643 household contacts of 280 index TB patients were identified out of which 544 (85%) consented for screening. 71/544 (13%) patients had an abnormal chest radiograph and out of them 70% were symptomatic. A total of 29/544 (5.3%) contacts were found to have TB among whom 23/29 (79%) were sputum smear positive. The number needed to screen (NNS) to identify a new TB case among all household contacts was 19 and among those with an abnormal CXR was 02. Age group > 44 years, male gender and siblings of the index case was associated with abnormal chest radiograph whereas age group between 15–44 was significantly associated with developing TB disease among household contacts. Conclusion Active screening among household contacts is an effective way to improve TB case detection. The yield for new TB cases among contacts with abnormal x-ray was high in this study and the use of Chest X-rays in combination with symptom screen is recommended. PMID:27583974

  13. Occurrence and fate of emerging trace organic chemicals in wastewater plants in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Anumol, Tarun; Vijayanandan, Arya; Park, Minkyu; Philip, Ligy; Snyder, Shane A

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, pesticides and industrial contaminants collectively termed as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) in wastewater has been well-documented in USA, Europe, China and other regions. However, data from India, the second most populous country in the world is severely lacking. This study investigated the occurrence and concentrations of twenty-two indicator TOrCs at three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in South India serving diverse communities across three sampling campaigns. Samples were collected after each WWTP treatment unit and removal efficiencies for TOrCs were determined. Eleven TOrCs were detected in every sample from every location at all sites, while only five TOrCs were detected consistently in effluent samples. Caffeine was present at greatest concentration in the influent of all three plants with average concentrations ranging between 56 and 65μg/L. In contrast, the x-ray contrast media pharmaceutical, iohexol, was the highest detected compound on average in the effluent at all three WWTPs (2.1-8.7μg/L). TOrCs were not completely removed in the WWTPs with removal efficiencies being compound specific and most of the attenuation being attributed to the biological treatment processes. Caffeine and triclocarban were well removed (>80%), while other compounds were poorly removed (acesulfame, sucralose, iohexol) or maybe even formed (carbamazepine) within the WWTPs. The effluent composition of the 22 TOrCs were similar within the three WWTPs but quite different to those seen in the US, indicating the importance of region-specific monitoring. Diurnal trends indicated that variability is compound specific but trended within certain classes of compounds (artificial sweeteners, and pharmaceuticals). The data collected on TOrCs from this study can be used as a baseline to identify potential remediation and regulatory strategies in this understudied region of India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Correlates of HIV testing uptake among kothi-identified men who have sex with men in public sex environments in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Woodford, Michael R; Newman, Peter A; Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Shunmugam, Murali; Kakinami, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Kothi-identified men who have sex with men in India are highly marginalized and are at high-risk for HIV. This study examines HIV testing among 132 self-reported HIV-negative and unknown serostatus kothis recruited from public sex environments in Chennai, India. Using logistic regression we identified variables associated with HIV testing uptake (i.e., being tested and knowing the result). Sixty-one percent reported HIV testing uptake. At the bivariate level, married men, those with low HIV transmission knowledge, those who engaged in unprotected anal sex and unprotected receptive anal sex were at lower odds of reporting testing uptake. In multivariate analysis, married men and those with low levels of HIV transmission knowledge were at decreased odds of being tested, as were kothis who experienced forced sex. Culturally competent programs engaging married kothis are needed. Interventions to facilitate HIV prevention education and systemic interventions to combat sexual violence may facilitate HIV testing uptake among kothis.

  15. Influence of 2015 flood on the distribution and occurrence of microplastic pellets along the Chennai coast, India.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, S; Mugilarasan, M; Venkatachalapathy, R; Vethamony, P

    2016-08-15

    The sources, distribution, surface features, polymer composition and age of microplastic pellets (MPPs) in surface sediments along the Chennai coast during March 2015 (pre-Chennai flood) and November 2015 (post-Chennai flood) were characterised using a Stereoscopic microscope and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. White MPPs were the most abundant, and specifically polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) were the dominant polymer types of MPPs found on the coast during both the times. The abundance of MPPs in November 2015 was three-fold higher than those found in March 2015, confirming that huge quantity of fresh MPPs washed through Cooum and Adyar rivers from land during the flood. The winds and surface currents during November were the driving forces for the transportation and deposition of MPPs from the sea to beaches. The results of this study will be useful to formulate beach MPPs litter management policies to effectively create long-term solutions.

  16. Reimagining the past - use of counterfactual trajectories in socio-hydrological modelling: the case of Chennai, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.

    2015-02-01

    The developing world is rapidly urbanizing. One of the challenges associated with this growth will be to supply water to growing cities of the developing world. Traditional planning tools fare poorly over 30-50 year time horizons because these systems are changing so rapidly. Models that hold land use, economic patterns, governance systems or technology static over a long planning horizon could result in inaccurate predictions leading to sub-optimal or paradoxical outcomes. Most models fail to account for adaptive responses by humans that in turn influence water resource availability, resulting in coevolution of the human-water system. Is a particular trajectory inevitable given a city's natural resource endowment, is the trajectory purely driven by policy or are there tipping points in the evolution of a city's growth that shift it from one trajectory onto another? Socio-hydrology has been defined as a new science of water and people that will explicitly account for such bi-directional feedbacks. However, a particular challenge in incorporating such feedbacks is imagining technological, social and political futures that could fundamentally alter future water demand, allocation and use. This paper offers an alternative approach - the use of counterfactual trajectories - that allows policy insights to be gleaned without having to predict social futures. The approach allows us to "reimagine the past"; to observe how outcomes would differ if different decisions had been made. The paper presents a "socio-hydrological" model that simulates the feedbacks between the human, engineered and hydrological systems in Chennai, India over a 40-year period. The model offers several interesting insights. First, the study demonstrates that urban household water security goes beyond piped water supply. When piped supply fails, users turn to their own wells. If the wells dry up, consumers purchase expensive tanker water or curtail water use and thus become water insecure. Second

  17. Study on biofilm formation in burn wound infection in a pediatric hospital in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, M.; Putli Bai, S.; Babu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Infection is one of the major causes of death in pediatric burns in India. This work was conducted in an exclusive Children’s Hospital (KKCTH) with a total of 220 beds, of which ten beds in the burn unit and two isolation beds in the 28-bed PICU are for burns patients (more than 20% TBSA burns) with sepsis. In this study, 30 burn wound swab isolates obtained from 14 pediatric burns patients (admitted to the burns ward and transferred to PICU) from November 2013 to March 2014 were investigated. Cultures were done on the first day for all patients and empirical antibiotic administration was started for those with septic burns (14 in total) with piperacillin-tazobactam and vancomycin. Antibiotics were changed according to antibiotic sensitivity reports. Cultures were repeated for culture positive cases on the fifth day. Further antibiotic treatment was based on this culture report. When the general condition of the patient did not respond to highlevel antibiotics, biofilm formation was suspected and evaluated as the possible cause of antibiotic resistance. For these patients, an enhanced method of wound debridement and albumin transfusions were used to improve their general condition. Microbial identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done for all 30 isolates. The predominant bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of the Acinetobacter and Staphylococcus aureus showed multidrug resistance. Biofilm formation was studied using the Tissue Culture Plate (TCP) method for all bacterial isolates, and results showed that most of the MDR isolates formed biofilm. PMID:28289362

  18. Study on biofilm formation in burn wound infection in a pediatric hospital in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, M; Putli Bai, S; Babu, M

    2016-12-31

    Infection is one of the major causes of death in pediatric burns in India. This work was conducted in an exclusive Children's Hospital (KKCTH) with a total of 220 beds, of which ten beds in the burn unit and two isolation beds in the 28-bed PICU are for burns patients (more than 20% TBSA burns) with sepsis. In this study, 30 burn wound swab isolates obtained from 14 pediatric burns patients (admitted to the burns ward and transferred to PICU) from November 2013 to March 2014 were investigated. Cultures were done on the first day for all patients and empirical antibiotic administration was started for those with septic burns (14 in total) with piperacillin-tazobactam and vancomycin. Antibiotics were changed according to antibiotic sensitivity reports. Cultures were repeated for culture positive cases on the fifth day. Further antibiotic treatment was based on this culture report. When the general condition of the patient did not respond to highlevel antibiotics, biofilm formation was suspected and evaluated as the possible cause of antibiotic resistance. For these patients, an enhanced method of wound debridement and albumin transfusions were used to improve their general condition. Microbial identification and antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done for all 30 isolates. The predominant bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of the Acinetobacter and Staphylococcus aureus showed multidrug resistance. Biofilm formation was studied using the Tissue Culture Plate (TCP) method for all bacterial isolates, and results showed that most of the MDR isolates formed biofilm.

  19. Lead exposure and visual-motor abilities in children from Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Kavitha; Roy, Ananya; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Gopalakrishnan, Lakshmi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hu, Howard; Bellinger, David C

    2011-08-01

    Lead exposure poses a major environmental hazard in India, but little information is available on the impact of lead exposure on visuo-motor development in Indian children. We hypothesize that higher blood lead levels are associated with poorer visual-motor, visual-spatial and fine motor functioning among children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 814 school children, aged 3-7 years. Lead in whole blood was measured using the LeadCare Analyzer. The Wide Range of Visual Motor Abilities Test (WRAVMA) was administered to each child by trained examiners. The mean blood lead level was 11.4±5.3 μg/dL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for mother's education level, father's education level, average monthly income, hemoglobin and sex, WRAVMA scores were inversely related to blood lead level. An increase of 10 μg/dL was associated with a decrease of 2.6 points (95% CI: -4.5 to -0.7, P=0.006) in the Visual Motor Composite score and a decrease of 2.9 points (95% CI: -5.1 to -0.7, P=0.011) in the Drawing subtest. Exploration of the shape of the dose-effect relationships using spline functions indicated some non-linearities, with the steepest declines in visual-motor skills occurring at higher blood lead levels. Among urban Indian children, higher blood lead levels are associated with decreased visual-motor abilities, particularly visual-motor integration.

  20. The knowledge, attitude and practice towards blood donation among voluntary blood donors in chennai, India.

    PubMed

    S, Uma; R, Arun; P, Arumugam

    2013-06-01

    An integrated strategy for blood safety is required for the provision of safe and adequate blood. Recruiting a sufficient number of safe blood donors is an emerging challenge. The shortage of blood in India is due to an increase in the demand, with fewer voluntary blood donors. A study on the knowledge, attitude and the practice of donors may prove to be useful in the successful implementation of the blood donation programme. Our aim was to find the level of the knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation among voluntary blood donors. A structured questionnaire was given to 530 voluntary blood donors to assess their knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to blood donations. The statistical analyses were done by using the SPSS software. The associations between the demographic factors were analysed by using the Chi square test. Among the 530 donors, 436 (93%) were males and 36 (7%) were female donors. 273 (51.2%) donors knew about the interval of the donation and 421 (79.4%) donors knew about the age limit for the donation. 305 (57%) donors felt that creating an opportunity for the donation was an important factor for motivating the blood donation and 292 (55%) donors felt that the fear of pain was the main reason for the hesitation of the donors in coming forward to donate blood. A majority of the donors were willing to be regular donors. The donors showed positive effects like a sense of satisfaction after the donation. Creating an opportunity for blood donation by conducting many blood donation camps may increase the voluntary blood donations.

  1. Lead Exposure and Visual-Motor Abilities in Children from Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Kavitha; Roy, Ananya; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Krishnan, Lakshmi; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Hu, Howard; Bellinger, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Lead exposure poses a major environmental hazard in India, but little information is available on the impact of lead exposure on neurobehavioral development in Indian children. We hypothesize that higher blood lead levels are associated with poorer visual-motor, visual-spatial and fine motor functioning among children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 814 school children, aged 3–7 years. Lead in whole blood was measured using the LeadCare Analyzer. The Wide Range of Visual Motor Abilities Test (WRAVMA) was administered to each child by trained examiners. The mean blood lead level was 11.4 ± 5.3 μg//dL. In multivariate analyses adjusting for mother’s education level, fathers education level, average monthly income, hemoglobin and sex, WRAVMA scores were inversely related to blood lead level. An increase of 10 μg/dL was associated with a decrease of 2.6 points (95% CI: −4.5 to −0.7, P=0.006) in the Visual Motor Composite score and a decrease of 2.9 points (95% CI: −5.1 to −0.7, P=0.011) in the Drawing subtest. Exploration of the shape of the dose-effect relationships using spline functions indicated some non-linearities, with the steepest declines in visual-motor skills occurring at higher blood lead levels. Among urban Indian children, higher blood lead levels are associated with decreased visual-motor abilities, particularly visual-motor integration. PMID:21510976

  2. Impact of generic antiretroviral therapy (ART) and free ART programs on time to initiation of ART at a tertiary HIV care center in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Sunil S; Lucas, Gregory M; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Yepthomi, Tokugha; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Ganesh, Aylur K; Anand, Santhanam; Moore, Richard D; Solomon, Suniti; Mehta, Shruti H

    2013-08-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) access in the developing world has improved, but whether increased access has translated to more rapid treatment initiation among those who need it is unknown. We characterize time to ART initiation across three eras of ART availability in Chennai, India (1996-1999: pregeneric; 2000-2003: generic; 2004-2007: free rollout). Between 1996 and 2007, 11,171 patients registered for care at the YR Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education (YRGCARE), a tertiary HIV referral center in southern India. Of these, 5726 patients became eligible for ART during this period as per Indian guidelines for initiation of ART. Generalized gamma survival models were used to estimate relative times (RT) to ART initiation by calendar periods of eligibility. Time to initiation of ART among patients in Chennai, India was also compared to an HIV clinical cohort in Baltimore, USA. Median age of the YRGCARE patients was 34 years; 77% were male. The median CD4 at presentation was 140 cells/µl. After adjustment for demographics, CD4 and WHO stage, persons in the pregeneric era took 3.25 times longer (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.53-4.17) to initiate ART versus the generic era and persons in the free rollout era initiated ART more rapidly than the generic era (RT: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.63-0.83). Adjusting for differences across centers, patients at YRGCARE took longer than patients in the Johns Hopkins Clinical Cohort (JHCC) to initiate ART in the pregeneric era (RT: 4.90; 95% CI: 3.37-7.13) but in the free rollout era, YRGCARE patients took only about a quarter of the time (RT: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.22-0.44). These data demonstrate the benefits of generic ART and government rollouts on time to initiation of ART in one developing country setting and suggests that access to ART may be comparable to developed country settings.

  3. When HIV-prevention messages and gender norms clash: the impact of domestic violence on women's HIV risk in slums of Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Go, Vivian F; Sethulakshmi, C Johnson; Bentley, Margaret E; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A K; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

    2003-09-01

    This paper examines how marital violence affects women's ability to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS. In-depth interviews (n = 48) and focus groups (n = 84, 3-7 per group) were conducted among men and women in two randomly selected slums of Chennai, India. The study showed that community gender norms tacitly sanction domestic violence that interferes with adopting HIV-preventive behaviors. Given the choice between the immediate threat of violence and the relatively hypothetical specter of HIV, women often resign themselves to sexual demands and indiscretions that may increase their risk of HIV acquisition. In conclusion, AIDS-prevention interventions must incorporate gender-related social contexts in settings where husbands strictly enforce their locus of control. HIV-prevention messages targeting men may effectively reduce women's exposure to HIV/AIDS.

  4. Development and Open Pilot Trial of an HIV-Prevention Intervention Integrating Mobile-Phone Technology for Male Sex Workers in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Beena; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie; Menon, Sunil; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-12-29

    In India men who have sex with men and engage in sex work (i.e., male sex workers; MSW) have a high risk of transmitting HIV. Globally, sex workers have become more spatially mobile due to advances in mobile-phone technology. In 2012 in-depth qualitative feedback was garnered from 40 interviews with MSW and four focus groups with 35 key informants (KIs) who had expert knowledge of the local MSW community to inform the design of an HIV-prevention intervention among MSW in Chennai, India. All MSW were recruited during outreach by employees of a Chennai-based organization for MSM (men who have sex with men). The data were analyzed using a descriptive qualitative approach. MSW and KIs discussed the need for intervention content that went beyond basic HIV psychoeducation. They emphasized the importance of addressing psychological distress, alcohol-related risk, and sexual communication skills. Concerns were raised about confidentiality, privacy, and scheduling. Participants endorsed a combination of in-person and mobile-phone-delivered sessions as well as the integration of mobile-phone messaging. These findings served as the basis for the development of a theoretically driven, manual-based intervention incorporating mobile phones. An open pilot assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention with eight MSW. Assessments and HIV testing were administered at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Exit interviews were conducted at the conclusion of the intervention. Retention for session attendance and assessment follow-up was 100 %. There was a high level of acceptability for the format, structure, and content. These data show initial promise, feasibility, and acceptability of the intervention.

  5. Optimal routing for efficient municipal solid waste transportation by using ArcGIS application in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Sanjeevi, V; Shahabudeen, P

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, about US$410 billion is spent every year to manage four billion tonnes of municipal solid wastes (MSW). Transport cost alone constitutes more than 50% of the total expenditure on solid waste management (SWM) in major cities of the developed world and the collection and transport cost is about 85% in the developing world. There is a need to improve the ability of the city administrators to manage the municipal solid wastes with least cost. Since 2000, new technologies such as geographical information system (GIS) and related optimization software have been used to optimize the haul route distances. The city limits of Chennai were extended from 175 to 426 km(2) in 2011, leading to sub-optimum levels in solid waste transportation of 4840 tonnes per day. After developing a spatial database for the whole of Chennai with 200 wards, the route optimization procedures have been run for the transport of solid wastes from 13 wards (generating nodes) to one transfer station (intermediary before landfill), using ArcGIS. The optimization process reduced the distances travelled by 9.93%. The annual total cost incurred for this segment alone is Indian Rupees (INR) 226.1 million. Savings in terms of time taken for both the current and shortest paths have also been computed, considering traffic conditions. The overall savings are thus very meaningful and call for optimization of the haul routes for the entire Chennai.

  6. Community-based control of Aedes aegypti by adoption of eco-health methods in Chennai City, India.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Natarajan; Tyagi, Brij Kishore; Samuel, Miriam; Krishnamoorthi, R; Manavalan, R; Tewari, Satish Chandra; Ashokkumar, V; Kroeger, Axel; Sommerfeld, Johannes; Petzold, Max

    2012-12-01

    Dengue is highly endemic in Chennai city, South India, in spite of continuous vector control efforts. This intervention study was aimed at establishing the efficacy as well as the favouring and limiting factors relating to a community-based environmental intervention package to control the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. A cluster randomized controlled trial was designed to measure the outcome of a new vector control package and process analysis; different data collection tools were used to determine the performance. Ten randomly selected intervention clusters (neighbourhoods with 100 houses each) were paired with ten control clusters on the basis of ecological/entomological indices and sociological parameters collected during baseline studies. In the intervention clusters, Aedes control was carried out using a community-based environmental management approach like provision of water container covers through community actors, clean-up campaigns, and dissemination of dengue information through schoolchildren. The main outcome measure was reduction in pupal indices (pupae per person index), used as a proxy measure of adult vectors, in the intervention clusters compared to the control clusters. At baseline, almost half the respondents did not know that dengue is serious but preventable, or that it is transmitted by mosquitoes. The stakeholder analysis showed that dengue vector control is carried out by vertically structured programmes of national, state, and local administrative bodies through fogging and larval control with temephos, without any involvement of community-based organizations, and that vector control efforts were conducted in an isolated and irregular way. The most productive container types for Aedes pupae were cement tanks, drums, and discarded containers. All ten intervention clusters with a total of 1000 houses and 4639 inhabitants received the intervention while the ten control clusters with a total of 1000 houses and 4439 inhabitants received only

  7. Water quality assessment of Malad Creek, Mumbai, India: an impact of sewage and tidal water.

    PubMed

    Sardar, V K; Vijay, R; Sohony, R A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out water quality assessment and to identify sources responsible for deterioration of quality in the Malad creek, Mumbai, India. Creek receives sewage and wastewater from various drains and partially treated effluent from Malad and Versova treatment facilities. To assess the water quality, sampling locations were identified in the creek based on discharges of wastewater and sewage. Identified locations were traced in physical space by a global positioning system. Samples were collected during low and high tides and analyzed for physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters such as pH, Turbidity, DO, BOD, NH(3)-N, PO(4) and FC and compared with SW-II Standards. Parameters were also analyzed statistically and correlated to determine the relationship amongst the parameters using SPSS software. The idea was to determine the probable causes contributing to the pollution in the creek. Various options were suggested for improvement in the creek quality based on water quality assessment.

  8. Risk factors for HIV infection in injection drug users and evidence for onward transmission of HIV to their sexual partners in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Panda, Samiran; Kumar, M Suresh; Lokabiraman, S; Jayashree, K; Satagopan, M C; Solomon, Suniti; Rao, Usha Anand; Rangaiyan, Gurumurthy; Flessenkaemper, Sabine; Grosskurth, Heiner; Gupte, Mohan D

    2005-05-01

    Determining HIV prevalence in injection drug users (IDUs) and their regular sex partners in Chennai, India. A total of 226 IDUs and their regular sex partners were enrolled during April-July 2003. After informed consent was obtained, a semistructured questionnaire was administered and serum was tested for HIV antibody. The HIV seroprevalence was 30% (68/226) in IDUs and 5% in their regular sex partners (11/226). While in 25% of couples only the male partner was HIV positive, 5% of the couples were concordant for HIV infection and 70% were HIV negative. Fifty-seven percent of the HIV-positive IDUs and 45% of the HIV-infected women thought that they had "no chance" or "very little chance" of getting HIV, reflecting low HIV risk perception. More than 20% IDUs reported borrowing or lending of injection equipment. In univariate analyses "sex" and "condom use" with sex workers had no bearing but "more than twice a day injecting frequency," "history of incarceration," "tattoos," "recruitment from northern part of the city," and ever-injecting drugs in drug-selling places had significant association with HIV infection in IDUs. In an adjusted model, the odds of HIV infection were 2 times higher among IDUs who had ever injected drugs in drug-selling places and 6 times higher in those who were recruited from the northern part of central Chennai. Reducing sharing of injection equipment and unsafe tattooing through targeted and environmental interventions, increasing HIV risk perception, and promoting safer sex practices among IDUs and their sex partners are urgent program needs.

  9. Hydrogeochemistry and groundwater quality appraisal of part of south Chennai coastal aquifers, Tamil Nadu, India using WQI and fuzzy logic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Kumar, S.; Bharani, R.; Magesh, N. S.; Godson, Prince S.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking purposes in the urban coastal aquifers of part of south Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected during March 2012. The minimum and maximum values of pH (6.3-8 on scale), electrical conductivity (620-12,150 μS/cm), total dissolved solids (399.28-7,824.6 mg/l), carbonate (0-30 mg/l), bicarbonate (0.9-58.9 mg/l), chloride (70.9-4,067.89 mg/l), sulphate (17.4-105 mg/l), nitrate (0.4-6.0 mg/l), calcium (30-200 mg/l), magnesium (1.2-164 mg/l), sodium (69-1,490 mg/l) and potassium (8-340 mg/l) were recorded in the coastal aquifers of Chennai city. The groundwater samples show that the majority of the sampling points clustered on the NaCl and mixed CaMgCl facies of the piper trilinear diagram. In the Gibbs diagram, the majority of the sampling points fall under rock water and evaporation dominance field. Fuzzy membership classification suggests that the majority of the samples fall under good water type followed by excellent water and poor water categories. Groundwater quality index showing the majority of the samples falls under excellent to poor category of water. A positive correlation was observed with Cl-, SO4 2-, Ca2+, Na+, K+, EC and TDS. The extracted results of the correlation matrix and geochemical analysis suggest that the dominant ions of groundwater (Na+, Ca2+, K+, Cl- and SO4 2-) were derived from seawater intrusion and gypsum dissolution process. Nitrate concentration is most significantly derived from anthropogenic sources.

  10. ENSURING IT WORKS: A COMMUNITY-BASED APPROACH TO HIV PREVENTION INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT FOR MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN IN CHENNAI, INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Beena; Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Closson, Elizabeth F.; Johnson, Carey V.; Menon, Sunil; Mani, Jamuna; Vijaylakshmi, R.; Dilip, Meenalochini; Betancourt, Theresa; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India have an HIV seroprevalence 22 times greater than the country’s general population and face unique challenges that may hinder the effectiveness of current HIV prevention efforts. To obtain an understanding of the logistical and sociocultural barriers MSM experience while accessing HIV prevention services, focus groups and key informant interviews were conducted with 55 MSM in Chennai, India. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive qualitative content analysis. Sixty-five percent of participants identified as kothi (receptive partners), 9% as panthi (insertive partners), 22% as double decker (receptive and insertive), and 4% did not disclose. Themes included: (a) fatigue with current HIV risk reduction messages; (b) increased need for non-judgmental and confidential services; and (c) inclusion of content that acknowledges individual and structural-level determinants of risk such as low self-esteem, depression, and social discrimination. MSM interventions may benefit from approaches that address multilevel psychosocial factors, including skills building and strategies to foster self-acceptance and increased social support. PMID:23206199

  11. GIS based water quality indexing of Malad creek, Mumbai (India): an impact of sewage discharges.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Bhattacharyya, Tapas; Joshi, Rucha R; Dhage, S S; Sohony, R A

    2011-04-01

    Malad creek is one of the most heavily polluted water bodies in Mumbai, India. Presently, creek receives wastewater and sewage from open drains and nallahs as well as partially treated wastewater from treatment facilities. The objective of the present study was to assess and classify the water quality zones spatially and temporally based on physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. For this, GIS based methodology was integrated with water quality indexing, according to National Sanitation Foundation. Nine water quality parameters were considered to generate the indices that represent the overall status of creek water quality. Based on field observations and spatial distribution of water quality, various options were suggested for improvement in water quality of the creek.

  12. Expenditure Pattern for TB Treatment among Patients Registered in an Urban Government DOTS Program in Chennai City, South India.

    PubMed

    Ananthakrishnan, Ramya; Muniyandi, M; Jeyaraj, Anita; Palani, Gopal; Sathiyasekaran, B W C

    2012-01-01

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) patients registered in the government clinics under the DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course) program in Chennai city catering to about 4.3 million population. Objective. To estimate the pattern and overall costs incurred by the new patients (who have never had treatment for tuberculosis or have taken antituberculosis drugs for less than one month) registered under DOTS program in the treatment of tuberculosis in Chennai city. Methodology. A cross-sectional survey among new TB patients, who had completed intensive phase of antituberculosis treatment, was done using a precoded semi-structured questionnaire between March and June 2007. Information was collected on demographic, socioeconomic characteristics and expenditure for before and during treatment. Mean costs were used for comparison. Results. Among the 300 TB patients, most economically productive age group and 186 (62%) were males. The overall estimated total costs incurred right from the onset of symptoms until treatment completion was found to be Rs. 3211 (3.8% of annual family income) under DOTS program, which is less compared to previous studies. The overall mean total cost was significantly high among male (Rs. 3270; P < 0.01), employed (Rs. 3945; P < 0.01), and extrapulmonary patients (Rs. 3915; P < 0.01). Conclusion. The study has reiterated the fact that DOTS helps in reducing out-of-pocket expenses to patients with tuberculosis and hence is a cost-effective health intervention. This cost reduction may help to increase the access to the poor people which would help in achieving universal access to TB care services.

  13. Socioeconomic impact of TB on patients registered within RNTCP and their families in the year 2007 in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishnan, Ramya; Jeyaraj, Anita; Palani, Gopal; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis patients are registered in government clinics under Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) program in Chennai city catering to 4.34 million population. With the entire country geographically covered under the DOTS program, research into socioeconomic impact of TB on patients and their households is crucial for providing comprehensive patient-friendly TB services and to document the benefits of DOTS. Objective: To assess the social and economic impact of TB on patients registered under DOTS program and their families. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 300 TB patients was done using a pre-coded semi-quantitative questionnaire between March and June 2007 in all the Tuberculosis Units (TUs) of Chennai city. Results: Social and economic impact was perceived by 69.0% and 30.3% patients, respectively. About 24.3% suffered from both social and economic impact, while 75% patients suffered from any one form of impact. Social impact was perceived by more female patients as compared to males (80.7% vs. 62%; P < 0.001). More patients with extra-pulmonary disease (44.4%) and patients belonging to joint families (40.7%) perceived economic impact (P < 0.05). Conclusion: After 8 years of DOTS implementation, the present study has shown that with the availability of DOTS, percentage of patients who mortgaged assets or took loans has reduced. Social impact of TB is still perceived by two-thirds of the patients (69%). Elimination or reduction of social stressors with specific, focused, and intense social support services, awareness generation, and counseling to patients and families need to be built into the program. PMID:22919159

  14. The impact of rainfall and seasonal variability on the removal of bacteria by a point-of-use drinking water treatment intervention in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Morgan C; Juran, Luke; Jose, Jincy; Srinivasan, Sekar; Ali, Syed I; Aronson, Kristan J; Hall, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-use water treatment has received widespread application in the developing world to help mitigate waterborne infectious disease. This study examines the efficacy of a combined filter and chemical disinfection technology in removing bacterial contaminants, and more specifically changes in its performance resulting from seasonal weather variability. During a 12-month field trial in Chennai, India, mean log-reductions were 1.51 for E. coli and 1.67 for total coliforms, and the highest concentration of indicator bacteria in treated water samples were found during the monsoon season. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in the microbial load of indicator organisms (coliforms and E. coli) between seasons, storage time since treatment (TST), and samples with and without chlorine residuals. Findings indicate that the bacteriological quality of drinking water treated in the home is determined by a complex interaction of environmental and sociological conditions. Moreover, while the effect of disinfection was independent of season, the impact of storage TST on water quality was found to be seasonally dependent.

  15. Factors associated with high stress levels in adults with diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes care center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Sendhilkumar, Muthappan; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Harries, Anthony D; Dongre, Amol R; Deepa, Mohan; Vidyulatha, Ashok; Poongothai, Subramanian; Venkatesan, Ulaganathan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine perceived stress levels among adults aged >20 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in a tertiary care diabetes center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, assess their association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and assess the possible risk factors for stress and coping strategies. A mixed-methods (triangulation design) study with quantitative methodology (survey) and qualitative methodology (interviews) was carried out. Stress levels were assessed among type 2 DM patients attending a diabetes clinic using a 5-point perceived stress scale-10. One-on-one interviews were carried out with 376 participants with DM having high/very high stress levels to understand the reasons for perceived stress and explore their coping mechanisms. The prevalence of high/very high stress was 35% among DM patients. Age 30-40 years, working in professional jobs, and lack of physical activity were factors significantly associated with stress. The perceived major stress inducers were related to family, work, financial issues, and the disease itself. This study showed high levels of stress in more than one-third of DM patients. Potential solutions include regular, formal assessment of stress levels in the clinic, providing integrated counseling and psychological care for DM patients, and promoting physical activity.

  16. Garnering an In-depth Understanding of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Chennai, India: A Qualitative Analysis of Sexual Minority Status and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Elizabeth F.; Thomas, Beena; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Betancourt, Theresa; Menon, Sunil; Safren, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are a hidden and largely understudied population, and havean HIV prevalence 17 times higher than that of the general Indian population. Experiences of social marginalization and negative psychosocial conditions occur concurrent to HIV risk among Indian MSM. To better understand the contextual variables driving HIV risk and inform intervention development, five focus groups (n = 46) and nine key informant interviews were conducted with 55 MSM in Chennai in 2010. NVivo software was used to code the transcripts, and data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis methodology. Participants described sources of psychological distress and low self-worth related to gender non-conformity and sexual minority status. These included stigma from society, pressure to marry, lack of familial acceptance, childhood sexual abuse, and the imperative to keep sexual minority status a secret. Participants' personal evaluations revealed that self-acceptance may be an important resilience factor that can shield these psychosocial and HIV risk factors. In promoting health-seeking behavioral changes for Indian MSM at an individual level, our findings point to the potential strength of strategies that focus on self-acceptance of one's sexual minority identity to foster better psychosocial and overall health. PMID:25358949

  17. Factors associated with high stress levels in adults with diabetes mellitus attending a tertiary diabetes care center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Sendhilkumar, Muthappan; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Harries, Anthony D.; Dongre, Amol R.; Deepa, Mohan; Vidyulatha, Ashok; Poongothai, Subramanian; Venkatesan, Ulaganathan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to determine perceived stress levels among adults aged >20 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in a tertiary care diabetes center, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, assess their association with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and assess the possible risk factors for stress and coping strategies. Methods: A mixed-methods (triangulation design) study with quantitative methodology (survey) and qualitative methodology (interviews) was carried out. Stress levels were assessed among type 2 DM patients attending a diabetes clinic using a 5-point perceived stress scale-10. One-on-one interviews were carried out with 376 participants with DM having high/very high stress levels to understand the reasons for perceived stress and explore their coping mechanisms. Results: The prevalence of high/very high stress was 35% among DM patients. Age 30–40 years, working in professional jobs, and lack of physical activity were factors significantly associated with stress. The perceived major stress inducers were related to family, work, financial issues, and the disease itself. Conclusions: This study showed high levels of stress in more than one-third of DM patients. Potential solutions include regular, formal assessment of stress levels in the clinic, providing integrated counseling and psychological care for DM patients, and promoting physical activity. PMID:28217499

  18. Periodontal Status Among Patients With Cleft Lip (CL), Cleft Palate (CP) and Cleft Lip, Alveolus and Palate (CLAP) In Chennai, India. A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    John, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long term health of the stomatognathic system as well as esthetic aspects is the therapeutic goals in patients with oro facial clefts. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the periodontal status of patients with cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP) and cleft lip, alveolus and palate (CLAP) reporting to a hospital in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 80 cleft patients. Subjects were divided into three groups. Group 1: patients with cleft lip (CL), Group 2: subjects with cleft palate (CP) and Group 3: subjects with cleft lip alveolus and palate (CLAP). Community Periodontal Index for Treatment needs CPITN Index was recorded. Results: Among the 80 study subjects, 51 (63.8%) were males and 29 (36.2%) were females. Among the 26 study subjects with cleft lip, 10 (38.5%) had healthy periodontium, 4 (15.4%) had bleeding on probing and 12 (46.1%) had calculus. Mean number of sextants coded for healthy and bleeding was maximum among the subjects with cleft palate. Mean number of sextants coded for calculus was maximum among the subjects with cleft lip alveolus and palate. Prevalence of periodontal disease is high among patients with cleft lip, alveolus and palate (35%) than in Cleft lip (32.5%) and Cleft Palate (32.5%). Conclusion: Gingivitis and Calculus is predominantly high in patients with Cleft Palate and Cleft Lip respectively. PMID:25954706

  19. Periodontal Status Among Patients With Cleft Lip (CL), Cleft Palate (CP) and Cleft Lip, Alveolus and Palate (CLAP) In Chennai, India. A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Nagappan, N; John, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Long term health of the stomatognathic system as well as esthetic aspects is the therapeutic goals in patients with oro facial clefts. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the periodontal status of patients with cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP) and cleft lip, alveolus and palate (CLAP) reporting to a hospital in Chennai, India. The study group consisted of 80 cleft patients. Subjects were divided into three groups. Group 1: patients with cleft lip (CL), Group 2: subjects with cleft palate (CP) and Group 3: subjects with cleft lip alveolus and palate (CLAP). Community Periodontal Index for Treatment needs CPITN Index was recorded. Among the 80 study subjects, 51 (63.8%) were males and 29 (36.2%) were females. Among the 26 study subjects with cleft lip, 10 (38.5%) had healthy periodontium, 4 (15.4%) had bleeding on probing and 12 (46.1%) had calculus. Mean number of sextants coded for healthy and bleeding was maximum among the subjects with cleft palate. Mean number of sextants coded for calculus was maximum among the subjects with cleft lip alveolus and palate. Prevalence of periodontal disease is high among patients with cleft lip, alveolus and palate (35%) than in Cleft lip (32.5%) and Cleft Palate (32.5%). Gingivitis and Calculus is predominantly high in patients with Cleft Palate and Cleft Lip respectively.

  20. Garnering an in-depth understanding of men who have sex with men in Chennai, India: a qualitative analysis of sexual minority status and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Closson, Elizabeth F; Thomas, Beena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Theresa; Menon, Sunil; Safren, Steven A

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are a hidden and largely understudied population, and have an HIV prevalence 17 times higher than that of the general Indian population. Experiences of social marginalization and negative psychosocial conditions occur concurrent to HIV risk among Indian MSM. To better understand the contextual variables driving HIV risk and inform intervention development, five focus groups (n = 46) and nine key informant interviews were conducted with 55 MSM in Chennai in 2010. NVivo software was used to code the transcripts, and data were analyzed using qualitative descriptive analysis methodology. Participants described sources of psychological distress and low self-worth related to gender non-conformity and sexual minority status. These included stigma from society, pressure to marry, lack of familial acceptance, childhood sexual abuse, and the imperative to keep sexual minority status a secret. Participants' personal evaluations revealed that self-acceptance may be an important resilience factor that can shield these psychosocial and HIV risk factors. In promoting health-seeking behavioral changes for Indian MSM at an individual level, our findings point to the potential strength of strategies that focus on self-acceptance of one's sexual minority identity to foster better psychosocial and overall health.

  1. Overhead tank is the potential breeding habitat of Anopheles stephensi in an urban transmission setting of Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Shalu; Ravishankaran, Sangamithra; Justin, Johnson A; Asokan, Aswin; Mathai, Manu T; Valecha, Neena; Thomas, Matthew B; Eapen, Alex

    2016-05-11

    Wells and overhead tanks (OHT) are the major breeding sources of the local malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi in the Indian city of Chennai; they play a significant role in vector breeding, and transmission of urban malaria. Many other man-made breeding habitats, such as cemented cisterns/containers, barrels or drums, sumps or underground tanks, and plastic pots/containers are maintained to supplement water needs, temporarily resulting in enhanced mosquito/vector breeding. Correlating breeding habitats with immature vector abundance is important in effective planning to strengthen operational execution of vector control measures. A year-long, weekly study was conducted in Chennai to inspect available clear/clean water mosquito breeding habitats. Different breeding features, such as instar-wise, immature density and co-inhabitation with other mosquito species, were analysed. The characteristics of breeding habitats, i.e., type of habitat, water temperature and presence of aquatic organisms, organic matter and green algal remnants on the water surface at the time of inspection, were also studied. Immature density of vector was correlated with presence of other mosquito species, malaria prevalence, habitat characteristics and monthly/seasonal fluctuations. All the data collected from field observations were analysed using standard statistical tools. When the immature density of breeding habitats was analysed, using one-way ANOVA, it was observed that the density did not change in a significant way either across seasons or months. OHTs contributed significantly to the immature population when compared to wells and other breeding habitats of the study site. The habitat positivity of wells and OHTs was significantly associated with the presence of aquatic organisms, organic matter and algal remnants. Significant correlations of malaria prevalence with monthly immature density, as well as number of breeding habitats with immature vector mosquitoes, were also observed

  2. Occupational heat stress and associated productivity loss estimation using the PHS model (ISO 7933): a case study from workplaces in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Karin; Kuklane, Kalev; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is a major occupational problem in India that can cause adverse health effects and reduce work productivity. This paper explores this problem and its impacts in selected workplaces, including industrial, service, and agricultural sectors in Chennai, India. Quantitative measurements of heat stress, workload estimations, and clothing testing, and qualitative information on health impacts, productivity loss, etc., were collected. Heat strain and associated impacts on labour productivity between the seasons were assessed using the International Standard ISO 7933:2004, which applies the Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model. All workplaces surveyed had very high heat exposure in the hot season (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature =29.7), often reaching the international standard safe work values (ISO 7243:1989). Most workers had moderate to high workloads (170-220 W/m2), with some exposed to direct sun. Clothing was found to be problematic, with high insulation values in relation to the heat exposure. Females were found to be more vulnerable because of the extra insulation added from wearing a protective shirt on top of traditional clothing (0.96 clo) while working. When analysing heat strain--in terms of core temperature and dehydration--and associated productivity loss in the PHS model, the parameters showed significant impacts that affected productivity in all workplaces, apart from the laundry facility, especially during the hot season. For example, in the canteen, the core temperature limit of 38°C predicted by the model was reached in only 64 min for women. With the expected increases in temperature due to climate change, additional preventive actions have to be implemented to prevent further productivity losses and adverse health impacts. Overall, this study presented insight into using a thermo-physiological model to estimate productivity loss due to heat exposure in workplaces. This is the first time the PHS model has been used for this purpose. An exploratory

  3. Occupational heat stress and associated productivity loss estimation using the PHS model (ISO 7933): a case study from workplaces in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Karin; Kuklane, Kalev; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2014-12-01

    Background Heat stress is a major occupational problem in India that can cause adverse health effects and reduce work productivity. This paper explores this problem and its impacts in selected workplaces, including industrial, service, and agricultural sectors in Chennai, India. Design Quantitative measurements of heat stress, workload estimations, and clothing testing, and qualitative information on health impacts, productivity loss, etc., were collected. Heat strain and associated impacts on labour productivity between the seasons were assessed using the International Standard ISO 7933:2004, which applies the Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model. Results and conclusions All workplaces surveyed had very high heat exposure in the hot season (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature [Formula: see text] =29.7), often reaching the international standard safe work values (ISO 7243:1989). Most workers had moderate to high workloads (170-220 W/m(2)), with some exposed to direct sun. Clothing was found to be problematic, with high insulation values in relation to the heat exposure. Females were found to be more vulnerable because of the extra insulation added from wearing a protective shirt on top of traditional clothing (0.96 clo) while working. When analysing heat strain - in terms of core temperature and dehydration - and associated productivity loss in the PHS model, the parameters showed significant impacts that affected productivity in all workplaces, apart from the laundry facility, especially during the hot season. For example, in the canteen, the core temperature limit of 38°C predicted by the model was reached in only 64 min for women. With the expected increases in temperature due to climate change, additional preventive actions have to be implemented to prevent further productivity losses and adverse health impacts. Overall, this study presented insight into using a thermo-physiological model to estimate productivity loss due to heat exposure in workplaces. This is the first

  4. The Prevalence of the Hepatitis B Core Antibody and the Occult Hepatitis B Infection Among Voluntary Blood Donors in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    KS, Maheswari; R, Arun; P, Arumugam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The infection with the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a global health problem which affects 2 billion people worldwide. In India, the prevalence of the Hepatitis B infection is 4% in the general population. The prevalence of the HBV infection in voluntary blood donors is 1-3%. It has been reported that the viraemia continues even after the clinical recovery from the acute HBV infection. Some blood donors who were negative for the surface antigen but positive for the core antibody have been reported to transmit HBV, leading to acute hepatitis. This study was done to determine the seroprevalence of the hepatitis B core antibody in voluntary blood donors in Chennai, India. Materials and Method This prospective study was conducted in our department during 2008-2009. A total of 9100 donor samples were screened for the Hepatitis B surface antigen and the Hepatitis B core antibody (IgM and IgG) by ELISA. The samples which were positive for the core antibody were subjected to Real-time PCR for the Hepatitis B DNA detection. Results Among the 9100 donors, 911 (10.01%) donors were positive for the core antibody. The Hepatitis B Surface antigen was positive in 199 (2.18%) donors. Among the 911 donors who were positive for the core antibody, 820 (90.01%) donors were negative for the HBsAg and 2 donors were positive for Hepatitis B DNA. Conclusion If a routine screening of the sera for the core antibody is not done, the low-level HBV viraemia may not be identified. The absence of the surface antigen in the blood of apparently healthy individuals may not be sufficient to ensure the lack of the circulating virus. PMID:23373034

  5. Immunologic response among HIV-infected patients enrolled in a graduated cost-recovery programme of antiretroviral therapy delivery in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Sunil Suhas; Ganesh, Aylur K.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Yepthomi, Tokugha; Balaji, Kavitha; Anand, Santhanam; Gallant, Joel E.; Solomon, Suniti

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Sustainability of free antiretroviral therapy (ART) roll out programmes in resource-limited settings is challenging given the need for lifelong therapy and lack of effective vaccine. This study was undertaken to compare treatment outcomes among HIV-infected patients enrolled in a graduated cost-recovery programme of ART delivery in Chennai, India. Methods: Financial status of patients accessing care at a tertiary care centre, YRGCARE, Chennai, was assessed using an economic survey; patients were distributed into tiers 1- 4 requiring them to pay 0, 50, 75 or 100 per cent of their medication costs, respectively. A total of 1754 participants (ART naïve = 244) were enrolled from February 2005-January 2008 with the following distribution: tier 1=371; tier 2=338; tier 3=693; tier 4=352. Linear regression models with generalized estimating equations were used to examine immunological response among patients across the four tiers. Results: Median age was 34; 73 per cent were male, and the majority were on nevirapine-based regimens. Median follow up was 11.1 months. The mean increase in CD4 cell count within the 1st three months of HAART was 50.3 cells/μl per month in tier 1. Compared to those in tier 1, persons in tiers 2, 3 and 4 had comparable increases (49.7, 57.0, and 50.9 cells/μl per month, respectively). Increases in subsequent periods (3-18 and >18 months) were also comparable across tiers. No differential CD4 gains across tiers were observed when the analysis was restricted to patients initiating ART under the GCR programme. Interpretation & conclusions: This ART delivery model was associated with significant CD4 gains with no observable difference by how much patients paid. Importantly, gains were comparable to those in other free rollout programmes. Additional cost-effectiveness analyses and mathematical modelling would be needed to determine whether such a delivery programme is a sustainable alternative to free ART programmes. PMID

  6. High Level Aminoglycoside Resistance and Distribution of Aminoglycoside Resistant Genes among Clinical Isolates of Enterococcus Species in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Padmasini, Elango; Padmaraj, R.; Ramesh, S. Srivani

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci are nosocomial pathogen with multiple-drug resistance by intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Aminoglycosides along with cell wall inhibitors are given clinically for treating enterococcal infections. 178 enterococcal isolates were analyzed in this study. E. faecalis is identified to be the predominant Enterococcus species, along with E. faecium, E. avium, E. hirae, E. durans, E. dispar and E. gallinarum. High level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) by MIC for gentamicin (GM), streptomycin (SM) and both (GM + SM) antibiotics was found to be 42.7%, 29.8%, and 21.9%, respectively. Detection of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme encoding genes (AME) in enterococci was identified by multiplex PCR for aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2′′)-Ia; aph(2′′)-Ib; aph(2′′)-Ic; aph(2′′)-Id and aph(3′)-IIIa genes. 38.2% isolates carried aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2′′)-Ia gene and 40.4% isolates carried aph(3′)-IIIa gene. aph(2′′)-Ib; aph(2′′)-Ic; aph(2′′)-Id were not detected among our study isolates. aac(6′)-Ie-aph(2′′)-Ia and aph(3′)-IIIa genes were also observed in HLAR E. durans, E. avium, E. hirae, and E. gallinarum isolates. This indicates that high level aminoglycoside resistance genes are widely disseminated among isolates of enterococci from Chennai. PMID:24672306

  7. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Rajadurai, Geetha; Subash Kumar, Divya; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Ponnusamy, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10) and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013–January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT) guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution. PMID:26258167

  8. Assessment of Population Exposure to Coarse and Fine Particulate Matter in the Urban Areas of Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Prasannavenkatesh, Ramachandran; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Kandasamy, Palanivelu; Rajadurai, Geetha; Kumar, Divya Subash; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy; Ponnusamy, Malini

    2015-01-01

    Research outcomes from the epidemiological studies have found that the course (PM10) and the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are mainly responsible for various respiratory health effects for humans. The population-weighted exposure assessment is used as a vital decision-making tool to analyze the vulnerable areas where the population is exposed to critical concentrations of pollutants. Systemic sampling was carried out at strategic locations of Chennai to estimate the various concentration levels of particulate pollution during November 2013-January 2014. The concentration of the pollutants was classified based on the World Health Organization interim target (IT) guidelines. Using geospatial information systems the pollution and the high-resolution population data were interpolated to study the extent of the pollutants at the urban scale. The results show that approximately 28% of the population resides in vulnerable locations where the coarse particulate matter exceeds the prescribed standards. Alarmingly, the results of the analysis of fine particulates show that about 94% of the inhabitants live in critical areas where the concentration of the fine particulates exceeds the IT guidelines. Results based on human exposure analysis show the vulnerability is more towards the zones which are surrounded by prominent sources of pollution.

  9. Willingness to Participate in HIV Vaccine Trials among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Chennai and Mumbai, India: A Social Ecological Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A.; Singhal, Neeti; Jerajani, Jhalak; Shunmugam, Murali

    2012-01-01

    Background Recruitment of low- and middle-income country volunteers from most-at-risk populations in HIV vaccine trials is essential to vaccine development. In India, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at disproportionately high risk for HIV infection and an important population for trial recruitment. Investigations of willingness to participate (WTP) in HIV vaccine trials have focused predominantly on individual-level determinants. We explored multi-level factors associated with WTP among MSM in India. Methods We conducted 12 focus groups (n = 68) with low socioeconomic MSM in Chennai and Mumbai, and 14 key informant interviews with MSM community leaders and service providers. Focus groups/interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English. Two bilingual investigators conducted thematic analysis using line-by-line coding and a constant comparative method, with member-checking by community representatives. Results Factors associated with WTP were evidenced across the social ecology of MSM–social-structural: poverty, HIV-, sexual- and gender non-conformity stigma, institutionalized discrimination and government sponsorship of trials; community-level: endorsement by MSM community leaders and organizations, and fear of within-group discrimination; interpersonal: anticipated family discord, partner rejection, having financially-dependent family members and disclosure of same-sex sexuality; and individual-level: HIV vaccine trial knowledge and misconceptions, safety concerns, altruism and preventive misconception. Conclusion Pervasive familial, community and social-structural factors characteristic of the Indian sociocultural context may complicate individual-focused approaches to WTP and thereby constrain the effectiveness of interventions to support recruitment and retention in HIV vaccine trials. Interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination against MSM and people living with HIV, capacity-building of MSM community organizations and

  10. Does a Nutrition Education Programme Change the Knowledge and Practice of Healthy Diets among High School Adolescents in Chennai, India?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, M. Anitha; Shriraam, Vanishree; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Tetali, Shailaja; Anchala, Raghupathy; Muthukumar, Diviya; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education is used as a way of promoting lifelong healthy eating practices among school adolescents. There is limited published information on the impact of nutrition education programmes in India. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practices of high school students with respect to healthy diets before and after a…

  11. Does a Nutrition Education Programme Change the Knowledge and Practice of Healthy Diets among High School Adolescents in Chennai, India?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rani, M. Anitha; Shriraam, Vanishree; Zachariah, Rony; Harries, Anthony D.; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Tetali, Shailaja; Anchala, Raghupathy; Muthukumar, Diviya; Sathiyasekaran, B. W. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nutrition education is used as a way of promoting lifelong healthy eating practices among school adolescents. There is limited published information on the impact of nutrition education programmes in India. Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practices of high school students with respect to healthy diets before and after a…

  12. Barriers to free antiretroviral treatment access among kothi-identified men who have sex with men and aravanis (transgender women) in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Shunmugam, Murali; Dubrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Indian government provides free antiretroviral treatment (ART) for people living with HIV. To assist in developing policies and programs to advance equity in ART access, we explored barriers to ART access among kothis (men who have sex with men whose gender expression is feminine) and aravanis (transgender women, also known as hijras) living with HIV in Chennai. In the last quarter of 2007, we conducted six focus groups and four key-informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis to identify categories and derive themes. We identified barriers to ART access at the family/social-level, healthcare system-level, and individual-level; however we found these barriers to be highly interrelated. The primary individual-level barrier was integrally linked to the family/social and healthcare levels: many kothis and aravanis feared serious adverse consequences if their HIV-positive status were revealed to others. Strong motivations to keep one’s HIV-positive status and same-sex attraction secret were interconnected with sexual prejudice against MSM and transgenders, and HIV stigma prevalent in families, the healthcare system, and the larger society. HIV stigma was present within kothi and aravani communities as well. Consequences of disclosure, including rejection by family, eviction from home, social isolation, loss of subsistence income, and maltreatment (although improving) within the healthcare system, presented powerful disincentives to accessing ART. Given the multi-level barriers to ART access related to stigma and discrimination, interventions to facilitate ART uptake should address multiple constituencies: the general public, healthcare providers, and the kothi and aravani communities. India needs a national policy and action plan to address barriers to ART access at family/social, healthcare system, and individual levels for aravanis, kothis, other subgroups of men who have sex with men and other marginalized groups. PMID:22117127

  13. Part 1. Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality: results from a time-series analysis in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ganguli, Bhaswati; Ghosh, Santu; Sankar, S; Thanasekaraan, Vijaylakshmi; Rayudu, V N; Caussy, Harry

    2011-03-01

    This report describes the results of a time-series analysis of the effect of short-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 pm (PM10) on mortality in metropolitan Chennai, India (formerly Madras). This was one of three sites in India chosen by HEI as part of its Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) initiative. The study involved integration and analysis of retrospective data for the years 2002 through 2004. The data were obtained from relevant government agencies in charge of routine data collection. Data on meteorologic confounders (including temperature, relative humidity, and dew point) were available on all days of the study period. Data on mortality were also available on all days, but information on cause-of-death (including accidental deaths) could not be reliably ascertained. Hence, only all-cause daily mortality was used as the major outcome for the time-series analyses. Data on PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were limited to a much smaller number of days, but spanned the full study period. Data limitations resulting from low sensitivity of gaseous pollutant measurements led to using only PM10 in the main analysis. Of the eight operational ambient air quality monitor (AQM) stations in the city, seven met the selection criteria set forth in the common protocol developed for the three PAPA studies in India. In addition, all raw data used in the analysis were subjected to additional quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) criteria to ensure the validity of the measurements. Two salient features of the PM10 data set in Chennai were a high percentage of missing readings and a low correlation among daily data recorded by the AQMs. The latter resulted partly because each AQM had a small footprint (approximate area over which the air pollutant measurements recorded in the AQM are considered valid), and partly because of differences in source profiles among the 10 zones within the city. The

  14. Occupational heat stress and associated productivity loss estimation using the PHS model (ISO 7933): a case study from workplaces in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Karin; Kuklane, Kalev; Venugopal, Vidhya

    2014-01-01

    Background Heat stress is a major occupational problem in India that can cause adverse health effects and reduce work productivity. This paper explores this problem and its impacts in selected workplaces, including industrial, service, and agricultural sectors in Chennai, India. Design Quantitative measurements of heat stress, workload estimations, and clothing testing, and qualitative information on health impacts, productivity loss, etc., were collected. Heat strain and associated impacts on labour productivity between the seasons were assessed using the International Standard ISO 7933:2004, which applies the Predicted Heat Strain (PHS) model. Results and conclusions All workplaces surveyed had very high heat exposure in the hot season (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature x¯ =29.7), often reaching the international standard safe work values (ISO 7243:1989). Most workers had moderate to high workloads (170–220 W/m2), with some exposed to direct sun. Clothing was found to be problematic, with high insulation values in relation to the heat exposure. Females were found to be more vulnerable because of the extra insulation added from wearing a protective shirt on top of traditional clothing (0.96 clo) while working. When analysing heat strain – in terms of core temperature and dehydration – and associated productivity loss in the PHS model, the parameters showed significant impacts that affected productivity in all workplaces, apart from the laundry facility, especially during the hot season. For example, in the canteen, the core temperature limit of 38°C predicted by the model was reached in only 64 min for women. With the expected increases in temperature due to climate change, additional preventive actions have to be implemented to prevent further productivity losses and adverse health impacts. Overall, this study presented insight into using a thermo-physiological model to estimate productivity loss due to heat exposure in workplaces. This is the first time the PHS

  15. Convergence of prevalence rates of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle and low income groups in urban India: 10-year follow-up of the Chennai Urban Population Study.

    PubMed

    Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Manjula, Datta; Narayan, K M Venkat; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to look for temporal changes in the prevalence of diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in two residential colonies in Chennai. Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS) was carried out between 1996-1998 in Chennai in two residential colonies representing the middle income group (MIG) and lower income group (LIG), respectively. The MIG had twice the prevalence rate of diabetes as the LIG and higher prevalence rates of hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia. They were motivated to increase their physical activity, which led to the building of a park. The LIG was given standard lifestyle advice. Follow-up surveys of both colonies were performed after a period of 10 years. In the MIG, the prevalence of diabetes increased from 12.4 to 15.4% (24% increase), while in the LIG, it increased from 6.5 to 15.3% (135% increase, p < .001). In the LIG, the prevalence rates of central obesity (baseline vs follow-up, male: 30.8 vs 50.9%, p < .001; female: 16.9 vs 49.8%, p < .001), hypertension (8.4 vs 20.1%, p < .001), hypercholesterolemia (14.2 vs. 20.4%, p < .05), and hypertriglyceridemia (8.0 vs 23.5%, p < .001) significantly increased and became similar to that seen in the MIG. There is a rapid reversal of socioeconomic gradient for diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors in urban India with a convergence of prevalence rates among people in the MIG and LIG. This could have a serious economic impact on poor people in developing countries such as India. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. Gut Microbiota in Type 2 Diabetes Individuals and Correlation with Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein1 and Interferon Gamma from Patients Attending a Tertiary Care Centre in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Pushpanathan, Premalatha; Srikanth, Padma; Seshadri, Krishna G.; Selvarajan, Sribal; Pitani, Ravi Shankar; Kumar, Thomas David; Janarthanan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are associated with changes in gut microbiota and characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interferon gamma (IFNγ) are proinflammatory cytokines which play an important role in the development of T2DM. We undertook this study to analyze the gut microbiota of T2DM and nondiabetic subjects and to determine the profile of MCP 1 and IFNγ in the same subjects attending a tertiary care center in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: The study included 30 subjects with clinical details. Stool and blood samples were collected from all the subjects. DNA was extracted from fecal samples and polymerase chain reaction was done using fusion primers. Metagenomic analysis was performed using ion torrent sequencing. The reads obtained were in FASTA format and reported as operational taxonomic units. Human MCP 1 and IFNγ enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed for 23 serum samples. Results: The study consisted of 30 subjects; 17 were T2DM and 13 were nondiabetics. The gut microbiota among T2DM consisted predominantly of Gram negative bacteria; Escherichia and Prevotella, when compared with the nondiabetic group with predominantly Gram positive organisms suchas Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, and Bifidobacterium. The mean MCP-1 values in the diabetic group were 232.8 pg/ml and in the nondiabetic group 170.84 pg/ml. IFNγ (mean 385.5 pg/ml) was raised in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) group of 6.5–7.5% which was statistically significant. Association of Escherichia with T2DM and association of Bifidobacteria in the nondiabetics were also statistically significant. Conclusion: Escherichia counts were elevated in T2DM with HbA1c of 6.5–8.5% which was statistically significant suggesting that lipopolysaccharides present in the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria may be responsible for low-grade inflammation as evidenced by elevated MCP-1 and IFNγ levels in T

  17. Primary central nervous system lymphoma: a clinicopathological and cytomorpholgical study from a tertiary care centre in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Ambroise, M Moses; Ghosh, Mitra; Mallikarjuna, Vs; Annapurneswari, S; Kurian, Ann; Chakravarthy, Ranjani

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) cases occurring in Indian patients and also study the utility of the crush smear preparation in intraoperative diagnosis. The immune status, clinical, radiological details, immunohistochemical profile, histopathological findings and cytological features in smear preparation of 32 cases of PCNSL were analyzed. Patients with systemic NHL and skull-base lymphomas were excluded. The mean age of our patients was 52 years with a male: female ratio 1:1. A periventricular location was found in 62.5% of patients. None of our PCNSL cases were associated with AIDS. All cases except one were diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Intraoperative diagnosis using crush smears allowed correct prediction in 93% of cases. Our study shows that PCNSL is seen predominantly in immunocompetent patients in India .The age of presentation is relatively young as compared to the West. Our study also stresses the utility of crush smear preparation in establishing an intraoperative diagnosis.

  18. Object-based image analysis for the impact of sewage pollution in Malad Creek, Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Shirke, Shivani; Pinto, Shannon M; Kushwaha, Vikash K; Mardikar, Trupti; Vijay, Ritesh

    2016-02-01

    Today, object-based image analysis provides an option for integrating spatial information beyond conventional pixel-based classifications for high-resolution imagery. Due to its rare applicability in pollution assessment, an attempt has been made to assess the spatial extent of sewage pollution in Malad Creek, Mumbai, India. Based on multiresolution segmentation of an IRS P6 (LISS IV) image and the Normalized Difference Turbidity Index (NDTI), the various water quality regions in the creek were classified. The existing literature implies that the reflectance of turbid water is similar to that of bare soil which gives positive NDTI values. In contrast to this, negative values of NDTI are observed in the present study due to the presence of organic matter which absorbs light and imparts turbidity, which is supported by the significant correlation between NDTI and turbidity. A strong relationship is observed between turbidity and water quality parameters, implying the impact of organic matter through discharges of sewage in the creek. Based on the classified regions and the water quality parameters, the extent of pollution was ranked as high, moderate, low and least. The methodology developed in the present study was successfully applied on an IKONOS image for the same study area but a different time frame. The approach will help in impact assessment of sewage pollution and its spatial extent in other water bodies.

  19. 77 FR 48499 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    .... Participating in a CS-organized trade mission delegation, rather than traveling to India and Sri Lanka on their..., knowledge, hospitality, leisure/tourism and energy. Compared to other South Asian countries, Sri Lanka is... developing economic hubs in ports, aviation, knowledge, hospitality, leisure/tourism and energy. The...

  20. 77 FR 59899 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka February 3-8, 2013... Trade Mission to Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka February 3-8, 2013, to add the..., August 14, 2012, regarding the U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai...

  1. Lean Manufacturing Auto Cluster at Chennai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2012-10-01

    Due the presence of lot of automotive Industry, Chennai is known as Detroit of India, that producing over 40 % of the Indian vehicle and components. Lean manufacturing concepts have been widely recognized as an important tool in improving the competitiveness of industries. This is a continuous process involving everyone, starting from management to the shop floor. Automotive Component Industries (ACIs) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai has formed special purpose vehicle (SPV) society namely Ambattur Industrial Estate Manufacturers Association (AIEMA) Technology Centre (ATC) lean manufacturing cluster (ATC-LMC) during July 2010 under lean manufacturing competitiveness scheme, that comes under National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme of Government of India. The Tripartite Agreement is taken place between National Productivity Council, consultants and cluster (ATC-LMC). The objective is to conduct diagnostic study, study on training and application of various lean manufacturing techniques and auditing in ten ACIs. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data/details from ten ACIs. In the first phase, diagnostic study is done and the areas for improvement in each of the cluster member companies are identified. In the second phase, training programs and implementation is done on 5S and other areas. In the third phase auditing is done and found that the lean manufacturing techniques implementation in ATC-LMC is sustainable and successful in every cluster companies, which will not only enhance competitiveness but also decrease cost, time and increase productivity. The technical efficiency of LMC companies also increases significantly.

  2. Technical Efficiency of Automotive Industry Cluster in Chennai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2012-07-01

    Chennai is also called as Detroit of India due to its automotive industry presence producing over 40 % of the India's vehicle and components. During 2001-2002, diagnostic study was conducted on the Automotive Component Industries (ACI) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai and in SWOT analysis it was found that it had faced problems on infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing. In the year 2004-2005 under the cluster development approach (CDA), they formed Chennai auto cluster, under public private partnership concept, received grant from Government of India, Government of Tamil Nadu, Ambattur Municipality, bank loans and stake holders. This results development in infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing interrelationships among ACI. The objective is to determine the correlation coefficient, regression equation, technical efficiency, peer weights, slack variables and return to scale of cluster before and after the CDA. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data from ACI and analyzing using data envelopment analysis (DEA) of input oriented Banker-Charnes-Cooper model. There is significant increase in correlation coefficient and the regression analysis reveals that for one percent increase in employment and net worth, the gross output increases significantly after the CDA. The DEA solver gives the technical efficiency of ACI by taking shift, employment, net worth as input data and quality, gross output and export ratio as output data. From the technical score and ranking of ACI, it is found that there is significant increase in technical efficiency of ACI when compared to CDA. The slack variables obtained clearly reveals the excess employment and net worth and no shortage of gross output. To conclude there is increase in technical efficiency of not only Chennai auto cluster in general but also Chennai auto components industries in particular.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dust from informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby highways in urban centers and suburban industrial roadsides of Chennai city, India: Levels, congener profiles and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kumar, Bhupander

    2016-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in settled dust collected from informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workshops and nearby highways in the urban centers and roadside dust from the suburban industrial belt of Chennai city in India. Further dust samples were subjected to a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX) to characterize the shape, size and elemental composition of the dust particles. Geomean of total PCB concentration followed the following order: informal e-waste metal recovery workshops (53ngg(-1))>e-waste dismantling sites (3.6ngg(-1))>nearby highways (1.7ngg(-1))>suburban industrial roadsides (1.6ngg(-1)). In e-waste workshops, tetra, penta and hexa-PCB homologs contributed two third of Σ26PCB concentration. Informal e-waste recycling workshops contributed more than 80% concentration of all the PCB congeners loaded in the first principal component. Predominance of dioxin like PCBs, PCB-l14, -118 and -126 in the e-waste metal recovery sites were presumably due to combustion and pyrolytic processes performed during recycling of electrical components. According to the morphology and elemental composition, settled dust from e-waste workshops were irregular particles heavily embedded with toxic metals and industrial roadside dust were distinct angular particles. FESEM revealed that average particle size (in Ferret diameter) increased in the following order: e-waste recycling workshops (0.5μm)

  4. Directly observed therapy of sofosbuvir/ribavirin +/- peginterferon with minimal monitoring for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in people with a history of drug use in Chennai, India (C-DOT).

    PubMed

    Solomon, S S; Sulkowski, M S; Amrose, P; Srikrishnan, A K; McFall, A M; Ramasamy, B; Kumar, M S; Anand, S; Thomas, D L; Mehta, S H

    2017-07-18

    We assessed the feasibility of field-based directly observed therapy (DOT) with minimal monitoring to deliver HCV treatment to people with a history of drug use in Chennai, India. Fifty participants were randomized 1:1 to sofosbuvir+peginterferon alfa 2a+ribavirin (SOF+PR) for 12 weeks (Arm 1) vs sofosbuvir+ribavirin (SOF+R) for 24 weeks (Arm 2). SOF+R was delivered daily at participant chosen venues and weekly peginterferon injections at the study clinic. HCV RNA testing was performed to confirm active HCV infection and sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment completion (SVR12). No baseline genotyping or on-treatment viral loads were performed. Median age was 46 years. All were male and 20% had significant fibrosis/cirrhosis. All self-reported history of injection drug use, 18% recent noninjection drug use and 38% alcohol dependence. Six discontinued treatment (88% completed treatment in each arm). Of 22 who completed SOF+PR, all achieved SVR12 (22/25=88%); 15 of 22 who completed SOF+R achieved SVR12 (15/25=60%; P=.05). Among those completing SOF+R, SVR12 was significantly less common in participants reporting ongoing substance use (36% vs 100%) and missed doses. Active substance use and missed doses did not impact SVR with SOF+PR. Field-based DOT of HCV therapy without real-time HCV RNA monitoring was feasible; however, achieving 100% adherence was challenging. SOF+PR appeared superior to SOF+R in achieving SVR12, even when doses were missed with no discontinuations due to side effects. Further exploration of short duration treatment with peginterferon plus direct-acting antivirals is warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Marine ecological habitat: a case study on projected thermal power plant around Dharamtar Creek, India.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Vikrant A; Naidu, Velamala S; Jagtap, Tanaji G

    2011-03-01

    Estuaries and tidal creeks, harboring mangroves particularly, face tremendous anthropogenic pressures. Expansion of mega cities and the thermal power plants are generally proposed in the vicinity of estuaries and creek, due to the feasibility of intake and discharge of water for cooling. Discharges from such developments remain constant threat of increasing thermal pollution and affecting the quality of environment. The baseline information on prevailing quality of aquatic environment comes handy for understanding alterations due to such activities. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed that temperature, pH, salinity, suspended solids, DO, BOD and phaeophytins are major parameters influencing the creek system. Heated effluents may have direct and adverse impacts on these parameters, altering biotic constituents. Hence, periodic and detailed observations are necessary to estimate exact response of biotic communities to changing environment. The present paper is based on case study, projecting a power plant in the vicinity of major mangrove habitats of Dharamtar creek.

  6. Hydrodynamic assessment of sewage impact on water quality of Malad Creek, Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Sardar, Veena K; Dhage, Shivani S; Kelkar, Prakash S; Gupta, Apurba

    2010-06-01

    The rapid population growth and uncontrolled development in the coastal zone have led to major pollution impacts on creeks, estuarine, and coastal environment. Water quality models are valuable tools to understand the environmental processes for prediction of pollution impacts and evaluate future trends for management. Presently, the Malad creek in west coast of Mumbai receives wastewater and sewage from open drains and partially treated sewage from Malad and Versova treatment plants. The objective of the paper is to assess the environmental quality and estimate the extent of improvement in different parts of the creek by enhancing the collection efficiency and adequate treatment of sewage as well as disposal through ocean outfall. A hydrodynamic and water quality simulation has been carried out for the present condition in the creek and calibrated and validated with two different season data for better representation of the system. Calibrated model has been used to generate future scenarios based on various options. Among scenarios, option of treated effluent diverted to propose outfall and improvement in collection of unorganized flow through sewage up to 40% and 60% are found most significant for biochemical oxygen demand reduction and increase in dissolved oxygen. Fecal coliform reduction is also found drastically but still very high against standard. To improve the environmental quality of the creek, still upper stretch requires more dilution and flushing due to narrow width and contribution of heavy pollution from open drains.

  7. A pilot RCT of an intervention to reduce HIV condomless sex and increase self-acceptance among MSM in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Safren, Steven A.; Thomas, Beena E.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Biello, Katie B.; Mani, Jamuna; Rajagandhi, Vijaylakshmi; Periyasamy, Murugesan; Swaminathan, Soumya; Mimiaga, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    This is a 2-arm pilot randomized controlled trial (N=96) of a behavioral intervention (4 group and 4 individual sessions) integrating risk reduction counseling with counseling to foster self-acceptance in MSM in India compared to Enhanced Standard of Care (ESOC). Both conditions involved HIV and STI testing and counseling at baseline and 6-months, and assessments of condomless sex at baseline, 3-, and 6-months. A significant condition by time interaction suggested a difference in the rate of change in number of anal sex acts without condoms in the intervention versus ESOC (p<.0001). Post-hoc contrasts suggested that the overall difference was due to intervention-response at 3-months. The incidence of bacterial STIs was 17.5% in the intervention condition and a 28.6% in ESOC. Addressing self-acceptance and related psychosocial concerns in the context sexual risk reduction counseling for MSM in India was feasible and acceptable. Testing the intervention for efficacy is justified. PMID:24770985

  8. A pilot RCT of an intervention to reduce HIV sexual risk and increase self-acceptance among MSM in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Safren, Steven A; Thomas, Beena E; Mayer, Kenneth H; Biello, Katie B; Mani, Jamuna; Rajagandhi, Vijaylakshmi; Periyasamy, Murugesan; Swaminathan, Soumya; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-10-01

    This is a 2-arm pilot randomized controlled trial (N = 96) of a behavioral intervention (4 group and 4 individual sessions) integrating risk reduction counseling with counseling to foster self-acceptance in MSM in India compared to enhanced standard of care (ESOC). Both conditions involved HIV and STI testing and counseling at baseline and 6-months, and assessments of condomless sex at baseline, 3-, and 6-months. A significant condition by time interaction suggested a difference in the rate of change in number of anal sex acts without condoms in the intervention versus ESOC (p < 0.0001). Post hoc contrasts suggested that the overall difference was due to intervention-response at 3-months. The incidence of bacterial STIs was 17.5 % in the intervention condition and a 28.6 % in ESOC. Addressing self-acceptance and related psychosocial concerns in the context sexual risk reduction counseling for MSM in India was feasible and acceptable. Testing the intervention for efficacy is justified.

  9. Sources, distribution and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the mangrove sediments of Thane Creek, Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Sukhdhane, K S; Pandey, P K; Vennila, A; Purushothaman, C S; Ajima, M N O

    2015-05-01

    The sources, distribution and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in the mangrove sediments of Trombay and Vashi, along the Thane Creek, Maharashtra, India, for a period of 6 months. The results showed that the concentration of Ʃ15 PAHs ranged from 902.58 to 1643.60 and from 930.69 to 1158.30 ng g(-1) in Trombay and Vashi, respectively. Trombay showed significantly higher PAH concentration (p < 0.05) than Vashi. The four carcinogenic PAHs, (benzo(b)fluorathene, benzo(k)fluorathene, Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene and dibenz(a,h)anthracene) accounted for maximum concentration of the total PAHs. Specific PAH diagnostic indices and the molecular index indicated the presence of both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources with the predominance of pyrolytic origin. A positive correlation (r = 0.736, p < 0.05) existed between the benzo(k)fluorathene level and total PAHs, suggesting the use of this compound as a potential molecular marker for PAH pollution in mangrove sediment. Assessments of potential environmental risks associated with PAHs in this study revealed that the sediment was moderately polluted with high molecular weight PAHs. The study reports the baseline data that can be used for regular monitoring of contamination level considering the heavy industrialization and urbanization along the creek and its coastal region.

  10. Identification of surface water-groundwater interaction by hydrogeochemical indicators and assessing its suitability for drinking and irrigational purposes in Chennai, Southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brindha, K.; Neena Vaman, K. V.; Srinivasan, K.; Sathis Babu, M.; Elango, L.

    2014-06-01

    Large cities face water quality and quantity problems due to increasing population and improper disposal of solid and liquid wastes. It is essential to monitor the water quality to take corrective measures. This study was carried out in one of the densely populated metropolitan cities in India to ascertain the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation activity, identify the processes controlling the geochemistry of groundwater and the impact of Adyar River on the groundwater quality. Magnesium and pH concentration in groundwater of this area were within the maximum permissible limits of WHO standards. Sodium and potassium concentration of groundwater were greater than the permissible limit in 30.8 % and in 50 % of the samples, respectively. About 35 % of the groundwater samples were not permissible for drinking based on the electrical conductivity (EC). The EC of groundwater was increasing towards the coast. In general, the quality of groundwater for irrigation purpose vary from moderate to good based on Na%, magnesium hazard, residual sodium carbonate, sodium absorption ratio, permeability index, and USDA classification. Na-Cl and Ca-Mg-Cl were the dominant groundwater and surface water type. Increased ionic concentration of groundwater towards the eastern part of the study area is due to the discharge of industrial effluents and domestic sewage into the Adyar River. Seawater intrusion is also one of the reasons for Na-Cl dominant groundwater near the coast. Evaporation and ion exchange were the major processes controlling groundwater chemistry in this area. The groundwater quality of this region is affected by the contaminated surface water.

  11. Viremia and HIV-1 drug resistance mutations among patients receiving second-line highly active antiretroviral therapy in Chennai, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Shanmugam; Vidya, Madhavan; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Kantor, Rami; Solomon, Sunil S; Katzenstein, David; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Yeptomi, Tokugha; Sivamalar, Sathasivam; Rifkin, Samara; Mayer, Kenneth H; Solomon, Suniti

    2012-04-01

    A cross-sectional study among individuals receiving second-line antiretroviral treatment was conducted to report on the level of detectable viremia and the types of drug resistance mutations among those with detectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 plasma viral loads (PVLs). PVLs were measured using Abbott m2000rt real-time polymerase chain reaction, and genotyping was performed with the ViroSeq genotyping system, version 2.0, and ViroSeq analysis software, version 2.8. Of 107 patient plasma specimens consecutively analyzed, 30 (28%) had undetectable PVLs (<150 copies/mL), and 77 (72%) were viremic with a median PVL of 5450 copies/mL (interquartile range, 169-1 997 967). Sequencing was done for 107 samples with PVLs >2000 copies/mL: 33 patients (73%) had 1 of the protease (PR) inhibitor mutations; 41 (91%) had nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutations; 33 (73%) had non-NRTI (NNRTI) mutations; and 30 (66.7%) had both NRTI and NNRTI mutations. Triple-class resistance to NRTIs, NNRTIs, and PR inhibitors was observed in 24 (53%) patients. Based on the mutational profiles observed, all 45 sequences were susceptible to darunavir and tipranavir, whereas 47% showed resistance to lopinavir, 58% showed resistance to atazanavir, and >60% showed resistance to saquinavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, and fosamprenavir. The results of the study showed that the majority of patients receiving second-line antiretroviral therapy started to accumulate PR resistance mutations, and the mutation profiles suggest that darunavir might be the drug of choice for third-line regimens in India.

  12. Viremia and HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations Among Patients Receiving Second-Line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Chennai, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Vidya, Madhavan; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Kantor, Rami; Solomon, Sunil S.; Katzenstein, David; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Yeptomi, Tokugha; Sivamalar, Sathasivam; Rifkin, Samara; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Solomon, Suniti

    2012-01-01

    Background. A cross-sectional study among individuals receiving second-line antiretroviral treatment was conducted to report on the level of detectable viremia and the types of drug resistance mutations among those with detectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 plasma viral loads (PVLs). Methods. PVLs were measured using Abbott m2000rt real-time polymerase chain reaction, and genotyping was performed with the ViroSeq genotyping system, version 2.0, and ViroSeq analysis software, version 2.8. Results. Of 107 patient plasma specimens consecutively analyzed, 30 (28%) had undetectable PVLs (<150 copies/mL), and 77 (72%) were viremic with a median PVL of 5450 copies/mL (interquartile range, 169–1 997 967). Sequencing was done for 107 samples with PVLs >2000 copies/mL: 33 patients (73%) had 1 of the protease (PR) inhibitor mutations; 41 (91%) had nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) mutations; 33 (73%) had non-NRTI (NNRTI) mutations; and 30 (66.7%) had both NRTI and NNRTI mutations. Triple-class resistance to NRTIs, NNRTIs, and PR inhibitors was observed in 24 (53%) patients. Based on the mutational profiles observed, all 45 sequences were susceptible to darunavir and tipranavir, whereas 47% showed resistance to lopinavir, 58% showed resistance to atazanavir, and >60% showed resistance to saquinavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, and fosamprenavir. Conclusions. The results of the study showed that the majority of patients receiving second-line antiretroviral therapy started to accumulate PR resistance mutations, and the mutation profiles suggest that darunavir might be the drug of choice for third-line regimens in India. PMID:22323567

  13. Analysis of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and its Associated SCCmec Types among Nasal Carriage of Methicillin Resistant Coagulase Negative Staphylococci from Community Settings, Chennai, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, Saravanan; Perumal, Nagaraj; Mahalingam, Surya Prakash; Dilliappan, Selva Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study was designed to find the distribution of SCCmec types and the various antibiotic resistance genes amongst MR-CoNS isolates from asymptomatic individuals. Materials and Methods A total of 145 nasal swabs were collected from asymptomatic healthy individuals from community settings. Identification and speciation of CoNS were done by standard biochemical methods. Screening of methicillin resistance (mecA gene) and detection of various antibiotic resistant genes were done using multiplex PCR method. SCCmec types (I - V) were determined using multiplex PCR. Results 50 (44.6%) isolates were found to be methicillin resistant both by cefoxitin method and multiplex PCR. S. epidermidis (40%) was the predominant species followed by S. haemolyticus (28%), S. hominis (20%) and S. warneri (12%). Highest resistance was shown for cotrimoxazole (26%), followed by ciprofloxacin (24%), tetracycline (20%), erythromycin (18%), fusidic acid (10%) and mupirocin (6%). Among SCCmec types, 44 isolates showed single type, including type I (30%), type IV (24%), type II (18%), type V (14%) and type III (2%). 6 isolates showed two types, III+IV (n= 2), II+V (n=2), IV+V (n=1) and type I+V (n=1). Conclusion In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in India to study the distribution of antibiotic resistant genes and SCCmec types among MR-CoNS from community settings. This study highlights high prevalence of MR-CoNS in community and its role in harbouring genetically diverse SCCmec elements as antibiotic resistance determinant. PMID:26435940

  14. Distribution and risk assessment of suspected endocrine-disrupting pesticides in creek water of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Singare, Pravin U

    2016-01-15

    The present study deals with the investigation of existing pollution levels and potential ecological risk assessment of endocrine-disrupting organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticide residues in the Vasai Creek water near Mumbai. The average concentration of α- and β-endosulfan (137.75 ng·L(-1)) exceeds the chronic criteria level of α- and β-endosulfan (6.5 ng·L(-1)) set by US EPA for freshwater aquatic organisms. The concentration levels of aldrin (75.31 ng·L(-1)), dieldrin (71.19 ng·L(-1)) and endrin (76.60 ng·L(-1)) was found to exceed the respective criteria levels of <0.13, 65.1, and 61 ng·L(-1) as set by US EPA for protection of freshwater aquatic organisms. In addition, the level of chlorpyrifos (208.77 ng·L(-1)) exceeds the recommended concentration value of <35 ng·L(-1) set by Ministry of Environment of British Colombia. The results of our study give an indication of probable ecotoxicological risk to the marine breeding organisms of creek.

  15. Occlusion of primary dentition in preschool children of Chennai and Hyderabad: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sriram, C H; Priya, V Krishna; Sivakumar, N; Reddy, K R Maheshwar; Babu, P Jitendra; Reddy, Pujita

    2012-01-01

    To provide information on the state of occlusion and the spaces available after complete eruption of the primary dentition and to compare the characteristic features of the primary dentition in Chennai and Hyderabad, two of the metropolitan cities in South India. Children in the age range between 3 and 5 years were selected from different schools of both Chennai and Hyderabad, with a complete set of primary dentition. Study casts were obtained and assessment of spacing in the primary dentition and the primary molar relationship were recorded in centric occlusion. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. The mean values and standard deviations for the primary molar relationship and spacing in primary dentition are given in the tables. Bilateral flush terminal plane relationship of the second primary molars and spaced dentition was most frequent in primary dentition of the children in both Chennai and Hyderabad groups. Significant differences were not found among both groups and genders.

  16. The Quantitative Analysis of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, Ethirajan

    2016-07-01

    Chennai, also called as Detroit of India due to presence of Automotive Industry producing over 40 % of the India's vehicle and components. During 2001-2002, the Automotive Component Industries (ACI) in Ambattur, Thirumalizai and Thirumudivakkam Industrial Estate, Chennai has faced problems on infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing. The objective is to study the Quantitative Performance of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster before (2001-2002) and after the CDA (2008-2009). The methodology adopted is collection of primary data from 100 ACI using quantitative questionnaire and analyzing using Correlation Analysis (CA), Regression Analysis (RA), Friedman Test (FMT), and Kruskall Wallis Test (KWT).The CA computed for the different set of variables reveals that there is high degree of relationship between the variables studied. The RA models constructed establish the strong relationship between the dependent variable and a host of independent variables. The models proposed here reveal the approximate relationship in a closer form. KWT proves, there is no significant difference between three locations clusters with respect to: Net Profit, Production Cost, Marketing Costs, Procurement Costs and Gross Output. This supports that each location has contributed for development of automobile component cluster uniformly. The FMT proves, there is no significant difference between industrial units in respect of cost like Production, Infrastructure, Technology, Marketing and Net Profit. To conclude, the Automotive Industries have fully utilized the Physical Infrastructure and Centralised Facilities by adopting CDA and now exporting their products to North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Africa and Asia. The value chain analysis models have been implemented in all the cluster units. This Cluster Development Approach (CDA) model can be implemented in industries of under developed and developing countries for cost reduction and productivity

  17. The Productivity Analysis of Chennai Automotive Industry Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2014-07-01

    Chennai, also called the Detroit of India, is India's second fastest growing auto market and exports auto components and vehicles to US, Germany, Japan and Brazil. For inclusive growth and sustainable development, 250 auto component industries in Ambattur, Thirumalisai and Thirumudivakkam Industrial Estates located in Chennai have adopted the Cluster Development Approach called Automotive Component Cluster. The objective is to study the Value Chain, Correlation and Data Envelopment Analysis by determining technical efficiency, peer weights, input and output slacks of 100 auto component industries in three estates. The methodology adopted is using Data Envelopment Analysis of Output Oriented Banker Charnes Cooper model by taking net worth, fixed assets, employment as inputs and gross output as outputs. The non-zero represents the weights for efficient clusters. The higher slack obtained reveals the excess net worth, fixed assets, employment and shortage in gross output. To conclude, the variables are highly correlated and the inefficient industries should increase their gross output or decrease the fixed assets or employment. Moreover for sustainable development, the cluster should strengthen infrastructure, technology, procurement, production and marketing interrelationships to decrease costs and to increase productivity and efficiency to compete in the indigenous and export market.

  18. First level seismic microzonation map of Chennai city - a GIS approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy, G. P.

    2011-02-01

    Chennai city is the fourth largest metropolis in India, is the focus of economic, social and cultural development and it is the capital of the State of Tamil Nadu. The city has a multi-dimensional growth in development of its infrastructures and population. The area of Chennai has experienced moderate earthquakes in the historical past. Also the Bureau of Indian Standard upgraded the seismic status of Chennai from Low Seismic Hazard (Zone II) to Moderate Seismic Hazard (Zone III)-(BIS: 1893 (2001)). In this connection, a first level seismic microzonation map of Chennai city has been produced with a GIS platform using the themes, viz, Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Shear wave velocity at 3 m, Geology, Ground water fluctuation and bed rock depth. The near potential seismic sources were identified from the remote-sensing study and seismo-tectonic details from published literatures. The peak ground acceleration for these seismic sources were estimated based on the attenuation relationship and the maximum PGA for Chennai is 0.176 g. The groundwater fluctuation of the city varies from 0-4 m below ground level. The depth to bedrock configuration shows trough and ridges in the bedrock topography all over the city. The seismic microzonation analysis involved grid datasets (the discrete datasets from different themes were converted to grids) to compute the final seismic hazard grid through integration and weightage analysis of the source themes. The Chennai city has been classified into three broad zones, viz, High, Moderate and Low Seismic Hazard. The High seismic Hazard concentrated in a few places in the western central part of the city. The moderate hazard areas are oriented in NW-SE direction in the Western part. The southern and eastern part will have low seismic hazard. The result of the study may be used as first-hand information in selecting the appropriate earthquake resistant features in designing the forthcoming new buildings against seismic ground motion of the

  19. Post-depositional memory record of mercury in sediment near the effluent disposal site of a chlor-alkali plant in Thane Creek-Mumbai Harbour, India.

    PubMed

    Rama, Anirudh; Rokade, M A; Zingde, D; Boroleb, D V

    2009-07-01

    A mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant, operating for 40 years at Airoli (eastern bank of Thane Creek), India, has caused widespread contamination of the surrounding environment. Untreated wastewater from the plant was discharged to Thane Creek for several years. Thane Creek joins the Ulhas Estuary by a narrow arm and opens to the Arabian Sea through Mumbai Harbour. The Ulhas Estuary is impacted by mercury (Hg) released from several industries including two chlor-alkali industries. In order to understand the historical record of anthropogenic Hg and its association to Al, Fe and total organic carbon (TOC), estimation of Hg, Al, Fe and TOC was made in surface sediments and cores from Thane Creek-Mumbai Harbour and the adjacent coastal area. Though 70% of the chlor-alkali plant has been changed to membrane cell technology, surficial sediment in the vicinity of effluent release contains a high concentration (up to 1.19 microg g(-1) dry wt) of Hg compared with its background value (0.10 microg g(-1) dry wt). The contaminated creek sediments are prone to current-driven resuspension and are acting as a strong source of Hg to the sediment of the coastal region. Several rocks and sediments from the catchment area were analysed to find out the natural background level of Hg. A high suspended load transported from the catchment region provides natural dilution to the Hg-contaminated sediment of the Bay. Lithogenic and anthropogenic Hg buried in marine sediments is quantified based on normalization with Al, Fe and TOC, and inter-comparisons of the results indicate comparable values obtained by using Al and Fe, while discernible deviations are found when normalization is carried out using TOC. The Hg profile in the core, from the effluent release site for which sedimentation rate has been established, is discussed in terms of the progressive removal of Hg from the effluent after the mid-1970s and partial changeover of the manufacturing process from Hg cell to membrane cell

  20. Spectral aerosol optical depths over Bay of Bengal and Chennai: I—measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, S.; Jayaraman, A.

    A cruise experiment to study the aerosol optical characteristics was conducted in February-March 2001 over the Bay of Bengal, a data void region. An analysis of aerosol optical depths (AODs) measured onboard Sagar Kanya shows that the AODs are higher when compared to those measured over the west coast of India and the Arabian Sea. The mean AODs at 0.5 μm over the Bay of Bengal are in the range of 0.2-0.7, and are found to show a variation of about 40-50% in the wavelength region of 0.4- 0.85 μm. The mean wavelength exponent α over the Bay of Bengal is found to be 1.80, higher than the Arabian Sea value of 1.46, indicating a relatively higher concentration of submicron size particles. The mean Ångström coefficient β, which represents the columnar aerosol loading, over the Bay of Bengal is found to be 0.10. Measurements of AODs, made before and after the cruise in Chennai, an urban station located on the eastern coast of India, show higher values compared to the Bay of Bengal data. The mean α for Chennai is found to be 1.53, which is lower than the Bay of Bengal value while the mean β is higher at 0.18. While a higher α value indicates the dominance of smaller size particles over Bay of Bengal, a higher β and a higher AOD at all wavelengths indicate the dominance of both bigger and smaller particles over Chennai. A comparison of AODs obtained over a coastal station Trivandrum, located on the southwest coast of India, during March 2001 showed that in the smaller wavelength range the Chennai AODs are higher while above 0.6 μm the AODs are comparable. The day-to-day variations of AODs measured at Chennai are less significant when compared to Bay of Bengal and are below 10%. As Chennai is an urban, industrial and a well-populated city, and is a constant source of aerosol particles, there are lesser day-to-day variations in the AOD, while over the Bay of Bengal the air masses come from different source regions carrying aerosols of different chemical and

  1. Assessment of trace element accumulation in surface sediments off Chennai coast after a major flood event.

    PubMed

    Gopal, V; Krishnakumar, S; Simon Peter, T; Nethaji, S; Suresh Kumar, K; Jayaprakash, M; Magesh, N S

    2017-01-30

    The present study was conducted to assess the trace element concentration in marine surface sediments after major flood event of Chennai metropolis, India. Thirty surface samples were collected from off Chennai coast. Trace elements, organic matter, CaCO3, sand-silt-clay and C/N ratios were studied to understand the accumulation dynamics on sediments. The elemental concentration, calcium carbonate and OM distribution suggest that they are derived from urban runoff and transported through Adyar and Cooum Rivers. The enrichment factor reveals that the sediments are enriched by Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni followed by Fe. The observed Igeo value shows that the samples are contaminated by Pb, Cu and Zn. The elemental concentration of the surface sediments is low when compared to other coastal region except Pb. The elevated level of Pb in the surface sediments is probably due to migration of contaminated urban soil from industrial and transportation sectors into marine environment.

  2. The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES)--study design and methodology (urban component) (CURES-I).

    PubMed

    Deepa, M; Pradeepa, R; Rema, M; Mohan, Anjana; Deepa, R; Shanthirani, S; Mohan, V

    2003-09-01

    The report of World Health Organization (WHO) shows that India tops the world with the largest number of diabetic subjects. This increase is attributed to the rapid epidemiological transition accompanied by urbanization, which is occurring in India. There is very little data regarding the influence of affluence on the prevalence of diabetes and its complications particularly retinopathy in the Indian population. Furthermore, there are very few studies comparing the urban/rural prevalence of diabetes and its complications. The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES) is designed to answer the above questions. CURES is initially planned as a cross-sectional study to evolve later into a longitudinal study. Subjects for the urban component of the CURES have been recruited from within the corporation limits of Chennai City. Chennai (formerly Madras), the largest city in Southern India and the fourth largest in India has been divided into 10 zones and 155 wards. 46 wards were selected by a systematic random sampling method to represent the whole of Chennai. Twenty thousand and one individuals were recruited for the study, this number being derived based on a sample size calculation. The study has three phases. Phase one is a door to door survey which includes a questionnaire, anthropometric, fasting capillary blood glucose and blood pressure measurements. Phase two focussed on the prevalence of diabetic complications particularly retinopathy using standardized techniques like retinal photography etc. Diabetic subjects identified in phase one and age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects will participate in these studies. Phase three will include more detailed studies like clinical, biochemical and vascular studies on a sub-sample of the study subjects selected on a stratified basis from phase one. CURES is perhaps one of the largest systematic population based studies to be done in India in the field of diabetes and its complications like retinopathy, nephropathy

  3. India-U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-12

    Kashmir region, and, in more recent years, “cross-border terrorism” in both Kashmir and major Indian cities . In the interests of regional stability, the...Potter and Jayantha Dhanapala, “The Perils of Non- Proliferation Amnesia,” Hindu ( Chennai ), September 1, 2007. 15 See “Fix the Proposal for Renewed...Down to Last Days: Mulford,” Hindu ( Chennai ), May 20, 2008; “US-India Nuclear Deal Dead,” Financial Times (London), June 10, 2008. 22 “India Left Ends

  4. Observed and Projected Climate Extremities in Chennai Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anushiya, j.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Analyses of observed climate throughout world revealed some significant changes in the extremes. Any change in the frequency or severity of extreme climate events would have profound impacts on the resilience of nature and society. It is thus very important to analyze extreme events to reliably monitor and detect climate change. Chennai is the fourth largest metropolis in India and one of the fastest growing economic and Industrial growth centers in South Asia. Population has grown rapidly in the last 20 years due to its major industrialization and tremendous growth. Already Chennai's day and night time Temperature shows an increasing trend. The past incidence of catastrophic flooding was observed in the city due to heavy rains associated with depressions and cyclonic storm lead floods in major rivers. After 2000, the incidents were reported repeatedly. The effort has made in this study to find the observed climate extremities over the past years and in the future. For observed changes, IMD gridded data set, and station data are used. Future high resolution climate scenarios (0.220x0.220) are developed through RCM using PRECIS. The boundary data have provided by the UK Met office. The selected members are simulated under the A1B scenario (a mid range emission scenario) for a continuous run till 2100. Climate indices listed by Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) by the CLIVAR are considered in this study. The indices were obtained using the software package RClimDex. Kendall's tau based slope estimator has been used to find the significance lavel. The results shows the significant increasing tendency of warm days (TX90P) in the past and in future. The trends in extreme wet days (R99P) are also increased. The growth in population, urban and industrial area, economic activities, depletion of natural resources along with changing climate are forced to develop the infrastructure includes climate friendly policies to adopt and to ensure the

  5. Spatial trend, environmental and socioeconomic factors associated with malaria prevalence in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Divya Subash; Andimuthu, Ramachandran; Rajan, Rupa; Venkatesan, Mada Suresh

    2014-01-08

    Urban malaria is considered to be one of the most significant infectious diseases due to varied socioeconomic problems especially in tropical countries like India. Among the south Indian cities, Chennai is endemic for malaria. The present study aimed to identify the hot spots of malaria prevalence and the relationship with other factors in Chennai during 2005-2011. Data on zone-wise and ward-wise monthly malaria positive cases were collected from the Vector Control Office, Chennai Corporation, for the year 2005 to 2011 and verified using field data. This data was used to calculate the prevalence among thousand people. Hotspot analysis for all the years in the study period was done to observe the spatial trend. Association of environmental factors like altitude, population density and climatic variables was assessed using ArcGIS 9.3 version and SPSS 11.5. Pearson's correlation of climate parameters at 95% and 99% was considered to be the most significant. Social parameters of the highly malaria prone region were evaluated through a structured random questionnaire field survey. Among the ten zones of Chennai Corporation, Basin Bridge zone showed high malaria prevalence during the study period. The 'hotspot' analysis of malaria prevalence showed the emergence of newer hotspots in the Adyar zone. These hotspots of high prevalence are places of moderately populated and moderately elevated areas. The prevalence of malaria in Chennai could be due to rainfall and temperature, as there is a significant correlation with monthly rainfall and one month lag of monthly mean temperature. Further it has been observed that the socioeconomic status of people in the malaria hotspot regions and unhygienic living conditions were likely to aggravate the malaria problem. Malaria hotspots will be the best method to use for targeting malaria control activities. Proper awareness and periodical monitoring of malaria is one of the quintessential steps to control this infectious disease. It

  6. Spatial trend, environmental and socioeconomic factors associated with malaria prevalence in Chennai

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Urban malaria is considered to be one of the most significant infectious diseases due to varied socioeconomic problems especially in tropical countries like India. Among the south Indian cities, Chennai is endemic for malaria. The present study aimed to identify the hot spots of malaria prevalence and the relationship with other factors in Chennai during 2005-2011. Methods Data on zone-wise and ward-wise monthly malaria positive cases were collected from the Vector Control Office, Chennai Corporation, for the year 2005 to 2011 and verified using field data. This data was used to calculate the prevalence among thousand people. Hotspot analysis for all the years in the study period was done to observe the spatial trend. Association of environmental factors like altitude, population density and climatic variables was assessed using ArcGIS 9.3 version and SPSS 11.5. Pearson’s correlation of climate parameters at 95% and 99% was considered to be the most significant. Social parameters of the highly malaria prone region were evaluated through a structured random questionnaire field survey. Results Among the ten zones of Chennai Corporation, Basin Bridge zone showed high malaria prevalence during the study period. The ‘hotspot’ analysis of malaria prevalence showed the emergence of newer hotspots in the Adyar zone. These hotspots of high prevalence are places of moderately populated and moderately elevated areas. The prevalence of malaria in Chennai could be due to rainfall and temperature, as there is a significant correlation with monthly rainfall and one month lag of monthly mean temperature. Further it has been observed that the socioeconomic status of people in the malaria hotspot regions and unhygienic living conditions were likely to aggravate the malaria problem. Conclusion Malaria hotspots will be the best method to use for targeting malaria control activities. Proper awareness and periodical monitoring of malaria is one of the quintessential

  7. India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Aerosols over India     View Larger Image ... particulates, over the low-lying plains of northeastern India appear in dramatic contrast with the relatively pristine air of the ... October 15, 2001 - High concentrations of aerosols over India. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...

  8. Local governments and civil society lead breakthrough for tobacco control: lessons from Chandigarh and Chennai.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Arul, Rathinum; Goswami, Hemant; Narain, Jai P; Armada, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Smoke-free legislation is gaining popularity; however, it must accompany effective implementation to protect people from secondhand smoke (SHS) which causes 600,000 deaths annually. Increasing numbers of smoke-free cities in the world indicate that municipalities have an important role in promoting smoke-free environments. The objectives were to describe the local initiative to promote smoke-free environments and identify the key factors that contributed to the process. Observations were based on a case study on the municipal smoke-free initiatives in Chandigarh and Chennai, India. India adopted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act in 2003, the first national tobacco control law including smoke-free provisions. In an effort to enforce the Act at the local level, a civil society organization in Chandigarh initiated activities urging the city to support the implementation of the provisions of the Act which led to the initiation of city-wide law enforcement. After the smoke-free declaration of Chandigarh in 2007, Chennai also initiated a smoke-free intervention led by civil society in 2008, following the strategies used in Chandigarh. These experiences resonate with other cases in Asian cities, such as Jakarta, Davao, and Kanagawa as well as cities in other areas of the world including Mexico City, New York City, Mecca and Medina. The cases of Chandigarh and Chennai demonstrate that civil society can make a great contribution to the enforcement of smoke-free laws in cities, and that cities can learn from their peers to protect people from SHS.

  9. The Chennai extreme rainfall event in 2015: The Bay of Bengal connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyaj, Alugula; Ashok, Karumuri; Ghosh, Subimal; Devanand, Anjana; Dandu, Govardhan

    2017-06-01

    Southeast India experienced a heavy rainfall during 30 Nov-2 Dec 2015. Particularly, the Chennai city, the fourth major metropolitan city in India with a population of 5 million, experienced extreme flooding and causalities. Using various observed/reanalysed datasets, we find that the concurrent southern Bay of Bengal (BoB) sea surface temperatures (SST) were anomalously warm. Our analysis shows that BoB sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) are indeed positively, and significantly, correlated with the northeastern Indian monsoonal rainfall during this season. Our sensitivity experiments carried out with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 25 km resolution suggest that, while the strong concurrent El Niño conditions contributed to about 21.5% of the intensity of the extreme Chennai rainfall through its signals in the local SST mentioned above, the warming trend in BoB SST also contributed equally to the extremity of the event. Further, the El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) impacts on the intensity of the synoptic events in the BoB during the northeast monsoon are manifested largely through the local SST in the BoB as compared through its signature in the atmospheric circulations over the BoB.

  10. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of an Integrated In-person and Mobile Phone Delivered Counseling and Text Messaging Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk among Male Sex Workers in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Thomas, Beena; Biello, Katie; Johnson, Blake E; Swaminathan, Soumya; Navakodi, Pandiyaraja; Balaguru, S; Dhanalakshmi, A; Closson, Elizabeth F; Menon, Sunil; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2017-08-22

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HIV infection in India, particularly those who engage in transactional sex with other men (i.e., male sex workers; MSW). Despite the need, HIV prevention efforts for Indian MSW are lacking. As in other settings, MSW in India increasingly rely on the use of mobile phones for sex work solicitation. Integrating mobile phone technology into an HIV prevention intervention for Indian MSW may mitigate some of the challenges associated with face-to face approaches, such as implementation, lack of anonymity, and time consumption, while at the same time proving to be both feasible and useful. This is a pilot randomized controlled trial to examine participant acceptability, feasibility of study procedures, and preliminary efficacy for reducing sexual risk for HIV. MSW (N = 100) were equally randomized to: (1) a behavioral HIV prevention intervention integrating in-person and mobile phone delivered HIV risk reduction counseling, and daily, personalized text or voice messages as motivating "cognitive restructuring" cues for reducing condomless anal sex (CAS); or (2) a standard of care (SOC) comparison condition. Both groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline and 6-months, and completed ACASI-based, behavioral and psychosocial assessments at baseline, 3, and 6 months. Mixed-effects regression procedures specifying a Poisson distribution and log link with a random intercept and slope for month of follow-up was estimated to assess the intervention effect on the primary outcomes: (1) CAS acts with male clients who paid them for sex, and (2) CAS acts with male non-paying sexual partners-both outcomes assessed over the past month. The intervention was both feasible (98% retention at 6-months) and acceptable (>96% of all intervention sessions attended); all intervention participants rated the intervention as "acceptable" or "very acceptable." A reduction in the reported number of CAS acts with male clients who

  11. The Chennai floods of 2015: urgent need for ethical disaster management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mariaselvam, Suresh; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2016-01-01

    India has suffered several natural disasters in recent years. The super cyclone of Orissa in 1999 and the tsunami on the southeastern coast in 2004, both led to major developments in disaster management abilities in the country. Almost a decade after the last major disaster that hit south India, the recent floods in Chennai in 2015 brought to the fore a whole set of ethical considerations. There were issues of inequity in the relief and response activities, conflicts and lack of coordination between the government and non-government relief and response, more emphasis on short-term relief activities rather than rehabilitation and reconstruction, and lack of crisis standards of care in medical services. This paper highlights these ethical issues and the need for ethical guidelines and an ethical oversight mechanism for disaster management and response.

  12. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  13. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  14. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  15. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  16. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  17. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children and adolescents in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Jagadesan, Sonya; Harish, Ranjani; Miranda, Priya; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Chennai, India, using national and international age- and sex- specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Obesity Reduction and Awareness and Screening of Non communicable diseases through Group Education in Children and Adolescents (ORANGE) project is a cross-sectional study carried out on 18,955 children (age 6-11 years) and adolescents (age 12-17 years) across 51 schools (31 private and 20 government) of Chennai. Overweight and obesity was classified by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF 2000) and Khadilkars criteria (2012), and Hypertension by the IDF criteria (in children ≥10 years and adolescents). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in private compared to government schools both by the IOTF criteria [private schools: 21.4%, government schools: 3.6%, (OR: 7.4, 95% CI:6.3-8.6; P<0.001) and by Khadilkar criteria (private school: 26.4%, government schools: 4.6% OR: 6.9, 95% CI:6.2-7.8; P<0.001). Overweight/obesity was higher among girls (IOTF: 18%, Khadilkar: 21.3%) compared to boys (IOTF: 16.2%, Khadilkar: 20.7%) and higher among adolescents (IOTF: 18.1%, Khadilkar: 21.2%) compared to children (IOTF: 15.5%, Khadilkar: 20.7%). Prevalence of hypertension was 20.4% among obese/overweight and 5.2% among non-obese (OR 4.7, 95%CI: 4.2-5.3, P<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high among private schools in Chennai, and hypertension is also common.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste management in Indian mega-cities: a case study of Chennai landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Jha, Arvind K; Sharma, C; Singh, Nahar; Ramesh, R; Purvaja, R; Gupta, Prabhat K

    2008-03-01

    Municipal solid waste generation rate is over-riding the population growth rate in all mega-cities in India. Greenhouse gas emission inventory from landfills of Chennai has been generated by measuring the site specific emission factors in conjunction with relevant activity data as well as using the IPCC methodologies for CH4 inventory preparation. In Chennai, emission flux ranged from 1.0 to 23.5mg CH4m(-2)h(-1), 6 to 460microg N2Om(-2)h(-1) and 39 to 906mg CO2m(2)h(-1) at Kodungaiyur and 0.9 to 433mg CH4m(-2)h(-1), 2.7 to 1200microg N2Om(-2)h(-1) and 12.3 to 964.4mg CO2m(-2)h(-1) at Perungudi. CH4 emission estimates were found to be about 0.12Gg in Chennai from municipal solid waste management for the year 2000 which is lower than the value computed using IPCC, 1996 [IPCC, 1996. Report of the 12th session of the intergovernmental panel of climate change, Mexico City, 1996] methodologies.

  19. Dental neglect among children in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Deepa; Shanmugaavel, Arunachalam Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    Child dental neglect is the failure of a parent or guardian to meet the child's basic oral health needs such that the child enjoys adequate function and freedom from pain and infection, where reasonable resources are available to family or caregiver. The aim of the study is to evaluate the phenomenon of dental neglect among children in Chennai and to associate dental neglect with oral health status of children aged 3-12 years. This is a cross-sectional study involving 478 pairs of parents and children. Dental neglect scale and a questionnaire were used to assess the dental neglect score among parents of the children involved in the study. Oral health status of children was clinically assessed using oral hygiene index, decayed, extracted, filled teeth (def(t)), pulp, ulcers, fistula, abscess (pufa), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT), PUFA as per the World Health Organization criteria and pufa/PUFA index. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used appropriately for statistical analysis using SPSS software version 20.0. A significant higher dental neglect score was reported among the parents who reside in the suburban location (P < 0.001), whose educational qualification was secondary (P < 0.001) and who have not availed any dental service for >3 years (P = 0.001). A significant higher DMFT (P = 0.003), deft (P = 0 < 0.001), pufa (P = 0.011), and debris index (P = 0.002) scores were seen in the higher dental neglect group. Child dental neglect is seen among the parents whose educational qualification was secondary, who reside in the suburban location, and who have not utilized the dental services for more than 3 years in Chennai. This dental neglect results in poorer oral health of children.

  20. Climate variables as predictors for seasonal forecast of dengue occurrence in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subash Kumar, D. D.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Background Dengue is a recently emerging vector borne diseases in Chennai. As per the WHO report in 2011 dengue is one of eight climate sensitive disease of this century. Objective Therefore an attempt has been made to explore the influence of climate parameters on dengue occurrence and use for forecasting. Methodology Time series analysis has been applied to predict the number of dengue cases in Chennai, a metropolitan city which is the capital of Tamil Nadu, India. Cross correlation of the climate variables with dengue cases revealed that the most influential parameters were monthly relative humidity, minimum temperature at 4 months lag and rainfall at one month lag (Table 1). However due to intercorrelation of relative humidity and rainfall was high and therefore for predictive purpose the rainfall at one month lag was used for the model development. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models have been applied to forecast the occurrence of dengue. Results and Discussion The best fit model was ARIMA (1,0,1). It was seen that the monthly minimum temperature at four months lag (β= 3.612, p = 0.02) and rainfall at one month lag (β= 0.032, p = 0.017) were associated with dengue occurrence and they had a very significant effect. Mean Relative Humidity had a directly significant positive correlation at 99% confidence level, but the lagged effect was not prominent. The model predicted dengue cases showed significantly high correlation of 0.814(Figure 1) with the observed cases. The RMSE of the model was 18.564 and MAE was 12.114. The model is limited by the scarcity of the dataset. Inclusion of socioeconomic conditions and population offset are further needed to be incorporated for effective results. Conclusion Thus it could be claimed that the change in climatic parameters is definitely influential in increasing the number of dengue occurrence in Chennai. The climate variables therefore can be used for seasonal forecasting of dengue with rise in minimum

  1. Heavy rains over Chennai and surrounding areas as captured by Doppler weather radar during Northeast Monsoon 2015: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaljit, Ray; Kannan, B. A. M.; Stella, S.; Sen, Bikram; Sharma, Pradip; Thampi, S. B.

    2016-05-01

    During the Northeast monsoon season, India receives about 11% of its annual rainfall. Many districts in South Peninsula receive 30-60% of their annual rainfall. Coastal Tamil Nadu receives 60% of its annual rainfall and interior districts about 40-50 %. During the month of November, 2015, three synoptic scale weather systems affected Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry causing extensive rainfall activity over the region. Extremely heavy rains occurred over districts of Chennai, Thiruvallur and Kancheepuram, due to which these 3 districts were fully inundated. 122 people in Tamil Nadu were reported to have died due to the flooding, while over 70,000 people had been rescued. State government reported flood damage of the order of around Rs 8481 Crores. The rainfall received in Chennai district during 1.11.2015 to 5.12.2015 was 1416.8 mm against the normal of 408.4 mm. The extremely heavy rains were found to be associated with strong wind surges at lower tropospheric levels, which brought in lot of moisture flux over Chennai and adjoining area. The subtropical westerly trough at mid-tropospheric levels extended much southwards than its normal latitude, producing favorable environment for sustained rising motions ahead of approaching trough over coastal Tamil Nadu. Generated strong upward velocities in the clouds lifted the cloud tops to very high levels forming deep convective clouds. These clouds provided very heavy rainfall of the order of 150-200 mm/hour. In this paper we have used radar data to examine and substantiate the cloud burst that led to these torrential rains over Chennai and adjoining areas during the Northeast Monsoon period, 2015.

  2. Isolation & molecular characterization of human parainfluenza virus in Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Indumathi, C.P.; Gunanasekaran, P.; Kaveri, K.; Arunagiri, Kavita; Mohana, S.; Sheriff, A. Khaleefathullah; SureshBabu, B.V.; Padmapriya, P.; Senthilraja, R.; Fathima, Gracy

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) accounts for a significant proportion of lower respiratory tract infections in children as well as adults. This study was done to detect the presence of different subtypes of HPIV from patients having influenza like illness (ILI). Methods: Throat and nasal swabs from 232 patients with ILI who were negative for influenza viruses were tested by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(mRT-PCR) for the detection of human parainfluenza virus. All samples were inoculated in rhesus monkey kidney (LLC-MK2) cell line. Results: Of the 232 samples, 26(11.2%) were positive by mRT-PCR and nine (34.6%) showed cytopathic effect with syncytium formation for HPIV and all were HPIV-3 serotype, other serotypes like 1,2,4 were negative. The HPIV-3 strains (HN gene) were sequenced and analysed. Two novel mutations were identified at amino acid residues 295 and 297. Interpretation & conclusions: The mRT-PCR assay offers a rapid, sensitive and accurate diagnostic method for detection of HPIV which enables early detection and control. In our study there was a predominance of HPIV among 1-5 yr age group and the school going age group was less affected. Further studies need to be done to characterize HPIV isolated from different parts of the country. PMID:26658594

  3. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology.

  4. Caspar Creek

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    2001-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection have gauged streamflow, and suspended sediment and precipitation since 1962 in the 473 ha North Fork and the 424 ha South Fork of the 2167 ha Caspar Creek in the Jackson Demonstation State Forest in northwestern California. Within the two Caspar...

  5. Seismic hazard assessment of Chennai city considering local site effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boominathan, A.; Dodagoudar, G. R.; Suganthi, A.; Uma Maheswari, R.

    2008-11-01

    Chennai city suffered moderate tremors during the 2001 Bhuj and Pondicherry earthquakes and the 2004 Sumatra earthquake. After the Bhuj earthquake, Indian Standard IS: 1893 was revised and Chennai city was upgraded from zone II to zone III which leads to a substantial increase of the design ground motion parameters. Therefore, a comprehensive study is carried out to assess the seismic hazard of Chennai city based on a deterministic approach. The seismicity and seismotectonic details within a 100 km radius of the study area have been considered. The one-dimensional ground response analysis was carried out for 38 representative sites by the equivalent linear method using the SHAKE91 program to estimate the ground motion parameters considering the local site effects. The shear wave velocity profile was inferred from the corrected blow counts and it was verified with the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) test performed for a representative site. The seismic hazard is represented in terms of characteristic site period and Spectral Acceleration Ratio (SAR) contours for the entire city. It is found that structures with low natural period undergo significant amplification mostly in the central and southern parts of Chennai city due to the presence of deep soil sites with clayey or sandy deposits and the remaining parts undergo marginal amplification.

  6. Awareness, Attitude and Use of Tobacco among Medical Students in Chennai

    PubMed Central

    Boopathirajan, Ramkumar; Muthunarayanan, Logaraj

    2017-01-01

    Background Health professionals have an important role to play in the fight against tobacco. As individuals, health professionals can help educate the population; as community members, they can support anti-smoking policies; and, at a societal level, they can influence national and global tobacco control efforts. The objectives of the study was to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use among medical students in Chennai and to measure the extent of attitude toward, behavior around and knowledge of tobacco use among medical students. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 medical students from 4 randomly selected medical colleges, comprised of 1 government and 3 private medical colleges in and around Chennai, India. The Global Health Professional Students Survey (GHPSS), a standardized college-based tool, was administered to students in the four medical colleges. Results The proportion of students who ever tried cigarette smoking was found to be 10.9% (males, 23.5% and females, 1.8%). The prevalence of exposure to tobacco smoke at home was found to be 34.2%. A majority of students agreed that smoking should be banned. The proportion of students who wanted to quit smoking cigarettes and who ever tried to stop smoking were 29.8% and 34.6% respectively. Only 23.6% of the students said they have received formal training in smoking cessation techniques. Conclusion As indicated by the majority of the medical students queried, there is a need for formal training in smoking cessation techniques, and this training should be included in the medical curriculum, such that students can instruct or counsel their patients. PMID:28261558

  7. Lower Walnut Creek Restoration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lower Walnut Creek Restoration Project will restore and enhance coastal wetlands along southern shoreline of Suisun Bay from Suisun Bay upstream along Walnut Creek, improving habitat quality, diversity, and connectivity along three miles of creek channel.

  8. A Mediation Analysis of a Tobacco Prevention Program for Adolescents in India: How Did Project MYTRI Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigler, Melissa Harrell; Perry, Cheryl L.; Smolenski, Derek; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of a mediation analysis of Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, controlled trial of a multiple-component, school-based tobacco prevention program for sixth- to ninth-graders (n = 14,085) in Delhi and Chennai, India. A mediation analysis identifies "how"…

  9. A Mediation Analysis of a Tobacco Prevention Program for Adolescents in India: How Did Project MYTRI Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigler, Melissa Harrell; Perry, Cheryl L.; Smolenski, Derek; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of a mediation analysis of Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, controlled trial of a multiple-component, school-based tobacco prevention program for sixth- to ninth-graders (n = 14,085) in Delhi and Chennai, India. A mediation analysis identifies "how"…

  10. The Chennai floods of 2015 and the health system response.

    PubMed

    Gaitonde, Rakhal; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2016-01-01

    The Chennai floods of 2015 were a calamity of unexpected proportions (1). The impact on the lives of the poor has been immense. Thousands needed to abandon their already precarious dwellings on the banks of the Adyar River, and other low-lying areas for temporary shelters. The differential experience and impact of disasters on different segments of the population helps understand the dynamics of sociopolitical structures and supports.

  11. Cadaveric renal transplantation: the Chennai experience.

    PubMed

    Prabahar, M R; Soundararajan, P

    2008-05-01

    Transplantation of human organs is undoubtedly one of the greatest medical breakthroughs of this century. However, few Indian patients are able to benefit from this medical advance. It is estimated that in India every year over 152,000 people are diagnosed to have end-stage renal failure needing renal transplantation. The Transplantation of Human Organs Act passed by the Indian parliament in 1994 was subsequently ratified by the state legislature of Tamil Nadu in May 1995. It accepted brain death as a form of death and prohibited commerce in organs. The first cadaveric kidney transplant in Sri Ramachandra medical college was performed in 1995 with 68 cadaveric kidney transplants thereafter. The mean age of the donors was 36 +/- 12.8 years. The mean cold ischemia time was 5.6 +/- 3.2 hours. As many as 14 donors displayed acute renal failure (serum creatinine more than 1.2 mg/dL). Immediate graft function was established in 34 patients (50%). Four had graft rupture, two of which were successfully repaired. Postoperatively 12 patients (17.6%) displayed delayed graft function requiring dialysis. During the first year, 18 patients (26.4%) experienced acute rejection episodes, of which 14 were cellular and four vascular rejection types. As many as eight patients were lost to follow-up within one year; the mean follow-up time was 968 +/- 86 days. Patient survival at 1 year was 88.2% and that of the graft 73.5%. The 5-year patient and graft survival rates were 61.7% and 58.8%, respectively. The mean serum creatinine of patients currently followed is 2.2 +/- 0.86 mg/dL. The rate of cadaver kidney transplantation in India is low despite initiatives by our university to promote donation. Creating a positive public attitude, early brain death identification, and certification, prompt consent for organ donation, adequate hospital infrastructure, and support logistics are prerequisites for successful organ transplantation.

  12. Passive air sampling of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai: Levels, homologous profiling and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Cheng, Hairong; Balasubramanian, Prithiviraj; Li, Jun; Jones, Kevin C

    2017-09-11

    Several studies in the recent past reported new sources for industrial persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from metropolitan cities of India. To fill the data gap for atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polyurethane foam disk passive air sampling (PUF-PAS) was conducted along urban-suburban-rural transects in four quadrilateral cities viz., New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai from northern, eastern, western and southern India respectively. Average concentration of Σ8PBDEs in pg/m(3) for New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai were 198, 135, 264 and 144 respectively. We observed a distinct urban > suburban > rural trend for atmospheric PBDEs in Mumbai. Principal component analysis (PCA) attributed three different source types. BDE-47, -99, -100, -153 and -154 loaded in the first component were relatively high in the sites where industrial and informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities were prevalent. Penta congener, BDE-99 and tetra congener, BDE-47 contributed 50%-75% of total PBDEs. Ratio of BDE-47 and -99 in Indian cities reflected the usage of penta formulations like Bromkal -70DE and DE-71 in the commercial and electrical products. PC-2 was loaded with BDE-28 and -35. Percentage of BDE-28 and BDE-35 (>10%) were comparatively much higher than commercial penta products. Abundance of BDE-28 in majority sites can be primarily due to re-emission from surface soil. PC-3 was loaded with BDE-183 and elevated levels were observed mostly in the industrial corridor of Indian cities. BDE-183 was notably high in the urban industrial sites of New Delhi. We suspect this octa-BDE congener resulted from recycling process of plastic products containing octa-BDE formulation used as flame retardants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL REGISTRY BOOTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  14. Prevalence of Dental Caries among School Children in Chennai, Based on ICDAS II

    PubMed Central

    Arangannal, Ponnudurai; Jayaprakash, Jeevarathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is a common dental disease, which occurs during childhood and continues to be a major public health problem. The prevalence of dental caries was associated with oral hygiene practice, sugar consumption and implementation of the preventive oral health program. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in school children aged between 6-14 years using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 2796 school children living in Pallikkaranai, Chennai, India and studying in government recognized schools. Each student was examined by a single examiner using ICDAS system under natural light during normal school hours. Results The prevalence of dental caries was 68.8% in the total surveyed population. The gender-wise prevalence of dental caries shows, females to have slightly higher prevalence than male. The prevalence of dental caries at the age group of 6 years was 57%, seven year 67%, eight year 63%, nine year 74%, 10 year 76%, 11 year 74%, 12 year 69%, 13 year 71%, and 14 year 69%. The distribution of CARS (Caries associated with Sealants and Restorations) in the surveyed population was only 1.4% Conclusion The distribution of non-cavitated/early enamel lesions was higher in the studied population and indicated a requirement of a sustained dental health preventive program targeting specific segments of the population. PMID:27190939

  15. Prevalence of Depression in a Large Urban South Indian Population — The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (Cures – 70)

    PubMed Central

    Poongothai, Subramani; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Ganesan, Anbhazhagan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    Background In India there are very few population based data on prevalence of depression. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of depression in an urban south Indian population. Methods and Findings Subjects were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES), involving 26,001 subjects randomly recruited from 46 of the 155 corporation wards of Chennai (formerly Madras) city in South India. 25,455 subjects participated in this study (response rate 97.9%). Depression was assessed using a self-reported and previously validated instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) – 12. Age adjustment was made according to the 2001 census of India. The overall prevalence of depression was 15.1% (age-adjusted, 15.9%) and was higher in females (females 16.3% vs. males 13.9%, p<0.0001). The odds ratio (OR) for depression in female subjects was 1.20 [Confidence Intervals (CI): 1.12–1.28, p<0.001] compared to male subjects. Depressed mood was the most common symptom (30.8%), followed by tiredness (30.0%) while more severe symptoms such as suicidal thoughts (12.4%) and speech and motor retardation (12.4%) were less common. There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of depression with age among both female (p<0.001) and male subjects (p<0.001). The prevalence of depression was higher in the low income group (19.3%) compared to the higher income group (5.9%, p<0.001). Prevalence of depression was also higher among divorced (26.5%) and widowed (20%) compared to currently married subjects (15.4%, p<0.001). Conclusions This is the largest population-based study from India to report on prevalence of depression and shows that among urban south Indians, the prevalence of depression was 15.1%. Age, female gender and lower socio-economic status are some of the factors associated with depression in this population. PMID:19784380

  16. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  17. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  18. Associations Between Tobacco Marketing and Use Among Urban Youth in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath; Stigler, Melissa H.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To study if receptivity and exposure to tobacco marketing are correlated with tobacco use and psychosocial risk factors for tobacco use among a sample of urban Indian youth. Methods: Analysis of cross-sectional survey data from Project MYTRI, a group randomized intervention trial, in Delhi and Chennai, India, collected from sixth and…

  19. Is Tobacco Use Associated with Academic Failure among Government School Students in Urban India?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhavan, Poonam; Stigler, Melissa H.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2010-01-01

    Background: Not much is known about the academic correlates of tobacco use among students in developing countries. This study investigated associations between multiple forms of tobacco use, psychosocial risk factors, and academic failure among 10- to 16-year-old government school students in Delhi and Chennai, India. Methods: This study was a…

  20. Is Tobacco Use Associated with Academic Failure among Government School Students in Urban India?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhavan, Poonam; Stigler, Melissa H.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2010-01-01

    Background: Not much is known about the academic correlates of tobacco use among students in developing countries. This study investigated associations between multiple forms of tobacco use, psychosocial risk factors, and academic failure among 10- to 16-year-old government school students in Delhi and Chennai, India. Methods: This study was a…

  1. Associations Between Tobacco Marketing and Use Among Urban Youth in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath; Stigler, Melissa H.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To study if receptivity and exposure to tobacco marketing are correlated with tobacco use and psychosocial risk factors for tobacco use among a sample of urban Indian youth. Methods: Analysis of cross-sectional survey data from Project MYTRI, a group randomized intervention trial, in Delhi and Chennai, India, collected from sixth and…

  2. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Water in Chennai, Tamilnadu.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Sujatha; Ravi, Karunya; Rajapandian, K; Gurunathan, Deepa

    2015-10-01

    The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water is 0.7 to 1.2 ppm. Decreased fluoride concentration leads to increased risk of caries and increased concentration can lead to dental or skeletal fluorosis. One crore liters of water is supplied to Chennai and surrounding areas through pouches and bottles which carters about one third of city population. The aim of this study is to determine the fluoride concentration in top 10 bottled waters in Chennai and to check the accuracy of their labelling. Top selling bottled waters, 6 multinational and 4 Non- multinational brands were selected for the study. Three different batches of each brand were purchased. The labels of the bottled were removed after collecting the details regarding fluoride content. All the bottles were numbered and sent for fluoride content analysis using SPADNS calorimetric method. All the brands and batches which were analysed for the study had less than optimal fluoride content and there is a significant variation in fluoride concentration of each brand and among different batches of same brand bottled waters. The range of fluoride level in tested samples was between 0.27 to 0.59. Only one brand's label had information regarding the fluoride content. Standardization of fluoride levels in bottled waters and labelling of fluoride content should become mandatory.

  3. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Water in Chennai, Tamilnadu

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Karunya; Rajapandian, K.; Gurunathan, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Context The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water is 0.7 to 1.2 ppm. Decreased fluoride concentration leads to increased risk of caries and increased concentration can lead to dental or skeletal fluorosis. One crore liters of water is supplied to Chennai and surrounding areas through pouches and bottles which carters about one third of city population. Aim The aim of this study is to determine the fluoride concentration in top 10 bottled waters in Chennai and to check the accuracy of their labelling. Materials and Methods Top selling bottled waters, 6 multinational and 4 Non- multinational brands were selected for the study. Three different batches of each brand were purchased. The labels of the bottled were removed after collecting the details regarding fluoride content. All the bottles were numbered and sent for fluoride content analysis using SPADNS calorimetric method. Results All the brands and batches which were analysed for the study had less than optimal fluoride content and there is a significant variation in fluoride concentration of each brand and among different batches of same brand bottled waters. The range of fluoride level in tested samples was between 0.27 to 0.59. Only one brand’s label had information regarding the fluoride content. Conclusion Standardization of fluoride levels in bottled waters and labelling of fluoride content should become mandatory. PMID:26557612

  4. How Do Urban Indian Private Practitioners Diagnose and Treat Tuberculosis? A Cross-Sectional Study in Chennai

    PubMed Central

    Bronner Murrison, Liza; Ananthakrishnan, Ramya; Sukumar, Sumanya; Augustine, Sheela; Krishnan, Nalini; Pai, Madhukar; Dowdy, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Setting Private practitioners are frequently the first point of healthcare contact for patients with tuberculosis (TB) in India. Inappropriate TB management practices among private practitioners may contribute to delayed TB diagnosis and generate drug resistance. However, these practices are not well understood. We evaluated diagnostic and treatment practices for active TB and benchmarked practices against International Standards for TB Care (ISTC) among private medical practitioners in Chennai. Design A cross-sectional survey of 228 practitioners practicing in the private sector from January 2014 to February 2015 in Chennai city who saw at least one TB patient in the previous year. Practitioners were randomly selected from both the general community and a list of practitioners who referred patients to a public-private mix program for TB treatment in Chennai. Practitioners were interviewed using standardized questionnaires. Results Among 228 private practitioners, a median of 12 (IQR 4–28) patients with TB were seen per year. Of 10 ISTC standards evaluated, the median of standards adhered to was 4.0 (IQR 3.0–6.0). Chest physicians reported greater median ISTC adherence than other MD and MS practitioners (score 7.0 vs. 4.0, P<0.001), or MBBS practitioners (score 7.0 vs. 4.0, P<0.001). Only 52% of all practitioners sent >5% of patients with cough for TB testing, 83% used smear microscopy for diagnosis, 33% monitored treatment response, and 22% notified TB cases to authorities. Of 228 practitioners, 68 reported referring all patients with new pulmonary TB for treatment, while 160 listed 27 different regimens; 78% (125/160) prescribed a regimen classified as consistent with ISTC. Appropriate treatment practices differed significantly between chest physicians and other MD and MS practitioners (54% vs. 87%, P<0.001). Conclusion TB management practices in India’s urban private sector are heterogeneous and often suboptimal. Private providers must be better engaged to

  5. Intimal media thickness, glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome in Asian Indians--the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES -22).

    PubMed

    Mohan, V; Gokulakrishnan, K; Sandeep, S; Srivastava, B K; Ravikumar, R; Deepa, R

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess carotid intimal media thickness (IMT) in different grades of glucose intolerance and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in Asian Indians, a high-risk group for diabetes and coronary artery disease. Subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n = 1600), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n = 330), newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD) (n = 330) and known diabetes (KD) (n = 1170) were recruited from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES), an ongoing study on a representative population of Chennai (formerly Madras), in southern India. Assessment of carotid IMT was performed using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. MS was defined using modified adult treatment parel (ATP) III guidelines. Subjects with self-reported diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia were excluded from the analysis on MS. Subjects with glucose intolerance had significantly higher mean carotid IMT values compared with subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 0.69 +/- 0.12 mm, IGT 0.75 +/- 0.16 mm, NDD 0.79 +/- 0.19 mm and KD 0.87 +/- 0.24 mm, P < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that there was a linear increase in mean IMT values with increasing severity of glucose intolerance, even after adjusting for age and gender. Mean IMT values were higher in those with MS and increased with increase in number of metabolic abnormalities (subjects without any metabolic abnormality 0.66 +/- 0.12 mm, one abnormality 0.67 +/- 0.13 mm, two 0.70 +/- 0.12 mm, three 0.72 +/- 0.12 mm, four 0.77 +/- 0.15 mm, five 0.76 +/- 0.13 mm). Regression models showed MS to be associated with IMT, even after adjusting for age, gender and presence of diabetes (P = 0.021). In Asian Indians, carotid IMT increases progressively with increasing severity of glucose intolerance and is also associated with the metabolic syndrome, independent of age, gender and presence of diabetes.

  6. Oral health status of children with autistic disorder in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Vishnu Rekha, C; Arangannal, P; Shahed, H

    2012-06-01

    To assess the oral health status of autistic children in Chennai. Oral health status was assessed for 483 children with autism, solicited from special education schools, autistic child centres and therapy centres. Conditions assessed were plaque accumulation, gingival health, dental caries, malocclusion, developmental anomalies, oral injuries and restorations. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests of significance were used to compare groups. Proportions test was used to compare the significance of the parameters between boys and girls. Autistic children with primary dentition showed significantly higher incidence of dental caries (24%), when compared to other oral conditions. Children with mixed dentition had more gingivitis (50%) and children with permanent dentition had more gingivitis (48.96%) and malocclusion (71.15%). All the oral conditions were seen more in boys than girls. Autistic children have significantly poor oral hygiene and higher incidence of malocclusion and dental caries when compared to other oral conditions.

  7. Sea breeze Initiated Rainfall over the east Coast of India during the Indian Southwest Monsoon

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M; Warrior, H; Raman, S; Aswathanarayana, P A; Mohanty, U C; Suresh, R

    2006-09-05

    Sea breeze initiated convection and precipitation is investigated along the east coast of India during the Indian southwest monsoon season. The sea breeze circulations are observed approximately 70 to 80% of the days during the summer months (June to August) along the Chennai coast. Observations of average sea breeze wind speeds are stronger at a rural location as compared to the wind speeds observed inside the urban region of Chennai. The sea breeze circulation is shown to be the dominant mechanism for initiating rainfall during the Indian southwest monsoon season. Roughly 80% of the total rainfall observed during the southwest monsoon over Chennai is directly related to the convection initiated by sea breeze circulation.

  8. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India).

    PubMed

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-04-02

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2-3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48-0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India.

  9. Adaptation and Evaluation of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale in India (NEWS-India)

    PubMed Central

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J. Aaron; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality, with most of these deaths occurring in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) like India. Research from developed countries has consistently demonstrated associations between built environment features and physical activity levels of populations. The development of culturally sensitive and reliable measures of the built environment is a necessary first step for accurate analysis of environmental correlates of physical activity in LMICs. This study systematically adapted the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for India and evaluated aspects of test-retest reliability of the adapted version among Indian adults. Cultural adaptation of the NEWS was conducted by Indian and international experts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with local residents and key informants in the city of Chennai, India. At baseline, participants (N = 370; female = 47.2%) from Chennai completed the adapted NEWS-India surveys on perceived residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure and safety for walking and cycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime. NEWS-India was administered for a second time to consenting participants (N = 62; female = 53.2%) with a gap of 2–3 weeks between successive administrations. Qualitative findings demonstrated that built environment barriers and constraints to active commuting and physical activity behaviors intersected with social ecological systems. The adapted NEWS subscales had moderate to high test-retest reliability (ICC range 0.48–0.99). The NEWS-India demonstrated acceptable measurement properties among Indian adults and may be a useful tool for evaluation of built environment attributes in India. Further adaptation and evaluation in rural and suburban settings in India is essential to create a version that could be used throughout India. PMID:27049394

  10. Estimation of automobile emissions and control strategies in India.

    PubMed

    Nesamani, K S

    2010-03-15

    Rapid, but unplanned urban development and the consequent urban sprawl coupled with economic growth have aggravated auto dependency in India over the last two decades. This has resulted in congestion and pollution in cities. The central and state governments have taken many ameliorative measures to reduce vehicular emissions. However, evolution of scientific methods for emission inventory is crucial. Therefore, an attempt has been made to estimate the emissions (running and start) from on-road vehicles in Chennai using IVE model in this paper. GPS was used to collect driving patterns. The estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Chennai in 2005 were 431, 119, 46, 7, 4575, 29, and 0.41 tons/days respectively for CO, VOC, NO(x), PM, CO(2,) CH(4) and N(2)O. It is observed from the results that air quality in Chennai has degraded. The estimation revealed that two and three-wheelers emitted about 64% of the total CO emissions and heavy-duty vehicles accounted for more than 60% and 36% of the NO(x) and PM emissions respectively. About 19% of total emissions were that of start emissions. It is also estimated that on-road transport contributes about 6637 tons/day CO(2) equivalent in Chennai. This paper has further examined various mitigation options to reduce vehicular emissions. The study has concluded that advanced vehicular technology and augmentation of public transit would have significant impact on reducing vehicular emissions.

  11. Impact of industrial effluents on geochemical association of metals within intertidal sediments of a creek.

    PubMed

    Volvoikar, Samida P; Nayak, G N

    2015-10-15

    Metal speciation studies were carried out on three intertidal core sediments of the industrially impacted Dudh creek located along west coast of India. Metals indicated a drastic increase in the bioavailable fraction towards the surface of the cores, suggesting an increase in anthropogenic metal input in recent years as compared to the past. Also, when compared with Vaitarna estuary and Khonda creek of Thane district, the speciation of metals in Dudh creek sediments was observed to have been highly modified in recent years. High concentrations of metals associated with bioavailable fractions therefore suggested a risk of toxicity to sediment associated biota of Dudh creek.

  12. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  13. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  14. Dengue in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country. PMID:23041731

  15. Usage of personal-protection measures against mosquitoes and the low prevalences of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia in the Indian city of Chennai.

    PubMed

    Vijay Kumar, K N; Ramaiah, K D

    2008-07-01

    The usage of personal-protection measures against mosquitoes and the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia were assessed in different areas of the city of Chennai, a large urban area in southern India. Most of the households investigated (75% to 92%, depending on socio-economic status) used some form of personal protection (such as mosquito coils, vaporizing mats and liquids and mosquito nets). The study households spent a mean (S.D.) of 109.45 (141.65) Indian rupees/month on personal protection, such expenditure increasing significantly with increasing household income (F=2.95; P=0.03). Over the last three decades the prevalence of W. bancrofti microfilaraemia has been slowly declining in Chennai. Most of the 'moderate-income' areas of the city investigated in the present study appeared free of such microfilaraemia, and the prevalences recorded in about half of the low- and very-low-income study areas did not exceed 1.0%. The mean prevalences recorded in the moderate-, low- and very-low-income areas were 0.51%, 1.15% and 1.30%, respectively. Given their very low prevalences of microfilaraemia, relatively good housing, sanitation and health care and extensive use of personal-protection measures, the 100 million Indians living in (mostly urban) moderate- and high-income areas may not require active mass drug administrations (MDA) against lymphatic filariasis. The need to develop simple methods to stratify urban areas, into those that require and those that do not require active MDA, remains. If lymphatic filariasis is to be eliminated from India in a reasonable time-frame, at least as a public-health problem, MDA should now be focused on the poorer localities.

  16. Oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city--an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Mahesh Kumar, P; Joseph, T; Varma, R B; Jayanthi, M

    2005-03-01

    India, a developing country, faces many challenges in rendering oral health needs. The majority of Indian population resides in rural areas of which more than 40% constitute children. The purpose of this study was to assess the oral health status of 5 years and 12 years school going children in Chennai city. The study population consisted of 1200 school children of both the sexes (600 private and 600 corporation school children) in 30 schools, which had been selected randomly. The survey is based on WHO, 1999 Oral Health Assessment, which has been modified by including gingival assessment, enamel opacities/ hypoplasia for 5 years. Evaluation of the oral health status of these children revealed, dental caries is the most prevalent disease affecting permanent teeth, more than primary teeth and more in corporation than in private schools, thereby, correlating with the socioeconomic status. It may be concluded that the greatest need of dental health education is at an early age including proper instruction of oral hygiene practices and school based preventive programs, which would help in improving preventive dental behaviour and attitude which is beneficial for life time.

  17. Clinical Profile of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Children Attending the Out Patient Department of a Tertiary Paediatric Care Centre in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Sarala; Sundararajan, Premkumar; Sangaralingam, Thangavelu

    2016-12-01

    The presentation of symptoms of paediatric arrhythmias vary depending on the age and underlying heart disease. Physical examination of children with important arrhythmias may be entirely normal. Aim is to study the characteristics of cardiac arrhythmias in paediatric patients in a tertiary paediatric care centre in Chennai, India. The participants (n=60) were from birth to 12 years of age. Patients with sinus arrhythmias, sinus tachycardia and sinus bradycardia were excluded. Proportions of various parameters of interest like clinical features, age and sex distribution and underlying heart disease of children presenting with cardiac arrhythmias were arrived. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0. Ventricular ectopics were the most common type of arrhythmias observed in the present study followed by Sinus Node Dysfunction (SND). The most common type of SND was sino atrial arrest. Supra ventricular tachycardia was the most frequently sustained tachyarrhythmia in the present study. An increased association of WPW (Wolf Parkinson White Syndrome) with specific congenital cardiac defects was noted. Cardiac arrhythmias in children can present at anytime from fetal life to adolescence and their recognition requires high index of suspicion. While majority of children with arrhythmias have structurally normal heart, they are frequently encountered in children with underlying heart disease. Treatment of paediatric arrhythmias should be guided by the severity of the patient, the structure and function of the heart.

  18. Clinical Profile of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Children Attending the Out Patient Department of a Tertiary Paediatric Care Centre in Chennai

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Premkumar; Sangaralingam, Thangavelu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The presentation of symptoms of paediatric arrhythmias vary depending on the age and underlying heart disease. Physical examination of children with important arrhythmias may be entirely normal. Aim Aim is to study the characteristics of cardiac arrhythmias in paediatric patients in a tertiary paediatric care centre in Chennai, India. Materials and Methods The participants (n=60) were from birth to 12 years of age. Patients with sinus arrhythmias, sinus tachycardia and sinus bradycardia were excluded. Proportions of various parameters of interest like clinical features, age and sex distribution and underlying heart disease of children presenting with cardiac arrhythmias were arrived. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0. Results Ventricular ectopics were the most common type of arrhythmias observed in the present study followed by Sinus Node Dysfunction (SND). The most common type of SND was sino atrial arrest. Supra ventricular tachycardia was the most frequently sustained tachyarrhythmia in the present study. An increased association of WPW (Wolf Parkinson White Syndrome) with specific congenital cardiac defects was noted. Conclusion Cardiac arrhythmias in children can present at anytime from fetal life to adolescence and their recognition requires high index of suspicion. While majority of children with arrhythmias have structurally normal heart, they are frequently encountered in children with underlying heart disease. Treatment of paediatric arrhythmias should be guided by the severity of the patient, the structure and function of the heart. PMID:28208963

  19. Impact of occupational health hazards on serum markers of bone formation in spray painters of Chennai region in Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Muthaiah, Vijaya Prakash Krishnan; Nathan, Abel Arul; Balakrishnan, Anandan; Rose, Rajiv; Gopalsamy, Jayaraman

    2012-01-01

    Context: The association between spray paint exposure and bone remodeling received little attention despite the high usage of spray paints in automobile industries, steel furniture workshops etc. Aim: The present study was aimed at investigating the level of serum markers of bone formation in spray painters. The spray painting subjects were selected from automobile body repair workshops in Chennai region of TamilNadu which constitutes 30% of India's automobile industry. Setting and Design: All the study subjects, exposed to spray paint were working in a workshop without standard spraying room and did not wore any aerosol removing respirator. The controls were selected from random population irrespective of occupation. Data relevant to the socioeconomic features and personal history was collected using a questionnaire. The current study included 50 spray painters and 25 control subjects of same age group. Materials and Methods: We examined the level of serum calcium, serum phosphorus, serum differentiation markers of bone such as alkaline phosphatase (bone specific) and serum osteocalcin in which these levels were found to be high in serum of spray painters. Conclusion: The current study concludes dysregulation in bone remodeling of spray painters exposed to chronic solvents and paint pigments. PMID:23580840

  20. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  1. Partridge Creek Diversion Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Goal: prevent mercury contamination by keeping the creek from flowing through a mine pit. The project improved brook trout habitat, green infrastructure, the local economy, and decreased human health risks. Includes before-and-after photos.

  2. Estimation of ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb and its dose to human beings due to consumption of marine species of Ennore Creek, South India.

    PubMed

    Musthafa, M Saiyad; Krishnamoorthy, R

    2012-10-01

    A systemic study on the natural radionuclides such as (210)Po and (210)Pb in the environmental matrices and biota of Ennore Creek has been undertaken to establish a baseline data on the radiation profile of Ennore Creek environment. The environmental samples such as water, sediment, and biota (seaweeds, molluscs, crustaceans, and fishes) have been subjected to analyses. It has been observed that the concentration of (210)Po and (210)Pb in the water samples of Ennore Creek as 2.7 and 1.63 m Bq L(-1), respectively. The activity concentration of (210)Po and (210)Pb in the sediment sample was 17.9 and 28.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The bivalve mollusk Perna viridis have been identified to accumulate higher concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb suggesting that they could serve as bioindicator of radionuclides in the Ennore Creek environment. The committed effective dose for human beings was found at 81.13-216.8 and 2.1-297.2 μSv year(-1) for (210)Po and (210)Pb, respectively.

  3. Oral Mucosal Lesions Associated with Smokers and Chewers – A Case-Control Study in Chennai Population

    PubMed Central

    Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives To determine the association of oral mucosal lesions in a group of Chennai population aged 15 years and above with smoking and chewing habits. To also determine the dose-response relationship of these habits associated with the risk of oral mucosal lesions. Materiala and Methods The study was undertaken with 450 subjects with smoking and/or chewing habits aged 15 years and over gathered through random selection in Chennai, India. Subjects with alcohol intake were excluded from the study. Based on the habits the study group was categorized into smokers, chewers and mixed (smoking+chewing). One hundred and fifty subjects diagnosed with oral mucosal lesions designated as “cases” and 300 lesion-free “controls”, frequency matched for age, sex, habit and family income were assessed during the study. The study protocol included a visual oral soft tissue examination and a questionnaire-based interview. In addition, those requiring further examination, scalpel biopsies were performed to establish a definitive diagnosis. Results Irrespective of the type of habit, 78% of cases smoked and/or chewed for more than 10 years as compared to 37.4% of the control group. Similarly, 71.3% of cases smoked and/or chewed more than 5 times per day as compared to 25.6% of the control group. Eleven habits related mucosal lesions of the oral cavity were encountered. Smoker’s melanosis was the most common oral mucosal lesion followed by Oral submucous fibrosis and Leukoplakia. Dose-response relationships were observed for both duration and frequency of habits on the risk of oral mucosal lesions. Conclusion The result of the present study provides information on the association of oral mucosal lesions in smokers, chewers and patients with mixed habits. The mucosal lesions encountered included a few potentially malignant conditions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Habits were more prevalent in men thus more lesions were encountered in males than in females

  4. Multiple micronutrient fortification of salt and its effect on cognition in Chennai school children.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Malavika Vinod; Rajagopalan, Srinivasa

    2007-01-01

    To test the efficacy of a multiple micronutrient fortified salt in improving the micronutrient status and health of school children and its effect on cognition. A salt fortified with multiple micronutrients was developed containing chelated ferrous sulphate, microencapsulated vitamin A, B1, B2, B6, B12, folic acid, niacin, calcium pantothenate and iodine. The efficacy of the fortified salt was assessed in 7-11 year old school children in Chennai, India. In the experimental group (N=63), the food in the school kitchen was cooked with the fortified salt for a period of one year. The control group (N=66) consisted of day scholars who did not eat at the school. Hemoglobin, red blood cell count, hematocrit, serum vitamin A, urinary iodine and prevalence of angular stomatitis were measured at baseline and at the end of the study after one year. A battery of 7 memory tests (The personal information test, the Mann-Suiter Visual memory screen for objects, The digit span forward test, The digit span backward test, The delayed response test, The Benton Visual Retention Test and The Cattells retentivity test), one test for attention and concentration (Letter cancellation test) and one test for intelligence (Raven's coloured progressive matrices) were administered to all the children at baseline and endline. There was a significant (p<0.05) improvement in the experimental group in hemoglobin, red cell count, urinary iodine and serum vitamin A whereas in the control group there was a statistically significant decline (p<0.05) in hemoglobin, hematocrit, red cell count and urinary iodine. Angular stomatitis was eliminated from baseline 30.4% in the experimental group whereas it increased from 3.25% to 25.5% in the control group. In 4 tests out of the 7 memory tests and in the letter cancellation test for attention, the mean increment in scores in the experimental group is significantly more (p<0.05) than the control group. There was no significant improvement in overall

  5. Soap Creek Associates NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  6. Affective journeys: the emotional structuring of medical tourism in India.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Harris

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the grid of sentiment that structures medical travel to India. In contrast to studies that render emotion as ancillary, the paper argues that affect is fundamental to medical travel's ability to ease the linked somatic, emotional, financial, and political injuries of being ill 'back home'. The ethnographic approach follows the scenes of medical travel within the Indian corporate hospital room, based on observations and interviews among foreign patients, caregivers, and hospital staff in Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, and Bangalore. Foreign patients conveyed diverse sentiments about their journey to India ranging from betrayal to gratitude, and their expressions of risk, healthcare costs, and cultural difference help sustain India's popularity as a medical travel destination. However, although the affective dimensions of medical travel promise a remedy for foreign patients, they also reveal the fault lines of market medicine in India.

  7. Severity and clustering of menopausal symptoms among obese and nonobese postmenopausal women in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharanya Shre, E. S.; Trout, Kate; Singh, Sonia Pant; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: The symptoms of menopause have a negative impact on quality of life, especially in women transitioning to menopause and earlier transitions. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect of obesity on the severity of menopausal symptoms and the clustering of symptoms in postmenopausal women in India. Methodology: The Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women of Chennai, visiting Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2013 in Chennai, India. Sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure level, menopausal history, personal health history, and hormonal disorder issues were investigated. Results: The results have shown that 24% of the participants had complaint of mild to severe hot flushes, half of them had reported heart ailments (49%; n = 74), and disturbed sleep (48%; n = 72). The proportion of overweight/obese participants was higher in married (64%) than widows (41%), and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in MRS scores of obese and nonobese postmenopausal participants. Conclusion: There is a need of developing interactive, user friendly, technology based education module for addressing the chronic ailments of postmenopausal women. PMID:27134461

  8. Severity and clustering of menopausal symptoms among obese and nonobese postmenopausal women in India.

    PubMed

    Sharanya Shre, E S; Trout, Kate; Singh, Sonia Pant; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    The symptoms of menopause have a negative impact on quality of life, especially in women transitioning to menopause and earlier transitions. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect of obesity on the severity of menopausal symptoms and the clustering of symptoms in postmenopausal women in India. The Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women of Chennai, visiting Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2013 in Chennai, India. Sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure level, menopausal history, personal health history, and hormonal disorder issues were investigated. The results have shown that 24% of the participants had complaint of mild to severe hot flushes, half of them had reported heart ailments (49%; n = 74), and disturbed sleep (48%; n = 72). The proportion of overweight/obese participants was higher in married (64%) than widows (41%), and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in MRS scores of obese and nonobese postmenopausal participants. There is a need of developing interactive, user friendly, technology based education module for addressing the chronic ailments of postmenopausal women.

  9. Chromium speciation in groundwater of a tannery polluted area of Chennai City, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A Ramesh; Riyazuddin, P

    2010-01-01

    Chromium speciation in groundwater of a tannery polluted area was investigated for the distribution of chromium species and the influence of redox couples such as Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Mn(IV)/Mn(II). Speciation analysis was carried out by ammonium pyrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC)-methylisobutylketone (MIBK) procedure. The groundwater samples were analyzed for Cr(III), Cr(VI), and Cr(III)-organic complexes. The APDC could not extract the Cr(III)-organic complexes, but HNO3 digestion of the groundwater samples released the Cr(III)-organic complexes. The groundwater of the area is relatively oxidizing with redox potential (Eh) and dissolved oxygen (DO) ranged between 65 and 299 mV and 0.25 and 4.65 mg L(-1), respectively. The Fe(II) reduction of Cr(VI) was observed in some wells, but several wells that had Fe(II)/Cr(VI) concentrations more than the stoichiometric ratio (3:1) of the reduction reaction also had appreciable concentration of Cr(VI). This could partly be due to the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) by DO. It appears that the occurrence of Mn more than the Fe(II) concentration was also responsible for the presence of Cr(VI). Other reasons could be the Fe(II) complexation by organic ligands and the loss of reducing capacity of Fe(II) due to aquifer materials, but could not be established in this study.

  10. Studies on the zooplankton biodiversity and density in Adyar estuary, Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Janakiraman, A; Janakiraman, A; Naveed, M S; Muthupriya, P; Sugumaran, J; Sheriff, M Asrar; Altaff, K

    2013-03-01

    The Adyar estuary was once known for its unique ecology and endemic flora and fauna, has lost its pristine condition due to urbanization, discharge of untreated domestic wastes, industrial effluents and encroachments. Zooplankton were monitored for a period of one year from July 2009 to June 2010, following standard methods to evaluate the seasonal variations in diversity and density in relation to environmental parameters like temperature (28.6-33.6 degrees C), salinity (23.3-30.3 per thousand), pH (7.3-7.8) and DO (4.4-7.1 mg l(-1)). Highest diversity was observed during post-monsoon (20 species) and pre-monsoon (19 species), followed by summer (9 species) and monsoon (9 species). The zooplankton density was maximum during summer (1887167 m(-3)) followed by pre-monsoon (1843832 m(-3)), post-monsoon (1153333 m(-3)) and monsoon (182334 m(-3)). Zooplankton community structure and dynamics showed a differential pattern with dominance of harpacticoids and rotifers in pre-monsoon; cyclopoids and rotifers during post-monsoon and summer. The significance of monitoring zooplankton biodiversity as a base-line study for future investigations on environmental changes in this area is discussed.

  11. Associations between Social Capital and HIV Stigma in Chennai, India: Considerations for Prevention Intervention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivaram, Sudha; Zelaya, Carla; Srikrishnan, A. K.; Latkin, Carl; Go, V. F.; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David

    2009-01-01

    Stigma against persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is a barrier to seeking prevention education, HIV testing, and care. Social capital has been reported as an important factor influencing HIV prevention and social support upon infection. In the study, we explored the associations between social capital and stigma among men and women who are…

  12. Associations between Social Capital and HIV Stigma in Chennai, India: Considerations for Prevention Intervention Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivaram, Sudha; Zelaya, Carla; Srikrishnan, A. K.; Latkin, Carl; Go, V. F.; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David

    2009-01-01

    Stigma against persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is a barrier to seeking prevention education, HIV testing, and care. Social capital has been reported as an important factor influencing HIV prevention and social support upon infection. In the study, we explored the associations between social capital and stigma among men and women who are…

  13. Oral lesions of 500 habitual psychoactive substance users in Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Thavarajah, Rooban; Rao, Anita; Raman, Uma; Rajasekaran, Saraswathi T; Joshua, Elizabeth; R, Hemalatha; Kannan, Ranganathan

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of oral lesions among 500 psychoactive substance users in a hospital-based population. The study group consisted of 500 consecutive patients attending TTK Hospital, a non-governmental organisation involved in rehabilitation of substance users. Patient history was recorded in a pre-determined format and clinical findings were recorded by a trained physician and dental surgeons. Psychoactive substances used by the patients were alcohol (97%), tobacco (72%), arecanut (57.2%), narcotics (6.8%), cannabis (3.2%) and benzodiazipines (1.8%). Ninety-one percent of patients had one or more oral lesions: dental caries (39%), gingivitis (37.6%), extrinsic stains (24%), oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) (8%), periodontitis (7.4%), leukoplakia (6.6%), melanosis (5.2%), nicotina palatini (2.2%) and erythroplakia (0.6%). For OSF, those using arecanut and alcohol had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.4 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.23-4.69, P=0.009], smokers using arecanut products and alcohol had an OR of 3.07 (95% CI 1.59-5.91, P=0.000), and smokers who chewed arecanut products and used drugs had an OR of 23.1 (95% CI 2.05-260, P=0.001) compared with the general population. Those who smoked and used alcohol, arecanut and drugs had a 20.67-fold higher risk of developing leukoplakia compared with those who did not engage in these habits. In conclusion, 91% of patients had one or more oral lesions that needed dental treatment, and most patients were not aware of their oral lesions. The high prevalence of OSF and leukoplakia in substance abusers compared with the general population emphasises the need for regular dental assessments in these patients.

  14. Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Ward W. McCaughey

    1996-01-01

    The Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, established in 1961, is representative of the vast expanses of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) found east of the Continental Divide in Montana, southwest Alberta, and Wyoming. Discrete generations of even-age lodgepole stands form a mosaic typical of the fireprone forests at moderate to high altitudes in the Northern Rocky...

  15. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

  16. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

  17. Bent Creek demonstration program

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg

    1997-01-01

    Bent Creek Research and Demonstration Forest scientists have transferred the results of research on the ecology and management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods since 1925. Since 1989, a full-time technology transfer specialist has led demonstration efforts. The demonstration program was designed to quickly transfer research results to interested users and to free...

  18. Bent Creek demonstration program

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg

    1997-01-01

    Bent Creek Research and Demonstration Forest scientists have transferred the results of research on the ecology and management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods since 1925. Since 1989, a full-time technology transfer specialist has led demonstration efforts. The demonstration program was designed to quickly transfer research results to interested users, and free-up...

  19. Trout Creek 1999 Burn

    Treesearch

    Sherel Goodrich

    2008-01-01

    A small prescribed fire near the mouth of Trout Creek in Strawberry Valley, Wasatch County, Utah, on the Uinta National Forest provided an opportunity to compare production and vascular plant composition in unburned and burned areas. At four years post burn, production of herbaceous plants was about four times greater in the burned area than in the unburned area. Most...

  20. Performance of WRF for Simulation of Mesoscale Meteorological Characteristics for Air Quality Assessment over Tropical Coastal City, Chennai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madala, Srikanth; Srinivas, C. V.; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.

    2017-09-01

    The land-sea breezes (LSBs) play an important role in transporting air pollution from urban areas on the coast. In this study, the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model is used for predicting boundary layer features to understand the transport of pollution in different seasons over the coastal region of Chennai in Southern India. Sensitivity experiments are conducted with two non-local [Yonsei University (YSU) and Asymmetric Convective Model version 2 (ACM2)] and three turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) closure [Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi and Niino Level 2.5 (MYNN2) and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) and quasi-normal scale elimination (QNSE)], planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization schemes for simulating the thermodynamic structure, and low-level atmospheric flow in different seasons. Comparison of simulations with observations from a global positioning system (GPS) radiosonde, meteorological tower, automated weather stations, and Doppler weather radar (DWR)-derived wind data reveals that the characteristics of LSBs vary widely in different seasons and are more prominent during the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons (March-September) with large horizontal and vertical extents compared to the post-monsoon and winter seasons. The qualitative and quantitative results indicate that simulations with ACM2 followed by MYNN2 and YSU produced various features of the LSBs, boundary layer parameters and the thermo-dynamical structure in better agreement with observations than other tested physical parameterization schemes. Simulations revealed seasonal variation of onset time, vertical extent of LSBs, and mixed layer depth, which would influence the air pollution dispersion in different seasons over the study region.

  1. WELCOME CREEK WILDERNESS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidke, D.J.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys indicate probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential for small amounts of gold and other metals. Areas of alluvium in Welcome Creek and in part of Rock Creek are classed as having probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for small quantities of gold in small and scattered placers and in placer tailings. A small area which contains the Cleveland mine, on Cleveland Mountain, near the west border of the wilderness was classed as having probable mineral-resource potential for silver and gold in veins. Although green mudstone strata that often are favorable hosts for stratabound copper occurrences were found in the northeast part of the wilderness, no copper deposits were found and these studies indicate little likelihood for the occurrence of copper resources. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little likelihood of the occurrence of energy resources.

  2. Water and sanitation hygiene knowledge, attitude, and practices among household members living in rural setting of India.

    PubMed

    Kuberan, Anjana; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Kasav, Jyoti Bala; Prasad, Satish; Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Upadhyay, Vandana; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-08-01

    Rural population in developing countries face water, sanitation, and hygiene-related health issues. To objectively highlight these issues, we studied the knowledge, attitude, and practices-related to drinking water and sanitation facilities among the rural population of Chennai, India. A cross-sectional study was designed involving individuals over 18 years of age living in Thandalam village, Chennai, India. Basic information about sociodemographic profile and existing drinking water and sanitation related knowledge, attitude, and practices was collected using a modified version of previously validated questionnaire and analyzed. Forty-five percent of the participants were not following any methods of water treatment and among them half of the participants felt that water available to them was clean and did not require any additional treatment. Twenty-five percent of the participants surveyed did not have access to toilets inside their household. There is a need for intervention to educate individuals about drinking water treatment methods, sanitation, and hand washing practices.

  3. Seismic site classification and site period mapping of Chennai City using geophysical and geotechnical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswari, R. Uma; Boominathan, A.; Dodagoudar, G. R.

    2010-11-01

    Subsurface conditions play a major role in the damage potential of earthquakes and the seismic soil amplification of a site which is a critical factor affecting the level of ground shaking. Shear wave velocity ( Vs) of the soil layer is an important parameter influencing the amplification behaviour of the site. Site characterization in calculating seismic hazards is usually based on the near-surface shear wave velocity values. The average shear wave velocity of the top 30 m of the soil, referred to as ( Vs) 30 is commonly adopted by competent building codes to classify the sites for earthquake resistant design of structures and in general it is widely used in microzonation studies. In the present study, the shear wave velocity of soil layers was measured at 30 locations in Chennai City by Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) test. In addition, nearly 300 borehole data were used to estimate Vs based on the correlations between Vs and SPT-N values for Chennai developed by authors earlier. Merging of MASW test results with borehole data yields sufficient coverage of Vs to develop a new site classification map for Chennai based on the NEHRP standard. It is found that part of the city belong to site D category (stiff soil). The developed site period map reveals that the fundamental site period varies in the range of 0.03 to 0.6 s, thus the soil conditions in Chennai pose a potential threat during earthquakes to low rise buildings (less than 6 storeys) which are densely distributed throughout the city.

  4. Awareness of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai: A knowledge, attitude, practice study.

    PubMed

    Preethi, S; Einstein, A; Sivapathasundharam, B

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge, attitude and practice of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 322 dental practitioners in Chennai and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Twenty-one percent of the dental practitioners did not maintain dental records in their clinic/workplace, with only 12% of the practitioners maintaining complete records. Ninety-three percent of dental practitioners were not maintaining dental records for more than seven years. The significance of ante-mortem records in identifying deceased suspects was not known to 17% of the dental practitioners. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were not aware of child abuse and the actions to be taken. Dental age estimation was not known to 41% of the dental practitioners. Thirty-eight percent of the practitioners were unaware of the accurate method of individual identification. About 18% of the dental practitioners did not know the significance of bite mark patterns of the teeth. Ninety-three percent of the practitioners lacked formal training in collecting, evaluating and presenting dental evidence. Thirty percent of dental practitioners did not know they can testify as an expert witness in the court of law. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were unaware of identifying the age and gender of an individual in mass disasters. Our study revealed inadequate knowledge, poor attitude and lack of practice of forensic odontology prevailing among the dental practitioners in Chennai.

  5. Associations Between Tobacco Marketing and Use Among Urban Youth in India

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath; Stigler, Melissa H.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To study if receptivity and exposure to tobacco marketing are correlated with tobacco use and psychosocial risk factors for tobacco use among a sample of urban Indian youth. Methods Analysis of cross sectional survey data from Project MYTRI, a group randomized intervention trial, in Delhi and Chennai, India collected from 6th and 8th graders (n=11642), in 32 schools in 2004. Results Exposure to tobacco advertisements and receptivity to tobacco marketing were significantly related to increased tobacco use among students. Conclusion This association suggests the need to strengthen policy and program-based interventions in India to reduce the influence of such exposures. PMID:18067468

  6. Organ donation after brain death in India: A trained intensivist is the key to success

    PubMed Central

    Palaniswamy, Vijayanand; Sadhasivam, Suganya; Selvakumaran, Cibi; Jayabal, Priyadharsan; Ananth, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Organ donation after brain death in India is gaining momentum but only in a few states. Tamil Nadu is leading in the country in this regard. Certain cities have performed well compared to Chennai's results. A single tertiary hospital performed 28 donations in a 17 months period with a team of an intensivist and a transplant coordinator. An intensivist needs training and interest in this noble cause. There is no formal training program in this noble cause for doctors in India. A structured formal training needs to be introduced and made mandatory for the doctors in intensive care to make this donation process a successful program. PMID:27829715

  7. Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest & Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2003-01-01

    Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest and Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed are located in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Research focuses on basic ecological processes, hydrology, disturbance regimes, and climate change in the boreal forest region. Interior Alaska lies between the Alaska Range to the south and the Brooks Range to the north and covers an area...

  8. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  9. Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water

  10. The Beaver Creek story

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, W.H.; Whitworth, B.G.; Smith, G.F.; Byl, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee includes about 95,000 acres of the Nation's most productive farmland and most highly erodible soils. In 1989 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, began a study to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality in the watershed and for best management practices designed to reduce agricultural nonpoint-source pollution. Agrichemical monitoring included testing the soils, ground water, and streams at four farm sites ranging from 27 to 420 acres. Monitoring stations were operated downstream to gain a better understanding of the water chemistry as runoff moved from small ditches into larger streams to the outlet of the Beaver Creek watershed. Prior to the implementation of best management practices at one of the farm study sites, some storms produced an average suspended-sediment concentration of 70,000 milligrams per liter. After the implementation of BMP's, however, the average value never exceeded 7,000 milligrams per liter. No-till crop production was the most effective best management practice for conserving soil on the farm fields tested. A natural bottomland hardwood wetland and a constructed wetland were evaluated as instream resource-management systems. The wetlands improved water quality downstream by acting as a filter and removing a significant amount of nonpoint-source pollution from the agricultural runoff. The constructed wetland reduced the sediment, pesticide, and nutrient load by approximately 50 percent over a 4-month period. The results of the Beaver Creek watershed study have increased the understanding of the effects of agriculture on water resources. Study results also demonstrated that BMP's do protect and improve water quality.

  11. Line Creek improves efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, P.

    1988-04-01

    Boosting coal recovery rate by 8% and reducing fuel expense $18,000 annually by replacing two tractors, are two tangible benefits that Crows Nest Resources of British Columbia has achieved since overseas coal markets weakened in 1985. Though coal production at the 4-million tpy Line Creek open pit mine has been cut 25% from its 1984 level, morale among the pit crew remains high. More efficient pit equipment, innovative use of existing equipment, and encouragement of multiple skill development among workers - so people can be assigned to different jobs in the operation as situations demand - contribute to a successful operation.

  12. Hydrology of Pine Creek, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Pine Creek, Price County, Wisconsin, in order to evaluate a proposed reservoir on Pine Creek. The streamflow characteristics estimated are the mean flows, low flows, and flood peaks. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  13. Deception Creek Experimental Forest (Idaho)

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2004-01-01

    Deception Creek Experimental Forest is located in one of the most productive forests of the Rocky Mountains. When the forest was established in 1933, large, old western white pines were important for producing lumber products, matches, and toothpicks. Deception Creek is located in the heart of the western white pine forest type, allowing researchers to focus on the...

  14. Pilot Study of Essential Drug Quality in Two Major Cities in India

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Roger; Tren, Richard; Mooney, Lorraine; Hess, Kimberly; Mitra, Barun; Debroy, Bibek; Attaran, Amir

    2009-01-01

    Background India is an increasingly influential player in the global pharmaceutical market. Key parts of the drug regulatory system are controlled by the states, each of which applies its own standards for enforcement, not always consistent with others. A pilot study was conducted in two major cities in India, Delhi and Chennai, to explore the question/hypothesis/extent of substandard and counterfeit drugs available in the market and to discuss how the Indian state and federal governments could improve drug regulation and more importantly regulatory enforcement to combat these drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings Random samples of antimalarial, antibiotic, and antimycobacterial drugs were collected from pharmacies in urban and peri-urban areas of Delhi and Chennai, India. Semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography and disintegration testing were used to measure the concentration of active ingredients against internationally acceptable standards. 12% of all samples tested from Delhi failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. 5% of all samples tested from Chennai failed either one or both tests, and were substandard. Spatial heterogeneity between pharmacies was observed, with some having more or less substandard drugs (30% and 0% respectively), as was product heterogeneity, with some drugs being more or less frequently substandard (12% and 7% respectively). Conclusions/Significance In a study using basic field-deployable techniques of lesser sensitivity rather than the most advanced laboratory-based techniques, the prevalence of substandard drugs in Delhi and Chennai is confirmed to be roughly in accordance with the Indian government's current estimates. However, important spatial and product heterogeneity exists, which suggests that India's substandard drug problem is not ubiquitous, but driven by a subset of manufacturers and pharmacies which thrive in an inadequately regulated environment. It is likely that the drug regulatory system in India needs

  15. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  17. Perceived stigma of mental illness: A comparison between two metropolitan cities in India

    PubMed Central

    Zieger, Aron; Mungee, Aditya; Schomerus, Georg; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Dettling, Michael; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; Hahn, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: An increasing number of comparative studies are conducted on the stigmatization of persons with mental illness, in particular with regard to regional and diachronic variation. So far, there have been no studies comparing stigmatization of persons with mental illness in two different regions of India. Therefore, we examined the differences in perception of stigma attached to mental illnesses in Kolkata and Chennai, with regard to cultural and geographical differences to better understand the roots and origins of this issue. Materials and Methods: Explorative surveys in the context of public attitudes toward people with mental disorders were conducted among conveniently selected members of the general population in Chennai (n = 166) and Kolkata (n = 158) with identical methodology. Link's perceived devaluation-discrimination measure was used. The samples were matched for age, gender, and education. Results: The calculated sum score indicated that respondents from Kolkata had a higher level of perceived discrimination toward persons with mental illness than respondents from Chennai (P = 0.043). Furthermore, regression analysis revealed that lower perceived stigma was associated with stronger religious devotion (P = 0.049) and higher educational attainment (P = 0.001) in both cities. Discussion: The results showed that perceived stigma was higher in Kolkata than in Chennai. The correlation of higher stigma with lower education was in line with the previous research, and interestingly, it was found that higher stigma correlated with weaker religious devotion. Further studies exploring a wider variety of factors may provide us with a better understanding of the roots of perceived stigma in India. PMID:28197001

  18. 75 FR 5631 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment... Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC, the licensee), for operation of the Wolf Creek... Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Wolf Creek Generating Station--Final Report (NUREG-1437...

  19. Numerical Simulation of Chennai Heavy Rainfall Using MM5 Mesoscale Model with Different Cumulus Parameterization Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litta, A. J.; Chakrapani, B.; Mohankumar, K.

    2007-07-01

    Heavy rainfall events become significant in human affairs when they are combined with hydrological elements. The problem of forecasting heavy precipitation is especially difficult since it involves making a quantitative precipitation forecast, a problem well recognized as challenging. Chennai (13.04°N and 80.17°E) faced incessant and heavy rain about 27 cm in 24 hours up to 8.30 a.m on 27th October 2005 completely threw life out of gear. This torrential rain caused by deep depression which lay 150km east of Chennai city in Bay of Bengal intensified and moved west north-west direction and crossed north Tamil Nadu and south Andhra Pradesh coast on 28th morning. In the present study, we investigate the predictability of the MM5 mesoscale model using different cumulus parameterization schemes for the heavy rainfall event over Chennai. MM5 Version 3.7 (PSU/NCAR) is run with two-way triply nested grids using Lambert Conformal Coordinates (LCC) with a nest ratio of 3:1 and 23 vertical layers. Grid sizes of 45, 15 and 5 km are used for domains 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The cumulus parameterization schemes used in this study are Anthes-Kuo scheme (AK), the Betts-Miller scheme (BM), the Grell scheme (GR) and the Kain-Fritsch scheme (KF). The present study shows that the prediction of heavy rainfall is sensitive to cumulus parameterization schemes. In the time series of rainfall, Grell scheme is in good agreement with observation. The ideal combination of the nesting domains, horizontal resolution and cloud parameterization is able to simulate the heavy rainfall event both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  20. Awareness of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai: A knowledge, attitude, practice study

    PubMed Central

    Preethi, S; Einstein, A; Sivapathasundharam, B

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the knowledge, attitude and practice of forensic odontology among dental practitioners in Chennai. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 322 dental practitioners in Chennai and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: Twenty-one percent of the dental practitioners did not maintain dental records in their clinic/workplace, with only 12% of the practitioners maintaining complete records. Ninety-three percent of dental practitioners were not maintaining dental records for more than seven years. The significance of ante-mortem records in identifying deceased suspects was not known to 17% of the dental practitioners. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were not aware of child abuse and the actions to be taken. Dental age estimation was not known to 41% of the dental practitioners. Thirty-eight percent of the practitioners were unaware of the accurate method of individual identification. About 18% of the dental practitioners did not know the significance of bite mark patterns of the teeth. Ninety-three percent of the practitioners lacked formal training in collecting, evaluating and presenting dental evidence. Thirty percent of dental practitioners did not know they can testify as an expert witness in the court of law. Forty percent of the dental practitioners were unaware of identifying the age and gender of an individual in mass disasters. Conclusion: Our study revealed inadequate knowledge, poor attitude and lack of practice of forensic odontology prevailing among the dental practitioners in Chennai. PMID:22408322

  1. Aerosol properties over south india during different seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaprasad, P.; Babu, C. A.; Jayakrishnan, P. R.

    Aerosols play an important role in the radiation balance and cloud properties, thereby affect the entire climatology of the earth-atmosphere system. Besides natural sources like dust, seasalt and natural sulphates, anthropogenic activities also inject aerosols like soot and industrial sulphates. Of these sea-salt and sulphates scatter the solar radiation. Soot is an absorbing aerosol while soil dust and organic matters are partly absorbing aerosols. Wind and rainfall are major factors affecting the transportation and deposition of the aerosols. India is a country blessed with plenty of monsoon rains. Winter (December to February), summer (March to May), monsoon (June to September) and post monsoon (October to November) are the four seasons over the region. Aerosol properties vary according to the season. Natural aerosols blown from the deserts have a major role in the aerosol optical depth over India. Of this, dust from Arabian desert that is carried by the winds are most important. The aerosol optical depth of south India is entirely different from that of north India. Maximum aerosol concentration is found over Gangetic plane in most of the seasons, whereas entire south India shows less aerosol optical depth. In the present study the aerosol properties of south India is analysed in general. Particular analysis is carried out for the four regions in the east and west coasts around Chennai, Kolkotha, Mumbai and Cochin. Chennai and Kolkotha are situated in the east coast whereas Cochin and Mumbai are in the west coast. These are industrial cities in India. Chennai region does not get monsoon rainfall since it is situated in the leeward side of Western ghats. But in the post monsoon season Chennai gets good amount of rainfall. Other three regions get good amount of rainfall during monsoon season. The study uses Terra MODIS, TOMS, NCEP/NCAR and TRMM data. Aerosol properties are analysed using Terra MODIS and Nimbus TOMS data. The variations of the aerosol optical

  2. Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project: Clean Creeks, Healthy Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  3. PINEY CREEK WILDERNESS, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    The Piney Creek Wilderness in southwest Missouri was investigated by geologic, geochemical, and mineral-occurrence surveys. These is no evidence of metallic mineral deposits in the rock units exposed at the surface in the wilderness, but the entire area has a probable potential for significant zinc-lead deposits at depths of several hundred feet. A probable potential also exists for a small to moderate-sized iron ore deposit at a depth of at least 2100 ft along the northwest side of the wilderness. Evaluation of these potentials would require deep drilling, and in the case of the possible iron ore deposit, a detailed magnetic survey. No energy resource potential was identified within this area.

  4. GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, Jack B.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

  5. Water, Rivers and Creeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac, Robert D.

    Luna B. Leopold's intent in Water, Rivers and Creeks was to provide a nontechnical primer on hydrology and water resources, and he succeeded admirably. The terse style is reminiscent of the mystery writer Mickey Spillane, though the content is complex science expounded in simple terms. “Part I, Hydrology and Morphology,” makes up the first two thirds of the book, and in this section, Leopold develops hydrologic and geomorphic concepts and principles using analogies with items common to any household. Garden hoses, dishpans, bath tubs, and sieves provide illuminating examples of the effects of channel storage on stream flow, water tables and the movement of groundwater, sustainable yield and the storage equation, and the infiltration/percolation process.

  6. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  7. 1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS GLACIER VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Deadwood Creek Bridge, Spanning Deadwood Creek on Mather Memorial Parkway, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  8. Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resour

  9. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...) 805-1469. Transferees: Mr. Bernard H. Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  10. SERVICE CREEK ROADLESS AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Paul W.; Kluender, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Service Creek Roadless Area, near Steamboat Springs, Colorado, was studied. Geologic mapping and geochemical sampling did not identify any mineral-resource potential in the area. No mining activity has been recorded for the area. An east-west topographic linear feature just south of Silver Creek, which contains clusters of single and multi-element anomalies of certain rare-earth and metallic minerals deserves further study.

  11. Appraisal of heavy metals in groundwater in Chennai city using a HPI model.

    PubMed

    Sajil Kumar, P J; Davis Delson, P; Thomas Babu, P

    2012-10-01

    Heavy metal contamination in Chennai city was evaluated using a heavy metal pollution index (HPI) model in conjunction with the spatial distribution maps. Metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in the groundwater were determined using standard methods and the resultant data was utilized in the development of a HPI model. The metal concentrations showed a dominance in the order of Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Cd respectively. About 14.3 % of the samples (n = 2), exhibited high HPI (>38) and the highest value, HPI = 97.55, has been recorded from Thiruvanmiyur area. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation between metals such as Cd and Cr (r = 0.606), Cd and Cu (r = 0.601), Cr and Cu (r = 0.464) and Pb and Zn (r = 0.416), suggested their common origin. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals and the HPI suggested that the SW region, especially Adyar and Thiruvanmiyur regions are highly contaminated with the metals. Industrialisation and improper waste dumping were identified as the major cause for the accumulation of metals in the groundwater of Chennai city.

  12. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  13. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  14. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have changed its name to Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC for...

  15. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida, shall open on signal, except that from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., the draw need...

  16. Delhi, India

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-01-17

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million and is located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River. This image was acquired by NASA Terra satellite on September 22, 2003.

  17. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in ruminants in different parts of India.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Ganesh G; Narnaware, Shirish D; Tripathi, Bhupendra N

    2016-03-01

    Paratuberculosis is an economically important, chronic, and incurable disease in ruminants, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Understanding the genetic variability of MAP strains is important in diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and the formation of strategies for prevention and control of the disease. In the present study, a total of 61 MAP isolates obtained from different parts and species of India were typed using IS1311 polymerase chain reaction-restriction endonuclease analysis (PCR-REA) to analyze the genetic difference(s), if any, between them and the host adaptation. Based on PCR-REA results, bison B type was detected in 54 (87%) MAP isolates obtained from cattle, sheep, and goats. Of these, 19 were from sheep of the Rajasthan (n=17) and Bareilly (n=2), North India regions, 28 were from cattle of Chennai, South India (n=3), Bareilly, North India (n=3), and Nagpur, West India (n=22), and seven goat isolates from Bareilly, North India region. The 'C' type strain was detected in only seven cattle isolates obtained from the Bareilly region. The study revealed that in India, bison B-type MAP strains were prevalent in most of the ruminant species. These results have important epidemiological implications with regard to control and prevention of paratuberculosis in India. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A new jumping spider of the genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from India (Araneae: Salticidae: Aelurillina).

    PubMed

    Caleb, John T D; Mathai, Manu Thomas

    2016-04-12

    The genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 is known from 35 species worldwide, including 27 species from Africa and eight from Asia (four species known from India, one from Iran, one from China, one from Tibet and one from Vietnam) (World Spider Catalog 2016). The four species known from India are S. albus Sebastian et al., 2015, S. jagannathae Das, Malik & Vidhel, 2015, S. lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and S. sarojinae Caleb & Mathai, 2014 (Prószyński 2015; World Spider Catalog 2016). The present paper contains description of Stenaelurillus metallicus sp. nov., discovered from scrub jungle remnants of tropical dry evergreen forests, a unique habitat found in Madras Christian College campus, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

  20. Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Dementia: Pilot Studies of Acceptability and Feasibility of Cultural Adaptation for India.

    PubMed

    Raghuraman, Shruti; Lakshminarayanan, Monisha; Vaitheswaran, Sridhar; Rangaswamy, Thara

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to culturally adapt, translate, and test the feasibility and acceptability of delivering cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) for persons with mild to moderate dementia in Chennai, India. The adaptation followed a five-stage process in accordance with the formative method for adapting psychotherapy. Focus-group discussions with experts and feedback from participants, carers, and facilitators after two consecutive pilot studies provided the basis for adaptation. Substantial modifications were required. The adapted program was found to be an acceptable, enjoyable, and constructive by participants and carers alike. CST was successfully adapted for use in South India. Translations into other Indian languages using the adapted manual are required for nation-wide implementation. Large-scale clinical trials are required to replicate global reports on the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of CST in India across different settings. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring “Wine Shops” as a Venue for HIV Prevention Interventions in Urban India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sethulakshmi; Bentley, Margaret E.; Srikrishnan, A. K.; Latkin, Carl A.; Go, Vivian F.; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing male heterosexual risk is a high priority for HIV prevention efforts in India. Particularly in urban India, which draws men for employment opportunities, these efforts are gaining momentum with a focus on understanding possible risk facilitators such as alcohol use. However, little is known about venues where such efforts might be targeted. In this paper, we explore community-based alcohol outlets or “wine shops” in Chennai, India, as potential venues. We conducted ethnographic research with wine shop staff and clients to understand alcohol use and sexual behaviors. We then surveyed 118 wine shop patrons to quantify these risk behaviors and plan an appropriate intervention. Our results show that wine shops are a venue where social and sexual networks converge. Reports and observations of regular and heavy drinking were frequent. Over 50% of patrons surveyed reported three or more sexual partners in the past 3 months, and 71% of all patrons reported a history of exchanging sex for money. Condom use history was low overall but, in the adjusted analyses, was significantly higher (OR = 20.1) among those who reported that their most recent partner was a sex worker and lower (OR = 0.28) among those who reported they drank to feel disinhibited. The data suggest that wine shops may be an appropriate location to target men for HIV prevention interventions. We discuss how these findings helped design such an intervention in Chennai. PMID:17486455

  2. Exploring "wine shops" as a venue for HIV prevention interventions in urban India.

    PubMed

    Sivaram, Sudha; Johnson, Sethulakshmi; Bentley, Margaret E; Srikrishnan, A K; Latkin, Carl A; Go, Vivian F; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

    2007-07-01

    Addressing male heterosexual risk is a high priority for HIV prevention efforts in India. Particularly in urban India, which draws men for employment opportunities, these efforts are gaining momentum with a focus on understanding possible risk facilitators such as alcohol use. However, little is known about venues where such efforts might be targeted. In this paper, we explore community-based alcohol outlets or "wine shops" in Chennai, India, as potential venues. We conducted ethnographic research with wine shop staff and clients to understand alcohol use and sexual behaviors. We then surveyed 118 wine shop patrons to quantify these risk behaviors and plan an appropriate intervention. Our results show that wine shops are a venue where social and sexual networks converge. Reports and observations of regular and heavy drinking were frequent. Over 50% of patrons surveyed reported three or more sexual partners in the past 3 months, and 71% of all patrons reported a history of exchanging sex for money. Condom use history was low overall but, in the adjusted analyses, was significantly higher (OR = 20.1) among those who reported that their most recent partner was a sex worker and lower (OR = 0.28) among those who reported they drank to feel disinhibited. The data suggest that wine shops may be an appropriate location to target men for HIV prevention interventions. We discuss how these findings helped design such an intervention in Chennai.

  3. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  4. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  5. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  6. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  7. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  8. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  9. Domestic violence and forced sex among the urban poor in South India: implications for HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Suniti; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Solomon, Sunil S; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Vasudevan, C K; Anand, Santhanam; Ganesh, Aylur K; Celentano, David D

    2009-07-01

    This article examined the prevalence of physical and sexual violence among 1,974 married women from 40 low-income communities in Chennai, India. The authors found a 99% and 75% lifetime prevalence of physical abuse and forced sex, respectively, whereas 65% of women experienced more than five episodes of physical abuse in the 3 months preceding the survey. Factors associated with violence after multivariate adjustment included elementary/middle school education and variables suggesting economic insecurity. These domestic violence rates exceed those in prior Indian reports, suggesting women in slums may be at increased risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  10. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND FORCED SEX AMONG THE URBAN POOR IN SOUTH INDIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR HIV PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Suniti; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Solomon, Sunil S.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Johnson, Sethulakshmi; Vasudevan, C. K.; Anand, Santhanam; Ganesh, Aylur K.; Celentano, David D.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the prevalence of physical and sexual violence among 1,974 married women from 40 low-income communities in Chennai, India. We found a 99% and 75% lifetime prevalence of physical abuse and forced sex, respectively, while 65% of women experienced more than five episodes of physical abuse in the three months preceding the survey. Factors associated with violence after multivariate adjustment included elementary/middle school education and variables suggesting economic insecurity. These domestic violence rates exceed those in prior Indian reports, suggesting women in slums may be at increased risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:19448166

  11. Hulburt Creek Hydrology, Southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Hulburt Creek, Sauk County, Wis., in order to evaluate a proposed reservoir. The streamflow characteristics estimated are the low flow, monthly flow, and inflow flood. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. The following estimates are for the point on Hulburt Creek at the proposed Dell Lake damsite near Wisconsin Dells. The drainage area is 11.2 square miles.

  12. Association of depression with common carotid artery intima media thickness and augmentation index in a large Urban South Indian population- The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES - 138)

    PubMed Central

    Poongothai, Subramani; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Indulekha, Karunakaran; Surendar, Jayagopi; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of depression with carotid intima media thickness and augmentation index in Asian Indians. Research Design and Methods: For this study, 1505 subjects were randomly selected from a population based study conducted in Chennai, South India. Right common carotid artery intima medial thickness [IMT] was determined using high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography. Augmentation index [AI] was measured using the Sphygmocor apparatus. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a previously validated instrument, the Patient Health Questionnaire -12 (PHQ -12). Results: Of the 1505 subjects included in this study, depressive symptoms were present in 16.6% (n = 250) of the subjects. The mean IMT and AI values among subjects with depression were significantly higher than those without depression [0.83 ± 0.43 mm vs 0.73 ± 0.12 mm, P < 0.001] and IMT was higher in females with depression while AI was higher in males with depression. However, both IMT and AI were higher among those with depression in both genders. In multiple logistic regression model, depressive symptoms were associated with IMT even after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, serum cholesterol and hypertension (Odds ratio [OR] =2.17, 95% Confidence intervals [CI]:1.01- 4.63, P = 0.047) but in the case of AI, the significance was lost in the adjusted model (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.991-1.02, P = 0.445). Conclusion: Among Asian Indians, presence of depressive symptoms was associated with carotid intima media thickness and Augmentation index, even after adjusting for potential confounders. PMID:25593841

  13. Prevalence of Sleep Abnormalities and Their Association with Metabolic Syndrome among Asian Indians: Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES – 67)

    PubMed Central

    Roopa, Mahadevan; Deepa, Mohan; Indulekha, Karunakaran; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of sleep abnormalities and their association with glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome (MS) in the normal-weight urban South Indian population. Methods This population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in 358 subjects aged 20–76 years randomly selected from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study in South India. A validated questionnaire assessing various sleep abnormalities (snoring, daytime sleepiness, lack of refreshing sleep, and number of hours of sleep) was administered. All subjects underwent an oral glucose tolerance test, and anthropometric biochemical measurements were obtained to assess cardiometabolic risk factors including glucose intolerance. Diabetes risk was assessed using a previously validated Indian Diabetes Risk Score (IDRS). Results The overall prevalence of snoring and daytime sleepiness was 40% and 59%, respectively. Snorers were more male, older, smokers, and had higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors. Subjects with daytime sleepiness had higher body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity. Both snoring (50.9% vs 30.2%, p < 0.001) and daytime sleepiness (68% vs 49.7%, p < 0.001) were more prevalent among subjects with impaired glucose metabolism compared to those with normal glucose metabolism. Both sleep measures were associated with higher diabetes risk scores, as assessed by the IDRS (snoring: trend χ2, 11.14, p = 0.001; daytime sleepiness: trend χ2, 5.12, p = 0.024). Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with snoring even after adjusting for age, sex, family history of diabetes, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol. Conclusion The prevalence of snoring and daytime sleepiness is high among urban South Indians and these two sleep measures are associated with glucose intolerance, MS, and higher diabetes risk scores. PMID:21129351

  14. Aerosol optical depth and fine mode fraction variations deduced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over four urban areas in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, S.

    2007-08-01

    Interannual and intra-annual variations in aerosol optical depths (AOD) and fine mode fraction (FMF) analyzed from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) during 2001-2005 over four urban areas in India, Chennai, Mumbai, Kolkata and New Delhi, are investigated. MODIS derived AODs and FMFs are found to compare well with in situ Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometer results over Kanpur. Monthly mean 550 nm AODs are higher than 0.30 in all the four locations and show prominent seasonal variations of summer high and winter low. FMF values are low during premonsoon and summer over Chennai, Mumbai and New Delhi, while they are 0.9 or higher over Kolkata during the entire year. AODs exhibit a positive correlation with rainfall. A strong convection in summer accompanied by a deeper boundary layer and hygroscopic growth of fine mode water soluble aerosols result in higher AODs during summer monsoon. The 5-year mean AOD is 0.4 in Chennai and Mumbai while in Kolkata and New Delhi it is >0.55. AODs <0.4 contribute 50% or more in Chennai and Mumbai, while in Kolkata and New Delhi AODs in the 0.4-0.8 range contribute higher than 50%. Variation in annual mean FMF is the lowest in Kolkata and highest in New Delhi, consistent with seasonal variations in FMF values in these locations. In Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata, FMF values >0.6 contribute higher than 75%, while over Kolkata FMF values in the 0.8-1.0 range contribute 94% which indicates the dominance of fine mode aerosols in Kolkata throughout the year.

  15. The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed

    Treesearch

    T. E. Lisle

    1979-01-01

    The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed was set up as a traditional paired watershed to investigate the effects of logging and road construction on erosion and sedimentation. Research participants have come from the California Division of Forestry, the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, the California Department of Water Resources, the California...

  16. Caspar Creek study completion report

    Treesearch

    C. S. Kabel; E. R. German

    1967-01-01

    The Department of Fish and Game assisted in an interagency study on Caspar Creek, a small coastal stream in Mendocino County. This study included the effects of logging on the stream and its population of silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdnerii).

  17. LINCOLN CREEK ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Lincoln Creek Roadless Area, Nevada was determined to have little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. Geologic terrane favorable for the occurrence of contact-metasomatic tungsten deposits exists, but no evidence for this type of mineralization was identified. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels and no other energy resources were identified.

  18. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This pamphlet describes Union Oil's shale oil project in the Parachute Creek area of Garfield County, Colorado. The oil shale is estimated to contain 1.6 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the high Mahogany zone alone. Primarily a public relations publication, the report presented contains general information on the history of the project and Union Oil's future plans. (JMT)

  19. Physico-chemical analysis of ground water samples of coastal areas of south Chennai in the post-Tsunami scenario.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, A; Mansiya, C

    2015-11-01

    The study of changes in ground water quality on the east coast of chennai due to the December 26, 2004 tsunami and other subsequent disturbances is a matter of great concern. The post-Tsunami has caused considerable plant, animal, material and ecological changes in the entire stretch of chennai coastal area. Being very close to sea and frequently subjected to coastal erosion, water quality has been a concern in this coastal strip, and especially after the recent tsunami this strip seems to be more vulnerable. In the present investigation, ten ground water samples were collected from various parts of south chennai coastal area. Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, temperature, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Dissolved oxygen (DO), total solids; turbidity and fecal coliform were analyzed. The overall Water quality index (WQI) values for all the samples were found to be in the range of 68.81-74.38 which reveals a fact that the quality of all the samples is only medium to good and could be used for drinking and other domestic uses only after proper treatment. The long term adverse impacts of tsunami on ground water quality of coastal areas and the relationships that exist and among various parameters are carefully analyzed. Local residents and corporation authorities have been made aware of the quality of their drinking water and the methods to conserve the water bodies.

  20. "Can we walk?" environmental supports for physical activity in India.

    PubMed

    Adlakha, Deepti; Hipp, J Aaron; Brownson, Ross C; A Eyler, Amy; K Lesorogol, Carolyn; Raghavan, Ramesh

    2016-09-20

    India is currently facing a non-communicable disease epidemic. Physical activity (PA) is a preventative factor for non-communicable diseases. Understanding the role of the built environment (BE) to facilitate or constrain PA is essential for public health interventions to increase population PA. The objective of this study was to understand BEs associations with PA occurring in two major life domains or life areas-travel and leisure-in urban India. Between December 2014 and April 2015, in-person surveys were conducted with participants (N=370; female=47.2%) in Chennai, India. Perceived BE characteristics regarding residential density, land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, infrastructure for walking and bicycling, aesthetics, traffic safety, and safety from crime were measured using the adapted Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-India (NEWS-India). Self-reported PA was measured the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. High residential density was associated with greater odds of travel PA (aOR=1.9, 95% CI=1.2, 3.2). Land use mix-diversity was positively related to travel PA (aOR=2.1, 95%CI=1.2, 3.6), but not associated with leisure or total PA. The aggregate NEWS-India score predicted a two-fold increase in odds of travel PA (aOR=1.9, 95% CI=1.1, 3.1) and a 40% decrease in odds of leisure PA (aOR=0.6, 95% CI=0.4, 1.0). However, the association of the aggregated score with leisure PA was not significant. Results suggest that relationships between BE and PA in low-and-middle income countries may be context-specific, and may differ markedly from higher income countries. Findings have public health implications for India suggesting that caution should be taken when translating evidence across countries.

  1. Ozone and carbon monoxide over India during the summer monsoon: regional emissions and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Narendra; Pozzer, Andrea; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Baker, Angela K.; Yoon, Jongmin; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-03-01

    We compare in situ measurements of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) profiles from the CARIBIC program with the results from the regional chemistry transport model (WRF-Chem) to investigate the role of local and regional emissions and long-range transport over southern India during the summer monsoon of 2008. WRF-Chem successfully reproduces the general features of O3 and CO distributions over the South Asian region. However, absolute CO concentrations in the lower troposphere are typically underestimated. Here we investigate the influence of local relative to remote emissions through sensitivity simulations. The influence of 50 % increased CO emissions over South Asia leads to a significant enhancement (upto 20 % in July) in upper tropospheric CO in the northern and central Indian regions. Over Chennai in southern India, this causes a 33 % increase in surface CO during June. However, the influence of enhanced local and regional emissions is found to be smaller (5 %) in the free troposphere over Chennai, except during September. Local to regional emissions are therefore suggested to play a minor role in the underestimation of CO by WRF-Chem during June-August. In the lower troposphere, a high pollution (O3: 146.4 ± 12.8, CO: 136.4 ± 12.2 nmol mol-1) event (15 July 2008), not reproduced by the model, is shown to be due to transport of photochemically processed air masses from the boundary layer in southern India. A sensitivity simulation combined with backward trajectories indicates that long-range transport of CO to southern India is significantly underestimated, particularly in air masses from the west, i.e., from Central Africa. This study highlights the need for more aircraft-based measurements over India and adjacent regions and the improvement of global emission inventories.

  2. RICHLAND CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic and mineral surveys, Richland Creek Roadless Area, Arkanses, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources, gas and oil, or oil shale. The Boone Formation of Mississippian age and the Everton Formation of Ordovician age, both known to contain zinc and lead deposits in northern Arkansas, underlie the roadless area. The presence or absence of zinc and lead deposits in these formations in the subsurface can be neither confirmed nor ruled out without exploratory drilling. Most of the Richland Creek Roadless Area is under lease for oil and gas; however two wells drilled near the eastern boundary of the area did not show contained gas or oil.

  3. Oral Health Related Quality of Life among Tamil Speaking Adults Attending a Dental Institution in Chennai, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Appukuttan, Deva Priya; Tadepalli, Anupama; Victor, Dhayanand John; Dharuman, Smriti

    2016-10-01

    Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) indicates an individual's perception of how their well-being and quality of life is influenced by oral health. It facilitates treatment planning, assessing patient centred treatment outcomes and satisfaction. The study aimed to identify the factors influencing OHRQoL among Tamil speaking South Indian adult population. Non-probability sampling was done and 199 subjects aged 20-70 years were recruited for this observational study. The subjects were requested to fill a survey form along with the validated Tamil General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Tml) questionnaire in the waiting area following which clinical examination was done by a single experienced Periodontist. The mean score with standard deviation for physical dimension was 4.34±0.96, psychological dimension was 4.03±1.13 and pain was 4.05±1.09 on GOHAI. Greater impacts were seen for psychosocial dimensions like pleased with the appearance of teeth/denture Q7 (3.7±1.2), worried about the problems with teeth/denture Q9 (3.7±1) and pain or discomfort in teeth Q12 (3.8±1). Functions like swallowing Q3 (4.5±0.8) and speaking Q4 (4.6±0.7) were minimally affected. As age increased subjects perceived more negative impacts as indicated by lower ADD-GOHAI and higher SC-GOHAI scores (p<0.01). Subjects complaining of bad breath, bleeding gums and Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) problems, reported poor OHRQoL (p<0.05). It was observed that as self-perceived oral and general health status deteriorated, OHRQoL also worsened (p<0.01). Subjects with missing teeth, cervical abrasion, restorations, gingival recession and mobility had more impacts on OHRQoL (p<0.05). Subjects diagnosed with periodontitis had lower OHRQoL as reported on the scale than gingivitis subjects (p<0.01). In this study minimal impact was seen in all the three dimensions assessed with GOHAI. Factors like age, education, employment status, income, self-reported oral health, self-perceived general health, satisfaction with oral health, perceived need for treatment and denture wearing status influenced perceived OHRQoL. Bad breath, bleeding gums, TMJ problems, more number of missing teeth, decayed teeth, cervical abrasion, gingival recession and mobility were associated with poor OHRQoL.

  4. Biomarkers of metal toxicity and histology of Perna viridis from Ennore estuary, Chennai, south east coast of India.

    PubMed

    Arockia Vasanthi, Lourduraj; Revathi, Peranandam; Arulvasu, Chinnasamy; Munuswamy, Natesan

    2012-10-01

    Distribution of heavy metals and its associated histological perturbations were studied in the soft tissues of Perna viridis collected from Ennore estuary and compared with the less polluted Kovalam coast. The concentration of copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, manganese and iron were quantified in gills, digestive gland and adductor muscle. The results showed marked differences between the two sites as well as significant variations within the tissues. Among the heavy metals analyzed, lead and cadmium recorded very low in the soft tissues of mussel. Heavy metal levels in tissues of mussel collected from Ennore estuary were in the order of gills>digestive gland>adductor muscle, while it was digestive gland>gills>adductor muscle in the mussel sampled from Kovalam coast. The decreasing trend of metals in the tissues of mussels sampled from both Ennore estuary and Kovalam coast was in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. Overall, the highest metal concentrations were found in the mussel collected from Ennore estuary. The metal accumulation in the gills and digestive gland of Perna viridis was found to be quite high in comparison with the adductor muscle. These soft tissues were further investigated by light microscopy and the results were compared with the reference site (Kovalam coast). These results suggest that thickening of the digestive epithelium, hemocytic infiltration in the gills and myodegeneration in the muscle tissue are useful histological biomarkers for heavy metal induced stress, and demonstrate that precautions need to be taken in Ennore estuary in order to prevent heavy metal pollution that can occur in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Mobile Phones in Social and Economic Development: The Case of Female Microentrepreneurs in Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Han Ei

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation participates in the grand debate on whether ideas or technology change social structures that affect the lives of individuals. At its broadest and based on its findings, this dissertation makes the argument that neither ideas nor technology takes precedence. While technology can drive economic and social changes, it cannot do so…

  6. The Effects of Mobile Phones in Social and Economic Development: The Case of Female Microentrepreneurs in Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Han Ei

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation participates in the grand debate on whether ideas or technology change social structures that affect the lives of individuals. At its broadest and based on its findings, this dissertation makes the argument that neither ideas nor technology takes precedence. While technology can drive economic and social changes, it cannot do so…

  7. Oral Health Related Quality of Life among Tamil Speaking Adults Attending a Dental Institution in Chennai, Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Tadepalli, Anupama; Victor, Dhayanand John; Dharuman, Smriti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) indicates an individual’s perception of how their well-being and quality of life is influenced by oral health. It facilitates treatment planning, assessing patient centred treatment outcomes and satisfaction. Aim The study aimed to identify the factors influencing OHRQoL among Tamil speaking South Indian adult population. Materials and Methods Non-probability sampling was done and 199 subjects aged 20-70 years were recruited for this observational study. The subjects were requested to fill a survey form along with the validated Tamil General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-Tml) questionnaire in the waiting area following which clinical examination was done by a single experienced Periodontist. Results The mean score with standard deviation for physical dimension was 4.34±0.96, psychological dimension was 4.03±1.13 and pain was 4.05±1.09 on GOHAI. Greater impacts were seen for psychosocial dimensions like pleased with the appearance of teeth/denture Q7 (3.7±1.2), worried about the problems with teeth/denture Q9 (3.7±1) and pain or discomfort in teeth Q12 (3.8±1). Functions like swallowing Q3 (4.5±0.8) and speaking Q4 (4.6±0.7) were minimally affected. As age increased subjects perceived more negative impacts as indicated by lower ADD-GOHAI and higher SC-GOHAI scores (p<0.01). Subjects complaining of bad breath, bleeding gums and Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) problems, reported poor OHRQoL (p<0.05). It was observed that as self-perceived oral and general health status deteriorated, OHRQoL also worsened (p<0.01). Subjects with missing teeth, cervical abrasion, restorations, gingival recession and mobility had more impacts on OHRQoL (p<0.05). Subjects diagnosed with periodontitis had lower OHRQoL as reported on the scale than gingivitis subjects (p<0.01). Conclusion In this study minimal impact was seen in all the three dimensions assessed with GOHAI. Factors like age, education, employment status, income, self-reported oral health, self-perceived general health, satisfaction with oral health, perceived need for treatment and denture wearing status influenced perceived OHRQoL. Bad breath, bleeding gums, TMJ problems, more number of missing teeth, decayed teeth, cervical abrasion, gingival recession and mobility were associated with poor OHRQoL. PMID:27891472

  8. Otter Creek Wilderness, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Warlow, R.C.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Otter Creek Wilderness conducted in 1978 resulted in the determination of demonstrated coal resources estimated to total about 24 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick and an additional 62 million short tons of coal in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick. There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  9. LUSK CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ILLINOIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, John S.; Thompson, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping and geochemical sampling show that the eastern third of the Lusk Creek Roadless Area in Illinois has a substantiated resource potential for fluorspar, lead, zinc, and barite, and other parts of the area have a probable resource potential for fluorspar. Fluorspar, which occurs along fault zones in the eastern part of the area, has been produced in the adjacent Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district. There is little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources.

  10. A descriptive profile of abused female sex workers in India.

    PubMed

    Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A K; Zelaya, Carla; Solomon, Suniti; Go, Vivian F; Celentano, David

    2010-06-01

    This descriptive study presents the profiles of abused female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. Of 100 abused FSWs surveyed using a structured questionnaire, severe forms of violence by intimate partners were reported by most (98%) respondents. Of the total sample, 76% experienced violence by clients. Sexual coercion experiences of the FSWs included verbal threats (77%) and physical force (87%) by intimate partners and forced unwanted sexual acts (73%) by clients. While 39% of the women consumed alcohol before meeting a client, 26% reported that their drunkenness was a trigger for violence by clients. The findings suggest that there is an urgent need to integrate services, along with public-health interventions among FSWs to protect them from violence. Recognition of multiple identities of women in the contexts of intimate relationships versus sex work is vital in helping women to stay safe from adverse effects on health.

  11. A Descriptive Profile of Abused Female Sex Workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Srikrishnan, A.K.; Zelaya, Carla; Solomon, Suniti; Go, Vivian F.; Celentano, David

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study presents the profiles of abused female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. Of 100 abused FSWs surveyed using a structured questionnaire, severe forms of violence by intimate partners were reported by most (98%) respondents. Of the total sample, 76% experienced violence by clients. Sexual coercion experiences of the FSWs included verbal threats (77%) and physical force (87%) by intimate partners and forced unwanted sexual acts (73%) by clients. While 39% of the women consumed alcohol before meeting a client, 26% reported that their drunkenness was a trigger for violence by clients. The findings suggest that there is an urgent need to integrate services, along with public-health interventions among FSWs to protect them from violence. Recognition of multiple identities of women in the contexts of intimate relationships versus sex work is vital in helping women to stay safe from adverse effects on health. PMID:20635631

  12. Elder mistreatment in urban India: a community based study.

    PubMed

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan; Lee, Alex E Y

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the extent and correlates of elder mistreatment among 400 community dwelling older adults aged 65 and above in Chennai, India. The prevalence rate of mistreatment was 14%. Chronic verbal abuse was the most common followed by financial abuse and the rate of physical abuse and neglect was similar. Among the mistreated, exactly half of them had experienced more than one type of mistreatment (multifaceted-mistreatment). With the exception of financial abuse, a significantly greater number of women experienced verbal and physical abuse as well as neglect compared to men. Adult children, daughters-in-law, spouses, and sons-in-law were the prominent perpetrators. The mistreated older adults were more depressed and less satisfied with life than those who were not mistreated. Logistic regression analysis revealed gender, social support, and subjective rating of physical health as significant factors associated with abuse.

  13. Floods in Starkweather Creek basin, Madison, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Carl L.; Holmstrom, Barry K.

    1972-01-01

    The reaches evaluated are (1) Starkweather Creek and West Branch Starkweather Creek, for a distance of 6.0 river miles from the mouth at Lake Monona upstream to the U.S. Highway 51 crossing north of Truax Field; and (2) East Branch Starkweather Creek (2.8 river miles), from its confluence with the West Branch near Milwaukee Street upstream to a point near the Interstate Highway 90-94 crossing.

  14. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  15. Contamination by trace elements at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

    PubMed

    Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Agusa, Tetsuro; Ramu, Karri; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Murata, Satoko; Bulbule, Keshav A; Parthasaraty, Peethmbaram; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-06-01

    The recycling and disposal of electronic waste (e-waste) in developing countries is causing an increasing concern due to its effects on the environment and associated human health risks. To understand the contamination status, we measured trace elements (TEs) in soil, air dust, and human hair collected from e-waste recycling sites (a recycling facility and backyard recycling units) and the reference sites in Bangalore and Chennai in India. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Bi were higher in soil from e-waste recycling sites compared to reference sites. For Cu, Sb, Hg, and Pb in some soils from e-waste sites, the levels exceeded screening values proposed by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Concentrations of Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, In, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb and Bi in air from the e-waste recycling facility were relatively higher than the levels in Chennai city. High levels of Cu, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sb, Tl, and Pb were observed in hair of male workers from e-waste recycling sites. Our results suggest that e-waste recycling and its disposal may lead to the environmental and human contamination by some TEs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on TE contamination at e-waste recycling sites in Bangalore, India.

  16. 77 FR 56238 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Application for Amendment... Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems with ADAMS, please... Commission (NRC or the Commission) has granted the request of Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (the...

  17. Coop Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Co-op Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, no date, Zion National Park collection - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Co-op Creek Bridge, Spanning Co-op Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  18. 3. Threequarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center facing southwest - Oak Creek Administrative Center, One half mile east of Zion-Mount Carmel Highway at Oak Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  19. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  20. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  1. 1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the Oregon coast, view looking east - Rocky Creek Bridge, Spanning Rocky Creek on Oregon Coast Highway (U.S. Route 101), Depoe Bay, Lincoln County, OR

  2. Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  3. Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  4. 7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative number 1485, classification series 002, 12. - Floor of the Valley Road, Cable Creek Bridge, Spanning Cable Creek on Floor of Valley, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  5. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  6. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  7. Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  8. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  9. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  10. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  11. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  12. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  13. 2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING SIMPSON CREEK BRIDGE WITH BRIDGEPORT LAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING SIMPSON CREEK BRIDGE WITH BRIDGEPORT LAMP AND CHIMNEY COMPANY IN BACKGROUND. - Bridgeport Lamp Chimney Company, Simpson Creek Bridge, Spanning Simpson Creek, State Route 58 vicinity, Bridgeport, Harrison County, WV

  14. 2. View of Clear Creek Bridge railing and understructure, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Clear Creek Bridge railing and under-structure, looking northwest. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, 62-foot Concrete Arch Pine Creek Bridge, Spanning Clear Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  15. 121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water to the Keswick ditch, supplying Volta powerhouse. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 235). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  16. 6. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing bushhammered, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing bush-hammered, recessed panels in fascia wall - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  17. 5. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing articulated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing articulated fascia walls - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  18. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

  19. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  4. 2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY AND WHITE MOUNTAINS IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH LAKE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an urban population: The Chennai Glaucoma Study.

    PubMed

    Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; Asokan, Rashima; Velumuri, Lokapavani; Ramesh, Sathyamangalam Ve

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an urban south Indian population. Population-based cross-sectional study. Exactly 3850 subjects aged 40 years and above from Chennai city were examined at a dedicated facility in the base hospital. All subjects had a complete ophthalmic examination that included best-corrected visual acuity. Low vision and blindness were defined using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The influence of age, gender, literacy, and occupation was assessed using multiple logistic regression. Chi-square test, t-test, and multivariate analysis were used. Of the 4800 enumerated subjects, 3850 subjects (1710 males, 2140 females) were examined (response rate, 80.2%). The prevalence of blindness was 0.85% (95% CI 0.6-1.1%) and was positively associated with age and illiteracy. Cataract was the leading cause (57.6%) and glaucoma was the second cause (16.7%) for blindness. The prevalence of low vision was 2.9% (95% CI 2.4-3.4%) and visual impairment (blindness + low vision) was 3.8% (95% CI 3.2-4.4%). The primary causes for low vision were refractive errors (68%) and cataract (22%). In this urban population based study, cataract was the leading cause for blindness and refractive error was the main reason for low vision.

  6. Efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolated from sand dunes of Chennai coastal area.

    PubMed

    Muthezhilan, R; Sindhuja, B S; Hussain, A Jaffar; Jayaprakashvel, M

    2012-08-15

    Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial bacteria that colonize the plant root and enhance the plant growth. The use of PGPR is steadily increasing in agriculture and offers an attractive way to replace chemical fertilizers, pesticides and supplements. In the present study, PGPR were isolated from 18 different rhizosphere soil samples of coastal sand dune plants, belonging to the genus Ipomoea sp. collected from the Chennai coastal area. For isolation of bacteria from soil samples, pour plate technique was followed. The rhizobacterial population was ranged from 4.4 x 10(6)-7.5 x 10(7) CFU g(-1). From that, 46 morphologically different bacterial strains were isolated. Among 46, 18 strains exhibited the production of Indole Acetic Acid. (IAA). When screened for phosphate solubilzing activity, six strains showed maximum activity. All these selected six strains were screened for seed germination among which these two strains (AMET1136 and AMET 1148) showed remarkable increase in the seed germination of black gram and green gram. For plant growth promotion, three types of treatments namely, seed bacterization, soil drenching and mixed (seed+soil) were carried out to check the potential of these two strains. Among that one strain which was identified as Pseudomonas sp. AMET1148 showed remarkable and significant increase in shoot length and root length of the tested plants. The study concluded that PGPR from coastal sand dund plants can be developed as plant growth promoters in agricultural crops.

  7. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an urban population: The Chennai Glaucoma Study

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, Lingam; George, Ronnie; Asokan, Rashima; Velumuri, Lokapavani; Ramesh, Sathyamangalam Ve

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in an urban south Indian population. Settings and Design: Population-based cross-sectional study. Exactly 3850 subjects aged 40 years and above from Chennai city were examined at a dedicated facility in the base hospital. Materials and Methods: All subjects had a complete ophthalmic examination that included best-corrected visual acuity. Low vision and blindness were defined using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. The influence of age, gender, literacy, and occupation was assessed using multiple logistic regression. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, t-test, and multivariate analysis were used. Results: Of the 4800 enumerated subjects, 3850 subjects (1710 males, 2140 females) were examined (response rate, 80.2%). The prevalence of blindness was 0.85% (95% CI 0.6–1.1%) and was positively associated with age and illiteracy. Cataract was the leading cause (57.6%) and glaucoma was the second cause (16.7%) for blindness. The prevalence of low vision was 2.9% (95% CI 2.4–3.4%) and visual impairment (blindness + low vision) was 3.8% (95% CI 3.2–4.4%). The primary causes for low vision were refractive errors (68%) and cataract (22%). Conclusions: In this urban population based study, cataract was the leading cause for blindness and refractive error was the main reason for low vision. PMID:23619490

  8. A study on stroke victims in Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, Chennai.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Dipti; Revathy, S

    2013-10-01

    Stroke is a devastating and disabling cerebrovascular disease with some amount of residual deficit leading onto economic loss. Recent Indian studies have shown a stroke prevalence rate of 471.58 / 1,00,000 population. This study was undertaken to analyse the clinical profile and to arrive at important facts contributing to stroke in both the sexes. This is a descriptive, retrospective cross-sectional study carried out on acute stroke patients, admitted to the I.I.M., RGGGH, Chennai. 150 patients were studied over a period of 3 months in the year 2011. 58% males and 42% females constituted our study population. Among males 18.4% and among females 22.2% were young stroke patients. Only 33.3% of patients were brought to the hospital within 6 hours. 90% patients had mild GCS score(> or =13/15) and presented with hemiplegia. 76% and 18% had infarct and intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) respectively. Type A personality (70.7%), Tobacco (60.7%) and Alcohol (44.7%) abuse, Systemic Hypertension (60.7%), Diabetes Mellitus (33.3%), Cardiac disorders (14%). Significant proportion of Cerebrovascular accidents(CVA) was seen in the young females. Type A personality was seen in large number of study subjects. Personal habits in males and chronic comorbid illness in females had a strong association with occurrence of stroke. A holistic approach encompassing public awareness, behavioural modification and comorbid medical illness management is the need of the hour.

  9. Status of respirable dust particle (RDP) concentration--a case study in Chennai city.

    PubMed

    Senthilnathan, T

    2005-06-01

    Air pollution has been aggravated by developments that typically occur, as countries become industrialised and higher levels of energy consumption. Respirable dust particles (RDP) is a general term for tiny air borne particles (under 10 microns PM 10) and it is categorised as critical primary air pollutant. Finer particulate matter less than 10 micron size have been identified as potential health hazard for human beings. A case study was carried out to assess RDP concentration present in the ambient air in Chennai city during the year 2000-2002. The study was conducted at Theagaraya nagar (T. Nagar), a most important commercial shopping place. The observed RDP concentrations are made statistical analysis and a high value of 607.1 microg/m(3) is recorded during October 2001. It is also found that 90% of the observed values exceed the recommended values of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The important finding of this research work is that the RDP data collected every year from this sampling station were found to give best fit for cubic equations which are very useful for analysing future trends.

  10. Personal Air Pollution Exposure Monitoring using Low Cost Sensors in Chennai City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy Yasa, Pavan; Shiva, Nagendra S. N.

    2016-04-01

    Air quality in many cities is deteriorating due to rapid urbanization and motorization. In the past, most of the health impacts studies in the urban areas have considered stationary air quality monitoring station data for health impact assessment. Since, there exist a spatial and temporal variation of air quality because of rapid change in land use pattern and complex interaction between emission sources and meteorological conditions, the human exposure assessment using stationary data may not provide realistic information. In such cases low cost sensors monitoring is viable in providing both spatial and temporal variations of air pollutant concentrations. In the present study an attempt has been made to use low cost sensor for monitoring the personal exposure to the two criteria pollutants CO and PM2.5 at 3 different locations of Chennai city. Maximum and minimum concentrations of CO and PM2.5 were found to be 5.4ppm, 0.8ppm and 534.8μg/m3, 1.9μg/m3 respectively. Results showed high concentrations near the intersection and low concentrations in the straight road.

  11. Diversity and community structure of butterfly of Arignar Anna Zoological Park, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, T; Sekar, M; Manimozhi, A; Baskar, N; Archunan, G

    2011-03-01

    Investigation was carried out on the diversity of butterfly fauna in selected localities of conservation and breeding center of Arignar Anna Zoological Park (AAZP), Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Atotal of 56 species were recorded, 15 of them belonged to Pieridae, 12 Nymphalidae, 9 Satyridae, 8 Papilionidae, 7 Danaidae, 3 Lycaenidae and 1 species each belonged to the families Acraeidae and Hesperidae. Qualitatively and quantitatively Pieridae family were comparatively dominant than that of other families. The notable addition to the 25 more species listed during this observation were compared to previous field survey. Comparison of butterfly species distribution between the different localities revealed that butterfly species richness was higher at mountain region with 52 species and lowest of 25 species at public visiting areas. Visitor's activities may be that reason for effects on butterfly distribution and lack of vegetation. Each five endemic and protected species (i.e. endangered) listed under the Wildlife (Protection)Act were highlighted greater conservation importances of the AAZP. It is suggest that butterfly species diversity generally increase with increase in vegetation and declines with the increase in disturbance.

  12. The social impact of HIV/AIDS in India.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S; Kumarasamy, N; Challacombe, S J

    2016-04-01

    This paper is based on the last public lecture given by Dr Solomon at the 7th World Workshop on Oral Health & Disease in HIV/AIDS, held in Hyderabad, India, in November 2014. It examines the social impact of HIV in India and the founding of the Y.R. Gaitonde Center for AIDS Research and Education (YRG CARE) clinic in Chennai, India, by Dr Suniti Solomon and her colleagues. This is a story of prejudice and ignorance throughout the various social levels in India. Reports of India's first AIDS case surfaced in 1986, when female sex workers were found to be HIV positive. The first voluntary counseling and testing center, part of a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic, was set up to increase awareness about the epidemic. To address the rapid spread of HIV infection in Tamil Nadu and the existing stigma in society and hospitals, Dr Solomon established YRG CARE in 1993. She recognized that fear and panic about HIV led to widespread social prejudice against HIV-positive patients, even within hospitals. By the end of 2014, over 34 000 patients had accessed these services and 20 000 HIV+ patients had been registered, nearly 40% of whom were females. The team embarked on a statewide awareness program on HIV and sexuality, covering over two hundred schools and colleges educating them about prevention strategies and combating the social stigma attached. The grass-root work of YRG CARE in the management of HIV infections revealed a widespread prejudice, due largely to the lack of awareness about the subject. It is estimated that even in 2015, as little as 40% of HIV-infected people are formally diagnosed and have access to care. In a country as socially and culturally diverse as India, there is much more to be carried out to build on the pioneering work of Dr Solomon. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from major metropolitan cities in India.

    PubMed

    Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Someya, Masayuki; Sudaryanto, Agus; Isobe, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Shin; Chakraborty, Paromita; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out to understand the current contamination status of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in human breast milk from three metropolitan cities in India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata). Among the OCs analyzed, DDTs were predominant followed by HCHs and PCBs. CHLs and HCB levels were much lower. Contamination patterns were different in human milk found in our previous study in Chennai, a metropolitan city in southern India, indicating region specific exposure routes and variable sources. In comparison with previous data, levels of DDTs and HCHs generally declined with time, implying the effect of various bans and restrictions on their usage. No association between concentrations of OCs and demographic characteristics such as parity and age of mothers was observed which might be due to narrow range of mother's age. Estimated daily intake shows that some infants are exposed to OCs to a greater extent, particularly HCHs than the guideline standard.

  14. Development of particulate matter speciation profiles for major sources in six cities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Rashmi S.; Kumar, Rakesh; Menon, Ratish; Shah, Munna Kumar; Sethi, Virendra

    2013-10-01

    A nationwide study was carried out to develop air pollution source profiles specific to India. Chemical speciation profiles are reported for 27 major non-vehicular sources of particulate matter (combustion and non-combustion) in six cities in India viz. Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Kanpur, Mumbai and Pune. PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected from these sources using three different modes of sampling viz. dilution, resuspension and source dominated sampling, depending on the nature of the source. Filter samples were analyzed for mass by gravimetric analysis, elements by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), water soluble ions by ion chromatography and elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) by thermal/optical reflectance. Reported profiles include 39 elements, 12 ions, EC and OC. Developed profiles are compared with similar profiles that have been reported previously.

  15. Hemoglobin Disorders in South India

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, Vani; Soni, Mamta

    2011-01-01

    Cation exchange-high performance liquid chromatography (CE-HPLC) is increasingly being used as a first line of investigation for hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias. Together with a complete blood count, the CE-HPLC is effective in categorizing hemoglobinopathies as traits, homozygous disorders and compound heterozygous disorders. We carried out a one year study in Apollo Hospitals, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, South India) during which 543 abnormal chromatogram patterns were seen. The commonest disorder we encountered was β-thalassemia trait (37.9%), followed by HbE trait (23.2%), homozygous HbE disease (18.9%), HbS trait (5.3%), HbE β-thalassemia (4.6%), HbS β-thalassemia (2.5%), β-thalassemia major (2.3%), HbH (1.6%), homozygous HbS (1.4%), HbD trait (0.7%). The average value of HbA2 in β-thalassemia minor was 5.4%. β-thalassemia major had an average HbF of 88% and in HbH the mean A2 was 1.4%. Among the HbE disorders the HbA2 + HbE was 30.1% in the heterozygous state, 90.8% in the homozygous state and 54.8% in HbE β-thalassemia. In the sickle cell disorders, HbS varied from 30.9% in the trait to 79.9% in the homozygous state to 65.6% in HbS β-thalassemia. PMID:22084704

  16. SANDY CREEK ROADLESS AREA, MISSISSIPPI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    The Sandy Creek Roadless Area includes about 3. 7 sq mi in the southeastern part of Adams County, Mississippi. On the basis of a mineral survey, the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources but has a probable resource potential for oil and natural gas. It is possible that wells drilled deep enough to penetrate the older reservoirs will encounter significant quantities of oil and natural gas in the roadless area. The deposits of gravel, sand, and clay present in the area could be utilized in the construction industry, but similar deposits elsewhere are much closer to available markets.

  17. KANAB CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Kanab Creek Roadless Area in north-central Arizona has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium and copper in four small areas around five collapse structures. Gypsum is abundant in layers along the canyon rim of Snake Gulch, but it is a fairly common mineral in the region outside the roadless area. There is little promise for the occurence of fossil fuels in the area. Studies of collapse structures in surrounding adjacent areas might reveal significant mineralization at depth, such as the recent discovery of the uranium ore body at depth in the Pigeon Pipe.

  18. 33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Curtis Creek. 117.557 Section 117.557 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695 bridge...

  19. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  20. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  1. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  2. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile 0...

  3. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  4. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  5. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  6. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  7. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  8. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile...

  9. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  10. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  11. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  12. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  13. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  14. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  15. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  16. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  17. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  18. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  19. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  20. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  1. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  2. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  3. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the...

  4. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  5. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  6. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  7. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  8. "Visit to Caspar Creek, northern California"

    Treesearch

    Nick Schofield

    1989-01-01

    As part of a brief study tour in California, I had the good fortune of spending a very pleasant day on the Caspar Creek watershed, ably guided by Peter Cafferata and Liz Keppeler. Amongst the many notable achievements of the Caspar Creek Study is its longevity. The study started in 1962 and has evolved over time

  9. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  10. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  11. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  12. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  13. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  14. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  15. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  16. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  18. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  19. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  20. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  1. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  2. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  3. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  4. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  5. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  6. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  7. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  8. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  9. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  10. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  11. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  12. 33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacheco Creek. 117.185 Section 117.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County highway bridge, mile 1.0,...

  13. 33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spa Creek. 117.571 Section 117.571 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at...

  14. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  15. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  16. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  17. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  18. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  19. Analysis and Assessment of Tidal Flood Potential at Different Locations in the East Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagawati, Chirantan; Shaileshbhai Patel, Ramkrushnbhai; Pandey, Suchita; Chakraborty, Arun; Jayanarayanan, Kuttippurath

    2016-04-01

    Sea water inundation has always remained a major problem for human civilization in coastal regions. Increase in the frequency of severe to very severe cyclones in Bay of Bengal has made the Eastern Coast of India highly vulnerable for sea water inundation. Tidal effect has a significant contribution to coastal inundation. Wood (1976) proposed a Combined Astronomical Meteorological Index (CAMI) to quantify the risk of tidal flooding due to astronomical tides as well as meteorological parameters. This study deals with the analysis of major tidal components and the changes in sea level as observed from the tidal gauge records of Visakhapatnam, Chennai and Ennore situated in the East Coast of India. The study envisages to analyse (1) tidal characteristics observed at different stations by using Harmonic analysis, (2) to synthesise the missing tidal information using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and wavelet analyses, (3) to quantify the diurnal as well as seasonal trends in sea level, and (4) to assess the tidal flooding potential at the sites by using the CAMI under different meteorological conditions. The harmonic analysis of Visakhapatnam, Chennai and Ennore shows that Principal Lunar Semidiurnal (M2) is dominant tidal constituent in all three stations. The Form Number (FN) obtained for Visakhapatnam (17.69N 83.27E), Chennai (13.08N 80.29E) and Ennore (13.25N 80.33E) are 0.14, 0.29 and 0.33 respectively. FN of these stations indicates semidiurnal nature of tide in Visakhapatnam and mixed tide in Chennai and Ennore. The monthly fluctuations of sea level in Visakhapatnam from January to July 2014 show that the sea level tends to decrease at a rate of 0.2 m from January to March and then it starts to rise upto May with a similar rate. The network prediction finds high correlation (R=0.9684) between the observed and the target values of ANN. Finally, we also assess the coastal vulnaberility by tidal flooding at the time of perigean spring tide based on the sea level

  20. Trends of particulate matter in four cities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Indrani; Kumar, Rakesh

    Particulate matter (PM) in all the four Metropolitan cities in India are higher than the prescribed standards of Central Pollution Control Board, India as well as WHO guidelines. Over last 10 years various changes in fuel quality, vehicle technologies, industrial fuel mix and domestic fuel mix have taken place resulting in changes in air quality in these cities. A set of time series analysis methods viz. t-test adjusted for seasonality, Seasonal Kendall test and Intervention analysis have been applied to identify and estimate the trend in PM 10 and total suspended particles (TSP) levels monitored for about 10 years at three monitoring sites at each of the four cities in India. These tests have indicated that overall PM 10 levels in all four metro cities have been decreasing or stationary. The distinct trends for the monthly averages of PM 10 concentrations at Parel, Kalbadevi in Mumbai and Thiruvattiyar in Chennai for the period 1993-2003 were declining by 10%, 6% and 5% per annum, respectively. This is ascribed to a shift in the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions in the city. However, the monthly averages of TSP do not have a clear trend over the period 1991-2003.

  1. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  2. Tsunami: India

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Breaking Tsunami Waves along India's Eastern Coast     ... called "tsunamis" from the Japanese for "harbor waves." The tsunami moved rapidly across the deep ocean, with speeds estimated around 640 ...

  3. India: Bihar

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ...     View Larger Image Scientists studying satellite data have discovered an immense wintertime pool ... of India. The MISR observations, however, show the pollution lies much farther north. While high pollution levels were found over much ...

  4. Seismic Hazard Analysis Using the Adaptive Kernel Density Estimation Technique for Chennai City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanna, C. K.; Dodagoudar, G. R.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional method of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) using the Cornell-McGuire approach requires identification of homogeneous source zones as the first step. This criterion brings along many issues and, hence, several alternative methods to hazard estimation have come up in the last few years. Methods such as zoneless or zone-free methods, modelling of earth's crust using numerical methods with finite element analysis, have been proposed. Delineating a homogeneous source zone in regions of distributed seismicity and/or diffused seismicity is rather a difficult task. In this study, the zone-free method using the adaptive kernel technique to hazard estimation is explored for regions having distributed and diffused seismicity. Chennai city is in such a region with low to moderate seismicity so it has been used as a case study. The adaptive kernel technique is statistically superior to the fixed kernel technique primarily because the bandwidth of the kernel is varied spatially depending on the clustering or sparseness of the epicentres. Although the fixed kernel technique has proven to work well in general density estimation cases, it fails to perform in the case of multimodal and long tail distributions. In such situations, the adaptive kernel technique serves the purpose and is more relevant in earthquake engineering as the activity rate probability density surface is multimodal in nature. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) obtained from all the three approaches (i.e., the Cornell-McGuire approach, fixed kernel and adaptive kernel techniques) for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years is around 0.087 g. The uniform hazard spectra (UHS) are also provided for different structural periods.

  5. A cross-sectional study on oral health status of battery factory workers in Chennai city.

    PubMed

    Raj, J Babu Susai; Gokulraj, Sabitha; Sulochana, Konthoujam; Tripathi, Vivek; Ronanki, Susanthi; Sharma, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Some occupational exposures are associated with oral changes in both hard and soft tissues. Presence of oral lesions can interfere with speech, swallowing, and general health of a patient. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the oral health status of battery factory workers in Chennai city. A total of 600 subjects were selected in battery factory out of 3500 workers using statistical sample selection formula 4pq/l(2) and divided into study and control groups based on acid exposure. The data were recorded on a modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The data were evaluated using Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test. A total of 600 subjects were selected in battery factory out of 3500 workers using statistical sample selection formula 4pq/l(2) and divided into study and control groups based on acid exposure. The data were recorded on a modified World Health Organization 1997 pro forma. The data were evaluated using Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Oral symptoms such as disturbed taste, dry mouth, oral ulcers, and foul breath were statistically significant between the groups (<0.001). Dental erosion was statistically significant with the duration of working years. Dental erosion was significant among study group compared to control (0.001). The present study showed that selected samples had various oral conditions due to exposure to acids from battery. It was observed that oral health problems were directly related to the duration of acid exposure in the study group. Implementing exhaust ventilation and monitoring the devices help in reducing the acid exposure. Implementation of oral hygiene education and nutritional supplementation helps in improving their oral health.

  6. Computer Vision Syndrome and Associated Factors Among Medical and Engineering Students in Chennai

    PubMed Central

    Logaraj, M; Madhupriya, V; Hegde, SK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Almost all institutions, colleges, universities and homes today were using computer regularly. Very little research has been carried out on Indian users especially among college students the effects of computer use on the eye and vision related problems. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) among medical and engineering students and the factors associated with the same. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical and engineering college students of a University situated in the suburban area of Chennai. Students who used computer in the month preceding the date of study were included in the study. The participants were surveyed using pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results: Among engineering students, the prevalence of CVS was found to be 81.9% (176/215) while among medical students; it was found to be 78.6% (158/201). A significantly higher proportion of engineering students 40.9% (88/215) used computers for 4-6 h/day as compared to medical students 10% (20/201) (P < 0.001). The reported symptoms of CVS were higher among engineering students compared with medical students. Students who used computer for 4-6 h were at significantly higher risk of developing redness (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-3.1,P = 0.04), burning sensation (OR = 2.1,95% CI = 1.3-3.1, P < 0.01) and dry eyes (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-2.9, P = 0.02) compared to those who used computer for less than 4 h. Significant correlation was found between increased hours of computer use and the symptoms redness, burning sensation, blurred vision and dry eyes. Conclusion: The present study revealed that more than three-fourth of the students complained of any one of the symptoms of CVS while working on the computer. PMID:24761234

  7. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  8. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND TREE. RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  9. 78 FR 76750 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA AGENCY... (BNSF) Chambers Creek Railway Bridge across Chambers Creek, mile 0.0, at Steilacoom, WA. The deviation... Bridge across Chambers Creek, mile 0.0, near Steilacoom, WA. The ] bridge provides 50 feet of vertical...

  10. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT P STREET BEND, FROM 1940 REPORT ON PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT OF ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY, SECTION II (ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY FILE, HISTORY DEPARTMENT ARCHIVES, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, WASHINGTON, DC). - Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT (TAILRACE IN FOREGROUND), BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT ABOVE AND BEHIND BUILDING 106. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  12. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  13. India Basin 900 Innes Remediation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lower Walnut Creek Restoration Project will restore and enhance coastal wetlands along southern shoreline of Suisun Bay from Suisun Bay upstream along Walnut Creek, improving habitat quality, diversity, and connectivity along three miles of creek channel.

  14. Flood of August 27-28, 1977, West Cache Creek and Blue Beaver Creek, southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corley, Robert K.; Huntzinger, Thomas L.

    1979-01-01

    This report documents a major storm which occurred August 27-28, 1977, in southwest Oklahoma near the communities of Cache and Faxon, OK. Blue Beaver Creek and West Cache Creek and their tributaries experienced extensive flooding that caused an estimated $1 million in damages. Reported rainfall amounts of 8 to 12 inches in 6 hours indicate the storm had a frequency in excess of the 100-year rainfall. Peak discharges on Blue Beaver Creek near Cache and West Cache Creek near Faxon were 13,500 cubic feet per second and 45,700 cubic feet per second respectively. The estimated flood frequency was in excess of 100 years on Blue Beaver Creek and in excess of 50 years on West Cache Creek. Unit runoff on small basins were in excess of 2000 cubic feet per second per square mile. Surveyed highwater marks were used to map the flooded area. (USGS)

  15. Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

  16. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park...

  17. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  18. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  19. Water and sanitation hygiene knowledge, attitude, and practices among household members living in rural setting of India

    PubMed Central

    Kuberan, Anjana; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Kasav, Jyoti Bala; Prasad, Satish; Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Upadhyay, Vandana; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rural population in developing countries face water, sanitation, and hygiene-related health issues. To objectively highlight these issues, we studied the knowledge, attitude, and practices-related to drinking water and sanitation facilities among the rural population of Chennai, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed involving individuals over 18 years of age living in Thandalam village, Chennai, India. Basic information about sociodemographic profile and existing drinking water and sanitation related knowledge, attitude, and practices was collected using a modified version of previously validated questionnaire and analyzed. Results: Forty-five percent of the participants were not following any methods of water treatment and among them half of the participants felt that water available to them was clean and did not require any additional treatment. Twenty-five percent of the participants surveyed did not have access to toilets inside their household. Conclusion: There is a need for intervention to educate individuals about drinking water treatment methods, sanitation, and hand washing practices. PMID:26604623

  20. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Proctor Creek Watershed/Atlanta (Georgia)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proctor Creek Watershed/Atlanta (Georgia) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  2. News and Updates from Proctor Creek

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains news and updates from the Proctor Creek Urban Waters Partnership location. They span ongoing projects, programs, and initiatives that this Atlanta-based partnership is taking on in its work plan.

  3. Proctor Creek Boone Boulevard Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Proctor Creek watershed and community, green infrastructure, the Boone Boulevard Green Street Project Conceptual Design, and the added value and application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to the project.

  4. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible to...

  5. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible to...

  6. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible to...

  7. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  8. 33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels. ...

  9. 33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels. ...

  10. 33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels. ...

  11. Update on the Caspar Creek watershed study

    Treesearch

    Peter Cafferata

    1987-01-01

    Readers of this Newsletter are aware that CDF and the USFS, through its Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Stationa at Arcata (PSW), are carrying out a long term cooperative watershed experiment in JDSF's Caspar Creek drainage.

  12. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  13. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  14. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  15. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  16. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  17. 33 CFR 117.736 - Oceanport Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.736 Oceanport Creek. The drawspan for the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations Drawbridge, mile 8.4 near Oceanport, must open on signal...

  18. 33 CFR 117.736 - Oceanport Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.736 Oceanport Creek. The drawspan for the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations Drawbridge, mile 8.4 near Oceanport, must open on signal...

  19. Sensitivity of WRF model estimates to various PBL parameterizations in different climatic zones over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunwani, Preeti; Mohan, Manju

    2017-09-01

    In the present work sensitivity of Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) Model has been carried out using five planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes - Yonsei University Scheme (YSU), Mellor-Yamada-Janjić scheme (MYJ), Aymmetric Convective Model version 2 (ACM2), Quasi Normal Scale Elimination scheme (QNSE), Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino scheme (MYNN) in different climatic zones over India namely Tropical, Temperate and Arid for surface meteorological parameters, upper air variables and planetary boundary layer height during summer and winter season. The model outputs have been compared with observations through standard statistical measures. The aim is to study the relative performance of these schemes, selecting the best option climatic zone-wise and thereby minimizing uncertainty in model predictions. WRF model performance evaluation shows better agreement for temperature and relative humidity compared to wind speed. Overall for India, ACM2, QNSE show good performance for temperature and relative humidity whereas ACM2, MYNN show better performance for wind speed though these may vary for different climatic zones. Geopotential height and wind over 850 hPa is well simulated by ACM2 and MYNN over India. For PBL height ACM2, MYNN and MYJ works best for Chennai, New Delhi and Kolkata respectively during summer period. However, for winter period MYJ works best for Chennai while, QNSE works best for New Delhi and Kolkata. Considering all meteorological parameters together, it is seen that for arid zone ACM2, QNSE and MYJ schemes work reasonably well. For temperate zone, ACM2, QNSE and MYNN schemes show better results. For tropical zone all PBL schemes work closely. Hence, depending on the application, parameter and climate zone, this study provides suitable recommendations for choosing PBL schemes appropriately for each zone and parameter separately for the Indian region.

  20. A dolichopodid hotspot: Montana's Milligan Creek Canyon

    Treesearch

    Justin B. Runyon

    2016-01-01

    In southwest Montana, near the town of Three Forks, Milligan Creek cuts a small and seemingly mundane notch through dry limestone hills. Milligan Creek is unassuming and small enough to be effortlessly stepped over in most places. In fact, it flows underground for much of its 4-5 mile journey to the Jefferson River. Incredibly, forty-nine species of long-legged flies (...

  1. Molecular characterization of Vibrio cholerae outbreak strains with altered El Tor biotype from southern India

    PubMed Central

    Jain, M.; Kumar, P.; Jiang, S. C.

    2009-01-01

    Forty-four Vibrio cholerae isolates collected over a 7-month period in Chennai, India in 2004 were characterized for gene traits, antimicrobial susceptibility and genomic fingerprints. All 44 isolates were identified as O1 El Tor Ogawa, positive for various toxigenic and pathogenic genes viz. ace, ctxB, hlyA, ompU, ompW, rfbO1, rtx, tcpA, toxR and zot. Nucleotide sequencing revealed the presence of cholera toxin B of classical biotype in all the El Tor isolates, suggesting infection of isolates by classical CTXΦ. Antibiogram analysis showed a broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance that was also confirmed by the presence of resistant genes in the genomes. All isolates contained a class 1 integron and an SXT constin. However, isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol and tested negative for the chloramphenicol resistant gene suggesting a deletion in SXT constin. Fingerprinting analysis of isolates by ERIC- and Box PCR revealed similar DNA patterns indicating the clonal dissemination of a single predominant V. cholerae O1 strain throughout the 2004 outbreak in Chennai. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11274-009-0171-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20495624

  2. Creek Women and the "Civilizing" of Creek Society, 1790-1820.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Jane E.

    Women in traditional Creek society, while making few decisions in the public domain, held almost absolute power in the domestic realm. When a Creek couple married, the husband moved into his wife's house and lived among her clan, her matrilineal kin. The house, household goods, fields, and children belonged to her. Boys were educated by their…

  3. 75 FR 10328 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No. NPF-42, which... those previously imposed by Commission orders issued after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001...

  4. 4. O'BRIAN CANAL/SECOND CREEK INTERSECTION Second Creek is in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. O'BRIAN CANAL/SECOND CREEK INTERSECTION Second Creek is in the foreground; the O'Brian Canal is in the background; vicinity of East 112th Avenue and Potomac Road in Adams County - O'Brian Canal, South Platte River Drainage Area Northest of Denver, Brighton, Adams County, CO

  5. Prevention of Diabetes in Rural India with a Telemedicine Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Viswanathan; Deepa, Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Prathiba, Venkat; Datta, Manjula; Sethuraman, Ravikumar; Rakesh, Hari; Sucharita, Yarlagadda; Webster, Premila; Allender, Steven; Kapur, Anil; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes care is not presently available, accessible, or affordable to people living in rural areas in developing countries, such as India. The Chunampet Rural Diabetes Prevention Project (CRDPP) was conceived with the aim of implementing comprehensive diabetes screening, prevention, and treatment using a combination of telemedicine and personalized care in rural India. Methods This project was undertaken in a cluster of 42 villages in and around the Chunampet village in the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. A telemedicine van was used to screen for diabetes and its complications using retinal photography, Doppler imaging, biothesiometry, and electrocardiography using standardized techniques. A rural diabetes center was set up to provide basic diabetes care. Results Of the total 27,014 adult population living in 42 villages, 23,380 (86.5%) were screened for diabetes, of which 1138 (4.9%) had diabetes and 3410 (14.6%) had prediabetes. A total of 1001 diabetes subjects were screened for complications (response rate of 88.0%). Diabetic retinopathy was detected in 18.2%, neuropathy in 30.9%, microalbuminuria in 24.3%, peripheral vascular disease in 7.3%, and coronary artery disease in 10.8%. The mean hemoglobin A1c levels among the diabetes subjects in the whole community decreased from 9.3 ± 2.6% to 8.5 ± 2.4% within 1 year. Less than 5% of patients needed referral for further management to the tertiary diabetes hospital in Chennai. Conclusions The Chunampet Rural Diabetes Prevention Project is a successful model for screening and for delivery of diabetes health care and prevention to underserved rural areas in developing countries such as India. PMID:23294780

  6. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Management of asthma at private pharmacies in India.

    PubMed

    Van Sickle, D

    2006-12-01

    Chennai, India. To examine the medications and advice that retail pharmacy attendants recommend to customers presenting with typical symptoms of asthma in an urban area of India. Four simulated clients described symptoms of mild persistent asthma to a quota sample of pharmacies in ten areas of the city. Clients recorded consultations with attendants and purchased a sample of the recommended medications. A total of 52 shops were visited on 56 occasions. Shopkeepers offered 140 medications during the consultations, and clients purchased a sample of 100 medications (71%). Four shops (7%) refused to sell any medications. Attendants recommended oral bronchodilators during 26 (50%) consultations, antibiotics during 23 (44%), methylxanthines during 22 (42%) and oral corticosteroids during 20 (38%). No inhaled medications were ever recommended. The majority of the medications purchased were missing information about dosage (concentration), date of expiry and active ingredients. Thirteen (24%) of 54 attendants advised the clients to seek medical attention. The majority of individuals presenting with asthma symptoms did not receive appropriate advice or medications from pharmacy attendants. Efforts to raise the quality of asthma management in developing countries should include interventions to improve pharmacy-guided self-medication.

  8. Historical pollution trends in coastal environments of India.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, R; Purvaja, R; Ramesh, S; James, R A

    2002-10-01

    Seventeen sediment cores were collected from different coastal ecosystems of Tamil Nadu, India that include coastal lagoon (Pulicat), polluted rivers in Chennai (Adyar and Cooum), Coral reef (Gulf of Mannar) and a perennial river (Tamiraparani). Radiometric dating has been used to determine the modern sedimentation rates in these ecosystems. The Pulicat Lake and the polluted rivers (Adyar and Cooum) yield an average sediment accumulation rate of 12.34 and 7.85 mm yr(-1), respectively. In the Gulf of Mannar coral reef, the sedimentation rate averages 17.37 mm yr(-1), while the rate in Tamiraparani River is 11.00 mm yr(-1). In the Tamiraparani River basin, the deposition rates were an order of magnitude higher when compared to the erosion rates, which may be due to bank erosion and the intense human activity. In general high rates of sedimentation observed in the coastal ecosystems not only reflect the capacity of the coastal regions as sinks for trace metals but also denote increased input of pollutants into the coastal environments in the recent past. The deposition rates of heavy metals--Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni in the depth profiles have been computed using sedimentation rates and their distribution is discussed. It can be seen that the mean deposition rates of all the measured elements in the Tamil Nadu coastal ecosystems are high compared with rates determined for the sediments of the deltaic regions of India and the Bay of Bengal.

  9. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  10. Detection of Toxocara eggs in contaminated soil from various public places of Chennai city and detailed correlation with literature.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Divyamol; Jeyathilakan, N

    2014-06-01

    Toxocarosis is one of the most prevalent human helminthosis caused by larvae of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, the most widely distributed nematode parasites of dogs and cats respectively. Soil is considered as the principal source of transmission of Toxocara infection to human beings. With increasing population of dogs and cats, soil contamination with ova or eggs of Toxocara can be detected in public and private locations of city backyards, playgrounds, streets, sand pits and so on, regardless of the season of the year. In this context the present study was carried out to estimate the extent of soil contamination with Toxocara eggs in public parks, playgrounds and few kennels situated in different parts of Chennai city. A total of 105 soil samples from 40 public places and 5 kennels were screened for the presence of parasitic eggs. Toxocara eggs were recovered from 5 soil samples indicating an overall prevalence rate of 4.75 %. Out of 80 samples collected from public places, three samples, one each from Mogappair, My lady park (Periamet) and Madras Veterinary College showed the presence of Toxocara spp. eggs indicating an overall prevalence of 3.75 per cent. Out of the 25 samples from 5 kennels, two samples one each from Tambaram and Thorappakkam kennels were positive for Toxocara eggs with prevalence of 8 per cent. Low prevalence of Toxocara eggs in soil samples of these areas can be attributed to the less population of pups, the carriers of adult worms and the active source of soil contamination. The progress made in ABC (animal birth control) programme carried out by both governmental and non-governmental organizations has contributed to reduction of birth rate in dogs and thereby reduced the chances of soil contamination with Toxocara eggs to a certain extent in Chennai city.

  11. CO2 Emissions from Direct Energy Use of Urban Households in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sohail; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Creutzig, Felix

    2015-10-06

    India hosts the world's second largest population and offers the world's largest potential for urbanization. India's urbanization trajectory will have crucial implications on its future GHG emission levels. Using household microdata from India's 60 largest cities, this study maps GHG emissions patterns and its determinants. It also ranks the cities with respect to their household actual and "counter-factual" GHG emissions from direct energy use. We find that household GHG emissions from direct energy use correlate strongly with income and household size; population density, basic urban services (municipal water, electricity, and modern cooking-fuels access) and cultural, religious, and social factors explain more detailed emission patterns. We find that the "greenest" cities (on the basis of household GHG emissions) are Bareilly and Allahabad, while the "dirtiest" cities are Chennai and Delhi; however, when we control for socioeconomic variables, the ranking changes drastically. In the control case, we find that smaller lower-income cities emit more than expected, and larger high-income cities emit less than expected in terms of counter-factual emissions. Emissions from India's cities are similar in magnitude to China's cities but typically much lower than those of comparable U.S. cities. Our results indicate that reducing urban heat-island effects and the associated cooling degree days by greening, switching to modern nonsolid cooking fuels, and anticipatory transport infrastructure investments are key policies for the low-carbon and inclusive development of Indian cities.

  12. Dataset on the importation of the exotic shrimp Penaeus vannamei broodstock (Boone, 1931) to India.

    PubMed

    Remany, M C; Kirubagaran, R; Cyriac, Daly; Varadaraju, P Krishnakanth; Prem O C, Sruthi; Panda, A K; Kumar, Jaideep

    2017-04-01

    Penaeus vannamei is an exotic shrimp species that has gained high culture momentum, since its introduction to India [1]. Currently, the culture of the species in the Country is being done by the shrimp farmers by importation of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) vannamei broodstock from approved suppliers, which are located overseas. The value of one brooder normally ranges from 50 to 61 US $, excluding the custom duty, processing fee and other charges for the transboundary shipment of the stock to India. The P. vannamei stock are permitted to be imported to the Country by the hatchery operators only through the single declared port of entry, i.e. Chennai in Tamil Nadu in the Country. The imported parent shrimps are then to be quarantined at the Aquatic Quarantine Facility before being transported to the vannamei hatcheries [2]. This article reports the data available on import of vannamei broodstock to India since its importation to India in 2009. The dataset presented here contains information on transit and quarantine mortality of the brooders following the shipment of the stock by the various broodstock suppliers from the overseas.

  13. Cache Creek ocean: Closure or enclosure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Joanne; Mihalynuk, Mitch

    1993-02-01

    Exotic Tethyan faunas within the Cache Creek terrane contrast markedly with faunas and lithologic associations in the adjacent Quesnel and Stikine terranes. In northern British Columbia and southeast Yukon, all three terranes are enveloped in the north by pericontinental rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, a geometry that imposes severe constraints on terrane assembly models for the northern Canadian Cordillera. Our solution to the problem invokes a northern join between the Stikinia and Quesnellia arcs through the Yukon-Tanana terrane, forming an orocline that encloses the Cache Creek terrane. This model involves (1) collision of a linear oceanic plateau at the cusp between Quesnellia and Stikinia, (2) anticlockwise rotation of Stikinia about an axis in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, (3) simultaneous enclosure of the Cache Creek ocean, and (4) emplacement of Quesnellia onto the margin of ancestral North America and the Cache Creek terrane onto Stikinia during final closure of the orocline. Early Mesozoic Paleomagnetic declinations in Stikinia are permissive of the large anticlockwise rotations predicted by the model. Similar large-scale rotations and ocean-basin enclosure are common features in the southwest Pacific. This model accounts for Paleozoic and younger linkages between Yukon-Tanana and both northern Stikinia and Quesnellia, the striking similarity between Triassic-Jurassic arcs east and west of the Cache Creek terrane, and the profound early Mesozoic deformational event in the Yukon-Tanana terrane.

  14. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine hydrologic connectivity within Pipestem Creek, North Dakota, with a watershed dominated by prairie potholes. During a decadal period of wet conditions, Pipestem Creek contained evaporated water that had approximately half the isotopic evaporative enrichment signal found in most evaporated permanent wetlands. If evaporation was mainly occurring within the stream, we expected the evaporation signal to increase from the headwaters with distance downstream. However, the signal either remained similar or decreased downstream over the two years of sampling. Groundwater measured at the water table adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporation. Using isotopic theory and discharge data, we estimated the surface area of open water necessary to generate the evaporation signal found within Pipestem Creek over time. The range of evaporating surface-area estimates was highly dynamic, spanning from 43 to 2653 ha and varying primarily with discharge. The average value (just over 600 ha) was well above the surface area of Pipestem Creek network (245 ha). This estimate of contributing area indicated that Prairie Pothole wetlands were important sources of stream fl

  15. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity within the Pipestem Creek watershed, North Dakota, a watershed dominated by prairie-pothole wetlands. During a wetter-than-normal decade, Pipestem Creek exhibited an evaporated-water signal that had approximately half the isotopic-enrichment signal found in most evaporatively enriched pothole wetlands. If evaporation was mainly occurring within the stream, we expected the evaporation signal to increase from upstream towards downstream. However, the signal either remained similar or decreased downstream over the two years of sampling. Groundwater measured at the water table adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporative enrichment. Using isotopic theory and discharge data, we estimated the surface area of open water necessary to generate the evaporation signal found within Pipestem Creek over time. The range of evaporating surface-area estimates was highly dynamic, spanning from 35 to 2380 ha of open water contributing to streamflow over time, and varied primarily with the amount of discharge. The median value (417 ha) was well above the surface area of the Pipestem Creek network (245 ha), and only two periods

  16. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  17. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. FIDDLER CREEK POLYMER AUGMENTATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

    2001-10-31

    The Fiddler Creek field is in Weston County, Wyoming, and was discovered in 1948. Secondary waterflooding recovery was started in 1955 and terminated in the mid-1980s with a fieldwide recovery of approximately 40%. The West Fiddler Creek Unit, the focus of this project, had a lower recovery and therefore has the most remaining oil. Before the project this unit was producing approximately 85 bbl of oil per day from 20 pumping wells and 17 swab wells. The recovery process planned for this project involved adapting two independent processes, the injection of polymer as a channel blocker or as a deep-penetrating permeability modifier, and the stabilization of clays and reduction of the residual oil saturation in the near-wellbore area around the injection wells. Clay stabilization was not conducted because long-term fresh water injection had not severely reduced the injectivity. It was determined that future polymer injection would not be affected by the clay. For the project, two adjoining project patterns were selected on the basis of prior reservoir studies and current well availability and production. The primary injection well of Pattern 1 was treated with a small batch of MARCIT gel to create channel blocking. The long-term test was designed for three phases: (1) 77 days of injection of a 300-mg/l cationic polyacrylamide, (2) 15 days of injection of a 300-mg/l anionic polymer to ensure injectivity of the polymer, and (3) 369 days of injection of the 300-mg/l anionic polymer and a 30:1 mix of the crosslinker. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted as planned. Phase 3 was started in late March 1999 and terminated in May 2001. In this phase, a crosslinker was added with the anionic polymer. Total injection for Phase 3 was 709,064 bbl. To maintain the desired injection rate, the injection pressure was slowly increased from 1,400 psig to 2,100 psig. Early in the application of the polymer, it appeared that the sweep improvement program was having a positive effect on Pattern 1

  20. 17. View from Sterling Creek Marsh looking west, with berm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View from Sterling Creek Marsh looking west, with berm to the left and Henry Ford Mansion in the far background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  1. 8. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking northeast across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking northeast across the berm with the marsh to the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  2. 10. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking south with house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking south with house in the background and marsh in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  3. 9. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest, with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest, with the marsh in the background and the berm in the foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  4. 14. View of Sterling Creek Marsh east across the marsh, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of Sterling Creek Marsh east across the marsh, with canal in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  5. 12. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast across marsh, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast across marsh, with canal in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  6. 3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of dam/bridge looking southwest - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  7. 4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of the dam/bridge looking east - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  8. Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241-mile transmission corridor extending between the Big Creek Hydroelectric System in the Sierra National Forest in Fresno County and the Eagle Rock Substation in Los Angeles, California, Visalia, Tulare County, CA

  9. Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway / Waterside Drive Sycamore and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway / Waterside Drive Sycamore and White Ash Trees, Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, median between northbound and southbound lanes near the Waterside Drive exit and entrance ramps., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view looking north - Oregon Electric Railroad, Fanno Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 34.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  11. 13. VIEW FROM CEDAR MILL CREEK TRESTLE NEAR MERLO ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW FROM CEDAR MILL CREEK TRESTLE NEAR MERLO ROAD TOWARD TRESTLE ON SPUR TRACK OVER CEDAR MILL CREEK, FACING NORTHEAST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Between Watson & 185th Avenues, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  12. 1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, AND FROM SANTA ANA RIVER THROUGH TUNNEL #0 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. 14. VIEW OF CEDAR MILL CREEK TRESTLE FROM TRESTLE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF CEDAR MILL CREEK TRESTLE FROM TRESTLE OVER CEDAR MILL CREEK ON SPUR LINE, FACING SOUTHWEST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Between Watson & 185th Avenues, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  14. 5. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west (Diversion into Irrigation District canal) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  15. 15. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second floor support beams. - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  16. 1. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking south, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking south, with road in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  17. 12. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing floor joist and support beams - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  18. 5. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking northwest showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of Sterling Creek lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  19. 13. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of Sterling Creek lettuce shed showing second floor window sill - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  20. 8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF KILLBUCK CREEK TAKEN FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF KILLBUCK CREEK TAKEN FROM THE BRIDGE DECK SHOWING THE SECOND OR THIRD GROWTH SPROUT. - Madison County Bridge 90, Spanning Killbuck Creek on County Road No. 600, Moonville, Madison County, IN