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Sample records for creek mercury issues

  1. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David B.; Brooks, Scott C.; Mathews, Teresa J.; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; DeRolph, Chris; Brandt, Craig C.; Peterson, Mark J.; Ketelle, Richard

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year research project undertaken to better understand the nature and magnitude of mercury (Hg) fluxes in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). This project addresses the requirements of Action Plan 1 in the 2011 Oak Ridge Reservation-wide Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Five Year Review (FYR). The Action Plan is designed to address a twofold 2011 FYR issue: (1) new information suggests mobilization of mercury from the upper and lower EFPC streambeds and stream banks is the primary source of mercury export during high-flow conditions, and (2) the current Record of Decision did not address the entire hydrologic system and creek bank or creek bed sediments. To obtain a more robust watershed-scale understanding of mercury sources and processes in lower EFPC (LEFPC), new field and laboratory studies were coupled with existing data from multiple US Department of Energy programs to develop a dynamic watershed and bioaccumulation model. LEFPC field studies for the project focused primarily on quantification of streambank erosion and an evaluation of mercury dynamics in shallow groundwater adjacent to LEFPC and potential connection to the surface water. The approach to the stream bank study was innovative in using imagery from kayak floats’ surveys from the headwaters to the mouth of EFPC to estimate erosion, coupled with detailed bank soil mercury analyses. The goal of new field assessments and modeling was to generate a more holistic and quantitative understanding of the watershed and the sources, flux, concentration, transformation, and bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg). Model development used a hybrid approach that dynamically linked a spreadsheet-based physical and chemical watershed model to a systems dynamics, mercury bioaccumulation model for key fish species. The watershed model tracks total Hg and MeHg fluxes and concentrations by examining upstream inputs, floodplain

  2. Mercury accumulation in biota of Thunder Creek, Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, D.J.; Gummer, W.D.

    1980-12-01

    Collection of biological organisms was undertaken to investigate the bioaccumulation of mercury in the food chain, the results of which are reported. Two sites were selected on Thunder Creek; the control or background site, site number 2, is located approximately 2.5 km upstream, from site number 1. The selection of organisms for analysis was based on the presence and abundance of each at both locations. Only crayfish (Orconcetes virilis) pearl dace (Semotilus margarita) and brook stickleback (Culaea inconstans) were found to be sufficiently abundant. The importance of the data obtained is the significant difference in concentration between the upstream and downstream sites on Thunder Creek. This difference shows that more mercury is available to the biological community at site number 1 than at site number 2 confirming that mercury in the contaminated sediments is being methylated and taken up into the food chain.

  3. Bioavailability of mercury in East Fork Poplar Creek soils

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, M.O.; Turner, R.R.

    1995-05-01

    The initial risk assessment for the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a superfund site heavily contaminated with mercury, was based upon a reference dose for mercuric chloride, a soluble mercury compound not expected to be present in the floodplain, which is frequently saturated with water. Previous investigations had suggested mercury in the EFPC floodplain was less soluble and therefore less bioavailable than mercuric chloride, possibly making the results of the risk assessment unduly conservative. A bioavailability study, designed to measure the amount of mercury available for absorption in a child`s digestive tract, the most critical risk endpoint and pathway, was performed on twenty soils from the EFPC floodplain. The average percentage of mercury released during the study for the twenty soils was 5.3%, compared to 100% of the compound mercuric chloride subjected to the same conditions. Alteration of the procedure to test additional conditions possible during soil digestion did not appreciably alter the results. Therefore, use of a reference dose for mercuric chloride in the EFPC risk assessment without inclusion of a corresponding bioavailability factor may be unduly conservative.

  4. Sources of Mercury to East Fork Poplar Creek Downstream from the Y-12 National Security Complex: Inventories and Export Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, George R; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Peterson, Mark J; Lowe, Kenneth Alan; Ketelle, Richard H; Floyd, Stephanie B

    2010-02-01

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been heavily contaminated with mercury (also referred to as Hg) since the 1950s as a result of historical activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and hereinafter referred to as Y-12). During the period from 1950 to 1963, spills and leaks of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) contaminated soil, building foundations, and subsurface drainage pathways at the site, while intentional discharges of mercury-laden wastewater added 100 metric tons of mercury directly to the creek (Turner and Southworth 1999). The inventory of mercury estimated to be lost to soil and rock within the facility was 194 metric tons, with another estimated 70 metric tons deposited in floodplain soils along the 25 km length of EFPC (Turner and Southworth 1999). Remedial actions within the facility reduced mercury concentrations in EFPC water at the Y-12 boundary from > 2500 ng/L to about 600 ng/L by 1999 (Southworth et al. 2000). Further actions have reduced average total mercury concentration at that site to {approx}300 ng/L (2009 RER). Additional source control measures planned for future implementation within the facility include sediment/soil removal, storm drain relining, and restriction of rainfall infiltration within mercury-contaminated areas. Recent plans to demolish contaminated buildings within the former mercury-use areas provide an opportunity to reconstruct the storm drain system to prevent the entry of mercury-contaminated water into the flow of EFPC. Such actions have the potential to reduce mercury inputs from the industrial complex by perhaps as much as another 80%. The transformation and bioaccumulation of mercury in the EFPC ecosystem has been a perplexing subject since intensive investigation of the issue began in the mid 1980s. Although EFPC was highly contaminated with mercury (waterborne mercury exceeded background levels by 1000-fold, mercury in

  5. Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations Near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    M. L. Abbott

    2005-10-01

    Elemental and reactive gaseous mercury (EGM/RGM) were measured in ambient air concentrations over a two-week period in July/August 2005 near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, a popular fishery located 50 km southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho. A fish consumption advisory for mercury was posted at the reservoir in 2002 by the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare. The air measurements were part of a multi-media (water, sediment, precipitation, air) study initiated by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 to identify potential sources of mercury contamination to the reservoir. The sampling site is located about 150 km northeast of large gold mining operations in Nevada, which are known to emit large amounts of mercury to the atmosphere (est. 2,200 kg/y from EPA 2003 Toxic Release Inventory). The work was co-funded by the Idaho National Laboratory’s Community Assistance Program and has a secondary objective to better understand mercury inputs to the environment near the INL, which lies approximately 230 km to the northeast. Sampling results showed that both EGM and RGM concentrations were significantly elevated (~ 30 – 70%, P<0.05) compared to known regional background concentrations. Elevated short-term RGM concentrations (the primary form that deposits) were likely due to atmospheric oxidation of high EGM concentrations, which suggests that EGM loading from upwind sources could increase Hg deposition in the area. Back-trajectory analyses indicated that elevated EGM and RGM occurred when air parcels came out of north-central and northeastern Nevada. One EGM peak occurred when the air parcels came out of northwestern Utah. Background concentrations occurred when the air was from upwind locations in Idaho (both northwest and northeast). Based on 2003 EPA Toxic Release Inventory data, it is likely that most of the observed peaks were from Nevada gold mine sources. Emissions from known large natural mercury

  6. Atmospheric Mercury near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir in Southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Abbott; Jeffrey J. Einerson

    2007-12-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) were measured over two-week seasonal field campaigns near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir in south-central Idaho from the summer of 2005 through the fall of 2006 and over the entire summer of 2006 using automated Tekran mercury analyzers. GEM, RGM, and particulate mercury (HgP) were also measured at a secondary site 90 km to the west in southwestern Idaho during the summer of 2006. The study was performed to characterize mercury air concentrations in the southern Idaho area for the first time, estimate mercury dry deposition rates, and investigate the source of observed elevated concentrations. High seasonal variability was observed with the highest GEM (1.91 ± 0.9 ng m-3) and RGM (8.1 ± 5.6 pg m-3) concentrations occurring in the summer and lower values in the winter (1.32 ± 0.3 ng m-3, 3.2 ± 2.9 pg m-3 for GEM, RGM respectively). The summer-average HgP concentrations were generally below detection limit (0.6 ± 1 pg m-3). Seasonally-averaged deposition velocities calculated using a resistance model were 0.034 ± 0.032, 0.043 ± 0.040, 0.00084 ± 0.0017 and 0.00036 ± 0.0011 cm s-1 for GEM (spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively) and 0.50 ± 0.39, 0.40 ± 0.31, 0.51 ± 0.43 and 0.76 ± 0.57 cm s-1 for RGM. The total annual RGM + GEM dry deposition estimate was calculated to be 11.9 ± 3.3 µg m-2, or about 2/3 of the total (wet + dry) deposition estimate for the area. Periodic elevated short-term GEM (2.2 – 12 ng m-3) and RGM (50 - 150 pg m-3) events were observed primarily during the warm seasons. Back-trajectory modeling and PSCF analysis indicated predominant source directions from the southeast (western Utah, northeastern Nevada) through the southwest (north-central Nevada) with fewer inputs from the northwest (southeastern Oregon and southwestern Idaho).

  7. Mercury and Methylmercury Related to Historical Mercury Mining in Three Major Tributaries to Lake Berryessa, Upper Putah Creek Watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, G. C.; Alpers, C. N.; Horner, T. C.; Cornwell, K.; Izzo, V.

    2016-12-01

    The relative contributions of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) from upstream historical mercury (Hg) mining districts were examined in the three largest tributaries to Lake Berryessa, a reservoir with water quality impaired by Hg. A fish consumption advisory has been issued for the reservoir; also, in a study of piscivorous birds at 25 California reservoirs, blood samples from Lake Berryessa grebes had the highest THg concentration state-wide. The third and fourth largest historical Hg-producing mining districts in California are within the study area. These mining districts are located within the Pope Creek, Upper Putah Creek, and Knoxville-Eticuera Creeks watersheds. Downstream of the reservoir, Lower Putah Creek drains into the Yolo Bypass, a major source of THg and MeHg to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Study objectives included: (1) determining if tributaries downstream of historical Hg mining districts and draining to the reservoir are continuing sources of THg and MeHg; (2) characterizing variability of water and streambed sediment parameters in upstream and downstream reaches of each creek; and (3) estimating loads of suspended sediment, THg, and MeHg entering the reservoir from each tributary. Water samples were collected from October 2012 to September 2014 during non-storm and storm events along each tributary and analyzed for general water quality field parameters; unfiltered THg and MeHg; total suspended solids; and total particulate matter. Discharge measurements were made at the time of sample collection; flow and concentration data were combined to compute daily loads. To determine spatial variability, 135 streambed sediment samples were analyzed for THg, organic content (loss on ignition), and grain-size distribution. All three tributaries contribute THg and MeHg to the reservoir. Some consistent spatial trends in THg (water) concentrations were observed over multiple sampling events; THg (water) decreased from upstream to downstream

  8. Distribution of total and methyl mercury in sediments along Steamboat Creek (Nevada, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamenkovic, J.; Gustin, M.S.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Thomas, B.A.; Agee, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    In the late 1800s, mills in the Washoe Lake area, Nevada, used elemental mercury to remove gold and silver from the ores of the Comstock deposit. Since that time, mercury contaminated waste has been distributed from Washoe Lake, down Steamboat Creek, and to the Truckee River. The creek has high mercury concentrations in both water and sediments, and continues to be a constant source of mercury to the Truckee River. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of total and methyl mercury (MeHg) in surface sediments and characterize their spatial distribution in the Steamboat Creek watershed. Total mercury concentrations measured in channel and bank sediments did not decrease downstream, indicating that mercury contamination has been distributed along the creek's length. Total mercury concentrations in sediments (0.01-21.43 ??g/g) were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those in pristine systems. At 14 out of 17 sites, MeHg concentrations in streambank sediments were higher than the concentrations in the channel, suggesting that low banks with wet sediments might be important sites of mercury methylation in this system. Both pond/wetland and channel sites exhibited high potential for mercury methylation (6.4-30.0 ng g-1 day-1). Potential methylation rates were positively correlated with sulfate reduction rates, and decreased as a function of reduced sulfur and MeHg concentration in the sediments. Potential demethylation rate appeared not to be influenced by MeHg concentration, sulfur chemistry, DOC, sediment grain size or other parameters, and showed little variation across the sites (3.7-7.4 ng g-1 day-1). ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek - FY 2015 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J.; Brooks, Scott C.; Mathews, Teresa J.; Mayes, Melanie; Johs, Alexander; Watson, David B.; Poteat, Monica D.; Smith, John; Mehlhorn, Tonia; Lester, Brian; Morris, Jesse; Lowe, Kenneth; Dickson, Johnbull O.; Eller, Virginia; DeRolph, Christopher R.

    2016-04-01

    Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (OREM) because of large historical losses of mercury within buildings and to soils and surface waters at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the downstream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) is uncertain. A phased, adaptive management approach to remediation of surface water includes mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development (TD) to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment (US Department of Energy 2014b).

  10. Mercury and Methylmercury concentrations and loads in Cache Creek Basin, California, January 2000 through May 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Alpers, Charles N.; Slotton, Darrell G.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Ayers, Shaun M.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations and mass loads of total mercury and methylmercury in streams draining abandoned mercury mines and near geothermal discharge in Cache Creek Basin, California, were measured during a 17-month period from January 2000 through May 2001. Rainfall and runoff averages during the study period were lower than long-term averages. Mass loads of mercury and methylmercury from upstream sources to downstream receiving waters, such as San Francisco Bay, were generally the highest during or after winter rainfall events. During the study period, mass loads of mercury and methylmercury from geothermal sources tended to be greater than those from abandoned mining areas because of a lack of large precipitation events capable of mobilizing significant amounts of either mercury-laden sediment or dissolved mercury and methylmercury from mine waste. Streambed sediments of Cache Creek are a source of mercury and methylmercury to downstream receiving bodies of water such as the Delta of the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers. Much of the mercury in these sediments was deposited over the last 150 years by erosion and stream discharge from abandoned mines or by continuous discharges from geothermal areas. Several geochemical constituents were useful as natural tracers for mining and geothermal areas. These constituents included aqueous concentrations of boron, chloride, lithium, and sulfate, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Stable isotopes of water in areas draining geothermal discharges were enriched with more oxygen-18 relative to oxygen-16 than meteoric waters, whereas the enrichment by stable isotopes of water from much of the runoff from abandoned mines was similar to that of meteoric water. Geochemical signatures from stable isotopes and trace-element concentrations may be useful as tracers of total mercury or methylmercury from specific locations; however, mercury and methylmercury are not conservatively transported. A distinct mixing trend of

  11. Mercury and methylmercury related to historical mercury mining in three tributaries to Lake Berryessa, Putah Creek Watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, G. C.; Horner, T.; Cornwell, K.; Izzo, V.; Alpers, C. N.

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of total mercury (THg) and mono-methylmercury (MMHg) from upstream historical mercury-mining districts to Lake Berryessa, a reservoir with impaired water quality because of mercury. The third and fourth largest historical mercury-producing mining districts in California are within Lake Berryessa's three largest tributary watersheds: Pope, (Upper) Putah, and Knoxville-Eticuera Creeks. Downstream of the reservoir, Putah Creek drains into the Yolo Bypass, a major source of THg and MMHg to the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Water samples were collected from October 2012 to May 2014 during 37 non-storm and 8 storm events along Pope, (Upper) Putah, and Knoxville-Eticuera Creeks and analyzed for field parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity). Additionally, water samples collected during five of the non-storm and storm events were analyzed for unfiltered THg and MMHg and total suspended solids (TSS). Discharge was measured during sampling to calculate instantaneous loads. More than 120 streambed sediment samples were collected to determine the spatial variation of THg and organic carbon content (loss on ignition). Across the watersheds, unfiltered THg (in water) samples ranged from 2.3 to 125 ng/L and unfiltered MMHg (in water) samples from 0.12 to 1.0 ng/L. Concentrations of THg ranged from less than 0.0001 to 122 mg/kg in streambed sediment. Tributary reaches with elevated mercury concentrations ("hot spots") are near or downstream of historical mercury mines and have: (1) strong positive correlations between THg (in water) or MMHg (in water) and TSS (R2> 0.88, n=5); (2) higher instantaneous loads of suspended sediment, THg and MMHg than reaches with low THg and MMHg concentrations; and (3) elevated sediment organic carbon content. Tributary reaches with weaker correlations among THg, MMHg, and TSS in unfiltered water may reflect non-mining sources of dissolved THg and MMHg, such as

  12. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations and loads in the Cache Creek watershed, California.

    PubMed

    Domagalski, Joseph L; Alpers, Charles N; Slotton, Darell G; Suchanek, Thomas H; Ayers, Shaun M

    2004-07-05

    Concentrations and loads of total mercury and methylmercury were measured in streams draining abandoned mercury mines and in the proximity of geothermal discharge in the Cache Creek watershed of California during a 17-month period from January 2000 through May 2001. Rainfall and runoff were lower than long-term averages during the study period. The greatest loading of mercury and methylmercury from upstream sources to downstream receiving waters, such as San Francisco Bay, generally occurred during or after winter rainfall events. During the study period, loads of mercury and methylmercury from geothermal sources tended to be greater than those from abandoned mining areas, a pattern attributable to the lack of large precipitation events capable of mobilizing significant amounts of either mercury-laden sediment or dissolved mercury and methylmercury from mine waste. Streambed sediments of Cache Creek are a significant source of mercury and methylmercury to downstream receiving bodies of water. Much of the mercury in these sediments is the result of deposition over the last 100-150 years by either storm-water runoff, from abandoned mines, or continuous discharges from geothermal areas. Several geochemical constituents were useful as natural tracers for mining and geothermal areas, including the aqueous concentrations of boron, chloride, lithium and sulfate, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Stable isotopes of water in areas draining geothermal discharges showed a distinct trend toward enrichment of (18)O compared with meteoric waters, whereas much of the runoff from abandoned mines indicated a stable isotopic pattern more consistent with local meteoric water.

  13. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations and loads in the Cache Creek watershed, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, J.L.; Alpers, C.N.; Slotton, D.G.; Suchanek, T.H.; Ayers, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations and loads of total mercury and methylmercury were measured in streams draining abandoned mercury mines and in the proximity of geothermal discharge in the Cache Creek watershed of California during a 17-month period from January 2000 through May 2001. Rainfall and runoff were lower than long-term averages during the study period. The greatest loading of mercury and methylmercury from upstream sources to downstream receiving waters, such as San Francisco Bay, generally occurred during or after winter rainfall events. During the study period, loads of mercury and methylmercury from geothermal sources tended to be greater than those from abandoned mining areas, a pattern attributable to the lack of large precipitation events capable of mobilizing significant amounts of either mercury-laden sediment or dissolved mercury and methylmercury from mine waste. Streambed sediments of Cache Creek are a significant source of mercury and methylmercury to downstream receiving bodies of water. Much of the mercury in these sediments is the result of deposition over the last 100-150 years by either storm-water runoff, from abandoned mines, or continuous discharges from geothermal areas. Several geochemical constituents were useful as natural tracers for mining and geothermal areas, including the aqueous concentrations of boron, chloride, lithium and sulfate, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Stable isotopes of water in areas draining geothermal discharges showed a distinct trend toward enrichment of 18O compared with meteoric waters, whereas much of the runoff from abandoned mines indicated a stable isotopic pattern more consistent with local meteoric water. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mercury Content of Sediments in East Fork Poplar Creek: Current Assessment and Past Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Scott C.; Eller, Virginia A.; Dickson, Johnbull O.; Earles, Jennifer E.; Lowe, Kenneth Alan; Mehlhorn, Tonia L.; Olsen, Todd A.; DeRolph, Christopher R.; Watson, David J.; Phillips, Debra H.; Peterson, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    This study provided new information on sediment mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) content and chemistry. The current inventory of Hg in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) bed sediments was estimated to be 334 kg, which represents a ~67% decrease relative to the initial investigations in 1984. MMHg sediment inventory was estimated to be 44.1 g, lower but roughly similar to past estimates. The results support the relevance and potential impacts of other active and planned investigations within the Mercury Remediation Technology Development for Lower East Fork Poplar Creek project (e.g., assessment and control of bank soil inputs, sorbents for Hg and MMHg removal, re-introduction of freshwater clams to EFPC), and identify gaps in current understanding that represent opportunities to understand controlling variables that may inform future technology development studies.

  15. Mercury Assessment and Monitoring Protocol for the Bear Creek Watershed, Colusa County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suchanek, Thomas H.; Hothem, Roger L.; Rytuba, James J.; Yee, Julie L.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the known information on the occurrence and distribution of mercury (Hg) in physical/chemical and biological matrices within the Bear Creek watershed. Based on these data, a matrix-specific monitoring protocol for the evaluation of the effectiveness of activities designed to remediate Hg contamination in the Bear Creek watershed is presented. The monitoring protocol documents procedures for collecting and processing water, sediment, and biota for estimation of total Hg (TotHg) and monomethyl mercury (MMeHg) in the Bear Creek watershed. The concurrent sampling of TotHg and MMeHg in biota as well as water and sediment from 10 monitoring sites is designed to assess the relative bioavailability of Hg released from Hg sources in the watershed and identify environments conducive to Hg methylation. These protocols are designed to assist landowners, land managers, water quality regulators, and scientists in determining whether specific restoration/mitigation actions lead to significant progress toward achieving water quality goals to reduce Hg in Bear and Sulphur Creeks.

  16. Mercury and selenium in fish of Fountain Creek, Colorado (USA): possible sources and implications.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, D R; Herrmann, S J; Carsella, J S; McGarvy, C M; Foutz, H P; Herrmann-Hoesing, L M; Gregorich, J M; Turner, J A; Vanden Heuvel, B D

    2016-01-01

    Fountain Creek in Colorado USA is a major tributary that confluences with the Arkansas River at Pueblo, Colorado, the result being the tributary's influence on Arkansas River water quality affecting down-stream users. In a previous study, we found that bryophytes (aquatic plants) accumulated selenium in Fountain Creek watershed and this finding prompted us to investigate the extent of the metalloid in the whole-body tissues of fish. One hundred 11 fish (six species) were collected and analyzed for Se by inductively-coupled plasma emission mass spectrometry. Analysis of all analytical data also showed mercury in all of the fish whole bodies and selected tissues. There was a general increase in selenium but a decrease in mercury in fish with downstream travel-distance. The highest whole-body selenium was in Pueblo, Colorado (3393 µg/kg, dry weight; 906 µg/kg, wet weight); the highest mercury in fish was in the Monument Creek tributary north of Colorado Springs, Colorado (71 µg/kg, dry weight; 19 µg/kg, wet weight). In four tissues of 11 female fish captured, selenium was highest in the livers at eight sites but highest in the ovaries at three sites. Mercury was highest in the epaxial muscle at all sites. Selenium availability could be due to the watershed lithology and land uses; however, mercury could be carried by atmospheric deposition from coal-fired power plants and historic mining activities. Selenium in fish tissues and water samples were compared to U.S. national water quality criteria.

  17. Cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota as bioindicators of environmental mercury, Cache Creek Watershed, California.

    PubMed

    Hothem, Roger L; Trejo, Bonnie S; Bauer, Marissa L; Crayon, John J

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate mercury (Hg) and other element exposure in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), eggs were collected from 16 sites within the mining-impacted Cache Creek watershed, Colusa, Lake, and Yolo counties, California, USA, in 1997-1998. Nestlings were collected from seven sites in 1998. Geometric mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.013 to 0.208 microg/g wet weight (ww) in cliff swallow eggs and from 0.047 to 0.347 microg/g ww in nestlings. Mercury detected in eggs generally followed the spatial distribution of Hg in the watershed based on proximity to both anthropogenic and natural sources. Mean Hg concentrations in samples of eggs and nestlings collected from sites near Hg sources were up to five and seven times higher, respectively, than in samples from reference sites within the watershed. Concentrations of other detected elements, including aluminum, beryllium, boron, calcium, manganese, strontium, and vanadium, were more frequently elevated at sites near Hg sources. Overall, Hg concentrations in eggs from Cache Creek were lower than those reported in eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from highly contaminated locations in North America. Total Hg concentrations were lower in all Cache Creek egg samples than adverse effects levels established for other species. Total Hg concentrations in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) collected from 10 of the study sites were both positively correlated with THg concentrations in cliff swallow eggs. Our data suggest that cliff swallows are reliable bioindicators of environmental Hg.

  18. Understanding the mercury reduction issue: the impact of mercury on the environment and human health.

    PubMed

    Kao, Richard T; Dault, Scott; Pichay, Teresa

    2004-07-01

    Mercury has been used in both medicine and dentistry for centuries. Recent media attention regarding the increased levels of mercury in dietary fish, high levels of mercury in air emissions, and conjecture that certain diseases may be caused by mercury exposure has increased public awareness of the potential adverse health effects of high doses of mercury. Dentistry has been criticized for its continued use of mercury in dental amalgam for both public health and environmental reasons. To address these concerns, dental professionals should understand the impact of the various levels and types of mercury on the environment and human health. Mercury is unique in its ability to form amalgams with other metals. Dental amalgam--consisting of silver, copper, tin, and mercury--has been used as a safe, stable, and cost-effective restorative material for more than 150 years. As a result of this use, the dental profession has been confronted by the public on two separate health issues concerning the mercury content in amalgam. The first issue is whether the mercury amalgamated with the various metals to create dental restorations poses a health issue for patients. The second is whether the scraps associated with amalgam placement and the removal of amalgam restorations poses environmental hazards which may eventually have an impact on human health. Despite the lack of scientific evidence for such hazards, there is growing pressure for the dental profession to address these health issues. In this article, the toxicology of mercury will be reviewed and the impact of amalgam on health and the environment will be examined.

  19. Measurements of mercury methylation rates and bioavailability in the Allequash Creek Wetland, Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creswell, J. E.; Babiarz, C. L.; Shafer, M. M.; Armstrong, D. E.

    2008-12-01

    Wetlands are known to be hot spots for the production of methylmercury (MeHg) and subsequent export into other aquatic ecosystems. Because MeHg is a bioaccumulative neurotoxin, and because the primary route of human exposure to mercury is through the consumption of contaminated fish, understanding the processes by which MeHg is produced in the aquatic environment is important to the protection of human health. Inorganic Hg(II) is known to be methylated by bacteria in the anoxic zones of wetland sediments, but bioavailability plays a role in this process, as certain chemical complexes of mercury are unavailable to the microbial community. In the Allequash Creek wetland, a strong relationship has been observed between MeHg and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentrations, but the observed relationship between MeHg and total Hg is weak. This observation implicates factors other than Hg(II) concentration as drivers of methylation. In this study, depth-resolved estimates of the bioavailability of inorganic Hg(II) were made by measuring the net mercury methylation rate potential in the hyporheic zone of the wetland. Gross mercury methylation was measured in sediment cores amended with stable isotope-enriched Hg(II), by analyzing isotopically-enriched methylmercury produced during an incubation. Demethylation was measured by amending replicate cores with stable isotope-enriched methylmercury and analyzing the amount consumed over the incubation period. Analyses were conducted using an inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometer. A method comparison was made between incubating cores intact, with mercury amendments injected through core tube walls, and incubating sectioned cores, with mercury amendments mixed into homogenized sediments. The value of incubating intact cores is that disturbance to the sediment and the microbial community is minimized, resulting in experimental conditions that more accurately mimic in situ conditions. The value of mixing mercury

  20. Mercury contamination in three species of anuran amphibians from the Cache Creek Watershed, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Hothem, Roger L; Jennings, Mark R; Crayon, John J

    2010-04-01

    Fish and wildlife may bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) to levels that adversely affect reproduction, growth, and survival. Sources of Hg within the Cache Creek Watershed in northern California have been identified, and concentrations of Hg in invertebrates and fish have been documented. However, bioaccumulation of Hg by amphibians has not been evaluated. In this study, adult and juvenile American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii), adult Northern Pacific treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla), and larval bullfrogs were collected and analyzed for total Hg. One or more species of amphibians from 40% of the 35 sites had mean Hg concentrations greater than the US Environmental Protection Agency's tissue residue criterion for fish (0.3 microg/g). Of the bullfrog tissues analyzed, the liver had the highest concentrations of both total Hg and methyl mercury. Total Hg in carcasses of bullfrogs was highly correlated with total Hg in leg muscle, the tissue most often consumed by humans.

  1. Summary and Synthesis of Mercury Studies in the Cache Creek Watershed, California, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Slotton, Darell G.; Alpers, Charles N.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Churchill, Ronald; Bloom, Nicolas; Ayers, Shaun M.; Clinkenbeard, John

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the principal findings of the Cache Creek, California, components of a project funded by the CALFED Bay?Delta Program entitled 'An Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Impacts of Mercury in the Bay?Delta Watershed.' A companion report summarizes the key findings of other components of the project based in the San Francisco Bay and the Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. These summary documents present the more important findings of the various studies in a format intended for a wide audience. For more in-depth, scientific presentation and discussion of the research, a series of detailed technical reports of the integrated mercury studies is available at the following website: .

  2. Cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota as bioindicators of environmental mercury, Cache Creek Watershed, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, Roger L.; Trejo, Bonnie S.; Bauer, Marissa L.; Crayon, John J.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate mercury (Hg) and other element exposure in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), eggs were collected from 16 sites within the mining-impacted Cache Creek watershed, Colusa, Lake, and Yolo counties, California, USA, in 1997-1998. Nestlings were collected from seven sites in 1998. Geometric mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.013 to 0.208 ??g/g wet weight (ww) in cliff swallow eggs and from 0.047 to 0.347 ??g/g ww in nestlings. Mercury detected in eggs generally followed the spatial distribution of Hg in the watershed based on proximity to both anthropogenic and natural sources. Mean Hg concentrations in samples of eggs and nestlings collected from sites near Hg sources were up to five and seven times higher, respectively, than in samples from reference sites within the watershed. Concentrations of other detected elements, including aluminum, beryllium, boron, calcium, manganese, strontium, and vanadium, were more frequently elevated at sites near Hg sources. Overall, Hg concentrations in eggs from Cache Creek were lower than those reported in eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from highly contaminated locations in North America. Total Hg concentrations were lower in all Cache Creek egg samples than adverse effects levels established for other species. Total Hg concentrations in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) collected from 10 of the study sites were both positively correlated with THg concentrations in cliff swallow eggs. Our data suggest that cliff swallows are reliable bioindicators of environmental Hg. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  3. Mercury pollution issues in mining districts (Armenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghatelyan, Armen; Sahakyan, Lilit; Belyaeva, Olga; Torosyan, Nver

    2015-04-01

    The issue of mercury (Hg) due to its chemical and geochemical peculiarities and a negative impact it produces on human health has a long history. Existence of international projects devoted to Hg research (AMAP Technical Background Report, 2013) and elaboration on a new convention to combat Hg pollution (http://www.mercuryconvention.org/Home/tabid/3360/Default.aspx) prove that Hg has already become a global concern. Presently, data on Armenia's area pollution with Hg available in international literature sources and reports are scarce and cover pollution sources only. According to published data (AMAP Technical Background Report, 2013), in 2009 summary emission of Hg on the entire territory of the Republic of Armenia made 222,723 kg, considerable shares of which fell on primary copper production (88,057 kg), cement production (57,094 kg), production of gold from large mines (46,728 kg), waste and other losses due to breakage and disposal in landfill (29,995 kg); besides, some quantities originated from amalgams, combustion of different-type fuel and garbage, and so on. One should mind, that these are calculated statistical data, which reflect neither a complete list of Hg pollution sources nor a realistic picture of levels of Hg pollution of different environmental compartments and risks. Local monitoring data on Hg pollution are not sufficient either. This abstract is aimed at revealing of Hg pollution problems in some of Armenia's mining regions through generalization of data on complex investigations implemented at the Center for Ecological-Noosphere Studies NAS RA between 2005 and 2011, and is focused on Hg pollution of different environmental compartments: water - atmosphere - soil - farm produce - atmospheric precipitation - human bio-substrates. The obtained data indicate that as a result of ore mining and processing Hg enters onto the surface, travels through air and water migration streams and finally brings to pollution of all environmental compartments

  4. Sediment and Mercury Loads to Humbug Creek: A Sierra Nevada Tributary Impacted by the Malakoff Diggins Hydraulic Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monohan, C.; Brown, D. L.; Nepal, H.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury contaminated sediment from legacy gold mines in the Sierra continues to be a source of inorganic mercury (Hg) to the environment. The discharge from Malakoff Diggins, once one of the largest hydraulic mines in California, is a source of Hg and sediment to Humbug Creek. The purpose of this study was to estimate the load of particulate bound Hg and suspended sediment in Humbug Creek for Water Years 2012 and 2013. Grab samples were taken from baseflow conditions and from multiple storm events and analyzed for nonfiltered Hg, filtered Hg and total suspended sediment (TSS) (EPA 1669, EPA 1631, EPA 160.2). A stage discharge relationship was developed for the Humbug Creek gage station over a range of flow conditions. Samples were collected from Humbug Creek upstream of the Malakoff Diggins discharge point, from the discharge point and downstream of the discharge and Humbug Creek confluence at a stream gage. The annual load in Humbug Creek for suspended sediment and particulate bound Hg was calculated at the gage using relationships established with continuously monitored turbidity (15 min data) and grab samples of total suspended sediment (n = 25, R2 = 0.82) and particulate bound Hg (n = 15, R2 = 0.80). The annual load was 100-120 grams of particulate bound Hg and 475,000-575,000 kg of suspended sediment. For both water years, as much as half of the annual sediment load was from a single storm event during which 3-4g of particulate bound mercury was released per day. The contribution of mercury loads from legacy hydraulic gold mines should be quantified as it is a critical source control strategy for California Total Maximum Daily Load programs.

  5. 75 FR 37790 - Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Issue a Supplemental Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Issue a Supplemental Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Mahoning Creek Hydroelectric Project June 23, 2010. On... Hydroelectric Project. On April 22, 2010, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Pittsburgh District (Corps)...

  6. Mercury Exposure: Medical and Public Health Issues

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Kathryn R

    2005-01-01

    Mercury exposure is widespread in the United States with methylmercury as the predominant chemical species and fish and shellfish as the source. Use of more advanced diagnostic techniques and application of population-based risk assessment methodologies have assisted in addressing the impact of mercury exposure on the United States population. Biomonitoring, particularly through analyses of blood mercury, provides both population-based data and exposure information that can be informative for physicians. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) beginning in 1999 provide population-based exposure estimates for United States overall. Methylmercury exposures among women of childbearing age are of particular concern because of methylmercury's developmental neurotoxicity. Exposures of concern among women are estimated to occur in between ∼6% to 8% of the 16-to-49-year-old age group based on data from NHANES; and in ∼15% of this age and sex group if physiological factors such as the degree of transplacental transport of methylmercury are taken into consideration. Subgroups with high fish consumption (e.g., many island and coastal populations, some persons of Asian ethnicity, some individuals following “healthy” diets) can have methylmercury exposures substantially higher than those reported among the NHANES examinees. These subpopulations are not likely to be aware of their blood mercury concentrations or the possible health outcomes associated with such high blood mercury levels. The American Medical Association has adopted policies that express concerns about methylmercury exposure, and advise patient education. Non-neurological risks for adults associated with methylmercury, including the potential for adverse cardiac outcomes, have not yet been incorporated into risk assessments. PMID:16555611

  7. Mercury: major issues in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, T W

    1993-04-01

    In the past, methylmercury compounds were manufactured as fungicides or appeared as unwanted byproducts of the chemical industry, but today the methylation of inorganic mercury in aquatic sediments and soils is the predominant if not the sole source of methylmercury. This form of mercury is bioaccumulated to a high degree in aquatic food chains to attain its highest concentrations in edible tissues in long-lived predatory fish living in both fresh and ocean waters. It is well absorbed from the diet and distributes within a few days to all tissues in the body. It crosses without hindrance the blood-brain and placental barriers to reach its principal target tissue, the brain. It is eliminated chiefly in the feces after conversion to inorganic mercury. The biological half-time of methylmercury in human tissues is about 50 days, but there is wide individual variation. Adult poisoning is characterized by focal damage to discrete anatomical areas of the brain such as the visual cortex and granule layer of the cerebellum. A latent period of weeks or months may ensue before the appearance of signs and symptoms of poisoning. The latter manifest themselves as paresthesia, ataxia, constriction of the visual fields, and hearing loss. The prenatal period is the most sensitive stage of the life cycle to methylmercury. Prenatally poisoned infants exhibit a range of effects from severe cerebral palsy to subtle developmental delays. Methylmercury is believed to inhibit those processes in the brain specially involved in development and growth such as neuronal cell division and migration.

  8. Mercury contamination in the riparian zones along the East Fork Poplar Creek at Oak Ridge.

    PubMed

    Pant, P; Allen, M; Tansel, B

    2011-03-01

    Oak Ridge (Tennessee, USA) has a history of mercury (Hg) contamination in its aquatic and soil environment associated with past nuclear-weapons production activities at its Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Three different riparian zones along the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek were investigated in order to study Hg distribution and transformation in surface soils. The surface soil samples collected from these areas showed higher total Hg on an average (129.08 mg/kg) and higher total organic carbon (5.50%) in the upstream soils compared to the other two downstream locations that contained only 31.78 and 19.98 mg/kg total Hg and 2.88% and 1.65% of TOC on average, respectively. Further, methyl Hg concentrations were also comparatively higher in case of the upstream soils (30.10 μg/kg) than that of the downstream sites (5.69 and 4.05 μg/kg). The study showed a plume-like dispersion of Hg in the terrestrial environment along the creek, with decreasing Hg concentrations with distance from the Hg source zone. Also, the transformation of Hg in the soils was found to have been influenced by the soil TOC contents.

  9. Mercury: Major issues in environmental health

    SciTech Connect

    Clarkson, T.W. )

    1993-04-01

    In the past, methylmercury compounds were manufactured as fungicides or appeared as unwanted byproducts of the chemical industry, but today the methylation of inorganic mercury in aquatic sediments and soils is the predominant if not the sole source of methylmercury. This form of mercury is bioaccumulated to a higher degree in aquatic food chains to attain its highest concentrations in edible tissues in long-lived predatory fish living in both fresh and ocean waters. It is well absorbed from the diet and distributes within a few days to all tissues in the body. It crosses without hindrance the blood-brain and placental barriers to reach its principal target tissue, the brain. It is eliminated chiefly in the feces after conversion to inorganic mercury. The biological half-time of methylmercury in human tissues is about 50 days, but there is wide individual variation. Adult poisoning is characterized by focal damage to discrete anatomical areas of the brain such as the visual cortex and granule layer of the cerebellum. A latent period of weeks or months may ensue before the appearance of signs and symptoms of poisoning. The latter manifest themselves as paresthesia, staxia, constriction of the visual fields, and hearing loss. The presented period is the most sensitive stage of the life cycle to methylmercury. Prenatally poisoned infants exhibit a range of effects from severe cerebral palsy to subtle development delays. Methylmercury is believed to inhibit those processes in the brain specially involved in development and growth such as neuronal cell division and migration. 78 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Mercury: major issues in environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, T W

    1993-01-01

    In the past, methylmercury compounds were manufactured as fungicides or appeared as unwanted byproducts of the chemical industry, but today the methylation of inorganic mercury in aquatic sediments and soils is the predominant if not the sole source of methylmercury. This form of mercury is bioaccumulated to a high degree in aquatic food chains to attain its highest concentrations in edible tissues in long-lived predatory fish living in both fresh and ocean waters. It is well absorbed from the diet and distributes within a few days to all tissues in the body. It crosses without hindrance the blood-brain and placental barriers to reach its principal target tissue, the brain. It is eliminated chiefly in the feces after conversion to inorganic mercury. The biological half-time of methylmercury in human tissues is about 50 days, but there is wide individual variation. Adult poisoning is characterized by focal damage to discrete anatomical areas of the brain such as the visual cortex and granule layer of the cerebellum. A latent period of weeks or months may ensue before the appearance of signs and symptoms of poisoning. The latter manifest themselves as paresthesia, ataxia, constriction of the visual fields, and hearing loss. The prenatal period is the most sensitive stage of the life cycle to methylmercury. Prenatally poisoned infants exhibit a range of effects from severe cerebral palsy to subtle developmental delays. Methylmercury is believed to inhibit those processes in the brain specially involved in development and growth such as neuronal cell division and migration. PMID:8354179

  11. Patterns of Mercury Bioaccumulation Downstream of Anthropogenic and Natural Mercury Point Sources in the Cache Creek Watershed of Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotton, D. G.; Ayers, S. M.; Suchanek, T. H.; Weyand, R. D.

    2001-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation was compared to raw and filtered aqueous total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations at multiple sites in the Cache Creek watershed during 2000 and 2001. The watershed contains anthropogenic point sources of ongoing Hg contamination (historic Hg mining sites), as well as a natural Hg point source in a highly Hg-elevated geothermal springs region. Spatial and temporal patterns of aqueous and biotic Hg were investigated along transects downstream of these point sources over 20 months. Predatory fish in a stream 7 km below one set of Hg point sources exhibited muscle Hg to over 6.0 †g g-1 (wet weight) in individuals under 0.6 kg in size. Large fish Hg was generally correlated with small fish and aquatic invertebrate Hg. Invertebrate Hg was correlated with aqueous Hg, though other environmental factors were also important. Correlations between biotic Hg and aqueous THg were as strong or stronger than corresponding relationships with aqueous MeHg, indicating that inorganic Hg loading is relevant to MeHg bioaccumulation in this watershed. MeHg bioaccumulation factors between water and biota were lowest in the main stem of Cache Creek, higher in unimpacted tributaries, and highest in the near point source tributaries, indicating that proportional efficiency of MeHg bioaccumulation may increase with increasing aqueous concentrations. Invertebrate MeHg was observed to vary on a monthly basis. Small fish MeHg also varied temporally, but at a reduced rate. Apparent peaks in MeHg exposure occurred in May-July. Greatest concentrations of aqueous and biotic MeHg were found directly downstream of the primary point sources, in small tributary streams. Hg methylation in these upstream regions may contribute an important component of overall MeHg loading. Significant changes in aqueous and biotic Hg were observed along transects immediately downstream of dominant Hg point sources. This spatial and temporal variability must be well characterized

  12. Biogeochemical mercury methylation influenced by reservoir eutrophication, Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J.E.; Hines, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir (SFCR) in southern Idaho has been under a mercury (Hg) advisory since 2001 as fish in this reservoir contain elevated concentrations of Hg. Concentrations of total Hg (HgT) and methyl-Hg (MeHg) were measured in reservoir water, bottom sediment, and porewater to examine processes of Hg methylation at the sediment/water interface in this reservoir. Rates of Hg methylation and MeHg demethylation were also measured in reservoir bottom sediment using isotopic tracer techniques to further evaluate methylation of Hg in SFCR. The highest concentrations for HgT and MeHg in sediment were generally found at the sediment/water interface, and HgT and MeHg concentrations declined with depth. Porewater extracted from bottom sediment contained highly elevated concentrations of HgT ranging from 11-230??ng/L and MeHg ranging from 0.68-8.5??ng/L. Mercury methylation was active at all sites studied. Methylation rate experiments carried out on sediment from the sediment/water interface show high rates of Hg methylation ranging from 2.3-17%/day, which is significantly higher than those reported in other Hg contaminant studies. Using porewater MeHg concentrations, we calculated an upward diffusive MeHg flux of 197??g/year for the entire reservoir. This sediment derived MeHg is delivered to the overlying SFCR water column, and eventually transferred to biota, such as fish. This study indicates that methylation of Hg is highly influenced by the hypolimnetic and eutrophic conditions in SFCR.

  13. Mercury Contributions from Flint Creek and other Tributaries to the Upper Clark Fork River in Northwestern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, H.; Young, M.; Staats, M. F.

    2013-12-01

    Methylmercury contamination in biota is a major factor diminishing the environmental quality of the Upper Clark Fork River (CFR), e.g. by triggering human consumption limits of fish. The CFR is subject to one of the largest Superfund cleanup projects in the US, but remediation and restoration is currently focused exclusively on other mining-related contaminants (As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd), which may be counterproductive with respect to the bio-availability of mercury, for example by creation of wetlands along mercury-contaminated reaches of the river. The identification and elimination of Hg sources is an essential step toward reducing the methylmercury exposure in the biota of the CFR watershed because a strong correlation exists between total mercury levels in river sediment and methylmercury levels in aquatic life. We analyzed duplicate samples from the top sediment layer of the main stem and significant tributaries to the Clark Fork River along a 240 km reach between Butte, MT and downstream of the Missoula Valley. Mercury concentrations were 1.3 × 1.6 (mean × SD, n = 35) in the main stem. Concentrations in tributaries varied widely (0.02 to 85 mg/kg) and seemed only loosely related to the number of historic precious metal mines in the watershed. In the upper reach of the CFR, elevated Hg levels are likely caused by residual contaminated sediments in the flood plain. Levels tend to decrease downstream until Drummond, MT, where Flint Creek contributes a significant amount of mercury, causing Hg levels in the main stem CFR to increase from 0.7 to 4 mg/kg. Levels continue to decrease downstream. Flint Creek is the single largest contributor of Hg to the CFR. Detailed sampling of the main stem Flint Creek and tributaries (26 sites) showed extremely high levels in two tributaries (22 to 85 mg/kg) where historic milling operations were located. Elimination of these point sources may be accomplished comparatively economically and may significantly reduce mercury levels in

  14. Challenges and opportunities of mercury remediation in East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, L.; Gu, B.; Brooks, S. C.; Miller, C. L.; He, F.; Elias, D.; Watson, D. B.; Peterson, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    At the Y-12 National Security Complex (NSC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the release of a large quantity of mercury (Hg) in the 1950s and early 1960s resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in source areas, as well as in water and streambed of the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Remedial actions at Y-12 NSC have reduced Hg inputs into EFPC by >90% since the early 1980s, but the site and EFPC remain contaminated with inorganic Hg and methylmercury, leading to an elevated Hg in biota. The spatial distribution, speciation, and the extent of Hg contamination in the subsurface of the source zone remain poorly understood. Our research aims to both delineate mercury subsurface distribution and mercury transformation at the water-sediment interface where steep biogeochemical gradients are present. We report initial research results on field coring/characterization, where large amounts of Hg were present as elemental Hg beads near the source area. Hg speciation analysis and chemical reduction to decrease Hg from the headwaters of EFPC were also studied. Our work shows the importance of kinetic controls in this system that receives a constant source of inorganic mercury which becomes increasingly complexed with natural dissolved organic matter (DOM, at <3 mg/L) along its flow path. The formation of strong Hg-DOM complexes prevents Hg(II) from being reduced by stannous chloride (SnCl2), and the magnitude of the effect increases with distance downstream. Therefore, field manipulative tests were conducted at the headwater to evaluate chemical reduction using Sn(II) to convert dissolved Hg(II), to dissolved gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0). Our results show that, when Na2S2O3 was used as dechlorinating agent and SnCl2 as the chemical reductant, approximately 35% of the total Hg in the headwater was converted to Hg(0). Additional Hg was mobilized in the drainage pipe by complexation with the added S2O32-. Using ascorbic acid as a dechlorinating agent, however, resulted an

  15. Recent Approaches to Modeling Transport of Mercury in Surface Water and Groundwater - Case Study in Upper East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, TN - 13349

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, Kent; Daniel, Anamary; Tachiev, Georgio; Malek-Mohammadi, Siamak

    2013-07-01

    In this case study, groundwater/surface water modeling was used to determine efficacy of stabilization in place with hydrologic isolation for remediation of mercury contaminated areas in the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Watershed in Oak Ridge, TN. The modeling simulates the potential for mercury in soil to contaminate groundwater above industrial use risk standards and to contribute to surface water contamination. The modeling approach is unique in that it couples watershed hydrology with the total mercury transport and provides a tool for analysis of changes in mercury load related to daily precipitation, evaporation, and runoff from storms. The model also allows for simulation of colloidal transport of total mercury in surface water. Previous models for the watershed only simulated average yearly conditions and dissolved concentrations that are not sufficient for predicting mercury flux under variable flow conditions that control colloidal transport of mercury in the watershed. The transport of mercury from groundwater to surface water from mercury sources identified from information in the Oak Ridge Environmental Information System was simulated using a watershed scale model calibrated to match observed daily creek flow, total suspended solids and mercury fluxes. Mercury sources at the former Building 81-10 area, where mercury was previously retorted, were modeled using a telescopic refined mesh with boundary conditions extracted from the watershed model. Modeling on a watershed scale indicated that only source excavation for soils/sediment in the vicinity of UEFPC had any effect on mercury flux in surface water. The simulations showed that colloidal transport contributed 85 percent of the total mercury flux leaving the UEFPC watershed under high flow conditions. Simulation of dissolved mercury transport from liquid elemental mercury and adsorbed sources in soil at former Building 81-10 indicated that dissolved concentrations are orders of magnitude

  16. Mercury issues related to NPDES and the CERCLA watershed project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the current understanding of the issues and options surrounding compliance with the current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit conditions. This is a complicated issue that directly impacts, and will be directly impacted by, ongoing CERCLA activities in Lower East Fork Poplar Creek and the Clinch River/Poplar Creek. It may be necessary to reconstitute the whole and combine actions and decisions regarding the entire creek (origin to confluence with the Clinch River) to develop a viable long-term strategy that meets regulatory goals and requirements as well as those of DOE`s 10-Year Plan and the new watershed management permitting approach. This document presents background information on the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluents (RMPE) and NPDES programs insofar as it is needed to understand the issues and options. A tremendous amount of data has been collected to support the NPDES/RMPE and CERCLA programs. These data are not presented, although they may be referenced and conclusions based on them may be presented, as necessary, to support discussion of the options.

  17. Preliminary report on mercury geochemistry of placer gold dredge tailings, sediments, bedrock, and waters in the Clear Creek restoration area, Shasta County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, Roger P.; Rytuba, James J.; Rogers, Ronald; Kotlyar, Boris B.; Lawler, David

    2002-01-01

    Clear Creek, one of the major tributaries of the upper Sacramento River, drains the eastern Trinity Mountains. Alluvial plain and terrace gravels of lower Clear Creek, at the northwest edge of the Sacramento Valley, contain placer gold that has been mined since the Gold Rush by various methods including dredging. In addition, from the 1950s to the 1980s aggregate-mining operations removed gravel from the lower Clear Creek flood plain. Since Clear Creek is an important stream for salmon production, a habitat restoration program is underway to repair damage from mining and improve conditions for spawning. This program includes using dredge tailings to fill in gravel pits in the flood plain, raising the concern that mercury lost to these tailings in the gold recovery process may be released and become available to biota. The purposes of our study are to determine concentrations and speciation of mercury in sediments, tailings, and water in the lower Clear Creek area, and to determine its mobility. Mercury concentrations in bedrock and unmined gravels both within and above the mined area are low, and are taken to represent background concentrations. Bulk mercury values in flood-plain sediments and dry tailings are elevated to several times these background concentrations. Mercury in sediments and tailings is associated with fine size fractions. Although methylmercury levels are generally low in sediments, shallow ponds in the flood plain may have above-normal methylation potential. Stream waters in the area show low mercury and methylmercury levels. Ponds with elevated methylmercury in sediments have more methylmercury in their waters as well. One seep in the area is highly saline, and enriched in mercury, lithium, and boron, similar to connate waters that are expelled along thrust faults to the south on the west side of the Sacramento Valley. This occurrence suggests that mercury in waters may at least in part be from sources other than placer mining.

  18. Mercury biogeochemistry: Paradigm shifts, outstanding issues and research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonke, Jeroen E.; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Dommergue, Aurélien

    2013-05-01

    Half a century of mercury research has provided scientists and policy makers with a detailed understanding of mercury toxicology, biogeochemical cycling and past and future impacts on human exposure. The complexity of the global biogeochemical mercury cycle has led to repeated and ongoing paradigm shifts in numerous mercury-related disciplines and outstanding questions remain. In this review, we highlight some of the paradigm shifts and questions on mercury toxicity, the risks and benefits of seafood consumption, the source of mercury in seafood, and the Arctic mercury cycle. We see a continued need for research on mercury toxicology and epidemiology, for marine mercury dynamics and ecology, and for a closer collaboration between observational mercury science and mercury modeling in general. As anthropogenic mercury emissions are closely tied to the energy cycle (in particular coal combustion), mercury exposure to humans and wildlife are likely to persist unless drastic emission reductions are put in place.

  19. Mercury Geochemistry of Gold Placer Tailings, Sediments, Bedrock, and Waters in the Lower Clear Creek Area, Shasta County, California - Report of Investigations, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashley, Roger P.; Rytuba, James J.

    2008-01-01

    Clear Creek, one of the major tributaries of the upper Sacramento River, drains the eastern Trinity Mountains. Alluvial plain and terrace gravels of lower Clear Creek, at the northwest edge of the Sacramento Valley, contain placer gold that has been mined since the Gold Rush by various methods including hydraulic mining and dredging. In addition, from the 1950s to the 1980s aggregate-mining operations removed gravel from the lower Clear Creek flood plain. Since Clear Creek is an important stream for salmon production, a habitat restoration program is underway to repair damage from mining and improve conditions for spawning. This program includes moving dredge tailings to increase the area of spawning gravel and to fill gravel pits in the flood plain, raising the concern that mercury lost to these tailings in the gold recovery process may be released and become available to biota. The purposes of our study are to identify sources, transport, and dispersal of mercury in the lower Clear Creek area and identify environments in which bioavailable methylmercury is produced. Analytical data acquired include total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in sediments, tailings, and water. Mercury concentrations in bedrock and unmined gravels in and around the mined area are low and are taken to represent background concentrations. Bulk mercury values in placer mining tailings range from near-background in coarse dry materials to more than 40 times background in sands and silts exposed to mercury in sluices. Tailings are entrained in flood-plain sediments and active stream sediments; consequently, mercury concentrations in these materials range from background to about two to three times background. Mercury in sediments and tailings is associated with fine size fractions. The source of most of this mercury is historical gold mining in the Clear Creek watershed. Although methylmercury levels are low in most of these tailings and sediments, flood-plain sediment in shallow

  20. Mercury Issues and Complexities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Redefining the Conceptual Model - 12277

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark; Southworth, George; Watson, David; Looney, Brian; Eddy-Dilek, Carol; Ketelle, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Releases of mercury from an industrial facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee in the 1950's and early 1960's resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater within the facility, as well as downstream surface waters. Remediation efforts, which began in the 1980's, have decreased waterborne mercury concentrations near the facility, but elevated levels of mercury remain in the soil, sediment, water, and biota. Widespread distribution of mercury sources and complex mercury transport pathways are some of many challenges at the site. For effective environmental management and closure decision making relative to mercury contamination at the facilities, an up-to-date conceptual model of mercury source areas, processes, likely flow paths, and flux was deemed necessary. Recent facility and reconfiguration efforts, site characterizations, remedial actions, and research are facilitating the collection of new mercury data in Oak Ridge. To develop the current model, a multi-organizational team reviewed existing conceptual models from a variety of sources, consolidated historical data and source information, gathered input from local experts with extensive site knowledge, and used recently collected mercury data from a variety of sampling programs. The developed site conceptual model indicates that the nature and extent of mercury concentration and contaminant flux has significantly changed in the ten years since flux-based conceptual models were used for previous remedial action decisions. A new water treatment system has effectively reduced mercury inputs to the creek and is removing substantially greater quantities of mercury from groundwater than was expected. However, fish concentrations in downstream waters have not responded to decreased water concentrations in the stream. Flux from one large out-fall at the creek's headwaters appears to be a greater percentage of the overall flux leaving the site than previous years, albeit year to year variation in flux is large, and the

  1. Mercury at the Oat Hill Extension Mine and James Creek, Napa County, California: Tailings, Sediment, Water, and Biota, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slowey, Aaron J.; Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The Oat Hill Extension (OHE) Mine is one of several mercury mines located in the James Creek/Pope Creek watershed that produced mercury from the 1870's until 1944 (U.S. Bureau of Mines, 1965). The OHE Mine developed veins and mineralized fault zones hosted in sandstone that extended eastward from the Oat Hill Mine. Waste material from the Oat Hill Mine was reprocessed at the OHE Mine using gravity separation methods to obtain cinnabar concentrates that were processed in a retort. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management requested that the U.S. Geological Survey measure and characterize mercury and other chemical constituents that are potentially relevant to ecological impairment of biota in tailings, sediment, and water at the OHE Mine and in the tributaries of James Creek that drain the mine area (termed Drainage A and B) (Figs. 1 and 2). This report summarizes such data obtained from sampling of tailings and sediments at the OHE on October 17, 2003; water, sediment, and biota from James Creek on May 20, 2004; and biota on October 29, 2004. These data are interpreted to provide a preliminary assessment of the potential ecological impact of the mine on the James Creek watershed. The mine tailings are unusual in that they have not been roasted and contain relatively high concentrations of mercury (400 to 1200 ppm) compared to unroasted waste rock at other mines. These tailings have contaminated a tributary to James Creek with mercury primarily by erosion, on the basis of higher concentration of mercury (780 ng/L) measured in unfiltered (total mercury, HgT) spring water flowing from the OHE to James Creek compared to 5 to 14 ng/L HgT measured in James Creek itself. Tailing piles (presumably from past Oat Hill mine dumping) near the USBLM property boundary and upstream of the main OHE mine drainage channel (Drainage A; Fig. 2) also likely emit mercury, on the basis of their mercury composition (930 to 1200 ppm). The OHE spring water is likely an

  2. Mercury concentrations in air during the Phase I remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, M.O.; Owens, J.G.; Lindberg, S.E.; Turner, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    During the Phase I remediation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC), the mercury concentration in air was monitored continuously at a nearby off-site location. The purpose of the monitoring was to ensure that the remediation did not adversely affect the off-site concentration of mercury in air. The concentrations of mercury in air did increase during the remediation. However, based on the results of a previous study, this increase was caused by the increase in sunlight intensity and temperature during remediation, which occurred in the summer months. In any case, all concentrations measured before, during, and after remediation were well below the standard of 300 ng/m{sup 3} recommended for continuous exposure to mercury in air.

  3. Influence of redox processes and organic carbon on mercury and methylmercury cycling in East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C.; Brooks, S. C.; Kocman, D.; Yin, X.; Bogle, M.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) between 1950- 1963 resulted in contamination of the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) ecosystems. Hg continues to be released into EFPC creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within the Y-12 NSC and outside the facility boundary. In general, methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases. Therefore, our study focuses on ecosystem processes, such as redox driven elemental cycles, sediment characteristics and organic matter quality that favor the production, as well as degradation, of MeHg in the EFPC. Detailed geochemical characterization of the surface water, interstitial pore water, and creek sediments were performed during quarterly sampling campaigns in 2010 and 2011 at two locations in EFPC to examine temporal changes in Hg and MeHg concentrations. A longitudinal study of a 20 km portion of the creek and adjacent floodplain was also conducted to examine relationships between Hg, MeHg and dissolved organic matter (DOM). In general, the concentration of Hg decreases downstream as you move away from a know point source of Hg in the system while MeHg concentrations increase in this same reach. Changes in total Hg, both filtered (0.2 μm) and unfiltered, are not correlated with the concentration or composition of DOM in the system. Significant correlations are observed between dissolved MeHg and absorbent light measurements which reflect the quality of the DOM. The two intensively studied sites in EFPC were located 3.7 km (NOAA) and 20 km (NH) downstream of the headwaters. Vertical profiles of interstitial water collected from fine-grained deposits at the creek margin showed decreases in nitrate, sulfate, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) with depth as well as increases in dissolved manganese, iron, and sulfide. The results

  4. Multi-weight isotherm results for mercury removal in upper East Fork Popular Creek water

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, D.A.; Klasson, K.T.

    1998-02-01

    Many sorbents have been developed for the removal of mercury and heavy metals from waters; however, the majority of data published to date do not address the removal of mercury to the target levels represented in this project. The application to which these sorbents are targeted for use is the removal of mercury from microgram-per-liter levels to low nanogram-per-liter levels. Sorbents with thiouronium, thiol, amine, sulfur, and proprietary functional groups were selected for these studies. The initial mercury content in the majority of the batch samples was significantly augmented so that the equilibrium concentration was similar to that found in the original stream sample for at least one sample. Mercury was successfully removed from actual water via adsorption onto Ionac SR-4 (by Sybron Chemicals, Inc.), Keyle:X (by SolmeteX), and Mersorb (by Nucon International, Inc.) resins to levels below the target goal of 12 ng/L. A thiol-based resin (Ionac SR-4) performed the best, indicating that over 200,000 volumes of water could be treated with one volume of resin. The cost of the resin is approximately $0.24 per 1000 gal of water.

  5. Special issue on mercury in Canada's North: summary and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Chételat, John; Braune, Birgit; Stow, Jason; Tomlinson, Scott

    2015-03-15

    Important scientific advances have been made over the last decade in identifying the environmental fate of mercury and the processes that control its cycling in the Canadian Arctic. This special issue includes a series of six detailed reviews that summarize the main findings of a scientific assessment undertaken by the Government of Canada's Northern Contaminants Program. It was the first assessment to focus exclusively on mercury pollution in the Canadian Arctic. Key findings, as detailed in the reviews, relate to sources and long-range transport of mercury to the Canadian Arctic, its cycling within marine, freshwater, and terrestrial environments, and its bioaccumulation in, and effects on, the biota that live there. While these accomplishments are significant, the complex nature of the mercury cycle continues to provide challenges in characterizing and quantifying the relationships of mercury sources and transport processes with mercury levels in biota and biological effects of mercury exposure. Of particular concern are large uncertainties in our understanding of the processes that are contributing to increasing mercury concentrations in some Arctic fish and wildlife. Specific recommendations are provided for future research and monitoring of the environmental impacts of anthropogenic mercury emissions, influences of climate change, and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies for mercury in the Canadian Arctic.

  6. An Assessment of health risk associated with mercury in soil and sediment from East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.; Holdsworth, G.; Bingham, G.; King, A.; Elmore, J.

    1989-04-01

    This report presents results from a study conducted to determine the toxicity of Mercury in soils sediments samples. Mice were fed via diet, soils and sediment, from various locations along the East Fork Poplar creek. Tissue distribution of pollutants was determined at various intervals. The tissue level relative to toxicity was used to determine the effect of a complex matrix on the gastrointestinal absorption and tissue distribution of the pollutants (other pollutants included cadmium and selenium).

  7. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  8. Distribution of gold, tellurium, silver, and mercury in part of the Cripple Creek district, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gott, Garland Bayard; McCarthy, J.H.; Van Sickle, G.H.; McHugh, J.B.

    1967-01-01

    Geochemical exploration studies were undertaken in the Cripple Creek district to test the possibility that large low-grade gold deposits might be found. Surface rock samples taken throughout the district indicate that the volcanic rocks between the productive veins contain an average of about 0.6 ppm (part per million) gold. In an area above 3,800 feet long and 500 feet wide near the Cresson mine in the south-central part of the district, scattered surface samples show that the rocks contain an average of 2.5 ppm gold, equivalent to $2.50 per ton. Inasmuch as veins that contain more than 2.5 ppm may also exist in the area, systematic sampling by trenching and drilling is warranted.

  9. ISSUES RELATED TO SOLUTION CHEMISTRY IN MERCURY SAMPLING IMPINGERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of mercury (Hg) speciation in combustion flue gases is often accomplished in standardized sampling trains in which the sample is passed sequentially through a series of aqueous solutions to capture and separate oxidized Hg (Hg2+) and elemental Hg (Hgo). Such methods incl...

  10. Site-wise mercury accumulation in fish from Thane creek and Ulhas river estuary in the vicinity of Mumbai: influence of environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Menon, Jayashree; Mahajan, Sarita

    2013-01-01

    They indigenous fishing folk inhabiting the villages along Thane creek and Ulhas river estuary in the vicinity of Mumbai, India rely on the local fish catch for their daily sustenance. But these water bodies are under considerable pollution stress due to the indiscriminate release of industrial effluents and domestic wastewater from their vicinity. A site-wise study on levels of mercury, a hazardous toxin, in commonly consumed fish among five villages along these water bodies was conducted. Stations located towards the riverine end of Ulhas river estuary, Wehele and Alimgarh, exhibited higher levels of fish Hg (0.2-1.6 μg/g) compared to the station at the seaward end, Diwe-Kewni (0.03-0.75 μg/g). Fish from stations, Vittawa and Airoli, located along Thane creek accumulated Hg relatively at moderate levels (0.15-0.96 μg/g). The influencing factors for bioaccumulation of mercury in fish were proximity to the sources of mercury, salinity, hardness, DO, BOD and pH of the water.

  11. Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

    2009-01-01

    The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  12. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002476.htm Mercury To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses poisoning from mercury. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  13. Partridge Creek Diversion Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Goal: prevent mercury contamination by keeping the creek from flowing through a mine pit. The project improved brook trout habitat, green infrastructure, the local economy, and decreased human health risks. Includes before-and-after photos.

  14. Proposed experiment for SnCl{sub 2} treatment of Outfall 200 for the purpose of mercury removal from East Fork Poplar Creek, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, G.R.

    1997-03-01

    Identification and treatment/elimination of point sources of mercury (Hg) to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) within the Y-12 Plant have reduced base flow mercury concentrations considerably; but, after all such actions are completed, nonpoint sources will continue to add mercury to the creek. Studies conducted in 1996 on the use of air stripping to remove elemental mercury from Outfall 51, a mercury-contaminated natural spring, demonstrated that the addition of trace concentrations of stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) converted a large fraction of the dissolved mercury in the outfall to elemental mercury, which could subsequently be removed by air stripping. Dissolved mercury is the dominant form in EFPC at the north/south (N/S) pipes, where it emerges from the underground storm drain network. More than 50% of that mercury is capable of being rapidly reduced by the addition of a 3--5 fold molar excess of stannous chloride. Upon conversion to the volatile gaseous (elemental) form, mercury would be lost across the air-water interface through natural volatilization. EFPC within the Y-12 Plant is shallow, turbulent, and open to sunlight and wind, providing conditions that facilitate natural evasion of volatile chemicals from the water. Preliminary calculations estimate that 75% or more of the elemental mercury could be removed via evasion between the N/S pipes and the Y-l2 Plant boundary (Station 17). Alternatively, elemental mercury might be removed from EFPC in a short reach of stream below the N/S pipes by an in-situ air stripping system which bubbles air through the water column. The purpose of these proposed experiments is to test whether natural volatilization or in-situ air stripping may be used to further reduce baseflow concentrations of mercury in EFPC. Results of this experiment will be useful for understanding the transport and fate of other volatile chemicals in the upper reaches of EFPC.

  15. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish in a region affected by historic gold mining; the South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds, California, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Alpers, Charles N.; Law, Matthew A.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury that was used historically for gold recovery in mining areas of the Sierra Nevada continues to enter local and downstream water bodies, including the Sacramento Delta and the San Francisco Bay of northern California. Methylmercury is of particular concern because it is the most prevalent form of mercury in fish and is a potent neurotoxin that bioaccumulates at successive trophic levels within food webs. In April 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several other agencies the Forest Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture), the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California State Water Resources Control Board, and the Nevada County Resource Conservation District began a pilot investigation to characterize the occurrence and distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota in the South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds of California. Biological samples consisted of semi-aquatic and aquatic insects, amphibians, bird eggs, and fish. Fish were collected from 5 reservoirs and 14 stream sites during August through October 1999 to assess the distribution of mercury in these watersheds. Fish that were collected from reservoirs included top trophic level predators (black basses, Micropterus spp.) intermediate trophic level predators [sunfish (blue gill, Lepomis macrochirus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; and black crappie, Poxomis nigromaculatus)] and benthic omnivores (channel catfish, Ictularus punctatus). At stream sites, the species collected were upper trophic level salmonids (brown trout, Salmo trutta) and upper-to-intermediate trophic level salmonids (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Boneless and skinless fillet portions from 161 fish were analyzed for total mercury; 131 samples were individual fish, and the remaining 30 fish were combined into 10 composite samples of three fish each of the same species and size class. Mercury concentrations in samples of black basses

  16. Post-depositional memory record of mercury in sediment near the effluent disposal site of a chlor-alkali plant in Thane Creek-Mumbai Harbour, India.

    PubMed

    Rama, Anirudh; Rokade, M A; Zingde, D; Boroleb, D V

    2009-07-01

    A mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant, operating for 40 years at Airoli (eastern bank of Thane Creek), India, has caused widespread contamination of the surrounding environment. Untreated wastewater from the plant was discharged to Thane Creek for several years. Thane Creek joins the Ulhas Estuary by a narrow arm and opens to the Arabian Sea through Mumbai Harbour. The Ulhas Estuary is impacted by mercury (Hg) released from several industries including two chlor-alkali industries. In order to understand the historical record of anthropogenic Hg and its association to Al, Fe and total organic carbon (TOC), estimation of Hg, Al, Fe and TOC was made in surface sediments and cores from Thane Creek-Mumbai Harbour and the adjacent coastal area. Though 70% of the chlor-alkali plant has been changed to membrane cell technology, surficial sediment in the vicinity of effluent release contains a high concentration (up to 1.19 microg g(-1) dry wt) of Hg compared with its background value (0.10 microg g(-1) dry wt). The contaminated creek sediments are prone to current-driven resuspension and are acting as a strong source of Hg to the sediment of the coastal region. Several rocks and sediments from the catchment area were analysed to find out the natural background level of Hg. A high suspended load transported from the catchment region provides natural dilution to the Hg-contaminated sediment of the Bay. Lithogenic and anthropogenic Hg buried in marine sediments is quantified based on normalization with Al, Fe and TOC, and inter-comparisons of the results indicate comparable values obtained by using Al and Fe, while discernible deviations are found when normalization is carried out using TOC. The Hg profile in the core, from the effluent release site for which sedimentation rate has been established, is discussed in terms of the progressive removal of Hg from the effluent after the mid-1970s and partial changeover of the manufacturing process from Hg cell to membrane cell

  17. Assessment of mercury and methylmercury in water, sediment, and biota in Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, Colusa County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, Roger L.; Rytuba, James J.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, we performed a study during April–July 2010 to characterize mercury (Hg), monomethyl mercury (MMeHg), and other geochemical constituents in sediment, water, and biota at the Clyde Gold Mine and the Elgin Mercury Mine, located in neighboring subwatersheds of Sulphur Creek, Colusa County, California. This study was in support of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act - Removal Site Investigation. The investigation was in response to an abatement notification from the California Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board to evaluate the release of Hg from the Clyde and Elgin mines. Samples of water, sediment, and biota (aquatic macroinvertebrates) were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the two mine sites to evaluate the level of Hg contamination contributed by each mine to the aquatic ecosystem. Physical parameters, as well as dissolved organic carbon, total Hg (HgT), and MMeHg were analyzed in water and sediment. Other relevant geochemical constituents were analyzed in sediment, filtered water, and unfiltered water. Samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates from each mine were analyzed for HgT and MMeHg. The presence of low to moderate concentrations of HgT and MMeHg in water, sediment, and biota from the Freshwater Branch of Sulphur Creek, and the lack of significant increases in these concentrations downstream from the Clyde Mine indicated that this mine is not a significant source of Hg to the watershed during low flow conditions. Although concentrations of HgT and MMeHg were generally higher in samples of sediment and water from the Elgin Mine compared to the Clyde Mine, concentrations in comparable biota from the two mine areas were similar. It is likely that highly saline effluent from nearby hot springs contribute more Hg to the West Fork of Sulphur Creek than the mine waste material at the Elgin Mine.

  18. Environmental Impact of the Contact and Sonoma Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creek Watersheds, Sonoma County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Contact and Sonoma mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the western part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Sonoma County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek, which is a tributary to Little Sulphur Creek. The Contact Hg mine produced about 1,000 flasks of Hg, and the Sonoma mine produced considerably less. Waste rock and tailings eroded from the Contact and Sonoma mines have contributed Hg-enriched mine waste material to the headwaters of Anna Belcher Creek. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Contact and Sonoma mines and in Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Contact and Sonoma mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Anna Belcher and Little Sulphur Creeks. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Contact and Sonoma mines that was initiated on April 20 during a storm event, and on June 19, 2001. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota in a pond and tributaries that drain from the mine area was completed on April 1, 2003. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in tributaries and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Mechanistic Watershed Modeling of Mercury, Carbon, and Nitrogen Fate and Transport in a Coastal Plain Watershed (McTier Creek watershed, SC, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knightes, C. D.; Golden, H. E.; Davis, G. M.; Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C.; Conrads, P. A.; Brigham, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Coastal Plain of the US is a hotspot of methylmercury (MeHg) production and bioaccumulation due to the mix of high Hg deposition, widespread wetland coverage, and high DOC and/or acidic surface waters. However, research in mercury fate and transport is just recently emerging in this region. Although atmospheric deposition is the primary source of mercury to many aquatic ecosystems, there is little understanding and associated modeling representation of how atmospherically deposited mercury transports and transforms within the watershed on its way to receiving streams, particularly within watersheds with different drainage areas within similar physiographical provinces. In this study, we examine mercury and linked biogeochemical cycling (nitrogen (N) and carbon (C)) cycling at a variety of spatial scales within a set of nested sub-basins of the McTier Creek watershed, South Carolina, which is located in the upper Coastal Plain of the Southeastern US. Our goal is to advance current understanding of mercury dynamics in the Coastal Plain and discern important processes governing multi-scale transformation, fate, and transport of mercury. We apply a spatially-explicit, linked process-based watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling (N, C, and Hg) model (Visualizing Ecosystems for Land Management Assessment; VELMA) to predict daily flow and daily fluxes and concentrations of total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The modeling effort was performed in concert with a rigorous sampling effort as part of the USGS NAWQA Mercury in Stream Ecosystems Program. VELMA was applied at a series of different scales including a focused reach (0.11 km^2), two sub-watersheds (28 km^2, 24 km^2) and the full watershed (79.4 km^2). We scale VELMA parameterization and processes occurring within the focused study reach to the larger sub-watersheds to investigate how well the

  20. Ecological and water quality impairment resulting from the New Idria Mercury Mine and natural sources in the San Carlos and Silver Creek watersheds, central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytuba, J. J.; Hothem, R.; Goldstein, D.; Brussee, B.

    2011-12-01

    The New Idria Mercury Mine in central California is the second largest mercury (Hg) deposit in North America and has been proposed as a US EPA Superfund Site based on ecological impairment to the San Carlos and Silver Creek watersheds. Water, sediment, and biota were sampled in San Carlos Creek in the mine area and downstream for 25 km into the watershed termed Silver Creek. Release of acid rock drainage (ARD) and erosion of mine tailings have impacted the watershed during 120 years of mining and since the mine was closed in 1972. The watershed can be divided into three segments based on water and sediment composition, Hg sources and concentrations, and biodiversity of aquatic invertebrates. Creek waters in segment no. 1 above the mine area consist of Mg-Ca-CO3 meteoric water with pH 8.73. Hg concentrations are elevated in both sediment (100μg/g), and in waters (60 ng/L) because of erosion of Hg mine tailings in the upper part of the watershed. Invertebrate biodiversity is the highest of the sites sampled in the watershed, with seven families (six orders) of aquatic invertebrates collected and six other families observed. In the mine area isotopically heavy ARD (pH 2.7) with high levels of Fe(II), SO4, and total Hg (HgT: 76.7 ng/L) enters and mixes with meteoric creek water, constituting from 10-15% of the water in the 10-km long second creek segment downstream from the mine. Oxidation of Fe(II) from ARD results in precipitation of FeOOH which is transported and deposited as an Fe precipitate that has high Hg and MMeHg concentration (Hg: 15.7-79 μg/g, MMeHg: 0.31 - 1.06 ng/g). Concentrations of HgT are uniformly high (1530-2890 ng/L) with particulate Hg predominant. MMeHg ranges from 0.21-0.99 ng/L. In the area just downstream from the ARD source, biodiversity of invertebrates was low, with only one taxa (water striders) available in sufficient numbers and mass (> 1 g)_to be sampled. Biodiversity further downstream was also low, with only up to 2 families present

  1. Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.; Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G.; Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D.

    1995-04-01

    Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil.

  2. Mercury and water-quality data from Rink Creek, Salmon River, and Good River, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, November 2009-October 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagorski, Sonia A.; Neal, Edward G.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GBNPP), Alaska, like many pristine high latitude areas, is exposed to atmospherically deposited contaminants such as mercury (Hg). Although the harmful effects of Hg are well established, information on this contaminant in southeast Alaska is scarce. Here, we assess the level of this contaminant in several aquatic components (water, sediments, and biological tissue) in three adjacent, small streams in GBNPP that drain contrasting landscapes but receive similar atmospheric inputs: Rink Creek, Salmon River, and Good River. Twenty water samples were collected from 2009 to 2011 and processed and analyzed for total mercury and methylmercury (filtered and particulate), and dissolved organic carbon quantity and quality. Ancillary stream water parameters (discharge, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, and temperature) were measured at the time of sampling. Major cations, anions, and nutrients were measured four times. In addition, total mercury was analyzed in streambed sediment in 2010 and in juvenile coho salmon and several taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates in the early summer of 2010 and 2011.

  3. Geochemical characterization of water, sediment, and biota affected by mercury contamination and acidic drainage from historical gold mining, Greenhorn Creek, Nevada County, California, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, Charles N.; Hunerlach, Michael P.; May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Taylor, Howard E.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; De Wild, John F.; Lawler, David A.

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated studies of mercury and methylmercury occurrence, transformation, and transport in the Bear River and Yuba River watersheds of the northwestern Sierra Nevada. Because these watersheds were affected by large-scale, historical gold extraction using mercury amalgamation beginning in the 1850s, they were selected for a pilot study of mercury transport by the USGS and other cooperating agencies. This report presents data on methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) concentrations in water, bed sediment, invertebrates, and frogs collected at 40 stations during 1999-2001 in the Greenhorn Creek drainage, a major tributary to Bear River. Results document several mercury contamination ?hot spots? that represent potential targets for ongoing and future remediation efforts at abandoned mine sites in the study area. Water-quality samples were collected one or more times at each of 29 stations. The concentrations of total mercury in 45 unfiltered water samples ranged from 0.80 to 153,000 nanograms per liter (ng/L); the median was 9.6 ng/L. Total mercury concentrations in filtered water (41 samples) ranged from less than 0.3 to 8,000 ng/L; the median was 2.7 ng/L. Concentrations of methylmercury in the unfiltered water (40 samples) ranged from less than 0.04 to 9.1 ng/L; the median was 0.07 ng/L. Methylmercury in filtered water (13 samples) ranged from less than 0.04 to 0.27 ng/L; the median was 0.04 ng/L. Acidic drainage with pH values as low as 3.4 was encountered in some of the mined areas. Elevated concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, and zinc were found at several stations, especially in the more acidic water samples. Total mercury concentrations in sediment were determined by laboratory and field methods. Total mercury concentrations (determined by laboratory methods) in ten samples from eight stations ranged from about 0.0044 to 12 ?g/g (microgram per gram, equivalent to parts per

  4. Modeling Mercury Exposure at Different Scales in the McTier Creek Watershed and Edisto River Basin, SC USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.25 million miles of rivers under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of mercury in lotic ecosystems are not well-understood, in large p...

  5. Modeling Mercury Exposure at Different Scales in the McTier Creek Watershed and Edisto River Basin, SC USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.25 million miles of rivers under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of mercury in lotic ecosystems are not well-understood, in large p...

  6. Simulating mercury and methyl mercury stream concentrations at multiple scales in a wetland influenced coastal plain watershed (McTier Creek, SC, USA)

    Treesearch

    Chris Knightes; G.M. Davis; H.E. Golden; P.A. Conrads; P.M. Bradley; C.A. Journey

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is the toxicant responsible for the most fish advisories across the United States, with 1.1 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of mercury in streams and rivers are not well understood, in large part, because these systems are intimately linked with their surrounding watersheds and are often...

  7. ISSUES IN SIMULATING ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE AND AQUEOUS MONOMETHYLMERCURY SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on two areas relevant to assessing the global fate and bioavailability of mercury: elemental mercury air/water exchange and aqueous environmental monomethylmercury speciation.

  8. ISSUES IN SIMULATING ELEMENTAL MERCURY AIR/WATER EXCHANGE AND AQUEOUS MONOMETHYLMERCURY SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation focuses on two areas relevant to assessing the global fate and bioavailability of mercury: elemental mercury air/water exchange and aqueous environmental monomethylmercury speciation.

  9. ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: ISSUES IN ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.; SULLIVAN, T.; RENNINGER, S.

    2004-03-28

    The rationale for regulating air emissions of mercury from U.S. coal-fired power plants largely depends on mathematical dispersion modeling, including the atmospheric chemistry processes that affect the partitioning of Hg emissions into elemental (Hg{sub 0}) and the reactive (RGM) forms that may deposit more rapidly near sources. This paper considers and evaluates the empirical support for this paradigm. We consider the extant experimental data at three spatial scales: local (< 30 km), regional (< {approx}300 km), and national (multi-state data). An additional issue involves the finding of excess Hg levels in urban areas.

  10. Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, D. E.; Burns, J. A.; Cassen, P.; Strom, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Prior to the flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft, Mercury was the least investigated and most poorly known terrestrial planet (Kuiper 1970, Devine 1972). Observational difficulties caused by its proximity to the Sun as viewed from Earth caused the planet to remain a small, vague disk exhibiting little surface contrast or details, an object for which only three major facts were known: 1. its bulk density is similar to that of Venus and Earth, much greater than that of Mars and the Moon; 2. its surface reflects electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths in the same manner as the Moon (taking into account differences in their solar distances); and 3. its rotation period is in 2/3 resonance with its orbital period. Images obtained during the flyby by Mariner 10 on 29 March 1974 (and the two subsequent flybys on 21 September 1974 and 16 March 1975) revealed Mercury's surface in detail equivalent to that available for the Moon during the early 1960's from Earth-based telescopic views. Additionally, however, information was obtained on the planet's mass and size, atmospheric composition and density, charged-particle environment, and infrared thermal radiation from the surface, and most significantly of all, the existence of a planetary magnetic field that is probably intrinsic to Mercury was established. In the following, this new information is summarized together with results from theoretical studies and ground-based observations. In the quantum jumps of knowledge that have been characteristic of "space-age" exploration, the previously obscure body of Mercury has suddenly come into sharp focus. It is very likely a differentiated body, probably contains a large Earth-like iron-rich core, and displays a surface remarkably similar to that of the Moon, which suggests a similar evolutionary history.

  11. Modeling Mercury Exposure at Different Scales in the McTier Creek Watershed and Edisto River Basin SC USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.25 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of Hg in lotic ecosystems are not well-understood, in large part...

  12. Modeling Mercury Exposure at Different Scales in the McTier Creek Watershed and Edisto River Basin SC USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.25 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate, transport, and transformation of Hg in lotic ecosystems are not well-understood, in large part...

  13. Quantifying the eroded volume of mercury-contaminated sediment using terrestrial laser scanning at Stocking Flat, Deer Creek, Nevada County, California, 2010–13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howle, James F.; Alpers, Charles N.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Bond, Sandra

    2016-07-28

    High-resolution ground-based light detection and ranging (lidar), also known as terrestrial laser scanning, was used to quantify the volume of mercury-contaminated sediment eroded from a stream cutbank at Stocking Flat along Deer Creek in the Sierra Nevada foothills, about 3 kilometers west of Nevada City, California. Terrestrial laser scanning was used to collect sub-centimeter, three-dimensional images of the complex cutbank surface, which could not be mapped non-destructively or in sufficient detail with traditional surveying techniques.The stream cutbank, which is approximately 50 meters long and 8 meters high, was surveyed on four occasions: December 1, 2010; January 20, 2011; May 12, 2011; and February 4, 2013. Volumetric changes were determined between the sequential, three-dimensional lidar surveys. Volume was calculated by two methods, and the average value is reported. Between the first and second surveys (December 1, 2010, to January 20, 2011), a volume of 143 plus or minus 15 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by Deer Creek. Between the second and third surveys (January 20, 2011, to May 12, 2011), a volume of 207 plus or minus 24 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank and mobilized by the stream. Total volumetric change during the winter and spring of 2010–11 was 350 plus or minus 28 cubic meters. Between the third and fourth surveys (May 12, 2011, to February 4, 2013), the differencing of the three-dimensional lidar data indicated that a volume of 18 plus or minus 10 cubic meters of sediment was eroded from the cutbank. The total volume of sediment eroded from the cutbank between the first and fourth surveys was 368 plus or minus 30 cubic meters.

  14. Promoting Science-Policy Education on Global Environmental Issues: The Mercury Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selin, N. E.; Stokes, L. C.; Susskind, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    We present initial results from a project focusing on teaching science and engineering students about global environmental policy, funded by a NSF CAREER grant. Despite decades of growing global concern about issues such as ozone depletion, climate change, and toxic chemicals, linking science to policy is a continuing challenge, and few science students receive formal training for effective participation in global negotiations. The focus of the educational activity presented here is the development of a freely-available, interactive teaching tool in the form of a role-play simulation, called "The Mercury Game" (http://mit.edu/mercurygame). The simulation requires players to consider scientific information on an emerging global issue, mercury pollution, and collectively decide whether global policy action is appropriate and what the scope of such action might entail. Playing the game helps participants to explore the consequences of representing scientific uncertainty in various ways in a policy context. The game focuses on the credibility of various sources of technical information, strategies for representing risk and uncertainty, and the balance between scientific and political considerations. It also requires the players to grapple with political considerations, particularly the dynamic between the global "North" (the developed world) and the global "South" (the developing world) at the heart of most political conflicts. Simulation outcomes from running the simulation at two scientific conferences and as part of a graduate-level course on global environmental science and policy will be presented.

  15. Total mercury, methylmercury, and selected elements in soils of the Fishing Brook watershed, Hamilton County, New York, and the McTier Creek watershed, Aiken County, South Carolina, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, Laurel G.; Cannon, William F.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Bradley, Paul M.; Burns, Douglas A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lowery, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is an element of on-going concern for human and aquatic health. Mercury sequestered in upland and wetland soils represents a source that may contribute to mercury contamination in sensitive ecosystems. An improved understanding of mercury cycling in stream ecosystems requires identification and quantification of mercury speciation and transport dynamics in upland and wetland soils within a watershed. This report presents data for soils collected in 2008 from two small watersheds in New York and South Carolina. In New York, 163 samples were taken from multiple depths or soil horizons at 70 separate locations near Fishing Brook, located in Hamilton County. At McTier Creek, in Aiken County, South Carolina, 81 samples from various soil horizons or soil depths were collected from 24 locations. Sample locations within each watershed were selected to characterize soil geochemistry in distinct land-cover compartments. Soils were analyzed for total mercury, selenium, total and carbonate carbon, and 42 other elements. A subset of the samples was also analyzed for methylmercury.

  16. An evaluation of mercury levels in Louisiana fish: trends and public health issues.

    PubMed

    Katner, Adrienne; Sun, Mei-Hung; Suffet, Mel

    2010-11-01

    To characterize statewide fish tissue mercury levels in edible finfish the first comprehensive analysis of Louisiana's fish tissue mercury database was conducted. Analyses were based on fifteen years of fish tissue mercury data collected from 368 waterbodies between 1994 and 2008 (n=14,344). The overall objectives of this study were to establish baseline fish tissue mercury levels; and evaluate species-specific temporal and spatial trends in fish tissue mercury levels. Fish tissue mercury levels ranged from 0.001 ppm (the detection limit) to 5.904 ppm for king mackerel; with an overall geometric mean of 0.218 ppm. Ninety-five percent of samples had mercury levels below the FDA's action level of 1.0 ppm for methylmercury in commercial food. Forty-four percent of all samples had mercury levels above the U.S. EPA's methylmercury fish tissue criterion of 0.3 ppm for sportfish. Species of potential concern include cobia, king mackerel, blackfin tuna, greater amberjack, spotted bass, bowfin, largemouth bass and freshwater drum. There was a significant but small decline in statewide length-adjusted largemouth bass mercury levels between 1994-1999 to 2003-2008 (p<0.05). The highest fish mercury levels were observed in Pearl, Calcasieu, Mermentau, Ouachita, Pontchartrain and Sabine basins. Length-adjusted largemouth bass mercury levels were significantly higher in wetlands and rivers/streams vs. lakes; and in wetlands vs. estuaries (p<0.05). Data were analyzed from a public health perspective to make recommendations for optimizing monitoring and outreach.

  17. Major-ion, nutrient, and trace-element concentrations in the Steamboat Creek basin, Oregon, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rinella, Frank A.

    1998-01-01

    Bottom-sediment concentrations of antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc, and organic carbon were largest in City Creek. In City Creek and Horse Heaven Creek, concentrations for 11 constituents--antimony, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, manganese (Horse Heaven Creek only), mercury, selenium, silver, zinc, and organic carbon (City Creek only)--exceeded concentrations considered to be enriched in streams of the nearby Willamette River Basin, whereas in Steamboat Creek only two trace elements--antimony and nickel--exceeded Willamette River enriched concentrations. Bottom-sediment concentrations for six of these constituents in City Creek and Horse Heaven Creek--arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and zinc--also exceeded interim Canadian threshold effect level (TEL) concentrations established for the protection of aquatic life, whereas only four constituents between Singe Creek and Steamboat Creek--arsenic, chromium, copper (Singe Creek only), and nickel--exceeded the TEL concentrations.

  18. THE ONTARIO HYDRO METHOD FOR SPECIATED MERCURY MEASUREMENTS: ISSUES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ontario Hydro (OH) method has been developed for the measurement of total and speciated mercury emissions from coal-fired combustion sources. The OH method was initially developed to support EPA's information collection request to characterize and inventory mercury emissions ...

  19. THE ONTARIO HYDRO METHOD FOR SPECIATED MERCURY MEASUREMENTS: ISSUES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ontario Hydro (OH) method has been developed for the measurement of total and speciated mercury emissions from coal-fired combustion sources. The OH method was initially developed to support EPA's information collection request to characterize and inventory mercury emissions ...

  20. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Planetary Base Issues for Mercury and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed with a range of propulsion options. Historical studies of space exploration, planetary spacecraft, and astronomy, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many ways. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions are presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Saturn moon exploration with chemical propulsion and nuclear electric propulsion options are discussed. Issues with using in-situ resource utilization on Mercury missions are discussed. At Saturn, the best locations for exploration and the use of the moons Titan and Enceladus as central locations for Saturn moon exploration is assessed.

  1. Mercury, Methylmercury, and Other Constituents in Sediment and Water from Seasonal and Permanent Wetlands in the Cache Creek Settling Basin and Yolo Bypass, Yolo County, California, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Alpers, Charles; Fleck, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This report presents surface water and surface (top 0-2 cm) sediment geochemical data collected during 2005-2006, as part of a larger study of mercury (Hg) dynamics in seasonal and permanently flooded wetland habitats within the lower Sacramento River basin, Yolo County, California. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I represented reconnaissance sampling and included three locations within the Cache Creek drainage basin; two within the Cache Creek Nature Preserve (CCNP) and one in the Cache Creek Settling Basin (CCSB) within the creek's main channel near the southeast outlet to the Yolo Bypass. Two additional downstream sites within the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area (YBWA) were also sampled during Phase I, including one permanently flooded wetland and one seasonally flooded wetland, which had began being flooded only 1-2 days before Phase I sampling. Results from Phase I include: (a) a negative correlation between total mercury (THg) and the percentage of methylmercury (MeHg) in unfiltered surface water; (b) a positive correlation between sediment THg concentration and sediment organic content; (c) surface water and sediment THg concentrations were highest at the CCSB site; (d) sediment inorganic reactive mercury (Hg(II)R) concentration was positively related to sediment oxidation-reduction potential and negatively related to sediment acid volatile sulfur (AVS) concentration; (e) sediment Hg(II)R concentrations were highest at the two YBWA sites; (f) unfiltered surface water MeHg concentration was highest at the seasonal wetland YBWA site, and sediment MeHg was highest at the permanently flooded YBWA site; (g) a 1,000-fold increase in sediment pore water sulfate concentration was observed in the downstream transect from the CCNP to the YBWA; (h) low sediment pore water sulfide concentrations (<1 umol/L) across all sites; and (i) iron (Fe) speciation data suggest a higher potential for microbial Fe(III)-reduction in the YBWA compared to the CCSB. Phase II

  2. White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure design and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmell, B.L.; Page, D.G.; Wilkerson, R.B.; Hudson, G.R.; Kauschinger, J.L.; Zocolla, M.

    1994-12-31

    White Oak Creek is the major surface water drainage throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium 137 and lower level of Cobalt 60 in near surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBs. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) agreed to initiate a time critical removal action in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent the transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work.

  3. EPA Proposes to Add Dutchess County Creek, N.Y. to the Federal Superfund List, Sediment Contaminated with Mercury, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today proposed adding the Wappinger Creek in Dutchess County, N.Y. to its Superfund National Priorities List of the country's most hazardous waste sites. Sediment within the two mile long tidal port

  4. Mercury and health care

    PubMed Central

    Rustagi, Neeti; Singh, Ritesh

    2010-01-01

    Mercury is toxic heavy metal. It has many characteristic features. Health care organizations have used mercury in many forms since time immemorial. The main uses of mercury are in dental amalgam, sphygmomanometers, and thermometers. The mercury once released into the environment can remain for a longer period. Both acute and chronic poisoning can be caused by it. Half of the mercury found in the atmosphere is human generated and health care contributes the substantial part to it. The world has awakened to the harmful effects of mercury. The World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) have issued guidelines for the countries’ health care sector to become mercury free. UNEP has formed mercury partnerships between governments and other stakeholders as one approach to reducing risks to human health and the environment from the release of mercury and its compounds to the environment. Many hospitals are mercury free now. PMID:21120080

  5. Dental amalgam and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Mackert, J.R. Jr. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper looks at the issues of the current amalgam controversy: the daily dose of mercury from amalgam, hypersensitivity to mercury, claims of adverse effects from amalgam mercury and alleged overnight 'cures.' In addition, the toxicity and allergenicity of the proposed alternative materials are examined with the same kind of scrutiny applied by the anti-amalgam group to dental amalgam. 100 references.

  6. Development of a global ocean mercury model with a methylation cycle: Outstanding issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semeniuk, Kirill; Dastoor, Ashu

    2017-02-01

    We present a newly developed global ocean mercury (Hg) transport and biogeochemistry model and use preanthropogenic equilibrium simulations to highlight physical and chemical processes which reveal significant knowledge gaps that need to be addressed. As with previous 3-D ocean Hg model work we use a bulk chemistry scheme based on particulate organic carbon remineralization. We also include an explicit methylation cycle based on available reaction rates. The methylation to demethylation rate ratio based on various field studies is found to be inconsistent with the concentration ratios measured in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica and in the Arctic. There is also model-measurement disagreement in the old waters of the tropical and North Pacific Ocean. The model produces an intermediate water maximum in total Hg in this region reflecting the higher age of water which is absent in observations. The model also underestimates total Hg concentrations in the deepest waters in this region. These disagreements in depth profile shape point to an inadequate representation of scavenging and sedimentation and possibly seabed emission or remobilization of Hg. In addition, the total Hg distribution differences compared to previous model work reflect sensitivity to ocean model transport characteristics and in particular the tracer diffusion. The residence time of Hg in the global ocean and the surface evasion flux of elemental Hg is sensitive to such model aspects. We find a global ocean Hg turnover time against sediment burial to be about 1100 years which is within the range of previous studies.

  7. Phase 2 confirmatory sampling data report, Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    A Remedial Investigation of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) concluded that mercury is the principal contaminant of concern in the EFPC floodplain. The highest concentrations of mercury were found to be in a visually distinct black layer of soil that typically lies 15 to 30 cm (6 to 12 in.) below the surface. Mercury contamination was found to be situated in distinct areas along the floodplain, and generally at depths > 20 cm (8 in.) below the surface. In accordance with Comprehensive, Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), a feasibility study was prepared to assess alternatives for remediation, and a proposed plan was issued to the public in which a preferred alternative was identified. In response to public input, the plan was modified and US Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Record of Decision in 1995 committing to excavating all soil in the EFPC floodplain exceeding a concentration of 400 parts per million (ppm) of mercury. The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) remedial action (RA) focuses on the stretch of EFPC flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the city of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its associated floodplain. Specific areas were identified that required remediation at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Site along Illinois Avenue and at the Bruner Site along the Oak Ridge Turnpike. The RA was conducted in two separate phases. Phase 2, conducted from February to October 1997, completed the remediation efforts at the NOAA facility and fully remediated the Bruner Site. During both phases, data were collected to show that the remedial efforts performed at the NOAA and Bruner sites were successful in implementing the Record of Decision and had no adverse impact on the creek water quality or the city of Oak Ridge publicly owned treatment works.

  8. New Jersey mercury regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, D.F.; Corbin, W.E.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, or quicksilver, and its major ore cinnabar (HgS) have been known for thousands of years. Health effects from mercury such as dementia were known as early as the late 19th century ({open_quotes}mad as a hatter{close_quotes}). In the 1960`s and 1970`s, reported levels of mercury in tuna reawakened public awareness of mercury pollution. In the 1970`s, major epidemics of acute mercury poisoning were reported in Japan and Iraq. These incidents highlighted the extreme health risks, such as kidney damage, birth defects, and death, associated with severe mercury poisoning. Fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable since mercury poisoning can damage growing neural tissues. Recently, the perception of mercury as a dangerous pollutant has been on the rise. Advisories warning the public to avoid or reduce the consumption of freshwater fish caught in specific waterbodies due to mercury contamination have been issued in numerous states. The discovery of mercury in {open_quotes}pristine{close_quotes} lakes in the United States, Canada, and Scandinavia, remote from industry and any known mercury sources, has focused attention on atmospheric emissions of mercury as potential significant sources of mercury.

  9. Distribution of total mercury and methyl mercury in water, sediment, and fish from South Florida estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Smith, R.G.; Lee, R.F.; Windom, H.L.; Heitmuller, P.T.; Macauley, J.M.; Summers, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury and methyl mercury were determined in sediment and fish collected from estuarine waters of Florida to understand their distribution and partitioning. Total mercury concentrations in sediments ranged from 1 to 219 ng/g dry wt. Methyl mercury accounted for, on average, 0.77% of total mercury in sediment. Methyl mercury concentrations were not correlated with total mercury or organic carbon content in sediments. The concentrations of total mercury in fish muscle were between 0.03 and 2.22 (mean: 0.31) ??g/g, wet wt, with methyl mercury contributing 83% of total mercury. Methyl mercury concentrations in fish muscle were directly proportional to total mercury concentrations. The relationship of total and methyl mercury concentrations in fish to those of sediments from corresponding locations was fish-species dependent, in addition to several abiotic factors. Among fish species analyzed, hardhead catfish, gafftopsail catfish, and sand seatrout contained the highest concentrations of mercury. Filtered water samples from canals and creeks that discharge into the Florida Bay showed mercury concentrations of 3-7.4 ng/L, with methyl mercury accounting for <0.03-52% of the total mercury. Consumption of fish containing 0.31 ??g mercury/g wet wt, the mean concentration found in this study, at rates greater than 70 g/day, was estimated to be hazardous to human health.

  10. FINAL REPORT ON THE AQUATIC MERCURY ASSESSMENT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, N

    2008-09-30

    In February 2000, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 issued a proposed Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for total mercury in the middle and lower Savannah River. The initial TMDL, which would have imposed a 1 ng/l mercury limit for discharges to the middle/lower Savannah River, was revised to 2.8 ng/l in the final TMDL released in February 2001. The TMDL was intended to protect people from the consumption of contaminated fish, which is the major route of mercury exposure to humans. The most bioaccumulative form of mercury is methylmercury, which is produced in aquatic environments by the action of microorganisms on inorganic mercury. Because of the environmental and economic significance of the mercury discharge limits that would have been imposed by the TMDL, the Savannah River Site (SRS) initiated several studies concerning: (1) mercury in SRS discharges, SRS streams and the Savannah River, (2) mercury bioaccumulation factors for Savannah River fish, (3) the use of clams to monitor the influence of mercury from tributary streams on biota in the Savannah River, and (4) mercury in rainwater falling on the SRS. The results of these studies are presented in detail in this report. The first study documented the occurrence, distribution and variation of total and methylmercury at SRS industrial outfalls, principal SRS streams and the Savannah River where it forms the border with the SRS. All of the analyses were performed using the EPA Method 1630/31 ultra low-level and contaminant-free techniques for measuring total and methylmercury. Total mercury at National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) outfalls ranged from 0.31-604 ng/l with a mean of 8.71 ng/l. Mercury-contaminated groundwater was the source for outfalls with significantly elevated mercury concentrations. Total mercury in SRS streams ranged from 0.95-15.7 ng/l. Mean total mercury levels in the streams varied from 2.39 ng/l in Pen Branch to 5.26 ng/l in Tims Branch

  11. Caspar Creek

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    2001-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection have gauged streamflow, and suspended sediment and precipitation since 1962 in the 473 ha North Fork and the 424 ha South Fork of the 2167 ha Caspar Creek in the Jackson Demonstation State Forest in northwestern California. Within the two Caspar...

  12. Mercury-Resistant Bacteria and Petroleum Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J. D.; Colwell, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The concentration of mercury in water and sediment and in the oil extracted from water and sediment was determined for samples collected in Colgate Creek, located in Baltimore Harbor of the Chesapeake Bay. The concentration of mercury in the oil was 4,000 times higher than in sediment and 300,000 times higher than in water samples. The mercury-resistant bacterial populations of the samples studied have been shown to degrade oil, suggesting these bacteria to be a significant factor in the degradation of oil in Colgate Creek. PMID:4809908

  13. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Planetary Base Issues for Mercury and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In references 1 through 9, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. Figures 1 depicts program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system which included lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon. Figures 2 and 3 present the results for human Mercury missions, including LEO departure masses and round trip Mercury lander masses. Using in-situ resources, the missions become less burdensome to the LEO launch infrastructure. In one example using Mercury derived hydrogen, the LEO mass of the human Mercury missions can be reduced from 2,800 MT to 1,140 MT (Ref. 15). Additional analyses of staging options for human Mercury missions will be presented. Figures 4 shows an option for thermal control for long term in-space cryogenic storage and Figure 5 depicts the potentially deleterious elements emanating from Mercury that must be addressed, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented will be presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear electric propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Human bases at Mercury may have to be resupplied from resources from regolith and water resources in permanently shadowed craters at its northern pole.

  14. Lower Walnut Creek Restoration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lower Walnut Creek Restoration Project will restore and enhance coastal wetlands along southern shoreline of Suisun Bay from Suisun Bay upstream along Walnut Creek, improving habitat quality, diversity, and connectivity along three miles of creek channel.

  15. 78 FR 938 - Burton Creek Hydro Inc., Sollos Energy, LLC'

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Burton Creek Hydro Inc., Sollos Energy, LLC' Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed December 19, 2012, Burton Creek Hydro Inc. informed the Commission that its exemption from licensing for the Burton Creek Hydro Project, FERC No. 7577, originally issued September 25...

  16. Mercury exposure and public health.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Jack C

    2007-04-01

    Mercury is a metal that is a liquid at room temperature. Mercury has a long and interesting history deriving from its use in medicine and industry, with the resultant toxicity produced. In high enough doses, all forms of mercury can produce toxicity. The most devastating tragedies related to mercury toxicity in recent history include Minamata Bay and Niagata, Japan in the 1950s, and Iraq in the 1970s. More recent mercury toxicity issues include the extreme toxicity of the dimethylmercury compound noted in 1998, the possible toxicity related to dental amalgams, and the disproved relationship between vaccines and autism related to the presence of the mercury-containing preservative, thimerosal.

  17. The effects of sediment and mercury mobilization in the South Yuba River and Humbug Creek Confluence Area, Nevada County, California: Concentrations, speciation, and environmental fate-Part 1: Field characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, Jacob A.; Alpers, Charles N.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Hothem, Roger L.; Wright, Scott A.; Ellett, Kevin; Beaulieu, Elizabeth; Agee, Jennifer L.; Kakouros, Evangelos; Kieu, Le H.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Blum, Alex E.; May, Jason T.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of pounds of mercury (Hg) were deposited in the river and stream channels of the Sierra Nevada from placer and hard-rock mining operations in the late 1800s and early 1900s. The resulting contaminated sediments are relatively harmless when buried and isolated from the overlying aquatic environment. The entrained Hg in the sediment constitutes a potential risk to human and ecosystem health should it be reintroduced to the actively cycling portion of the aquatic system, where it can become methylated and subsequently bioaccumulated in the food web. Each year, sediment is mobilized within these fluvial systems during high stormflows, transporting hundreds of tons of Hg-laden sediment downstream. The State of California and resource-management agencies, including the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service, are concerned about additional disturbances, such as from suction gold dredging activities, which have the potential to mobilize Hg associated with buried sediment layers elevated in Hg that are otherwise likely to remain buried under normal storm conditions. The BLM initiated a study looking at the feasibility of removing Hg-contaminated sediment at the confluence of the South Yuba River and Humbug Creek in the northern Sierra Nevada of California by using standard suction-dredge technology. Additionally, the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) supported a comprehensive characterization of the intended dredge site. Together, the BLM and SWRCB supported a comprehensive characterization of Hg contamination at the site and the potential effects of sediment disturbance at locations with historical hydraulic mining debris on downstream environments. The comprehensive study consisted of two primary components: field studies and laboratory experiments. The field component, described in this report, had several study elements: 1) a preliminary, small-scale, in-stream dredge test; 2) comprehensive characterization of grain

  18. Dynamic duo captures mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Senior, C.; Adams, B.

    2006-02-15

    There is strong evidence that the combination of wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) scrubbers and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) can prove a viable and formidable combination for knocking out mercury. This article analyzes the capabilities and limitations of the SCR-FGD combination for mercury compliance, including applicability to different types of coal and issues with scrubber by-products. 3 figs.

  19. The Gills Creek Watershed Association of Columbia, SC awarded $30,000 Environmental Justice Small Grant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - An Environmental Justice Small Grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been awarded to the Gills Creek Watershed Association. for their project titled: Exposure to mercury through subsistence fishing: Assessment and o

  20. Mercury Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

    2009-03-11

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on

  1. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  2. 75 FR 10328 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No. NPF-42, which... those previously imposed by Commission orders issued after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001...

  3. 1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL REGISTRY BOOTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  4. Evaluation of mercury loads from climate change projections

    Treesearch

    Paul Conrads; Paul M. Bradley; Stephen T. Benedict; Toby D. Feaster

    2016-01-01

    McTier Creek is a small coastal plain watershed located in Aiken County, South Carolina. McTier Creek forms part of the headwaters for the Edisto River basin, which is noted for having some of the highest recorded fish-tissue mercury concentrations in the United States. A simple water-quality load model, TOPLOAD, which was developed for McTier Creek, utilizes a mass...

  5. Quality of water and time-of-travel in Bakers Creek near Clinton, Mississippi. [Bakers Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkhoff, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    A short-term intensive quality-of-water study was conducted during a period of generally low streamflow in Bakers Creek and its tributary, Lindsey Creek, near Clinton, Mississippi. During the September 15-18, 1980 study, dissolved oxygen concentrations in Bakers Creek were less than 5 milligrams per liter. The specific conductance, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, nutrient concentrations, and bacteria densities in Bakers Creek decreased downstream through the study reach. The mean specific conductance decreased from 670 to 306 microhms per centimeter. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand decreased from 19 to 2.8 milligrams per liter. The mean total nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations decreased from 10 and 7.1 to 1.0 and 0.87 milligram per litter, respectively. The maximum fecal bacteria decreased from 7200 to 400 colonies per 100 milliliter. The concentrations of mercury, iron, and manganese in a sample collected at the downstream site exceeded recommended limits. Diazinon and 2,4-D were also present in the water. A bottom material sample contained DDD (2.5 micrograms per kilogram), DDE (2.7 micrograms per kilogram), and DDT (.3 micrograms per kilogram). The tributary inflow from Lindsey Creek did not improve the water quality of Bakers Creek. The dissolved oxygen concentrations were generally less than 5.0 milligrams per liter at the sampling site on Lindsey Creek. The 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, the mean specific conductance, and fecal coliform densities were greater in the tributary than at the downstream site on Bakers Creek. The average rate of travel through a 1.8-mile reach of Bakers Creek was 0.06 foot per second or 0.04 miles per hour. 6 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Modeling Mercury in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Parks, J M; Smith, J C

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively nontoxic, other forms such as Hg(2+) and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg(2+) can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg(2+) to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed molecular picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here, we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intraprotein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand-binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confer mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multiscale model of environmental mercury cycling. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling Mercury in Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeremy C; Parks, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively non-toxic, other forms such as Hg2+ and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg2+ can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg2+ to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intra-protein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confers mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multi-scale model of environmental mercury cycling.

  8. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  9. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  10. From Mercury to Apollo: astronaut Alan Shepard reflects on life support and other space issues [interview by Winston Huff].

    PubMed

    Shepard, A

    1995-01-01

    Alan Shepard was one of the original Mercury astronauts. He became the first American in space on May 5, 1961, in the Freedom 7 capsule, during a 15 minute suborbital trip reaching 115 miles altitude and 302 miles down the Atlantic tracking range. Grounded by an inner ear problem, he served as Chief of the Astronaut Office for several years. After an operation to correct the problem, he commanded the Apollo 14 moon mission in 1971. He retired as a Rear Admiral in 1974. Here, Alan Shepard offers his views on life support comedies and tragedies, going back to the moon, future drivers of the manned space flight program, the benefits of the space program, joint NASA and Russia missions, how his NASA experience affected his personal life, and the profitability of working with NASA.

  11. Mercury and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  12. Assessment of surface-water quality and water-quality control alternatives, Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Johnson Creek flows through a basin of approximately 51 square miles with mixed land uses over a reach of approximately 24 river miles from southeast of Gresham, Oregon, to its confluence with the Willamette River in Milwaukie, Oregon. Land uses within the basin include forested and agricultural lands, suburban residential, urban, and light industrial. Surface runoff and ground-water flow from the basin's areas of various land-use contain concentrations of some nutrients, trace elements, and organic compounds at levels exceeding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) criteria. Concentrations of dissolved cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, and silver, total recoverable chlordane, dieldrin, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) plus metabolites indicate that sources of at least one or more of these constituents exist in virtually every reach of Johnson Creek. Crystal Springs Creek is a major source of nutrients in lower Johnson Creek. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate and orthophosphorus in Johnson Creek are elevated at low flow, and are reduced by dilution when urban runoff flows into the creek during storms. Total-phosphorus concentrations exceed USEPA criteria at several sites in Johnson Creek during low flow, and at all sites during periods of storm runoff. The low-flow concentration of dissolved silver exceeded the USEPA Fresh Water Chronic Toxicity (FWCT) criterion only in Crystal Springs Creek. Concentrations of dissolved cadmium, copper, lead, and mercury exceeded FWCT criteria at selected sites in Johnson creek basin during storm runoff.

  13. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  14. Socioeconomic consequences of mercury use and pollution.

    PubMed

    Swain, Edward B; Jakus, Paul M; Rice, Glenn; Lupi, Frank; Maxson, Peter A; Pacyna, Jozef M; Penn, Alan; Spiegel, Samuel J; Veiga, Marcello M

    2007-02-01

    In the past, human activities often resulted in mercury releases to the biosphere with little consideration of undesirable consequences for the health of humans and wildlife. This paper outlines the pathways through which humans and wildlife are exposed to mercury. Fish consumption is the major route of exposure to methylmercury. Humans can also receive toxic doses of mercury through inhalation of elevated concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury. We propose that any effective strategy for reducing mercury exposures requires an examination of the complete life cycle of mercury. This paper examines the life cycle of mercury from a global perspective and then identifies several approaches to measuring the benefits of reducing mercury exposure, policy options for reducing Hg emissions, possible exposure reduction mechanisms, and issues associated with mercury risk assessment and communication for different populations.

  15. The Biswell symposium: fire issues and solutions in urban interface and wildland ecosystems; February 15-17, 1994; Walnut Creek, California

    Treesearch

    David R. Weise; Robert E. Martin

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings summarize the results of a symposium designed to address current issues about wildfire and prescribed fire in both the wildland-urban interface and in wildlands. Thirty-eight invited oral papers and 23 poster papers describing the issues and state-of-the-art solutions to technical, biological, and social challenges currently facing land and fire...

  16. Potential Moderating Effects of Selenium on Mercury Uptake and Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Fish From Oak Ridge and Savannah River Site - 12086

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Donio, Mark; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn

    2012-07-01

    Mercury contamination is an important remediation issue at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and to a lesser extent at other DOE sites because of the hazard it presents, potential consequences to humans and eco-receptors, and completed pathways, to offsite receptors. Recent work has emphasized that selenium might ameliorate the toxicity of mercury, and we examine the selenium:mercury (Se:Hg) molar ratios in fish from Oak Ridge, and compare them to Se:Hg molar ratios in fish from the Savannah River. Selenium/mercury molar ratios varied considerably among and within fish species. There was considerable variation in the molar ratios for individual fish (as opposed to mean ratios by species) for freshwater fish from both sites. The inter-individual variation in molar ratios indicates that such that the molar ratios of mean Se and Hg concentrations may not be representative. Even for fish species with relatively low mercury levels, some individual fish have molar ratios less than unity, the value sometime thought to be protective. Selenium levels varied narrowly regardless of fish size, consistent with homeostatic regulation of this essential trace element. The data indicate that considerable attention will need to be directed toward variations and variances, as well as the mechanisms of the interaction of selenium and mercury, before risk assessment and risk management policies can use this information to manage mercury pollution and risk. Even so, if there are high levels of selenium in the fish from Poplar Creek on Oak Ridge, then the potential exists for some amelioration of adverse health effects, on the fish themselves, predators that eat them, and people who consume them. This work will aid DOE because it will allow managers and scientists to understand another aspect that affects fate and transport of mercury, as well as the potential effects of methylmercury in fish for human and ecological receptors. The variability within fish

  17. Emissions of forest floor and mineral soil carbon, nitrogen and mercury pools and relationships with fire severity for the Pagami Creek Fire in the Boreal Forest of northern Minnesota

    Treesearch

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian R. Sturtevant; Jessica R. Miesel; Aditya Singh; Peter T. Wolter; Shawn Fraver; Thomas M. DeSutter; Phil A. Townsend

    2017-01-01

    Forest fires cause large emissions of C (carbon), N (nitrogen) and Hg (mercury) to the atmosphere and thus have important implications for global warming (e.g. via CO2 and N2O emissions), anthropogenic fertilisation of natural ecosystems (e.g. via N deposition), and bioaccumulation of harmful metals in aquatic and...

  18. Simulating Multi-Scale Fate and Transport of Mercury from Atmospheric Deposition to Receiving Surface Waters Across and Through the Terrestrial Landscape in a Coastal Plain Watershed (McTier Creek, SC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.1 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate and transport of Hg in streams and rivers are not well understood, in large part, because these s...

  19. Simulating Multi-Scale Fate and Transport of Mercury from Atmospheric Deposition to Receiving Surface Waters Across and Through the Terrestrial Landscape in a Coastal Plain Watershed (McTier Creek, SC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) is the toxicant responsible for the largest number of fish advisories across the United States, with 1.1 million river miles under advisory. The processes governing fate and transport of Hg in streams and rivers are not well understood, in large part, because these s...

  20. Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.

    This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.

    Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  1. 77 FR 6013 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Cheesequake Creek, Morgan, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Cheesequake Creek, Morgan, NJ AGENCY... Coast Guard District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the New Jersey Transit Rail Operation (NJTRO) Railroad Bridge across Cheesequake Creek, mile 0.2,...

  2. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-9 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Atlas launch vehicle, was the last flight of the Mercury Project. The Faith 7 spacecraft orbited the Earth 22 times in 1-1/2 days.

  3. 76 FR 62758 - Wallowa-Whitman and Umatilla National Forests, Oregon Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... Forest Service Wallowa-Whitman and Umatilla National Forests, Oregon Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans... of mining Plans of Operation in the Granite Creek Watershed Mining Plans analysis area on the Whitman... proposed mining Plans in the portions of the Granite Creek Watershed under their administration. As issues...

  4. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  5. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  6. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  7. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  8. Mineral resources of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, Twelve Mile Creek, and Willow Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Malheur and Harney counties, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.; Rytuba, J.J.; Plouff, D.; Vercountere, T.L.; Turner, R.L.; Sawatzky, D.L. ); Leszcykowski, A.M.; Peters, T.J.; Schmauch, S.W.; Winters, R.A. )

    1988-01-01

    The four contiguous study areas are located in a volcanic terrane dominated by tuffs that were erupted from calderas of the McDermitt Caldera complex and the Whitehorse Caldera. None of these areas have identified resources, despite the proximity of mercury, uranium, and lithium mineralization to the south. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek and the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Areas have a low potential for mercury and uranium. The southern parts of the Fifteen Mile Creek, Oregon Canyon, and Willow Creek and the northwestern part of the Oregon Wilderness Study Areas have low potential for antimony, bismuth, mercury, silver,molybdenum, and zinc. In the Oregon Canyon Wilderness Study Area, the tuff of Oregon Canyon and the rim of the caldera of the McDermitt Caldera complex have a low potential for gold and silver in epithermal veins. The study areas have a low potential for zeolite minerals, oil and gas, and geothermal energy throughout, and restricted parts of the study areas have a low potential for pumice, rare-earth elements, zirconium, and decorative building stone.

  9. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  10. Mercury contamination of aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Rickert, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Mercury has been well known as an environmental pollutant for several decades. As early as the 1950's it was established that emissions of mercury to the environment could have serious effects on human health. These early studies demonstrated that fish and other wildlife from various ecosystems commonly attain mercury levels of toxicological concern when directly affected by mercury-containing emissions from human-related activities. Human health concerns arise when fish and wildlife from these ecosystems are consumed by humans. During the past decade, a new trend has emerged with regard to mercury pollution. Investigations initiated in the late 1980's in the northern-tier states of the U.S., Canada, and Nordic countries found that fish, mainly from nutrient-poor lakes and often in very remote areas, commonly have high levels of mercury. More recent fish sampling surveys in other regions of the U.S. have shown widespread mercury contamination in streams, wet-lands, reservoirs, and lakes. To date, 33 states have issued fish consumption advisories because of mercury contamination. These continental to global scale occurrences of mercury contamination cannot be linked to individual emissions of mercury, but instead are due to widespread air pollution. When scientists measure mercury levels in air and surface water, however, the observed levels are extraordinarily low. In fact, scientists have to take extreme precautions to avoid direct contact with water samples or sample containers, to avert sample contamination (Fig 3). Herein lies an apparent discrepancy: Why do fish from some remote areas have elevated mercury concentrations, when contamination levels in the environment are so low?

  11. Got Mercury?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, Torin J.; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2010-09-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed by the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may vaporize completely when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. We estimated mercury vapor releases from stowed lamps during missions lasting ≤ 30 days, whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from stowed lamps during missions lasting > 30 days and from operating lamps regardless of mission duration. The toxicity of mercury and its lack of removal have led Johnson Space Center’s Toxicology Group to recommend stringent safety controls and verifications for hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations > 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting ≤ 30 days, or concentrations > 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting > 30 days.

  12. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-07-21

    Astronaut Virgil Gus Grissom awaits America's second marned space mission, Mercury-Redstone 4 (MR-4) on July 21, 1961. During the 15-minute suborbital flight, the Liberty Bell 7 Mercury spacecraft reached an altitude of 118 miles and traveled 303 miles downrange. It was the fourth flight of the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle (MR-4), developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team in Huntsville, Alabama.

  13. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    Ham, a three-year-old chimpanzee, in the spacesuit he would wear for the second Mercury- Redstone (MR-2) suborbital test flight in January, 1961. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury capsule before launching the fisrt American astronaut, Alan Shepard, in May 1961. The Mercury capsule rode atop a modified Redstone rocket, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the German Rocket Team in Huntsville, Alabama.

  14. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency's (ABMA) Development Operations Division, poses with the original Mercury astronauts in ABMA's Fabrication Laboratory during a 1959 visit. Inspecting Mercury-Redstone hardware are from left to right, Alan Shepard, Donald Deke Slayton, Virgil Gus Grissom, von Braun, Gordon Cooper, Wally Schirra, John Glenn, and Scott Carpenter. Project Mercury officially began October 7, 1958 as the United States' first manned space program.

  15. CALIBRATION AND EVALUATION OF A MERCURY MODEL FOR A WESTERN STREAM AND CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have shown that Steamboat Creek in Nevada is highly contaminated with mercury, with aqueous mercury concentrations more than two orders of magnitude greater than nearby mountain streams. One objective of this study was to determine if the new Spreadsheet-based E...

  16. CALIBRATION AND EVALUATION OF A MERCURY MODEL FOR A WESTERN STREAM AND CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have shown that Steamboat Creek in Nevada is highly contaminated with mercury, with aqueous mercury concentrations more than two orders of magnitude greater than nearby mountain streams. One objective of this study was to determine if the new Spreadsheet-based E...

  17. 2015 Subpoena and Information Request from EPA to Mercury Recyclers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA issued formal requests for information to five companies believed to be the primary recyclers/retorters and distributors of mercury in the United States to gain a better understanding of the mercury recycling marketplace.

  18. THERMODYNAMIC REACTION CONSTANTS FOR MODELING AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTAL MERCURY SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unacceptably high fish tissue mercury residues are responsible for the majority of fish consumption advisories issued in 48 states of the United States of America. Mercury also has emerged as a transboundary contaminant of global concern. Although monomethylmercury is generally...

  19. THERMODYNAMIC REACTION CONSTANTS FOR MODELING AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTAL MERCURY SPECIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unacceptably high fish tissue mercury residues are responsible for the majority of fish consumption advisories issued in 48 states of the United States of America. Mercury also has emerged as a transboundary contaminant of global concern. Although monomethylmercury is generally...

  20. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  1. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-01-01

    In this 1959 photograph, technicians prepare tail sections for Mercury-Redstone vehicles in Building 4706 at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team at Redstone, the Mercury-Redstone launched the first two marned U.S. missions.

  2. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    The recovery operation of the Faith 7 spacecraft after the completion of the 1-1/2 day orbital flight (MA-9 mission) with Astronaut Gordon Cooper. Navy frogmen attach the flotation collar to the spacecraft. The MA-9 mission was the last flight of the Mercury Project and launched on May 15, 1963 boosted by The Mercury-Atlas launch vehicle.

  3. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-09-09

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The Freedom 7 spacecraft boosted by Mercury-Redstone vehicle for the MR-3 mission made the first marned suborbital flight and Astronaut Shepard became the first American in space.

  4. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut Walter M. "Wally" Schirra, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-8 (Mercury-Atlas) mission with Sigma 7 spacecraft was the third marned orbital flight by the United States, and made the six orbits in 9-1/4 hours.

  5. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MR-4 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Redstone vehicle, made the second marned suborbital flight. The capsule, Liberty Bell 7, sank into the sea after the splashdown.

  6. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    Astronaut John H. Glenn, one of the original seven astronauts for Mercury Project selected by NASA on April 27, 1959. The MA-6 mission, boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, was the first manned orbital launch by the United States, and carried Astronaut Glenn aboard the Friendship 7 spacecraft to orbit the Earth.

  7. RECOVERY OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED LIQUID WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    Robin M. Stewart

    1999-09-29

    Mercury was widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons facilities, resulting in a broad range of mercury-contaminated wastes and wastewaters. Some of the mercury contamination has escaped to the local environment, particularly at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where approximately 330 metric tons of mercury were discharged to the environment between 1953 and 1963 (TN & Associates, 1998). Effective removal of mercury contamination from water is a complex and difficult problem. In particular, mercury treatment of natural waters is difficult because of the low regulatory standards. For example, the Environmental Protection Agency has established a national ambient water quality standard of 12 parts-per-trillion (ppt), whereas the standard is 1.8 ppt in the Great Lakes Region. In addition, mercury in the environment is typically present in several different forms, but sorption processes are rarely effective with more than one or two of these forms. To meet the low regulatory discharge limits, an effective sorption process must be able to address all forms of mercury present in the water. One approach is to apply different sorbents in series depending on the mercury speciation and the regulatory discharge limits. ADA Technologies, Inc. has developed four new sorbents to address the variety of mercury species present in industrial discharges and natural waters. Three of these sorbents have been field tested on contaminated creek water at the Y-12 Plant. Two of these sorbents have been successfully demonstrated very high removal efficiencies for soluble mercury species, reducing mercury concentrations at the outlet of a pilot-scale system to less than 12 ppt for as long as six months. The other sorbent tested at the Y-12 Plant targeted colloidal mercury not removed by standard sorption or filtration processes. At the Y-12 Plant, colloidal mercury appears to be associated with iron, so a sorbent that removes mercury-iron complexes in the presence of a

  8. Human exposure and health effects of inorganic and elemental mercury.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Duck; Zheng, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety.

  9. Human Exposure and Health Effects of Inorganic and Elemental Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic and non-essential metal in the human body. Mercury is ubiquitously distributed in the environment, present in natural products, and exists extensively in items encountered in daily life. There are three forms of mercury, i.e., elemental (or metallic) mercury, inorganic mercury compounds, and organic mercury compounds. This review examines the toxicity of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds. Inorganic mercury compounds are water soluble with a bioavailability of 7% to 15% after ingestion; they are also irritants and cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Upon entering the body, inorganic mercury compounds are accumulated mainly in the kidneys and produce kidney damage. In contrast, human exposure to elemental mercury is mainly by inhalation, followed by rapid absorption and distribution in all major organs. Elemental mercury from ingestion is poorly absorbed with a bioavailability of less than 0.01%. The primary target organs of elemental mercury are the brain and kidney. Elemental mercury is lipid soluble and can cross the blood-brain barrier, while inorganic mercury compounds are not lipid soluble, rendering them unable to cross the blood-brain barrier. Elemental mercury may also enter the brain from the nasal cavity through the olfactory pathway. The blood mercury is a useful biomarker after short-term and high-level exposure, whereas the urine mercury is the ideal biomarker for long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic mercury, and also as a good indicator of body burden. This review discusses the common sources of mercury exposure, skin lightening products containing mercury and mercury release from dental amalgam filling, two issues that happen in daily life, bear significant public health importance, and yet undergo extensive debate on their safety. PMID:23230464

  10. Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1998-10-15

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biologicai Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the compiex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC, These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumuiation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macro invertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five sites, although sites maybe excluded and/or others added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6

  11. Final report for the Central Mercury Treatment System in Building 9623 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This document discusses the construction of the Central Mercury Treatment System (CMTS) in Building 9623 at the Y-12 Plant, the remediation activities involved, waste generated from the project, and the monitoring schedule of the CMTS. As part of the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluent Program, the project treats groundwater contaminated with mercury from Buildings 9201-4, 9201-5, and 9204-4 at the Y-12 Plant to meet National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit limits for discharge to East Fork Poplar Creek. The CMTS, located in Building 9623, will treat water from the sumps of buildings in which mercury was used in operations and which have been shown to be significant contributors to the overall levels of mercury in plant effluents. This project was anticipated when the NPDES Permit was issued, and the contamination limits and frequency of monitoring for the system discharge are detailed in the permit as Outfall 551. This project was performed as an Incentive Task Order and included the advance procurement of the carbon columns, removal of existing equipment in Building 9623, and system installation and checkout. Construction activities for installing the system started in January 1996 after the area in Building 9623 had been cleared of existing, obsolete equipment. The CMTS became operational on November 26, 1996, well ahead of the permit start date of January 1, 1998. The early completion date allows Hg concentrations in EFPC to be evaluated to determine whether further actions are required to meet NPDES permit limits for reduced Hg loading to the creek.

  12. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-31

    A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee "Ham" over 640 kilometers down range in an arching trajectory that reached a peak of 254 kilometers above the Earth. The mission was successful and Ham performed his lever-pulling task well in response to the flashing light. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury Capsule before launching the first American astronaut Alan Shepard in May 1961. The successful flight and recovery confirmed the soundness of the Mercury-Redstone systems.

  13. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    A three-year-old chimpanzee, named Ham, in the biopack couch for the MR-2 suborbital test flight. On January 31, 1961, a Mercury-Redstone launch from Cape Canaveral carried the chimpanzee "Ham" over 640 kilometers down range in an arching trajectory that reached a peak of 254 kilometers above the Earth. The mission was successful and Ham performed his lever-pulling task well in response to the flashing light. NASA used chimpanzees and other primates to test the Mercury Capsule before launching the first American astronaut Alan Shepard in May 1961. The successful flight and recovery confirmed the soundness of the Mercury-Redstone systems.

  14. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-04-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  15. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-07-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  16. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-10-18

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and

  17. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  18. Soap Creek Associates NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  19. Mercury and trace elements in crayfish from northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Bergen, D.R.; Bauer, M.L.; Crayon, J.J.; Meckstroth, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    We collected two species of crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii, from Cache and Putah Creeks, California, and analyzed them for mercury and trace elements. Trace elements were higher in carcasses in 40 cases, higher in tails in 5 cases, and not different in 35 cases; no concentration exceeded levels considered harmful. Mercury concentrations were similar among sites, with no overall sex or species effect in tails. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations were higher in tails at all sites. Methylmercury concentrations in crayfish tails (0.156-0.256 ??g/g) exceeded concentrations reported in health advisories for consumption of fish and crayfish from these watersheds. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  20. Mercury and trace elements in crayfish from northern california.

    PubMed

    Hothem, Roger L; Bergen, Darrin R; Bauer, Marissa L; Crayon, John J; Meckstroth, Anne M

    2007-12-01

    We collected two species of crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus and Procambarus clarkii, from Cache and Putah Creeks, California, and analyzed them for mercury and trace elements. Trace elements were higher in carcasses in 40 cases, higher in tails in 5 cases, and not different in 35 cases; no concentration exceeded levels considered harmful. Mercury concentrations were similar among sites, with no overall sex or species effect in tails. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations were higher in tails at all sites. Methylmercury concentrations in crayfish tails (0.156-0.256 microg/g) exceeded concentrations reported in health advisories for consumption of fish and crayfish from these watersheds.

  1. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Dr. von Braun addresses a crowd celebrating in front of the Madison County Alabama Courthouse following the successful launch of Astronaut Alan Shepard (America's first astronaut in space) into space on a Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, Freedom 7. Shepard's Mercury Spacecraft, was launched from Cape Canaveral. He reached a speed of 5200 mph. His flight lasted 15-1/2 minutes. May 5, 1961 (Photo: Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  2. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1950-01-01

    A Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle awaits test-firing in the Redstone Test Stand during the late 1950s. Between 1953 and 1960, the rocket team at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama performed hundreds of test firings on the Redstone rocket, over 200 on the Mercury-Redstone vehicle configuration alone. It was this configuration which launched America's first two marned space missions, Freedom 7 and Liberty Bell 7,in 1961.

  3. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr. awaits liftoff in the Freedom 7 Mercury spacecraft on May 5, 1961. This third flight of the Mercury-Redstone (MR-3) vehicle, developed by D. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team in Huntsville, Alabama, was the first marned space mission for the United States. During the 15-minute suborbital flight, Shepard reached an altitude of 115 miles and traveled 302 miles downrange.

  4. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Alan B. Shepard, Jr., America's first astronaut, stands in front of the Freedom 7 spacecraft shortly after completion of the third flight of the Mercury-Redstone (MR-3) vehicle, May 5, 1961. During the 15-minute suborbital flight, the Freedom 7 Mercury spacecraft, launched atop a modified Redstone rocket developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team in Huntsville, Alabama, reached an altitude of 115 miles and traveled 302 miles downrange.

  5. Sources of mercury in a contaminated stream--implications for the timescale of recovery.

    PubMed

    Southworth, George; Mathews, Teresa; Greeley, Mark; Peterson, Mark; Brooks, Scott; Ketelle, Dick

    2013-04-01

    Mercury contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek in Tennessee arises from dissolved mercury exiting a headwater industrial complex and residual mercury in the streambed and soil throughout the watershed downstream. The headwater inputs generate chronic base flow concentrations of total mercury of about 1,000 ng/L, but most of the annual export of mercury from the system appears to originate farther downstream. Effective targeting of remedial efforts requires determining how long downstream sources might continue to contaminate the system following elimination of the headwater mercury inputs. The authors calculations suggest that (1) contaminated soils and sediments account for >80% of the annual mercury export from the entire watershed, with most export occurring during wet weather events; (2) bank erosion and resuspension of streambed particulates are the major mercury sources maintaining high annual mercury export rates; and (3) the inventory of particle-associated mercury in the streambed was not large enough to sustain the estimated export rates for more than a few years. The authors findings imply that to prevent waterborne mercury contamination in this system from continuing for decades, remedial actions will have to control the headwater mercury source that sustains day-to-day base flow mercury concentrations and the riparian stream-bank sources that generate most of the mercury export from the system.

  6. Binding, distribution, and plant uptake of mercury in a soil from Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

    PubMed

    Han, Fengxiang X; Su, Yi; Monts, David L; Waggoner, Charles A; Plodinec, M John

    2006-09-15

    A large amount of mercury has been discharged on the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Site (Tennessee) as a part of the U.S. nuclear weapon program during the 1950s through the early 1960s. Increases in mercury concentration in fish and in lower East Fork Poplar Creek of Oak Ridge have been recently reported. This is an experimental study mimicking the initial stage of transformation and redistribution of mercury in soils, which are comparable to those of the Oak Ridge site. The objectives of this study were to investigate potential transformation, distribution, and plant uptake of mercury compounds in soils. Results show that the H(2)O(2)-oxidizable mercury fraction (organically bound mercury) was the major solid-phase fraction in soils freshly contaminated with soluble mercury compounds, while cinnabar fraction was the major solid phase fraction in soils contaminated with HgS. Langmuir relationships were found between mercury concentrations in plant shoots and in soil solid-phase components. Mercury in HgS-contaminated soils was to some extent phytoavailable to plants. Mercury transformation occurred from more labile fractions into more stable fractions, resulting in strong binding of mercury and decreasing its phytoavailability in soils. In addition, high mercury losses from soils contaminated with soluble mercury compounds were observed during a growing season through volatilization, accounting for 20-62% of the total initial mercury in soils.

  7. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie; James, John T.; McCoy, Torin; Garcia, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed through the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may be completely vaporized when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. Using an existing study, we estimated mercury vapor releases from lamps that are not in operation during missions lasting less than or equal to 30 days; whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from lamps that are operating or being used during missions lasing more than 30 days. Based on mercury toxicity, the Johnson Space Center's Toxicology Group recommends stringent safety controls and verifications for any hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting less than or equal to 30 days, or concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting more than 30 days.

  8. Detecting potassium on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    A critical comment on the work of A.L. Sprague et al. (1990) is presented. It is argued that, in attributing an enhanced emission in the potassium D lines on Oct. 14, 1987 in the equatorial region of Mercury to a diffusion source centered on Caloris Basin, Sprague et al. misinterpreted the data. Sprague et al. present a reply, taking issue with the commenters.

  9. Reynolds Creek long-term agricultural research

    Treesearch

    Mark Seyfried; Fred Pierson; Tony Svjecar; Kathleen Lohse

    2016-01-01

    The Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) was established by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in 1960 to investigate rangeland hydrology issues in the northwestern USA. The site, which is administered by the Northwest Watershed Research Center (NWRC) in Boise, Idaho, is representative of much of the region, with a 1000 m elevation range and associated...

  10. [Mercury in vaccines].

    PubMed

    Hessel, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere

  11. Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Ward W. McCaughey

    1996-01-01

    The Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, established in 1961, is representative of the vast expanses of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) found east of the Continental Divide in Montana, southwest Alberta, and Wyoming. Discrete generations of even-age lodgepole stands form a mosaic typical of the fireprone forests at moderate to high altitudes in the Northern Rocky...

  12. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

  13. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

  14. Bent Creek demonstration program

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg

    1997-01-01

    Bent Creek Research and Demonstration Forest scientists have transferred the results of research on the ecology and management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods since 1925. Since 1989, a full-time technology transfer specialist has led demonstration efforts. The demonstration program was designed to quickly transfer research results to interested users and to free...

  15. Bent Creek demonstration program

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg

    1997-01-01

    Bent Creek Research and Demonstration Forest scientists have transferred the results of research on the ecology and management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods since 1925. Since 1989, a full-time technology transfer specialist has led demonstration efforts. The demonstration program was designed to quickly transfer research results to interested users, and free-up...

  16. Trout Creek 1999 Burn

    Treesearch

    Sherel Goodrich

    2008-01-01

    A small prescribed fire near the mouth of Trout Creek in Strawberry Valley, Wasatch County, Utah, on the Uinta National Forest provided an opportunity to compare production and vascular plant composition in unburned and burned areas. At four years post burn, production of herbaceous plants was about four times greater in the burned area than in the unburned area. Most...

  17. Mercury fluxes out of glacial and non-glacial streams, as determined by continuous measurements of turbidity and CDOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermilyea, A.; Nagorski, S. A.; Lamborg, C. H.; Scott, D.; Hood, E. W.

    2011-12-01

    Glaciers and icefields along the Alaskan coast contribute nearly half of the freshwater discharge to the Gulf of Alaska and can play an important role in near-shore marine ecosystems. In southeastern Alaska, glaciers are rapidly thinning and retreating and are being replaced by temperate forests and wetlands. This ongoing landscape evolution is altering the sensitivity of coastal watersheds to atmospheric Hg inputs. The influence of glacial runoff with high suspended sediment loads on in-stream mercury fluxes and dynamics is poorly understood. In contrast, numerous studies have shown that streams with large contributions from wetlands typically carry high dissolved organic matter (DOM) and filtered methylmercury (FMHg) loads. This study compares and contrasts the mercury concentrations, fluxes, partitioning, and speciation in two coastal watersheds in southeastern Alaska. The two watersheds are separated by only 23 km and are relatively similar in area, however one is heavily glaciated (Lemon Creek) and one is dominated by temperate forest and wetlands (Peterson Creek). Grab samples for unfiltered total mercury (UTHg), particulate total mercury (PTHg), filtered total mercury (FTHg), and FMHg were taken during three, 4-day sampling periods within the glacial melt season (May-Sept) while continuously monitoring in-situ chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence and stream turbidity. While UTHg concentration-discharge relationships were poor (R2=0.38-0.55) in both streams, flux estimates for UTHg were greatly improved using CDOM fluorescence (R2=0.82) for Peterson Creek, and turbidity (R2=0.81) for Lemon Creek. UTHg concentrations were consistently greater in Peterson Creek (factor of 1.7-2.3); however, the watershed area normalized UTHg flux was 3-6 times greater in glacial Lemon Creek than Peterson Creek across all time periods. In Peterson Creek, the majority of the UTHg was in the filtered phase, whereas in Lemon Creek the majority of the mercury

  18. Assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace elements in selected placer-mined creeks in the birch creek watershed near central, Alaska, 2001-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    , less than 10 milligrams per liter, in median suspended-sediment concentration for either basin. During low-flow conditions in 2004 and 2005, previously mined areas investigated on Harrison Creek and on Frying Pan Creek did not contribute substantial suspended sediments to sample sites downstream from the mined areas. No substantial mining-related water- or sediment-quality problems were detected at any of the sites investigated in the upper Birch Creek watershed during low-flow conditions. Average annual streamflow and precipitation were near normal in 2002 and 2003. Drought conditions, extreme forest fire impact, and low annual streamflow set apart the 2004 and 2005 summer seasons. Daily mean streamflow for upper Birch Creek varied throughout the period of record-from maximums of about 1,000 cubic feet per second to minimums of about 20 cubic feet per second. Streamflow increased and decreased rapidly in response to rainfall and rapid snowmelt events because the steep slopes, thin soil cover, and permafrost areas in the watershed have little capacity to retain runoff. Median suspended-sediment concentrations for the 115 paired samples from Frying Pan Creek and 101 paired samples from Harrison Creek were less than the 20 milligrams per liter total maximum daily load. The total maximum daily load was set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the upper Birch Creek basin in 1996. Suspended-sediment paired-sample data were collected using automated samplers in 2004 and 2005, primarily during low-flow conditions. Suspended-sediment concentrations in grab samples from miscellaneous sites ranged from less than 1 milligram per liter during low-flow conditions to 1,386 milligrams per liter during a high-flow event on upper Birch Creek. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at six sites on Harrison Creek, two sites on Frying Pan Creek, and one site on upper Birch Creek. Trace-element concentrations of mercury, lead, and zinc in streambed sedimen

  19. [Mercury loading from amalgam fillings].

    PubMed

    Wirz, J; Ivanović, D; Schmidli, F

    1990-01-01

    Recently, the dental filling material amalgam has again been a target of criticism, especially within the mass media. The controversy has been further fueled by the combination of the patients' desire for fillings to match tooth colouring and this latest wave of artificially created fear of the poison mercury. The investigation submitted here is seen as a contribution toward clearing up the issue of any risk. Using flameless atom absorption spectroscopy, blood and urine samples were taken from four test groups and examined for their mercury content. Two of the participating groups tested (dentists and assistants) were actively processing mercury while the other two, one with and one without amalgam fillings, served as control groups. In the daily preparation of amalgam, dental staff working in the dental office were subject to greater exposure to mercury vapours. Their blood readings, therefore, were double those of the control group, while their urine readings were much higher than those for people not working with mercury. The two control groups (with and without amalgam fillings) showed no significant difference in mercury levels, which implies that these slight traces of mercury can be attributed to food and the environment. Although the mercury readings of the dental office personnel were twice as high as that of the control group, there was no threat of mercury poisoning for any of the four groups. The continued use of amalgam fillings in teeth can be recommended without reservation and at no risk to the patient. Particular measures must be taken to guarantee the safety of office staff.

  20. Environmental assessment of water, sediment, and biota collected from the Bear Creek watershed, Colusa County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Goldstein, Daniel; May, Jason T.

    2015-01-01

    The Cache Creek watershed lies within California's North Coast Range, an area with abundant geologic sources of mercury (Hg) and a long history of Hg contamination (Rytuba, 2000). Bear Creek, Cache Creek, and the North Fork of Cache Creek are the major streams of the Cache Creek watershed, encompassing 2978 km2. The Cache Creek watershed contains soils naturally enriched in Hg as well as natural springs (both hot and cold) with varying levels of aqueous Hg (Domagalski and others, 2004, Suchanek and others, 2004, Holloway and others 2009). All three tributaries are known to be significant sources of anthropogenically derived Hg from historic mines, both Hg and gold (Au), and associated ore storage/processing sites and facilities (Slotton and others, 1995, 2004; CVRWQCB, 2003; Schwarzbach and others, 2001; Gassel and others, 2005; Suchanek and others., 2004, 2008a, 2009). Historically, two of the primary sources of mercury contamination in the upper part of Bear Creek have been the Rathburn and Petray Hg Mines. The Rathburn Hg mine was discovered and initially mined in the early 1890s. The Rathburn and the more recently developed Petray open pit mines are localized along fault zones in serpentinite that has been altered and cut by quartz and chalcedony veins. Cold saline-carbonate springs are located perepheral to the Hg deposits and effluent from the springs locally has high concentrations of Hg (Slowey and Rytuba, 2008). Several ephemeral tributaries to Bear Creek drain the mine area which is located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and other geochemical constituents in sediment, water, and biota to establish baseline information prior to remediation of the Rathburn and Petray mines. Samples sites were established in Bear Creek upstream and downstream from the mine area. This report is made in response to the USBLM request, the lead agency

  1. The Caspar Creek Watershed Study Completes 40 Years of Research

    Treesearch

    California Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection

    2003-01-01

    This is the first issue of the State Forests Research and Demonstration program's newsletter. With this initial issue we have chosen to highlight the Caspar Creek Watershed Study and the contributions it is making toward a better understanding of the impacts of forest management on the environment.

  2. EPA'S OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE ON THE LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT OF EXCESS MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency is discussing the issues of the long-tem management and retirement of excess mercury. The concept of mercury "retirement" or the long-term management of excess mercury is in its infancy. Currently, the regulatory system supports all mercury recycling initiatives. There...

  3. EPA'S OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PERSPECTIVE ON THE LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT OF EXCESS MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agency is discussing the issues of the long-tem management and retirement of excess mercury. The concept of mercury "retirement" or the long-term management of excess mercury is in its infancy. Currently, the regulatory system supports all mercury recycling initiatives. There...

  4. Putting dental mercury pollution into perspective.

    PubMed

    Jones, D W

    2004-08-28

    This paper deals with the issue of amalgam waste from dental offices. The aim is to put into perspective the very small contribution of dental mercury to the overall volume of mercury discharged into the environment each year. While the amount discharged from dental offices is very small compared to other sources, the amount discharged into the environment from amalgam fillings in people's mouths is estimated as less than 2% of the amount from dental offices. At least 50% of mercury in the environment comes from natural sources. The major source of man-made mercury pollution is the industrial burning of fossil fuels. It is important to distinguish between inorganic mercury and organic mercury in terms of the impact on the health of the population.

  5. Sources of baseflow for the Minnehaha Creek Watershed, Minnesota, US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieber, J. L.; Moore, T. L.; Gulliver, J. S.; Magner, J. A.; Lahti, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    . The analysis of the stable isotopes indicate that much of the low flow volume originates from surface storages including wetlands and small lakes within the watershed, with a small amount of the flow originating from groundwater seepage into the creek in the upper reaches of the creek. The temperature surveys and the seepage meter measurements along the main channel of the watershed show a trend that groundwater enters into the creek in the upper reaches, while the flux exchange is from the creek to groundwater in the lower reaches. The differences in flux direction between the upper and lower portions of the creek can be explained by three possible nonexclusive causes. First, the creek empties to the Mississippi River, and as the mouth of the creek is approached, the regional piezometric head drops significantly. Second, the lower end of the creek has a much larger portion of ';bottomless' surficial aquifer and therefore greater potential vertical loss of water. Third, the lower portion of the watershed is more developed and has major stormwater pipe infrastructure, a possible pathway for accelerating drainage of the surficial aquifer. To address the issue of low groundwater contribution to low-flows in the creek it is proposed to divert stormwater to key locations within the riparian zone along the creek, and to infiltrate that water and store it for slow release to the creek during non-rain periods.

  6. Mercury content in electrum from artisanal mining site of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murao, Satoshi; Naito, Kazuki; Dejidmaa, Gunchin; Sie, Soey H.

    2006-08-01

    In Mongolia, artisanal gold mining, modern gold rush, in which people use mercury to extract gold, is being proliferated rapidly and the mercury contamination of mining site is becoming a serious social issue. For the risk assessment of mercury, it is necessary to understand how much mercury is introduced to the environment from what kind of materials during mining activity. It is already known that major contribution of the contamination comes from mercury that was bought at shops and brought to mining sites by miners. However, no information is available on how much mercury is removed from electrum (natural gold grain) to the environment. Since gold deposit is always accompanied by mercury anomaly, it is anticipated that electrum grains contain some amount of mercury of natural origin, and this mercury (primary mercury) contributes to some extent to the contamination. In order to clarify how much mercury is incorporated in electrum grains, micro-PIXE at CSIRO was used for grain-by-grain analysis. The result showed that electrum from study area contains mercury up to 8260 ppm. It is concluded that for the risk management of mercury contamination, release of natural mercury from electrum grains during smelting must not be ignored.

  7. Pine Creek Ranch, FY 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2001-11-01

    Pine Creek Ranch was purchased in 1999 by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs using Bonneville Power Administration Fish and Wildlife Habitat Mitigation funds. The 25,000 acre property will be managed in perpetuity for the benefit of fish and wildlife habitat. Major issues include: (1) Restoring quality spawning and rearing habitat for stealhead. Streams are incised and fish passage barriers exist from culverts and possibly beaver dams. In addition to stealhead habitat, the Tribes are interested in overall riparian recovery in the John Day River system for wildlife habitat, watershed values and other values such as recreation. (2) Future grazing for specific management purposes. Past grazing practices undoubtedly contributed to current unacceptable conditions. The main stem of Pine Creek has already been enrolled in the CREP program administered by the USDA, Natural Resource Conservation Service in part because of the cost-share for vegetation restoration in a buffer portion of old fields and in part because of rental fees that will help the Tribes to pay the property taxes. Grazing is not allowed in the riparian buffer for the term of the contract. (3) Noxious weeds are a major concern. (4) Encroachment by western juniper throughout the watershed is a potential concern for the hydrology of the creek. Mark Berry, Habitat Manager, for the Pine Creek Ranch requested the Team to address the following objectives: (1) Introduce some of the field staff and others to Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) assessments and concepts. (2) Do a PFC assessment on approximately 10 miles of Pine Creek. (3) Offer management recommendations. (4) Provide guidelines for monitoring.

  8. WELCOME CREEK WILDERNESS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidke, D.J.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys indicate probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential for small amounts of gold and other metals. Areas of alluvium in Welcome Creek and in part of Rock Creek are classed as having probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for small quantities of gold in small and scattered placers and in placer tailings. A small area which contains the Cleveland mine, on Cleveland Mountain, near the west border of the wilderness was classed as having probable mineral-resource potential for silver and gold in veins. Although green mudstone strata that often are favorable hosts for stratabound copper occurrences were found in the northeast part of the wilderness, no copper deposits were found and these studies indicate little likelihood for the occurrence of copper resources. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little likelihood of the occurrence of energy resources.

  9. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  10. Mercury's Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  11. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-02-20

    Astronaut John Glenn in the Friendship 7 capsule during the first manned orbital flight, the MA-6 mission. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas (intercontinental ballistic missile), the MA-6 mission lasted for 5 hours and orbited the Earth three times.

  12. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-02-20

    The launch of the MA-6, Friendship 7, on February 20, 1962. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), Friendship 7 was the first U.S. marned orbital flight and carried Astronaut John H. Glenn into orbit. Astronaut Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth.

  13. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-09-01

    An Atlas launch vehicle carrying the Big Joe capsule leaves its launching pad on a 2,000-mile ballistic flight to the altitude of 100 miles. The Big Joe capsule is a boilerplate model of the marned orbital capsule under NASA's Project Mercury. The capsule was recovered and studied for the effect of re-entry heat and other flight stresses.

  14. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-04-27

    The group portrait of the original seven astronauts for the Mercury Project. NASA selected its first seven astronauts on April 27, 1959. Left to right at front: Walter M. Wally Schirra, Donald K. Deke Slayton, John H. Glenn, Jr., and Scott Carpenter. Left to right at rear: Alan B. Shepard, Virgil I. Gus Grissom, and L. Gordon Cooper, Jr.

  15. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-16

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  16. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-05-15

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  17. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The original seven astronauts for the Mercury Project pose in front of an Air Force Jet. From left to right: Scott Carpenter, L. Gordon Cooper, John H. Glenn, Virgil I. Gus Grissom, Walter M. Wally Schirra, Alan B. Shepard, and Donald K. Deke Slayton.

  18. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-01-21

    The launch of the Little Joe booster for the LJ1B mission on the launch pad from the wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, on January 21, 1960. This mission achieved the suborbital Mercury capsule test, testing of the escape system, and biomedical tests by using a monkey, named Miss Sam.

  19. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1960-01-21

    The Little Joe launch vehicle for the LJ1 mission on the launch pad at the wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia, on January 21, 1960. This mission achieved the suborbital Mercury cupsule test, testing of the escape system, and biomedical tests by using a monkey, named Miss Sam.

  20. Mercury's Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  1. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Astronaut Alan Shepard underwent a physical examination prior to the first marned suborbital flight. Freedom 7 carrying Astronaut Alan Shepard, boosted by the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle, lifted off on May 5, 1961. Astronaut Shepard became the first American in space.

  2. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-01-01

    Astronaut Alan Shepard fitted with space suit prior to the first marned suborbital flight. Freedom 7, carrying Astronaut Alan Shepard, boosted by the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle, lifted off on May 5, 1961. Astronaut Shepard became the first American in space.

  3. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr. during suiting for the first manned suborbital flight, MR-3 mission. The Freedom 7 spacecraft, carrying the first American, Astronaut Shepard and boosted by the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle, lifted off on May 5, 1961.

  4. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1961-05-05

    This photo depicts the recovery operations of the MR-3 mission. Astronaut Alan Shepard was picked up by a U.S. Marine helicopter after the completion of the first marned suborbital flight by MR-3 (Mercury-Redstone) with the Freedom 7 capsule.

  5. Mercury Emission Measurement at a CFB Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-02-28

    In response to pending regulation to control mercury emissions in the United States and Canada, several projects have been conducted to perform accurate mass balances at pulverized coal (pc)-fired utilities. Part of the mercury mass balance always includes total gaseous mercury as well as a determination of the speciation of the mercury emissions and a concentration bound to the particulate matter. This information then becomes useful in applying mercury control strategies, since the elemental mercury has traditionally been difficult to control by most technologies. In this instance, oxidation technologies have proven most beneficial for increased capture. Despite many years of mercury measurement and control projects at pc-fired units, far less work has been done on circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) units, which are able to combust a variety of feedstocks, including cofiring coal with biomass. Indeed, these units have proven to be more problematic because it is very difficult to obtain a reliable mercury mass balance. These units tend to have very different temperature profiles than pc-fired utility boilers. The flexibility of CFB units also tends to be an issue when a mercury balance is determined, since the mercury inputs to the system come from the bed material and a variety of fuels, which can have quite variable chemistry, especially for mercury. In addition, as an integral part of the CFB operation, the system employs a feedback loop to circulate the bed material through the combustor and the solids collection system (the primary cyclone), thereby subjecting particulate-bound metals to higher temperatures again. Despite these issues, CFB boilers generally emit very little mercury and show good native capture. The Energy & Environmental Research Center is carrying out this project for Metso Power in order to characterize the fate of mercury across the unit at Rosebud Plant, an industrial user of CFB technology from Metso. Appropriate solids were collected, and

  6. WHITE MOUNTAINS AND BIRCH CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA AND NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggles, Michael F.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral survey of the White Mountains and Birch Creek Roadless Areas in California and Nevada indicates that there is probable and substantiated resource potential for gold, silver, lead, copper, zinc, tungsten, and mercury as well as barite and pyrophyllite. Pumice resources occur in several areas in the White Mountains Roadless Area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources in the areas. Metasedimentary rocks in Jeffrey Mine Canyon along the range front of the White Mountains Roadless Area contain known rutile occurrences at the site of the Champion mine. Geochemical studies and (or) a drilling program could help define the possibility of a titanium resource.

  7. Indicators: Sediment Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment mercury is mercury that has become embedded into the bottom substrates of aquatic ecosystems. Mercury is a common pollutant of aquatic ecosystems and it can have a substantial impact on both human and wildlife health.

  8. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  9. Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Monica F.; Landing, William M.; Kehrig, Helena A.; Barletta, Mário; Holmes, Christopher D.; Barrocas, Paulo R. G.; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Vasconcellos, Ana Claudia; Hacon, Sandra S.; Moreira, Josino C.; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory “inventory” phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 paragraph of the United Nations document “The Future We Want” issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. PMID:22901765

  10. Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest & Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2003-01-01

    Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest and Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed are located in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Research focuses on basic ecological processes, hydrology, disturbance regimes, and climate change in the boreal forest region. Interior Alaska lies between the Alaska Range to the south and the Brooks Range to the north and covers an area...

  11. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  12. HISTORY OF MERCURY USE AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Scott C; Southworth, George R

    2011-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from not, vert, similar2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.Mercury discharges from an industrial plant have created a legacy contamination problem exhibiting complex and at times counter-intuitive patterns in Hg cycling.

  13. Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water

  14. EDITORIAL: Mercury-free discharges for lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverlag, M.

    2007-07-01

    special issue. These initiatives may in time offer realistic alternatives for mercury-containing discharge lamps as the efficiency gap with existing products is getting smaller. At the same time, new applications for radiation sources are becoming more important, and in some of them the presence of mercury has other disadvantages besides the environmental aspects. Since in most cases mercury is used in the form of a saturated vapour, the mercury pressure is dependent on the ambient temperature, which means that mercury-containing lamps often show a slow increase to the steady-state light output or a strongly reduced output in cold environments, which is undesirable in many applications. For this reason also, different options for light sources without mercury are being investigated, and a number of them can be found in this special issue. This collection of papers gives a good overview of the different technologies that are currently being investigated as alternatives to existing lamp technologies, and will surely inspire others to reduce the use of mercury for lighting applications.

  15. The Beaver Creek story

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, W.H.; Whitworth, B.G.; Smith, G.F.; Byl, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee includes about 95,000 acres of the Nation's most productive farmland and most highly erodible soils. In 1989 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, began a study to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality in the watershed and for best management practices designed to reduce agricultural nonpoint-source pollution. Agrichemical monitoring included testing the soils, ground water, and streams at four farm sites ranging from 27 to 420 acres. Monitoring stations were operated downstream to gain a better understanding of the water chemistry as runoff moved from small ditches into larger streams to the outlet of the Beaver Creek watershed. Prior to the implementation of best management practices at one of the farm study sites, some storms produced an average suspended-sediment concentration of 70,000 milligrams per liter. After the implementation of BMP's, however, the average value never exceeded 7,000 milligrams per liter. No-till crop production was the most effective best management practice for conserving soil on the farm fields tested. A natural bottomland hardwood wetland and a constructed wetland were evaluated as instream resource-management systems. The wetlands improved water quality downstream by acting as a filter and removing a significant amount of nonpoint-source pollution from the agricultural runoff. The constructed wetland reduced the sediment, pesticide, and nutrient load by approximately 50 percent over a 4-month period. The results of the Beaver Creek watershed study have increased the understanding of the effects of agriculture on water resources. Study results also demonstrated that BMP's do protect and improve water quality.

  16. Line Creek improves efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, P.

    1988-04-01

    Boosting coal recovery rate by 8% and reducing fuel expense $18,000 annually by replacing two tractors, are two tangible benefits that Crows Nest Resources of British Columbia has achieved since overseas coal markets weakened in 1985. Though coal production at the 4-million tpy Line Creek open pit mine has been cut 25% from its 1984 level, morale among the pit crew remains high. More efficient pit equipment, innovative use of existing equipment, and encouragement of multiple skill development among workers - so people can be assigned to different jobs in the operation as situations demand - contribute to a successful operation.

  17. Hydrology of Pine Creek, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Pine Creek, Price County, Wisconsin, in order to evaluate a proposed reservoir on Pine Creek. The streamflow characteristics estimated are the mean flows, low flows, and flood peaks. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  18. Deception Creek Experimental Forest (Idaho)

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2004-01-01

    Deception Creek Experimental Forest is located in one of the most productive forests of the Rocky Mountains. When the forest was established in 1933, large, old western white pines were important for producing lumber products, matches, and toothpicks. Deception Creek is located in the heart of the western white pine forest type, allowing researchers to focus on the...

  19. Assessment of mercury in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kvartek, E.J.; Carlton, W.H.; Denham, M.; Eldridge, L.; Newman, M.C.

    1994-09-01

    Mercury has been valued by humans for several millennia. Its principal ore, cinnabar, was mined for its distinctive reddish-gold color and high density. Mercury and its salts were used as medicines and aphrodisiacs. At SRS, mercury originated from one of the following: as a processing aid in aluminum dissolution and chloride precipitation; as part of the tritium facilities` gas handling system; from experimental, laboratory, or process support facilities; and as a waste from site operations. Mercury is also found in Par Pond and some SRS streams as the result of discharges from a mercury-cell-type chlor-alkali plant near the city of Augusta, GA. Reactor cooling water, drawn from the Savannah River, transported mercury onto the SRS. Approximately 80,000 kg of mercury is contained in the high level waste tanks and 10,000 kg is located in the SWDF. Additional quantities are located in the various seepage basins. In 1992, 617 wells were monitored for mercury contamination, with 47 indicating contamination in excess of the 0.002-ppm EPA Primary Drinking Water Standard. More than 20 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) reports and publications pertinent to mercury (Hg) have been generated during the last two decades. They are divided into three groupings: SRS-specific studies, basic studies of bioaccumulation, and basic studies of effect. Many studies have taken place at Par Pond and Upper Three Runs Creek. Mercury has been detected in wells monitoring the groundwater beneath SRS, but not in water supply wells in excess of the Primary Drinking Water Limit of 0.002 ppm. There has been no significant release of mercury from SRS to the Savannah River. While releases to air are likely, based on process knowledge, modeling of the releases indicates concentrations that are well below the SCDHEC ambient standard.

  20. Mercury recycling in the United States in 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2005-01-01

    Reclamation and recycling of mercury from used mercury- containing products and treatment of byproduct mercury from gold mining is vital to the continued, though declining, use of this metal. Mercury is reclaimed from mercury-containing waste by treatment in multistep high-temperature retorts-the mercury is volatized and then condensed for purification and sale. Some mercury-containing waste, however, may be landfilled, and landfilled material represents loss of a recyclable resource and a threat to the environment. Related issues include mercury disposal and waste management, toxicity and human health, and regulation of mercury releases in the environment. End-users of mercury-containing products may face fines and prosecution if these products are improperly recycled or not recycled. Local and State environmental regulations require adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act to regulate generation, treatment, and disposal of mercury-containing products. In the United States, several large companies and a number of smaller companies collect these products from a variety of sources and then reclaim and recycle the mercury. Because mercury has not been mined as a principal product in the United States since 1992, mercury reclamation from fabricated products has become the main source of mercury. Principal product mercury and byproduct mercury from mining operations are considered to be primary materials. Mercury may also be obtained as a byproduct from domestic or foreign gold-processing operations. In the early 1990s, U.S. manufacturers used an annual average that ranged from 500 to 600 metric tons of recycled and imported mercury for fabrication of automobile convenience switches, dental amalgam, fluorescent lamps, medical uses and thermometers, and thermostats. The amount now used for fabrication is estimated to be 200 metric tons per year or less. Much of the data on

  1. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  3. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  4. Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the major discoveries made by the Mariner 10 mission to the inner planets was the existence of an intrinsic magnetic field at Mercury with a dipole moment of approx. 300 nT R(sup 3, sub M). This magnetic field is sufficient to stand off the solar wind at an altitude of about 1 R(sub M) (i.e. approx. 2439 km). Hence, Mercury possesses a 'magnetosphere' from which the so]ar wind plasma is largely excluded and within which the motion of charged particles is controlled by the planetary magnetic field. Despite its small size relative to the magnetospheres of the other planets, a Mercury orbiter mission is a high priority for the space physics community. The primary reason for this great interest is that Mercury unlike all the other planets visited thus far, lacks a significant atmosphere; only a vestigial exosphere is present. This results in a unique situation where the magnetosphere interacts directly with the outer layer of the planetary crust (i.e. the regolith). At all of the other planets the topmost regions of their atmospheres become ionized by solar radiation to form ionospheres. These planetary ionospheres then couple to electrodynamically to their magnetospheres or, in the case of the weakly magnetized Venus and Mars, directly to the solar wind. This magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is mediated largely through field-aligned currents (FACs) flowing along the magnetic field lines linking the magnetosphere and the high-latitude ionosphere. Mercury is unique in that it is expected that FACS will be very short lived due to the low electrical conductivity of the regolith. Furthermore, at the earth it has been shown that the outflow of neutral atmospheric species to great altitudes is an important source of magnetospheric plasma (following ionization) whose composition may influence subsequent magnetotail dynamics. However, the dominant source of plasma for most of the terrestrial magnetosphere is the 'leakage'of solar wind across the magnetopause and more

  5. 75 FR 1705 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ...The Commander, Fifth Coast Guard District, has issued a temporary deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the I695 Bridge across Curtis Creek, mile 0.9, at Baltimore, MD. The deviation is necessary to facilitate mechanical repairs to the bridge. This temporary deviation allows the drawbridge to remain in the closed position during the deviation period.

  6. Data visualization, time-series analysis, and mass-balance modeling of hydrologic and water-quality data for the McTier Creek watershed, South Carolina, 2007-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Conrads, Paul A.; Feaster, Toby D.; Journey, Celeste; Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Davis, Gary M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The McTier Creek watershed is located in the headwaters of the Edisto River Basin, which is in the Coastal Plain region of South Carolina. The Edisto ecosystem has some of the highest recorded fish-tissue mercury concentrations in the United States. In an effort to advance the understanding of the fate and transport of mercury in stream ecosystems, the U.S. Geological Survey, as part of its National Water-Quality Assessment Program, initiated a field investigation of mercury in the McTier Creek watershed in 2006. The initial efforts of the investigation included the collection of extensive hydrologic and water-quality field data, along with the development of several hydrologic and water-quality models. This series of measured and modeled data forms the primary source of information for this investigation to assess the fate and transport of mercury within the McTier Creek watershed.

  7. 75 FR 5631 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment... Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC, the licensee), for operation of the Wolf Creek... Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Wolf Creek Generating Station--Final Report (NUREG-1437...

  8. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fuhrmann, Mark [Silver Spring, MD; Heiser, John [Bayport, NY; Kalb, Paul [Wading River, NY

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  9. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's ORD is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001-2005 time frame. ORD will use it to prepare a multi-year mercury research implementation plan in 2001. The Mercury R...

  10. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's ORD is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001-2005 time frame. ORD will use it to prepare a multi-year mercury research implementation plan in 2001. The Mercury R...

  11. Final report from VFL technologies for the pilot-scale thermal treatment of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (LEFPC) extends fourteen (14) miles through Oak Ridge, TN. The Creek sediments and surrounding floodplain soils are contaminated with mercury compounds. This project involved a comprehensive pilot demonstration on thermal desorption of these soils to validate the feasibility of the remedial technology which had been identified in previous studies. Thermal desorption is a technology that utilizes heating or drying of soils to induce volatilization of contaminants. These contaminants are then vaporized and either incinerated or condensed in the second stage of desorption. Mercury (Hg), which was the principal contaminate of concern, was collected by condensers in a vapor collection system. This type of system insured that the toxic mercury vapors did not escape to the atmosphere.

  12. Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project: Clean Creeks, Healthy Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  13. Mercury's Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    sources cannot be distinguished from core fields, nor cleanly separated from external fields. I will report on recent data acquired at altitudes as low as 25 km that have the potential to resolve these issues. The presence of remanent crustal fields would have profound implications for Mercury's thermal and dynamical histories.

  14. Mercury Handling for the Target System for a Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Van B; Mcdonald, K; Kirk, H.; Weggel, Robert; Souchlas, Nicholas; Sayed, H; Ding, X

    2012-01-01

    The baseline target concept for a Muon Collider or Neutrino Factory is a free-stream mercury jet being impacted by an 8-GeV proton beam. The target is located within a 20-T magnetic field, which captures the generated pions that are conducted to a downstream decay channel. Both the mercury and the proton beam are introduced at slight downward angles to the magnetic axis. A pool of mercury serves as a receiving reservoir for the mercury and a dump for the unexpended proton beam. The impact energy of the remaining beam and jet are substantial, and it is required that splashes and waves be controlled in order to minimize the potential for interference of pion production at the target. Design issues discussed in this paper include the nozzle, splash mitigation in the mercury pool, the mercury containment vessel, and the mercury recirculation system.

  15. Mercury distribution in sediment profiles of six Louisiana Lakes.

    PubMed

    Gambrell, R P; DeLaune, R D; Patrick, W H; Jugsujinda, A

    2001-05-01

    A study was conducted of six Louisiana Lakes to examine the relationship between sediment properties including mercury content and health advisories associated with mercury levels in fish. Comparison was made between three lakes with health advisories (Black Lake, Chicot Lake, and Henderson Lake) and three lakes where the levels of mercury in fish are below health advisory levels (False River, Lake St. John, and Miller Lake). Three sediment core samples were collected from each lake and sectioned into 2-cm increments to a depth of 20 cm. Sediment properties measured in each depth increment of the sediment profile included total mercury, 137Cs activity (for sedimentation rate), and sediment organic matter content. Of the lakes studied, those lakes that have health advisories for mercury tended to have higher total mercury contents, usually higher sediment organic matter contents, and higher sedimentation rates than sediments in lakes where health advisories for mercury are not issued.

  16. PINEY CREEK WILDERNESS, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    The Piney Creek Wilderness in southwest Missouri was investigated by geologic, geochemical, and mineral-occurrence surveys. These is no evidence of metallic mineral deposits in the rock units exposed at the surface in the wilderness, but the entire area has a probable potential for significant zinc-lead deposits at depths of several hundred feet. A probable potential also exists for a small to moderate-sized iron ore deposit at a depth of at least 2100 ft along the northwest side of the wilderness. Evaluation of these potentials would require deep drilling, and in the case of the possible iron ore deposit, a detailed magnetic survey. No energy resource potential was identified within this area.

  17. GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, Jack B.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

  18. Water, Rivers and Creeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac, Robert D.

    Luna B. Leopold's intent in Water, Rivers and Creeks was to provide a nontechnical primer on hydrology and water resources, and he succeeded admirably. The terse style is reminiscent of the mystery writer Mickey Spillane, though the content is complex science expounded in simple terms. “Part I, Hydrology and Morphology,” makes up the first two thirds of the book, and in this section, Leopold develops hydrologic and geomorphic concepts and principles using analogies with items common to any household. Garden hoses, dishpans, bath tubs, and sieves provide illuminating examples of the effects of channel storage on stream flow, water tables and the movement of groundwater, sustainable yield and the storage equation, and the infiltration/percolation process.

  19. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  20. 1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS GLACIER VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Deadwood Creek Bridge, Spanning Deadwood Creek on Mather Memorial Parkway, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  1. A survey of the Oyster Creek reload licensing model

    SciTech Connect

    Alammar, M.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The Oyster Creek RETRAN licensing model was submitted for approval by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in September 1987. This paper discusses the technical issues and concerns that were raised during the review process and how they were resolved. The technical issues are grouped into three major categories: the adequacy of the model benchmark against plant data; uncertainty analysis and model convergence with respect to various critical parameters (code correlations, nodalization, time step, etc.); and model application and usage.

  2. Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resour

  3. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...) 805-1469. Transferees: Mr. Bernard H. Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  4. SERVICE CREEK ROADLESS AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Paul W.; Kluender, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Service Creek Roadless Area, near Steamboat Springs, Colorado, was studied. Geologic mapping and geochemical sampling did not identify any mineral-resource potential in the area. No mining activity has been recorded for the area. An east-west topographic linear feature just south of Silver Creek, which contains clusters of single and multi-element anomalies of certain rare-earth and metallic minerals deserves further study.

  5. Mercury in Arctic Marine Ecosystems: Sources, Pathways, and Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Jane L.; Lehnherr, Igor; Andersson, Maria; Braune, Birgit M.; Chan, Laurie; Dastoor, Ashu P.; Durnford, Dorothy; Gleason, Amber L.; Loseto, Lisa L.; Steffen, Alexandra; St. Louis, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury in the Arctic is an important environmental and human health issue. The reliance of Northern Peoples on traditional foods, such as marine mammals, for subsistence means that they are particularly at risk from mercury exposure. The cycling of mercury in Arctic marine systems is reviewed here, with emphasis placed on the key sources, pathways and processes which regulate mercury levels in marine food webs and ultimately the exposure of human populations to this contaminant. While many knowledge gaps exist limiting our ability to make strong conclusions, it appears that the long range transport of mercury from Asian emissions is an important source of atmospheric Hg to the Arctic and that mercury methylation resulting in monomethylmercury production (an organic form of mercury which is both toxic and bioaccumulated) in Arctic marine waters is the principal source of mercury incorporated into food webs. Mercury concentrations in biological organisms have increased since the onset of the industrial age and are controlled by a combination of abiotic factors (e.g., monomethylmercury supply), food web dynamics and structure, and animal behavior (e.g., habitat selection and feeding behavior). Finally, although some Northern Peoples have high mercury concentrations of mercury in their blood and hair, harvesting and consuming traditional foods has many nutritional, social, cultural and physical health benefits which must be considered in risk management and communication. PMID:23102902

  6. MODELING MERCURY BEHAVIOR IN A CONTAMINATED DESERT STREAM AND CONSTRUCTED WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Steamboat Creek (SBC) watershed is highly contaminated with mercury and is considered the most polluted tributary of the Truckee River. Restoration is being considered at its confluence with the Truckee River to reduce pollutant loads, but there is concern that restoration c...

  7. Use of mercury-based medical equipment and mercury content in effluents of tertiary care hospitals in India.

    PubMed

    Peshin, Sharda Shah; Halder, Nabanita; Jathikarta, Chandrababu; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Environmental pollution due to mercury has raised serious concern over the last few decades. Various anthropogenic sources including the health sector play a vital role in increasing the mercury load on the environment. Mercury poses an important health issue because of its indiscriminate disposal into the environment. There are numerous mercury-containing devices being used in the health-care setup. The objective of the study was to obtain information on the procurement and consumption of mercury-containing items in the current year, the methods adopted for disposal and the contamination of the hospital effluents with mercury. A questionnaire-based study was conducted in government and corporate hospitals from different states of India, for the quantitative assessment of use of mercury-based items in tertiary care hospitals in India (n = 113). The results showed that mercury-containing items are still being used in India. The most common method adopted for disposal was collection in plastic bags and labeling them as hazardous waste. The hospital effluents contained mercury below the permissible limits. In view of the environmental pollution due to mercury and its adverse impact on health, efforts by the government are on for phasing out mercury-containing equipment from the health-care setup in India.

  8. Mercury Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-06-24

    Testing of Mercury Capsule Shape A by the Hydrodynamics Division of Langley. Joseph Shortal wrote (vol. 3, p. 19): The Hydrodynamics Division provided assistance in determining landing loads. In this connection, after PARD engineers had unofficially approached that division to make some water impact tests with the boilerplate capsule, J.B. Parkinson, Hydrodynamics Chief visited Shortal to find out if the request had his support. Finding out that it did, Parkinson said, Its your capsule. If you want us to drop it in the water, we will do it. From Shortal (Vol. 3, p. 16): The basic design of the capsule was made by M.A. Faget and his coworkers at PARD during the winter of 1957-1958. It was natural, then, that extensive use was made of the facilities at Wallops during the development of the spacecraft. The tests at Wallops consisted of 26 full-size capsules, either launched from the ground by rocket power or dropped from airplanes at high altitude and 28 scaled models, either rocket boosted or released from balloons. Emphasis in the Wallops program was on dynamic stability and aerodynamic heating of the capsule, and effectiveness of the pilot-escape and parachute-recovery systems. The biggest part of the Wallops program was the series of full-size capsules, rocket launched with the Little Joe booster, developed especially for Mercury. -- Published in Joseph A. Shortal, History of Wallops Station: Origins and Activities Through 1949, (Wallops Island, VA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Wallops Station, nd), Comment Edition.

  9. 78 FR 27961 - Gordon Foster and Seneca Falls School, Deep Creek Energy LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed March 20, 2013, Mr. Brian Gogarty, Deep Creek Energy LLC informed... issued October 1, 1982,\\1\\ has been transferred to Deep Creek Energy LLC. The project is located on Deep... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  10. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  11. Global Trends in Mercury Management

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health. PMID:23230466

  12. Global trends in mercury management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Seon; Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-11-01

    The United Nations Environmental Program Governing Council has regulated mercury as a global pollutant since 2001 and has been preparing the mercury convention, which will have a strongly binding force through Global Mercury Assessment, Global Mercury Partnership Activities, and establishment of the Open-Ended Working Group on Mercury. The European Union maintains an inclusive strategy on risks and contamination of mercury, and has executed the Mercury Export Ban Act since December in 2010. The US Environmental Protection Agency established the Mercury Action Plan (1998) and the Mercury Roadmap (2006) and has proposed systematic mercury management methods to reduce the health risks posed by mercury exposure. Japan, which experienced Minamata disease, aims vigorously at perfection in mercury management in several ways. In Korea, the Ministry of Environment established the Comprehensive Plan and Countermeasures for Mercury Management to prepare for the mercury convention and to reduce risks of mercury to protect public health.

  13. PREDICTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS OF AIRBORNE POLLUTANTS IN TERRESTRIAL RECEPTORS: THE CASE OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The question of mercury in the environment has rapidly become one of the high-profile environmental issues in several countries and internationally. There are environmental and human health concerns associated with elevated levels of mercury linked to industrial mercury emissions...

  14. PREDICTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS OF AIRBORNE POLLUTANTS IN TERRESTRIAL RECEPTORS: THE CASE OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The question of mercury in the environment has rapidly become one of the high-profile environmental issues in several countries and internationally. There are environmental and human health concerns associated with elevated levels of mercury linked to industrial mercury emissions...

  15. Incorporating uncertainty in watershed management decision-making: A mercury TMDL case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Labiosa, W.; Leckie, J.; Shachter, R.; Freyberg, D.; Rytuba, J.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Water quality impairment due to high mercury fish tissue concentrations and high mercury aqueous concentrations is a widespread problem in several sub-watersheds that are major sources of mercury to the San Francisco Bay. Several mercury Total Maximum Daily Load regulations are currently being developed to address this problem. Decisions about control strategies are being made despite very large uncertainties about current mercury loading behavior, relationships between total mercury loading and methyl mercury formation, and relationships between potential controls and mercury fish tissue levels. To deal with the issues of very large uncertainties, data limitations, knowledge gaps, and very limited State agency resources, this work proposes a decision analytical alternative for mercury TMDL decision support. The proposed probabilistic decision model is Bayesian in nature and is fully compatible with a "learning while doing" adaptive management approach. Strategy evaluation, sensitivity analysis, and information collection prioritization are examples of analyses that can be performed using this approach.

  16. Aqueous mercury treatment technology review for NPDES Outfall 49 Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lanning, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    During 1950 to 1955, Building 9201-2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was used to house development facilities for processes that employed elemental mercury to separate lithium isotopes as part of the thermonuclear weapons production operations. As a result of several spills, this building area and several other areas associated with the separation process were contaminated with mercury and became a source of continuing contamination of the Y-12 Plant discharge water to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Mercury concentrations in the outfalls south of Building 9201-2 have ranged up to 80 ppb, with the highest concentrations being experienced at Outfall 49. As a result, this outfall was chosen as a test site for future mercury treatment technology evaluation and development at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A literature review and vendor survey has identified several promising materials and technologies that may be applicable to mercury removal at the Outfall 49 site. This document summarizes those findings.

  17. Quarterly Progress Report - Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S. M.; Christensen, S. W.; Greeley, M.S. jr; McCracken, M.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth G. R.; Stewart, A. J.

    2001-01-19

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant). As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Complex on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the

  18. Science and strategies to reduce mercury risks: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Selin, Noelle E

    2011-09-01

    Despite decades of scientific research and policy actions to control mercury, exposure to toxic methylmercury continues to pose risks to humans and the environment. This article critically reviews the linkages between scientific advancements and mercury reduction policies aimed at reducing this risk, focusing on the challenges that mercury poses as an issue that crosses both spatial and temporal scales. Scientific aspects of the mercury issue at various spatial and temporal scales are reviewed, and policy examples at global, national and local scale are analysed. Policy activity to date has focused on the mercury problem at a single level of spatial scale, and on near-term timescales. Efforts at the local scale have focused on monitoring levels in fish and addressing local contamination issues; national-scale assessments have addressed emissions from particular sources; and global-scale reports have integrated long-range transport of emissions and commercial trade concerns. However, aspects of the mercury issue that cross the political scale (such as interactions between different forms of mercury) as well as contamination problems with long timescales are at present beyond the reach of current policies. It is argued that these unaddressed aspects of the mercury problem may be more effectively addressed by (1) expanded cross-scale policy coordination on mitigation actions and (2) better incorporating adaptation into policy decision-making to minimize impacts.

  19. EFFECTS OF FLUE GAS CONSTITUENTS ON MERCURY SPECIATION. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, there has been considerable interest in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This past year, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued both the Mercury Study Report to Congress and the Study of Hazardous ...

  20. EFFECTS OF FLUE GAS CONSTITUENTS ON MERCURY SPECIATION. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, there has been considerable interest in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This past year, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued both the Mercury Study Report to Congress and the Study of Hazardous ...

  1. Mercury and halogens in coal--Their role in determining mercury emissions from coal combustion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Senior, Connie L.; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant. In its elemental form, gaseous mercury has a long residence time in the atmosphere, up to a year, allowing it to be transported long distances from emission sources. Mercury can be emitted from natural sources such as volcanoes, or from anthropogenic sources, such as coal-fired powerplants. In addition, all sources of mercury on the Earth's surface can re-emit it from land and sea back to the atmosphere, from which it is then redeposited. Mercury in the atmosphere is present in such low concentrations that it is not considered harmful. Once mercury enters the aquatic environment, however, it can undergo a series of biochemical transformations that convert a portion of the mercury originally present to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury that accumulates in fish and birds. Many factors contribute to creation of methylmercury in aquatic ecosystems, including mercury availability, sediment and nutrient load, bacterial influence, and chemical conditions. In the United States, consumption of fish with high levels of methylmercury is the most common pathway for human exposure to mercury, leading the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue fish consumption advisories in every State. The EPA estimates that 50 percent of the mercury entering the atmosphere in the United States is emitted from coal-burning utility powerplants. An EPA rule, known as MATS (for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards), to reduce emissions of mercury and other toxic pollutants from powerplants, was signed in December 2011. The rule, which is currently under review, specifies limits for mercury and other toxic elements, such as arsenic, chromium, and nickel. MATS also places limits on emission of harmful acid gases, such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. These standards are the result of a 2010 detailed nationwide program by the EPA to sample stack emissions and thousands of shipments of coal to coal-burning powerplants. The United

  2. Minamata Convention on Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On November 6, 2013 the United States signed the Minamata Convention on Mercury, a new multilateral environmental agreement that addresses specific human activities which are contributing to widespread mercury pollution

  3. Basic Information about Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposures to methylmercury than other animals in water ecosystems. Predators that eat these birds and mammals are ... Service (NPS): Effects of Air Toxics/Mercury on Ecosystems U.S. Geological Survey (USGS): Mercury in the Environment ...

  4. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  5. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have changed its name to Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC for...

  6. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida, shall open on signal, except that from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., the draw need...

  7. Mercury Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on mercury exposure is presented including forms, sources, permissible exposure limits, and physiological effects. The purpose of the Mercury Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Mercury Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  8. Ancient Maya Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergast, David M.

    1982-08-01

    Discovery of mercury in an ancient Maya offering at Lamanai, Belize, has stimulated examination of possible sources of the material in the Maya area. Two zones of cinnabar and native mercury deposits can be defined in the Maya highlands, and the presence of the native metal suggests that the ancient Maya collected rather than extracted the mercury from ore.

  9. Mercury in the environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulkerson, W.; Lyon, W. S.; Shults, W. D.; Wallace, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Problems in assessing mercury concentrations in environmental materials are discussed. Data for situations involving air, water, rocks, soils, sediments, sludges, fossil fuels, plants, animals, foods, and man are drawn together and briefly evaluated. Details are provided regarding the toxicity of mercury along with tentative standards and guidelines for mercury in air, drinking water, and food.

  10. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  11. Mercury in Indiana watersheds: retrospective for 2001-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Baker, Nancy T.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Egler, Amanda L.; Lampe, David C.

    2010-01-01

    exceeded the 0.3 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methylmercury criterion in 12.4 percent of the 1,731 samples. The median wet-weight concentration in the fish-tissue samples was 0.13 mg/kg, and the maximum was 1.07 mg/kg. A coarse-scale analysis of all fish-tissue data in each watershed and a fine-scale analysis of data within 5 kilometers (km) of the downstream end of each watershed showed similar results overall. Mercury concentrations in fish-tissue samples were highest in the White River watershed in southern Indiana and the Fall Creek watershed in central Indiana. In fish-tissue samples within 5 km of the downstream end of a watershed, the USEPA methylmercury criterion was exceeded by 45 percent of mercury concentrations from the White River watershed and 40 percent of the mercury concentration from the Fall Creek watershed. A clear relation between mercury concentrations in fish-tissue samples and methylmercury concentrations in water was not observed in the data from watersheds in Indiana. Average annual atmospheric mercury wet-deposition rates were mapped with data at 156 locations in Indiana and four surrounding states for 2001-2006. These maps revealed an area in southeastern Indiana with high mercury wet-deposition rates-from 15 to 19 micrograms per square meter per year (ug/m2/yr). Annual atmospheric mercury dry-deposition rates were estimated with an inferential method by using concentrations of mercury species in air samples at three locations in Indiana. Mercury dry deposition-rates were 5.6 to 13.6 ug/m2/yr and were 0.49 to 1.4 times mercury wet-deposition rates. Total mercury concentrations were detected in 96 percent of 402 samples of wastewater effluent from 50 publicly owned treatment works in the watersheds; the median concentration was 3.0 ng/L, and the maximum was 88 ng/L. When these concentrations were compared to Indiana water-quality criteria for mercury, 12 percent exceeded the 12-n

  12. Mercury as a potential hazard for the dental practitioner.

    PubMed

    Kostyniak, P J

    1998-04-01

    Mercury has been used for centuries for medical, chemical, metallurgical and electrical applications. It is an element of mystery, which in its metallic form is an enticing silvery liquid that can be as fascinating as it is dangerous. Its use in dental amalgam has a potential for continuous occupational exposure of dental practitioners to mercury vapor. It is imperative that the dental practitioner understands the hazards associated with the use of mercury, and controls exposures to prevent the development of any untoward effects. This article provides an overview of the toxicology of the different forms of mercury to which human exposure occurs and addresses safety issues associated with mercury vapor, the primary form of mercury encountered in the practice of dentistry.

  13. Avian mercury exposure and toxicological risk across western North America: A synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Hartman, Christopher; Peterson, Sarah; Evers, David C.; Jackson, Allyson K.; Elliott, John E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Bryan, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of the environment is an important issue globally, and birds are useful bioindicators for mercury monitoring programs. The available data on mercury contamination of birds in western North America were synthesized. Original data from multiple databases were obtained and a literature review was conducted to obtain additional mercury concentrations. In total, 29219 original bird mercury concentrations from 225 species were compiled, and an additional 1712 mean mercury concentrations, representing 19998 individuals and 176 species, from 200 publications were obtained. To make mercury data comparable across bird tissues, published equations of tissue mercury correlations were used to convert all mercury concentrations into blood-equivalent mercury concentrations. Blood-equivalent mercury concentrations differed among species, foraging guilds, habitat types, locations, and ecoregions. Piscivores and carnivores exhibited the greatest mercury concentrations, whereas herbivores and granivores exhibited the lowest mercury concentrations. Bird mercury concentrations were greatest in ocean and salt marsh habitats and lowest in terrestrial habitats. Bird mercury concentrations were above toxicity benchmarks in many areas throughout western North America, and multiple hotspots were identified. Additionally, published toxicity benchmarks established in multiple tissues were summarized and translated into a common blood-equivalent mercury concentration. Overall, 66% of birds sampled in western North American exceeded a blood-equivalent mercury concentration of 0.2 μg/g wet weight (ww; above background levels), which is the lowest-observed effect level, 28% exceeded 1.0 μg/g ww (moderate risk), 8% exceeded 3.0 μg/g ww (high risk), and 4% exceeded 4.0 μg/g ww (severe risk). Mercury monitoring programs should sample bird tissues, such as adult blood and eggs, that are most-easily translated into tissues with well-developed toxicity benchmarks and that

  14. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  15. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  16. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  17. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  18. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  19. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  20. Hulburt Creek Hydrology, Southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Hulburt Creek, Sauk County, Wis., in order to evaluate a proposed reservoir. The streamflow characteristics estimated are the low flow, monthly flow, and inflow flood. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. The following estimates are for the point on Hulburt Creek at the proposed Dell Lake damsite near Wisconsin Dells. The drainage area is 11.2 square miles.

  1. Recent mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining on Buru Island, Indonesia--potential future risks to environmental health and food safety.

    PubMed

    Male, Yusthinus Thobias; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda Jean; Pocock, Matt; Nanlohy, Albert

    2013-12-15

    In November 2011 gold was found at Mount Botak, Buru Island, Mollucas Province, Indonesia. Since 2012 mercury has been used to extract the gold requiring large volumes of water and resulting in deposition of mercury into Wamsait River and Kayeli Bay. Total mercury in waste ponds was over 680 mg/kg. In sediments at the mouth of the local river and a small feeder creek >3.00 mg/kg and >7.66 mg/kg respectively. River and bay sediments were proportionately higher in available mercury than elemental mercury and more strongly bound mercuric sulfide compared to that in trommel waste. This preliminary investigation raises concerns about the long term distribution and speciation of mercury. The floodplain is an important agricultural resource, and Mollucas Province is recognised nationally as the centre for Indonesian fish stocks. Challenges for management include communicating the potential future risks to the community and leaders and identifying mechanisms to reduce mercury waste.

  2. The Plasma Environment at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, James M.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gloeckler, George; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sarantos, Menalos; hide

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is the least explored terrestrial planet, and the one subjected to the highest flux of solar radiation in the heliosphere. Its highly dynamic, miniature magnetosphere contains ions from the exosphere and solar wind, and at times may allow solar wind ions to directly impact the planet's surface. Together these features create a plasma environment that shares many features with, but is nonetheless very different from, that of Earth. The first in situ measurements of plasma ions in the Mercury space environment were made only recently, by the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) during the MESSENGER spacecraft's three flybys of the planet in 2008-2009 as the probe was en route to insertion into orbit about Mercury earlier this year. Here. we present analysis of flyby and early orbital mission data with novel techniques that address the particular challenges inherent in these measurements. First. spacecraft structures and sensor orientation limit the FIPS field of view and allow only partial sampling of velocity distribution functions. We use a software model of FIPS sampling in velocity space to explore these effects and recover bulk parameters under certain assumptions. Second, the low densities found in the Mercury magnetosphere result in a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio for many ions. To address this issue, we apply a kernel density spread function to guide removal of background counts according to a background-signature probability map. We then assign individual counts to particular ion species with a time-of-flight forward model, taking into account energy losses in the carbon foil and other physical behavior of ions within the instrument. Using these methods, we have derived bulk plasma properties and heavy ion composition and evaluated them in the context of the Mercury magnetosphere.

  3. [Chronic occupational metallic mercurialism].

    PubMed

    Faria, Marcília de Araújo Medrado

    2003-02-01

    This is a review on current knowledge of chronic occupational mercurialism syndrome. Major scientific studies and reviews on clinical manifestation and physiopathology of mercury poisoning were evaluated. The search was complemented using Medline and Lilacs data. Erethism or neuropsychological syndrome, characterized by irritability, personality change, loss of self-confidence, depression, delirium, insomnia, apathy, loss of memory, headaches, general pain, and tremors, is seen after exposure to metallic mercury. Hypertension, renal disturbances, allergies and immunological conditions are also common. Mercury is found in many different work processes: industries, gold mining, and dentistry. As prevention measures are not often adopted there is an increasing risk of mercury poisoning. The disease has been under diagnosed even though 16 clinical forms of mercury poisoning are described by Brazilian regulations. Clinical diagnosis is important, especially because abnormalities in the central nervous, renal and immunological systems can be detected using current medical technology, helping to develop the knowledge and control measures for mercurialism.

  4. Mercury in the nation's streams - Levels, trends, and implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Chasar, Lia C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in fish to levels of concern for human health and the health of fish-eating wildlife. Mercury contamination of fish is the primary reason for issuing fish consumption advisories, which exist in every State in the Nation. Much of the mercury originates from combustion of coal and can travel long distances in the atmosphere before being deposited. This can result in mercury-contaminated fish in areas with no obvious source of mercury pollution.Three key factors determine the level of mercury contamination in fish - the amount of inorganic mercury available to an ecosystem, the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, and the bioaccumulation of methylmercury through the food web. Inorganic mercury originates from both natural sources (such as volcanoes, geologic deposits of mercury, geothermal springs, and volatilization from the ocean) and anthropogenic sources (such as coal combustion, mining, and use of mercury in products and industrial processes). Humans have doubled the amount of inorganic mercury in the global atmosphere since pre-industrial times, with substantially greater increases occurring at locations closer to major urban areas.In aquatic ecosystems, some inorganic mercury is converted to methylmercury, the form that ultimately accumulates in fish. The rate of mercury methylation, thus the amount of methylmercury produced, varies greatly in time and space, and depends on numerous environmental factors, including temperature and the amounts of oxygen, organic matter, and sulfate that are present.Methylmercury enters aquatic food webs when it is taken up from water by algae and other microorganisms. Methylmercury concentrations increase with successively higher trophic levels in the food web—a process known as bioaccumulation. In general, fish at the top of the food web consume other fish and tend to accumulate the highest methylmercury concentrations.This report summarizes selected stream studies

  5. MERCURY SPECIATION SAMPLING AT NEW CENTURY ENERGY'S VALMONT STATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2000-04-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the ''Mercury Study Report to Congress'' and ''Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units''. The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam electric generating units. Although these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required given the current state of the art, they did indicate that the EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. Therefore, it was concluded that mercury controls at some point may be necessary. EPA also indicated that additional research/information was necessary before any definitive statement could be made. In an effort to determine the amount and types of mercury being emitted into the atmosphere by coal-fired power plants, EPA in late 1998 issued an information collection request (ICR) that required all coal-fired power plants to analyze their coal and submit the results to EPA on a quarterly basis. In addition, about 85 power stations were required to measure the speciated mercury concentration in the flue gas. These plants were selected on the basis of plant configuration and coal type. The Valmont Station owned and operated by New Century Energy in Boulder, Colorado, was selected for detailed mercury speciation of the flue gas as part of the ICR process. New Century Energy, in a tailored collaboration with EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy, contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to do a study evaluating

  6. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1999 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2000-10-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a summary of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. Up until last year, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and was the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices are the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. However, the watershed stream evaluation team used in the watershed analysis determined that there were problems along the Pataha Creek that needed to be addressed that would add further protection to the banks and therefore a further reduction of sedimentation into the stream. 1999 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. In stream work was not addressed this year because of the costs associated with these projects and the low impact of the sediment issue concerning Pataha Creeks impact on Chinook Salmon in the Tucannon River.

  7. The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed

    Treesearch

    T. E. Lisle

    1979-01-01

    The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed was set up as a traditional paired watershed to investigate the effects of logging and road construction on erosion and sedimentation. Research participants have come from the California Division of Forestry, the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, the California Department of Water Resources, the California...

  8. Caspar Creek study completion report

    Treesearch

    C. S. Kabel; E. R. German

    1967-01-01

    The Department of Fish and Game assisted in an interagency study on Caspar Creek, a small coastal stream in Mendocino County. This study included the effects of logging on the stream and its population of silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdnerii).

  9. LINCOLN CREEK ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Lincoln Creek Roadless Area, Nevada was determined to have little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. Geologic terrane favorable for the occurrence of contact-metasomatic tungsten deposits exists, but no evidence for this type of mineralization was identified. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels and no other energy resources were identified.

  10. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This pamphlet describes Union Oil's shale oil project in the Parachute Creek area of Garfield County, Colorado. The oil shale is estimated to contain 1.6 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the high Mahogany zone alone. Primarily a public relations publication, the report presented contains general information on the history of the project and Union Oil's future plans. (JMT)

  11. Where does that mercury come from? Assessing mercury speciation and bioaccumulation in terrestrial and aquatic amphibians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bank, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury deposition and contamination in the United States, and elsewhere, is widespread and well-documented and continues to be a public-health issue of concern for certain sectors of the global human population. Documentation of the pervasiveness of this contaminant is a first step toward understanding the potential environmental health and ecological implications of mercury pollution. Identifying broad scale distribution patterns of mercury bioaccumulation can convey to regulators that certain ecosystems may be degraded and require development of policies and regulations that may reduce mercury emissions, and ultimately, improve air and water quality. A more synthesized, holistic, perspective on the mechanisms related to aquatic and terrestrial biogeochemistry linkages of fate, transport, and bioavailability of mercury in aquatic ecosystems will result from long term, multi-ecosystem monitoring programs coupled with process-oriented research questions. Here I present total and monomethylmercury field data from experimental (NSF-LTER) and reference (NPS, USFS) ecosystems in the conterminous United States. Using these measurements I evaluate the use of stable isotope and uncertainty analysis techniques for comparative modeling purposes in aquatic and terrestrial amphibian species. Additionally, I present a synthesis of mercury speciation, bioaccumulation, distribution, and ecotoxicity in terrestrial and aquatic species and ecosystems across a broad gradient of physical, climatic, and biotic settings. The role of scale, disturbance mechanisms, geography, and abiotic and biotic factors governing mercury distribution and bioaccumulation in the different ecosystem types will also be discussed.

  12. The mixed waste focus area mercury working group: an integrated approach for mercury treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Holmes-Burns, H.; Petersell, J.; Schwendiman, L.

    1997-02-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex.

  13. Mercury Report-Children's exposure to elemental mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF - 781KB] En Español [PDF - 6.6MB] What did ATSDR find? For children, most elemental mercury exposures ... that exposed children to elemental mercury. The report did not include a review of mercury exposures from ...

  14. Environmental Database Design, Development and Application in the Cedar Creek Watershed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrologic modeling and monitoring of hydrologic processes across multiple scales is a fundamental component of many environmental and natural resource issues. In an effort to address such issues, an environmental monitoring network has been established in the 70,820 ha Cedar Creek Watershed, locate...

  15. Mercury: The World Closest to the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordell, Bruce M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to the geology of Mercury including the origin of Mercury's magnetism, Mercury's motions, volcanism, scarps, and Mercury's violent birth and early life. Includes a table comparing Mercury's orbital and physical data to that of earth's. (JN)

  16. Mercury: The World Closest to the Sun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordell, Bruce M.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to the geology of Mercury including the origin of Mercury's magnetism, Mercury's motions, volcanism, scarps, and Mercury's violent birth and early life. Includes a table comparing Mercury's orbital and physical data to that of earth's. (JN)

  17. Progress and Future Plans for Mercury Remediation at the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - 13059

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, Laura O.; DePaoli, Susan M.; Turner, Ralph

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), along with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has identified mercury contamination at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) as the highest priority cleanup risk on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The historic loss of mercury to the environment dwarfs any other contaminant release on the ORR. Efforts over the last 20 years to reduce mercury levels leaving the site in the surface waters of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) have not resulted in a corresponding decrease in mercury concentrations in fish. Further reductions in mercury surface water concentrations are needed. Recent stimulus funding through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) has supported several major efforts involving mercury cleanup at Y-12. Near-term implementation activities are being pursued with remaining funds and include design of a centrally located mercury treatment facility for waterborne mercury, treatability studies on mercury-contaminated soils, and free mercury removal from storm drains. Out-year source removal will entail demolition/disposal of several massive uranium processing facilities along with removal and disposal of underlying contaminated soil. As a National Priorities List (NPL) site, cleanup is implemented under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and directed by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between DOE, EPA, and TDEC. The CERCLA process is followed to plan, reach approval, implement, and monitor the cleanup. (authors)

  18. Selenium:Mercury Molar Ratios in Freshwater Fish from Tennessee: Individual, Species, and Geographical Variations have Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, C.; Donio, M.; Pittfield, T.

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrates, including humans, can experience adverse effects from mercury consumed in fish. Humans often prefer large predatory fish that bioaccumulate high mercury levels. Recent attention has focused on the role of selenium countering mercury toxicity, but there is little research on the selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish. We examine selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish from Tennessee at Poplar Creek which receives ongoing inputs of mercury from the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge Y-12 facility. Our objective was to determine variation of the ratios within species that might affect the protectiveness of selenium against mercury toxicity. Within species, the ratio was correlated significantly and positively with fish length only for two species. There was great individual variation in the selenium:mercury molar ratio within each species, except striped bass. The lack of a clear relationship between the selenium:mercury molar ratio and fish length, and the intraspecific variation, suggests that it would be difficult to use the molar ratio in predicting either the risk from mercury toxicity or in devising consumption advisories. PMID:22456727

  19. Selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish from Tennessee: individual, species, and geographical variations have implications for management.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, C; Donio, M; Pittfield, T

    2012-06-01

    Vertebrates, including humans, can experience adverse effects from mercury consumed in fish. Humans often prefer large predatory fish that bioaccumulate high mercury levels. Recent attention has focused on the role of selenium countering mercury toxicity, but there is little research on the selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish. We examine selenium:mercury molar ratios in freshwater fish from Tennessee at Poplar Creek which receives ongoing inputs of mercury from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Y-12 facility. Our objective was to determine variation of the ratios within species that might affect the protectiveness of selenium against mercury toxicity. Within species, the ratio was correlated significantly and positively with fish length only for two species. There was great individual variation in the selenium:mercury molar ratio within each species, except striped bass. The lack of a clear relationship between the selenium:mercury molar ratio and fish length, and the intraspecific variation, suggests that it would be difficult to use the molar ratio in predicting either the risk from mercury toxicity or in devising consumption advisories.

  20. Mercury-impacted scrap metal: Source and nature of the mercury.

    PubMed

    Finster, Molly E; Raymond, Michelle R; Scofield, Marcienne A; Smith, Karen P

    2015-09-15

    The reuse and recycling of industrial solid wastes such as scrap metal is supported and encouraged both internationally and domestically, especially when such wastes can be used as substitutes for raw material. However, scrap metal processing facilities, such as mini-mills, have been identified as a source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. This research aims to better define some of the key issues related to the source and nature of mercury in the scrap metal waste stream. Overall, it is difficult to pinpoint the key mercury sources feeding into scrap metal recycling facilities, quantify their associated mercury concentrations, or determine which chemical forms are most significant. Potential sources of mercury in scrap metal include mercury switches from discarded vehicles, electronic-based scrap from household appliances and related industrial systems, and Hg-impacted scrap metal from the oil and gas industry. The form of mercury associated with scrap metal varies and depends on the source type. The specific amount of mercury that can be adsorbed and retained by steel appears to be a function of both metallurgical and environmental factors. In general, the longer the steel is in contact with a fluid or condensate that contains measurable concentrations of elemental mercury, the greater the potential for mercury accumulation in that steel. Most mercury compounds are thermally unstable at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 350 °C). As such, the mercury associated with impacted scrap is expected to be volatilized out of the metal when it is heated during processing (e.g., shredding or torch cutting) or melted in a furnace. This release of fugitive gas (Hg vapor) and particulates, as well as Hg-impacted bag-house dust and control filters, could potentially pose an occupational exposure risk to workers at a scrap metal processing facility. Thus, identifying and characterizing the key sources of Hg-impacted scrap, and understanding the nature and extent

  1. Mercury-Impacted Scrap Metal: Source and Nature of the Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Finster, Molly E; Raymond, Michelle R.; Scofield, Marcienne A.; Smith, Karen P.

    2015-09-15

    The reuse and recycling of industrial solid wastes such as scrap metal is supported and encouraged both internationally and domestically, especially when such wastes can be used as substitutes for raw material. However, scrap metal processing facilities, such as mini-mills, have been identified as a source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. This research aims to better define some of the key issues related to the source and nature of mercury in the scrap metal waste stream. Overall, it is difficult to pinpoint the key mercury sources feeding into scrap metal recycling facilities, quantify their associated mercury concentrations, or determine which chemical forms are most significant. Potential sources of mercury in scrap metal include mercury switches from discarded vehicles, electronic-based scrap from household appliances and related industrial systems, and Hg-impacted scrap metal from the oil and gas industry. The form of mercury associated with scrap metal varies and depends on the source type. The specific amount of mercury that can be adsorbed and retained by steel appears to be a function of both metallurgical and environmental factors. In general, the longer the steel is in contact with a fluid or condensate that contains measurable concentrations of elemental mercury, the greater the potential for mercury accumulation in that steel. Most mercury compounds are thermally unstable at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 350°C). As such, the mercury associated with impacted scrap is expected to be volatilized out of the metal when it is heated during processing (e.g., shredding or torch cutting) or melted in a furnace. This release of fugitive gas (Hg vapor) and particulates, as well as Hg-impacted bag-house dust and control filters, could potentially pose an occupational exposure risk to workers at a scrap metal processing facility. Thus, identifying and characterizing the key sources of Hg-impacted scrap, and understanding the nature and extent

  2. Ecological risk assessment of aerial insectivores of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek system

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, L.A.; Sample, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Risks to aerial insectivores (species that consume flying insects; rough-winged swallows, little brown bats, and endangered gray bats) were assessed for the CERCLA remedial investigation of the Clinch River/Poplar Creek system. Adult mayflies and sediment were collected from four locations and analyzed for contaminants. Sediment-to-mayfly contaminant transfer factors were generated from these data and used to estimate contaminant concentrations in mayflies from thirteen additional locations. Contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) were identified by comparing exposure estimates, generated using point estimates of parameter values, to NOAELS. COPCs included mercury, arsenic, and PCBs. Exposure to COPCs was re-estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. Adverse population effects were assumed likely if > 20% of the estimated exposure distribution was greater than the LOAEL. Exposure of swallows to mercury was a significant risk at two locations. Exposure of bats to mercury was a significant risk at only one location. While consideration of movement and foraging territory did not reduce estimated risks to swallows, when exposures for gray and little brown bats were re-estimated, population-level risks from mercury were no longer considered likely. As an endangered species however, protection is extended to individual gray bats. While less than 20% of the mercury exposure distribution for gray bats was > LOAEL, > 99% of the distribution was >NOAEL. Therefore, adverse effects may occur among maximally exposed individual gray bats. Available data indicate that contaminants in Poplar Creek are likely to present a risk to the swallow population, do not present a risk to the little brown bat population, and may present a risk to individual gray bats.

  3. Confirmatory Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This document describes the organization, strategy, and procedures to be used to confirm that mercury concentrations in soils in the remediated areas are statistically less than, or equal to, the cleanup standard of 400 ppm. It focuses on confirming the cleanup of the stretch of the Lower East Fork Popular Creed flowing from Lake Reality at the Y-12 Plant, through the City of Oak Ridge, to Poplar Creek on the Oak Ridge Reservation and its associated flood plain.

  4. Developing Isotope Tools for Identifying Mercury Mining Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koster van Groos, P. G.; Esser, B. K.; Williams, R. W.; Hunt, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    Mining operations in California during the past two centuries have resulted in widespread mercury contamination. Source control strategies are difficult and expensive to implement, in part because links between specific mercury sources and exposures are often uncertain. Examination of mercury’s stable isotopes can help resolve this issue. Sources with distinct isotope compositions may be traced through the environment. Mercury mining operations are predicted to have led to waste tailings, mercury metal products, and air emissions with different isotope compositions as a result of inefficient mercury extraction and recovery from ores. The predicted differences in isotope composition, based on estimated kinetic and diffusion isotope effects, are greater than the precision of current analytical methods using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometers (MC-ICP-MS). As such, mercury isotope measurements may help identify mercury originating from different mining operations. To support a mechanistic approach to mercury isotope fractionation, the isotope effects of diffusion through solids and gases are being investigated experimentally. Besides demonstrating the utility of mercury isotope analysis for source identification, this work is providing a mechanistic basis for differences in isotope compositions.

  5. Genetic Aspects of Susceptibility to Mercury Toxicity: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Andreoli, Virginia; Sprovieri, Francesca

    2017-01-18

    Human exposure to mercury is still a major public health concern. In this context, children have a higher susceptibility to adverse neurological mercury effects, compared to adults with similar exposures. Moreover, there exists a marked variability of personal response to detrimental mercury action, in particular among population groups with significant mercury exposure. New scientific evidence on genetic backgrounds has raised the issue of whether candidate susceptibility genes can make certain individuals more or less vulnerable to mercury toxicity. In this review, the aim is to evaluate a new genetic dimension and its involvement in mercury risk assessment, focusing on the important role played by relevant polymorphisms, located in attractive gene targets for mercury toxicity. Existing original articles on epidemiologic research which report a direct link between the genetic basis of personal vulnerability and different mercury repercussions on human health will be reviewed. Based on this evidence, a careful evaluation of the significant markers of susceptibility will be suggested, in order to obtain a powerful positive "feedback" to improve the quality of life. Large consortia of studies with clear phenotypic assessments will help clarify the "window of susceptibility" in the human health risks due to mercury exposure.

  6. Genetic Aspects of Susceptibility to Mercury Toxicity: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Virginia; Sprovieri, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Human exposure to mercury is still a major public health concern. In this context, children have a higher susceptibility to adverse neurological mercury effects, compared to adults with similar exposures. Moreover, there exists a marked variability of personal response to detrimental mercury action, in particular among population groups with significant mercury exposure. New scientific evidence on genetic backgrounds has raised the issue of whether candidate susceptibility genes can make certain individuals more or less vulnerable to mercury toxicity. In this review, the aim is to evaluate a new genetic dimension and its involvement in mercury risk assessment, focusing on the important role played by relevant polymorphisms, located in attractive gene targets for mercury toxicity. Existing original articles on epidemiologic research which report a direct link between the genetic basis of personal vulnerability and different mercury repercussions on human health will be reviewed. Based on this evidence, a careful evaluation of the significant markers of susceptibility will be suggested, in order to obtain a powerful positive “feedback” to improve the quality of life. Large consortia of studies with clear phenotypic assessments will help clarify the “window of susceptibility” in the human health risks due to mercury exposure. PMID:28106810

  7. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, N.W.; Grimes, R.W.; Tweed, R.E.

    1995-04-04

    A process is described for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal. 4 figures.

  8. Process for low mercury coal

    DOEpatents

    Merriam, Norman W.; Grimes, R. William; Tweed, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing low mercury coal during precombustion procedures by releasing mercury through discriminating mild heating that minimizes other burdensome constituents. Said mercury is recovered from the overhead gases by selective removal.

  9. Mercury in Marine and Oceanic Waters-a Review.

    PubMed

    Gworek, Barbara; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Kijeńska, Marta; Wrzosek-Jakubowska, Justyna

    Mercury contamination in water has been an issue to the environment and human health. In this article, mercury in marine and oceanic waters has been reviewed. In the aquatic environment, mercury occurs in many forms, which depend on the oxidation-reduction conditions. These forms have been briefly described in this article. Mercury concentrations in marine waters in the different parts of the world have been presented. In the relevant literature, two models describing the fate and behavior of mercury in saltwater reservoirs have been presented, a conceptual model which treats all the oceans as one ocean and the "ocean margin" model, providing that the ocean margins manifested themselves as the convergence of continents and oceans, covering such geological features, such as estuaries, inland seas, and the continental shelf. These two conceptual models have been summarized in the text. The mercury content in benthic sediments usually reflects is level in the water reservoir, particularly in reservoirs situated in contaminated areas (mines, metallurgical plants, chemically protected crops). The concentrations of mercury and its compounds determined in the sediments in surface waters in the different parts of the world have been presented. Due to the fact that the pollution caused by mercury is a serious threat for the marine environment, the short paragraph about mercury bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms has been included. The cited data demonstrated a large scatter of mercury contents both between the fish species and the water areas. Mathematical models, valuable tools which provide information about the possible responses of ecosystems, developed to simulate mercury emissions, both at a small scale, for local water reservoirs, and at a global scale, as well as to model mercury bioaccumulation in the chain web of aquatic systems have been described.

  10. Methyl-mercury degradation pathways: A comparison among three mercury impacted ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, M.; Agee, J.; Mcgowan, C.; Oremland, R.S.; Thomas, M.; Krabbenhoft, D.; Gilmour, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    We examined microbial methylmercury (MeHg) degradation in sediment of the Florida Everglades, Carson River (NV), and San Carlos Creek (CA), three freshwater environments that differ in the extent and type of mercury contamination and sediment biogeochemistry. Degradation rate constant (k(deg)) values increased with total mercury (Hg(t)) contamination both among and within ecosystems. The highest k(deg)'s (2.8-5.8 d-1) were observed in San Carlos Creek, at acid mine drainage impacted sites immediately downstream of the former New Idria mercury mine, where Hg(t) ranged from 4.5 to 21.3 ppm (dry wt). A reductive degradation pathway (presumably mer-detoxification) dominated degradation at these sites, as indicated by the nearly exclusive production of 14CH4 from 14C-MeHg, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. At the upstream control site, and in the less contaminated ecosystems (e.g. the Everglades), k(deg)'s were low (???0.2 d-1) and oxidative demethylation (OD) dominated degradation, as evident from 14CO2 production. k(deg) increased with microbial CH4 production, organic content, and reduced sulfur in the Carson River system and increased with decreasing pH in San Carlos Creek. OD associated CO2 production increased with pore-water SO42- in Everglades samples but was not attributable to anaerobic methane oxidation, as has been previously proposed. This ecosystem comparison indicates that severely contaminated sediments tend to have microbial populations that actively degrade MeHg via mer-detoxification, whereas OD occurs in heavily contaminated sediments as well but dominates in those less contaminated.We examined microbial methylmercury (MeHg) degradation in sediment of the Florida Everglades, Carson River (NV), and San Carlos Creek (CA), three freshwater environments that differ in the extent and type of mercury contamination and sediment biogeochemistry. Degradation rate constant (kdeg) values increased with total mercury (Hgt) contamination both among and

  11. Substorms on Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siscoe, G. L.; Ness, N. F.; Yeates, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Qualitative similarities between some of the variations in the Mercury encounter data and variations in the corresponding regions of the earth's magnetosphere during substorms are pointed out. The Mariner 10 data on Mercury show a strong interaction between the solar wind and the plant similar to a scaled down version of that for the earth's magnetosphere. Some of the features observed in the night side Mercury magnetosphere suggest time dependent processes occurring there.

  12. Thallium Mercury Laser Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT C. S. Liu and D. W. Feldman FINAL REPORT (PHASE III) (Period between Feb. 1, 1980 and Jan. 31, 1981) 0 Contract No...Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 Approved for public release;IDistribution Unlimited 1/i;THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT * , , IS C. S./Liu tRD. W /eldman...9 ’ t4 THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT C. S. Liu and D. W. Feldman Westinghouse R&D Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 1

  13. Chemical quality of water, sediment, and fish in Mountain Creek Lake, Dallas, Texas, 1994-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Jones, S.A.; Moring, J. Bruce; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence, trends, and sources of numerous inorganic and organic contaminants were evaluated in Mountain Creek Lake, a reservoir in Dallas, Texas. The study, done in cooperation with the Southern Division Naval Facilities Engineering Command, was prompted by the Navy’s concern for potential off-site migration of contaminants from two facilities on the shore of Mountain Creek Lake, the Naval Air Station Dallas and the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant. Sampling of stormwater (including suspended sediment), lake water, bottom sediment (including streambed sediment), and fish was primarily in Mountain Creek Lake but also was in stormwater outfalls from the Navy facilities, nearby urban streams, and small streams draining the Air Station.Volatile organic compounds, predominantly solvents from the Reserve Plant and fuel-related compounds from the Air Station, were detected in stormwater from both Navy facilities. Fuel-related compounds also were detected in Mountain Creek Lake at two locations, one near the Air Station inlet where stormwater from a part of the Air Station enters the lake and one at the center of the lake. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds at the two lake sites were small, all less than 5 micrograms per liter.Elevated concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc, from 2 to 4 times concentrations at background sites and urban reference sites, were detected in surficial bottom sediments in Cottonwood Bay, near stormwater outfalls from the Reserve Plant. Elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, compared to background and urban reference sites, were detected in surficial sediments in Cottonwood Bay. Elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, indicative of urban sources, also were detected in Cottonwood Creek, which drains an urbanized area apart from the Navy facilities. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls were

  14. Peru Mercury Inventory 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Sandoval, Esteban; Yepez, Miguel A.; Howard, Howell

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, a specific need for data on mercury use in South America was indicated by the United Nations Environmental Programme-Chemicals (UNEP-Chemicals) at a workshop on regional mercury pollution that took place in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mercury has long been mined and used in South America for artisanal gold mining and imported for chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, and other uses. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides information on domestic and international mercury production, trade, prices, sources, and recycling in its annual Minerals Yearbook mercury chapter. Therefore, in response to UNEP-Chemicals, the USGS, in collaboration with the Economic Section of the U.S. Embassy, Lima, has herein compiled data on Peru's exports, imports, and byproduct production of mercury. Peru was selected for this inventory because it has a 2000-year history of mercury production and use, and continues today as an important source of mercury for the global market, as a byproduct from its gold mines. Peru is a regional distributor of imported mercury and user of mercury for artisanal gold mining and chlor-alkali production. Peruvian customs data showed that 22 metric tons (t) of byproduct mercury was exported to the United States in 2006. Transshipped mercury was exported to Brazil (1 t), Colombia (1 t), and Guyana (1 t). Mercury was imported from the United States (54 t), Spain (19 t), and Kyrgyzstan (8 t) in 2006 and was used for artisanal gold mining, chlor-alkali production, dental amalgam, or transshipment to other countries in the region. Site visits and interviews provided information on the use and disposition of mercury for artisanal gold mining and other uses. Peru also imports mercury-containing batteries, electronics and computers, fluorescent lamps, and thermometers. In 2006, Peru imported approximately 1,900 t of a wide variety of fluorescent lamps; however, the mercury contained in these lamps, a minimum of approximately 76 kilograms (kg), and in

  15. Mercury emission from crematoria.

    PubMed

    Santarsiero, Anna; Settimo, Gaetano; Dell'andrea, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study, undertaken at a cremator representing an example of current equipment and cremation practices in use in Italy, is to assess the possible mercury emitted during cremation and substantiate the current data available. This paper reports some preliminary results concerning mercury and total particulate matter emissions during three cremation processes. The obtained results gave a mercury concentration ranging from 0.005 to 0.300 mg/m3 and a mercury emission factor ranging from 0.036 to 2.140 g/corpse cremated. The total particulate matter concentration range was 1.0 to 2.4 mg/m3.

  16. RICHLAND CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic and mineral surveys, Richland Creek Roadless Area, Arkanses, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources, gas and oil, or oil shale. The Boone Formation of Mississippian age and the Everton Formation of Ordovician age, both known to contain zinc and lead deposits in northern Arkansas, underlie the roadless area. The presence or absence of zinc and lead deposits in these formations in the subsurface can be neither confirmed nor ruled out without exploratory drilling. Most of the Richland Creek Roadless Area is under lease for oil and gas; however two wells drilled near the eastern boundary of the area did not show contained gas or oil.

  17. An integrated systems-based approach to mercury research and technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Mark J; Brooks, Scott C; Mathews, Teresa J; Mayes, Melanie; Watson, David B; Johs, Alexander; Mehlhorn, Tonia L; Dickson, Johnbull O; Mansfield, Charles; Phillips, Elizabeth; Pierce, Eric M

    2017-01-01

    A 3-year strategic planning process was undertaken in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to develop a research and technology development approach that can help guide mercury remediation in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Mercury remediation is a high priority for the US Department of Energy s (DOE s) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management because of large historical losses of mercury to the environment at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Because of the extent of mercury losses and the complexities of mercury transport and fate in the stream environment, the success of conventional options for mercury remediation in the downstream sections of EFPC is uncertain. The overall Oak Ridge mercury remediation strategy focuses on mercury treatment actions at Y-12 in the short-term and research and technology development to evaluate longer-term solutions in the downstream environment. The technology development strategy is consistent with a phased, adaptive management paradigm and DOE s Technology Readiness Level guidelines. That is, early evaluation includes literature review, site characterization, and small-scale studies of a broad number of potential technologies. As more information is gathered, technologies that may have the most promise and potential remediation benefit will be chosen for more extensive and larger-scale pilot testing before being considered for remedial implementation. Field and laboratory research in EFPC is providing an improved level of understanding of mercury transport and fate processes in EFPC that will inform the development of site-specific remedial technologies. Technology development has centered on developing strategies that can mitigate the primary factors affecting mercury risks in the stream: (1) the amount of inorganic mercury available to the stream system, (2) the conversion of inorganic mercury to methylmercury, and (3) the bioaccumulation of methylmercury through the food web. Given the downstream complexities and

  18. Otter Creek Wilderness, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Warlow, R.C.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Otter Creek Wilderness conducted in 1978 resulted in the determination of demonstrated coal resources estimated to total about 24 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick and an additional 62 million short tons of coal in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick. There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  19. LUSK CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ILLINOIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, John S.; Thompson, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping and geochemical sampling show that the eastern third of the Lusk Creek Roadless Area in Illinois has a substantiated resource potential for fluorspar, lead, zinc, and barite, and other parts of the area have a probable resource potential for fluorspar. Fluorspar, which occurs along fault zones in the eastern part of the area, has been produced in the adjacent Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district. There is little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources.

  20. Industrial and natural sources of gaseous elemental mercury in the Almadén district (Spain): an updated report on this issue after the ceasing of mining and metallurgical activities in 2003 and major land reclamation works.

    PubMed

    Higueras, Pablo; Esbrí, José María; Oyarzun, Roberto; Llanos, Willans; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Lillo, Javier; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; García-Noguero, Eva Maria

    2013-08-01

    Two events during the last decade had major environmental repercussions in Almadén town (Spain). First it was the ceasing of activities in the mercury mine and metallurgical facilities in 2003, and then the finalization of the restoration works on the main waste dump in 2008. The combination of both events brought about a dramatic drop in the emissions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) to the atmosphere. Although no one would now call the Almadén area as 'mercury-free', the GEM levels have fallen beneath international reference safety levels for the first time in centuries. This has been a major breakthrough because in less than one decade the site went from GEM levels in the order of "tens of thousands" to mere "tens" nanogram per cubic meter. Although these figures are per se a remarkable achievement, they do not mark the end of the environmental concerns in the Almadén district. Two other sites remain as potential environmental hazards. (1) The Las Cuevas mercury storage complex, a partially restored ex-mining site where liquid mercury is being stored. The MERSADE Project (LIFE-European Union) has tested the Las Cuevas complex as a potential site for the installation of a future European prototype safe deposit of surplus mercury from industrial activities. Despite restoration works carried out in 2004, the Las Cuevas complex can still be regarded as hotspot of mercury contamination, with high concentrations above 800μgg(-1) Hgsoil and 300ngm(-3) Hggas. However, as predicted by air contamination modeling using the ISC-AERMOD software, GEM concentrations fade away in a short distance following the formation of a NW-SE oriented narrow plume extending for a few hundred meters from the complex perimeter. (2) Far more dangerous from the human health perspective is the Almadenejos area, hosting the small Almadenejos village, the so-called Cerco de Almadenejos (CDA; an old metallurgical precinct), and the mines of La Nueva Concepción, La Vieja Concepción and El

  1. Floods in Starkweather Creek basin, Madison, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Carl L.; Holmstrom, Barry K.

    1972-01-01

    The reaches evaluated are (1) Starkweather Creek and West Branch Starkweather Creek, for a distance of 6.0 river miles from the mouth at Lake Monona upstream to the U.S. Highway 51 crossing north of Truax Field; and (2) East Branch Starkweather Creek (2.8 river miles), from its confluence with the West Branch near Milwaukee Street upstream to a point near the Interstate Highway 90-94 crossing.

  2. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  3. Comparison of mercury emission flux from the land surface to the atmosphere via water column, vegetative, and sediment column pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, S. C.; Wollenberg, J.; Bubb, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    The emission of mercury from the land surface can follow three pathways: 1) emission from the water column, 2) emission from exposed wetland sediments, and 3) transpiration through plants. In this poster, we present a comparison of all three emission pathways in Berry’s Creek, a tidal tributary to the Hackensack River, NJ USA. The Berry’s Creek watershed was historically subjected to discharges of mercury from a number of industrial facilities. Emission of mercury from the water column measured using a dynamic flux chamber ranged from -0.64 to 34 ng/m2-h a result of complex biogeochemical reactions between photoreactive dissolved organic carbon, ultraviolet light, and dissolved aqueous mercury. Solar radiation and DOC spectral slope appear to exert the strongest control on mercury emission, with solar radiation alone accounting for up to 98% of the diel changes in mercury emission. Emission of mercury from the common reed Phragmites australis measured using a whole-leaf, low dead-volume chamber ranged from -0.64 to 0.17 ng/m2-h. Solar radiation drives photosynthesis, transpiration, and mercury emission, though decreases in emission late in the day may reflect a more complex process. Mercury emission from mudflat sediments ranged from -0.37 to 11.3 ng/m2-h. Experiments blocking UV wavelengths indicate PAR wavelengths may play a significant role in promoting emission. Disturbance of sediment surface decreased emission, suggesting that the emission pathway is dependent on biological activity at the sediment surface or a chemical gradient established in the upper portion of the sediment column. Annual and diel cycles are considered in an estimation of the magnitude of total mercury emitted through each pathway over the duration of 1 year.

  4. 77 FR 56238 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Application for Amendment... Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems with ADAMS, please... Commission (NRC or the Commission) has granted the request of Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (the...

  5. Coop Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Co-op Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, no date, Zion National Park collection - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Co-op Creek Bridge, Spanning Co-op Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  6. 3. Threequarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center facing southwest - Oak Creek Administrative Center, One half mile east of Zion-Mount Carmel Highway at Oak Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  7. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  8. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  9. 1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the Oregon coast, view looking east - Rocky Creek Bridge, Spanning Rocky Creek on Oregon Coast Highway (U.S. Route 101), Depoe Bay, Lincoln County, OR

  10. Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  11. Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  12. 7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative number 1485, classification series 002, 12. - Floor of the Valley Road, Cable Creek Bridge, Spanning Cable Creek on Floor of Valley, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  13. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  14. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  15. Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  16. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  17. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  18. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  19. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  20. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  1. 2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING SIMPSON CREEK BRIDGE WITH BRIDGEPORT LAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING SIMPSON CREEK BRIDGE WITH BRIDGEPORT LAMP AND CHIMNEY COMPANY IN BACKGROUND. - Bridgeport Lamp Chimney Company, Simpson Creek Bridge, Spanning Simpson Creek, State Route 58 vicinity, Bridgeport, Harrison County, WV

  2. 2. View of Clear Creek Bridge railing and understructure, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Clear Creek Bridge railing and under-structure, looking northwest. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, 62-foot Concrete Arch Pine Creek Bridge, Spanning Clear Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  3. 121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water to the Keswick ditch, supplying Volta powerhouse. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 235). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  4. 6. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing bushhammered, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing bush-hammered, recessed panels in fascia wall - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  5. 5. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing articulated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing articulated fascia walls - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  6. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

  7. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  10. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  11. 59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  12. 2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY AND WHITE MOUNTAINS IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH LAKE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  13. Mercury: the forgotten planet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.

    1997-11-01

    Mercury is the neglected child of the planetary system. Only one spacecraft has every ventured near it, whereas scores have probed the moon, Venus and Mars. The scant facts available show this strange, blazingly hot planet is full of surprises: its anomalous density and magnetic field suggest that Mercury may be where to seek clues to the origin of the solar system.

  14. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  15. Mercury in the environment

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

    2016-07-12

    Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

  16. Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the advent of the industrial era, the amount of mercury entering the global environment increased dramatically. Releases of mercury in its elemental form from gold mines and chlor-alkali plants, as sulfides such as mercaptans and agricultural chemicals, and as volatile emiss...

  17. Mercury and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... made when mercury in the air gets into water. The mercury in the air comes from natural sources (such as volcanoes) and man-made sources (such as burning coal and other pollution). You can get methylmercury in your body by ...

  18. Mercury in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Mike Abbott

    2008-08-06

    Abbott works for Idaho National Laboratory as an environmental scientist. Using state-of-thescienceequipment, he continuously samples the air, looking for mercury. In turn, he'll analyzethis long-term data and try to figure out the mercury's point of or

  19. Mercury and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... made when mercury in the air gets into water. The mercury in the air comes from natural sources (such as volcanoes) and man-made sources (such as burning coal and other pollution). You can get methylmercury in your body by ...

  20. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower center of image, as it transits across the face of the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower third of image, as it transits across the face of the sun Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower left of image, as it transits across the face of the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    The planet Mercury is seen in silhouette, lower left, as it transits across the face of the sun Monday, May 9, 2016, as viewed from Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Project Mercury - Monument

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-11-11

    S66-59963 (9 Nov. 1966) --- Monument at Pad 14 honoring Project Mercury. The Arabic number seven represents the seven original astronauts. The other figure is the astronomical symbol of the Planet Mercury. In background is the Gemini-12 Agena Target Docking Vehicle atop its Atlas launch vehicle at Cape Kennedy, Florida. Photo credit: NASA

  5. Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the advent of the industrial era, the amount of mercury entering the global environment increased dramatically. Releases of mercury in its elemental form from gold mines and chlor-alkali plants, as sulfides such as mercaptans and agricultural chemicals, and as volatile emiss...

  6. An identification of the East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-01

    The work in this report was conducted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, Nashville District, during the period November 1991 through July 1992. The purpose of this study is to identify the East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) floodplain. This information is required as part of the remedial action plans for removal or containment of contamination within the EFPC floodplain. EFPC and a portion of its floodplain have been contaminated as a result of operations and accidental releases at the Department of Energy`s Y-12 Plant. Mercury is the major contaminant found in EFPC and its floodplain.

  7. Mercury poisoning in wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Fairbrother, Anne; Locke, Louis N.; Hoff, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    Mercury is an intriguing contaminant because it has complex chemical properties, a wide range of harmful effects, and an infinite persistence in the environment. Die-offs of wildlife due to mercury have occurred in many countries, especially before mercury seed dressings were banned. Today, most mercury problems are associated with aquatic environments. Methylmercury, the most toxic chemical form, attacks many organ systems, but damage to the central nervous system is most severe. Harmful wet-weight concentrations of mercury, as methylmercury, in the tissues of adult birds and mammals range from about 8-30 ppm in the brain, 20-60 ppm in liver, 20-60 ppm in kidney, and 15-30 ppm in muscle. Young animals may be more sensitive.

  8. Mercury Sodium Tail

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This image from NASA MESSENGER spacecraft is stitched together from thousands of observations made over the past 4 years by the MASCS/UVVS instrument, which measures sunlight scattered off of Mercury tenuous atmosphere. Scattered sunlight gives the sodium a bright orange glow. This scattering process also gives sodium atoms a push - this "radiation pressure" is strong enough, during parts of Mercury's year, to strip the atmosphere and give Mercury a long glowing tail. Someone standing on Mercury's nightside at the right time of year would see a faint orange similar to a city sky illuminated by sodium lamps! Instrument: Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS)/Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVVS) http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19418

  9. Getting rid of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Reisch, M.S.

    2008-11-24

    Anticipating a US rule on mercury removal from coal flue gas, technology providers jockey for position. By 2013, if the federal rule imposing regulation of mercury emissions which have begun or are about to begin in 20 eastern states goes nationwide, mercury control will be big business. For the near term, utilities are adopting activated carbon to control mercury emissions. McIlvaine Co. projects the US market for activated carbon will jump from 10 million lb in 2010 to 350 million by 2013. Norit and Calgon Carbon are already increasing production of activated carbon (mainly from coal) and ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is building a new plant. Albermarle is developing a process to treat activated carbon with bromine; Corning has developed a sulfur impregnated activated carbon filtration brick. New catalysts are being developed to improve the oxidation of mercury for removal from flue gas. 2 photos.

  10. Getting Mercury out of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This guide was prepared while working with many Massachusetts schools to remove items that contain mercury and to find suitable alternatives. It contains fact sheets on: mercury in science laboratories and classrooms, mercury in school buildings and maintenance areas, mercury in the medical office and in medical technology classrooms in vocational…

  11. History of mercury use and environmental contamination at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Scott C; Southworth, George R

    2011-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from ∼2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.

  12. History of mercury use and environmental contamination at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Scott C; Southworth, George R

    2010-01-01

    Between 1950 and 1963 approximately 11 million kilograms of mercury (Hg) were used at the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 NSC) for lithium isotope separation processes. About 3% of the Hg was lost to the air, soil and rock under facilities, and East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) which originates in the plant site. Smaller amounts of Hg were used at other Oak Ridge facilities with similar results. Although the primary Hg discharges from Y-12 NSC stopped in 1963, small amounts of Hg continue to be released into the creek from point sources and diffuse contaminated soil and groundwater sources within Y-12 NSC. Mercury concentration in EFPC has decreased 85% from 2000 ng/L in the 1980s. In general, methylmercury concentrations in water and in fish have not declined in response to improvements in water quality and exhibit trends of increasing concentration in some cases.

  13. Mercury concentrations in fish from Lake Meredith, Texas: implications for the issuance of fish consumption advisories.

    PubMed

    McClain, William C; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Newland, Leo W

    2006-12-01

    We examined how length of fish is related to mercury concentrations in muscle tissue of seven species of fish from Lake Meredith, Texas and determined how sex and growth rate are related to mercury concentration in walleye (Sander vitreus). Flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), walleye and white bass (Morone chrysops) had the highest concentrations of mercury and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), river carpsucker (Carpiodes carpio) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) had the lowest concentrations of mercury. Mercury concentrations were positively correlated with total length (TL) of fish for all species except gizzard shad, which exhibited a negative correlation between mercury concentration and TL. Male walleye grew more slowly than females, and males had higher concentrations of mercury than females. We also assessed the differences in fish consumption advisories that would be issued using Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) guidelines versus United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommendations. Using DSHS guidelines, no fish species in Lake Meredith would be issued a fish consumption advisory. Nevertheless, DSHS has issued an advisory for walleye in Lake Meredith, possibly due to an inadequate sample size of fish. Using USEPA guidelines, a fish consumption advisory would be issued for the largest size class of flathead catfish but no advisory exists for flathead catfish in Lake Meredith. We suggest that when fish in a lake may be contaminated with mercury, all game fish in the lake should be assessed, and mercury advisories should take fish size into account.

  14. SANDY CREEK ROADLESS AREA, MISSISSIPPI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    The Sandy Creek Roadless Area includes about 3. 7 sq mi in the southeastern part of Adams County, Mississippi. On the basis of a mineral survey, the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources but has a probable resource potential for oil and natural gas. It is possible that wells drilled deep enough to penetrate the older reservoirs will encounter significant quantities of oil and natural gas in the roadless area. The deposits of gravel, sand, and clay present in the area could be utilized in the construction industry, but similar deposits elsewhere are much closer to available markets.

  15. KANAB CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Kanab Creek Roadless Area in north-central Arizona has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium and copper in four small areas around five collapse structures. Gypsum is abundant in layers along the canyon rim of Snake Gulch, but it is a fairly common mineral in the region outside the roadless area. There is little promise for the occurence of fossil fuels in the area. Studies of collapse structures in surrounding adjacent areas might reveal significant mineralization at depth, such as the recent discovery of the uranium ore body at depth in the Pigeon Pipe.

  16. 33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Curtis Creek. 117.557 Section 117.557 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695 bridge...

  17. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  18. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  19. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  20. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile 0...

  1. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  2. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  3. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  4. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  5. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  6. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile...

  7. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  8. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  9. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  10. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  11. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  12. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  13. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  14. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  15. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  16. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  17. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  18. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  19. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  20. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  1. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the...

  2. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  3. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  4. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  5. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  6. "Visit to Caspar Creek, northern California"

    Treesearch

    Nick Schofield

    1989-01-01

    As part of a brief study tour in California, I had the good fortune of spending a very pleasant day on the Caspar Creek watershed, ably guided by Peter Cafferata and Liz Keppeler. Amongst the many notable achievements of the Caspar Creek Study is its longevity. The study started in 1962 and has evolved over time

  7. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  8. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  9. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  10. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  11. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  12. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  14. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  15. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  16. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  18. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  19. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  20. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  2. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  3. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  4. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  5. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  6. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  7. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  8. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  9. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  10. 33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacheco Creek. 117.185 Section 117.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County highway bridge, mile 1.0,...

  11. 33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spa Creek. 117.571 Section 117.571 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at...

  12. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  13. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  14. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  15. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  16. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  17. Diets of three species of anurans from the cache creek watershed, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Meckstroth, A.M.; Wegner, K.E.; Jennings, M.R.; Crayon, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the diets of three sympatric anuran species, the native Northern Pacific Treefrog, Pseudacris regilla, and Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog, Rana boylii, and the introduced American Bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus, based on stomach contents of frogs collected at 36 sites in 1997 and 1998. This investigation was part of a study of mercury bioaccumulation in the biota of the Cache Creek Watershed in north-central California, an area affected by mercury contamination from natural sources and abandoned mercury mines. We collected R. boylii at 22 sites, L. catesbeianus at 21 sites, and P. regilla at 13 sites. We collected both L. catesbeianus and R. boylii at nine sites and all three species at five sites. Pseudacris regilla had the least aquatic diet (100% of the samples had terrestrial prey vs. 5% with aquatic prey), followed by R. boylii (98% terrestrial, 28% aquatic), and L. catesbeianus, which had similar percentages of terrestrial (81%) and aquatic prey (74%). Observed predation by L. catesbeianus on R. boylii may indicate that interaction between these two species is significant. Based on their widespread abundance and their preference for aquatic foods, we suggest that, where present, L. catesbeianus should be the species of choice for all lethal biomonitoring of mercury in amphibians. Copyright ?? 2009 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. Impacts of urbanization on West Nose Creek: a Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    van Duin, B; Garcia, J

    2006-01-01

    The lower reaches of West Nose Creek have been subject to urbanization since the 1970s, leading to channel widening and excessive erosion. This paper discusses what would likely happen if urbanization were allowed to continue in the same manner. Comparisons are presented of the channel width and depth for both the upstream rural and downstream urbanizing reaches. Estimates of the evolution of the creek were generated by linking the dominant discharge to the entire shape and volume of the hydrograph that the creek is subjected to rather than solely considering peak discharges. otential remedial measures and stormwater management philosophies are discussed in relationship to instream flow needs (IFNs) initiatives. IFNs are generally developed by relating the amount of suitable aquatic habitat to the quantity of flow. The emphasis has so far been on IFNs for large river systems. Unfortunately, none of the IFN approaches cover streams that are subject to significant urbanization. In urbanized streams the issue is not as much the impacts due to withdrawals but due to significantly increased runoff rates and volumes generated within the urban areas. Examples are provided how fisheries habitat is impacted by the changed hydrologic regime and changed stream morphology.

  19. Mercury in the ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, S.

    1986-01-01

    This treatise on the environmental dispersion of mercury emphasizes the importance of ''mercury-consciousness'' in the present-day world, where rapidly expanding metallurgical, chemical, and other industrial developments are causing widespread contamination of the atmosphere, soil, and water by this metal and its toxic organic derivatives. Concepts concerning the mechanism of mercury dispersion and methyl-mercury formation in the physico-biological ecosystem are discussed in detail and a substantial body of data on the degree and nature of the mercury contamination of various plants, fish, and land animals by industrial and urban effluents is presented. Various analytical methods for the estimation of mercury in inorganic and organic samples are presented. These serve as a ready guide to the selection of the correct method for analyzing environmental samples. This book is reference work in mercury-related studies. It is written to influence industrial policies of governments in their formulation of control measures to avoid the recurrence of human tragedies such as the well-known Minamata case in Japan, and the lesser known cases in Iraq, Pakistan, and Guatamala.

  20. Mercury Metadata Toolset

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-08

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, and the Mercury development consortium now includes funding from NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.

  1. Mercury Metadata Toolset

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-08

    Mercury is a federated metadata harvesting, search and retrieval tool based on both open source software and software developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was originally developed for NASA, and the Mercury development consortium now includes funding from NASA, USGS, and DOE. A major new version of Mercury (version 3.0) was developed during 2007 and released in early 2008. This Mercury 3.0 version provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS delivery of search results, and ready customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects which use Mercury. For the end users, Mercury provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems. It collects metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The Mercury search interfaces then allow the users to perform simple, fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data.

  2. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  3. Mercury contamination in the Laurentian Great Lakes region: introduction and overview.

    PubMed

    Wiener, James G; Evers, David C; Gay, David A; Morrison, Heather A; Williams, Kathryn A

    2012-02-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America contains substantial aquatic resources and mercury-contaminated landscapes, fish, and wildlife. This special issue emanated from a bi-national synthesis of data from monitoring programs and case studies of mercury in the region, here defined as including the Great Lakes, the eight U.S. states bordering the Great Lakes, the province of Ontario, and Lake Champlain. We provide a retrospective overview of the regional mercury problem and summarize new findings from the synthesis papers and case studies that follow. Papers in this issue examine the chronology of mercury accumulation in lakes, the importance of wet and dry atmospheric deposition and evasion to regional mercury budgets, the influence of land-water linkages on mercury contamination of surface waters, the bioaccumulation of methylmercury in aquatic foods webs; and ecological and health risks associated with methylmercury in a regionally important prey fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inorganic: the other mercury.

    PubMed

    Risher, John F; De Rosa, Christopher T

    2007-11-01

    There is a broad array of mercury species to which humans may be exposed. While exposure to methylmercury through fish consumption is widely recognized, the public is less aware of the sources and potential toxicity of inorganic forms of mercury. Some oral and laboratory thermometers, barometers, small batteries, thermostats, gas pressure regulators, light switches, dental amalgam fillings, cosmetic products, medications, cultural/religious practices, and gold mining all represent potential sources of exposure to inorganic forms of mercury. The route of exposure, the extent of absorption, the pharmacokinetics, and the effects all vary with the specific form of mercury and the magnitude and duration of exposure. If exposure is suspected, a number of tissue analyses can be conducted to confirm exposure or to determine whether an exposure might reasonably be expected to be biologically significant. By contrast with determination of exposure to methylmercury, for which hair and blood are credible indicators, urine is the preferred biological medium for the determination of exposure to inorganic mercury, including elemental mercury, with blood normally being of value only if exposure is ongoing. Although treatments are available to help rid the body of mercury in cases of extreme exposure, prevention of exposure will make such treatments unnecessary. Knowing the sources of mercury and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the prudent ways of preventing mercury intoxication. When exposure occurs, it should be kept in mind that not all unwanted exposures will result in adverse health consequences. In all cases, elimination of the source of exposure should be the first priority of public health officials.

  5. Improved estimates of filtered total mercury loadings and total mercury concentrations of solids from potential sources to Sinclair Inlet, Kitsap County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Conn, Kathleen E.; DeWild, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations examined sources and sinks of mercury to Sinclair Inlet based on historic and new data. This included an evaluation of mercury concentrations from various sources and mercury loadings from industrial discharges and groundwater flowing from the Bremerton naval complex to Sinclair Inlet. This report provides new data from four potential sources of mercury to Sinclair Inlet: (1) filtered and particulate total mercury concentrations of creek water during the wet season, (2) filtered and particulate total mercury releases from the Navy steam plant following changes in the water softening process and discharge operations, (3) release of mercury from soils to groundwater in two landfill areas at the Bremerton naval complex, and (4) total mercury concentrations of solids in dry dock sumps that were not affected by bias from sequential sampling. The previous estimate of the loading of filtered total mercury from Sinclair Inlet creeks was based solely on dry season samples. Concentrations of filtered total mercury in creek samples collected during wet weather were significantly higher than dry weather concentrations, which increased the estimated loading of filtered total mercury from creek basins from 27.1 to 78.1 grams per year. Changes in the concentrations and loading of filtered and particulate total mercury in the effluent of the steam plant were investigated after the water softening process was changed from ion-exchange to reverse osmosis and the discharge of stack blow-down wash began to be diverted to the municipal water-treatment plant. These changes reduced the concentrations of filtered and particulate total mercury from the steam plant of the Bremerton naval complex, which resulted in reduced loadings of filtered total mercury from 5.9 to 0.15 grams per year. Previous investigations identified three fill areas on the Bremerton naval complex, of which the western fill area is thought to be the largest source of mercury on the base

  6. Global change and mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2013-01-01

    More than 140 nations recently agreed to a legally binding treaty on reductions in human uses and releases of mercury that will be signed in October of this year. This follows the 2011 rule in the United States that for the first time regulates mercury emissions from electricity-generating utilities. Several decades of scientific research preceded these important regulations. However, the impacts of global change on environmental mercury concentrations and human exposures remain a major uncertainty affecting the potential effectiveness of regulatory activities.

  7. Thallium Mercury Laser Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-17

    AD-A9 840 WESTINGHOUSE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER PITTSBU--ETC F/A 20/5 THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT .(U) APR 80 C S LIU, D W FELDMAN, J L...PACK NO001I78-C-0131 lIlrt A nEQE-WOTFX-R NL THALLIUM MERCURY LASER DEVELOPMENT C. S. Liu, D. W. Feldman and J. L. Pack FINAL REPORT (PHASE II...PERIOD COVERED Thallium Mercury Laser Development -T- Final Report (Phase II) Feb. 1, 1979 to Jan. 31, 1980 77a. w-atF. -REPORT NUMBER _,___C2-OTEX

  8. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested.

  9. Industrial and natural sources of gaseous elemental mercury in the Almadén district (Spain): An updated report on this issue after the ceasing of mining and metallurgical activities in 2003 and major land reclamation works

    SciTech Connect

    Higueras, Pablo; María Esbrí, José; Oyarzun, Roberto; Llanos, Willans; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; and others

    2013-08-15

    Two events during the last decade had major environmental repercussions in Almadén town (Spain). First it was the ceasing of activities in the mercury mine and metallurgical facilities in 2003, and then the finalization of the restoration works on the main waste dump in 2008. The combination of both events brought about a dramatic drop in the emissions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) to the atmosphere. Although no one would now call the Almadén area as ‘mercury-free’, the GEM levels have fallen beneath international reference safety levels for the first time in centuries. This has been a major breakthrough because in less than one decade the site went from GEM levels in the order of “tens of thousands” to mere “tens” nanogram per cubic meter. Although these figures are per se a remarkable achievement, they do not mark the end of the environmental concerns in the Almadén district. Two other sites remain as potential environmental hazards. (1) The Las Cuevas mercury storage complex, a partially restored ex-mining site where liquid mercury is being stored. The MERSADE Project (LIFE—European Union) has tested the Las Cuevas complex as a potential site for the installation of a future European prototype safe deposit of surplus mercury from industrial activities. Despite restoration works carried out in 2004, the Las Cuevas complex can still be regarded as hotspot of mercury contamination, with high concentrations above 800 μg g{sup −1} Hg{sub soil} and 300 ng m{sup −3} Hg{sub gas}. However, as predicted by air contamination modeling using the ISC-AERMOD software, GEM concentrations fade away in a short distance following the formation of a NW–SE oriented narrow plume extending for a few hundred meters from the complex perimeter. (2) Far more dangerous from the human health perspective is the Almadenejos area, hosting the small Almadenejos village, the so-called Cerco de Almadenejos (CDA; an old metallurgical precinct), and the mines of La

  10. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  11. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  12. Reconnaissance of mercury and methylmercury in the St. Croix River and selected tributaries, Minnesota and Wisconsin, July 2000 through October 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, G.A.; Hansen, Donald S.

    2003-01-01

    A reconnaissance-level assessment to characterize total mercury and methylmercury concentrations during summer lowflow conditions was conducted in the St. Croix River Basin during July 2000 through October 2001. Samples were collected at 6 main stem and 16 tributary sites. Loads of total mercury and methylmercury increased in the St. Croix River main stem between Nevers Dam and Franconia. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations were greatest during July in the Namekagon River. Methylmercury yields in the Namekagon River and Rush Creek were greater than the yield for other tributary streams. Methylmercury concentrations and yields were greater in tributaries draining wetland/forest watersheds than in tributaries draining agricultural/forest watersheds.

  13. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  14. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  15. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.

    1991-01-01

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg.sub.2 Cl.sub.2 employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H.sub.2 O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H.sub.2 O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds.

  16. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1989-11-07

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figs.

  17. Recovery of mercury from mercury compounds via electrolytic methods

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.

    1991-06-18

    A process for electrolytically recovering mercury from mercury compounds is provided. In one embodiment, Hg is recovered from Hg[sub 2]Cl[sub 2] employing as the electrolyte solution a mixture of HCl and H[sub 2]O. In another embodiment, Hg is electrolytically recovered from HgO wherein the electrolyte solution is comprised of glacial acetic acid and H[sub 2]O. Also provided is an apparatus for producing isotopically enriched mercury compounds in a reactor and then transporting the dissolved compounds into an electrolytic cell where mercury ions are electrolytically reduced and elemental mercury recovered from the mercury compounds. 3 figures.

  18. Final Technical Report: Mercury Release from Organic Matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2015-08-18

    Chemical reactions between mercury, a neurotoxin, and sulfur, an essential nutrient, in the environment control to a large extent the distribution and amount of mercury available for uptake by living organisms. The largest reservoir of sulfur in soils is in living, decaying, and dissolved natural organic matter. The decaying and dissolved organic matter can also coat the surfaces of minerals in the soil. Mercury (as a divalent cation) can bind to the sulfur species in the organic matter as well as to the bare mineral surfaces, but the extent of binding and release of this mercury is not well understood. The goals of the research were to investigate fundamental relationships among mercury, natural organic matter, and selected minerals to better understand specifically the fate and transport of mercury in contaminated soils downstream from the Y-12 plant along East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, and more generally in any contaminated soil. The research focused on (1) experiments to quantify the uptake and release of mercury from two clay minerals in the soil, kaolinite and vermiculite, in the presence and absence of dissolved organic matter; (2) release of mercury from cinnabar under oxic and anoxic conditions; (3) characterization of the forms of mercury in the soil using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques; and, (4) determination of molecular forms of mercury in the presence of natural organic matter. We also leveraged funding from the National Science Foundation to (5) evaluate published approaches for determining sulfur speciation in natural organic matter by fitting X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra obtained at the sulfur K-edge and apply optimized fitting schemes to new measurements of sulfur speciation in a suite of dissolved organic matter samples from the International Humic Substances Society. Lastly, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Colorado and the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder, Colorado, (6

  19. Fate and aqueous transport of mercury in light of the Clean Air Mercury Rule for coal-fired electric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzuman, Anry

    Mercury is a hazardous air pollutant emitted to the atmosphere in large amounts. Mercury emissions from electric power generation sources were estimated to be 48 metric tons/year, constituting the single largest anthropogenic source of mercury in the U.S. Settled mercury species are highly toxic contaminants of the environment. The newly issued Federal Clean Air Mercury Rule requires that the electric power plants firing coal meet the new Maximum Achievable Mercury Control Technology limit by 2018. This signifies that all of the air-phase mercury will be concentrated in solid phase which, based on the current state of the Air Pollution Control Technology, will be fly ash. Fly ash is utilized by different industries including construction industry in concrete, its products, road bases, structural fills, monifills, for solidification, stabilization, etc. Since the increase in coal combustion in the U.S. (1.6 percent/year) is much higher than the fly ash demand, large amounts of fly ash containing mercury and other trace elements are expected to accumulate in the next decades. The amount of mercury transferred from one phase to another is not a linear function of coal combustion or ash production, depends on the future states of technology, and is unknown. The amount of aqueous mercury as a function of the future removal, mercury speciation, and coal and aquifer characteristics is also unknown. This paper makes a first attempt to relate mercury concentrations in coal, flue gas, fly ash, and fly ash leachate using a single algorithm. Mercury concentrations in all phases were examined and phase transformation algorithms were derived in a form suitable for probabilistic analyses. Such important parameters used in the transformation algorithms as Soil Cation Exchange Capacity for mercury, soil mercury selectivity sequence, mercury activity coefficient, mercury retardation factor, mercury species soil adsorption ratio, and mercury Freundlich soil adsorption isotherm

  20. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin; Banks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  1. Watershed management for erosion and sedimentation control Case Study: Goodwin Creek, Panola County, MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Goodwin Creek watershed is located within the loessal hills of northern Mississippi, a region of high erosion risk and elevated watershed sediment yields. This manuscript combines a regional history of land management and conservation issues from the time of European settlement to present with a...

  2. 77 FR 14461 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for W.K. Airport, Battle Creek, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ....faa.gov/airports_airtraffic/airports/environmental/airport_noise/part_150/states/ . Issued in Romulus... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for W.K. Airport, Battle Creek, MI... requirements. On February 16, 2012, the FAA approved the W.K. Kellogg Airport noise compatibility program....

  3. The tectonics of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, H. J.; Mckinnon, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    The probable tectonic history of Mercury and the relative sequence of events are discussed on the basis of data collected by the Mariner-10 spacecraft. Results indicate that Mercury's tectonic activity was confined to its early history; its endogenic activity was principally due to a small change in the shape of its lithosphere, caused by tidal despinning, and a small change in area caused by shrinkage due to cooling. Exogenic processes, in particular the impact activity, have produced more abundant tectonic features. Many features associated with the Caloris basin are due to loading of Mercury's thick lithosphere by extrusive lavas or subsidence due to magma withdrawal. It is emphasized that tectonic features observed on Mercury yield insight into the earliest tectonic events on planets like Mars and, perhaps, the earth, where subsequent events obscured or erased the most ancient tectonic records.

  4. ULF Waves at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.-H.; Boardsen, S. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Slavin, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    This chapter provides a brief overview of the observed characteristics of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves at Mercury. It shows how field-aligned propagating ULF waves at Mercury can be generated by externally driven fast compressional waves (FWs) via mode conversion at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Then, the chapter reviews the interpretation that the strong magnetic compressional waves near and its harmonics observed with 20 of Mercury's magnetic equator could be the ion Bernstein wave (IBW) mode. A recent statistical study of ULF waves at Mercury based on MESSENGER data reported the occurrence and polarization of the detected waves. The chapter further introduces the field line resonance and the electromagnetic ion Bernstein waves to explain such waves, and shows that both theories can partially explain the observations.

  5. The Study of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, Louise M.; Bedini, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    When the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft enters orbit about Mercury in March 2011 it will begin a new phase in an age-old scientific study of the innermost planet. Despite being visible to the unaided eye, Mercury's proximity to the Sun makes it extremely difficult to observe from Earth. Nonetheless, over the centuries man has pursued a quest to understand the elusive planet, and has teased out information about its motions in the sky, its relation to the other planets, and its physical characteristics. A great leap was made in our understanding of Mercury when the Mariner 10 spacecraft flew past it three times in the mid-1970s, providing a rich set of close-up observations. Now, three decades later, The MESSENGER spacecraft has also visited the planet three times, and is poised to add significantly to the study with a year-long orbital observation campaign.

  6. Uncratered Area on Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-08

    A dark, smooth, relatively uncratered area on Mercury was photographed two hours after NASA Mariner 10 flew by the planet. The prominent, sharp crater with a central peak is 30 kilometers 19 miles across.

  7. Mercury MESSENGER Stamp Unveiling

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-03

    United States Postal Service Vice President of Finance Steve Masse, left, and NASA Mercury Astronaut Scott Carpenter, unveil two USPS stamps to commemorate and celebrate 50 years of US Spaceflight and the MESSENGER program during an event, Wednesday, May 4, 2011 at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. One stamp commemorates NASA’s Project Mercury, America’s first manned spaceflight program, and NASA astronaut Alan Shepard’s historic flight on May 5, 1961, aboard spacecraft Freedom 7. The other stamp draws attention to NASA’s unmanned MESSENGER mission, a scientific investigation of the planet Mercury. On March 17, 2011, MESSENGER became the first spacecraft to enter into orbit around Mercury. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND TREE. RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  9. 78 FR 76750 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA AGENCY... (BNSF) Chambers Creek Railway Bridge across Chambers Creek, mile 0.0, at Steilacoom, WA. The deviation... Bridge across Chambers Creek, mile 0.0, near Steilacoom, WA. The ] bridge provides 50 feet of vertical...

  10. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT P STREET BEND, FROM 1940 REPORT ON PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT OF ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY, SECTION II (ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY FILE, HISTORY DEPARTMENT ARCHIVES, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, WASHINGTON, DC). - Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT (TAILRACE IN FOREGROUND), BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT ABOVE AND BEHIND BUILDING 106. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  12. Ecosystem conceptual model- Mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, Charles N.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Foe, Chris; Klasing, Susan; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Slotton, Darell G.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

    2008-01-01

    Mercury has been identified as an important contaminant in the Delta, based on elevated concentrations of methylmercury (a toxic, organic form that readily bioaccumulates) in fish and wildlife. There are health risks associated with human exposure to methylmercury by consumption of sport fish, particularly top predators such as bass species. Original mercury sources were upstream tributaries where historical mining of mercury in the Coast Ranges and gold in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath-Trinity Mountains caused contamination of water and sediment on a regional scale. Remediation of abandoned mine sites may reduce local sources in these watersheds, but much of the mercury contamination occurs in sediments stored in the riverbeds, floodplains, and the Bay- Delta, where scouring of Gold-Rush-era sediment represents an ongoing source.Conversion of inorganic mercury to toxic methylmercury occurs in anaerobic environments including some wetlands. Wetland restoration managers must be cognizant of potential effects on mercury cycling so that the problem is not exacerbated. Recent research suggests that wettingdrying cycles can contribute to mercury methylation. For example, high marshes (inundated only during the highest tides for several days per month) tend to have higher methylmercury concentrations in water, sediment, and biota compared with low marshes, which do not dry out completely during the tidal cycle. Seasonally inundated flood plains are another environment experiencing wetting and drying where methylmercury concentrations are typically elevated. Stream restoration efforts using gravel injection or other reworking of coarse sediment in most watersheds of the Central Valley involve tailings from historical gold mining that are likely to contain elevated mercury in associated fines. Habitat restoration projects, particularly those involving wetlands, may cause increases in methylmercury exposure in the watershed. This possibility should be evaluated.The DRERIP

  13. Wrinkles on Mercury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This image mosaic from NASA MESSENGER spacecraft shows an unnamed ridge in the northern volcanic plains of Mercury. Wrinkle ridges like this are interpreted to be tectonic in origin and are usually only found in volcanic plains. Six individual MDIS images are part of this mosaic. Instruments: Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) Latitude: 79° Longitude: 118° E Scale: The ridge is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) long http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19413

  14. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    Boyertown Area High School astronomy teacher Peter Detterline prepares high powered binoculars with a solar filter so that his students may view the planet Mercury as it transits across the face of the sun , Monday, May 9, 2016, Boyertown Area High School, Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    Boyertown Area High School students, 12th grader Bransen Mackey, left, and 11th grader Nick Cioppi wear solar safety glasses and attempt to see the planet Mercury as it transits across the face of the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    Boyertown Area High School 12th grade student Ben Maurer uses his smartphone and a photographers lens with a solar filter to make a photograph of the planet Mercury transitting the sun, Monday, May 9, 2016, Boyertown area High School, Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Mercury Solar Transit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-09

    Boyertown Area High School 12th grade student Jay Hallman looks through a photographers lens and solar filter to see the planet Mercury as it transits across the face of the sun , Monday, May 9, 2016, Boyertown area High School, Boyertown, Pennsylvania. Mercury passes between Earth and the sun only about 13 times a century, with the previous transit taking place in 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. To Mercury dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    Present significance of the study of rotation of Mercury considered as a core-mantle system arises from planned Mercury missions. New high accurate data on Mercury's structure and its physical fields are expected from BepiColombo mission (Anselmi et al., 2001). Investigation of resonant rotation of Mercury, begun by Colombo G. (1966), will play here main part. New approaches to the study of Mercury dynamics and the construction of analytical theory of its resonant rotation are suggested. Within these approaches Mercury is considered as a system of two non-spherical interacting bodies: a core and a mantle. The mantle of Mercury is considered as non-spherical, rigid (or elastic) layer. Inner shell is a liquid core, which occupies a large ellipsoidal cavity of Mercury. This Mercury system moves in the gravitational field of the Sun in resonant traslatory-rotary regime of the resonance 3:2. We take into account only the second harmonic of the force function of the Sun and Mercury. For the study of Mercury rotation we have been used specially designed canonical equations of motion in Andoyer and Poincare variables (Barkin, Ferrandiz, 2001), more convenient for the application of mentioned methods. Approximate observational and some theoretical evaluations of the two main coefficients of Mercury gravitational field J_2 and C22 are known. From observational data of Mariner-10 mission were obtained some first evaluations of these coefficients: J_2 =(8± 6)\\cdot 10-5(Esposito et al., 1977); J_2 =(6± 2)\\cdot 10-5and C22 =(1.0± 0.5)\\cdot 10-5(Anderson et al., 1987). Some theoretical evaluation of ratio of these coefficients has been obtained on the base of study of periodic motions of the system of two non-spherical gravitating bodies (Barkin, 1976). Corresponding values of coefficients consist: J_2 =8\\cdot 10-5and C22 =0.33\\cdot 10-5. We have no data about non-sphericity of inner core of Mercury. Planned missions to Mercury (BepiColombo and Messenger) promise to

  19. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  20. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  2. Blood serum mercury test report.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, J; Moodie, A S; Keller, R E

    1977-06-01

    A clinical blood serum mercury test of 111 dentists and auxiliaries revelaed that more than 50% had above normal serum mercury levels. This study showed that there may be a mercury health hazard in some dental environments. Acute mercury poisoning may be corrected simply by removing the cause, but long-term chronic effects are not known. Frequent screening of offices and personnel is advised. Experience reported here indicates that large amounts of mercury vapor are emitted when an amalgam carrier is heated over a flame ot dislodge particles, and also, that water-covered amalgam scrap relesases mercury vapor.

  3. An investigation of shallow ground-water quality near East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmichael, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    Alluvial soils of the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, are contaminated with mercury and other metals, organic compounds, and radio-nuclides originating from the Y-12 Plant, a nuclear-processing facility located within the U.S. Department of Energy 's Oak Ridge Reservation. Observation wells were installed in the shallow aquifer of the flood plain, and water quality samples were collected to determine if contaminants are present in the shallow groundwater. Groundwater in the shallow aquifer occurs under water-table conditions. Recharge is primarily from precipitation and discharge is to East Fork Poplar Creek. Groundwater levels fluctuate seasonally in response to variations in recharge and evapotranspiration. During extremely dry periods, the water table drops below the base of the shallow aquifer in some flood-plain areas. Contaminants found in water samples from several of the wells in concentrations which equaled or exceeded drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are antimony, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, phenols, and strontium-90. Total and dissolved uranium concentrations exceeded the analytical detection limit in nearly 70% of the wells in the flood plain. The results of water quality determinations demonstrate that elevated concentrations of most trace metals (and possibly organic compounds and radionuclides) were caused by contaminated sediments in the samples. The presence of contaminated sediment in samples is suspected to be the result of borehole contamination during well installation. (USGS)

  4. Flood Frequency Analysis of Future Climate Projections in the Cache Creek Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, I.; Trihn, T.; Ishida, K.; Jang, S.; Kavvas, E.; Kavvas, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of climate change on hydrologic flow regimes, particularly extreme events, necessitate modeling of future flows to best inform water resources management. Future flow projections may be modeled through the joint use of carbon emission scenarios, general circulation models and watershed models. This research effort ran 13 simulations for carbon emission scenarios (taken from the A1, A2 and B1 families) over the 21st century (2001-2100) for the Cache Creek watershed in Northern California. Atmospheric data from general circulation models, CCSM3 and ECHAM5, were dynamically downscaled to a 9 km resolution using MM5, a regional mesoscale model, before being input into the physically based watershed environmental hydrology (WEHY) model. Ensemble mean and standard deviation of simulated flows describe the expected hydrologic system response. Frequency histograms and cumulative distribution functions characterize the range of hydrologic responses that may occur. The modeled flow results comprise a dataset suitable for time series and frequency analysis allowing for more robust system characterization, including indices such as the 100 year flood return period. These results are significant for water quality management as the Cache Creek watershed is severely impacted by mercury pollution from historic mining activities. Extreme flow events control mercury fate and transport affecting the downstream water bodies of the Sacramento River and Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta which provide drinking water to over 25 million people.

  5. Hg Isotopes Reveal Importance of In-Stream Processing and Legacy Inputs in East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, J. D.; Blum, J. D.; Brooks, S. C.; Donovan, P. M.; Gu, B.; Riscassi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how mercury (Hg) contaminated ecosystems will recover as atmospheric emissions and industrial point source discharges are controlled has become a driving motivation of mercury research. Key to predicting recovery of mercury contaminated ecosystems is an understanding of the mobilization of legacy Hg sources, and the subsequent bioavailability and biogeochemical cycling of mobilized Hg within aquatic ecosystems. Herein, we utilize natural abundance stable Hg isotope techniques to place new constraints on mercury sources, transport, and transformations along the flow path of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The isotopic composition of mercury in stream water and suspended sediment along the flow path suggest that: (1) physical processes such as dilution and sedimentation cannot fully explain decreases in total mercury concentrations along the flow path and that in-stream processes may be more important than previously realized; (2) in-stream processes include photochemical transformations (~20%), but microbial reduction is likely more dominant (~80%); and (3) additional sources of mercury inputs to EFPC at base-flow may predominantly arise from the hyporheic zone during the growing season, with adjacent riparian wetlands and non-point-source impacted tributaries increasing in importance during the dormant season when the stream channel is more hydrologically connected to the watershed.

  6. Flood of August 27-28, 1977, West Cache Creek and Blue Beaver Creek, southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corley, Robert K.; Huntzinger, Thomas L.

    1979-01-01

    This report documents a major storm which occurred August 27-28, 1977, in southwest Oklahoma near the communities of Cache and Faxon, OK. Blue Beaver Creek and West Cache Creek and their tributaries experienced extensive flooding that caused an estimated $1 million in damages. Reported rainfall amounts of 8 to 12 inches in 6 hours indicate the storm had a frequency in excess of the 100-year rainfall. Peak discharges on Blue Beaver Creek near Cache and West Cache Creek near Faxon were 13,500 cubic feet per second and 45,700 cubic feet per second respectively. The estimated flood frequency was in excess of 100 years on Blue Beaver Creek and in excess of 50 years on West Cache Creek. Unit runoff on small basins were in excess of 2000 cubic feet per second per square mile. Surveyed highwater marks were used to map the flooded area. (USGS)

  7. Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

  8. Leaching of Phase II Mercury Control Technology By-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Hesbach, P.A.; Kachur, E.K.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. EPA has issued a final regulation for control of mercury from coal-fired power plants. An NETL research, development and demonstration program under DOE/Fossil Energy Innovations for Existing Plants is directed toward the improvement of the performance and economics of mercury control from coal-fired plants. The current Phase II of the RD&D program emphasizes the evaluation of performance and cost of control technologies through slip-stream and full scale field testing while continuing the development of novel concepts. One of the concerns of the NETL program is the fate of the captured flue gas mercury which is transferred to the condensed phase by-product stream. These adulterated by-products, both ashes and FGD material, represent the greatest challenge to the DOE goal of increased utilization of by-products. The degree of stability of capture by-products and their potential for release of mercury can have a large economic impact on material sales or the approach to disposal. One of the considerations for mercury control technology is the potential trade-off between effective but temporary mercury capture and less effective but more permanent sequestration. As part of a greater characterization effort of Phase II facility baseline and control technology sample pairs, NETL in-house laboratories have performed aqueous leaching procedures on a select subset of the available sample pairs. This report describes batch leaching results for mercury, arsenic, and selenium.

  9. A Review of Mercury Exposure and Health of Dental Personnel.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Natasha; Bettiol, Silvana S; Isham, Amy; Hoang, Ha; Crocombe, Leonard A

    2017-03-01

    Considerable effort has been made to address the issue of occupational health and environmental exposure to mercury. This review reports on the current literature of mercury exposure and health impacts on dental personnel. Citations were searched using four comprehensive electronic databases for articles published between 2002 and 2015. All original articles that evaluated an association between the use of dental amalgam and occupational mercury exposure in dental personnel were included. Fifteen publications from nine different countries met the selection criteria. The design and quality of the studies showed significant variation, particularly in the choice of biomarkers as an indicator of mercury exposure. In several countries, dental personnel had higher mercury levels in biological fluids and tissues than in control groups; some work practices increased mercury exposure but the exposure levels remained below recommended guidelines. Dental personnel reported more health conditions, often involving the central nervous system, than the control groups. Clinical symptoms reported by dental professionals may be associated with low-level, long-term exposure to occupational mercury, but may also be due to the effects of aging, occupational overuse, and stress. It is important that dental personnel, researchers, and educators continue to encourage and monitor good work practices by dental professionals.

  10. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park...

  11. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  12. GEOCHEMICAL FACTORS GOVERNING METHYL MERCURY PRODUCTION IN MERCURY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale experiments were conducted to improve our understanding of aquatic mercury transformation processes (biotic and abiotic), specifically those factors which govern the production of methyl mercury (MeHg) in sedimentary environments. The greatest cause for concern regar...

  13. GEOCHEMICAL FACTORS GOVERNING METHYL MERCURY PRODUCTION IN MERCURY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale experiments were conducted to improve our understanding of aquatic mercury transformation processes (biotic and abiotic), specifically those factors which govern the production of methyl mercury (MeHg) in sedimentary environments. The greatest cause for concern regar...

  14. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the shiny, silver-gray metal found in thermometers, barometers, and thermostats and other electrical switches. • • Mercury can ... the shiny, silver-gray metal found in thermometers, barometers, and thermostats and other electrical switches. Mercury: • • Can ...

  15. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  16. Mercury abatement report on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Y- 12 Plant for fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This Annual Mercury Abatement Report for fiscal year 1995 summarizes the status of activities and the levels of mercury contamination in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) resulting from activities at the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The report outlines the status of the on-going project activities in support of project compliance, the results of the ongoing sampling and characterization efforts, the biological monitoring activities, and our conclusions relative to the progress in demonstrating compliance with the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permit. Overall, the pace of mercury activities at the Y-12 Plant is ahead of the compliance schedules in the NPDES permit and new and exciting opportunities are being recognized for achieving additional mercury reductions. These opportunities were not felt to be achievable several years ago.

  17. Mercury pollution in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Jinap, S; Ismail, Ahmad; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy

    2012-01-01

    Although several studies have been published on levels of mercury contamination of the environment, and of food and human tissues in Peninsular Malaysia, there is a serious dearth of research that has been performed in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). Industry is rapidly developing in East Malaysia, and, hence, there is a need for establishing baseline levels of mercury contamination in environmental media in that part of the country by performing monitoring studies. Residues of total mercury and inorganic in food samples have been determined in nearly all previous studies that have been conducted; however, few researchers have analyzed samples for the presence of methlymercury residues. Because methylmercury is the most toxic form of mercury, and because there is a growing public awareness of the risk posed by methylmercury exposure that is associated with fish and seafood consumption, further monitoring studies on methylmercury in food are also essential. From the results of previous studies, it is obvious that the economic development in Malaysia, in recent years, has affected the aquatic environment of the country. Primary areas of environmental concern are centered on the rivers of the west Peninsular Malaysian coast, and the coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca, wherein industrial activities are rapidly expanding. The sources of existing mercury input to both of these areas of Malaysia should be studied and identified. Considering the high levels of mercury that now exists in human tissues, efforts should be continued, and accelerated in the future, if possible, to monitor mercury contamination levels in the coastal states, and particularly along the west Peninsular Malaysian coast. Most studies that have been carried out on mercury residues in environmental samples are dated, having been conducted 20-30 years ago; therefore, the need to collect much more and more current data is urgent. Furthermore, establishing baseline levels of mercury exposure to

  18. Heavy Metals and Water Quality in an Urban Creek Watershed, Oakland, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, E.; Cheung, J.; Cheung, N.; Flores, J.; Fong, W.; Lam, J.; Marks-Block, T.; Marquez, S.; Rodriguez, N.; Rivera, E.; Sainz, J.; Wyon, M.

    2008-12-01

    Leona Creek runs throughout the Mills College campus, which is located in Central-East Oakland, California. Its source is located in the Oakland Hills, where it is known as Lion Creek, and where there is a history of mining and related acid runoff. On the Mills campus, students hike, casually relax near and play in the creek, which led us to question whether or not its water was clean and healthy, particularly since our focus is the overall safety of the campus community and the quality of its environment. Given the well-known relationship between exposure to lead and brain disorders and other health problems, we decided to collect samples from various locations along Leona Creek, as well as other water sources on the Mills campus, and to determine their lead concentration levels by using a spectrophotometer. Analysis of these samples indicated high concentrations of lead, significantly above the EPA limit for drinking water. All samples taken at Leona Creek were above the EPA mandated limit of 15 ppb. Also, drinking water fountains and ponds on campus were found to have lead levels above the EPA limit. We also collected 12-gram soil samples from various locations throughout campus, including along the banks of Leona Creek. These samples were analyzed by using an ICP spectrometer. Analysis of these samples indicated high lead concentrations in soils collected along the banks of the creek. Although currently only in its preliminary phase, we intend to use the results of this study to alert the Mills College community of the possible hazards associated with what previously had been perceived as safe campus nature areas, and to encourage state and private entities to initiate clean-up efforts to address water pollution issues we have identified.

  19. Mercury levels in the Cree population of James Bay, Quebec, from 1988 to 1993/94

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, C; Girard, M; Bellavance, F; Noël, F

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High levels of mercury in the Cree population of James Bay, Que., have been a cause of concern for several years. This study examines changes in mercury levels within the Cree population between 1988 and 1993/94 and identifies potential determinants of high mercury levels. METHODS: Data on mercury levels among the Cree were obtained through a surveillance program undertaken by the Cree Board of Health and Social Services of James Bay. In 1988 and again in 1993/94 surveys were carried out in all 9 Cree communities of northern Quebec. Hair samples were obtained and analysed for mercury content. Analyses were carried out to determine the proportion of people who had mercury levels in excess of established norms. Changes in mercury levels between 1988 and 1993/94 and determinants of high levels were estimated by means of regression methods. RESULTS: The proportion of the Cree population with mercury levels in excess of 15.0 mg/kg declined from 14.2% in 1988 to 2.7% in 1993/94. Wide variations in mercury levels were observed between communities: 0.6% and 8.3% of the Eastmain and Whapmagoostui communities respectively had mercury levels of 15.0 mg/kg or greater in 1993/94. Logistic regression analyses showed that significantly higher levels of mercury were independently associated with male sex, increasing age and trapper status. There was a correlation between the mercury level of the head of the household and that of the spouse. INTERPRETATION: Mercury levels in the Cree of James Bay have decreased in the recent past. Nevertheless, this decrease in mercury levels may not be permanent and does not necessarily imply that the issue is definitively resolved. PMID:9629105

  20. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.