Science.gov

Sample records for creek swamp megafauna

  1. The timing and cause of megafauna mass deaths at Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dortch, Joe; Cupper, Matt; Grün, Rainer; Harpley, Bernice; Lee, Kerrie; Field, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Lancefield Swamp, south-eastern Australia, was one of the earliest sites to provoke interest in Pleistocene faunal extinctions in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). The systematic investigation of the deposit in the early 1970s identified megafaunal remains dominated by the 100-200 kg kangaroo Macropus giganteus titan. Associated radiocarbon ages indicated that the species was extant until c.30,000 BP, suggesting significant overlap with human settlement of Sahul. This evidence was inconsistent with contemporary models of rapid human-driven extinctions. Instead, researchers inferred ecological tethering of fauna at Lancefield Swamp due to intense drought precipitated localised mass deaths, consistent with Late Pleistocene climatic variability. Later investigations in another part of the swamp, the Mayne Site, remote to the initial investigations, concluded that mass flow disturbed this area, and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) analyses on megafauna teeth returned wide-ranging ages. To clarify site formation processes and dating of Lancefield Swamp, we excavated new test-pits next to previous trenches in the Classic and Mayne Sites. We compared absolute chronologies for sediments and teeth, sedimentology, palaeo-topography, taphonomy, and macropod age at death across the swamp. Luminescence dating of sediments and ESR analysis of teeth returned ages between c.80,000 and 45,000 years ago. We found no archaeological remains in the bone beds, and evidence of carnivore activity and fluvial action, in the form of reactivated spring flow. The latter disturbed limited parts of the site and substantial areas of the bone beds remained intact. The faunal assemblage is dominated by megafaunal adult Macropus, consistent with mass die-offs due to severe drought. Such droughts appear to have recurred over millennia during the climatic variability of Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 3. These events began tens of millennia before the first appearance of Aboriginal people in Sahul

  2. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-10-30

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible.

  3. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring.

  4. HELL HOLE BAY, WAMBAW SWAMP, LITTLE WAMBAW SWAMP, AND WAMBAW CREEK WILDERNESSES, SOUTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, Cornelia C.; Martin, Clay M.

    1984-01-01

    Four wildernesses, including Hell Hole Bay about 10. 6 sq mi, Wambaw Swamp about 8 sq mi, Little Wambaw Swamp about 4 sq mi, and Wambaw Creek about 2. 5 sq mi, are swamp lands in the Francis Marion National Forest on the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, about 30 mi northeast of Charleston. A mineral survey of the wildernesses showed that one of the areas, Wambaw Swamp, has a peat resource potential. An estimated 810,000 tons of demonstrated peat resources on the dry basis occurs in an area of substantiated peat resource potential within easy access to a good road network. No mineral or other energy resources were identified in this study.

  5. The distribution of ichthyoplankton in thermal and non-thermal creeks and swamps on the Savannah River Plant, February-July 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Saul, B.M.; Hughes, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The report deals with the distribution of ichthyoplankton in the Savannah River tributary streams and associated swamps located on the SRP during the 1985 spawning season (February-July). The 1985 sampling program was a continuation of the 1984 program and, except for the addition of seven sampling stations and minor methodological changes, incorporated the same sampling sites and procedures. The streams under study were Upper Three Runs Creek, Beaver Dam Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, Meyer's Branch and Lower Three Runs Creek. The objectives were to determine: (1) the density, distribution and species composition of ichthyoplankton at sample sites in the creeks and swamps of the SRP; (2) how ichthyoplankton in SRP creeks and swamps is distributed in relation to habitat and temperature; (3) the effects of elevated temperatures on ichthyoplankton distribution and abundance and on the time of spawning; and (4) the magnitude of yearly variations in ichthyoplankton abundance in the creeks and swamps of the SRP and the reasons for these variations.

  6. Man and megafauna in Tasmania: closing the gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Richard; Camens, Aaron B.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Reid, Craig; Bertuch, Fiona; Levchenko, Vladimir; Cooper, Alan

    2012-03-01

    Recent discussion on the late Pleistocene extinction of the Australian megafauna has revolved around interpretation of several key fossil sites in Tasmania. It has been suggested that humans did not arrive in Tasmania until after the megafauna became extinct, or did not hunt now extinct megafauna, and therefore that humans cannot be implicated in the extinctions. Radiocarbon results from these sites indicate that the youngest extinct megafauna are close to charcoal ages from the oldest archaeological deposits, although difficulties have arisen in establishing chronologies because most relevant sites have ages near the limit for radiocarbon analysis. We report a series of new radiocarbon ages, δ13C, δ15N and C:N ratios on collagen and dentine fractions from skeletal remains in the Mount Cripps karst area and the Mowbray Swamp, both in northwestern Tasmania, and discuss the reliability of ages from these and other sites. We also report the discovery of an articulated Simosthenurus occidentalis skeleton at Mt Cripps, that represents only the second directly-dated extinct megafaunal taxon with a reliable age <50 ka cal BP from Tasmania. Our results suggest that C:N ratios measured on collagen or dentine are not an infallible guide to radiocarbon age reliability. We confirm previous reports of a temporal overlap between the megafaunal and archaeological records in Tasmania, but the presence of archaeological evidence and megafauna with the same age at the same site has not yet been demonstrated. At least two megafaunal taxa—the now-extinct Protemnodon anak and a giant Pleistocene form of the extant Macropus giganteus—were still present in Tasmania after 43 ka, when human crossing of the Bassian landbridge from mainland Australia first became sustainable.

  7. Mangrove Swamps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mangrove swamps are coastal wetlands found in tropical and subtropical regions. They are characterized by halophytic (salt loving) trees, shrubs and other plants growing in brackish to saline tidal waters.

  8. Vegetation change detection in the Savannah River swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, J.R.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Portions of Pen Branch, Four Mile Creek, Steel Creek, and Beaver Dam Creek deltas in the Savannah River swamp were evaluated for wetlands vegetation change using aircraft multispectral scanner (MSS) data acquired at 2440 meters altitude. Areas of 190 hectares on the Pen Branch, Four Mile Creek, and Beaver Dam Creek deltas, and a 240-hectare portion of Steel Creek delta were registered, classified, and wetlands vegetation change detection categories determined. Pen Branch and Four Mile Creek deltas each lost about 12 hectares of swamp forest from 1981 to 1984. Secondary successional forest regrew on portions of the Four Mile Creek delta (2.4 hectares) and the Beaver Dam Creek delta (15.4 hectares). About 5 hectares of swamp forest regrew on the Steel Creek delta. This may be the first study to detect wetlands vegetation change over several years using aircraft MSS data. One reason could be due to difficulties similar to those encountered in this study. Data distortion from aircraft movement in some areas of the swamp made image-to-image registration difficult. Best results were obtained on Beaver Dam Creek and Steel Creek deltas which had average registration accuracies within one data element, or pixel, of 5.6 x 5.6 meters. Phenological differences and shadows caused difficulties in vegetation-type discrimination and classification. As a result, the number of vegetation change classes were sometimes limited.

  9. Subglacial swamps

    PubMed Central

    Kyrke-Smith, T. M.; Fowler, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    The existence of both water and sediment at the bed of ice streams is well documented, but there is a lack of fundamental understanding about the mechanisms of ice, water and sediment interaction. We pose a model to describe subglacial water flow below ice sheets, in the presence of a deformable sediment layer. Water flows in a rough-bedded film; the ice is supported by larger clasts, but there is a millimetric water layer submerging the smaller particles. Partial differential equations describing the water film are derived from a description of the dynamics of ice, water and mobile sediment. We assume that sediment transport is possible, either as fluvial bedload, but more significantly by ice-driven shearing and by internal squeezing. This provides an instability mechanism for rivulet formation; in the model, downstream sediment transport is compensated by lateral squeezing of till towards the incipient streams. We show that the model predicts the formation of shallow, swamp-like streams, with a typical depth of the order of centimetres. The swamps are stable features, typically with a width of the order of tens to hundreds of metres. PMID:25383024

  10. ESR dating of teeth from Brazilian megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. C.; Kinoshita, A.; Barreto, A. M. F.; Figueiredo, A. M.; Silva, J. L. L.; Baffa, O.

    2010-11-01

    The study of radiation defects created in biomaterials, such as bone and teeth, can be used in dating with importance to palaeontology and archaeology. Two Stegomastodon teeth (AL1 and AL2) from north-eastern Brazilian megafauna were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The samples were collected in Fazenda Ovo da Ema, (913349 / 3714965) UTM, Alagoas state, Brazil. The dating of these samples can contribute to the better knowledge of megafauna presence in this region as well as to the events associated to the extinction of these species.

  11. Georgia: Okefenokee Swamp

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Large smoke plumes were produced by the Blackjack complex fire in southeastern Georgia's Okefenokee Swamp on May 8, 2002. Smoke ... is a natural part of the swamp ecosystem, however, and a number of key plant and animal species within the Okefenokee National Wildlife ...

  12. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  13. Southern deepwater swamps

    Treesearch

    William H. Conner; Marilyn A. Buford

    1998-01-01

    The authors define, classify, and analyze the economic significance of southern deepwater swamps. They discuss the physical environment, vegetational communities, animal communities, management issues, and research needs for this complex resource.

  14. Okefenokee Swamp Fire, Georgia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-22

    Large smoke plumes were produced by the Blackjack complex fire in southeastern Georgia Okefenokee Swamp as seen by the MISR instrument aboard NASA Terra spacecraft May 8, 2002. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  15. Goodbye, Viola Swamp!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Hale W.; Kuehmichel, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    A kindergarten teacher stimulated many language experience and dramatic activities when she came to class one day impersonating the crabby teacher Viola Swamp, from the children's story, "Miss Nelson Is Missing!" (SJL)

  16. Goodbye, Viola Swamp!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremer, Hale W.; Kuehmichel, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    A kindergarten teacher stimulated many language experience and dramatic activities when she came to class one day impersonating the crabby teacher Viola Swamp, from the children's story, "Miss Nelson Is Missing!" (SJL)

  17. Steel Creek fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.; Kissick, L.A.

    1988-03-01

    Fish samples were collected from Steel Creek during 1986 and 1987 following the impoundment of the headwaters of the stream to form L-Lake, a cooling reservoir for L-Reactor which began operating late in 1985. Electrofishing and ichthyoplankton sample stations were located throughout the creek. Fykenetting sample stations were located in the creek mouth and just above the Steel Creek swamp. Larval fish and fish eggs were collected with 0.5 m plankton nets. Multivariate analysis of the electrofishing data suggested that the fish assemblages in Steel Creek exhibited structural differences associated with proximity to L-Lake, and habitat gradients of current velocity, depth, and canopy cover. The Steel Creek corridor, a lotic reach beginning at the base of the L-Lake embankment was dominated by stream species and bluegill. The delta/swamp, formed where Steel Creek enters the Savannah River floodplain, was dominated by fishes characteristic of slow flowing waters and heavily vegetated habitats. The large channel draining the swamp supported many of the species found in the swamp plus riverine and anadromous forms.

  18. Pen Branch Delta and Savannah River Swamp Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.F.

    1999-05-13

    The proposed Savannah River Site (SRS) Wetlands Restoration Project area is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina on the southwestern boundary of the SRS Reservation. The swamp covers about 40.5 km2 and is bounded to the west and south by the Savannah River and to the north and east by low bluffs at the edge of the Savannah River floodplain. Water levels within the swamp are determined by stage along the Savannah River, local drainage, groundwater seepage, and inflows from four tributaries, Beaver Dam Creek, Fourmile Branch, Pen Branch, and Steel Creek. Historic discharges of heated process water into these tributaries scoured the streambed, created deltas in the adjacent wetland, and killed native vegetation in the vicinity of the delta deposits. Future releases from these tributaries will be substantially smaller and closer to ambient temperatures. One component of the proposed restoration project will be to reestablish indigenous wetland vegetation on the Pen Branch delta that covers about 1.0 km2. Long-term predictions of water levels within the swamp are required to determine the characteristics of suitable plants. The objective of the study was to predict water levels at various locations within the proposed SRS Wetlands Restoration Project area for a range of Savannah River flows and regulated releases from Pen Branch. TABS-MD, a United States Army Corps of Engineer developed two-dimensional finite element open channel hydraulic computer code, was used to model the SRS swamp area for various flow conditions.

  19. Weathering of a petroleum spill in a tropical mangrove swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.J.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I.

    1996-12-31

    In August 1987, an indeterminate amount of petroleum condensate was released from a buried pipe leading to contamination of a tropical mangrove swamp surrounding a tidal creek in North Western Australia. Since no bioremediation was attempted at this site, we have monitored the natural weathering of the condensate by detailed analysis of the petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from sediment samples collected on 11 occasions over a 3 year period.

  20. Steel Creek zooplankton: L Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Starkel, W.M.; Chimney, M.J.

    1988-03-01

    The objectives of this portion of the Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program were to analyze data on macrozooplankton taxonomy and density in the Steel Creek corridor and swamp/delta, and compare the composition of the post-impoundment macrozooplankton community with pre-impoundment conditions and communities from other stream and swamp systems. The data presented in the report cover the period January 1986 through December 1987. Macrozooplankton samples were collected monthly using an 80 ..mu..m mesh net at Stations 275, 280, and 290 in the Steel Creek corridor and Stations 310, 330, 350, and 370 in the Steel Creek delta/swamp. Macrozooplankton taxa richness was highest at the two Steel Creek corridor stations nearest the L-Lake dam (Stations 275 and 280); mean values were 10.6 and 7.2 taxa collected/month in 1986 vs 12.1 and 12.3 taxa collected/month in 1987. The lowest taxa richness occurred at Steel Creek swamp/delta stations; means ranged from 1.9 to 4.2 taxa collected/month during both years.

  1. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Restoration methods for deepwater swamps

    Treesearch

    William H. Conner; Kenneth W. McLeod; Ellen Colodney

    2000-01-01

    Planting in deepwater swamp areas is difficult and time consuming, and nursery-grown seedlings are often not suited for such conditions. Baldcypress [Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.], water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.), swamp blackgum [N. sylvatica var. biflora (Walt.) Sarg.], and green ash (

  3. Carboniferous coal swamp vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.L.; Peppers, R.A.; DiMichele, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Carboniferous Period was one of considerable change on the Earth. The volume explores these changes by using plant morphology and paleoecology to develop the relationship between plant evolution and the derived coal sources. Both are interrelated by the regional and stratigraphic trends in paleoecology and paleoclimatology. The book is divided into three sections dealing with geology, plant morphology including palynology, and paleoecology. In Section I, the paleogeography, geologic settings of major coal basins, coal resources, coal-ball origins and occurrences, and the sources of paleobotanical information are presented with biostratigraphic correlations of Europe and the United States. Section II emphasizes plant morphology as form and structure provide the means of identifying plants and, in turn, establishing development, size, habit, reproductive biology, environmental parameters, and evolutionary change. Quantitative abundances and stratigraphic ranges of plants and spores are compared and summarized. Lastly, Section III integrates coal-ball peats and coal-spore floras as complementary sources for the quantitative analyses of coal-swamp vegetation in relation to climate and coal. The local and regional swamp studies are interfaced and basinal geology and depositional interpretations in a stratigraphic succession.

  4. Stream water quality changes following timber harvest in a coastal plain swamp forest.

    PubMed

    Ensign, S H; Mallin, M A

    2001-10-01

    The Goshen Swamp, a fourth order blackwater creek in southeastern North Carolina, was clearcut of 130 acres of riparian and seasonally flooded forest in late May through September 1998. Downstream water quality had been monitored monthly for 2 1/2 years before the clearcut, during the clearcut, and for two years following the clearcut. The objective of this paper was to test the hypothesis that clearcutting in the Goshen Swamp watershed negatively impacted downstream water quality. To do so, data from the Goshen Swamp were compared with data collected from a neighboring control creek (Six Runs Creek) of similar size, land use, and hydrologic characteristics. Compared with the control creek, the post-clearcut Goshen Swamp displayed significantly higher suspended solids, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl nitrogen and fecal coliform bacteria, and significantly lower dissolved oxygen over a 15 month period. Longer-term deleterious effects included recurrent nuisance algal blooms that had not been present during the 2 1/2 years before the clearcut. Although a 10 m uncut buffer zone was left streamside, this was insufficient to prevent the above impacts to stream water quality.

  5. The functional extinction of Andean megafauna.

    PubMed

    Rozas-Davila, Angela; Valencia, Bryan G; Bush, Mark B

    2016-10-01

    Controversy exists over the cause and timing of the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. In the tropical Andes, deglaciation and associated rapid climate change began ~8,000 years before human arrival, providing an opportunity to separate the effects of climate change from human hunting on megafaunal extinction. We present a paleoecological record spanning the last 25,000 years from Lake Pacucha, Peru (3,100 m elevation). Fossil pollen, charcoal, diatoms, and the dung fungus Sporormiella, chronicle a two-stage megaherbivore population collapse. Sporormiella abundance, the proxy for megafaunal presence, fell sharply at ~21,000 years ago, but rebounded prior to a permanent decline between ~16,800 and 15,800 years ago. This two-stage decline in megaherbivores resulted in a functional extinction by ~15,800 years ago, 3,000 years earlier than known human occupation of the high Andes. Declining megaherbivore populations coincided with warm, wet intervals. Climatic instability and megafaunal population collapse triggered an ecological cascade that resulted in novel floral assemblages, and increases in woody species, fire frequency, and plant species that were sensitive to trampling. Our data revealed that Andean megafaunal populations collapsed due to positive feedbacks between habitat quality and climate change rather than human activity.

  6. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

  7. Jen Gustetic visits Swamp Works

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-28

    Jenn Gustetic, NASA's Small Business Innovation Research Program executive, talks with Rob Mueller, senior technologist and co-founder of Kennedy Space Center's Swamp Works. Gustetic met team members and viewed many of the pioneering technologies and innovations in development at Kennedy. Swamp Works is a hands-on, lean development environment for innovation following the philosophies pioneered in Kelly Johnson's Skunk Works and Werner von Braun's development shops. The Swamp Works establishes rapid, innovative and cost-effective exploration mission solutions through a highly collaborative, "no walls" approach, leveraging partnerships across NASA, industry and academia.

  8. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that ranged multiple aspects and fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, a design and build for a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, a design for a portable four monitor hyper wall that can extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill for a next generation robot, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and implementation of a new weekly outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory. The objectives for the command center were to create a central computer controlled area for the still in production lunar regolith bin. It needed to be easy to use and the operating systems had to be Linux. The objectives for the hyper wall were to build a mobile transport of monitors that could potentially attach to one another. It needed to be light but sturdy, and have the ability to last. The objectives for the blast shield included a robust design that could withstand a small equipment malfunction, while also being convenient for use. The objectives for the nano-drill included the research and implementation of programming for vertical and horizontal movement. The hyper wall and blasts shield project were designed by me in the Pro/Engineer/Creo2 software. Each project required a meeting with the Swamp Works engineers and was declared successful.

  9. Magruder Park Swamp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, N.; Uhler, F.M.

    1967-01-01

    The last Tuesday in August, between five-thirty and seven in the evening, we zigzaged through this glorious jungle, attended by a family of Wood Pewees for whom we seemed to be stirring up a feast of flying insects. There was gentle background music by Mole Crickets. A few steps in from the playing field and we were out of sight in ten-foot-high Cattails. All through, we met -- as high as we, or higher--clumped Cinnamon Ferns, deep-rose Joe Pye Weed, and orange, pendent flowers of Jewelweed (first cousins to Balsam and Sultana). Here and there were soft, white spikes of Canadian Burnet, a rare plant hereabouts, and deep purple Ironweed. Dense-foliaged Hempweed climbed over bushes and up small trees, filling the air with its delicate fragrance. Arrowleaf Tear-thumb snatched at us with tiny prongs on its angled stems. Once in a while we tripped over huge sedge tussocks, half-hidden in the tangle. A few times we steered around a small bush of Poison Sumac. The next day We remembered seeing ninety kinds of plants on this hasty trip. Skunk Cabbage leaves recalled April, when a person, from the edge of the lawn, could see huge clumps of them all the way across the swamp. The sky had been washed by last week's downpours; scattered Gums were reddening; and Maples were getting ready for crimson beauty a month from now. There wasn't a mosquito! (Ed. Note.-The Hyattsville City Council is taking pains to preserve this interesting swamp.)

  10. Northeastern North American Pleistocene megafauna chronologically overlapped minimally with Paleoindians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Matthew T.; Lyman, R. Lee

    2014-02-01

    It has long been argued that specialized big-game-hunting Paleoindians were responsible for the extinction of three dozen large-bodied mammalian genera in North America. In northeastern North America, the overkill hypothesis cannot be tested on the basis of associations of Paleoindian artifacts and remains of extinct mammals because no unequivocal associations are known. The overkill hypothesis requires Paleoindians to be contemporaneous with extinct mammalian taxa and this provides a means to evaluate the hypothesis, but contemporaneity does not confirm overkill. Blitzkrieg may produce evidence of contemporaneity but it may not, rendering it difficult to test. Overkill and Blitzkrieg both require large megafaunal populations. Chronological data, Sporormiella abundance, genetics, and paleoclimatic data suggest megafauna populations declined prior to human colonization and people were only briefly contemporaneous with megafauna. Local Paleoindians may have only delivered the coup de grace to small scattered and isolated populations of megafauna.

  11. The last occurrence of Pleistocene megafauna in the Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltorti, M.; Ficcarelli, G.; Jahren, H.; Espinosa, M. Moreno; Rook, L.; Torre, D.

    1998-12-01

    The latest Pleistocene—Holocene megafauna extinction is a global event, particularly dramatic in the Americas. In a previous paper the authors hypothesised a scenario for this extinction event in South America, where mastodonts first suffered from the changing climate environment, followed by the mylodonts and equids. These different latest Pleistocene—Holocene megafauna extinction "waves" in Ecuadorian Andes have been dated using 14C methods on material from selected sites in north and central Ecuadorian Interandean Depression. An outline of the physiographic evolution of the Interandean Depression in Ecuador is offered and the stratigraphic setting of the fossiliferous sites is discussed. The present results confirm the author's hypothesis on the megafauna extinction pattern, previously published in terms of relative age. The importance of climatic changes during Last Glacial Maximum at low latitudes is discussed.

  12. Little Cypress Creek study: A watershed restoration option for protection of wetlands

    Treesearch

    Lisa Gandy; Randy Roberson; Tom Foti

    2000-01-01

    The Little Cypress Creek watershed, which is the home of the Louisiana Purchase Historic State Park and Natural Area, is one of the only remaining examples of a headwater swamp ecosystem left in Arkansas. An increase in water elevations and a change in species composition were noticed in the park in late 1970. A study of the upper watershed of Little Cypress Creek was...

  13. Baldcypress swamp management and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    In the future, climates may become warmer and drier in the southeastern United States; as a result, the range of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps may shrink. Managers of baldcypress swamps at the southern edge of the range may face special challenges in attempting to preserve these swamp habitats in the future if climates become warmer and drier.

  14. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene

    PubMed Central

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Doughty, Christopher E.; Galetti, Mauro; Smith, Felisa A.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Terborgh, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Large herbivores and carnivores (the megafauna) have been in a state of decline and extinction since the Late Pleistocene, both on land and more recently in the oceans. Much has been written on the timing and causes of these declines, but only recently has scientific attention focused on the consequences of these declines for ecosystem function. Here, we review progress in our understanding of how megafauna affect ecosystem physical and trophic structure, species composition, biogeochemistry, and climate, drawing on special features of PNAS and Ecography that have been published as a result of an international workshop on this topic held in Oxford in 2014. Insights emerging from this work have consequences for our understanding of changes in biosphere function since the Late Pleistocene and of the functioning of contemporary ecosystems, as well as offering a rationale and framework for scientifically informed restoration of megafaunal function where possible and appropriate. PMID:26811442

  15. Megafauna and ecosystem function from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Yadvinder; Doughty, Christopher E; Galetti, Mauro; Smith, Felisa A; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Terborgh, John W

    2016-01-26

    Large herbivores and carnivores (the megafauna) have been in a state of decline and extinction since the Late Pleistocene, both on land and more recently in the oceans. Much has been written on the timing and causes of these declines, but only recently has scientific attention focused on the consequences of these declines for ecosystem function. Here, we review progress in our understanding of how megafauna affect ecosystem physical and trophic structure, species composition, biogeochemistry, and climate, drawing on special features of PNAS and Ecography that have been published as a result of an international workshop on this topic held in Oxford in 2014. Insights emerging from this work have consequences for our understanding of changes in biosphere function since the Late Pleistocene and of the functioning of contemporary ecosystems, as well as offering a rationale and framework for scientifically informed restoration of megafaunal function where possible and appropriate.

  16. Conservation of marine megafauna through minimization of fisheries bycatch.

    PubMed

    Žydelis, Ramūnas; Wallace, Bryan P; Gilman, Eric L; Werner, Timothy B

    2009-06-01

    Many populations of marine megafauna, including seabirds, sea turtles, marine mammals, and elasmobranchs, have declined in recent decades due largely to anthropogenic mortality. To successfully conserve these long-lived animals, efforts must be prioritized according to feasibility and the degree to which they address threats with the highest relative impacts on population dynamics. Recently, Wilcox and Donlan (2007, Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment) and Donlan and Wilcox (2008, Biological Invasions) proposed a conservation strategy of "compensatory mitigation" in which fishing industries offset bycatch of seabirds and sea turtles by funding eradication of invasive mammalian predators from the terrestrial reproductive sites of these marine animals. Although this is a creative and conceptually compelling approach, we find it flawed as a conservation tool because it has narrow applicability among marine megafauna, it does not address the most pervasive threats to marine megafauna, and it is logistically and financially infeasible. Invasive predator eradication does not adequately offset the most pressing threat to most marine megafauna populations--fisheries bycatch. For seabird populations, fisheries bycatch and invasive predators infrequently are overlapping threats. Invasive predators have limited population-level impacts on sea turtles and marine mammals and no impacts on elasmobranchs, all of which are threatened by bycatch. Implementing compensatory mitigation in marine fisheries is unrealistic due to inadequate monitoring, control, and surveillance in the majority of fleets. Therefore, offsetting fisheries bycatch with eradication of invasive predators would be less likely to reverse population declines than reducing bycatch. We recommend that efforts to mitigate bycatch in marine capture fisheries should address multiple threats to sensitive bycatch species groups, but these efforts should first institute proven bycatch avoidance and reduction methods

  17. Ecological consequences of Late Quaternary extinctions of megafauna

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Large herbivorous vertebrates have strong interactions with vegetation, affecting the structure, composition and dynamics of plant communities in many ways. Living large herbivores are a small remnant of the assemblages of giants that existed in most terrestrial ecosystems 50 000 years ago. The extinction of so many large herbivores may well have triggered large changes in plant communities. In several parts of the world, palaeoecological studies suggest that extinct megafauna once maintained vegetation openness, and in wooded landscapes created mosaics of different structural types of vegetation with high habitat and species diversity. Following megafaunal extinction, these habitats reverted to more dense and uniform formations. Megafaunal extinction also led to changes in fire regimes and increased fire frequency due to accumulation of uncropped plant material, but there is a great deal of variation in post-extinction changes in fire. Plant communities that once interacted with extinct large herbivores still contain many species with obsolete defences against browsing and non-functional adaptations for seed dispersal. Such plants may be in decline, and, as a result, many plant communities may be in various stages of a process of relaxation from megafauna-conditioned to megafauna-naive states. Understanding the past role of giant herbivores provides fundamental insight into the history, dynamics and conservation of contemporary plant communities. PMID:19324773

  18. Seed Dispersal Anachronisms: Rethinking the Fruits Extinct Megafauna Ate

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Paulo R.; Galetti, Mauro; Jordano, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Background Some neotropical, fleshy-fruited plants have fruits structurally similar to paleotropical fruits dispersed by megafauna (mammals >103 kg), yet these dispersers were extinct in South America 10–15 Kyr BP. Anachronic dispersal systems are best explained by interactions with extinct animals and show impaired dispersal resulting in altered seed dispersal dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings We introduce an operational definition of megafaunal fruits and perform a comparative analysis of 103 Neotropical fruit species fitting this dispersal mode. We define two megafaunal fruit types based on previous analyses of elephant fruits: fruits 4–10 cm in diameter with up to five large seeds, and fruits >10 cm diameter with numerous small seeds. Megafaunal fruits are well represented in unrelated families such as Sapotaceae, Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae, Malvaceae, Caryocaraceae, and Arecaceae and combine an overbuilt design (large fruit mass and size) with either a single or few (<3 seeds) extremely large seeds or many small seeds (usually >100 seeds). Within-family and within-genus contrasts between megafaunal and non-megafaunal groups of species indicate a marked difference in fruit diameter and fruit mass but less so for individual seed mass, with a significant trend for megafaunal fruits to have larger seeds and seediness. Conclusions/Significance Megafaunal fruits allow plants to circumvent the trade-off between seed size and dispersal by relying on frugivores able to disperse enormous seed loads over long-distances. Present-day seed dispersal by scatter-hoarding rodents, introduced livestock, runoff, flooding, gravity, and human-mediated dispersal allowed survival of megafauna-dependent fruit species after extinction of the major seed dispersers. Megafauna extinction had several potential consequences, such as a scale shift reducing the seed dispersal distances, increasingly clumped spatial patterns, reduced geographic ranges and limited genetic

  19. Preservation of daily tidal cycles and stacked alluvial swamp deposits: Depositional response to early compaction of buried peat bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Demko, T.M.; Gastaldo, R.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The character of the clastic depositional environments represented in the lower Mary Lee coal zone of the Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation in the Warrior basin Alabama (tidally influenced mud flats and alluvial swamps) was controlled by the compaction of buried peat bodies. The lowest mineable coal in the Mary Lee coal zone, the Jagger, is overlain by laminated shale and sandstone exhibiting pronounced cycle bedding. This bedding records daily tidal cyclicity in the form of sand-mud couplets. These correspond to flood-current deposition of the coarser fraction followed by fallout of the finer grained fraction during ensuing slack-water periods. These couplets are cyclically bundled-sandier bundles corresponding to spring tides and muddier bundles to neap tides (lamination counts suggest a 24-30-day cycle). The clastic sequence above the overlying Blue Creek coal is characterized by a series of stacked alluvial swamp horizons. These can be identified by autochthonous fossil plants and pedological features indicative of gleyed paleosols. Catastrophic flooding buried and preserved these horizons. The rapid, early compaction of the buried Jagger and Blue Creek peat bodies created accommodation space that allowed both the preservation of tidalites in the Jagger coal to Blue Creek coal interval and the stacking of alluvial swamp paleosols above the Blue Creek seam. Carboniferous peats were comprised of highly compressible plant parts and hence, were sensitive to sediment loading. Once the peat bodies had compressed to a certain extent, stability of the overlying sediment surface created conditions amenable to resumption of peat accumulation.

  20. Seasonal and diel patterns of larval fish drift in a western South Carolina swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Kissick, L.A.; Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Fish larvae were collected weekly during 1986-1987 from the lower 3 km of Steel Creek (Barnwell County), a riverine swamp, to assess reproduction in this rarely studied habitat type. In 1987, larvae appeared in the following order and abundance (as a percentage of the total diural density): blackbanded darter Percina nigromaculatus (3%) and other darters Etheostoma spp. (32%); pirate perch Aphredoderus sayanus (NA); pygmy sunfish Elassoma spp. (7%); chubsuckers Erimyson spp. (13%); bluespotted sunfish Enneacanthus gloriosus (16%); bluegill Lepomis macrochirus (1%), redbreast sunfish L. auritus (<1%), brook silverside Labidesthes sicculus (6%) and ironcolor shiner Notropis chalybaeus (8%); warmouth L. gulosus (8%); spotted sunfish L. punctatus (NA). Unidentified cyprinids (2%), centrarchids (2%) and miscellaneous species (3%) were collected throughout the study period. Monthly diel collections showed that drift densities of chubsuckers, cyprinids, Etheostoma spp., bluegill and pygmy sunfish increased 41 to 160X after sundown; pirate perch and spotted sunfish were collected only at night. Swamp densities peaked during 2000-0159 h (111.5 per 100m), whereas densities in the channel that drained the swamp into the Savannah River peaked during 0200-0759 h (38.7). The later peak in the channel was attributed to larvae that had drifted from the swamp and were essentially lost from the system. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Role of leaf litter nitrogen immobilization in the nitrogen budget of a swamp stream

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Attempts were made to determine if immobilization-mobilization of N in the litter layer is of a sufficient magnitude to affect the concentrations of inorganic N in the overlying water, and to determine the effect of concentrations of dissolved nutrients and hydroperiod on litter decomposition, N uptake, and N release by litter. The study was conducted in two blackwater stream swamps in North Carolina: Creeping Swamp (CR) and Chicod Creek (CH). With the low levels of dissolved nutrients in CR, there was little difference in litter decomposition rate along elevation gradients. Decomposition was faster at the inundated sites in CH and the faster decomposition was associated with nutrient enrichment. Exogenous N immobilized in litter reached higher levels in the enriched swamp CH. Despite faster decomposition in CH, no substantial mineralization of litter N had occurred prior to June. A budget of litter N and dissolved inorganic N inflow showed that immobilization by flooded litter over 1 linear km of CR during the sampling period was 87 kg, equivalent to about 25% of the inorganic N inflow. This proportion shows that litter can play a significant role in controlling N concentration in stream water in small swamp streams. 24 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Miscellaneous pocosin peat deposits of North Carolina: Gull Rock; Van Swamp; Bay City - Gum Swamp. Open-grounds pocos in Hofmann Forest; Angola Swamp; Holly Shelter; Green Swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, R.L.; Otte, L.J.; Witner, T.W.

    1983-06-01

    In earlier reports the coastal swamp or pocosin peat deposits of Dismal Swamp, Pamlimarle Peninsula, Croatan Forest, and Light Ground Pocosin were described (Ingram and Otte, 1980, 1981a, 1981b, and 1982). This report describes the remaining coastal swamp or pocosin deposits of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Total peat resources of these remaining deposits are: (1) Gull Rock - 8100 acres, 4.6 million tons, moisture free, (2) Van Swamp - 6600 acres, 5.8 million tons, (3) Bay City - Gum Swamp - 12,3000 acres, 5.9 million tons, (4) Open Grounds - 11,000 acres, 6.3 million tons, (5) Hofmann Forest - 5200 acres, 4.2 million tons, (6) Angola Swamp - 21,900 acres, 15.2 million tons, (7) Holly Shelter - 9200 acres, 6.7 million tons, and (8) Green Swamp - 16,400 acres, 10.3 million tons. A revised estimation of the total peat resources of North Carolina is 700,000 acres (1100 sq mi) of peatland with 500 million tons of peat. Of this total, 290,000 acres (460 sq mi) is underlain by peat greater than 4 ft thick with 330 million tons of peat.

  3. Caspar Creek

    Treesearch

    Robert R. Ziemer

    2001-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station and the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection have gauged streamflow, and suspended sediment and precipitation since 1962 in the 473 ha North Fork and the 424 ha South Fork of the 2167 ha Caspar Creek in the Jackson Demonstation State Forest in northwestern California. Within the two Caspar...

  4. Climate change not to blame for late Quaternary megafauna extinctions in Australia.

    PubMed

    Saltré, Frédérik; Rodríguez-Rey, Marta; Brook, Barry W; Johnson, Christopher N; Turney, Chris S M; Alroy, John; Cooper, Alan; Beeton, Nicholas; Bird, Michael I; Fordham, Damien A; Gillespie, Richard; Herrando-Pérez, Salvador; Jacobs, Zenobia; Miller, Gifford H; Nogués-Bravo, David; Prideaux, Gavin J; Roberts, Richard G; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2016-01-29

    Late Quaternary megafauna extinctions impoverished mammalian diversity worldwide. The causes of these extinctions in Australia are most controversial but essential to resolve, because this continent-wide event presaged similar losses that occurred thousands of years later on other continents. Here we apply a rigorous metadata analysis and new ensemble-hindcasting approach to 659 Australian megafauna fossil ages. When coupled with analysis of several high-resolution climate records, we show that megafaunal extinctions were broadly synchronous among genera and independent of climate aridity and variability in Australia over the last 120,000 years. Our results reject climate change as the primary driver of megafauna extinctions in the world's most controversial context, and instead estimate that the megafauna disappeared Australia-wide ∼13,500 years after human arrival, with shorter periods of coexistence in some regions. This is the first comprehensive approach to incorporate uncertainty in fossil ages, extinction timing and climatology, to quantify mechanisms of prehistorical extinctions.

  5. In situ respiration measurements of megafauna in the Kermadec Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunnally, Clifton C.; Friedman, Jason R.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to measure metabolic rates of megafauna living in depths greater than 6000 m. Echinoderms, actinarians and a polychaete were captured by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and inserted into respiration chambers in situ at depths of 4049 m, 7140 m and 8074 m in the region of the Kermadec Trench SW Pacific Ocean. Hadal research has moved into a new frontier as technological improvements now allow for a meticulous investigation of trench ecology in depths greater than 6000 m. The development of an in situ respirometer for use in these studies was deployed in the Kermadec Trench to obtain the first ever rates of basal metabolic rates of hadal megafauna. Typical deep-sea experiments of individual animal physiology must deal with covarying factors of pressure, temperature, light and food supply in this study investigated the effects of pressure and increased food supply on overall animal metabolism. In the Kermadec Trench, holothurian respiration rates (n=4), 0.079±0.011 (mean±SE) μmol-O2 g-1 h-1, were higher than those captured at abyssal depths (n=2), 0.018±0.002 μmol-O2 g-1h-1, in the same region (p<0.001). When Q10 adjusted to a common temperature of 2.5 °C trench holothurian respiration rates ranged between 0.068 and 0.119 μmol-O2 g-1 h-1. Anemone respiration rates were remarkably similar between abyssal and hadal specimens, 0.110 and 0.111 μmol-O2 g-1 h-1, respectively. Our results on echinoderm respiration when corrected for temperature and mass fall below the slope regression when compared with other in situ measurements at shallower ocean depths.

  6. Colloquium paper: Megafauna biomass tradeoff as a driver of Quaternary and future extinctions.

    PubMed

    Barnosky, Anthony D

    2008-08-12

    Earth's most recent major extinction episode, the Quaternary Megafauna Extinction, claimed two-thirds of mammal genera and one-half of species that weighed >44 kg between approximately 50,000 and 3,000 years ago. Estimates of megafauna biomass (including humans as a megafauna species) for before, during, and after the extinction episode suggest that growth of human biomass largely matched the loss of non-human megafauna biomass until approximately 12,000 years ago. Then, total megafauna biomass crashed, because many non-human megafauna species suddenly disappeared, whereas human biomass continued to rise. After the crash, the global ecosystem gradually recovered into a new state where megafauna biomass was concentrated around one species, humans, instead of being distributed across many species. Precrash biomass levels were finally reached just before the Industrial Revolution began, then skyrocketed above the precrash baseline as humans augmented the energy available to the global ecosystem by mining fossil fuels. Implications include (i) an increase in human biomass (with attendant hunting and other impacts) intersected with climate change to cause the Quaternary Megafauna Extinction and an ecological threshold event, after which humans became dominant in the global ecosystem; (ii) with continued growth of human biomass and today's unprecedented global warming, only extraordinary and stepped-up conservation efforts will prevent a new round of extinctions in most body-size and taxonomic spectra; and (iii) a near-future biomass crash that will unfavorably impact humans and their domesticates and other species is unavoidable unless alternative energy sources are developed to replace dwindling supplies of fossil fuels.

  7. Dr. Thomas Zurbuchen Visits Swamp Works

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-18

    Thomas Zurbuchen, in plaid shirt, NASA's associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate, listens to a presentation at the Swamp Works facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. In the foreground is a prototype robotic exploration vehicle.

  8. Kennedy Space Center: Swamp Works

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFilippo, Anthony Robert

    2013-01-01

    When I began my internship with the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations laboratory (GMRO), also known as Swamp Works, I was given the unique opportunity to shadow many teams working on various projects, and decide what projects I wanted to take part in. Before I go into details of my experiences at Swamp Works, I would like to take a moment to explain what I discovered Swamp Works to be. Swamp Works is a family of hardworking, dedicated, and driven people from various backgrounds and skill sets. These people all work to advance technologies and make science fiction science fact through means of rapid prototyping. They support and encourage failure as an option when learning new things, as long as lesson learned from said failure. In fact, their motto states "Fail, Fast, Forward." What this means is, not if but when one fails he or she must do so quickly and spring forward from the failure so that his or her progress is not delayed. With this acceptance, it provided me the confidence to dive into a multitude of projects working in various fields and with a wide range of skill sets. The first project I joined was Badger. My motivation for taking on this project was the opportunity I would have to obtain valuable experience working with 3D modeling and 3D printing technologies. Badger was a digging apparatus to be used in a highly dusty environment in a material known as Regolith. Regolith is a scientific term for the dirt or top soil found on planetary bodies. Regolith contains a large quantity of sediments less than lOppm and as a result poses a challenge of keeping it out of any cracks and crevices. Furthermore, regolith can create high levels of electrostatic energy, which can prove damaging to sensitive electrical hardware. With these characteristics in mind, I decided to take on the task of designing and manufacturing a dust proof cover for the sensitive electrical hardware. When I began this project, I did not have the slightest idea as to how to use 3D

  9. Lower Walnut Creek Restoration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lower Walnut Creek Restoration Project will restore and enhance coastal wetlands along southern shoreline of Suisun Bay from Suisun Bay upstream along Walnut Creek, improving habitat quality, diversity, and connectivity along three miles of creek channel.

  10. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  11. Phylogeography and Domestication of Chinese Swamp Buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication. PMID:23437167

  12. Phylogeography and domestication of Chinese swamp buffalo.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiang-Peng; Li, Ran; Xie, Wen-Mei; Xu, Ping; Chang, Ti-Cheng; Liu, Li; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Run-Feng; Lan, Xian-Yong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chu-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    To further probe into whether swamp buffaloes were domesticated once or multiple times in China, this survey examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Control Region (D-loop) diversity of 471 individuals representing 22 populations of 455 Chinese swamp buffaloes and 16 river buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Chinese swamp buffaloes could be divided into two distinct lineages, A and B, which were defined previously. Of the two lineages, lineage A was predominant across all populations. For predominant lineage A, Southwestern buffalo populations possess the highest genetic diversity among the three hypothesized domestication centers (Southeastern, Central, and Southwestern China), suggesting Southwestern China as the most likely location for the domestication of lineage A. However, a complex pattern of diversity is detected for the lineage B, preventing the unambiguous pinpointing of the exact place of domestication center and suggesting the presence of a long-term, strong gene flow among swamp buffalo populations caused by extensive migrations of buffaloes and frequent human movements along the Yangtze River throughout history. Our current study suggests that Southwestern China is the most likely domestication center for lineage A, and may have been a primary center of swamp buffalo domestication. More archaeological and genetic evidence is needed to show the process of domestication.

  13. Aspects of organic matter transport and processing within Savannah River Plant streams and the Savannah River flood plain swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, F.R.

    1985-06-01

    The studies were directed toward understanding; (1) the transport dynamics, storage, and retention of organic matter, (2) the processing of leaf material that enters the streams and swamp habitats of the SRP, and (3) how these factors are influenced by current or previous reactor operations at the SRP. Suspended particulate organic matter, benthic organic matter, and in-stream wood were investigated along selected reaches of Steel Creek from April 1983 to April 1984. Concentrations of organic seston ranged from 0.4 to 5.7 mg l/sup -1/. Steel Creek transported significantly higher concentrations of particulate organic matter than did either Meyers Branch or the waters at the swamp site. Seston and dissolved organic matter were investigated on Four Mile Creek, a thermal stream on the SRP, within three different reactor cycles; reactor not operating (cold flow), reactor operating in early portion of cycle (early hot flow), and reactor operating in late portion of cycle (late hot flow). Significantly higher concentrations of particulate organic matter were transported at all study sites during hot flow than during cold flow. Particulate organic matter and dissolved organic matter concentrations were investigated at twelve sampling sites to quantify input and output dynamics of organic matter to the flood plain swamp. Samples were taken biweekly from February 1983 to March 1984. Dissolved organic matter concentrations ranged from 1.3 to 9.9 mg l/sup -1/ and particulate organic matter concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 5.1 mg l/sup -1/. Leaf decomposition of three bottomland tree species was studied at six stream and four swamp sites under various temperature regimes.

  14. 12. LOCK GATES AT THE SWAMP LOCKS, SEPARATING THE UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOCK GATES AT THE SWAMP LOCKS, SEPARATING THE UPPER AND LOWER LOCK CHAMBERS, SHOWING PADDLE VALVES, LOOKING WEST: 1976 - Pawtucket Canal, Swamp Locks, Pawtucket & Merrimack Canals, Lowell, Middlesex County, MA

  15. Acyclic archaebacterial ether lipids in swamp sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauly, George G.; Van Vleet, Edward S.

    1986-06-01

    Acyclic phytanyl diether glycerol and biphytanyl ether lipids have been quantified in two modern swamp sediment cores in concentrations ranging up to 360 μg/ml porewater. Methanogenic bacteria are the only known source organisms which can inhabit the swamp sediments. Variations in relative abundance between these lipids may reflect taxonomic changes in methanogen populations or the stage of growth. Maxima in methanogen lipid concentrations coincide with local maxima of 13C of organic matter, possibly the result of a pool effect on CO 2 or acetate. Methane production estimates calculated from lipid concentrations in swamp sediments range from 0.1 to 1.3 mmol cm -2 yr -1, values which are consistent with published methane fluxes.

  16. Adaptive transitions and environmental change in the northern Great Basin: A view from Diamond Swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Musil, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of sedentary prehistoric occupations in association with wetland settings in the Great Basin has been the focus of continued debate. Theoretical discussions concerning the nature of hunter-gatherer adaptations to wetland environments have been based on two models: (1) Stress-based or push models, which argue that hunter-gatherer populations would reduce mobility as a response to less favorable conditions, and (2) abundance-based or pull models, which argue that hunter-gatherers would have been attracted to localized environments of diverse and plentiful resources. Archaeological evidence from Diamond Swamp provides insight into human adaptive transitions in wetland environments. Archaeological data from Diamond Swamp revealed a series of cultural components representing significant portions of the Holocene. The components at the Dunn and McCoy Creek sites consist of collections of artifactual, faunal, and floral materials, in association with semi-subterranean pithouse features dated between 3500 and 900 BP. These occupations correspond to periods of increased moisture and higher water tables. During periods of climatic amelioration semi-sedentary occupations occurred with the expansion of highly productive marsh and juniper grassland vegetation zones. The component at the McCoy Creek Site corresponds to a period of decreasing moisture punctuated by periodic drought, evidenced by the presence of a less substantial wickiup occupation dated at 500 BP. This occupation is indicative of a transition to a more mobile, less intensive occupational episode. The study provides evidence that transitions to sedentary pithouse villages in Diamond Swamp are best accounted for by the abundance-based model. A shift towards a less substantial, more mobile, occupation occurred with a decline in effective moisture. The research reflects adaptations made by local hunter-gatherer populations to long term environmental change within a typical Great Basin wetlands setting.

  17. Ice-age megafauna in Arctic Alaska: extinction, invasion, survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Kunz, Michael L.; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-01-01

    Radical restructuring of the terrestrial, large mammal fauna living in arctic Alaska occurred between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. Steppe bison, horse, and woolly mammoth became extinct, moose and humans invaded, while muskox and caribou persisted. The ice age megafauna was more diverse in species and possibly contained 6× more individual animals than live in the region today. Megafaunal biomass during the last ice age may have been 30× greater than present. Horse was the dominant species in terms of number of individuals. Lions, short-faced bears, wolves, and possibly grizzly bears comprised the predator/scavenger guild. The youngest mammoth so far discovered lived ca 13,800 years ago, while horses and bison persisted on the North Slope until at least 12,500 years ago during the Younger Dryas cold interval. The first people arrived on the North Slope ca 13,500 years ago. Bone-isotope measurements and foot-loading characteristics suggest megafaunal niches were segregated along a moisture gradient, with the surviving species (muskox and caribou) utilizing the warmer and moister portions of the vegetation mosaic. As the ice age ended, the moisture gradient shifted and eliminated habitats utilized by the dryland, grazing species (bison, horse, mammoth). The proximate cause for this change was regional paludification, the spread of organic soil horizons and peat. End-Pleistocene extinctions in arctic Alaska represent local, not global extinctions since the megafaunal species lost there persisted to later times elsewhere. Hunting seems unlikely as the cause of these extinctions, but it cannot be ruled out as the final blow to megafaunal populations that were already functionally extinct by the time humans arrived in the region.

  18. Ice-age megafauna in Arctic Alaska: extinction, invasion, survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Kunz, Michael L.; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.

    2013-06-01

    Radical restructuring of the terrestrial, large mammal fauna living in arctic Alaska occurred between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. Steppe bison, horse, and woolly mammoth became extinct, moose and humans invaded, while muskox and caribou persisted. The ice age megafauna was more diverse in species and possibly contained 6× more individual animals than live in the region today. Megafaunal biomass during the last ice age may have been 30× greater than present. Horse was the dominant species in terms of number of individuals. Lions, short-faced bears, wolves, and possibly grizzly bears comprised the predator/scavenger guild. The youngest mammoth so far discovered lived ca 13,800 years ago, while horses and bison persisted on the North Slope until at least 12,500 years ago during the Younger Dryas cold interval. The first people arrived on the North Slope ca 13,500 years ago. Bone-isotope measurements and foot-loading characteristics suggest megafaunal niches were segregated along a moisture gradient, with the surviving species (muskox and caribou) utilizing the warmer and moister portions of the vegetation mosaic. As the ice age ended, the moisture gradient shifted and eliminated habitats utilized by the dryland, grazing species (bison, horse, mammoth). The proximate cause for this change was regional paludification, the spread of organic soil horizons and peat. End-Pleistocene extinctions in arctic Alaska represent local, not global extinctions since the megafaunal species lost there persisted to later times elsewhere. Hunting seems unlikely as the cause of these extinctions, but it cannot be ruled out as the final blow to megafaunal populations that were already functionally extinct by the time humans arrived in the region.

  19. Invitation to the Swamp: An Educational Insert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Bill

    1976-01-01

    In this third special educational supplement, the swamp is discussed. Included is information on where land and water meet to form the great incubator of wildlife, and on endangered species of wildlife, such as the red wolf, brown pelican, manatee, great white heron and woodstork. (BT)

  20. Invitation to the Swamp: An Educational Insert

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Bill

    1976-01-01

    In this third special educational supplement, the swamp is discussed. Included is information on where land and water meet to form the great incubator of wildlife, and on endangered species of wildlife, such as the red wolf, brown pelican, manatee, great white heron and woodstork. (BT)

  1. Training the Future - Swamp Work Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-19

    In the Swamp Works laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, student interns such as Andrew Thoesen are joining agency scientists, contributing in the area of Exploration Research and Technology. Thoesen is studying mechanical engineering at Arizona State University in Tempe, Arizona. The agency attracts its future workforce through the NASA Internship, Fellowships and Scholarships, or NIFS, Program

  2. Training the Future - Swamp Work Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-19

    In the Swamp Works laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, student interns such as Maddy Olson are joining agency scientists, contributing in the area of Exploration Research and Technology. Olson is majoring in mechanical engineering at the University of North Dakota. The agency attracts its future workforce through the NASA Internship, Fellowships and Scholarships, or NIFS, Program.

  3. Training the Future - Swamp Work Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-19

    In the Swamp Works laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, student interns such as Kevin Murphy are joining agency scientists, contributing in the area of Exploration Research and Technology. Murphy is majoring in mechanical engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The agency attracts its future workforce through the NASA Internship, Fellowships and Scholarships, or NIFS, Program.

  4. 1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAGLE CREEK RECREATION AREA, VIEW OF EAGLE CREEK TRAIL REGISTRY BOOTH. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Eagle Creek Recreation Area, Historic Columbia River Highway at Eagle Creek, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  5. What can the data on late survival of Australian megafauna tell us about the cause of their extinction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Christopher N.

    2005-11-01

    [Roberts et al. 2001a. New ages for the last Australian megafauna: continent-wide extinction about 46,000 years ago. Science 292, 1888-1892] concluded that the extinction of Australia's late Pleistocene megafauna was an abrupt event that took place about 46 ka ago throughout the continent. By placing the extinctions soon after the arrival of people in Australia but before climate changes associated with the Last Glacial Maximum, this study implicated human impact as cause. However, the study was controversial because it excluded evidence, mainly from archaeological sites containing disarticulated megafauna remains, for survival of some megafauna well past 46 ka ago. Here, I ask how our interpretation of the extinctions would be changed if this evidence were accepted. Contrary to climate-change models of extinction, the young megafauna sites are not concentrated in mesic refuges around the coast. These sites do suggest that relatively small-bodied megafauna species were the last to disappear, as predicted by a version of the overkill hypothesis. More work is needed to test the evidence for late survival of megafauna species in Australia, but at present this evidence supports overkill, not climate change, as the cause of the extinctions.

  6. New U/Th ages for Pleistocene megafauna deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Hocknull, Scott A.

    2009-02-01

    Arguments over the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna have become particularly polarised in recent years. Causes for the extinctions are widely debated with climate change, human hunting and/or habitat modification, or a combination of those factors, being the dominant hypotheses. However, a lack of a spatially constrained chronology for many megafauna renders most hypotheses difficult to test. Here, we present several new U/Th dates for a series of previously undated, megafauna-bearing localities from southeastern Queensland, Australia. The sites were previously used to argue for or against various megafauna extinction hypotheses, and are the type localities for two now-extinct Pleistocene marsupials (including the giant koala, Phascolarctos stirtoni). The new dating allows the deposits to be placed in a spatially- and temporally constrained context relevant to the understanding of Australian megafaunal extinctions. The results indicate that The Joint (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is middle Pleistocene or older (>292 ky); the Cement Mills (Gore) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene or older (>53 ky); and the Russenden Cave Bone Chamber (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene (˜55 ky). Importantly, the new results broadly show that the sites date prior to the hypothesised megafaunal extinction 'window' (i.e., ˜30-50 ky), and therefore, cannot be used to argue exclusively for or against human/climate change extinction models, without first exploring their palaeoecological significance on wider temporal and spatial scales.

  7. Climate change not to blame for late Quaternary megafauna extinctions in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Saltré, Frédérik; Rodríguez-Rey, Marta; Brook, Barry W.; Johnson, Christopher N; Turney, Chris S. M.; Alroy, John; Cooper, Alan; Beeton, Nicholas; Bird, Michael I.; Fordham, Damien A.; Gillespie, Richard; Herrando-Pérez, Salvador; Jacobs, Zenobia; Miller, Gifford H.; Nogués-Bravo, David; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Roberts, Richard G.; Bradshaw, Corey J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Late Quaternary megafauna extinctions impoverished mammalian diversity worldwide. The causes of these extinctions in Australia are most controversial but essential to resolve, because this continent-wide event presaged similar losses that occurred thousands of years later on other continents. Here we apply a rigorous metadata analysis and new ensemble-hindcasting approach to 659 Australian megafauna fossil ages. When coupled with analysis of several high-resolution climate records, we show that megafaunal extinctions were broadly synchronous among genera and independent of climate aridity and variability in Australia over the last 120,000 years. Our results reject climate change as the primary driver of megafauna extinctions in the world's most controversial context, and instead estimate that the megafauna disappeared Australia-wide ∼13,500 years after human arrival, with shorter periods of coexistence in some regions. This is the first comprehensive approach to incorporate uncertainty in fossil ages, extinction timing and climatology, to quantify mechanisms of prehistorical extinctions. PMID:26821754

  8. A model for the Holocene extinction of the mammal megafauna in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficcarelli, G.; Coltorti, M.; Moreno-Espinosa, M.; Pieruccini, P. L.; Rook, L.; Torre, D.

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents the results of multidisciplinary research in the Ecuadorian coastal regions, with particular emphasis on the Santa Elena Peninsula. The new evidence, together with previous data gathered on the Ecuadorian cordillera during the last 12 years, allows us to formulate a model that accounts for most of the mammal megafauna extinction at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. After the illustration of geomorphological and paleontological evidences of the area of the Santa Elena Peninsula (and other sites), and of a summary of the paleoclimatic data, the main results and conclusions of this work are: (1) Late Pleistocene mammal assemblages survived in the Ecuadorian coast until the Early Holocene sea level rise; (2) Prior to the extinction of most of the megafauna elements (mastodons, ground sloths, equids, sabre-tooth felids), the mammal communities at Santa Elena Peninsula comprise elements with differing habitat requirements, attesting conditions of high biological pressure; (3) At the El Cautivo site (Santa Elena Peninsula), we have discovered Holocene sediments containing the first known occurrences in Ecuador of lithic artifacts that are associated with mammal megafauna remains; (4) During the last 10,000 years, the coastal region of Ecuador underwent significant changes in vegetation cover. At the Pleistocene/Holocene transition the climate changed from very arid conditions to humid conditions. Our data indicates that the megafauna definitively abandoned the Cordillera areas around 12,000 yr BP due to t he increasing aridity, and subsequently migrated to coastal areas where ecological conditions still were suitable, Santa Elena Peninsula and mainly Amazonian areas being typical. We conclude that the unusual high faunal concentrations and the change to dense vegetation cover (due to a rapid increase in precipitation in the lower Holocene) at 8000-6000 yr BP, caused the final collapse and extinction of most elements of the mammal megafauna

  9. Late-surviving megafauna in Tasmania, Australia, implicate human involvement in their extinction.

    PubMed

    Turney, Chris S M; Flannery, Timothy F; Roberts, Richard G; Reid, Craig; Fifield, L Keith; Higham, Tom F G; Jacobs, Zenobia; Kemp, Noel; Colhoun, Eric A; Kalin, Robert M; Ogle, Neil

    2008-08-26

    Establishing the cause of past extinctions is critical if we are to understand better what might trigger future occurrences and how to prevent them. The mechanisms of continental late Pleistocene megafaunal extinction, however, are still fiercely contested. Potential factors contributing to their demise include climatic change, human impact, or some combination. On the Australian mainland, 90% of the megafauna became extinct by approximately 46 thousand years (ka) ago, soon after the first archaeological evidence for human colonization of the continent. Yet, on the neighboring island of Tasmania (which was connected to the mainland when sea levels were lower), megafaunal extinction appears to have taken place before the initial human arrival between 43 and 40 ka, which would seem to exonerate people as a contributing factor in the extirpation of the island megafauna. Age estimates for the last megafauna, however, are poorly constrained. Here, we show, by direct dating of fossil remains and their associated sediments, that some Tasmanian megafauna survived until at least 41 ka (i.e., after their extinction on the Australian mainland) and thus overlapped with humans. Furthermore, a vegetation record for Tasmania spanning the last 130 ka shows that no significant regional climatic or environmental change occurred between 43 and 37 ka, when a land bridge existed between Tasmania and the mainland. Our results are consistent with a model of human-induced extinction for the Tasmanian megafauna, most probably driven by hunting, and they reaffirm the value of islands adjacent to continental landmasses as tests of competing hypotheses for late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions.

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  11. Training the Future - Swamp Work Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-19

    In the Swamp Works laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, student interns such as Thomas Muller, left, and Austin Langdon are joining agency scientists, contributing in the area of Exploration Research and Technology. Muller is pursuing a degree in computer engineering and control systems and Florida Tech. Langdon is an electrical engineering major at the University of Kentucky. The agency attracts its future workforce through the NASA Internship, Fellowships and Scholarships, or NIFS, Program.

  12. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  13. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  14. Toxicity of 5% rotenone to nonindigenous Asian swamp eels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, P.J.; Nico, L.G.

    2007-01-01

    Our primary goal was to determine whether rotenone would be a useful control against introduced populations of Asian swamp eels (family Synbranchidae, genus Monopterus). We report the results of a laboratory experiment comparing the efficacy of various rotenone concentrations (1, 2, 4, and 8 mg of 5% liquid rotenone/L of water) in killing nonindigenous swamp eels of various sizes (1-350 g) from the three known Florida populations. Although most small swamp eels were killed at concentrations of 2 and 4 mg/L. 100% mortality of adult swamp eels was achieved only at 8 mg/L. We conclude that the effective use of rotenone to control established Florida swamp eel populations would be difficult, based on the relatively high concentration of rotenone needed to kill swamp eels; the complexity of the swamp eel's habitat; and our observations of the species' habitat use and behavior, including its widespread distribution and life history characteristics (e.g., burrowing and overland movement) that enhance its invasion and survival in multiple environments. Nevertheless, control of swamp eels may be achieved in certain situations. A combination of rotenone and electroshocking may be an effective way to eradicate swamp eels from small water bodies and to control populations in larger habitats. However, we are cautious in this recommendation and provide details related to the technical aspects of this type of strategy and caveats related to the toxicity of the chemical.

  15. At least 17,000 years of coexistence: Modern humans and megafauna at the Willandra Lakes, South-Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westaway, Michael C.; Olley, Jon; Grün, Rainer

    2017-02-01

    It has been argued that globally the extinction of many species of megafauna appears to coincide with the dispersal of modern humans, however, with the refinement of age ranges on megafauna specimens it has been revealed that many extinctions are in fact time-transgressive. This appears to be the case in Europe and Asia, and probably also the Americas. The argument over what mechanism was responsible for megafauna extinction in Australia, however, remains heavily contested. This contribution investigates the age of a single articulated megafauna specimen of Zygomaturus trilobus from the Willandra Lakes. The Willandra is unique in that it is the only Australian landscape with evidence for a) continual occupation by Aboriginal people from 50,000 years ago and b) the presence of megafauna. As people have occupied the Willandra since the period of initial colonisation, establishing the age range of this specimen provides a good test to determine if people drove megafauna into extinction soon after their arrival, or whether megafauna and people co-existed for a long period of time. Two independent dating techniques show that the fossil has a maximum age range based on OSL of 33.3-36.7kya and a minimum age range based on U-series at 32.4 ± 0.5kya. This specimen represents the youngest example of extinct megafauna reliably dated in Australia. Regardless of whether one accepts a short (47.5kya) or long (55kya) chronology for Aboriginal occupation of Australia, it would now appear that the second largest marsupial to ever exist was still present for a considerable time after the first arrival of Aboriginal people.

  16. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-05

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are generally willow

  17. Sedimentology, stratigraphy, and extinctions during the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition at Bug Creek, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Fastovsky, D.E.; Dott, R.H. Jr.

    1986-04-01

    Bug Creek Valley, the source of an unusual and controversial Cretaceous-Paleogene coincidence of mammals, dinosaurs, pollen, and iridium, exemplifies the importance of depositional process in the reconstruction of evolutionary events. Five sedimentary facies are recognized at Bug Creek: a cross-stratified sandstone, a green and purple siltstone, a lateral accretionary sandstone, a coal, and a variegated siltstone. Repeated fluvial channeling restricts the accuracy of lateral correlations, and the relationship of the fossil assemblage to the presumed Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary cannot be established. Sedimentologically, the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition is represented here by Cretaceous meandering channels that gave way initially to Paleogene swamp deposition. 13 references, 4 figures.

  18. Megafauna community composition associated with Lophelia pertusa colonies in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard-Pilon, Stephanie A.; Podowski, Elizabeth L.; Cordes, Erik E.; Fisher, Charles R.

    2010-11-01

    The deep-water coral Lophelia pertusa provides habitat for diverse communities in the Gulf of Mexico. Photomosaics and analyses within a Geographic Information System (GIS) were used as non-destructive sampling tools to examine megafauna community composition associated with L. pertusa colonies on authigenic carbonate outcrops in two regions of the Gulf of Mexico. Megafauna communities associated with L. pertusa were more similar within a region than between regions. Within regions, the amount of dead coral, number of abiotic and biotic substrata, and percentage of live L. pertusa influenced the diversity, composition, and structure of the coral-associated communities. Elevated diversity levels in the communities associated with L. pertusa structure indicate that L. pertusa provides a distinct, localized habitat source. Outcrops with high proportions of dead L. pertusa harbored more higher order consumers than outcrops with primarily live coral framework.

  19. Effect of marine litter on the benthic megafauna of coastal soft bottoms: a manipulative field experiment.

    PubMed

    Katsanevakis, Stelios; Verriopoulos, George; Nicolaidou, Artemis; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

    2007-06-01

    The effect of litter on the abundance and community structure of soft-bottom epibenthic megafauna was investigated in three coves of the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea). At each site, two surfaces were defined on the sea-bottom. One of the surfaces was uniformly littered with debris (16 items per 100 m(2)), while the other remained 'clean' and acted as control. Benthic megafauna was censused with SCUBA diving, once before the littering episode and then monthly for one year. Both total abundance and the number of species showed an increasing trend in the impacted surfaces, either because the litter provided refuge or reproduction sites for mobile species or because hard-substratum sessile species had the opportunity to settle on provided surfaces. A marked gradual deviation in the community structure of the impacted surface from the control and a clear successional pattern of change in the community composition of the impacted surfaces were demonstrated.

  20. Training the Future - Swamp Work Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-19

    In the Swamp Works laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, student interns, from the left, Jeremiah House, Thomas Muller and Austin Langdon are joining agency scientists, contributing in the area of Exploration Research and Technology. House is studying computer/electrical engineering at John Brown University in Siloam Springs, Arkansas. Muller is pursuing a degree in computer engineering and control systems and Florida Tech. Langdon is an electrical engineering major at the University of Kentucky. The agency attracts its future workforce through the NASA Internship, Fellowships and Scholarships, or NIFS, Program.

  1. Microhabitat Characteristics of sites used by swamp rabbits

    Treesearch

    Patrick A. Zollner; Winston P. Smith; Leonard A. Brennan

    2000-01-01

    The swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus) is one of the least studied North American lagomorphs; a better understanding of the habitat types it uses will improve management of this species. We studied microhabitat characteristics of sites associated with specific behaviors of the swamp rabbit. During spring-summer (15 April-1 October) and fall-winter (...

  2. Are You Phrog Farming or Helping to Drain the Swamp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Jerry B.

    1983-01-01

    The difference between phrogfessors and teachers is that phrogfessors train tadpoles in the way of the swamp (i.e., create likenesses of themselves) while teachers produce people and thereby help to drain the swamp. Phrogfessors take responsibility for what their students learn. They believe that if a student does badly, it is the phrogfessor's…

  3. Microbial Populations in Two Swamp Soils of South Carolina

    Treesearch

    David S. Priester; William R. Harms

    1971-01-01

    Microbial populations were counted in agar-plated samples of two swamp soils collected in summer and winter. Number of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms differed significantly among the soils and between seasons. Alluvial soil from the river swamp was high in organic matter, N, K, Ca, and pH and averaged 88 million microorganisms per gram over the growing season....

  4. Cape buffalo mitogenomics reveals a Holocene shift in the African human-megafauna dynamics.

    PubMed

    Heller, Rasmus; Brüniche-Olsen, Anna; Siegismund, Hans R

    2012-08-01

    Africa is unique among the continents in having maintained an extraordinarily diverse and prolific megafauna spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene epochs. Little is known about the historical dynamics of this community and even less about the reasons for its unique persistence to modern times. We sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes from 43 Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) to infer the demographic history of this large mammal. A combination of Bayesian skyline plots, simulations and Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) were used to distinguish population size dynamics from the confounding effect of population structure and identify the most probable demographic scenario. Our analyses revealed a late Pleistocene expansion phase concurrent with the human expansion between 80 000 and 10 000 years ago, refuting an adverse ecological effect of Palaeolithic humans on this quarry species, but also showed that the buffalo subsequently declined during the Holocene. The distinct two-phased dynamic inferred here suggests that a major ecological transition occurred in the Holocene. The timing of this transition coincides with the onset of drier conditions throughout tropical Africa following the Holocene Optimum (∼9000-5000 years ago), but also with the explosive growth in human population size associated with the transition from the Palaeolithic to the Neolithic cultural stage. We evaluate each of these possible causal factors and their potential impact on the African megafauna, providing the first systematic assessment of megafauna dynamics on the only continent where large mammals remain abundant.

  5. Late Pleistocene ecological, environmental and climatic reconstruction based on megafauna stable isotopes from northwestern Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Guarda, Erwin; Domingo, Laura; Tornero, Carlos; Pino, Mario; Hernández Fernández, Manuel; Sevilla, Paloma; Villavicencio, Natalia; Agustí, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    Stable isotope analyses have been performed on the bioapatite (δ13C; δ18O) and collagen (δ13C; δ15N) of four late Pleistocene South American megafaunal taxa (Notiomastodon platensis, Equus andium, cf. Hemiauchenia paradoxa and Xenarthra indet.) to evaluate paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental conditions as well as paleoecological features of this time period. The analyzed megafauna was found at several locations in the northwestern Chilean Patagonia (38°-42°S, 74°-71°W). The bioapatite δ13C values indicated the presence of C3 vegetation ranging from forestal to woodland areas. The collagen δ15N values pointed to temperate and humid ecosystems, and to the consumption of shrubs, trees, grasses and sedges. Mean annual temperatures estimated from bioapatite δ18OPO4 values show a similarity to modern temperatures and suggested that the megafauna under study may have lived during warm stages (interstadials) of the late Pleistocene. When comparing our results with those obtained from other South American regions, we find that the diet of this particular Chilean megafauna appears to have been more influenced by resource availability than by the potential dietary range of the taxa.

  6. Conservation science for marine megafauna in Europe: Historical perspectives and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Authier, M.; Spitz, J.; Blanck, A.; Ridoux, V.

    2017-07-01

    A broad range of marine species have been named as marine megafauna, however providing a precise definition of this term is difficult. It is not a taxonomically defined group, as it includes sea mammals, birds, reptiles, large fish and elasmobranchs (Fig. 1). Overall, marine megafauna species are large vertebrates that depend on marine resources for their food. These mobile species are generally at the top of their trophic food webs and have none or few predators. From the tiny storm-petrel to the gigantic blue whale, this group is biologically diverse and brings together species which cannot be strictly defined by morphological or physiological similarities. Rather, our perception of marine megafauna as a coherent group is based on ecological similarities and shared conservation issues. These species are exposed to similar threats and generally show limited resilience due to their intrinsic life history traits such as low fecundity rates and high longevity. Consequently, they share common conservation challenges (e.g. Hooker and Gerber, 2004; Lascelles et al., 2014).

  7. Methane flux in the Great Dismal Swamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.; Day, F. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reports measurements made over a 17-month period of the methane flux in the Great Dismal Swamp of Virginia in light of the potential implications of variations in atmospheric methane concentrations. Gas flux measurements were made by a technique combining a gas filter correlation IR absorption analyzer with improved sampling chambers that enclose a soil area under conditions ranging from totally flooded soils to dry soils resulting from drought conditions. Methane emissions are found to range from 0.0013 g CH4/sq m per day to 0.019 g CH4/sq m per day, depending on temperature and season, when the soil is in a waterlogged state. During drought conditions, the peat soils in the swamp were a sink for atmospheric methane, with fluxes from less than 0.001 to 0.005 g CH4/sq m per day and decreasing with decreasing temperature. Results illustrate the potential complexity of the processes which regulate the net flux of methane between wetland soils and the atmosphere.

  8. [Evaluation index system of swamp degradation in Zoige Plateau of Sichuan, Southwest China under drainage stress].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Xing; Li, Kei; Yang, Yang

    2013-07-01

    The evaluation index system of swamp degradation is one of the key scientific issues in the frontier field of international wetland science research. On the basis of long-term swamp field reconnaissance, and according to the fixed position ecological investigation of plant communities and the analysis of soil samples in 20 swamp plots in three belt transects of swamp degradation research under the stress of drainage in 2009, the swamps in the Zoige Plateau of Sichuan were classified into three groups with seven swamp communities, i. e., undisturbed (A type), disturbed by long-term and weak drainage (B-D type), and disturbed by short-term and strong drainage (E-G type), according to the species importance value and by Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN). The degradation degree of the swamps was graded by the method of Principal Components Analysis (PCA), and the swamp vegetation evaluation index (SVEI) and soil evaluation index (SSEI) were developed. Based on the SVEI, the swamps were classified as pristine swamp, lightly degraded swamp, moderately degraded swamp, and severely degraded swamp. Based on the SSEI, the swamps in Hongyuan County were divided into three grades, i. e. pristine swamp, lightly degraded swamp, and severely degraded swamp, while those in Ruoergai County were divided into lightly degraded swamp, moderately degraded swamp, and severely degraded swamp. The similarity of TWINSPAN classification results and SVEI/SSEI evaluation results was above 70%, indicating that both SVEI and SSEI were effective for the swamp degradation grading, and different classification methods should be combined to comprehensively evaluate the swamps in the Plateau.

  9. Hydrodynamic and geomorphological controls on suspended sediment transport in mangrove creek systems, a case study: Cocoa Creek, Townsville, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, S.; Larcombe, P.; Ridd, P. V.

    2003-03-01

    In tide-dominated sedimentary systems, close relationships exist between tidal hydrodynamics, sediment transport and geomorphology. Tropical coastlines contain many tide-dominated mangrove creeks, yet few studies to date have examined the detail of such relationships for these environments. Time-series observations of tidal height, currents and suspended sediment concentrations were taken between 1992 and 1996 in Cocoa Creek, a mangrove creek system near Townsville, NE Australia. The creek and surrounding mangrove swamps and salt flats were surveyed with an echo-sounder and total survey station, respectively. For 'within-channel' tides, the flood tide is always the fastest, at up to 0.5 m s -1. In contrast, for overbank tides (i.e. tidal height > + 1.5 m Australian Height Datum, AHD) ebb currents are fastest in July, December and January, but flood currents are fastest in August and September, at up to 1 m s -1 in both cases. The tidal asymmetry of overbank tides in Cocoa Creek is controlled by the interaction between offshore tidal forcing and the intertidal storage effect of the mangrove swamps and salt flats, with the result being that during certain periods of the year there tends to be a predominance of either faster flood or ebb velocities on overbank tides. Significant tidal suspended sediment transport in the channel is only initiated at overbank height. On overbank tides, measured net suspended sediment fluxes in the channel are mostly seaward-directed (up to 180 t per tidal cycle). However, the net flux measured over a neap-spring period may be either landwards or seawards (up to 465 and 60 t, respectively). Furthermore, on the larger overbank tides (where the maximum tidal height >+1.85 m AHD) net sediment fluxes may be reduced because of a limited supply of available material. Thus hydrodynamic and sediment sampling durations of up to a month may not be representative of long-term trends. Given that our large dataset has not identified a clear long

  10. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  11. Shell Creek Summers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seier, Mark; Goedeken, Suzy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002 Shell Creek Watershed Improvement Group turned to the Newman Grove Public Schools' science department to help educate the public on water quality in the watershed and to establish a monitoring system that would be used to improve surface and groundwater quality in the creek's watershed. Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality provided…

  12. Methane metabolism in a temperate swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, J.A.; Knowles, R.

    1994-11-01

    Methane production has received much attention due not only to its importance as a terminal step in anaerobic organic matter degradation but also to its potentially significant role in climatic change and atmospheric chemistry. Wetlands are an important source and potential reservoir of methane, but the factors controlling its production and emission are not fully understood. This study examined in situ availability of substrates and the distribution of electron acceptors in a temperate peat swamp to determine how the chemistry and microbiology of the site affects methane production. Measurements were obtained in summer, fall and spring at two sites. Laboratory incubations with slurried peat soil were carried out. From the results, the authors speculate that along with differences in hydrology and chemical characteristics, heterogeneity in microbial activity may also contribute to the spatial variability of methane production and emission in wetlands. 45 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. The Warm-Blooded Plant of the Swamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camazine, Scott

    1986-01-01

    Describes remarkable characteristics of the skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) which make it an interesting swamp plant to study in February and March: its warm-blooded nature, unpleasant skunky odor, and peculiar root system. (NEC)

  14. The Warm-Blooded Plant of the Swamps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camazine, Scott

    1986-01-01

    Describes remarkable characteristics of the skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) which make it an interesting swamp plant to study in February and March: its warm-blooded nature, unpleasant skunky odor, and peculiar root system. (NEC)

  15. 10. TRUSS DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, Berlin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TRUSS DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, Berlin Construction Company) Sheet 1 of 2, July 5, 1927 - Bridge No. 475, Spanning Pequabuck River on U.S. Route 6, Farmington, Hartford County, CT

  16. 11. FLOOR SYSTEM DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FLOOR SYSTEM DETAILS, BRIDGE OVER SCOTT SWAMP (Shop Drawing, Berlin Construction Company) Sheet 2 of 2, July 9, 1927 - Bridge No. 475, Spanning Pequabuck River on U.S. Route 6, Farmington, Hartford County, CT

  17. Stable parabolic Higgs bundles as asymptotically stable decorated swamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Nikolai

    2016-06-01

    Parabolic Higgs bundles can be described in terms of decorated swamps, which we studied in a recent paper. This description induces a notion of stability of parabolic Higgs bundles depending on a parameter, and we construct their moduli space inside the moduli space of decorated swamps. We then introduce asymptotic stability of decorated swamps in order to study the behaviour of the stability condition as one parameter approaches infinity. The main result is the existence of a constant, such that stability with respect to parameters greater than this constant is equivalent to asymptotic stability. This implies boundedness of all decorated swamps which are semistable with respect to some parameter. Finally, we recover the usual stability condition of parabolic Higgs bundles as asymptotic stability.

  18. Deep-water megafauna of the Kohala and Haleakala slopes, Alenuihaha Channel, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chave, E. H.; Jones, Anthony T.

    1991-07-01

    Eleven fish and 64 invertebrates taxa were identified from photographs and specimens obtained from a submersible at depths below 1000 m on the bathyal slopes of Hawaii and Maui islands in the Alenuihaha Channel. Abundance of deep slope benthic megafauna was pathcy and estimated to be approximately 0.09 animals m -2. Most of the invertebrates were particulate feeders and attached to hard substrates. Fan-like gorgonians were oriented perpendicular to the direction of prevailing currents. Of the 28 identified species, 12 (mainly sponges, crustaceans and fishes) are cosmopolitan or widespread in the Pacific and 16 (mainly cnidarians and echinoderms) are found only in the central Pacific.

  19. Organic carbon flow in a swamp-stream ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    An annual organic carbon budget is presented for an 8-km segment of Creeping Swamp, an undisturbed, third-order swamp-stream in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA. Annual input of organic carbon (588 gC/m/sup 2/) was 96% allochthonous and was dominated by leaf litter inputs (36%) and fluvial, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) inputs (31%). Although the swamp-stream was primarily heterotrophic, autochthonous organic carbon input, primarily from filamentous algae, was important during February and March when primary production/ecosystem respiration (P/R) ratios of the flooded portions were near one. Annual output of organic carbon via fluvial processes (214 gC/m/sup 2/), 95% as DOC, was 36% of total annual inputs, indicating that the swamp-stream segment ecosystem was 64% efficient at retaining organic carbon. Organic carbon dynamics in the Creeping Swamp segment were compared to those reported for upland stream segments using indices of organic matter processing suggested by Fisher (1977) and a loading potential index suggested here. Creeping Swamp, while loading at a high rate, retains a much larger portion of its organic carbon inputs than two upland streams. Despite the high degree of retention and oxidation of organic inputs to Creeping Swamp, there is a net annual fluvial export of 21 gC/m/sup 2/, mostly in the dissolved form. Watersheds drained by swamp-streams in the southeastern United States are thought to have large organic carbon exports compared to upland forested drainages, because the stream network covers a much greater proportion of the total watershed area.

  20. Regeneration potential of Taxodium distichum swamps and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Seed bank densities respond to factors across local to landscape scales, and therefore, knowledge of these responses may be necessary in forecasting the effects of climate change on the regeneration of species. This study relates the seed bank densities of species of Taxodium distichum swamps to local water regime and regional climate factors at five latitudes across the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley from southern Illinois to Louisiana. In an outdoor nursery setting, the seed banks of twenty-five swamps were exposed to non-flooded (freely drained) or flooded treatments, and the number and species of seeds germinating were recorded from each swamp during one growing season. Based on ANOVA analysis, the majority of dominant species had a higher rate of germination in non-flooded versus flooded treatments. Similarly, an NMS comparison, which considered the local water regime and regional climate of the swamps, found that the species of seeds germinating, almost completely shifted under non-flooded versus flooded treatments. For example, in wetter northern swamps, seeds of Taxodium distichum germinated in non-flooded conditions, but did not germinate from the same seed banks in flooded conditions. In wetter southern swamps, seeds of Eleocharis cellulosa germinated in flooded conditions, but did not germinate in non-flooded conditions. The strong relationship of seed germination and density relationships with local water regime and regional climate variables suggests that the forecasting of climate change effects on swamps and other wetlands needs to consider a variety of interrelated variables to make adequate projections of the regeneration responses of species to climate change. Because regeneration is an important aspect of species maintenance and restoration, climate drying could influence the species distribution of these swamps in the future. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Water quality in the shingle creek basin, Florida, before and after wastewater diversion

    SciTech Connect

    O`Dell, K.M.

    1994-05-01

    Shingle Creek is a major inflow to Lake Tohopekaliga, Florida. Water quality and the trophic status of Lake Tohopekaliga are affected strongly by the water quality of Shingle Creek. This report documents 10 yr of water quality data in Shingle Creek at the lake outfall; for a pre- (October 1981-December 1986) and a post-wastewater discharge (January 1987-September 1991) removal period. Nutrient budgets for the subbasins were calculated from an intense research program (January 1983-December 1985) to document instream impacts attributable to wastewater, determine the role of the cypress swamp in the middle subbasin, and document relationships between water quality and land uses. Rapid urbanization converted forested uplands and agricultural lands to housing and commercial land use during the study. Stormwater runoff in Florida has been identified as a major pollution source. Treatment of stormwater pollution, through Best Management Practices (BMPs), has been regulated by the State of Florida in this area since 1982. By 1988, 84% of the urban landuse in the upper basin was subject to stormwater treatment prior to being discharged to the creek. Potential increases in urban derived nutrient inputs were offset by stormwater management, and alum treatment and diversion of municipal wastewater. Nitrogen loading and P loads and variance decreased significantly during the 10-yr period, despite rapid urbanization in the northern and central subbasins. Nutrient export from the subbasins was influenced by the dominant land use. The middle subbasin contains a swamp that contributed the greatest P and Cl{sup -} loads because of the increase in discharge to the swamp from sources other than the canal. The northern urban subbasin received the wastewater discharges and served as a net sink for N and P exported from the subbasin. 24 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  2. San Mateo Creek Basin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The San Mateo Creek Basin comprises approximately 321 square miles within the Rio San Jose drainage basin in McKinley and Cibola counties, New Mexico. This basin is located within the Grants Mining District (GMD).

  3. Partridge Creek Diversion Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Goal: prevent mercury contamination by keeping the creek from flowing through a mine pit. The project improved brook trout habitat, green infrastructure, the local economy, and decreased human health risks. Includes before-and-after photos.

  4. Extinct New Zealand megafauna were not in decline before human colonization.

    PubMed

    Allentoft, Morten Erik; Heller, Rasmus; Oskam, Charlotte L; Lorenzen, Eline D; Hale, Marie L; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Jacomb, Christopher; Holdaway, Richard N; Bunce, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The extinction of New Zealand's moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) followed the arrival of humans in the late 13th century and was the final event of the prehistoric Late Quaternary megafauna extinctions. Determining the state of the moa populations in the pre-extinction period is fundamental to understanding the causes of the event. We sampled 281 moa individuals and combined radiocarbon dating with ancient DNA analyses to help resolve the extinction debate and gain insights into moa biology. The samples, which were predominantly from the last 4,000 years preceding the extinction, represent four sympatric moa species excavated from five adjacent fossil deposits. We characterized the moa assemblage using mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellite markers developed specifically for moa. Although genetic diversity differed significantly among the four species, we found that the millennia preceding the extinction were characterized by a remarkable degree of genetic stability in all species, with no loss of heterozygosity and no shifts in allele frequencies over time. The extinction event itself was too rapid to be manifested in the moa gene pools. Contradicting previous claims of a decline in moa before Polynesian settlement in New Zealand, our findings indicate that the populations were large and stable before suddenly disappearing. This interpretation is supported by approximate Bayesian computation analyses. Our analyses consolidate the disappearance of moa as the most rapid, human-facilitated megafauna extinction documented to date.

  5. The legacy of the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions on nutrient availability in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Wolf, Adam; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2013-09-01

    In the late Pleistocene, 97 genera of large animals went extinct, concentrated in the Americas and Australia. These extinctions had significant effects on ecosystem structure, seed dispersal and land surface albedo. However, the impact of this dramatic extinction on ecosystem nutrient biogeochemistry, through the lateral transport of dung and bodies, has never been explored. Here we analyse this process using a novel mathematical framework that analyses this lateral transport as a diffusion-like process, and we demonstrate that large animals play a disproportionately large role in the horizontal transfer of nutrients across landscapes. For example, we estimate that the extinction of the Amazonian megafauna decreased the lateral flux of the limiting nutrient phosphorus by more than 98%, with similar, though less extreme, decreases in all continents outside of Africa. This resulted in strong decreases in phosphorus availability in eastern Amazonia away from fertile floodplains, a decline which may still be ongoing. The current P limitation in the Amazon basin may be partially a relic of an ecosystem without the functional connectivity it once had. We argue that the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions resulted in large and ongoing disruptions to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling at continental scales and increased nutrient heterogeneity globally.

  6. Insights into Holocene megafauna survival and extinction in southeastern Brazil from new AMS 14C dates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbe, Alex; Hubbe, Mark; Karmann, Ivo; Cruz, Francisco W.; Neves, Walter A.

    2013-03-01

    The extinction of late Quaternary megafauna in South America has been extensively debated in past decades. The majority of the hypotheses explaining this phenomenon argue that the extinction was the result of human activities, environmental changes, or even synergism between the two. Although still limited, a good chronological framework is imperative to discuss the plausibility of the available hypotheses. Here we present six new direct AMS 14C radiocarbon dates from the state of São Paulo (Brazil) to further characterize the chronological distribution of extinct fauna in this part of South America. The new dates make evident that ground sloths, toxodonts, and saber-toothed cats lived in the region around the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, and, in agreement with previous studies, also suggest an early Holocene survival for the ground sloth Catonyx cuvieri. Taken together with local paleoclimatic and archaeological data, the new dates do not support hunting or indirect human activities as a major cause for megafauna extinction. Although more data are required, parsimony suggests that climatic changes played a major role in this extinction event.

  7. Test of Martin's overkill hypothesis using radiocarbon dates on extinct megafauna.

    PubMed

    Surovell, Todd A; Pelton, Spencer R; Anderson-Sprecher, Richard; Myers, Adam D

    2016-01-26

    Following Martin [Martin PS (1973) Science 179:969-974], we propose the hypothesis that the timing of human arrival to the New World can be assessed by examining the ecological impacts of a small population of people on extinct Pleistocene megafauna. To that end, we compiled lists of direct radiocarbon dates on paleontological specimens of extinct genera from North and South America with the expectation that the initial decline of extinct megafauna should correspond in time with the initial evidence for human colonization and that those declines should occur first in eastern Beringia, next in the contiguous United States, and last in South America. Analyses of spacings and frequency distributions of radiocarbon dates for each region support the idea that the extinction event first commenced in Beringia, roughly 13,300-15,000 BP. For the United States and South America, extinctions commenced considerably later but were closely spaced in time. For the contiguous United States, extinction began at ca. 12,900-13,200 BP, and at ca. 12,600-13,900 BP in South America. For areas south of Beringia, these estimates correspond well with the first significant evidence for human presence and are consistent with the predictions of the overkill hypothesis.

  8. Test of Martin’s overkill hypothesis using radiocarbon dates on extinct megafauna

    PubMed Central

    Surovell, Todd A.; Pelton, Spencer R.; Anderson-Sprecher, Richard; Myers, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    Following Martin [Martin PS (1973) Science 179:969–974], we propose the hypothesis that the timing of human arrival to the New World can be assessed by examining the ecological impacts of a small population of people on extinct Pleistocene megafauna. To that end, we compiled lists of direct radiocarbon dates on paleontological specimens of extinct genera from North and South America with the expectation that the initial decline of extinct megafauna should correspond in time with the initial evidence for human colonization and that those declines should occur first in eastern Beringia, next in the contiguous United States, and last in South America. Analyses of spacings and frequency distributions of radiocarbon dates for each region support the idea that the extinction event first commenced in Beringia, roughly 13,300–15,000 BP. For the United States and South America, extinctions commenced considerably later but were closely spaced in time. For the contiguous United States, extinction began at ca. 12,900–13,200 BP, and at ca. 12,600–13,900 BP in South America. For areas south of Beringia, these estimates correspond well with the first significant evidence for human presence and are consistent with the predictions of the overkill hypothesis. PMID:26504205

  9. Chronology and ecology of late Pleistocene megafauna in the northern Willamette Valley, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmour, Daniel M.; Butler, Virginia L.; O'Connor, James E.; Davis, Edward Byrd; Culleton, Brendan J.; Kennett, Douglas J.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-19th century, western Oregon's Willamette Valley has been a source of remains from a wide variety of extinct megafauna. Few of these have been previously described or dated, but new chronologic and isotopic analyses in conjunction with updated evaluations of stratigraphic context provide substantial new information on the species present, timing of losses, and paleoenvironmental conditions. Using subfossil material from the northern valley, we use AMS radiocarbon dating, stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) analyses, and taxonomic dietary specialization and habitat preferences to reconstruct environments and to develop a local chronology of events that we then compare with continental and regional archaeological and paleoenvironmental data. Analysis of twelve bone specimens demonstrates the presence of bison, mammoth, horse, sloth, and mastodon from ~ 15,000–13,000 cal yr BP. The latest ages coincide with changing regional climate corresponding to the onset of the Younger Dryas. It is suggested that cooling conditions led to increased forest cover, and, along with river aggradation, reduced the area of preferred habitat for the larger bodied herbivores, which contributed to the demise of local megafauna. Archaeological evidence for megafauna–human interactions in the Pacific Northwest is scarce, limiting our ability to address the human role in causing extinction.

  10. Holocene survival of Late Pleistocene megafauna in China: a critical review of the evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turvey, Samuel T.; Tong, Haowen; Stuart, Anthony J.; Lister, Adrian M.

    2013-09-01

    Late Quaternary megafaunal extinction chronologies are poorly understood across eastern and south-east Asia. Previous radiometric studies suggested that surprisingly many extinct Late Pleistocene large mammal species survived into the Holocene in northern China (Bos primigenius, Coelodonta antiquitatis, Mammuthus primigenius) and southern China (Ailuropoda baconi, Crocuta [crocuta] ultima, Megatapirus augustus, Stegodon orientalis, Sus cf. xiaozhu), indicating that Chinese megafaunal extinctions may have been “staggered” across the Late Quaternary. We critically re-examined all radiometric evidence suggesting Holocene survival of Chinese Late Quaternary megafauna, and conducted new dating of mammal material from reportedly Holocene sites containing characteristically Late Pleistocene faunas. Evidence for Holocene survival of any Chinese Late Pleistocene megafaunal species is weak or untenable. No previous radiometric dates used to support Holocene megafaunal survival represent direct bone dates for species of interest, and stratigraphic association between material yielding Holocene dates and megafaunal remains is dubious at most sites. Concerns over accurate identification of faunal material further confuse claims for Holocene survival of many species. Robust radiometric last-occurrence dates for extinct Chinese megafauna are all restricted to the Late Pleistocene, similar to the timing of many other Late Quaternary megafaunal species extinctions elsewhere in Eurasia and the Americas.

  11. Life and extinction of megafauna in the ice-age Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Kunz, Michael L.; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of megafauna that inhabited the mammoth steppe provides insights into the causes of extinctions during both the terminal Pleistocene and today. Our study area is Alaska's North Slope, a place where humans were rare when these extinctions occurred. After developing a statistical approach to remove the age artifacts caused by radiocarbon calibration from a large series of dated megafaunal bones, we compare the temporal patterns of bone abundance with climate records. Megafaunal abundance tracked ice age climate, peaking during transitions from cold to warm periods. These results suggest that a defining characteristic of the mammoth steppe was its temporal instability and imply that regional extinctions followed by population reestablishment from distant refugia were characteristic features of ice-age biogeography at high latitudes. It follows that long-distance dispersal was crucial for the long-term persistence of megafaunal species living in the Arctic. Such dispersal was only possible when their rapidly shifting range lands were geographically interconnected. The end of the last ice age was fatally unique because the geographic ranges of arctic megafauna became permanently fragmented after stable, interglacial climate engendered the spread of peatlands at the same time that rising sea level severed former dispersal routes.

  12. Life and extinction of megafauna in the ice-age Arctic.

    PubMed

    Mann, Daniel H; Groves, Pamela; Reanier, Richard E; Gaglioti, Benjamin V; Kunz, Michael L; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-11-17

    Understanding the population dynamics of megafauna that inhabited the mammoth steppe provides insights into the causes of extinctions during both the terminal Pleistocene and today. Our study area is Alaska's North Slope, a place where humans were rare when these extinctions occurred. After developing a statistical approach to remove the age artifacts caused by radiocarbon calibration from a large series of dated megafaunal bones, we compare the temporal patterns of bone abundance with climate records. Megafaunal abundance tracked ice age climate, peaking during transitions from cold to warm periods. These results suggest that a defining characteristic of the mammoth steppe was its temporal instability and imply that regional extinctions followed by population reestablishment from distant refugia were characteristic features of ice-age biogeography at high latitudes. It follows that long-distance dispersal was crucial for the long-term persistence of megafaunal species living in the Arctic. Such dispersal was only possible when their rapidly shifting range lands were geographically interconnected. The end of the last ice age was fatally unique because the geographic ranges of arctic megafauna became permanently fragmented after stable, interglacial climate engendered the spread of peatlands at the same time that rising sea level severed former dispersal routes.

  13. Extinct New Zealand megafauna were not in decline before human colonization

    PubMed Central

    Allentoft, Morten Erik; Heller, Rasmus; Oskam, Charlotte L.; Lorenzen, Eline D.; Hale, Marie L.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Jacomb, Christopher; Holdaway, Richard N.; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The extinction of New Zealand's moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) followed the arrival of humans in the late 13th century and was the final event of the prehistoric Late Quaternary megafauna extinctions. Determining the state of the moa populations in the pre-extinction period is fundamental to understanding the causes of the event. We sampled 281 moa individuals and combined radiocarbon dating with ancient DNA analyses to help resolve the extinction debate and gain insights into moa biology. The samples, which were predominantly from the last 4,000 years preceding the extinction, represent four sympatric moa species excavated from five adjacent fossil deposits. We characterized the moa assemblage using mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellite markers developed specifically for moa. Although genetic diversity differed significantly among the four species, we found that the millennia preceding the extinction were characterized by a remarkable degree of genetic stability in all species, with no loss of heterozygosity and no shifts in allele frequencies over time. The extinction event itself was too rapid to be manifested in the moa gene pools. Contradicting previous claims of a decline in moa before Polynesian settlement in New Zealand, our findings indicate that the populations were large and stable before suddenly disappearing. This interpretation is supported by approximate Bayesian computation analyses. Our analyses consolidate the disappearance of moa as the most rapid, human-facilitated megafauna extinction documented to date. PMID:24639531

  14. Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change.

    PubMed

    Sandom, Christopher; Faurby, Søren; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-07-22

    The late Quaternary megafauna extinction was a severe global-scale event. Two factors, climate change and modern humans, have received broad support as the primary drivers, but their absolute and relative importance remains controversial. To date, focus has been on the extinction chronology of individual or small groups of species, specific geographical regions or macroscale studies at very coarse geographical and taxonomic resolution, limiting the possibility of adequately testing the proposed hypotheses. We present, to our knowledge, the first global analysis of this extinction based on comprehensive country-level data on the geographical distribution of all large mammal species (more than or equal to 10 kg) that have gone globally or continentally extinct between the beginning of the Last Interglacial at 132,000 years BP and the late Holocene 1000 years BP, testing the relative roles played by glacial-interglacial climate change and humans. We show that the severity of extinction is strongly tied to hominin palaeobiogeography, with at most a weak, Eurasia-specific link to climate change. This first species-level macroscale analysis at relatively high geographical resolution provides strong support for modern humans as the primary driver of the worldwide megafauna losses during the late Quaternary.

  15. Global late Quaternary megafauna extinctions linked to humans, not climate change

    PubMed Central

    Sandom, Christopher; Faurby, Søren; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-01-01

    The late Quaternary megafauna extinction was a severe global-scale event. Two factors, climate change and modern humans, have received broad support as the primary drivers, but their absolute and relative importance remains controversial. To date, focus has been on the extinction chronology of individual or small groups of species, specific geographical regions or macroscale studies at very coarse geographical and taxonomic resolution, limiting the possibility of adequately testing the proposed hypotheses. We present, to our knowledge, the first global analysis of this extinction based on comprehensive country-level data on the geographical distribution of all large mammal species (more than or equal to 10 kg) that have gone globally or continentally extinct between the beginning of the Last Interglacial at 132 000 years BP and the late Holocene 1000 years BP, testing the relative roles played by glacial–interglacial climate change and humans. We show that the severity of extinction is strongly tied to hominin palaeobiogeography, with at most a weak, Eurasia-specific link to climate change. This first species-level macroscale analysis at relatively high geographical resolution provides strong support for modern humans as the primary driver of the worldwide megafauna losses during the late Quaternary. PMID:24898370

  16. Life and extinction of megafauna in the ice-age Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Daniel H.; Groves, Pamela; Reanier, Richard E.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Kunz, Michael L.; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the population dynamics of megafauna that inhabited the mammoth steppe provides insights into the causes of extinctions during both the terminal Pleistocene and today. Our study area is Alaska's North Slope, a place where humans were rare when these extinctions occurred. After developing a statistical approach to remove the age artifacts caused by radiocarbon calibration from a large series of dated megafaunal bones, we compare the temporal patterns of bone abundance with climate records. Megafaunal abundance tracked ice age climate, peaking during transitions from cold to warm periods. These results suggest that a defining characteristic of the mammoth steppe was its temporal instability and imply that regional extinctions followed by population reestablishment from distant refugia were characteristic features of ice-age biogeography at high latitudes. It follows that long-distance dispersal was crucial for the long-term persistence of megafaunal species living in the Arctic. Such dispersal was only possible when their rapidly shifting range lands were geographically interconnected. The end of the last ice age was fatally unique because the geographic ranges of arctic megafauna became permanently fragmented after stable, interglacial climate engendered the spread of peatlands at the same time that rising sea level severed former dispersal routes. PMID:26578776

  17. Investigation of acidity and other water-quality characteristics of Upper Oyster Creek, Ocean County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fusillo, Thomas V.; Schornick, J.C.; Koester, H.E.; Harriman, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Water-quality data collected in the upper Oyster Creek drainage basin, Ocean County, N.J., indicate that the stream has excellent water quality except for a persistently low pH. The mean concentrations of the major inorganic ions were all less than 6.0 milligrams per liter. Mean concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 0.15 mg/L and 0.01 mg/L, respectively. Dissolved oxygen averaged 8.7 mg/L and 81% saturation. Low pH levels are typical of streams draining cedar swamps. In Oyster Creek, the pH tended to decrease downstream due to chemical and biological processes. The pH levels in swamps were one-half unit or more lower than the pH levels in the adjacent stream. Sharp declines in stream pH were noted during runoff periods as the result of the mixing of poorly-buffered stream water with more highly acidic water from surrounding swamp areas. The quality of ground water within the study area was similar to the quality of streamflow, except for higher iron and ammonia-nitrogen concentrations and a higher pH range of 4.9 to 6.5. Precipitation represented a major source of many chemical constituents in the ground- and surface-waters of the Oyster Creek basin. (USGS)

  18. Aquifer test results, Green Swamp area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbals, C.H.; Grubb, Hayes F.

    1982-01-01

    An aquifer test conducted in the Green Swamp area December 15-16 , 1975 was designed to stress the uppermost part of the Floridan aquifer so that the leakage characteristics of the overlying confining bed could be determined. A well tapping the upper part of the Floridan aquifer was pumped at a rate of about 1,040 gallons per minute for 35 hours; drawdown was measured in the Floridan aquifer and in two horizons in the confining bed. Analysis of the data indicates that the transmissivity of the uppper 160 feet of the Floridan is 13,000 square feet per day, the storage coefficient is about 0.0002.5, and the overlying confining bed leakance coefficient is about 0.02 to 0.025 per day. The vertical hydraulic diffusivity of the confining bed ranged from 610 square feet per day to 16,000 square feet per day. Results of the test indicate that, in the area of the test site, a Floridan aquifer well field would induce additional recharge to the Floridan. As a result of that increased recharge , water levels in the surficial aquifer would tend to stand lower, runoff from the area would tend to be less, and, perhaps, evapotranspiration would be less than normal.(USGS)

  19. Methane cycling in a tidal freshwater swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Megonigal, J.P.; Schlesinger, W.H. )

    1993-06-01

    Previous studies of methanogenesis in a tidal freshwater swamp on the North Carolina coast have found that potential rates of methane production overestimate observed rates of methane flux, especially during summer months. This research investigates three possibilities for the unexplained losses: methane oxidation, lateral export of dissolved methane to the adjacent river, and ebullition. It is possible that each of these sinks increase during the summer. The potential for methane oxidation was demonstrated in intact soil cores incubated for 21 hours under a 0.5% CH[sub 3]F atmosphere. Methane flux increased from 10+/-27 (mean+/-sd) to 60+/-3 mg m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1] in treated cores; control core fluxes were 15+/-3 and 19+/-3 mg m[sup [minus]2] d[sup [minus]1] over the same periods. Incubations of slightly unsaturated soils with [sup 14]CH[sub 4] confirmed rapid potential rates of methane oxidation.

  20. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata.

    PubMed

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Kremenetskaia, Antonina; Mah, Christopher L; Mooi, Rich; O'Hara, Tim; Pawson, David L; Roux, Michel; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite being the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. In order to predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to these research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, the megafauna within the UKSRL exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal echinoderm megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 62 distinct morphospecies (13 Asteroidea, 5 Crinoidea, 9 Echinoidea, 29 Holothuroidea and 6 Ophiuroidea) identified mostly by imagery but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  1. Delimiting oceanographic provinces to determine drivers of mesoscale patterns in benthic megafauna: A case study in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacharité, Myriam; Jørgensen, Lis Lindal; Metaxas, Anna; Lien, Vidar S.; Skjoldal, Hein Rune

    2016-08-01

    Communities of benthic megafauna in the deep waters of continental shelves (> 100 m) are important components of marine ecosystems. In high-latitude ecosystems, this fauna is increasingly impacted by human activities and climate variability. In this study, we provide baseline knowledge on the oceanographic conditions affecting its distribution in the Barents Sea in the vicinity of the Polar Front - an oceanic front occurring at the transition zone between the Atlantic and Arctic water masses. We used fields of temperature and currents from an ocean circulation model (Regional Ocean Modelling System - ROMS) to derive variables divided into 3 groups relevant to bottom fauna (temperature, water column structure and bottom currents) expressing either mean conditions or temporal variability over 10 years (2001-2010). Benthic megafauna was surveyed in summer 2011 at 139 sites. To analyze the relationship between spatial variability in the composition of benthic megafauna (i.e., β-diversity) and oceanographic conditions, we: (1) used generalized dissimilarity modelling (GDM) and (2) delimited oceanographic provinces (i.e., regions of similar conditions) for each group of variables using principal component analysis (PCA) followed by cluster analysis. Turnover in benthic megafauna was explained by 7 oceanographic variables (temperature: 4, water column structure: 2, bottom currents: 1), depth and geographic distance (56.7% of total deviance explained). Concurrently, patterns in oceanographic provinces among the 3 groups of variables coincided with results from the GDM, where provinces derived from temperature were sharply delimited relative to the other groups. We concluded that the spatial structure of the environment is important in the relationship between spatial variability of benthic megafauna and oceanographic conditions in shelf deep waters. Ocean models are powerful tools to study this relationship, but the way in which their inherent uncertainty affects the

  2. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Amanda F; Kremenetskaia, Antonina; Mah, Christopher L; Mooi, Rich; O'Hara, Tim; Pawson, David L; Roux, Michel; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite being the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. In order to predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to these research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. New information Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, the megafauna within the UKSRL exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal echinoderm megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 62 distinct morphospecies (13 Asteroidea, 5 Crinoidea, 9 Echinoidea, 29 Holothuroidea and 6 Ophiuroidea) identified mostly by imagery but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat. PMID:28765722

  3. Chronological overlap between humans and megafauna in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia New Guinea): A review of the evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Judith; Fillios, Melanie; Wroe, Stephen

    2008-08-01

    Over 60 faunal species disappeared from the Australian continent during the Middle-Late Pleistocene. Most of these animals were large to gigantic marsupials, birds and reptiles. A terminal extinction date of 46.4 kyr has been proposed for the megafauna, with all sites containing younger fossil megafauna dismissed by some researchers because of questions over stratigraphic integrity or chronologies. The timing of the extinctions is argued to be broadly coincident with estimates of first colonization of the continent by modern humans, and explanatory extinction models involving humans have subsequently gained currency. However there is considerable evidence to suggest that in some parts of the continent, people and some species of megafauna may have co-existed well beyond 46.4 kyr. In other places, such as Tasmania and the north of the continent, there is no known record of a human-megafauna temporal overlap. A review of the available evidence indicates that only 13 species of megafauna were extant on human arrival in Australia. The archaeology of this period indicates that rather than a focus on big game hunting or 'firestick farming', it was characterized by regional variability in subsistence strategies consistent with the range of environmental zones. At the present time there is no substantive argument for a terminal extinction date of 46.4 kyr, the current evidence indicating that there is no specific time period that correlates to any single mass extinction event. On the basis of available evidence arguments for either human or climatic causation are entirely circumstantial and implicitly require acceptance of many unproven assumptions. Claims to have eliminated climate as a primary driver are premature and the recent focus on delivering 'proof' of human causation in Pleistocene faunal extinctions diverts attention from achieving a better understanding of the differential impacts of climate change and short term climatic flux in a land of environmental

  4. Evapotranspiration of tropical peat swamp forests.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Takashi; Kusin, Kitso; Limin, Suwido; Osaki, Mitsuru

    2015-05-01

    In Southeast Asia, peatland is widely distributed and has accumulated a massive amount of soil carbon, coexisting with peat swamp forest (PSF). The peatland, however, has been rapidly degraded by deforestation, fires, and drainage for the last two decades. Such disturbances change hydrological conditions, typically groundwater level (GWL), and accelerate oxidative peat decomposition. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a major determinant of GWL, whereas information on the ET of PSF is limited. Therefore, we measured ET using the eddy covariance technique for 4-6 years between 2002 and 2009, including El Niño and La Niña events, at three sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The sites were different in disturbance degree: a PSF with little drainage (UF), a heavily drained PSF (DF), and a drained burnt ex-PSF (DB); GWL was significantly lowered at DF, especially in the dry season. The ET showed a clear seasonal variation with a peak in the mid-dry season and a large decrease in the late dry season, mainly following seasonal variation in net radiation (Rn ). The Rn drastically decreased with dense smoke from peat fires in the late dry season. Annual ET forced to close energy balance for 4 years was 1636 ± 53, 1553 ± 117, and 1374 ± 75 mm yr(-1) (mean ± 1 standard deviation), respectively, at UF, DF, and DB. The undrained PSF (UF) had high and rather stable annual ET, independently of El Niño and La Niña events, in comparison with other tropical rainforests. The minimum monthly-mean GWL explained 80% of interannual variation in ET for the forest sites (UF and DF); the positive relationship between ET and GWL indicates that drainage by a canal decreased ET at DF through lowering GWL. In addition, ET was decreased by 16% at DB in comparison with UF chiefly because of vegetation loss through fires.

  5. Differences in impacts of Hurricane Sandy on freshwater swamps on the Delmarva Peninsula, Mid−Atlantic Coast, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane wind and surge may have different influences on the subsequent composition of forests. During Hurricane Sandy, while damaging winds were highest near landfall in New Jersey, inundation occurred along the entire eastern seaboard from Georgia to Maine. In this study, a comparison of damage from salinity intrusion vs. wind/surge was recorded in swamps of the Delmarva Peninsula along the Pocomoke (MD) and Nanticoke (DE) Rivers, south of the most intense wind damage. Hickory Point Cypress Swamp (Hickory) was closest to the Chesapeake Bay and may have been subjected to a salinity surge as evidenced by elevated salinity levels at a gage upstream of this swamp (storm salinity = 13.1 ppt at Nassawango Creek, Snow Hill, Maryland). After Hurricane Sandy, 8% of the standing trees died at Hickory including Acer rubrum, Amelanchier laevis, Ilex spp., and Taxodium distichum. In Plot 2 of Hickory, 25% of the standing trees were dead, and soil salinity levels were the highest recorded in the study. The most important variables related to structural tree damage were soil salinity and proximity to the Atlantic coast as based on Stepwise Regression and NMDS procedures. Wind damage was mostly restricted to broken branches although tipped−up trees were found at Hickory, Whiton and Porter (species: Liquidamabar styraciflua, Pinus taeda, Populus deltoides, Quercus pagoda and Ilex spp.). These trees fell mostly in an east or east−southeast direction (88o−107o) in keeping with the wind direction of Hurricane Sandy on the Delmarva Peninsula. Coastal restoration and management can be informed by the specific differences in hurricane damage to vegetation by salt versus wind.

  6. Soap Creek Associates NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  7. Substrate heterogeneity and regeneration of a swamp tree, Nyssa aquatica

    SciTech Connect

    Huenneke, L.F.; Sharitz, R.R. )

    1990-03-01

    We investigated physical characteristics of several substrate types in a South Carolina riverine swamp forest, and the effect of those characteristics upon germination and seedling growth of the dominant swamp tree, Nyssa aquatica (water tupelo). Substrates were categorized as emergent (surfaces of trees, living cypress knees, stumps, or logs), protected (submerged sediment adjacent to an emergent object), or open (sediment > 50 cm from any emergent object and fully submerged during the growing season). Water tupelo seeds germinated best (> 25% in 16 days) on emergent substrates, but seed predation was extremely high on these same substrates. Substrate types differed significant in permanence and in rates of sediment loss or deposition. Growth rates of transplanted seedlings did not differ among substrate types. The result suggest that mortality due to erosional scour or impermanent rooting zones, superimposed on germination patterns, is responsible for the observed nonrandom distribution of woody plant seedlings among substrate types in the swamp forest.

  8. Geochemistry of mercury in tropical swamps impacted by gold mining.

    PubMed

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Díez, Sergi

    2015-09-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) poses a serious threat to the local environment. Colombia has very active ASGM activities, where mercury (Hg) ends in piles of mining waste, soils, and waterways. In this study, we assessed Hg speciation and bioavailability in sediments of two tropical swamps, impacted by ASGM. In Ayapel swamp, total Hg (T-Hg) concentrations in sediments ranged between 145 and 313 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) (mean: 235 ± 49 ng g(-1) dw), whereas Grande Achi swamp levels are 3-fold higher (range: 543-1021 ng g(-1) dw; mean: 722 ± 145 ng g(-1) dw). Even though lower levels of Hg were found in Ayapel, methylation was found to be significantly higher than in Grande Achi, and it is significantly higher in the dry than in the rainy season for both swamps. This increased methylation is linked to the statistically significant correlation between T-Hg, MeHg and organic matter in the Ayapel swamp. In fact, Hg content in both swamps is mainly associated to the organic fraction (Hg-o), with a higher statistically significant difference in Ayapel (43 ± 5%) compared to Grande Achi (33 ± 5%). On the other hand, a significant percentage (30 ± 6%) of elemental Hg fraction (Hg-e) was found in Grande Achi, directly related with Hg released during the gold recovery process from upstream ASGM sites. The percentage of the bioavailable fraction (Hg-w and Hg-h) is elevated (up to 15%), indicating a potential risk to the aquatic environment and human health because these labile Hg species could enter the water column and bioaccumulate in biota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Climate change frames debate over the extinction of megafauna in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroe, Stephen; Field, Judith H.; Archer, Michael; Grayson, Donald K.; Price, Gilbert J.; Louys, Julien; Faith, J. Tyler; Webb, Gregory E.; Davidson, Iain; Mooney, Scott D.

    2013-05-01

    Around 88 large vertebrate taxa disappeared from Sahul sometime during the Pleistocene, with the majority of losses (54 taxa) clearly taking place within the last 400,000 years. The largest was the 2.8-ton browsing Diprotodon optatum, whereas the ∼100- to 130-kg marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, the world's most specialized mammalian carnivore, and Varanus priscus, the largest lizard known, were formidable predators. Explanations for these extinctions have centered on climatic change or human activities. Here, we review the evidence and arguments for both. Human involvement in the disappearance of some species remains possible but unproven. Mounting evidence points to the loss of most species before the peopling of Sahul (circa 50-45 ka) and a significant role for climate change in the disappearance of the continent's megafauna.

  10. Climate change frames debate over the extinction of megafauna in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea)

    PubMed Central

    Wroe, Stephen; Field, Judith H.; Archer, Michael; Grayson, Donald K.; Price, Gilbert J.; Louys, Julien; Faith, J. Tyler; Webb, Gregory E.; Davidson, Iain; Mooney, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    Around 88 large vertebrate taxa disappeared from Sahul sometime during the Pleistocene, with the majority of losses (54 taxa) clearly taking place within the last 400,000 years. The largest was the 2.8-ton browsing Diprotodon optatum, whereas the ∼100- to 130-kg marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, the world’s most specialized mammalian carnivore, and Varanus priscus, the largest lizard known, were formidable predators. Explanations for these extinctions have centered on climatic change or human activities. Here, we review the evidence and arguments for both. Human involvement in the disappearance of some species remains possible but unproven. Mounting evidence points to the loss of most species before the peopling of Sahul (circa 50–45 ka) and a significant role for climate change in the disappearance of the continent’s megafauna. PMID:23650401

  11. The Role of Seep Ecosystems in Distribution Patterns of Deep-Sea Megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; McKelvey, Z.; Jacobson, A.; Hoerauf, E.; Van Dover, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    One of the key questions about methane seeps is the sphere of influence on the surrounding area they provide in terms of habitat structure, food sources, and geochemical environment. Understanding the distribution of megafauna relative to the seep environment is an initial step toward understanding these ecosystem properties. Systematic photo surveys using AUV Sentry were conducted at 4 methane seeps at the Blake Ridge Diapir and a seep at Cape Fear Diapir. Distributions of dominant seep features (bivalves, carbonates, bacterial mats) were used to define the active seep site. Geospatial mapping indicates that non-seep-endemic taxa (those not hosting chemoautotrophic endosymbionts) either avoid (e.g., sea urchins, certain sea cucumbers), are attracted to (e.g., squat lobsters, cake urchins) or show no distributional bias to (e.g., sea stars, certain fish) the presence of a seep. Further investigation into these faunal relationships may improve understanding of services that seeps provide to the larger ocean ecosystem.

  12. A megafauna's microfauna: gastrointestinal parasites of New Zealand's extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes).

    PubMed

    Wood, Jamie R; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Bonner, Karen I; Worthy, Trevor H; Kinsella, John M; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    WE PERFORM THE FIRST MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF PARASITES FROM AN EXTINCT MEGAFAUNAL CLADE USING COPROLITES FROM THE NEW ZEALAND MOA (AVES: Dinornithiformes). Ancient DNA and microscopic analyses of 84 coprolites deposited by four moa species (South Island giant moa, Dinornis robustus; little bush moa, Anomalopteryx didiformis; heavy-footed moa, Pachyornis elephantopus; and upland moa, Megalapteryx didinus) reveal an array of gastrointestinal parasites including coccidians (Cryptosporidium and members of the suborder Eimeriorina), nematodes (Heterakoidea, Trichostrongylidae, Trichinellidae) and a trematode (Echinostomida). Parasite eggs were most prevalent and diverse in coprolites from lowland sites, where multiple sympatric moa species occurred and host density was therefore probably higher. Morphological and phylogenetic evidence supports a possible vicariant Gondwanan origin for some of the moa parasites. The discovery of apparently host-specific parasite taxa suggests paleoparasitological studies of megafauna coprolites may provide useful case-studies of coextinction.

  13. Faunal responses to oxygen gradients on the Pakistan margin: A comparison of foraminiferans, macrofauna and megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooday, A. J.; Levin, L. A.; Aranda da Silva, A.; Bett, B. J.; Cowie, G. L.; Dissard, D.; Gage, J. D.; Hughes, D. J.; Jeffreys, R.; Lamont, P. A.; Larkin, K. E.; Murty, S. J.; Schumacher, S.; Whitcraft, C.; Woulds, C.

    2009-03-01

    The Pakistan Margin is characterised by a strong mid-water oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) that intercepts the seabed at bathyal depths (150-1300 m). We investigated whether faunal abundance and diversity trends were similar among protists (foraminiferans and gromiids), metazoan macrofauna and megafauna along a transect (140-1850 m water depth) across the OMZ during the 2003 intermonsoon (March-May) and late/post-monsoon (August-October) seasons. All groups exhibited some drop in abundance in the OMZ core (250-500 m water depth; O 2: 0.10-0.13 mL L -1=4.46-5.80 μM) but to differing degrees. Densities of foraminiferans >63 μm were slightly depressed at 300 m, peaked at 738 m, and were much lower at deeper stations. Foraminiferans >300 μm were the overwhelmingly dominant macrofaunal organisms in the OMZ core. Macrofaunal metazoans reached maximum densities at 140 m depth, with additional peaks at 850, 940 and 1850 m where foraminiferans were less abundant. The polychaete Linopherus sp. was responsible for a macrofaunal biomass peak at 950 m. Apart from large swimming animals (fish and natant decapods), metazoan megafauna were absent between 300 and 900 m (O 2 <0.14-0.15 mL L -1=6.25-6.69 μM) but were represented by a huge, ophiuroid-dominated abundance peak at 1000 m (O 2 ˜0.15-0.18 mL L -1=6.69-8.03 μM). Gromiid protists were confined largely to depths below 1150 m (O 2 >0.2 mL L -1=8.92 μM). The progressively deeper abundance peaks for foraminiferans (>63 μm), Linopherus sp. and ophiuroids probably represent lower OMZ boundary edge effects and suggest a link between body size and tolerance of hypoxia. Macro- and megafaunal organisms collected between 800 and 1100 m were dominated by a succession of different taxa, indicating that the lower part of the OMZ is also a region of rapid faunal change. Species diversity was depressed in all groups in the OMZ core, but this was much more pronounced for macrofauna and megafauna than for foraminiferans. Oxygen levels

  14. Climate change frames debate over the extinction of megafauna in Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea).

    PubMed

    Wroe, Stephen; Field, Judith H; Archer, Michael; Grayson, Donald K; Price, Gilbert J; Louys, Julien; Faith, J Tyler; Webb, Gregory E; Davidson, Iain; Mooney, Scott D

    2013-05-28

    Around 88 large vertebrate taxa disappeared from Sahul sometime during the Pleistocene, with the majority of losses (54 taxa) clearly taking place within the last 400,000 years. The largest was the 2.8-ton browsing Diprotodon optatum, whereas the ∼100- to 130-kg marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, the world's most specialized mammalian carnivore, and Varanus priscus, the largest lizard known, were formidable predators. Explanations for these extinctions have centered on climatic change or human activities. Here, we review the evidence and arguments for both. Human involvement in the disappearance of some species remains possible but unproven. Mounting evidence points to the loss of most species before the peopling of Sahul (circa 50-45 ka) and a significant role for climate change in the disappearance of the continent's megafauna.

  15. Changing NPP consumption patterns in the Holocene: from Megafauna "liberated" NPP to "ecological bankruptcy"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been vast changes in how net primary production (NPP) is consumed by humans and animals during the Holocene beginning with a potential increase in availability following the Pleistocene megafauna extinctions. This was followed by the development of agriculture which began to gradually restrict availability of NPP for wild animals. Finally, humans entered the industrial era using non-plant based energies to power societies. Here I ask the following questions about these three energy transitions: 1. How much NPP energy may have become available following the megafauna extinctions? 2. When did humans, through agriculture and domestic animals, consume more NPP than wild mammals in each country? 3. When did humans and wild mammals use more energy than was available in total NPP in each country? To answer this last question I calculate NPP consumed by wild animals, crops, livestock, and energy use (all converted to units of MJ) and compare this with the total potential NPP (also in MJ) for each country. We develop the term "ecological bankruptcy" to refer to the level of consumption where not all energy needs can be met by the country's NPP. Currently, 82 countries and a net population of 5.4 billion are in the state of ecologically bankruptcy, crossing this threshold at various times over the past 40 years. By contrast, only 52 countries with a net population of 1.2 billion remain ecologically solvent. Overall, the Holocene has seen remarkable changes in consumption patterns of NPP, passing through three distinct phases. Humans began in a world where there was 1.6-4.1% unclaimed NPP to consume. From 1700-1850, humans began to consume more than wild animals (globally averaged). At present, >82% of people live in countries where not even all available plant matter could satisfy our energy demands.

  16. Development of a grid-cell topographic surface for Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftin, C.S.; Rasberry, W.; Kitchens, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Okefenokee Swamp is a 160,000 ha freshwater wetland in Southeast Georgia, USA that developed in a landscape basin. Hydrologic variability across the swamp suggests that water-surface elevations are not uniform across the swamp. The topographic surface map discussed herein was developed to describe the swamp topography at local to landscape scales and relate the swamp peat- and sand-surface elevations to elevation above mean sea level. These data were then used to relate water-surface elevations across the swamp so that the swamp hydrologic environment could be described spatially and temporally with a spatial hydrology model. The swamp was divided into 5 sub-basins that reflect similar seasonal hydrodynamics but also indicate local conditions unique to the basins. Topographic gradient influences water-level dynamics in the western swamp (2 sub-basins), which is dominated by the Suwannee River floodplain. The eastern swamp (3 sub-basins) is terraced, and the regional hydrology is driven less by topographic gradient and more by precipitation and evapotranspiration volumes. The relatively steep gradient and berm and lake features in the western swamp's Suwannee River floodplain limit the spatial extent of the Suwannee River sill's effects, whereas system sensitivities to evapotranspiration rates are more important drivers of hydrology in the eastern swamp.

  17. [Degradation characteristics of swamps in Zoige Plateau induced by drainage based on quantitative classification of vegetation].

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Yang, Yong-Xing; Yang, Yang; Han, Da-Yong

    2012-07-01

    Based on the field survey of swamp ecological characteristics and environmental quality and the ecological investigation of drained swamp transects in Zoige Plateau of Tibet in 2009, twenty typical swamp plots in the Plateau were classified into three types by TWINSPAN, i. e., primary swamp, long-term drained degraded swamp, and short-term drained degraded swamp, and each type of the degraded swamps was divided into three degradation grades, i. e., light degradation, moderate degradation, and severe degradation, with the degradation characteristics of vegetation and soil along the swamp degraded gradient studied. The swamp degradation in the Plateau was mainly driven by drainage pattern, drainage intensity, and soil moisture gradient, and the vegetation degradation was more obvious than the soil degradation. In the vegetation degradation, the structural change of hydro-type functional assemblage was most obvious, e. g., the importance value of helophytes under the stress of long-term drainage and short-term drainage decreased from 0.920 to 0.183 and 0.053, while that of mesophytes increased from 0.029 to 0.613 and 0.686, respectively. The soil response to the swamp degradation was in hysteresis, i. e., the soil physical and chemical properties presented definite variations but the differences were not significant among the swamps with different grades of degradation. The results of CCA indicated that soil moisture and nitrogen and potassium contents were the most important factors affecting the plant species distribution in drained degraded swamps in Zoige Plateau.

  18. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  19. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  20. 43 CFR 2625.1 - Selection and patenting of swamp lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection and patenting of swamp lands... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.1 Selection and patenting of swamp lands. (a) All lands properly selected and reported...

  1. SwampLog II: A Structured Journal for Personal and Professional Inquiry within a Collaborative Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicassio, Frank J.

    SwampLog is a type of journal keeping that records the facts of daily activities as experienced and perceived by practitioners. The label, "SwampLog," was inspired by Donald Schon's metaphor used to distinguish the "swamplands of practice" from the "high, hard ground of research." Keeping a SwampLog consists of recording four general types of…

  2. 43 CFR 2625.2 - Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications in conflict with swamp-land...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.2 Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims. Applications adverse to the...

  3. 77 FR 72737 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Dismal Swamp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... (Alternate Route), Dismal Swamp Canal, South Mills, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulations governing the operation of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, at mile 28.0, over the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Dismal Swamp Canal, South Mills, NC....

  4. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  5. 43 CFR 2625.2 - Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applications in conflict with swamp-land...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.2 Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims. Applications adverse to the...

  6. 43 CFR 2625.1 - Selection and patenting of swamp lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection and patenting of swamp lands... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.1 Selection and patenting of swamp lands. (a) All lands properly selected and reported...

  7. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  8. 43 CFR 2625.2 - Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications in conflict with swamp-land...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.2 Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims. Applications adverse to the...

  9. 33 CFR 117.820 - Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. 117.820 Section 117.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... North Carolina § 117.820 Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (Alternate Route), Great Dismal Swamp Canal. The draw of the Great Dismal Swamp Canal Bridge, mile 28.0 at South Mills, NC, shall operate as follows:...

  10. 43 CFR 2625.1 - Selection and patenting of swamp lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection and patenting of swamp lands... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.1 Selection and patenting of swamp lands. (a) All lands properly selected and reported...

  11. 43 CFR 2625.2 - Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications in conflict with swamp-land...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.2 Applications in conflict with swamp-land claims. Applications adverse to the...

  12. 43 CFR 2625.1 - Selection and patenting of swamp lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection and patenting of swamp lands... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) STATE GRANTS Swamp-land Grants § 2625.1 Selection and patenting of swamp lands. (a) All lands properly selected and reported...

  13. Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest

    Treesearch

    Ward W. McCaughey

    1996-01-01

    The Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, established in 1961, is representative of the vast expanses of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) found east of the Continental Divide in Montana, southwest Alberta, and Wyoming. Discrete generations of even-age lodgepole stands form a mosaic typical of the fireprone forests at moderate to high altitudes in the Northern Rocky...

  14. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

  15. Boulder Creek Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingaman, Deirdre; Eitel, Karla Bradley

    2010-01-01

    Boulder Creek runs literally in the backyard of Donnelly Elementary School and happens to be on the EPA list of impaired water bodies. Therefore, a unique opportunity for problem solving opened the door to an exciting chance for students to become scientists, while also becoming active in their community. With the help of the Idaho Department of…

  16. Bent Creek demonstration program

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg

    1997-01-01

    Bent Creek Research and Demonstration Forest scientists have transferred the results of research on the ecology and management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods since 1925. Since 1989, a full-time technology transfer specialist has led demonstration efforts. The demonstration program was designed to quickly transfer research results to interested users and to free...

  17. Bent Creek demonstration program

    Treesearch

    Erik C. Berg

    1997-01-01

    Bent Creek Research and Demonstration Forest scientists have transferred the results of research on the ecology and management of Southern Appalachian hardwoods since 1925. Since 1989, a full-time technology transfer specialist has led demonstration efforts. The demonstration program was designed to quickly transfer research results to interested users, and free-up...

  18. Trout Creek 1999 Burn

    Treesearch

    Sherel Goodrich

    2008-01-01

    A small prescribed fire near the mouth of Trout Creek in Strawberry Valley, Wasatch County, Utah, on the Uinta National Forest provided an opportunity to compare production and vascular plant composition in unburned and burned areas. At four years post burn, production of herbaceous plants was about four times greater in the burned area than in the unburned area. Most...

  19. Characteristics of mangrove swamps managed for mosquito control in eastern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.; Devlin, D.; Proffitt, E.; McKee, K.; Cretini, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulations of the vegetation and hydrology of wetlands for mosquito control are common worldwide, but these modifications may affect vital ecosystem processes. To control mosquitoes in mangrove swamps in eastern Florida, managers have used rotational impoundment management (RIM) as an alternative to the worldwide practice of mosquito ditching. Levees surround RIM swamps, and water is pumped into the impoundment during the summer, a season when natural swamps have low water levels. In the New World, these mosquito-managed swamps resemble the mixed basin type of mangrove swamp (based on PCA analysis). An assessment was made of RIM, natural (control), and breached-RIM (restored) swamps in eastern Florida to compare their structural complexities, soil development, and resistance to invasion. Regarding structural complexity, dominant species composition differed between these swamps; the red mangrove Rhizophora mangle occurred at a higher relative density in RIM and breached-RIM swamps, and the black mangrove Avicennia germinans had a higher relative density in natural swamps. Tree density and canopy cover were higher and tree height lower in RIM swamps than in natural and breached-RIM swamps. Soil organic matter in RIM swamps was twice that in natural or breached-RIM swamps. RIM swamps had a lower resistance to invasion by the Brazilian pepper tree Schinus terebinthifolius, which is likely attributable to the lower porewater salinity in RIM swamps. These characteristics may reflect differences in important ecosystem processes (primary production, trophic structure, nutrient cycling, decomposition). Comparative assessments of managed wetlands are vital for land managers, so that they can make informed decisions compatible with conservation objectives. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  20. Coatal salt marshes and mangrove swamps in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-Lun; Chen, Ji-Yu

    1995-12-01

    Based on plant specimen data, sediment samples, photos, and sketches from 45 coastal crosssections, and materials from two recent countrywide comprehensive investigations on Chinese coasts and islands, this paper deals with China’s vegetative tidal-flats: salt marshes and mangrove swamps. There are now 141700 acres of salt marshes and 51000 acres of mangrove swamps which together cover about 30% of the mud-coast area of the country and distribute between 18°N (Southern Hainan Island) and 41 °N (Liaodong Bay). Over the past 45 years, about 1750000 acres of salt marshes and 49400 acres of mangrove swamps have been reclaimed. The 2.0×109 tons of fine sediments input by rivers into the Chinese seas form extensive tidal flats, the soil basis of coastal helophytes. Different climates result in the diversity of vegetation. The 3˜8 m tidal range favors intertidal zone development. Of over 20 plant species in the salt marshes, native Suaeda salsa, Phragmites australis, Aeluropus littoralis, Zoysia maerostachys, Imperata cylindrica and introduced Spartina anglica are the most extensive in distribution. Of the 41 mangrove swamps species, Kandelia candel, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Excoecaria agallocha and Avicennia marina are much wider in latitudinal distribution than the others. Developing stages of marshes originally relevant to the evolution of tidal flats are given out. The roles of pioneer plants in decreasing flood water energy and increasing accretion rate in the Changjiang River delta are discussed.

  1. Fire management and research for biodiversity in the Green Swamp

    Treesearch

    Margit A. Bucher; Maura E. High

    2002-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy has conducted prescribed burns for two decades in North Carolina's Green Swamp to enhance and maintain species biodiversity in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) savannas and ecotones. The surrounding pocosins, however, have been left alone. Increasingly, dense shrub growth in the pocosin suppresses herbaceous species and...

  2. Swamp tours in Louisiana post Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita

    Treesearch

    Dawn J. Schaffer; Craig A. Miller

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita made landfall in southern Louisiana during August and September 2005. Prior to these storms, swamp tours were a growing sector of nature-based tourism that entertained visitors while teaching about local flora, fauna, and culture. This study determined post-hurricane operating status of tours, damage sustained, and repairs made. Differences...

  3. Biology and control of swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii)

    SciTech Connect

    Bewick, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model predicting swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii Willd.) emergence was developed. The model states that 0.1% of the cranberry seedlings will emerge after 150 to 170 GDD have accumulated after the winter ice has melted on the cranberry beds, using 0 C as the low temperature threshold. Experiments in cranberry showed that pronamide (3,5-dichloro-(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benzamide) was effective in controlling swamp dodder when applied preemergence. Rates below 2.4 kg ai/ha appeared to be safe for cranberry plants and fruit. Experiments with /sup 14/C glyphosate showed that the herbicide moved out of carrot leaves to the physiological sinks in the plant. In carrots parasitized by swamp dodder the dodder acted as one of the strongest sinks for photosynthates from the host. In cranberry glyphosate moved out of the leaves, but most remained in the stem to which the treated leaves were attached. The only physiological sinks that accumulated significant amounts of label were the stem apices. The concentration of the herbicide in this sink decreased with time. Swamp dodder stems were able to absorb glyphosate directly from solution.

  4. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments.

  5. Gnathostome infection in swamp eels, Fluta alba, in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuamtanong, S; Waikagul, J; Anantaphruti, M T

    1998-03-01

    To investigate the distribution of gnathostome worms in central Thailand, the infective larvae of Gnathostoma spp were examined from the flesh and liver of swamp eels, Fluta alba. Seven hundred and eighty-eight eels were purchased from markets in 11 provinces; Ang Thong (30), Ayutthaya (36), Chachoengsao (30), Lop Buri (30), Nakhon Nayok (437), Pathum Thani (30), Prachin Buri (48), Ratchaburi (53), Saraburi (30), Samut Prakan (30) and Suphan Buri (34). The highest rate of gnathostome infection was observed in swamp eels from Nakhon Nayok (68.7%). The infection rates in Ayutthaya, Ang Thong, Prachin Buri, Ratchaburi, Saraburi and Lop Buri were 33.3%, 26.7%, 25.0%, 18.9%, 13.3% and 10.0% respectively. Gnathostome larvae were not found in swamp eels from Chachoengsao, Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan and Suphan Buri. Among the 9,573 larvae recovered, almost all were the advanced third stage larvae of G. spinigerum, except one larva from Nakhon Nayok and two larvae from Ratchaburi which were identified as the advanced third stage larvae of G. vietnamicum and G. hispidum respectively. This study is the first report of swamp eels as natural intermediate hosts of G. vietnamicum and G. hispidum.

  6. Learning To Love the Swamp: Reshaping Education for Public Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    The world of public service is compared to a swamp in which important, complex, and messy problems are addressed, and it is argued that graduate and professional education must be reshaped to produce leaders who can make sense of current challenges. Education that is more experiential, behavioral, interactive, and collectively oriented is…

  7. Environmental impact of the Big Cypress Swamp jetport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1969-01-01

    Development of the proposed jetport and its attendant facilities will lead to land drainage and development for agriculture, industry, housing, transportation, and services in the Big Cypress Swamp which will inexorably destroy the south Florida ecosystem and this the Everglades National Park.

  8. Establishment of Swamp Tupelo Seedlings After Regeneration Cuts

    Treesearch

    Dean S. DeBell; J. Dennis Auld

    1971-01-01

    Environmental factors influencing natural regeneration of swamp tupelo were examined in a study involving five harvest treatments replicated in 3 successive years. Initial seedling establishment was related to seed production, but other factors probably are more limiting in most years. Abundance of established seedlings differed significantly with harvest cuttings,...

  9. Learning To Love the Swamp: Reshaping Education for Public Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    The world of public service is compared to a swamp in which important, complex, and messy problems are addressed, and it is argued that graduate and professional education must be reshaped to produce leaders who can make sense of current challenges. Education that is more experiential, behavioral, interactive, and collectively oriented is…

  10. Impacts of sewage effluent on tree survival, water quality and nutrient removal in coastal plain swamps

    SciTech Connect

    Kuenzler, E.J.

    1987-09-01

    An investigation was conducted of the impacts of sprayed municipal sewage on swamp tree survival and the effects of the swamp system on nutrient concentrations below the outfalls on two streams on the coastal plain of North Carolina. Effluent was discharged to one swamp stream by aerial spraying and to the other stream by way of a small ditch. Ninety-eight percent of the trees struck directly by the spray were dead within 18 months of the date spraying began. Both swamp systems removed sufficient quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus within a few kilometers to account for virtually all of the sewage nutrient load to the swamps.

  11. Characterization of epibenthic and demersal megafauna at Mississippi Canyon 252 shortly after the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Marla M; Benfield, Mark C

    2013-12-15

    The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill resulted in the release of a large quantity of oil and gas into the northern Gulf of Mexico from a bathypelagic source. Due to a lack of pre-spill quantitative data the baseline condition of the communities near the spill site is unknown. This makes it difficult to determine the impact of the spill on deepwater megafauna. Remotely operated vehicles were used to quantify megafauna at five study sites during August and September 2010:2000 m north, west, south, and east, and 500 m north of the Macondo well. Comparisons of animal abundances indicated that 2000 m-N and 2000 m-W had the greatest taxonomic richness and highest abundances while 2000 m-E had slightly lower values. In contrast 500 m-N and 2000 m-S had the lowest taxonomic richness and abundances. Our study also suggests that certain taxa were potentially more resistant or sensitive to the spill.

  12. Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

    2014-06-01

    Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (δD, δ18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high δ values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, δ 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near

  13. Plankton Biomass Models Based on GIS and Remote Sensing Technique for Predicting Marine Megafauna Hotspots in the Solor Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putra, MIH; Lewis, SA; Kurniasih, EM; Prabuning, D.; Faiqoh, E.

    2016-11-01

    Geographic information system and remote sensing techniques can be used to assist with distribution modelling; a useful tool that helps with strategic design and management plans for MPAs. This study built a pilot model of plankton biomass and distribution in the waters off Solor and Lembata, and is the first study to identify marine megafauna foraging areas in the region. Forty-three samples of zooplankton were collected every 4 km according to the range time and station of aqua MODIS. Generalized additive model (GAM) we used to modelling zooplankton biomass response from environmental properties.Thirty one samples were used to build a model of inverse distance weighting (IDW) (cell size 0.01°) and 12 samples were used as a control to verify the models accuracy. Furthermore, Getis-Ord Gi was used to identify the significance of the hotspot and cold-spot for foraging area. The GAM models was explain 88.1% response of zooplankton biomass and percent to full moon, phytopankton biomassbeing strong predictors. The sampling design was essential in order to build highly accurate models. Our models 96% accurate for phytoplankton and 88% accurate for zooplankton. The foraging behaviour was significantly related to plankton biomass hotspots, which were two times higher compared to plankton cold-spots. In addition, extremely steep slopes of the Lamakera strait support strong upwelling with highly productive waters that affect the presence of marine megafauna. This study detects that the Lamakera strait provides the planktonic requirements for marine megafauna foraging, helping to explain why this region supports such high diversity and abundance of marine megafauna.

  14. Determinants of loss of mammal species during the Late Quaternary 'megafauna' extinctions: life history and ecology, but not body size.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C N

    2002-01-01

    Extinctions of megafauna species during the Late Quaternary dramatically reduced the global diversity of mammals. There is intense debate over the causes of these extinctions, especially regarding the extent to which humans were involved. Most previous analyses of this question have focused on chronologies of extinction and on the archaeological evidence for human-megafauna interaction. Here, I take an alternative approach: comparison of the biological traits of extinct species with those of survivors. I use this to demonstrate two general features of the selectivity of Late Quaternary mammal extinctions in Australia, Eurasia, the Americas and Madagascar. First, large size was not directly related to risk of extinction; rather, species with slow reproductive rates were at high risk regardless of their body size. This finding rejects the 'blitzkrieg' model of overkill, in which extinctions were completed during brief intervals of selective hunting of large-bodied prey. Second, species that survived despite having low reproductive rates typically occurred in closed habitats and many were arboreal or nocturnal. Such traits would have reduced their exposure to direct interaction with people. Therefore, although this analysis rejects blitzkrieg as a general scenario for the mammal megafauna extinctions, it is consistent with extinctions being due to interaction with human populations. PMID:12427315

  15. Did a Bolide Impact Trigger the Younger Dryas and Wipe Out American Megafauna? A Skeptic's Reaction to an Intriguing Hypothesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedel, S. J.

    2007-05-01

    Perhaps there is credible physical evidence of a bolide impact in North America at 12,900 cal BP. However, several incongruous aspects of the paleoclimatic, archaeological, and faunal records of the Terminal Pleistocene must be addressed to allay skepticism about the hypothesis of dramatic effects upon humans or megafauna: 1) Paleoindian populations (e.g., Folsom, Dalton) thrived after the Younger Dryas (YD) onset; 2) megafauna, including giant sloths were wiped out in Florida, but medium-sized sloths in the Caribbean islands (including Cuba) survived into the mid-Holocene; 3) South American megafauna survived until at least 12,500 cal BP, probably longer; why was there not a synchronous extinction? 4) Late Pleistocene cold reversals in Antarctica and southern South America are not synchronous with the YD; 5) Bison and grizzly survived, and elk and moose expanded into North America in the Terminal Pleistocene-Early Holocene; why did they survive and thrive? 6) Mammoths survived on Wrangel Island and probably in pockets in Siberia well into the Holocene; why did the supposed impact in the Arctic not wipe them out? 7) Finally, the YD ended at 11,590 cal BP even more abruptly than it began (over less than a decade); does this require another impact? If not, why does the YD onset call for an extraterrestrial trigger?

  16. WELCOME CREEK WILDERNESS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidke, D.J.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys indicate probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential for small amounts of gold and other metals. Areas of alluvium in Welcome Creek and in part of Rock Creek are classed as having probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential for small quantities of gold in small and scattered placers and in placer tailings. A small area which contains the Cleveland mine, on Cleveland Mountain, near the west border of the wilderness was classed as having probable mineral-resource potential for silver and gold in veins. Although green mudstone strata that often are favorable hosts for stratabound copper occurrences were found in the northeast part of the wilderness, no copper deposits were found and these studies indicate little likelihood for the occurrence of copper resources. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little likelihood of the occurrence of energy resources.

  17. Evaluation of the Steel Creek ecosystem in relation to the proposed restart of the L-Reactor: interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This interim report of findings from studies by SREL has updated information on several key components of the Steel Creek ecosystem. We have emphasized two categories of the Steel Creek biota: Endangered Species (American alligator) and species for which environmental degradation within SRP boundaries might result in changes in offsite resource abundance. Wintering waterfowl surveys in the vicinity of the Steel Creek delta have demonstrated a pattern of increased utilization over the duration of these studies (1981-83). Wood stork utilization of SRP swamp areas also appeared to be substantially increased relative to previous years. Thermal alteration of the Steel Creek delta areas will eliminate this area as wood stork foraging habitat. Anadromous fish utilization of the Steel Creek area was also substantially increased in 1983 relative to 1982. The differences in anadromous fish species utilization patterns between 1982 and 1983 are probably a result of the markedly different river flow conditions between the two years. Studies of the American alligator have continued. No further reproduction by alligators has been observed in the Steel Creek system. 24 references, 14 figures, 13 tables.

  18. Effect of Surface Coal Mining on the Hydrology of Crooked and Turkey Creek Basins, Jefferson County, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puente, Celso; Newton, John G.

    1979-01-01

    Streamflow, sediment yield, and water quality were monitored from October 1975 through May 1977 to determine the impact of surface coal mining on the hydrology of Crooked and Turkey Creek basins in Jefferson County, Alabama. The basins are in the northeast part of the Warrior coal field. Coal is and has been mined from the Blue Creek, Mary Lee, and and Newcastel coal beds in the Mary Lee group. Results show water-quality degradation, increased sediment yields, and increased low flow in most tributaries draining mined areas. The impact of mine drainage and sediment yield from mined subbasins on water in the main stem of Turkey Creek was small due to the alkalinity of the water in the creek and to dilution ratios that ranged from 1:30 to 1:300. Mine drainage has affected the quality of water in Crooked Creek. The dissolved solids concentration in water downstream from the mined areas was as much as 7 times greater than that in water in unmined parts of the basin. The sediment yield to Crooked Creek was lower in the mined area than in the unmined segment of the stream. The lower yield is due, in part, to the trapping of sediment in sediment ponds in the mines and in a swamp downstream from the mines. (USGS)

  19. Stable isotope records of inland California megafauna - new insights into Pleistocene paleoecology and paleoenvironmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trayler, R. B.; Dundas, R. G.; Van De Water, P. K.; Fox-Dobbs, K.

    2012-12-01

    Paleodietary studies of California megafauna have focused primarily on the coastal late Pleistocene Rancho La Brea tar seeps (RLB) in Los Angeles, while other sites remain understudied. We examined two Pleistocene fossil localities from inland California (San Joaquin Valley) and report δ13C and δ18O values measured from tooth enamel of mammalian megafauna at both sites. The late Pleistocene McKittrick tar seeps in Kern County has a similar fauna to RLB. The middle Irvingtonian (~700,000 year old) Fairmead Landfill site, near Chowchilla, contains a megafaunal assemblage dominated by Equus, Camelops and Mammuthus. We used stable isotope values measured in carnivore and herbivore tooth enamel to investigate paleodietary and paleoecological patterns at both sites. δ13C values of tooth enamel is controlled by diet and can be used to investigate resource usage and partitioning among and between taxa. In large mammals δ18O ratios are controlled by drinking water, and by proxy, climate. Ontogenetic serial tooth δ18O and δ13C reveal seasonal trends in resource usage, from which we can infer patterns of forage availability. We sampled 85 individuals from 16 taxa; Arctodus, Bison, Camelops, Canis, Capromeryx, Cervus, Equus, Hemiauchenia, Homotherium, Mammut, Mammuthus, Miracinonyx, Panthera, Platygonus, Smilodon and Tetrameryx. Faunal δ13C differ significantly (p<0.001) between Fairmead and McKittrick, ranging from -13.5‰ to -8.2‰ and -11.8 to -0.7‰, respectively. No significant differences were detected in δ18O between sites (p=0.7). Fairmead δ13C values are consistent with an environment dominated by C3 vegetation. Platygonus and Camelops had the lowest and highest δ13C, respectively. Camelops exhibited the most variable δ13C among herbivores, though several other taxa are represented by single individuals, thus lacking dietary ranges. Among carnivores, Smilodon had the lowest δ13C values (-13.4‰) and Canis latrans the highest (-10.7‰). Carnivore δ13C

  20. Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest & Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2003-01-01

    Bonanza Creek Experimental Forest and Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed are located in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. Research focuses on basic ecological processes, hydrology, disturbance regimes, and climate change in the boreal forest region. Interior Alaska lies between the Alaska Range to the south and the Brooks Range to the north and covers an area...

  1. Cultural innovation and megafauna interaction in the early settlement of arid Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Giles; Mitchell, Peter; Arnold, Lee J.; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Questiaux, Daniele; Spooner, Nigel A.; Levchenko, Vladimir A.; Foley, Elizabeth C.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Stephenson, Birgitta; Coulthard, Vincent; Coulthard, Clifford; Wilton, Sophia; Johnston, Duncan

    2016-11-01

    Elucidating the material culture of early people in arid Australia and the nature of their environmental interactions is essential for understanding the adaptability of populations and the potential causes of megafaunal extinctions 50-40 thousand years ago (ka). Humans colonized the continent by 50 ka, but an apparent lack of cultural innovations compared to people in Europe and Africa has been deemed a barrier to early settlement in the extensive arid zone. Here we present evidence from Warratyi rock shelter in the southern interior that shows that humans occupied arid Australia by around 49 ka, 10 thousand years (kyr) earlier than previously reported. The site preserves the only reliably dated, stratified evidence of extinct Australian megafauna, including the giant marsupial Diprotodon optatum, alongside artefacts more than 46 kyr old. We also report on the earliest-known use of ochre in Australia and Southeast Asia (at or before 49-46 ka), gypsum pigment (40-33 ka), bone tools (40-38 ka), hafted tools (38-35 ka), and backed artefacts (30-24 ka), each up to 10 kyr older than any other known occurrence. Thus, our evidence shows that people not only settled in the arid interior within a few millennia of entering the continent, but also developed key technologies much earlier than previously recorded for Australia and Southeast Asia.

  2. Cultural innovation and megafauna interaction in the early settlement of arid Australia.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Giles; Mitchell, Peter; Arnold, Lee J; Prideaux, Gavin J; Questiaux, Daniele; Spooner, Nigel A; Levchenko, Vladimir A; Foley, Elizabeth C; Worthy, Trevor H; Stephenson, Birgitta; Coulthard, Vincent; Coulthard, Clifford; Wilton, Sophia; Johnston, Duncan

    2016-11-10

    Elucidating the material culture of early people in arid Australia and the nature of their environmental interactions is essential for understanding the adaptability of populations and the potential causes of megafaunal extinctions 50-40 thousand years ago (ka). Humans colonized the continent by 50 ka, but an apparent lack of cultural innovations compared to people in Europe and Africa has been deemed a barrier to early settlement in the extensive arid zone. Here we present evidence from Warratyi rock shelter in the southern interior that shows that humans occupied arid Australia by around 49 ka, 10 thousand years (kyr) earlier than previously reported. The site preserves the only reliably dated, stratified evidence of extinct Australian megafauna, including the giant marsupial Diprotodon optatum, alongside artefacts more than 46 kyr old. We also report on the earliest-known use of ochre in Australia and Southeast Asia (at or before 49-46 ka), gypsum pigment (40-33 ka), bone tools (40-38 ka), hafted tools (38-35 ka), and backed artefacts (30-24 ka), each up to 10 kyr older than any other known occurrence. Thus, our evidence shows that people not only settled in the arid interior within a few millennia of entering the continent, but also developed key technologies much earlier than previously recorded for Australia and Southeast Asia.

  3. How marine debris ingestion differs among megafauna species in a tropical coastal area.

    PubMed

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Awabdi, Danielle Rodrigues

    2014-11-15

    The marine debris ingested by megafauna species (Trichiurus lepturus, Chelonia mydas, Pontoporia blainvillei, and Sotalia guianensis) was recorded in a coastal area of southeastern Brazil (21-23°S). Marine debris was recorded in all species, mainly consisting of plastic material (flexible and hard plastics - clear, white, and colored- and nylon filaments). The 'pelagic predators' T. lepturus and S. guianesis showed the lowest percent frequencies of debris ingestion (0.7% and 1.3%, respectively), followed by the 'benthic predator' P. blainvillei (15.7%) and the 'benthic herbivorous C. mydas (59.2%). The debris found in C. mydas stomachs was opportunistically ingested during feeding activities on local macroalgal banks. In the study area, the benthic environment accumulates more anthropogenic debris than the pelagic environment, and benthic/demersal feeders are more susceptible to encounters and ingestion. The sub-lethal effects observed in C. mydas, such as intestinal obstruction due to hardened fecal material, should be considered a local conservation concern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R; Balk, Meghan A; Benfield, Mark C; Branch, Trevor A; Chen, Catherine; Cosgrove, James; Dove, Alistair D M; Gaskins, Lindsay C; Helm, Rebecca R; Hochberg, Frederick G; Lee, Frank B; Marshall, Andrea; McMurray, Steven E; Schanche, Caroline; Stone, Shane N; Thaler, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    What are the greatest sizes that the largest marine megafauna obtain? This is a simple question with a difficult and complex answer. Many of the largest-sized species occur in the world's oceans. For many of these, rarity, remoteness, and quite simply the logistics of measuring these giants has made obtaining accurate size measurements difficult. Inaccurate reports of maximum sizes run rampant through the scientific literature and popular media. Moreover, how intraspecific variation in the body sizes of these animals relates to sex, population structure, the environment, and interactions with humans remains underappreciated. Here, we review and analyze body size for 25 ocean giants ranging across the animal kingdom. For each taxon we document body size for the largest known marine species of several clades. We also analyze intraspecific variation and identify the largest known individuals for each species. Where data allows, we analyze spatial and temporal intraspecific size variation. We also provide allometric scaling equations between different size measurements as resources to other researchers. In some cases, the lack of data prevents us from fully examining these topics and instead we specifically highlight these deficiencies and the barriers that exist for data collection. Overall, we found considerable variability in intraspecific size distributions from strongly left- to strongly right-skewed. We provide several allometric equations that allow for estimation of total lengths and weights from more easily obtained measurements. In several cases, we also quantify considerable geographic variation and decreases in size likely attributed to humans.

  5. Dietary controls on extinction versus survival among avian megafauna in the late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Stidham, Thomas A.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Emslie, Steven D.; Koch, Paul L.

    2006-08-01

    The late Pleistocene extinction decimated terrestrial megafaunal communities in North America, but did not affect marine mammal populations. In coastal regions, marine megafauna may have provided a buffer that allowed some large predators or scavengers, such as California condors (Gymnogyps californianus), to survive into the Holocene. To track the influence of marine resources on avifaunas we analyzed the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope composition of collagen from late Pleistocene vultures and raptors, including species that survived the extinction (condor, bald eagle, golden eagle) and extinct species (teratorn, black vulture). At the Rancho La Brea and McKittrick tar pits of southern California, isotope values for extinct teratorns (Teratornis merriami, n = 10) and black vultures (Coragyps occidentalis, n = 8) show that they fed entirely in a terrestrial C3 ecosystem. In contrast, La Brea condors cluster into two groups, one with a terrestrial diet (n = 4), and the other with a strong marine influence (n = 5). At localities in the American southwest, Texas, and Florida, where condors became extinct, they have isotope values indicating entirely terrestrial diets (n = 10). Our results suggest that dependence upon terrestrial megafaunal carrion as a food source led to the extinction of inland California condor populations and coastal populations of teratorns and black vultures at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, whereas use of marine foods allowed coastal condor populations to survive.

  6. Electron spin resonance dating of megafauna from Lagoa dos Porcos, Piauí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Angela; Mayer, Elver; Ribau Mendes, Vinícius; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2014-06-01

    Excavations performed at Lagoa dos Porcos site revealed a vast amount of extinct mammal fossil remains, becoming one of the richest palaeontological occurrences in the Serra da Capivara National Park region, a UNESCO World Heritage. Although anatomic and taxonomic aspects of extinct Quaternary mammals are relatively well known, chronologic information for deposits is rare. In this context, electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of megafauna samples provides important information for establishing a chronological background. This work presents the ESR dating of two teeth, one of Gomphotheriidae and other of Toxodontinae. Dose-response curves of each sample were constructed using spectra acquired with a JEOL FA-200 X-Band spectrometer resulting in equivalent dose (De) of 220 ± 40 Gy and 39 ± 2 Gy for Toxodontinae and Gomphotheriidae tooth, respectively. The conversion of De in age was made using ROSY ESR dating software resulting in 26 ± 4 and 22 ± 3 ka. These results place Lagoa dos Porcos fossil assemblage within the Late Pleistocene. These dates overlap with a period of abrupt increase in rainfall in northeast Brazil, and it is possible that this environmental change is related to the formation of this deposit.

  7. Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Meghan A.; Benfield, Mark C.; Branch, Trevor A.; Chen, Catherine; Cosgrove, James; Dove, Alistair D.M.; Gaskins, Lindsay C.; Helm, Rebecca R.; Hochberg, Frederick G.; Lee, Frank B.; Marshall, Andrea; McMurray, Steven E.; Schanche, Caroline; Stone, Shane N.; Thaler, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    What are the greatest sizes that the largest marine megafauna obtain? This is a simple question with a difficult and complex answer. Many of the largest-sized species occur in the world’s oceans. For many of these, rarity, remoteness, and quite simply the logistics of measuring these giants has made obtaining accurate size measurements difficult. Inaccurate reports of maximum sizes run rampant through the scientific literature and popular media. Moreover, how intraspecific variation in the body sizes of these animals relates to sex, population structure, the environment, and interactions with humans remains underappreciated. Here, we review and analyze body size for 25 ocean giants ranging across the animal kingdom. For each taxon we document body size for the largest known marine species of several clades. We also analyze intraspecific variation and identify the largest known individuals for each species. Where data allows, we analyze spatial and temporal intraspecific size variation. We also provide allometric scaling equations between different size measurements as resources to other researchers. In some cases, the lack of data prevents us from fully examining these topics and instead we specifically highlight these deficiencies and the barriers that exist for data collection. Overall, we found considerable variability in intraspecific size distributions from strongly left- to strongly right-skewed. We provide several allometric equations that allow for estimation of total lengths and weights from more easily obtained measurements. In several cases, we also quantify considerable geographic variation and decreases in size likely attributed to humans. PMID:25649000

  8. Seasonal migration of marsupial megafauna in Pleistocene Sahul (Australia-New Guinea).

    PubMed

    Price, Gilbert J; Ferguson, Kyle J; Webb, Gregory E; Feng, Yue-Xing; Higgins, Pennilyn; Nguyen, Ai Duc; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Louys, Julien

    2017-09-27

    Seasonal two-way migration is an ecological phenomenon observed in a wide range of large-bodied placental mammals, but is conspicuously absent in all modern marsupials. Most extant marsupials are typically smaller in body size in comparison to their migratory placental cousins, possibly limiting their potential to undertake long-distance seasonal migrations. But what about earlier, now-extinct giant marsupial megafauna? Here we present new geochemical analyses which show that the largest of the extinct marsupial herbivores, the enormous wombat-like Diprotodon optatum, undertook seasonal, two-way latitudinal migration in eastern Sahul (Pleistocene Australia-New Guinea). Our data infer that this giant marsupial had the potential to perform round-trip journeys of as much as 200 km annually, which is reminiscent of modern East African mammal migrations. These findings provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence for repetitive seasonal migration in any metatherian (including marsupials), living or extinct, and point to an ecological phenomenon absent from the continent since the Late Pleistocene. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Age constraints on Pleistocene megafauna at Tight Entrance Cave in southwestern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayliffe, Linda K.; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Bird, Michael I.; Grün, Rainer; Roberts, Richard G.; Gully, Grant A.; Jones, Rhys; Fifield, L. Keith; Cresswell, Richard G.

    2008-09-01

    A well-stratified succession of fossiliferous sediments occurs in Tight Entrance Cave, southwestern Australia. These infill deposits contain the remains of megafauna and have accumulated intermittently since the Middle Pleistocene: >137, 137-119 and 50-29 ka, according to the results of 14C, U-Th, ESR and OSL dating techniques. Megafaunal species richness was highest in the latest part of the penultimate glacial maximum and during the subsequent last interglacial (137-119 ka), but remains are less abundant following an apparent ˜70 ka depositional hiatus in the sequence. Most megafaunal specimens from the upper (<44 ka) units are fragmentary, and reworking from older strata cannot yet be ruled out. However, one specimen of Simosthenurus occidentalis (a large extinct kangaroo), a pair of articulated dentaries showing no signs of secondary transportation, was found within a sedimentary layer deposited between 48 and 50 ka. This represents one of the youngest demonstrably in situ occurrences of an Australian megafaunal taxon.

  10. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  11. Panoramic Okavango Swamp, Botswana and Fires in Angola, Africa

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-08-11

    In this panoramic view of the Okavango Swamp, Botswana, (19.0S, 22.0E), the Okavango River, seen in sunglint, flows into a topographic trough to form an inland delta. Water, trapped in the meandering delta distributaries is evaporated or transpired by vegetation. In Angola to the north, the many fires of the seasonal burning of savannah vegetation for land clearing, in preparation for agriculture, has filled the atmosphere with haze and smoke.

  12. Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water

  13. The Beaver Creek story

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, W.H.; Whitworth, B.G.; Smith, G.F.; Byl, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Beaver Creek watershed in West Tennessee includes about 95,000 acres of the Nation's most productive farmland and most highly erodible soils. In 1989 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, began a study to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality in the watershed and for best management practices designed to reduce agricultural nonpoint-source pollution. Agrichemical monitoring included testing the soils, ground water, and streams at four farm sites ranging from 27 to 420 acres. Monitoring stations were operated downstream to gain a better understanding of the water chemistry as runoff moved from small ditches into larger streams to the outlet of the Beaver Creek watershed. Prior to the implementation of best management practices at one of the farm study sites, some storms produced an average suspended-sediment concentration of 70,000 milligrams per liter. After the implementation of BMP's, however, the average value never exceeded 7,000 milligrams per liter. No-till crop production was the most effective best management practice for conserving soil on the farm fields tested. A natural bottomland hardwood wetland and a constructed wetland were evaluated as instream resource-management systems. The wetlands improved water quality downstream by acting as a filter and removing a significant amount of nonpoint-source pollution from the agricultural runoff. The constructed wetland reduced the sediment, pesticide, and nutrient load by approximately 50 percent over a 4-month period. The results of the Beaver Creek watershed study have increased the understanding of the effects of agriculture on water resources. Study results also demonstrated that BMP's do protect and improve water quality.

  14. Line Creek improves efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, P.

    1988-04-01

    Boosting coal recovery rate by 8% and reducing fuel expense $18,000 annually by replacing two tractors, are two tangible benefits that Crows Nest Resources of British Columbia has achieved since overseas coal markets weakened in 1985. Though coal production at the 4-million tpy Line Creek open pit mine has been cut 25% from its 1984 level, morale among the pit crew remains high. More efficient pit equipment, innovative use of existing equipment, and encouragement of multiple skill development among workers - so people can be assigned to different jobs in the operation as situations demand - contribute to a successful operation.

  15. Hydrology of Pine Creek, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Pine Creek, Price County, Wisconsin, in order to evaluate a proposed reservoir on Pine Creek. The streamflow characteristics estimated are the mean flows, low flows, and flood peaks. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  16. Deception Creek Experimental Forest (Idaho)

    Treesearch

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2004-01-01

    Deception Creek Experimental Forest is located in one of the most productive forests of the Rocky Mountains. When the forest was established in 1933, large, old western white pines were important for producing lumber products, matches, and toothpicks. Deception Creek is located in the heart of the western white pine forest type, allowing researchers to focus on the...

  17. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  19. Water Sources of Temperate Upland Swamps of Eastern Australia. Implications for Groundwater Management and Climate Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowley, K.; Fryirs, K.; Chisari, R.; Hose, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    Temperate upland swamps in Eastern Australia are endangered ecological communities under State and National legislation. They occur in headwaters of low order streams on low relief plateaus, providing base flow to streams that contribute to Sydney's major drinking water supplies that support some 4.5 million people. The swamps are also subject to aquifer interference activities from long wall mining and groundwater extraction, and are threatened by a changing climate. It is therefore critical that we understand their water source, storage capacity and residence times. We collected seasonal water samples from perched swamp aquifers in two highland regions of Eastern Australia for analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes and compared them with rainwater, surface water and deeper groundwater to determine whether the swamps were primarily rainwater or groundwater fed. 222Rn was used as an environmental tracer to calculate residence times and relative groundwater/surface water ratios. We found over 60% of the swamps were sensitive to evaporation which has implications for swamp health in a warmer climate. Over a third of water from the perched swamp aquifer is derived from deeper sandstone aquifers with residence times of between 1.2 and 15 days. This swamp-groundwater connectivity means that mining activities or large-scale groundwater extraction could interfere with a significant component of the swamps' water source, its water storage capacity and downstream contributions to Sydney's drinking water supplies.

  20. An evaluation of deep-sea benthic megafauna length measurements obtained with laser and stereo camera methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Katherine M.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Ruhl, Henry A.; Huffard, Christine L.; Caress, David W.; Henthorn, Richard G.; Hobson, Brett W.; McGill, Paul; Smith, Kenneth L.

    2015-02-01

    The 25 year time-series collected at Station M, ~4000 m on the Monterey Deep-sea Fan, has substantially improved understanding of the role of the deep-ocean benthic environment in the global carbon cycle. However, the role of deep-ocean benthic megafauna in carbon bioturbation, remineralization and sequestration is relatively unknown. It is important to gather both accurate and precise measurements of megafaunal community abundance, size distribution and biomass to further define their role in deep-sea carbon cycling and possible sequestration. This study describes initial results from a stereo camera system attached to a remotely operated vehicle and analyzed using the EventMeasure photogrammetric measurement software to estimate the density, length and biomass of 10 species of mobile epibenthic megafauna. Stereo length estimates were compared to those from a single video camera system equipped with sizing lasers and analyzed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's Video Annotation and Reference System. Both camera systems and software were capable of high measurement accuracy and precision (<±1 mm measurement error and precision). However, the oblique angle of the single video camera caused the spatial scale of the image perspective to change with distance from the camera, resulting in error when measurements were not parallel or vertical to two horizontal-oriented scaling lasers. Analysis showed that the stereo system recorded longer lengths and higher biomass estimates than the single video camera system for the majority of the 10 megafauna species studied. The stereo image analysis process took substantially longer than the video analysis and the value of the EventMeasure software tool would be improved with developments in analysis automation. The stereo system is less influenced by object orientation and height, and is potentially a useful tool to be mounted on an autonomous underwater vehicle and for measuring deep-sea pelagic animals where

  1. Hard substrate in the deep ocean: How sediment features influence epibenthic megafauna on the eastern Canadian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacharité, Myriam; Metaxas, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Benthic habitats on deep continental margins (> 1000 m) are now considered heterogeneous - in particular because of the occasional presence of hard substrate in a matrix of sand and mud - influencing the distribution of megafauna which can thrive on both sedimented and rocky substrates. At these depths, optical imagery captured with high-definition cameras to describe megafauna can also describe effectively the fine-scale sediment properties in the immediate vicinity of the fauna. In this study, we determined the relationship between local heterogeneity (10-100 sm) in fine-scale sediment properties and the abundance, composition, and diversity of megafauna along a large depth gradient (1000-3000 m) in a previously-unexplored habitat: the Northeast Fan, which lies downslope of submarine canyons off the Gulf of Maine (northwest Atlantic). Substrate heterogeneity was quantified using a novel approach based on principles of computer vision. This approach proved powerful in detecting gradients in sediment, and sporadic complex features (i.e. large boulders) in an otherwise homogeneous environment because it characterizes sediment properties on a continuous scale. Sediment heterogeneity influenced megafaunal diversity (morphospecies richness and Shannon-Wiener Index) and community composition, with areas of higher substrate complexity generally supported higher diversity. However, patterns in abundance were not influenced by sediment properties, and may be best explained by gradients in food supply. Our study provides a new approach to quantify fine-scale sediment properties and assess their role in shaping megafaunal communities in the deep sea, which should be included into habitat studies given their potential ecological importance.

  2. Mobile demersal megafauna at artificial structures in the German Bight - Likely effects of offshore wind farm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krone, R.; Gutow, L.; Brey, T.; Dannheim, J.; Schröder, A.

    2013-07-01

    Within the next few decades, large underwater structures of thousands of wind turbines in the northern European shelf seas will substantially increase the amount of habitat available for mobile demersal megafauna. As a first indication of the possible effects of this large scale habitat creation on faunal stocks settling on hard substrata, we compared selected taxa of the mobile demersal megafauna (decapods and fish) associated with the foundation of an offshore research platform (a wind-power foundation equivalent) with those of five shipwrecks and different areas of soft bottoms in the southern German Bight, North Sea. When comparing the amount of approximately 5000 planned wind-power foundations (covering 5.1 × 106 m2 of bottom area) with the existing number of at least 1000 shipwrecks (covering 1.2 × 106 m2 of bottom area), it becomes clear that the southern North Sea will provide about 4.3 times more available artificial hard substratum habitats than currently available. With regard to the fauna found on shipwrecks, on soft substrata and on the investigated wind-power foundation, we predict that the amount of added hard substrata will allow the stocks of substrata-limited mobile demersal hard bottom species to increase by 25-165% in that area. The fauna found at the offshore platform foundations is very similar to that at shipwrecks. Megafauna abundances at the foundations, however, are lower compared to those at the highly fractured wrecks and are irregularly scattered over the foundations. The upper regions of the platform construction (5 and 15 m depth) were only sparsely colonized by mobile fauna, the anchorages, however, more densely. The faunal assemblages from the shipwrecks and the foundations, respectively, as well as from the soft bottoms clearly differed from each other. We predict that new wind-power foundations will support the spread of hard bottom fauna into soft bottom areas with low wreck densities.

  3. 75 FR 5631 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Environmental Assessment... Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC, the licensee), for operation of the Wolf Creek... Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Wolf Creek Generating Station--Final Report (NUREG-1437...

  4. Wood Storks of the Birdsville Colony and swamps of the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, M.C.

    1989-08-01

    The population of Wood Storks (Mycteria americana) that breeds in the United States has decreased from an estimated 20,000 pairs in 1930 to just under 5,000 pairs in 1980. The decline has prompted the United States Fish an Wildlife Service to list the United States breeding population of Wood Storks as endangered. When the US Department of Energy (USDOE) decided to restart L-Reactor on the SRS there was concern that when the reactor was restarted, cooling water flowing into the Steel Creek Delta would raise the water level and the area would become too deep for foraging storks. USDOE began consultation with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and agreed to develop and maintain alternative foraging habitat to replace the potential loss so the Kathwood Foraging Ponds were developed. We have examined the breeding biology of the birds at the colony to determine when the birds may have maximum food demand and we have studied foraging ecology of the birds. The objectives of the work carried out in 1989 were: to determine the locations of foraging sites of Wood Storks from the Birdsville Colony ad examine year-to-year variation in sites used; to characterize in more detail the habitat, vegetation, water quality and prey density/biomass at these sites; to observe the breeding birds to determine times when food demands at the colony are greatest; to examine the movements of storks from the rookery to foraging sites and related seasonal trends to the breeding biology; to examine the importance of the Savannah River Site Swamp (SRSS) to foraging Wood Storks; and to examine the movements of individual birds to determine the generality of the observed patterns. 28 refs., 100 figs., 78 tabs.

  5. Rethinking Trade-Driven Extinction Risk in Marine and Terrestrial Megafauna.

    PubMed

    McClenachan, Loren; Cooper, Andrew B; Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2016-06-20

    Large animals hunted for the high value of their parts (e.g., elephant ivory and shark fins) are at risk of extinction due to both intensive international trade pressure and intrinsic biological sensitivity. However, the relative role of trade, particularly in non-perishable products, and biological factors in driving extinction risk is not well understood [1-4]. Here we identify a taxonomically diverse group of >100 marine and terrestrial megafauna targeted for international luxury markets; estimate their value across three points of sale; test relationships among extinction risk, high value, and body size; and quantify the effects of two mitigating factors: poaching fines and geographic range size. We find that body size is the principal driver of risk for lower value species, but that this biological pattern is eliminated above a value threshold, meaning that the most valuable species face a high extinction risk regardless of size. For example, once mean product values exceed US$12,557 kg(-1), body size no longer drives risk. Total value scales with size for marine animals more strongly than for terrestrial animals, incentivizing the hunting of large marine individuals and species. Poaching fines currently have little effect on extinction risk; fines would need to be increased 10- to 100-fold to be effective. Large geographic ranges reduce risk for terrestrial, but not marine, species, whose ranges are ten times greater. Our results underscore both the evolutionary and ecosystem consequences of targeting large marine animals and the need to geographically scale up and prioritize conservation of high-value marine species to avoid extinction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human influence on distribution and extinctions of the late Pleistocene Eurasian megafauna.

    PubMed

    Pushkina, Diana; Raia, Pasquale

    2008-06-01

    Late Pleistocene extinctions are of interest to paleontological and anthropological research. In North America and Australia, human occupation occurred during a short period of time and overexploitation may have led to the extinction of mammalian megafauna. In northern Eurasia megafaunal extinctions are believed to have occurred over a relatively longer period of time, perhaps as a result of changing environmental conditions, but the picture is much less clear. To consider megafaunal extinction in Eurasia, we compare differences in the geographical distribution and commonness of extinct and extant species between paleontological and archaeological localities from the late middle Pleistocene to Holocene. Purely paleontological localities, as well as most extinct species, were distributed north of archaeological sites and of the extant species, suggesting that apart from possible differences in adaptations between humans and other species, humans could also have a detrimental effect on large mammal distribution. However, evidence for human overexploitation applies only to the extinct steppe bison Bison priscus. Other human-preferred species survive into the Holocene, including Rangifer tarandus, Equus ferus, Capreolus capreolus, Cervus elaphus, Equus hemionus, Saiga tatarica, and Sus scrofa. Mammuthus primigenius and Megaloceros giganteus were rare in archaeological sites. Carnivores appear little influenced by human presence, although they become rarer in Holocene archaeological sites. Overall, the data are consistent with the conclusion that humans acted as efficient hunters selecting for the most abundant species. Our study supports the idea that the late Pleistocene extinctions were environmentally driven by climatic changes that triggered habitat fragmentation, species range reduction, and population decrease, after which human interference either by direct hunting or via indirect activities probably became critical.

  7. New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna: Continent-Wide Extinction About 46,000 Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Richard G.; Flannery, Timothy F.; Ayliffe, Linda K.; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Olley, Jon M.; Prideaux, Gavin J.; Laslett, Geoff M.; Baynes, Alexander; Smith, M. A.; Jones, Rhys; Smith, Barton L.

    2001-06-01

    All Australian land mammals, reptiles, and birds weighing more than 100 kilograms, and six of the seven genera with a body mass of 45 to 100 kilograms, perished in the late Quaternary. The timing and causes of these extinctions remain uncertain. We report burial ages for megafauna from 28 sites and infer extinction across the continent around 46,400 years ago (95% confidence interval, 51,200 to 39,800 years ago). Our results rule out extreme aridity at the Last Glacial Maximum as the cause of extinction, but not other climatic impacts; a ``blitzkrieg'' model of human-induced extinction; or an extended period of anthropogenic ecosystem disruption.

  8. Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project: Clean Creeks, Healthy Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Coyote Creek Trash Reduction Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  9. PINEY CREEK WILDERNESS, MISSOURI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Walden P.; Ellis, Clarence

    1984-01-01

    The Piney Creek Wilderness in southwest Missouri was investigated by geologic, geochemical, and mineral-occurrence surveys. These is no evidence of metallic mineral deposits in the rock units exposed at the surface in the wilderness, but the entire area has a probable potential for significant zinc-lead deposits at depths of several hundred feet. A probable potential also exists for a small to moderate-sized iron ore deposit at a depth of at least 2100 ft along the northwest side of the wilderness. Evaluation of these potentials would require deep drilling, and in the case of the possible iron ore deposit, a detailed magnetic survey. No energy resource potential was identified within this area.

  10. GEE CREEK WILDERNESS, TENNESSEE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, Jack B.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mine and prospect surveys, it was determined that the Gee Creek Wilderness, Tennessee has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Iron ore was formerly mined, but the deposits are small, have a high phosphorous content, and are inaccessible. Shale, suitable for brick or lightweight aggregate, and sandstone, which could be utilized for crushed stone or sand, are found in the area, but are also found in areas closer to potential markets. The geologic setting precludes the presence of oil and gas resources in the surface rocks, but the possibility of finding natural gas at depth below the rocks exposed in the area cannot be discounted. Geophysical exploration would be necessary to define the local structure in rocks at depth to properly evaluate the potential of the area for gas.

  11. Water, Rivers and Creeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac, Robert D.

    Luna B. Leopold's intent in Water, Rivers and Creeks was to provide a nontechnical primer on hydrology and water resources, and he succeeded admirably. The terse style is reminiscent of the mystery writer Mickey Spillane, though the content is complex science expounded in simple terms. “Part I, Hydrology and Morphology,” makes up the first two thirds of the book, and in this section, Leopold develops hydrologic and geomorphic concepts and principles using analogies with items common to any household. Garden hoses, dishpans, bath tubs, and sieves provide illuminating examples of the effects of channel storage on stream flow, water tables and the movement of groundwater, sustainable yield and the storage equation, and the infiltration/percolation process.

  12. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  13. 1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DEADWOOD CREEK BRIDGE FACING SOUTHWEST. MOUNT RAINIER AND EMMONS GLACIER VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Deadwood Creek Bridge, Spanning Deadwood Creek on Mather Memorial Parkway, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  14. Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the SFBWQP Alameda Creeks Healthy Watersheds Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resour

  15. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...) 805-1469. Transferees: Mr. Bernard H. Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  16. Landscape-scale spatial heterogeneity in phytodetrital cover and megafauna biomass in the abyss links to modest topographic variation

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Kirsty J.; Bett, Brian J.; Durden, Jennifer M.; Benoist, Noelie M. A.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Robert, Katleen; Ichino, Matteo C.; Wolff, George A.; Ruhl, Henry A.

    2016-01-01

    Sinking particulate organic matter (POM, phytodetritus) is the principal limiting resource for deep-sea life. However, little is known about spatial variation in POM supply to the abyssal seafloor, which is frequently assumed to be homogenous. In reality, the abyss has a highly complex landscape with millions of hills and mountains. Here, we show a significant increase in seabed POM % cover (by ~1.05 times), and a large significant increase in megafauna biomass (by ~2.5 times), on abyssal hill terrain in comparison to the surrounding plain. These differences are substantially greater than predicted by current models linking water depth to POM supply or benthic biomass. Our observed variations in POM % cover (phytodetritus), megafauna biomass, sediment total organic carbon and total nitrogen, sedimentology, and benthic boundary layer turbidity, all appear to be consistent with topographically enhanced current speeds driving these enhancements. The effects are detectable with bathymetric elevations of only 10 s of metres above the surrounding plain. These results imply considerable unquantified heterogeneity in global ecology. PMID:27681937

  17. Landscape-scale spatial heterogeneity in phytodetrital cover and megafauna biomass in the abyss links to modest topographic variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Kirsty J.; Bett, Brian J.; Durden, Jennifer M.; Benoist, Noelie M. A.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Robert, Katleen; Ichino, Matteo C.; Wolff, George A.; Ruhl, Henry A.

    2016-09-01

    Sinking particulate organic matter (POM, phytodetritus) is the principal limiting resource for deep-sea life. However, little is known about spatial variation in POM supply to the abyssal seafloor, which is frequently assumed to be homogenous. In reality, the abyss has a highly complex landscape with millions of hills and mountains. Here, we show a significant increase in seabed POM % cover (by ~1.05 times), and a large significant increase in megafauna biomass (by ~2.5 times), on abyssal hill terrain in comparison to the surrounding plain. These differences are substantially greater than predicted by current models linking water depth to POM supply or benthic biomass. Our observed variations in POM % cover (phytodetritus), megafauna biomass, sediment total organic carbon and total nitrogen, sedimentology, and benthic boundary layer turbidity, all appear to be consistent with topographically enhanced current speeds driving these enhancements. The effects are detectable with bathymetric elevations of only 10 s of metres above the surrounding plain. These results imply considerable unquantified heterogeneity in global ecology.

  18. Global patterns of marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle bycatch reveal taxa-specific and cumulative megafauna hotspots.

    PubMed

    Lewison, Rebecca L; Crowder, Larry B; Wallace, Bryan P; Moore, Jeffrey E; Cox, Tara; Zydelis, Ramunas; McDonald, Sara; DiMatteo, Andrew; Dunn, Daniel C; Kot, Connie Y; Bjorkland, Rhema; Kelez, Shaleyla; Soykan, Candan; Stewart, Kelly R; Sims, Michelle; Boustany, Andre; Read, Andrew J; Halpin, Patrick; Nichols, W J; Safina, Carl

    2014-04-08

    Recent research on ocean health has found large predator abundance to be a key element of ocean condition. Fisheries can impact large predator abundance directly through targeted capture and indirectly through incidental capture of nontarget species or bycatch. However, measures of the global nature of bycatch are lacking for air-breathing megafauna. We fill this knowledge gap and present a synoptic global assessment of the distribution and intensity of bycatch of seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles based on empirical data from the three most commonly used types of fishing gears worldwide. We identify taxa-specific hotspots of bycatch intensity and find evidence of cumulative impacts across fishing fleets and gears. This global map of bycatch illustrates where data are particularly scarce--in coastal and small-scale fisheries and ocean regions that support developed industrial fisheries and millions of small-scale fishers--and identifies fishing areas where, given the evidence of cumulative hotspots across gear and taxa, traditional species or gear-specific bycatch management and mitigation efforts may be necessary but not sufficient. Given the global distribution of bycatch and the mitigation success achieved by some fleets, the reduction of air-breathing megafauna bycatch is both an urgent and achievable conservation priority.

  19. Global patterns of marine mammal, seabird, and sea turtle bycatch reveal taxa-specific and cumulative megafauna hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Lewison, Rebecca L.; Crowder, Larry B.; Wallace, Bryan P.; Moore, Jeffrey E.; Cox, Tara; Zydelis, Ramunas; McDonald, Sara; DiMatteo, Andrew; Dunn, Daniel C.; Kot, Connie Y.; Bjorkland, Rhema; Kelez, Shaleyla; Soykan, Candan; Stewart, Kelly R.; Sims, Michelle; Boustany, Andre; Read, Andrew J.; Halpin, Patrick; Nichols, W. J.; Safina, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on ocean health has found large predator abundance to be a key element of ocean condition. Fisheries can impact large predator abundance directly through targeted capture and indirectly through incidental capture of nontarget species or bycatch. However, measures of the global nature of bycatch are lacking for air-breathing megafauna. We fill this knowledge gap and present a synoptic global assessment of the distribution and intensity of bycatch of seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles based on empirical data from the three most commonly used types of fishing gears worldwide. We identify taxa-specific hotspots of bycatch intensity and find evidence of cumulative impacts across fishing fleets and gears. This global map of bycatch illustrates where data are particularly scarce—in coastal and small-scale fisheries and ocean regions that support developed industrial fisheries and millions of small-scale fishers—and identifies fishing areas where, given the evidence of cumulative hotspots across gear and taxa, traditional species or gear-specific bycatch management and mitigation efforts may be necessary but not sufficient. Given the global distribution of bycatch and the mitigation success achieved by some fleets, the reduction of air-breathing megafauna bycatch is both an urgent and achievable conservation priority. PMID:24639512

  20. Landscape-scale spatial heterogeneity in phytodetrital cover and megafauna biomass in the abyss links to modest topographic variation.

    PubMed

    Morris, Kirsty J; Bett, Brian J; Durden, Jennifer M; Benoist, Noelie M A; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Jones, Daniel O B; Robert, Katleen; Ichino, Matteo C; Wolff, George A; Ruhl, Henry A

    2016-09-29

    Sinking particulate organic matter (POM, phytodetritus) is the principal limiting resource for deep-sea life. However, little is known about spatial variation in POM supply to the abyssal seafloor, which is frequently assumed to be homogenous. In reality, the abyss has a highly complex landscape with millions of hills and mountains. Here, we show a significant increase in seabed POM % cover (by ~1.05 times), and a large significant increase in megafauna biomass (by ~2.5 times), on abyssal hill terrain in comparison to the surrounding plain. These differences are substantially greater than predicted by current models linking water depth to POM supply or benthic biomass. Our observed variations in POM % cover (phytodetritus), megafauna biomass, sediment total organic carbon and total nitrogen, sedimentology, and benthic boundary layer turbidity, all appear to be consistent with topographically enhanced current speeds driving these enhancements. The effects are detectable with bathymetric elevations of only 10 s of metres above the surrounding plain. These results imply considerable unquantified heterogeneity in global ecology.

  1. SERVICE CREEK ROADLESS AREA, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Paul W.; Kluender, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Service Creek Roadless Area, near Steamboat Springs, Colorado, was studied. Geologic mapping and geochemical sampling did not identify any mineral-resource potential in the area. No mining activity has been recorded for the area. An east-west topographic linear feature just south of Silver Creek, which contains clusters of single and multi-element anomalies of certain rare-earth and metallic minerals deserves further study.

  2. Ecology of red swamps in the glaciated northeast: a community profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golet, Francis C.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; DeRagon, William R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches its greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey, where it comprises 60-800/o of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses. On a regional scale, red maple swamps support at least 50 species of trees, more than 90 species of shrubs and vines, and more than 300 species of nonwoody plants. These swamps also provide habitat for a rich faunal community, including several wetland-dependent species. In areas that are becoming urbanized, these wetlands often constitute critical habitat for facultative species as well. Red maple swamps also are important sites for flood storage, water quality improvement, recreation, scenic beauty, and open space.

  3. Black willow dominates baldcypress-tupelo swamp eight years after clear cutting

    Treesearch

    Peter H. Allen

    1962-01-01

    Our knowledge of successional relations in tidewater river swamps is scant. In an effort to increase our knowledge, the vegetation in a virgin stand of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum), swamp tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora), and water tupelo (N. aquatica) was compared with the new growth...

  4. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    Treesearch

    Eric A. Nelson; Neil C. Dulohery; Randall K. Kolka; William H. McKee

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River swamp, a 3020 ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River, USA is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically, the swamp consisted of approximately 50% bald cypress-water tupelo (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica) stands, 40% mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and...

  5. Influence of Soil Type and Drainage on Growth of Swamp Chestnut Oak (Quercus Michauxii Nutt.) Seedlings

    Treesearch

    Donald D. Hook

    1969-01-01

    Swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) seedlings were grown for 2 years in five soil types in drained and undrained pots. First-year height growth was related to soil type and pot drainage, but second-year height growth was related only to soil type. Results suggest that swamp chestnut oak is site-sensitive. But slow growth, a maximum of 2...

  6. Study of bio-physico-chemical parameters of Mothronwala swamp, Dehradun (Uttarakhand).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nutan; Sharma, Ramesh C; Tripathi, A K

    2008-05-01

    Aquatic biodiversity is one of the most essential characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem formaintaining its stability and a means of coping with any environmental change. The entire stretch of the Mothronwala swamp has rich riparian vegetation for providing conducive environment for the growth of aquatic organisms. The present work has been undertaken to study the bio-physico-chemical characteristics of the swamp. The data on physico-chemical environmental variables (temperature, total dissolved solutes, size and composition of substratum, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity chlorides, and hardness) have been given under the present contribution. A total of 16 genera of aquatic insects belonging to orders Trichoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Phylum Mollusca represented the macroinvertebrates of Mothronwala swamp. The fresh water swamp of Mothronwala is under threat due to human interference and other anthropogenic activities. Some of the natural and anthropogenic environmental problems of the Mothronwala swamp have been identified and the ameliorative measures for the protection of aquatic environment and the conservation measures for the swamp have been suggested. The qualitative study revealed the present status of the aquatic biodiversity of the swamp and also about the physico-chemical parameters, which would be very helpful for policy makers to take precautionary measures to save the swamp.

  7. Water and sediment quality in a tropical swamp used for agricultural and oil refining activities.

    PubMed

    Norville, Wendy; Banjoo, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    The Godineau Swamp in Trinidad receives anthropogenic input from agricultural and oil refining activities, sewage and domestic waste. This study was conducted in order to provide a comprehensive baseline dataset for the swamp, to assess water and sediment quality in the swamp, and to identify hotspots and possible sources of pollutants to the swamp. Ten sampling stations were established in the swamp during April/May and July 2002. Water quality parameters monitored included physicochemical measurements (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity), total suspended solids, and nutrients (ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and total phosphorus). Sediments were analyzed for hydrocarbons, heavy metals and total organic carbon. Temperatures and pH of water in the swamp were ambient; dissolved oxygen was low in many instances (<3 mg/L). In the dry season, there was saltwater intrusion along the Oropuche River up to the most easterly station. Levels of ammonia and phosphorus concentrations were suggestive of periodic inputs of agricultural and domestic wastes. Hydrocarbons concentrations in sediment were above ambient levels and suggestive of contamination from industrial activities. Sediments from the Godineau River contained elevated nutrients, hydrocarbons, metals and TOC compared with other stations. The results of this study indicate some degree of pollution of the Godineau swamp, which prompts the need for the implementation of measures beneficial for wise use of the swamp.

  8. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches the greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey; where it comprises 60-80% of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses.

  9. Variations in the invertebrate abyssal megafauna in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurston, M. H.; Bett, B. J.; Rice, A. L.; Jackson, P. A. B.

    1994-09-01

    Epibenthic sledge and otter trawl samples of invertebrate megabenthos were collected from the abyss of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Stations were selected to have contrasting overlying water column structure. Strong seasonal pulses of phytodetritus on the sea floor have been recorded on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) but not on the Madeira Abyssal Plain (MAP). Sledge-and trawl-derived abundances of 13.73 and 8.13 individuals 10 3 m -2 were found at PAP, with corresponding wet biomass values of 169.4 and 189.2 g 10 3 m -2. Data from sledge hauls taken at MAP gave an abundance of 7.48 individuals and 5.15g 10 3 m -2. Sledge and trawl abundances at Great Meteor East (GME) were 2.91 and 2.19 individuals 10 3 m -2 and 4.31 and 11.30 g 10 3 m -2. Holothurians dominated the invertebrate biomass at PAP while Astoroidea and Decapoda Natantia were important taxa at MAP and GME. Otter trawl samples demonstrated fish to be the major component of total megadaunal biomass and suggest that small fixed-frame trawls give gross underestimates of fish abundance and biomass. Size spectra based on abundance and biomass data indicated the megafauna to be a functional group at PAP stationl only. Here peak invertebrate biomass occurred in the 40-80 g wet wt size class. In contrast, no large invertebrates (>20 g wet wt) were found at MAP of GME. Concurrent photographic records indicate higher faunal densities than do net catches. Faunal differences between stations were examined, and a weak relationship between surface productivity and megafaunal abundance was established. Data are inadequate to detect a similar relationship with biomass. Biomass values at PAP of 16-39 times those of MAP and GME appear to be explained by the deposition of phytodetritus at PAP but not at MAP or, probably, at GME. Among invertebrates, detritivores form the dominant feeding guild at all localities, but carnivores are important at MAP and GME. Phytodetritus appears to support the abundant surface

  10. Understanding the Distribution of Marine Megafauna in the English Channel Region: Identifying Key Habitats for Conservation within the Busiest Seaway on Earth

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Catherine M.; Brereton, Tom; Dell'Amico, Florence; Johns, David G.; Cucknell, Anna-C.; Patrick, Samantha C.; Penrose, Rod; Ridoux, Vincent; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Stephan, Eric; Votier, Stephen C.; Williams, Ruth; Godley, Brendan J.

    2014-01-01

    The temperate waters of the North-Eastern Atlantic have a long history of maritime resource richness and, as a result, the European Union is endeavouring to maintain regional productivity and biodiversity. At the intersection of these aims lies potential conflict, signalling the need for integrated, cross-border management approaches. This paper focuses on the marine megafauna of the region. This guild of consumers was formerly abundant, but is now depleted and protected under various national and international legislative structures. We present a meta-analysis of available megafauna datasets using presence-only distribution models to characterise suitable habitat and identify spatially-important regions within the English Channel and southern bight of the North Sea. The integration of studies from dedicated and opportunistic observer programmes in the United Kingdom and France provide a valuable perspective on the spatial and seasonal distribution of various taxonomic groups, including large pelagic fishes and sharks, marine mammals, seabirds and marine turtles. The Western English Channel emerged as a hotspot of biodiversity for megafauna, while species richness was low in the Eastern English Channel. Spatial conservation planning is complicated by the highly mobile nature of marine megafauna, however they are important components of the marine environment and understanding their distribution is a first crucial step toward their inclusion into marine ecosystem management. PMID:24586985

  11. Understanding the distribution of marine megafauna in the English channel region: identifying key habitats for conservation within the busiest seaway on earth.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Catherine M; Brereton, Tom; Dell'Amico, Florence; Johns, David G; Cucknell, Anna-C; Patrick, Samantha C; Penrose, Rod; Ridoux, Vincent; Solandt, Jean-Luc; Stephan, Eric; Votier, Stephen C; Williams, Ruth; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-01-01

    The temperate waters of the North-Eastern Atlantic have a long history of maritime resource richness and, as a result, the European Union is endeavouring to maintain regional productivity and biodiversity. At the intersection of these aims lies potential conflict, signalling the need for integrated, cross-border management approaches. This paper focuses on the marine megafauna of the region. This guild of consumers was formerly abundant, but is now depleted and protected under various national and international legislative structures. We present a meta-analysis of available megafauna datasets using presence-only distribution models to characterise suitable habitat and identify spatially-important regions within the English Channel and southern bight of the North Sea. The integration of studies from dedicated and opportunistic observer programmes in the United Kingdom and France provide a valuable perspective on the spatial and seasonal distribution of various taxonomic groups, including large pelagic fishes and sharks, marine mammals, seabirds and marine turtles. The Western English Channel emerged as a hotspot of biodiversity for megafauna, while species richness was low in the Eastern English Channel. Spatial conservation planning is complicated by the highly mobile nature of marine megafauna, however they are important components of the marine environment and understanding their distribution is a first crucial step toward their inclusion into marine ecosystem management.

  12. Birchall and Benwell. Murder in a Canadian swamp.

    PubMed

    Murphy, G K

    1988-09-01

    On 21 February 1890, two woodsmen working in densely wooded Blenheim Swamp in southern Ontario, Canada, stumbled upon the dead body of a young Englishman who had been killed by two gunshot wounds to the head. He was identified as Frederick Benwell by a married couple, the Birchalls, who had traveled with him and another man, Pelly, from England to New York City by ship about 1 week before. The Birchalls lied regarding Benwell's subsequent movements. Questioning Pelly revealed to Detective John Murray that both Pelly and Benwell had replied separately to Birchall's advertisement for young men of means to become partners with him in a large Canadian farm, a deposit first being required. Birchall had been observed taking Benwell from Buffalo, New York, to Blenheim Swamp, for in reality there was no farm. There he had shot Benwell, leaving the body partially exposed. He then tried unsuccessfully to lure Pelly to his death in Niagara Falls. The Birchalls were arrested. Reginald Birchall was tried, convicted, and hanged. His attempt, including murder, to turn the so-called farm pupil colonization scheme to his own benefit had been frustrated by the dogged work of the master Canadian detective Murray.

  13. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  14. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Ctenophora, Mollusca

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Amanda F; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grischenko, Andrei V; Leitner, Astrid B; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Voight, Janet R; Wicksten, Mary K; Young, Craig M; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite having been the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. To predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to ABYSSLINE research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. New information Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (as well as several other pieces of equipment), the megafauna within the UK Seabed Resources Ltd exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal annelid, arthropod, bryozoan, chordate, ctenophore and molluscan megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 55 distinct morphospecies (8 Annelida, 12 Arthropoda, 4 Bryozoa, 22 Chordata, 5 Ctenophora, and 4 Mollusca) identified mostly by morphology but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat. PMID:28874906

  15. Megafauna of the UKSRL exploration contract area and eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone in the Pacific Ocean: Annelida, Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Chordata, Ctenophora, Mollusca.

    PubMed

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Grischenko, Andrei V; Leitner, Astrid B; Lindsay, Dhugal J; Voight, Janet R; Wicksten, Mary K; Young, Craig M; Smith, Craig R

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules from the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Despite having been the focus of environmental studies for decades, the benthic megafauna of the CCZ remain poorly known. To predict and manage the environmental impacts of mining in the CCZ, baseline knowledge of the megafauna is essential. The ABYSSLINE Project has conducted benthic biological baseline surveys in the UK Seabed Resources Ltd polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area (UK-1). Prior to ABYSSLINE research cruises in 2013 and 2015, no biological studies had been done in this area of the eastern CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (as well as several other pieces of equipment), the megafauna within the UK Seabed Resources Ltd exploration contract area (UK-1) and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area were surveyed, allowing us to make the first estimates of megafaunal morphospecies richness from the imagery collected. Here, we present an atlas of the abyssal annelid, arthropod, bryozoan, chordate, ctenophore and molluscan megafauna observed and collected during the ABYSSLINE cruises to the UK-1 polymetallic-nodule exploration contract area in the CCZ. There appear to be at least 55 distinct morphospecies (8 Annelida, 12 Arthropoda, 4 Bryozoa, 22 Chordata, 5 Ctenophora, and 4 Mollusca) identified mostly by morphology but also using molecular barcoding for a limited number of animals that were collected. This atlas will aid the synthesis of megafaunal presence/absence data collected by contractors, scientists and other stakeholders undertaking work in the CCZ, ultimately helping to decipher the biogeography of the megafauna in this threatened habitat.

  16. Evidence of impact material and the extinction of the mega-fauna 12,900 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayek, M.; Hull, S.; Anovitz, L.; Haynes, V.; Bergen, L.

    2008-12-01

    Approximately 13,000 years ago the landscape of North America was very different from what exists today. The Clovis people were hunting mammoths and other megafauna that roamed the land at the close of the Pleistocene. Evidence of these large mammals and the material remains of the Clovis inhabitants no longer appear in the geological or archeological records after 12,900 years ago. This coincides with the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) climatic event. The onset of the YD appears to have been relatively abrupt and it lasted for ~1000 yrs. There have been many theories put forth to explain the sudden changes in climate and human culture, and the Pleistocene mega-fauna extinction that appear to have coincided with the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) climatic event. Few theories, however, have adequately explained the concurrence of all three events. Nevertheless, few researchers disagree that something major happened 12,900 years ago. In 2007, Firestone et al proposed that an extraterrestrial event (ET) (e.g., meteorite impact) caused the onset of YD climatic event, which led to the extinction of the mega-fauna and the collapse for the Clovis culture. Skeptics argue that the ET markers that have been described by Firestone et al are not sufficient evidence to prove the occurrence of an ET event because evidence for an ET event such as an impact crater, tektites, shocked quartz, high temperature minerals, and impact material are absent. Here we present for the first time chemical and textural evidence of impact material from the Clovis-age, Murray Springs "black mat" layer, Arizona, USA. The impact material contains iron oxide spherules (framboids) in a glassy iron-silica matrix, which is one indicator of a possible meteorite impact. Chemical analyses of these spherules and the glassy matrices found in the particles from the larger size fractions are compared to the chemistry of carbonaceous chondrites, impact material associated with meteorite showers and meteorite

  17. A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Rachel; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Williams, Brianna; Hogan, Dianna; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundCarbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. We estimate the net ecosystem carbon balance by considering past ecosystem disturbances resulting from storm damage, fire, and land management actions including hydrologic inundation, vegetation clearing, and replanting.ResultsWe modeled the annual ecosystem carbon stock and flow rates for the 30-year historic time period of 1985–2015, using age-structured forest growth curves and known data for disturbance events and management activities. The 30-year total net ecosystem production was estimated to be a net sink of 0.97 Tg C. When a hurricane and six historic fire events were considered in the simulation, the Great Dismal Swamp became a net source of 0.89 Tg C. The cumulative above and below-ground carbon loss estimated from the South One and Lateral West fire events totaled 1.70 Tg C, while management activities removed an additional 0.01 Tg C. The carbon loss in below-ground biomass alone totaled 1.38 Tg C, with the balance (0.31 Tg C) coming from above-ground biomass and detritus.ConclusionsNatural disturbances substantially impact net ecosystem carbon balance in the Great Dismal Swamp. Through alternative management actions such as re-wetting, below-ground biomass loss may have been avoided, resulting in the added carbon storage capacity of 1.38 Tg. Based on two model assumptions used to simulate the peat system, (a burn scar totaling 70 cm in depth, and the soil carbon accumulation rate of 0.36 t C/ha−1/year−1 for Atlantic white cedar), the total soil carbon loss from the

  18. Distribution, abundance, and habitat affinities of the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beadell, J.; Greenberg, R.; Droege, S.; Royle, J. Andrew

    2003-01-01

    We examined the distribution and abundance of the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens) at previously occupied sites and points within potential habitat. We found Swamp Sparrows throughout their formerly documented range except in southern Chesapeake Bay. Swamp Sparrows were most common in the Mullica River region of New Jersey where we detected individuals at 78% of systematically chosen points with a mean count of 4.1 birds/point. The percentages of points with positive detections in. the regions of Delaware River (39%), eastern Delaware Bay (23%), western Delaware Bay (34%), and Tuckahoe River (31%) were lower. The mean count of birds/point was between 0.4 and 0.6 in these regions. A higher resolution Poisson model of relative abundance suggested that the greatest concentrations of Swamp Sparrows occurred not only in the Mullica River area but also along northwestern Delaware Bay. Regression analysis of Swamp Sparrow counts and habitat features identified shrubs (Iva frutescens and Baccharis halimifolia) as a key habitat component. By applying density estimates generated by DISTANCE (Thomas et al. 1998) to the approximate area of potential shrub habitat along Delaware Bay, we estimated that the core population of Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrows was less than 28,000 pairs. We recommend that the Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow be listed as a subspecies of concern by state and local governments because of its relatively small population size, restricted distribution in the mid-Atlantic region, and narrow habitat requirements.

  19. 78 FR 62616 - Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed September 23, 2013, Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company informed the Commission that they have changed its name to Salmon Creek Hydroelectric Company, LLC for...

  20. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek bridge, at Islamorada, Florida, shall open on signal, except that from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., the draw need...

  1. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  2. SWAMP+: multiple subsequence alignment using associative massive parallelism

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfadt, Shannon Irene; Baker, Johnnie W

    2010-10-18

    A new parallel algorithm SWAMP+ incorporates the Smith-Waterman sequence alignment on an associative parallel model known as ASC. It is a highly sensitive parallel approach that expands traditional pairwise sequence alignment. This is the first parallel algorithm to provide multiple non-overlapping, non-intersecting subsequence alignments with the accuracy of Smith-Waterman. The efficient algorithm provides multiple alignments similar to BLAST while creating a better workflow for the end users. The parallel portions of the code run in O(m+n) time using m processors. When m = n, the algorithmic analysis becomes O(n) with a coefficient of two, yielding a linear speedup. Implementation of the algorithm on the SIMD ClearSpeed CSX620 confirms this theoretical linear speedup with real timings.

  3. Assessing patterns and processes of landscape change in Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftin, Cynthia Smith

    The Okefenokee Swamp is one of the largest freshwater wetlands in the world. Currently protected and managed as a national wilderness area and national wildlife refuge, the swamp has a history of human-caused manipulation and modification. The swamp landscape is dynamic; vegetation compositions and distributions continually change as the hydrologic environments change. These dynamics are driven by natural processes such as peat accumulation and wildfire, as well as the artificial manipulations of the recent past. The Suwannee River sill was constructed following extensive wildfires during 1954--1955, with the intent of protecting the swamp and surrounding uplands from effects of wildfires. During subsequent years, concern was raised that the dam might be adversely affecting the swamp, ecology by extending periods of inundation, increasing water depths, and subsequently affecting swamp vegetation. Delineating the effects of the Suwannee River sill on the swamp hydrologic environment and vegetation distributions, in the process of exploring relationships among driving functions and landscape responses, was a purpose of this dissertation research. Data collected at various spatial and temporal scales were examined to identify the sill's effects. A water level recorder network was spatially linked with a global positioning system survey, and the resultant topographic surface and hydrologic data were included in a grid-cell based hydrology model to track water movement throughout the swamp. Model simulations illustrated swamp water level fluctuations before and after the sill was in place, and predicted recent hydrologic history in the sill's absence, as well as sensitivities of swamp hydrology to altered evapotranspiration rates. Model simulations also predicted that the sill was affecting about 18% of the swamp area with increased inundation depths and durations, and vegetation change attributed to the sill was limited to this area. Vegetation dynamics were also

  4. Fate of added nitrate and ammonium-nitrogen entering a Louisiana gulf coast swamp forest

    SciTech Connect

    Lindau, C.W.; De Laune, R.D.; Jones, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Added /sup 15/N labeled inorganic nitrogen was used to determine the significance of nitrification-denitrification in flooded swamp soil in removing nitrogen. Nitrogen-15 labeled (NH/sub 2/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and KNO/sub 3/ were added to replicated plots in a swamp forest receiving agricultural runoff. Nitrous oxide and N/sub 2/ fluxes were measured and maximum fluxes were estimated at 24g N/m/sup 2/ x yr and 110 g N/m/sup 2/ x yr, respectively. The capacity of the swamp forest to remove large quantities of nitrogen via nitrification-denitrification processes was demonstrated.

  5. Old carbon efflux from tropical peat swamp drainage waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~12% of the global peatland carbon pool, and of this 10% is in Malaysia1. Due to rising demand for food and biofuels, large areas of peat swamp forest ecosystems have been converted to plantation in Southeast Asia and are being subjected to degradation, drainage and fire, changing their carbon fluxes eg.2,3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lost from disturbed tropical peat can be derived from deep within the peat column and be aged from centuries to millennia4 contributing to aquatic release and cycling of old carbon. Here we present the results of a field campaign to the Raja Musa Peat Swamp Forest Reserve in N. Selangor Malaysia, which has been selectively logged for 80 years before being granted timber reserve status. We measured CO2 and CH4efflux rates from drainage systems with different treatment history, and radiocarbon dated the evasion CO2 and associated [DOC]. We also collected water chemistry and stable isotope data from the sites. During our sampling in the dry season CO2 efflux rates ranged from 0.8 - 13.6 μmol m-2 s-1. Sediments in the channel bottom contained CH4 that appeared to be primarily lost by ebullition, leading to sporadic CH4 efflux. However, dissolved CH4 was also observed in water samples collected from these systems. The CO2 efflux was aged up to 582±37 years BP (0 BP = AD 1950) with the associated DOC aged 495±35 years BP. Both DOC and evasion CO2 were most 14C-enriched (i.e. younger) at the least disturbed site, and implied a substantial component of recently fixed carbon. In contrast, CO2 and DOC from the other sites had older 14C ages, indicating disturbance as the trigger for the loss of old carbon. 1Page et al., 2010 2Hooijer et al., 2010 3Kimberly et al., 2012 4Moore et al., 2013

  6. Denitrification in cypress swamp within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Lindau, C W; Delaune, R D; Scaroni, A E; Nyman, J A

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen has been implicated as a major cause of hypoxia in shallow water along the Louisiana/Texas, USA coasts. Excess nitrogen (mainly nitrate) from Mississippi and Atchafalaya River drainage basins may drive the onset and duration of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Restoring and enhancing denitrification have been proposed to reduce and control coastal hypoxia and improve water quality in the Mississippi River Basin. Sediments were collected from six baldcypress restoration sites within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana, USA. The acetylene blockage technique was used to measure background and potential sediment denitrification rates. Denitrification fluxes were measured before nitrate addition (background rates) and after nitrate addition of 100mgNl(-1) (potential denitrification) at three seasonal temperatures. Background denitrification was low across all cypress swamp sites ranging from 0.9 to 8.8, 0.6 to 28.5 and 8.8 to 47.5g N evolved ha(-1)d(-1) at water/sediment column temperatures of 8, 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. After nitrate addition, temperature had a significant effect on sediment denitrification potential. Maximum rates measured at 8, 22 and 30 degrees C were approximately 250-260, 550 and 970gNha(-1)d(-1), respectively. Most of the added nitrate in water columns, incubated at 8 degrees C, was removed after 65d compared to 32d and 17d at 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. These results indicate cypress swamps have the potential to assimilate and process elevated levels of floodwater nitrate with denitrification being a major removal mechanism.

  7. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  8. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  9. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  10. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  11. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  12. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake Creek...

  13. Flood Plain Information, Toms River, Union Branch Ridgeway Branch, and Long Swamp Creek, Ocean County, New Jersey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-06-01

    UNORMAL STREAM N. J. FLOODWAY DESIGN FLOOD (NJFDF) I PROFILES in the Flod Pain /nformation Report~shw elevoti-~o A c W0 0 forthe entire study area TO...INFORMATION TOMS RIVER OCEAN COUNTY, N.J. FLOODED AREAS JUNE 1972 L E j ",’.PLATE6 ui DOVEI zA XC RV! crCN.J. FL 0ESIG M+II MILI ZE CRC GROI G.S. TOW 1

  14. Hulburt Creek Hydrology, Southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gebert, Warren A.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the hydrologic characteristics of Hulburt Creek, Sauk County, Wis., in order to evaluate a proposed reservoir. The streamflow characteristics estimated are the low flow, monthly flow, and inflow flood. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. The following estimates are for the point on Hulburt Creek at the proposed Dell Lake damsite near Wisconsin Dells. The drainage area is 11.2 square miles.

  15. Seed dispersal of the Australian cycad Macrozamia miquelii (Zamiaceae): are cycads megafauna-dispersed "grove forming" plants?

    PubMed

    Hall, John A; Walter, Gimme H

    2013-06-01

    Plants that invest in large, heavy seeds and colorful, fleshy fruits or analogous structures seem adapted for dispersal by large vertebrates. Some such plants, like Australian cycads in the genus Macrozamia, do not disperse well, which could be explained by seed-dispersal relationships with megafauna that are rare or extinct in contemporary ecosystems. Such plants provide an opportunity to investigate the ecological consequences of low seed-dispersal distances. • We investigated seed dispersal of Macrozamia miquelii in Central Queensland by tracking the fate of marked seeds, identifying the dispersal fauna and quantifying population demography and spatial structure. • We found that 70-100% of marked seeds remained within 1 m of maternal females (cycads are dioecious). Of the 812 seeds recovered (from 840 originally marked) only 24 dispersed >1 m from maternal females, the greatest observed dispersal being 5 m. We found an average of 2.2 seedlings and 0.7 juveniles within 1.5 m of mature females, which suggests that most seeds that remain in the vicinity of maternal females perish. Within-stand densities ranged between 1000 and 5000 plants/ha. The brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula was the only animal observed to move the seeds. • Macrozamia are adapted for dispersal by megafauna that are rare or absent in contemporary ecosystems. We argue that Macrozamia are "grove forming" plants that derive ecological benefit from existing as high-density, spatially discrete populations, the function of megafaunal dispersal adaptations being the infrequent dispersal of seeds en masse to establish new such groves in the landscape.

  16. Micropetrographic characteristics of peats from modern coal-forming environments in Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia and Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsular Swamps, North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Corvinus, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Okefenokee Swamp, over 400,000 acres, is a swamp-marsh complex dominated by Taxodium-swamp vegetaion on its west side and Nymphaea-marsh vegetation onits east side. The Albemarle-Pamlico Peninsular Swamps primarily support a pocosin-bay vegetation. The Taxodium-dominated peats of the Okefenokee are more similar botanically to the Albemarle-Pamlico bay peats than are the Okefenokee Nymphaea-dominated peats. Some petrographic characteristics are common to all three peat types. The majority of cell walls in the peat exhibit colors (yellow to orange to red) which they did not display in their living state. This is believed to be from impregnation by the various cell fillings present in the peats. Unoxidized fragmented (granular) material in all three peat types usually occurs in larger amounts than oxidized (darkened) material. In Taxodium-dominated and bay peats the fragmented matrix is also usually more prevalent than the preserved material (intact cell walls and cell fillings). On the other hand, preserved material is most common in Nymphaea-dominated peats. It is believed that the majority of fragmented material is derived from the surface litter and that swamp vegetation contributes more surface litter than does marsh vegetation.

  17. The role of climate and vegetation on woolly mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska and megafauna extinction in North America in the late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Porter, W.; Miller, P. A.; Graham, R. W.; Williams, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Estimate of megafauna behaviors dynamically under associated environmental factors is important to understand the mechanisms and causes of the late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions. On St. Paul Island, an isolated remnant of the Bering Land Bridge, a late-surviving population of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) persisted until 5,600 cal BP, while 37 out of 54 megafauna species in the continent of North America, all herbivores, went extinct at the end of Pleistocene between 13,800 and 11,500 cal BP. Proposed natural drivers of the extinction events include abrupt temperature changes, food resource loss and freshwater shortage. Here we tested these three hypothesized mechanisms, using a physiological model (Niche Mapper) to estimate individual megafauna behaviors from the perspectives of metabolic rate, individual vegetation and freshwater requirement under simulated climates from Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3), vegetation reconstructions based on dynamic LPJ-GUESS model and woolly mammoth and megafauna species trait data reconstructed based on mammal fossils. Preliminary simulations of woolly mammoth on St. Paul Island point to the importance of net vegetation primary productivity and freshwater availability as limits on the carrying capacity of St. Paul for mammoth populations, with a low carrying capacity in the middle Holocene making this population highly vulnerable to extinction. Results also indicate that the abrupt warming based around 14,000 cal BP in Bering land bridge on CCSM3 simulations causes woolly mammoth extinction, by driving metabolic rate high up beyond the active basic metabolic rate. Analysis suggests a positive relationship between temperature and metabolic rate, and woolly mammoth would go extinct when summer temperature is up to 12 °C or higher. However the temperature reconstructed based on regional proxies is relatively stable compared to CCSM3 simulations, and leads to stable metabolic rate of woolly mammoth and

  18. 75 FR 8107 - Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Bibb and Twiggs Counties, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation/photography, environmental education/interpretation... opportunities for hunting, fishing, wildlife observation, wildlife photography, and environmental education and... impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment for Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). In the...

  19. SwampLog: A Structured Journal for Reflection-in-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicassio, Frank

    1992-01-01

    Describes "SwampLog," an action-research journal process useful for recording and reflecting upon ongoing experience, exploring and creating innovative approaches to education, and gauging the resultant effects upon organizational, instructional, and individual renewal. (PRA)

  20. SwampLog: A Structured Journal for Reflection-in-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicassio, Frank

    1992-01-01

    Describes "SwampLog," an action-research journal process useful for recording and reflecting upon ongoing experience, exploring and creating innovative approaches to education, and gauging the resultant effects upon organizational, instructional, and individual renewal. (PRA)

  1. The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed

    Treesearch

    T. E. Lisle

    1979-01-01

    The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed was set up as a traditional paired watershed to investigate the effects of logging and road construction on erosion and sedimentation. Research participants have come from the California Division of Forestry, the Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, the California Department of Water Resources, the California...

  2. Caspar Creek study completion report

    Treesearch

    C. S. Kabel; E. R. German

    1967-01-01

    The Department of Fish and Game assisted in an interagency study on Caspar Creek, a small coastal stream in Mendocino County. This study included the effects of logging on the stream and its population of silver salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdnerii).

  3. LINCOLN CREEK ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Lincoln Creek Roadless Area, Nevada was determined to have little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. Geologic terrane favorable for the occurrence of contact-metasomatic tungsten deposits exists, but no evidence for this type of mineralization was identified. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels and no other energy resources were identified.

  4. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This pamphlet describes Union Oil's shale oil project in the Parachute Creek area of Garfield County, Colorado. The oil shale is estimated to contain 1.6 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the high Mahogany zone alone. Primarily a public relations publication, the report presented contains general information on the history of the project and Union Oil's future plans. (JMT)

  5. Mercury in swamp sparrows (Melospiza georgiana) from wetland habitats in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Strom, Sean M; Brady, Ryan S

    2011-10-01

    Wetlands play a major role in the export of methylmercury (MeHg) to a watershed. The large contribution of wetlands to watersheds in northern Wisconsin, coupled with the acidic environment of this area, makes these habitats especially vulnerable to mercury (Hg) accumulation by biota. The purpose of this study was to compare Hg accumulation between northern Wisconsin wetlands and southern Wisconsin wetlands using the swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana) as a representative species. The swamp sparrow was selected as a representative passerine species in which to examine Hg in these habitats, because during their breeding season, they feed at a higher trophic level than many of their counterparts. During the breeding seasons of 2007 and 2008, blood samples were collected from swamp sparrows inhabiting wetlands in both northern and southern Wisconsin and analyzed for total Hg. The mean concentration of total Hg in swamp sparrows from northern wetlands was 0.135 ± 0.064 μg/ml while the mean concentration of total Hg in swamp sparrows from southern wetlands was 0.187 ± 0.106 μg/ml. Results revealed no significant difference (P = 0.17) between Hg accumulation in swamp sparrows from less-acidic wetlands in southern Wisconsin and Hg in swamp sparrows from acidic wetlands in northern Wisconsin. The results are contrary to those observed in other species such as common loon, tree swallow and river otter where higher accumulation has been observed in individuals from acidic habitats. Reasons for the lack of this accumulation pattern in swamp sparrows are unclear and warrant further study.

  6. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  7. Physiological refugia: swamps, hypoxia tolerance and maintenance of fish diversity in the Lake Victoria region.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Lauren J; Chapman, Colin A; Nordlie, Frank G; Rosenberger, Amanda E

    2002-11-01

    In Lake Nabugabo, Uganda, a satellite of Lake Victoria, approximately 50% of the indigenous fishes disappeared from the open waters subsequent to the establishment of the introduced predatory Nile perch, Lates niloticus. This pattern is similar to the faunal loss experienced in the much larger Lake Victoria. Several of these species persisted in wetland refugia (e.g. ecotonal wetlands, swamp lagoons); however, deep swamp refugia (habitats lying well within the dense interior of fringing wetlands), are available only to a subset of the basin fauna with extreme tolerance to hypoxia. Although air-breathers are common in deep swamp refugia; we also documented a surprisingly high richness and abundance of non-air-breathing fishes. We describe several mechanisms that may facilitate survival in deep swamp refugia including high hemoglobin concentration, high hematocrit, large gill surface area and a low critical oxygen tension (P(c)). In addition, swamp-dwelling fishes showed lower PO(2) thresholds for onset of aquatic surface respiration than the lake-dwelling fishes. This suggests higher tolerance to hypoxia in the swamp fishes because they are able to withstand a lower oxygen tension before approaching the surface. We suggest that physiological refugia may be important in modulating the impact of Nile perch and indigenous fishes in the Lake Nabugabo region; this highlights the need to evaluate relative tolerance of introduced predators and indigenous prey to environmental stressors.

  8. Mangrove and peat swamp forests: refuge habitats for primates and felids.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    Swamp forests may be important refuges for primates and felids where these taxa are threatened with habitat loss. Mangrove and peat swamp forests, impenetrable, wet habitats, inaccessible and uninhabitable for humans, may, in some regions, be the most significant remaining habitats for threatened species. They are nevertheless neglected in field studies compared to relatively species-rich, terrestrial tropical forests probably, in part, because of the difficulties associated with surveying them. As a result, maps of mammal distributions may overlook swamp forests although camera-trapping is gradually rectifying this gap. I have compiled and mapped records of over 60 primate and 20 felid taxa reported to use mangrove and peat swamp forests in Africa and Asia at 47 sites, of which 21 are Afrotropical mangrove, 25 are Indo-Malayan mangrove or peat swamp forest, and 1 is an outlying mangrove site in Japan. Eleven of these are designated Ramsar Sites. I highlight key sites of conservation priority on the basis of primate and felid species richness and composite 'threat scores'. Petit Loango in Gabon and Gunung Palung National Park in Indonesia emerged as top priority sites in Africa and Asia, respectively. Further research on the role of swamp forests in the ecology and persistence of threatened mammals is needed.

  9. Soil characteristics of sediment-amended baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps of coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Ming; Middleton, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Amendments of sediment from dredging activities have played an important role in raising the elevation of sinking coastal wetlands. This study compared the soil characteristics of sediment- amended coastal swamps in the Barataria Preserve unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve with natural swamps along Bayou des Familles. The sandy sediment amendments used in the coastal forests had different soil texture and characteristics than the more organic soils of the natural swamps. Three years after the application of these sediments on the sediment-amended swamps, dewatering and compaction of the sediment had occurred but the sediment still had high salinity and bulk density, and low organic matter content. The two sediment-amended swamps differed from each other in that Site 1 had a higher elevation (mean = 25 cm higher) and drier soil than Site 2. The effects of sediment in coastal forested wetlands require separate consideration from studies of salt marshes, e.g., the weight of the sediment might damage tree roots, or the amendments might influence soil stability during storms in a different way. Generally, this study suggests that shallower depths of sediment are more likely to yield environments beneficial to these sinking baldcypress swamps in coastal Louisiana.

  10. Geological and hydrothermal controls on the distribution of megafauna in Ashes Vent Field, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arquit, Anne M.

    1990-08-01

    densities of nonvent echinoderms (i.e., holothurians, sea stars, urchins) are associated with the distal venting zone. Distributions of megafauna not endemic to the vent environment are sensitive to both local geology (particularly the nature of the substrate) and effects of hydrothermal activity such as enhanced food availability or hydrothermal sedimentation. Although evidence for active venting is not apparent in the nonvent impact zone, photographic data suggest that the type and number of megafauna living in this region are significantly influenced by proximity to low- and high-temperature hydrothermal sources that support enhanced microbial production and produce sediment of hydrothermal origin, which may be advected to the peripheral environment. Statistical interpretation of photographic data suggests an outer limit to the extent of vent influence on benthic megafauna (i.e., Bathydorus sp. sponges) of about 1000-1300 m for the hydrothermal system active at Ashes vent field in 1985-1986. On the scale of a single vent field, hydrothermal activity apparently results in a less patchy distribution of benthic, nonvent organisms within the central and distal vent zones than is common in the nonvent environment.

  11. The eyestalk transcriptome of red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Manfrin, Chiara; Tom, Moshe; De Moro, Gianluca; Gerdol, Marco; Giulianini, Piero Giulio; Pallavicini, Alberto

    2015-02-15

    The red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, Girard 1852) is among the most economically important freshwater crustacean species, and it is also considered one of the most aggressive invasive species worldwide. Despite its commercial importance and being one of the most studied crayfish species, its genomic and transcriptomic layout has only been partially studied. Illumina RNA-sequencing was applied to characterize the eyestalk transcriptome and identify its most characterizing genes. A collection of 83,170,732 reads from eyestalks was obtained using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. A de novo assembly was performed with the Trinity assembly software generating 119,255 contigs (average length of 1,007 bp) and identifying the first sequenced transcriptome in this species. The eyestalk is a major site for the production of neurohormones and controls a variety of physiological functions such as osmotic regulation, molting, epidermal color patterns and reproduction. Hence, its transcriptomic characterization is interesting and potentially instrumental to the elucidation of genes which have not been comprehensively described yet. Moreover, the availability of such a large amount of information supported the characterization of molecular families which have never been described before. The P. clarkii eyestalk transcriptome reported here provides a resource for improving the knowledge of the still incompletely defined neuroendocrinology of this species and represents an important source of data for all the interested carcinologists.

  12. Atmospheric lead deposition to Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, B.P.; Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    'Capsule:' Coal combustion emissions appear to be a major source of Pb in the Okefenokee wetland. Contamination of the environment from atmospheric deposition during the twentieth century is pervasive even in areas ostensibly considered pristine or remote from point sources. In this study, Pb concentrations in a Pb-210-dated peat core collected from the Okefenokee Swamp, GA were used to assess historical contaminant input via atmospheric deposition. Lead isotope ratios were determined by dynamic reaction cell ICP-MS (DRC-ICP-MS). Increases in Pb concentration occurred in the late nineteenth century and a marked rise in Pb concentrations pre-dated the widespread use of leaded gasoline within the US. The Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios of 1.19 during this period were consistent with coal combustion emissions. A later increase in Pb concentration, concurrent with a trend toward more radiogenic Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios in gasoline is consistent with an increased input of Pb from leaded gasoline emissions. However, it appears that coal combustion emissions remain a major source of Pb to the Okefenokee.

  13. Interlocking mats support drilling rig on frozen swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-15

    This paper discusses how a company employed a unique mat system to reduce environmental impact and to support the drilling rig on its Astosch No. 1 exploratory well at Granite Point in the Trading Bay Wildlife Refuge. The site is on the west side of Cook Inlet. During winter, the travel time from Anchorage to the base camp near the Tyonek Indian village was 5 hr by ice road or 45 min by fixed wing aircraft. Eighteen miles of existing gravel roads were used from this base camp to the edge of the frozen muskeg swamp, and from there, they constructed 7 miles of ice road to the well site. They constructed a snow and ice pad with two impermeable liners and then installed Uni-Mat International Inc.'s patented interlocking mats for the final foundation. After moving in the rig, a snow berm was built around the perimeter of the location and an impermeable liner was then draped and secured over the berm.

  14. Marine genetic swamping: hybrids replace an obligately estuarine fish.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David G; Gray, Charles A; West, Ronald J; Ayre, David J

    2010-02-01

    Populations of obligately estuarine taxa are potentially small and isolated and may lack genetic variation and display regional differentiation as a result of drift and inbreeding. Hybridization with a wide-ranging marine congener should introduce genetic variation and reduce the effects of inbreeding depression and genetic drift. However, high levels of hybridization can cause demographic and genetic swamping. In southeastern Australia hybridization occurs between obligately estuarine Black bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri) and migratory marine Yellowfin bream (Acanthopagrus australis). Here, we surveyed genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region of juvenile fish from five coastal lagoons (including temporal replication in two lagoons) (total n = 970) to determine the frequency and persistence of hybridization, and its likely consequence for the estuarine restricted A. butcheri. Of 688 juvenile fish genotyped 95% were either A. australis (347) or hybrids (309); only 5% (32) were A. butcheri. Most hybrids were later generation hybrids or A. butcheri backcrosses, which are likely multi-generational residents within lagoons. Far greater proportions of hybrid juveniles were found within two lagoons that are generally closed to the ocean (>90% hybrid fish within generally closed lagoons vs. 12-27% in permanently or intermittently open lagoons). In both lagoons, this was consistent across multiple cohorts of fish [79-97% hybrid fish (n = 282)]. Hybridization and introgression represent a major threat to the persistence of A. butcheri and have yet to be investigated for large numbers of estuarine taxa.

  15. RICHLAND CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARKANSAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mary H.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic and mineral surveys, Richland Creek Roadless Area, Arkanses, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources, gas and oil, or oil shale. The Boone Formation of Mississippian age and the Everton Formation of Ordovician age, both known to contain zinc and lead deposits in northern Arkansas, underlie the roadless area. The presence or absence of zinc and lead deposits in these formations in the subsurface can be neither confirmed nor ruled out without exploratory drilling. Most of the Richland Creek Roadless Area is under lease for oil and gas; however two wells drilled near the eastern boundary of the area did not show contained gas or oil.

  16. Otter Creek Wilderness, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Warlow, R.C.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Otter Creek Wilderness conducted in 1978 resulted in the determination of demonstrated coal resources estimated to total about 24 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick and an additional 62 million short tons of coal in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick. There is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  17. LUSK CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ILLINOIS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klasner, John S.; Thompson, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping and geochemical sampling show that the eastern third of the Lusk Creek Roadless Area in Illinois has a substantiated resource potential for fluorspar, lead, zinc, and barite, and other parts of the area have a probable resource potential for fluorspar. Fluorspar, which occurs along fault zones in the eastern part of the area, has been produced in the adjacent Illinois-Kentucky fluorspar district. There is little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources.

  18. [Litter production and breakdown in swamps dominated by palms (Arecaceae) in northeastern Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Myers, Ronald L

    2013-09-01

    In Raffia (Raphia taedigera) palm-swamps, it is frequent to observe high mounds at the base of the palm clumps. These mounds are formed by the accumulation of litter and organic matter, or might result from upturned roots of wind-thrown trees. The mounds serve as anchorage site for the palms, and could be important for the establishment of woody tree species in the swamp. The formation of these mounds might be explained by the unequal accumulation of organic matter in the wetland, or by differences in decomposition rates between Raffia litter versus the litter produced in adjacent mixed forests. To distinguish between these hypotheses, I compared the spatial distribution of litter in a R. taedigera swamp with the litter distribution on an adjacent slope forest, where litter distribution is expected to be homogeneous. In addition, I compared decomposition rates of major components of fine litter in three different environments: two wetlands dominated by palms (R. taedigera and Manicaria saccifera) and a slope forest that experiences lower inundation effects. On the palm swamp, noticeable concentration of litter was observed near the bases of clumps of palm as opposed to the swamp floor. In the adjacent slope forest, the magnitude of the differences in the distribution of litter is small and there is no accumulation at the base of emergent trees. It was also found that litter production increases during heavy rains and storms that follow dry periods. The swamp environment, independent of the litter, showed significantly lower decomposition rates than the surrounding forest slope. Furthermore, R. taedigera litter decomposes as fast as the slope forest litter. Overall, these results suggest that resistance to decomposition is not a major factor in the formation of mounds at the bases of R. taedigera clumps. Instead, litter accumulation contributes to the formation of the mounds that rise above the surface of the swamp.

  19. Performance measures for a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.; Keim, Richard F.; Chambers, Jim L.; Wood, William B.; Hartley, Stephen B.

    2017-06-09

    The use of freshwater diversions (river reintroductions) from the Mississippi River as a restoration tool to rehabilitate Louisiana coastal wetlands has been promoted widely since the first such diversion at Caernarvon became operational in the early 1990s. To date, aside from the Bonnet Carré Spillway (which is designed and operated for flood control), there are only four operational Mississippi River freshwater diversions (two gated structures and two siphons) in coastal Louisiana, and they all target salinity intrusion, shellfish management, and (or) the enhancement of the integrity of marsh habitat. River reintroductions carry small sediment loads for various design reasons, but they can be effective in delivering fresh­water to combat saltwater intrusion and increase the delivery of nutrients and suspended fine-grained sediments to receiving wetlands. River reintroductions may be an ideal restoration tool for targeting coastal swamp forest habitat; much of the area of swamp forest habitat in coastal Louisiana is undergo­ing saltwater intrusion, high rates of submergence, and lack of riverine flow leading to reduced concentrations of important nutrients and suspended sediments, which sustain growth and regeneration, help to aerate swamp soils, and remove toxic compounds from the rhizosphere.The State of Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restora­tion Authority (CPRA) has made it a priority to establish a small freshwater river diversion into a coastal swamp forest located between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana, to reintroduce Mississippi River water to Maurepas Swamp. While a full understanding of how a coastal swamp forest will respond to new freshwater loading through a Mississippi River reintroduction is unknown, this report provides guidance based on the available literature for establishing performance measures that can be used for evaluating the effectiveness of a Mississippi River reintroduction into the forested wetlands of Maurepas Swamp

  20. Floods in Starkweather Creek basin, Madison, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Carl L.; Holmstrom, Barry K.

    1972-01-01

    The reaches evaluated are (1) Starkweather Creek and West Branch Starkweather Creek, for a distance of 6.0 river miles from the mouth at Lake Monona upstream to the U.S. Highway 51 crossing north of Truax Field; and (2) East Branch Starkweather Creek (2.8 river miles), from its confluence with the West Branch near Milwaukee Street upstream to a point near the Interstate Highway 90-94 crossing.

  1. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  2. 77 FR 56238 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... COMMISSION Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Application for Amendment... Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems with ADAMS, please... Commission (NRC or the Commission) has granted the request of Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (the...

  3. Coop Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Co-op Creek Bridge with Checkerboard Mesa in background, historic photograph, no date, Zion National Park collection - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, Co-op Creek Bridge, Spanning Co-op Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  4. 3. Threequarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Three-quarter view of Oak Creek Bridge behind visitor center facing southwest - Oak Creek Administrative Center, One half mile east of Zion-Mount Carmel Highway at Oak Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  5. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  6. 1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, weir (to left), sand and silt sluice gate (center), main canal headworks (to right), view to northwest - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  7. 1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Topographic view of the Rocky Creek Bridge and the Oregon coast, view looking east - Rocky Creek Bridge, Spanning Rocky Creek on Oregon Coast Highway (U.S. Route 101), Depoe Bay, Lincoln County, OR

  8. Detail view of 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  9. Perspective view showing 850 plate girder span directly over creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view showing 85-0 plate girder span directly over creek, looking west. - New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railroad, Elk Creek Trestle, Spanning Elk Creek, south of Elk Park Road, Lake City, Erie County, PA

  10. 7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Cable Creek Bridge after completion. Zion National Park negative number 1485, classification series 002, 12. - Floor of the Valley Road, Cable Creek Bridge, Spanning Cable Creek on Floor of Valley, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  11. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking northwest. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  12. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking south. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  13. Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Topographic view of the Spring Creek Bridge and Collier State Park, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  14. Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Approach view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking north. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  15. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking southeast. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  16. Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  17. General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the Spring Creek Bridge, view looking east. - Spring Creek Bridge, Spanning Spring Creek at Milepoint 253.98 on Oregon to California Highway (US Route 97), Chiloquin, Klamath County, OR

  18. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  19. 2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING SIMPSON CREEK BRIDGE WITH BRIDGEPORT LAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW SHOWING SIMPSON CREEK BRIDGE WITH BRIDGEPORT LAMP AND CHIMNEY COMPANY IN BACKGROUND. - Bridgeport Lamp Chimney Company, Simpson Creek Bridge, Spanning Simpson Creek, State Route 58 vicinity, Bridgeport, Harrison County, WV

  20. 2. View of Clear Creek Bridge railing and understructure, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of Clear Creek Bridge railing and under-structure, looking northwest. - Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, 62-foot Concrete Arch Pine Creek Bridge, Spanning Clear Creek, Springdale, Washington County, UT

  1. 121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Credit JE. Galpin Creek ditch, a feeder leading water to the Keswick ditch, supplying Volta powerhouse. (JE, v. 12 1902 p. 235). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  2. 6. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing bushhammered, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing bush-hammered, recessed panels in fascia wall - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  3. 5. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing articulated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. General perspective view of Neawanna Creek Bridge, showing articulated fascia walls - Neawanna Creek Bridge, Spanning Neawanna Creek at Milepoint 19.72 on U.S. 101 (Oregon Coast Highway), Seaside, Clatsop County, OR

  4. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF DATEPLATE WHICH READS 'HARP CREEK, LUTEN BRIDGE CO., CONTRACTOR, ARKANSAS STATE HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT, 1928' - Harp Creek Bridge, Spans Harp Creek at State Highway 7, Harrison, Boone County, AR

  5. 2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Deep Creek Road, old bridge at campground entrance. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion Great Smoky Mountains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Deep Creek Road, picnic pavilion - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Deep Creek Road, Between Park Boundary near Bryson City & Deep Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  9. 59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  10. 2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 1994 AERIAL PERSPECTIVE OF BISHOP CREEK WITH OWENS VALLEY AND WHITE MOUNTAINS IN BACKGROUND, SOUTH LAKE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  11. Local variation in the distribution of benthic megafauna species associated with cold-water coral reefs on the Norwegian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, Autun; Orejas, Covadonga; Gori, Andrea; Tong, Ruiju; Unnithan, Vikram; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2013-02-01

    The spatial variability in the mix of species making up Cold-water coral reef communities is not well known. In this study abundances of a selection of megafauna (Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata, Paragorgia arborea, Primnoa resedaeformis, Mycale lingua, Geodia baretti, Acesta excavata and fish) were quantified throughout 9 manned submersible video transects from 3 reef complexes (Røst Reef, Sotbakken Reef and Traena Reef) on the Norwegian margin. Substrate type (coral structure, rubble, exposed hardground or soft sediment) was also recorded. Variations in the densities of these fauna (with respect to both reef complex and substrate type) were investigated, with spatial covariance between species assessed. For the majority of fauna investigated, densities varied by both reef and substrate. Spatial covariance indicated that some species may be utilising similar habitat niches, but that minor environmental differences may favour colonisation by one or other at a particular reef. Fish densities were generally higher in regions with biogenic substrate (coral structure and coral rubble substrates) than in areas of soft or hardground substrate. Further, fish were more abundant at the northerly Sotbakken Reef at time of study than elsewhere. Community structure varied by reef, and therefore management plans aimed at maintaining the biodiversity of reef ecosystems on the Norwegian margin should take this lack of homogeneity into account.

  12. Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance, distribution and population structure of epibenthic megafauna in Port Foster, Deception Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, T. L.; Ruhl, H. A.; Baldwin, R. J.; Kaufmann, R. S.

    2003-06-01

    Abundance and spatial distribution of epibenthic megafauna were examined at Port Foster, Deception Island, five times between March 1999 and November 2000. Camera sled surveys and bottom trawls were used to identify and collect specimens, and camera sled photographs also were used to determine abundances and spatial distributions for each species. The ophiuroid Ophionotus victoriae, the regular echinoid Sterechinus neumayeri, and one or more species of Porifera were the most abundant taxa during this sampling period. Abundances of O. victoriae varied throughout the annual cycle, peaking in June 2000, and were correlated positively with sedimentation rates. In contrast, abundances of S. neumayeri were consistent throughout the sampling period, except for a peak in June 2000, during austral winter. Peak abundances for both species coincided with a large number of small individuals, indicating apparent recruitment events for O. victoriae and S. neumayeri during this time period. Poriferans, as a group, had statistically similar abundances during each sampling period. Low-abundance species tended to be aggregated on both small and large spatial scales, their distributions probably influenced by reproductive method, gregarious settlement, and food availability. The spatial distribution of S. neumayeri in June 2000 and O. victoriae was random across multiple spatial scales, perhaps in response to food availability and broad environmental tolerances, respectively.

  13. Impact of the German Harz Mountain Weichselian ice-shield and valley glacier development onto Palaeolithic and megafauna disappearances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, C.

    2013-12-01

    Three Pleistocene stages are recorded by 3D Google-Earth geomorphology, cave sediments, river terraces, megafauna, archaeological sites of the Harz Mountain Range and its forelands of northern Germany (central Europe, peak 1141 a.s.l.). Late Pleistocene glaciation stages are modeled preliminary in valley elevations between 407 and 760 a.s.l., starting all southeast below the Brocken Ice Field (above 750 a.s.l.). The 14-11 km long Oder and Bode Valley glaciers left typical moraines, kames, or dead ice depressions, such as fluvial cave relic sediments. The Bode River glacier passed during the LGM the Rübeland Caves, where it deposited reworked kames/lateral moraines in the Baumann's Cave, which floods mixed a Neanderthal camp, leopard lair and cave bear den area. 60 km downstream, fluvial to aeolian deposits were trapped in the gypsum karst doline Westeregeln (Neanderthal camp/hyena den). Late Aurignacians replaced in the region Neanderthals, but a gap of Late Palaeolithic (Gravettian-Magdalenian - 26,000-16,000 BP) settlement, and latest starting speleothem genesis (around 24,260 ± 568 BP) correlate to the LGM, when an "arctic reindeer fauna" with alpine elements (ibex, chamois) accumulated in bone assemblages of a wolverine, polar fox, mustelid, such as European eagle owl dens, which allow landscape reconstructions.

  14. Development and application of a spatial hydrology model of Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loftin, C.S.; Kitchens, W.M.; Ansay, N.

    2001-01-01

    The model described herein was used to assess effects of the Suwannee River sill (a low earthen dam constructed to impound the Suwannee River within the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge to eliminate wildfires) on the hydrologic environment of Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia. Developed with Arc/Info Macro Language routines in the GRID environment, the model distributes water in the swamp landscape using precipitation, inflow, evapotranspiration, outflow, and standing water. Water movement direction and rate are determined by the neighborhood topographic gradient, determined using survey grade Global Positioning Systems technology. Model data include flow rates from USGS monitored gauges, precipitation volumes and water levels measured within the swamp, and estimated evapotranspiration volumes spatially modified by vegetation type. Model output in semi-monthly time steps includes water depth, water surface elevation above mean sea level, and movement direction and volume. Model simulations indicate the sill impoundment affects 18 percent of the swamp during high water conditions when wildfires are scarce and has minimal spatial effect (increasing hydroperiods in less than 5 percent of the swamp) during low water and drought conditions when fire occurrence is high but precipitation and inflow volumes are limited.

  15. Use of sediment amendments to rehabilitate sinking coastal swamp forests in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.; Jiang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coastal wetlands are losing elevation worldwide, so that techniques to increase elevation such as sediment amendment might benefit these wetlands. This study examined the potential of sediment amendment to raise elevation and support the production and regeneration of vegetation in coastal forests in Louisiana. Before sediment amendment, the vegetation did not differ in these Taxodium distichum–Nyssa aquatica forests with respect to herbaceous and tree seedling composition, and sapling and tree characteristics. After the application of sediment in January 2007, sediment-amended swamps had higher elevations and salinity levels than natural swamps. The layer of sediment applied to Treasure Island in Jean Lafitte National Historic Park and Preserve was relatively deep (sediment depth at Site One and Site Two: 0.89 and 0.69 m, respectively, six months after application), and may have exceeded an optimal threshold. Sediment-amended swamp with the highest elevation had some tree mortality and little tree growth of T. distichum. Also, sediment-amended swamp had higher root biomasses of ruderal species, and lower species richness and cover of herbaceous species. Nevertheless, during controlled water releases during an oil spill emergency in 2010, both sediment-amended and reference forest had higher production levels than in other years. While sediment amendment is a compelling management alternative for sinking coastal wetlands, optimal thresholds were not determined for these T. distichum–N. aquatica swamps.

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in freshwater macrophytes from the Aldomirovsko swamp in the Sofia District, Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Yurukova, L.; Kochev, K. )

    1994-08-01

    Man's impact on the environment has become global and presents an international problem. The selective ionic absorption by hydrophytes in littoral ecosystems may be used for indicating the chemistry of water medium and submersed soils. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in the main species of aquatic macrophytes distributed in the Aldomirovsko swamp in the Sofia District, Bulgaria. An evaluation of the anthropogenic contamination of this area will be made before the area is declared a protected locality. Aldomirovsko is one of the few inland swamps which is well preserved in Bulgaria. The swamp is situated to the northwest of Slivnica town, at the foot of the Tri Usi hills, around 650 m above sea level. It is of Karst origin. The area is about 2.5 km[sup 2]. The water capacity of the swamp varies throughout the year. Its depth decreases down to 1.10 m and is maintained by rainfall. The pH varies from 7.5 to 8.0. There is a considerable layer of silt at the bottom, with a pH of about 8.5. Thus far the swamp has been mainly a study area for floristic, faunistic, phytocoenological and ecological investigations. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Metals in sediments and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) from the Caroni Swamp, Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Kanhai, La Daana K; Gobin, Judith F; Beckles, Denise M; Lauckner, Bruce; Mohammed, Azad

    2014-03-01

    Metals can have significant impacts on inhabitants of mangrove swamps as well as consumers of mangrove-associated fauna. Yet, for several Caribbean islands, assessments regarding the impact of metals on such ecosystems are particularly sparse. The present study investigated the distribution and potential impact of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the Caroni Swamp, Trinidad and Tobago's largest mangrove ecosystem. Surface sediments and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) from 10 sites in the swamp were analysed for the 6 identified metals. The concentration ranges (in μg/g dry wt.) of metals in sediments from Caroni Swamp were: Zn (113.4-264.6), Cr (27-69.7), Ni (10.7-41.1) and Cu (11-40.7). Based on Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (CSQGs), metals in sediments posed a low to medium risk to aquatic life. The concentration ranges (in μg/g wet wt.) for metals in Crassostrea rhizophorae tissues were: Zn (123.2-660), Cu (4.2-12.3), Ni (0.1-5.5), Pb (0.1-0.9), Cr (0.2-0.3) and Cd (0.1-0.2). Multiple evaluations indicated that zinc posed a potential threat to the health of oyster consumers. Information from this study is vital for managing the Caroni Swamp, safeguarding the health of consumers of shellfish on this Caribbean island and serving as a useful baseline for future local and regional risk assessments.

  18. Actinomadura rayongensis sp. nov., isolated from peat swamp forest soil.

    PubMed

    Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Takuji

    2015-03-01

    A novel actinomycete strain RY35-68(T), isolated from a peat swamp forest soil sample in Rayong Province, Thailand, was characterized using a polyphasic approach. The strain belonged to the genus Actinomadura based on morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics. Cell-wall analysis revealed the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid and N-acetylmuramic acid in the peptidoglycan layer. The diagnostic sugar in whole-cell hydrolysates was identified as madurose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6), MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H4). The major cellular fatty acids were C16 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol mannoside. The genomic DNA G+C content was 73.7 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis, strain RY35-68(T) was closely related to the species Actinomadura atramentaria JCM 6250(T) (97.5 %). The value of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain RY35-68(T) and A. atramentaria JCM 6250(T) was 37.6-42.6 %. On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and these results mentioned, this strain could be distinguished from the closely related type strain and represents a novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura rayongensis sp. nov. (type strain RY35-68(T) = JCM 19830(T) = TISTR 2211(T) = PCU 332(T)) is proposed.

  19. Nonomuraea rhodomycinica sp. nov., isolated from peat swamp forest soil.

    PubMed

    Sripreechasak, Paranee; Phongsopitanun, Wongsakorn; Supong, Khomsan; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Kudo, Takuji; Ohkuma, Moriya; Tanasupawat, Somboon

    2017-06-01

    The taxonomic position of an actinomycete, strain NR4-ASC07T, isolated from a soil sample collected from Sirindhorn peat swamp forest, Narathiwat Province, Thailand, was clarified using a polyphasic approach. On the basis of morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, it was classified among the members of the genus Nonomuraea. It produced tightly closed spiral spore chains on aerial mycelium as well as forming a pseudosporangium. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glucose, ribose, madurose and mannose. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, unknown ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipids and unknown glycolipid. Menaquiones were MK-9(H4), MK-9(H0), MK-9(H2), MK-10(H4) and MK-9(H6). Predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 0 10-methyl, C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω8c, C16 : 0 2-OH and iso-C15 : 0. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the strain fell within the clade containing Nonomuraea muscovyensis FMN03T, Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. roseoviolaceaNBRC 14098T and Nonomuraea roseoviolacea subsp. carminataNBRC 15903T. The DNA-DNA relatedness and phenotypic data supported that strain NR4-ASC07T was clearly distinguished from the closely related species and represents a novel species of the genus Nonomuraea for which the name Nonomuraea rhodomycinica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NR4-ASC07T (=NBRC 112327T=TISTR 2465T).

  20. Methane fluxes on pristine, drained and restored boreal spruce swamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, Markku; Minkkinen, Kari; Nieminen, Mika; Maanavilja, Liisa; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina

    2014-05-01

    Successful restoration of peatlands drained for forestry means that all the processes of pristine mires are present in the restored peatlands. Methanogen communities are usually disturbed by the lowering of water table by drainage and previous studies have found only slow recovery of methane emissions on restored peatlands. We made methane flux measurements on pristine, drained and restored conditions boreal spruce swamps. Restoration measures had taken place approximately 10 years before our measurement campaign. The measurement plots on the drained and restored sites included drainage ditches and the disturbed soil beside the ditch as well as the undisturbed mid-strip area. Water table was measured from wells near the flux measurement plots. Seven sites were sampled twice per month for one growing season with eight sampling plots grouped in four locations per site in total. The locations were placed on a line perpendicular to the mire edge on the pristine sites and a drainage ditch on the drained and restored sites. The highest mean water level was recorded on the restored sites, and the lowest on the drained sites. The restored sites showed high fluxes from all measurement plots. The fluxes from the pristine and drained sites were much smaller and did not differ significantly from each other. The highest fluxes were measured from the drainage ditches on both the drained and restored sites. The pristine sites showed high relative spatio-temporal variation in the flux, partly explained by changes in the water table level. No effect of measurement plot distance from the mire edge was discernible on the pristine sites.

  1. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    In many areas of the glaciated northeastern United States, forested wetlands dominated by red maple (Acer rubrum) cover more of the landscape than all other nontidal wetland types combined. Yet surprisingly little of their ecology, functions, or social significance has been documented. Bogs, salt marshes, Atlantic white cedar swamps, and other less common types of wetlands have received considerable attention from scientists, but, except for botanical surveys, red maple swamps have been largely ignored. The report conveys what is known about these common wetlands and identifies topics most in need of investigation. Red maple swamps are so abundant and so widely distributed in the Northeast that their physical, chemical, and biological properties range widely as well, and their values to society are diverse. The central focus of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service community profile series is the plant and animal communities of wetlands and deepwater habitats.

  2. [Preliminary plant inventory of the palm-swamps in the Caribbean of Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Ricardo; Jarquín, Orlando; Munguía, Blanca; Reyes, Aquiles; Coronado, Indiana

    2013-09-01

    In the Caribbean slope of Isthmian Central America, plant associations dominated by the palms Raphia taedigera and Manicaria saccifera develop in poorly drained or waterlogged soils. These associations are known locally as yolillales or palm-swamps, although there are differences in the forest structure and plant diversity associated with both palm species. In this paper, we report the results of a preliminary inventory of tree species found in eight palm-swamps at five locations in southeastern Nicaragua and northeastern Costa Rica. Our data reveal low tree diversity in these swamps with only 60 species accounted in them. This figure is equivalent to close to 8% of the plant species known for this region. In general, R. taedigera dominates flooded areas with extensive hydroperiods and lower floristic diversity, while M. saccifera is often found in flooded forests with more structure and diversity.

  3. Formation of particulate organic carbon in water from a southeastern swamp-stream

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, P.J.

    1981-07-01

    The rate of particulate organic carbon (POC) formation in water from a small North Carolina swamp-stream, low in ionic strength but high in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), was low. Mean POC formation rate, expressed as DOC utilization, was about 0.2% of DOC per day and was primarily the result of microbial activity. When Ca/sup 2 +/ and Hg/sup 2 +/ were added to swamp water, and when swamp water and seawater were mixed, the rate of POC formation increased as a result of a rapid physiochemical flocculation process. Although the DOC load of rivers and streams of the southeastern US represents a substantial energy input to estuarine regions, these results indicate that only about 25 to 30% of it is transformed through flocculation to a form more readily retained and utilized within the estuarine system. The remainder may be transported to the sea.

  4. Formation of particulate organic carbon in water from a southeastern swamp-stream

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    The rate of particulate organic carbon (POC) formation in water from a small North Carolina swamp-stream, low in ionic strength but high in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), was low. Mean POC formation rate, expressed as DOC utilization, was about 0.2% of DOC per day and was primarily the result of microbial activity. When Ca/sup 2 +/ and Hg/sup 2 +/ were added to swamp water, and when swamp water and seawater were mixed, the rate of POC formation increased as a result of a rapid physiochemical flocculation process. Although the DOC load of rivers and streams of the southeastern U.S. represents a substantial energy input to estuarine regions, these results indicate that only about 25-30% of it is transformed through flocculation to a form more readily retained and utilized within the estuarine system. The remainder may be transported to the sea.

  5. Long- and short-term flooding effects on survival and sink-source relationships of swamp-adapted tree species

    Treesearch

    M.N. Angelov; Shi-Jean S. Sung; R.L. Doong; W.R. Harms; Paul P. Kormanik; C.C. Black

    1995-01-01

    About 95% of swamp tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica var. biflora (Walt.) Sarg.) And sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) seedlings survived continuous root flooding for more than two years, whereas none of the swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.) And cherrybark oak (Q. falcata var. pagodifolia Ell.) Seedlings survived one year of flooding.Flooding caused increases in...

  6. SANDY CREEK ROADLESS AREA, MISSISSIPPI.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Bitar, Richard F.

    1984-01-01

    The Sandy Creek Roadless Area includes about 3. 7 sq mi in the southeastern part of Adams County, Mississippi. On the basis of a mineral survey, the area offers little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources but has a probable resource potential for oil and natural gas. It is possible that wells drilled deep enough to penetrate the older reservoirs will encounter significant quantities of oil and natural gas in the roadless area. The deposits of gravel, sand, and clay present in the area could be utilized in the construction industry, but similar deposits elsewhere are much closer to available markets.

  7. KANAB CREEK ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Billingsley, George H.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Kanab Creek Roadless Area in north-central Arizona has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium and copper in four small areas around five collapse structures. Gypsum is abundant in layers along the canyon rim of Snake Gulch, but it is a fairly common mineral in the region outside the roadless area. There is little promise for the occurence of fossil fuels in the area. Studies of collapse structures in surrounding adjacent areas might reveal significant mineralization at depth, such as the recent discovery of the uranium ore body at depth in the Pigeon Pipe.

  8. 33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Curtis Creek. 117.557 Section 117.557 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695 bridge...

  9. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  10. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  11. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  12. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile 0...

  13. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  14. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  15. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  16. 33 CFR 117.268 - Billy's Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Billy's Creek. 117.268 Section 117.268 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.268 Billy's Creek. The draw of the State...

  17. 33 CFR 117.283 - Dunns Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dunns Creek. 117.283 Section 117.283 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.283 Dunns Creek. The draw of the US17 bridge, mile...

  18. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile...

  19. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  20. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  1. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  2. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  3. Pine Creek Ranch; Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Mark E.

    2003-02-01

    This report gives information about the following four objectives: OBJECTIVE 1--Gather scientific baseline information for monitoring purposes and to assist in the development of management plans for Pine Creek Ranch; OBJECTIVE 2--Complete and implement management plans; OBJECTIVE 3--Protect, manage and enhance the assets and resources of Pine Creek Ranch; and OBJECTIVE 4--Deliverables.

  4. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  5. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  6. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  7. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  8. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  9. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw...

  10. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  11. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  12. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draw of the...

  13. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the...

  14. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  15. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  16. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  17. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the S117-S133...

  18. "Visit to Caspar Creek, northern California"

    Treesearch

    Nick Schofield

    1989-01-01

    As part of a brief study tour in California, I had the good fortune of spending a very pleasant day on the Caspar Creek watershed, ably guided by Peter Cafferata and Liz Keppeler. Amongst the many notable achievements of the Caspar Creek Study is its longevity. The study started in 1962 and has evolved over time

  19. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  20. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  1. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  2. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  3. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  4. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  5. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  6. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  7. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  8. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  9. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  10. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  11. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  12. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  14. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  15. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  16. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  17. 33 CFR 117.737 - Oldmans Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oldmans Creek. 117.737 Section 117.737 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.737 Oldmans Creek. The draws of...

  18. 33 CFR 117.750 - Schellenger Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Schellenger Creek. 117.750 Section 117.750 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.750 Schellenger Creek. The draw...

  19. 33 CFR 117.745 - Rancocas Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rancocas Creek. 117.745 Section 117.745 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.745 Rancocas Creek. (a) The...

  20. 33 CFR 117.725 - Manantico Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manantico Creek. 117.725 Section 117.725 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.725 Manantico Creek. The draw of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.732 - Nacote Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nacote Creek. 117.732 Section 117.732 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.732 Nacote Creek. (a) The Route 9 bridge,...

  2. 33 CFR 117.185 - Pacheco Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacheco Creek. 117.185 Section 117.185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.185 Pacheco Creek. The draw of the Contra Costa County highway bridge, mile 1.0,...

  3. 33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spa Creek. 117.571 Section 117.571 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at...

  4. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  5. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  6. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  7. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  8. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  9. Changing patterns of Pennsylvanian coal-swamp vegetation and implications of climatic control on coal occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, T.L.; Peppers, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Improved regional and interregional stratigraphic correlations of Pennsylvanian strata permit comparisons of vegetational changes in Euramerican coal swamps. The coal-swamp vegetation is known directly from in situ coal-ball peat deposits from more than 65 coals in the United States and Europe. Interpretations of coal-swamp floras on the basis of coal-ball peat studies are extended to broader regional and stratigraphic patterns by use of coal palynology. Objectives of the quantitative analyses of the vegetation in relation to coal are to determine the botanical constituents at the peat stage and their environmental implications for plant growth and peat accumulation. Morphological and paleoecological analyses provide a basis for deducing freshwater regimes of coal swamps. Changes in composition of Pennsylvanian coal-swamp vegetation are quire similar from one paralic coal region to another and show synchrony that is attributable to climate. Paleobotany and paleogeography of the Euramerican province indicate a moist tropical paleoclimate. Rainfall, runoff and evapotranspiration were the variable climatic controls in the distribution of coal-swamp vegetation, peat accumulation and coal resources. In relative terms of climatic wetness the Pennsylvanian Period is divisible into five intervals, which include two relatively drier intervals that developed during the Lower-Middle and Middle-Upper Pennsylvanian transitions. The climate during Early Pennsylvanian time was moderately wet and the median in moisture availability. Early Middle Pennsylvanian was drier, probably seasonally dry-wet; late Middle Pennsylvanian was the wettest in the Midcontinent; early Late Pennsylvanian was the driest; and late Late Pennsylvanian was probably the wettest in the Dunkard Basin. The five climatic intervals represent a general means of dividing coal resources within each region into groups with similar botanical constituents and environments of peat accumulation. Regional differences in

  10. The impact of the Suwannee River Sill on the surface hydrology of Okefenokee Swamp, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhi-Yong; Brook, George A.

    1992-08-01

    Okefenokee Swamp, located in southeastern Georgia and northeastern Florida, is one of the largest freshwater wetland complexes and a National Wildlife Refuge in the United States. A low earthen dam, the Suwannee River Sill, was built on the largest outlet stream of Okefenokee Swamp in the early 1960s. The purpose was to raise the water level and thus reduce fire frequency in this National Wildlife Refuge. In this study, hydrologic conditions in the swamp prior to (1937-1962) and after (1963-1986) sill construction were compared by statistical procedures. An average 9 cm increase in swamp water level at the Suwannee Canal Recreation Area was attributed to the sill. Increased precipitation and decreased evapotranspiration during the study period caused another 5 cm increase in water levels. Seasonal changes in climatic factors were also responsible for seasonal changes in water levels and streamflow in the pre- and post-sill periods. Although the effect of the sill on water level was more significant during dry periods, it is doubtful that the Suwannee River Sill actually prevented occurrence of severe fibres in the post-sill period, which was wetter than the period before sill construction. The sill diverted 2.6% of swamp outflow from the Suwannee River to the St. Mary's River. Diversion of flow was more marked during low flow periods. Therefore, the discharge of the St. Mary's River in the post-sill increased more than the discharge of the Suwannee River and its variability became lower that of the Suwannee River. The relationships between swamp water level, streamflow and precipitation were also changed due to construction of the sill.

  11. Mineral resource assessment map of the Big Gum Swamp Roadless Area, Columbia and Baker counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, J.B.; Cameron, C.C.; Patterson, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    The geology of the Big Cum Swamp Roadless Area, which is discussed briefly in this report, is covered in somewhat more detail in a report by Patterson, Cathcart, Cameron, and Schruben (1984). The mineral resource potential is quite similar to that in the Natural Area Roadless Area outlined by Cathcart, Patterson and Crandall (1983). The Natural Area, which is east of the eastern boundary of the Big Gum Swamp (fig. 1), also was designated a Wilderness Study Area by Public Law 98-430, September 28, 1984.

  12. Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests.

    PubMed

    Cole, Lydia E S; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c. 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance. Evidence for episodes of climatic variability, predominantly linked to ENSO events, and wildfires is present throughout. However, in the last c. 500 years, burning and indicators of human disturbance have elevated beyond past levels at these sites, concurrent with a reduction in peat swamp forest pollen. 4. Two key insights have been gained through this palaeoecological analysis: (i) peat swamp forest vegetation has demonstrated resilience to disturbance caused by burning and climatic variability in Sarawak in the late Holocene, however (ii) coincident with increased fire combined with human impact c. 500 years ago, these communities started to decline. 5.Synthesis. Sarawak's coastal peat swamps have demonstrated resilience to past natural disturbances, with forest vegetation persisting through episodes of fire and climatic variability. However, palaeoecological data presented here suggest that recent, anthropogenic disturbances are of a greater magnitude, causing

  13. Indirect effects of prey swamping: differential seed predation during a bamboo masting event.

    PubMed

    Kitzberger, Thomas; Chaneton, Enrique J; Caccia, Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Resource pulses often involve extraordinary increases in prey availability that "swamp" consumers and reverberate through indirect interactions affecting other community members. We developed a model that predicts predator-mediated indirect effects induced by an epidemic prey on co-occurring prey types differing in relative profitability/preference and validated our model by examining current-season and delayed effects of a bamboo mass seeding event on seed survival of canopy tree species in mixed Patagonian forests. The model shows that predator foraging behavior, prey profitability, and the scale of prey swamping influence the character and strength of short-term indirect effects on various alternative prey. When in large prey-swamped patches, nonselective predators decrease predation on all prey types. Selective predators, instead, only benefit prey of similar quality to the swamping species, while very low or high preference prey remain unaffected. Negative indirect effects (apparent competition) may override such positive effects (apparent mutualism), especially for highly preferred prey, when prey-swamped patches are small enough to allow predator aggregation and/or predators show a reproductive numerical response to elevated food supply. Seed predation patterns during bamboo (Chusquea culeou) masting were consistent with predicted short-term indirect effects mediated by a selective predator foraging in large prey-swamped patches. Bamboo seeds and similarly-sized Austrocedrus chilensis (ciprés) and Nothofagus obliqua (roble) seeds suffered lower predation in bamboo flowered than nonflowered patches. Predation rates on the small-seeded Nothofagus dombeyi (coihue) and the large-seeded Nothofagus alpina (rauli) were independent of bamboo flowering. Indirect positive effects were transient; three months after bamboo seeding, granivores preyed heavily upon all seed types, irrespective of patch flowering condition. Moreover, one year after bamboo seeding

  14. Long-term disturbance dynamics and resilience of tropical peat swamp forests

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Lydia E S; Bhagwat, Shonil A; Willis, Katherine J

    2015-01-01

    1. The coastal peat swamp forests of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, are undergoing rapid conversion, predominantly into oil palm plantations. This wetland ecosystem is assumed to have experienced insignificant disturbance in the past, persisting under a single ecologically-stable regime. However, there is limited knowledge of the past disturbance regime, long-term functioning and fundamentally the resilience of this ecosystem to changing natural and anthropogenic perturbations through time. 2. In this study, long-term ecological data sets from three degraded peatlands in Sarawak were collected to shed light on peat swamp forest dynamics. Fossil pollen and charcoal were counted in each sedimentary sequence to reconstruct vegetation and investigate responses to past environmental disturbance, both natural and anthropogenic. 3. Results demonstrate that peat swamp forest taxa have dominated these vegetation profiles throughout the last c. 2000-year period despite the presence of various drivers of disturbance. Evidence for episodes of climatic variability, predominantly linked to ENSO events, and wildfires is present throughout. However, in the last c. 500 years, burning and indicators of human disturbance have elevated beyond past levels at these sites, concurrent with a reduction in peat swamp forest pollen. 4. Two key insights have been gained through this palaeoecological analysis: (i) peat swamp forest vegetation has demonstrated resilience to disturbance caused by burning and climatic variability in Sarawak in the late Holocene, however (ii) coincident with increased fire combined with human impact c. 500 years ago, these communities started to decline. 5. Synthesis. Sarawak's coastal peat swamps have demonstrated resilience to past natural disturbances, with forest vegetation persisting through episodes of fire and climatic variability. However, palaeoecological data presented here suggest that recent, anthropogenic disturbances are of a greater magnitude, causing

  15. Hydrology of the Johnson Creek Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Karl K.; Snyder, Daniel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Creek basin is an important resource in the Portland, Oregon, metropolitan area. Johnson Creek forms a wildlife and recreational corridor through densely populated areas of the cities of Milwaukie, Portland, and Gresham, and rural and agricultural areas of Multnomah and Clackamas Counties. The basin has changed as a result of agricultural and urban development, stream channelization, and construction of roads, drains, and other features characteristic of human occupation. Flooding of Johnson Creek is a concern for the public and for water management officials. The interaction of the groundwater and surface-water systems in the Johnson Creek basin also is important. The occurrence of flooding from high groundwater discharge and from a rising water table prompted this study. As the Portland metropolitan area continues to grow, human-induced effects on streams in the Johnson Creek basin will continue. This report provides information on the groundwater and surface-water systems over a range of hydrologic conditions, as well as the interaction these of systems, and will aid in management of water resources in the area. High and low flows of Crystal Springs Creek, a tributary to Johnson Creek, were explained by streamflow and groundwater levels collected for this study, and results from previous studies. High flows of Crystal Springs Creek began in summer 1996, and did not diminish until 2000. Low streamflow of Crystal Springs Creek occurred in 2005. Flow of Crystal Springs Creek related to water-level fluctuations in a nearby well, enabling prediction of streamflow based on groundwater level. Holgate Lake is an ephemeral lake in Southeast Portland that has inundated residential areas several times since the 1940s. The water-surface elevation of the lake closely tracked the elevation of the water table in a nearby well, indicating that the occurrence of the lake is an expression of the water table. Antecedent conditions of the groundwater level and autumn

  16. Towards improved understanding of the diversity and abundance patterns of the mid-ocean ridge macro- and megafauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergstad, O. A.; Falkenhaug, T.; Astthorsson, O. S.; Byrkjedal, I.; Gebruk, A. V.; Piatkowski, U.; Priede, I. G.; Santos, R. S.; Vecchione, M.; Lorance, P.; Gordon, J. D. M.

    2008-01-01

    Mid-ocean ridges are vast features of all oceans but their fauna and ecological significance remain poorly understood. Ridge studies in recent decades were understandably biased in favour of the newly discovered chemosynthetic ecosystems. Investigations of photosynthesis-based systems and communities associated with ridges were scattered and few despite their much larger scale and significance for ocean productivity patterns and biogeography and for the management of human activities on the high seas. This knowledge gap was recognised by the Census of Marine Life (CoML) programme and led to the initiation of a dedicated field project on non-chemosynthetic systems and communities of a mid-ocean ridge. The present collection of articles highlights results from the project 'Patterns and Processes of the Ecosystems of the northern Mid-Atlantic' (MAR-ECO), the CoML field project that aims to explore the diversity and distribution patterns of photosynthesis-based communities of mid-ocean ridges by a range of classical and new technologies and methods. In 2003-2005, comprehensive investigations were conducted on pelagic and epibenthic macro- and megafauna of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between Iceland and the Azores. Several research vessels participated in the first field phase of the project, but the majority of the results were from a 2-month international expedition on the Norwegian vessels R.V. G.O. Sars and the chartered fishing vessel M.S. Loran in 2004. This introduction explains the background and goals of MAR-ECO, summarizes the strategies and sampling efforts, and briefly introduces future plans as the project enters a second field phase in 2007-2009.

  17. Recovery of benthic megafauna from anthropogenic disturbance at a hydrocarbon drilling well (380 m depth in the Norwegian Sea).

    PubMed

    Gates, Andrew R; Jones, Daniel O B

    2012-01-01

    Recovery from disturbance in deep water is poorly understood, but as anthropogenic impacts increase in deeper water it is important to quantify the process. Exploratory hydrocarbon drilling causes physical disturbance, smothering the seabed near the well. Video transects obtained by remotely operated vehicles were used to assess the change in invertebrate megafaunal density and diversity caused by drilling a well at 380 m depth in the Norwegian Sea in 2006. Transects were carried out one day before drilling commenced and 27 days, 76 days, and three years later. A background survey, further from the well, was also carried out in 2009. Porifera (45% of observations) and Cnidaria (40%) dominated the megafauna. Porifera accounted for 94% of hard-substratum organisms and cnidarians (Pennatulacea) dominated on the soft sediment (78%). Twenty seven and 76 days after drilling commenced, drill cuttings were visible, extending over 100 m from the well. In this area there were low invertebrate megafaunal densities (0.08 and 0.10 individuals m(-2)) in comparison to pre-drill conditions (0.21 individuals m(-2)). Three years later the visible extent of the cuttings had reduced, reaching 60 m from the well. Within this area the megafaunal density (0.05 individuals m(-2)) was lower than pre-drill and reference transects (0.23 individuals m(-2)). There was a significant increase in total megafaunal invertebrate densities with both distance from drilling and time since drilling although no significant interaction. Beyond the visible disturbance there were similar megafaunal densities (0.14 individuals m(-2)) to pre-drilling and background surveys. Species richness, Shannon-Weiner diversity and multivariate techniques showed similar patterns to density. At this site the effects of exploratory drilling on megafaunal invertebrate density and diversity seem confined to the extent of the visible cuttings pile. However, elevated Barium concentration and reduced sediment grain size suggest

  18. Bathymetric and temporal variation among Osedax boneworms and associated megafauna on whale-falls in Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braby, Caren E.; Rouse, Greg W.; Johnson, Shannon B.; Jones, William J.; Vrijenhoek, Robert C.

    2007-10-01

    The discovery in 2002 of a natural whale-fall at 2893 m depth in Monterey Bay, California, led to the description of Osedax, a novel genus of bone-eating worms (Annelida: Siboglinidae). Osedax obtain their nutrition via ramifying roots that host symbiotic bacteria and consume whale bones. To assess the bathymetric range of these unusual worms and their role in whale-fall community succession, we sank beached whale carcasses at three additional depths (1820, 1018, and 385 m) in the Monterey Submarine Canyon. The four sunken carcasses experienced different temperature, oxygen, and disturbance regimes and hosted megafaunal communities that differed in both species diversity and composition. However, Osedax were found at all four sites, and molecular analyses allowed us to assign them to six distinct species, four of which are new to science. The previously known species, O. rubiplumus (1820-2893 m) and O. frankpressi (2893 m), were found below the oxygen minimum zone. One of the new species appears to be a late successional species that attacks sediment-covered bone fragments at the 2893-m whale-fall. The other new species occur at the shallower whale-falls, which are in oxygen-poor water. One is an early colonizer at the 1018-m whale-fall, and two occur at the 385-m whale-fall. Dense Osedax populations at the 1018-m whale-fall led to rapid degradation of whale bones, whereas sparse Osedax populations were associated with slow degradation at the 385-m whale-fall. Thus, we hypothesize that Osedax may be a foundation species in Monterey whale-fall communities, regulating the longevity of whale bones and thereby affecting the succession of associated megafauna.

  19. Slow death for a swamp forest: Implications of salinity, infrastructure and their interactions for ecosystems in transition along North Carolina's estuarine coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, A.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater-dependent ecosystems of coastal North Carolina have been altered by humans over many centuries, mainly by draining these ecosystems to facilitate forestry and farming operations. In recent decades the quickening pace of sea level rise and infrequent but large coastal storms have exposed these ecosystems to additional pressures associated with the intrusion of brackish and salty water. Infrastructure, including roadbeds, levees, and other water management structures add additional complexity to this system by acting as either exacerbating or mitigating factors depending on time and location. This study investigates the dynamics of surface water and salinity in a critically stressed, freshwater swamp forest at Goose Creek State Park in coastal North Carolina. We evaluate temporal patterns of surface water elevation and salinity following a major inundation event (Hurricane Irene, 2011) at locations both upstream and downstream of an earthen roadbed that bisects the wetland. Results suggest that climatic conditions together with poor drainage through the roadbed caused harmful salinity levels to persist in the wetland for nearly a year following the hurricane, yet the potential also exists for the roadbed to protect the wetland from less extreme exposures to saltwater. This case study illustrates one facet of a complex, coupled natural-human system that is currently being reshaped by climate change. The work has implications for larger efforts to understand and assess the vulnerability of low-lying coastal regions to sea level rise and the preceding salinization.

  20. Is a 'one size fits all' taphonomic model appropriate for the Mazon Creek Lagerstätte?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Thomas; Purnell, Mark; Gabbott, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    The Late Carboniferous Mazon Creek Lagerstätte (Illinois, USA) is a world renowned fossil deposit with a huge diversity of preserved flora and fauna. It is widely considered to represent the most complete Late Carboniferous river delta ecosystem because researchers have identified that the deposit preserves organisms from multiple habitats including coastal swamps, brackish lagoons and oceanic environments. Often these fossils have exquisite soft tissue preservation yielding far more information that the 'normal' skeletal fossil record, while some soft bodied animals, such as the notorious Tully Monster (Tullimonstrum gregarium), are only known from this locality. However, constraining a 'one-size fits all' taphonomic model for the Mazon Creek is difficult because of our poor understanding of sideritic concretionary formation or preservation (i.e. the presence of large numbers of unfossiliferous concretions), the large geographical area, the influences of fresh, brackish and saline waters during burial and the subsequent complicated diagenetic processes. To determine the preservational pathways of Mazon Creek fossils, we have compiled data of the mode of preservation of morphological characters for all major groups of fossil organisms found in this Lagerstätte. This data can be used to test for variance in mode of preservation between taxa and also between specific tissue types. Furthermore, experimental decay data is used to constrain the impact of decay prior to fossilisation. Our analysis indicates that there are variations in preservation potential of specific characters shared by taxa. Modes of preservation, however, seem to be consistent across the majority of taxa dependant on locality. This quantitative approach is being utilised as part of a larger ongoing investigation which combines taphonomy with geochemical analysis of siderite concretions from across the vast geographical area of the Mazon Creek. Together this approach will allow us to elucidate the

  1. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF NORTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING BUILDING 108 AT PHOTO RIGHT AND BUILDING 105 AT PHOTO CENTER BEHIND TREE. RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE IS PARTIALLY VISIBLE AT EXTREME PHOTO LEFT). VIEW TO WEST. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Clubhouse Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  2. 78 FR 76750 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Chambers Creek, Steilacoom, WA AGENCY... (BNSF) Chambers Creek Railway Bridge across Chambers Creek, mile 0.0, at Steilacoom, WA. The deviation... Bridge across Chambers Creek, mile 0.0, near Steilacoom, WA. The ] bridge provides 50 feet of vertical...

  3. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NEW CREEK CHANNEL UNDER CONSTRUCTION AT P STREET BEND, FROM 1940 REPORT ON PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT OF ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY, SECTION II (ROCK CREEK AND POTOMAC PARKWAY FILE, HISTORY DEPARTMENT ARCHIVES, NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, WASHINGTON, DC). - Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OVERVIEW OF SOUTH END OF RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX SHOWING THE RUSH CREEK POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO RIGHT (TAILRACE IN FOREGROUND), BUILDING 106 NEXT TO THE POWERHOUSE AT PHOTO LEFT CENTER, AND BUILDING 103 AT UPPER PHOTO LEFT ABOVE AND BEHIND BUILDING 106. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  5. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  6. Grafting influences on early acorn production in swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Wild.)

    Treesearch

    Mark V. Coggeshall; J.W. Van Sambeek; H.E. Garrett

    2008-01-01

    Early fruiting of swamp white oak planting stock has been observed. The potential to exploit this trait for wildlife enhancement purposes was evaluated in a grafting study. Scions from both precocious and non-precocious ortets were grafted onto a series of related seedling rootstock sources. Acorn production was recorded through age 4 years. Acorn productivity of the...

  7. Emergy and Evaluating Ecosystem Services in a Sumatran Peat Swamp, Indonesia. Chapter 13

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this article is to document preliminary investigations into valuing peat swamp ecosystem function and services in Indonesia and to compare these values with the current development alternative, Acacia pulp wood plantation, using the emergy methodology. The Zamrud N...

  8. Differential recovery of a deepwater swamp forest across a gradient of disturbance intensity

    Treesearch

    Diane De Steven; Rebecca R. Sharitz

    1997-01-01

    On the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA, large areas of floodplain swamp forest of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) were destroyed by the cumulative impacts of cooling-water discharges over a 35-year period of nuclear reactor operations. In one floodplain area, four years after thermal...

  9. Net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a primary tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang Che Ing, A.; Stoy, P. C.; Melling, L.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peat swamp forests are widely recognized as one of the world's most efficient ecosystems for the sequestration and storage of carbon through both their aboveground biomass and underlying thick deposits of peat. As the peat characteristics exhibit high spatial and temporal variability as well as the structural and functional complexity of forests, tropical peat ecosystems can act naturally as both carbon sinks and sources over their life cycles. Nonetheless, few reports of studies on the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange of tropical peat swamp forests are available to-date and their present roles in the global carbon cycle remain uncertain. To quantify CO2 exchange and unravel the prevailing factors and potential underlying mechanism regulating net CO2 fluxes, an eddy covariance tower was erected in a tropical peat swamp forest in Sarawak, Malaysia. We observed that the diurnal and seasonal patterns of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components (gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE)) varied between seasons and years. Rates of NEE declined in the wet season relative to the dry season. Conversely, both the gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (RE) were found to be higher during the wet season than the dry season, in which GPP was strongly negatively correlated with NEE. The average annual NEE was 385 ± 74 g C m-2 yr-1, indicating the primary peat swamp forest functioned as net source of CO2 to the atmosphere over the observation period.

  10. Potential roles of fish, birds, and water in swamp privet (Forestiera acuminata) seed dispersal

    Treesearch

    Susan B. Adams; Paul B. Hamel; Kristina Connor; Bryce Burke; Emile S. Gardiner; David Wise

    2007-01-01

    Forestiera acuminata (swamp privet) is a common wetland shrub/small tree native to the southeastern United States. We examined several possible dispersal avenues for the plant. We tested germination of seeds exposed to various treatments, including passage through Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfi sh) guts, and conducted other...

  11. Skin disease affecting the conservation of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina)

    PubMed

    Ladyman, J M; Kuchling, G; Burford, D; Boardman, W; Raidal, S R

    1998-11-01

    To review the present position of the western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina) as an endangered species and significant health issues affecting efforts to save it from extinction. A retrospective analysis of the husbandry, hospital and pathology records of the western swamp tortoise captive breeding program at Perth Zoo. In 1987 a captive breeding project was developed to prevent the extinction of the western swamp tortoise but an outbreak of a necrotising dermatitis in 1989 threatened the survival of the captive bred hatchlings. Less severe outbreaks occurred in 1990 and 1993, with isolated cases in between. Of 283 tortoises that were born in captivity or came into captivity from the wild, 37 (13.1%) were affected, comprising 37% of all males, 26% of all females and 13% of animals of unknown gender. Of the affected animals, 70% were less than 2 years of age and 29% were older. Males were 1.6 times more likely to be infected than females but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.27). Culture of the lesions consistently yielded unidentified Pseudomonas sp. Improved husbandry, such as strict maintenance of water quality and temperature conditions similar to that of the animal's natural habitat, and monitoring the health of individual tortoises have successfully controlled skin disease in the captive breeding of the western swamp tortoise.

  12. Home range use by swamp rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus) in a frequently inundated bottomland forest

    Treesearch

    Patrick A. Zollner; Winston P. Smith; Leonard A. Brennan

    2000-01-01

    Home range size of six swamp rabbits in south-central Arkansas was estilnated by radio-telemetry from February 1991 through March 1992. The average home range size was significantly larger than previously reported estimates. This difference is partly attributable to the large number of observations per rabbit in our study, but may also be explained by our inclusion of...

  13. Emergy and Evaluating Ecosystem Services in a Sumatran Peat Swamp, Indonesia. Chapter 13

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this article is to document preliminary investigations into valuing peat swamp ecosystem function and services in Indonesia and to compare these values with the current development alternative, Acacia pulp wood plantation, using the emergy methodology. The Zamrud N...

  14. Morphology and systematics of cordaites of Pennsylvanian coal swamps of Euramerica

    SciTech Connect

    Costanza, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Cordaites are extinct coniferophytic shrubs and trees of the Late Paleozoic. They were most prominent in tropical coal swamps existing from the Westphalian A-B boundary of Western Europe to the middle Desmoinesian (Westphalian D) of midcontinental United States. Structurally preserved coal-ball cordaites from Pennsylvanian Euramerican coals were analyzed for whole plant understanding, morphological variation, and indications of ecological tolerances. Organ assemblages for individual species were established from coals where coal balls contain single cordaitean seed species. Cordaitean organ assemblages were stratigraphically compiled, compared, and cross-correlated. Cordaitean assemblage comparisons of most known coals with coal balls confirm organ assemblages established for Pennsylvanioxylon, and indicate that Mesoxylon bore Mitrospermum ovules. Mesoxylon and Pennsylvanioxylon are the only coal-swamp Pennsylvanian cordaitean genera recognized herein. They are consistently different in stem xylem development, leaf and branch trace formation, in amount of cortical sclerenchyma and associated organs. Morphology of coal-swamp cordaites, especially cortical aerenchyma in Pennsylvanioxylon, indicates semi-aquatic ecological adaptation. Coal-swamp cordaitean lineages may demonstrate both gradualistic and punctuational evolutionary changes.

  15. Conversion of a swamp-cooler to solar air collector. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olavson, L.

    1982-12-31

    The winter conversion of a typical swamp-cooler to a solar air collector was studied and constructed for a Salt Lake City location. Design studies were performed and a design selected, constructed and briefly tested. The work performed points to a technical feasibility for suitable house types and locations. Economic feasibility appears marginal.

  16. Composition and species diversity of pine-wiregrass savannas of the Green Swamp, North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Joan Walker; Robert K. Peet

    1983-01-01

    Fire-maintained, species-rich pines wiregrass savannas in the Green Swamp, North Carolina were sampled over their natural range of environmental conditions and fire frequencies. Species composition, species richness, diversity (Exp H', I/ C), and aboveground production were documented and fertilization experiments conducted to assess possible mechanisms for the...

  17. Flood of August 27-28, 1977, West Cache Creek and Blue Beaver Creek, southwestern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corley, Robert K.; Huntzinger, Thomas L.

    1979-01-01

    This report documents a major storm which occurred August 27-28, 1977, in southwest Oklahoma near the communities of Cache and Faxon, OK. Blue Beaver Creek and West Cache Creek and their tributaries experienced extensive flooding that caused an estimated $1 million in damages. Reported rainfall amounts of 8 to 12 inches in 6 hours indicate the storm had a frequency in excess of the 100-year rainfall. Peak discharges on Blue Beaver Creek near Cache and West Cache Creek near Faxon were 13,500 cubic feet per second and 45,700 cubic feet per second respectively. The estimated flood frequency was in excess of 100 years on Blue Beaver Creek and in excess of 50 years on West Cache Creek. Unit runoff on small basins were in excess of 2000 cubic feet per second per square mile. Surveyed highwater marks were used to map the flooded area. (USGS)

  18. Steel Creek wildlife: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Giffin, M.A.; Patterson, K.K.

    1988-03-01

    Reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek below L-Lake were assessed in monthly or quarterly sampling programs. Thirty-eight species of reptiles or amphibians were collected during 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment, and in the delta and channel. Juvenile turtles and alligators, and larval amphibians were observed or collected during the study, indicating continued reproduction in Steel Creek. The reptile and amphibian populations in Steel Creek show no indication of any effect due to the impoundment of the lake or the operation of L-Reactor. Waterfowl and associated birds in Steel Creek below L-Lake were observed, in conjunction with other sampling programs, during winter--spring and fall--winter migrations. Nine species of waterfowl and five species of associated birds were observed in 1987 in the Steel Creek corridor below the L-Lake impoundment and in the delta and channel.

  19. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park...

  20. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  1. Primary production in an impounded baldcypress swamp (Taxodium distichum) at the northern limit of the range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, B.A.; McKee, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum)swamps to maintain themselves near the northern limit of their range depends on their levels of production, which is not only are response to climate but also to local environmental factors(e.g., impoundment). We asked if primary production was reduced under impounded conditions and if species' responses to impoundment were individualistic or more generalized. To examine long-term production trends in a permanently impounded baldcypress swamp, a 6-year study of leaf litterfall was conducted in Buttonland Swamp, Illinois, which had been impounded for 10 years before the beginning of the study. Buttonland Swamp is at the northern boundary of the baldcypress swamp region along the Cache River, Illinois, in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley of the United States. When the litter production of impounded sites was compared to those with natural hydrology in the same region, impounded sites had about half of the total litterfall of natural sites. Overall, leaf litterfall rates declined during the study(201 vs. 113 gm-2 yr-1), but the pattern was negatively correlated with water depth, which explained 97% of the variation in the data. Along the transect with the lowest mean minimum water depth(<0.5 cm), leaf litterfall decreased linearly over 6 years from 377 to 154gm-2 yr-1. Total leaf litterfall rates were lower at the other three depths(5, 43, and 49 cm mean minimum water depths)and remained below 200 gm-2 yr -1 throughout the study. Acer saccharinum, Nyssa aquatica, and Salix nigra were most responsible for the decline in total leaf litterfall. Amounts of leaf litterfall of T. distichum and Liquidambar styraciflua also generally decreased, while that of Cephalanthus occidentalis increased overtime. Because species' responses to environmental factors such as impoundment are individualistic, models should be based on the responses of individual species, rather than on communities. Our study further suggests that the

  2. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  3. Logged peat swamp forest supports greater macrofungal biodiversity than large-scale oil palm plantations and smallholdings.

    PubMed

    Shuhada, Siti Noor; Salim, Sabiha; Nobilly, Frisco; Zubaid, Akbar; Azhar, Badrul

    2017-09-01

    Intensive land expansion of commercial oil palm agricultural lands results in reducing the size of peat swamp forests, particularly in Southeast Asia. The effect of this land conversion on macrofungal biodiversity is, however, understudied. We quantified macrofungal biodiversity by identifying mushroom sporocarps throughout four different habitats; logged peat swamp forest, large-scale oil palm plantation, monoculture, and polyculture smallholdings. We recorded a total of 757 clusters of macrofungi belonging to 127 morphospecies and found that substrates for growing macrofungi were abundant in peat swamp forest; hence, morphospecies richness and macrofungal clusters were significantly greater in logged peat swamp forest than converted oil palm agriculture lands. Environmental factors that influence macrofungi in logged peat swamp forests such as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, soil pH, and soil moisture were different from those in oil palm plantations and smallholdings. We conclude that peat swamp forests are irreplaceable with respect to macrofungal biodiversity. They host much greater macrofungal biodiversity than any of the oil palm agricultural lands. It is imperative that further expansion of oil palm plantation into remaining peat swamp forests should be prohibited in palm oil producing countries. These results imply that macrofungal distribution reflects changes in microclimate between habitats and reduced macrofungal biodiversity may adversely affect decomposition in human-modified landscapes.

  4. Survey of Hylobates agilis albibarbis in a logged peat-swamp forest: Sabangau catchment, Central Kalimantan.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Cara; Nekaris, K A I; Husson, Simon John

    2006-10-01

    Few data are available on gibbon populations in peat-swamp forest. In order to assess the importance of this habitat for gibbon conservation, a population of Hylobates agilis albibarbis was surveyed in the Sabangau peat-swamp forest, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. This is an area of about 5,500 km(2) of selectively logged peat-swamp forest, which was formally gazetted as a national park during 2005. The study was conducted during June and July 2004 using auditory sampling methods. Five sample areas were selected and each was surveyed for four consecutive days by three teams of researchers at designated listening posts. Researchers recorded compass bearings of, and estimated distances to, singing groups. Nineteen groups were located. Population density is estimated to be 2.16 (+/-0.46) groups/km(2). Sightings occurring either at the listening posts or that were obtained by tracking in on calling groups yielded a mean group size of 3.4 individuals, hence individual gibbon density is estimated to be 7.4 (+/-1.59) individuals/km(2). The density estimates fall at the mid-range of those calculated for other gibbon populations, thus suggesting that peat-swamp forest is an important habitat for gibbon conservation in Borneo. A tentative extrapolation of results suggests a potential gibbon population size of 19,000 individuals within the mixed-swamp forest habitat sub-type in the Sabangau. This represents one of the largest remaining continuous populations of Bornean agile gibbons. The designation of the Sabangau forest as a national park will hopefully address the problem of illegal logging and hunting in the region. Further studies should note any difference in gibbon density post protection.

  5. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  6. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Subtidal benthic megafauna in a productive and highly urbanised semi-enclosed bay (Ría de Vigo, NW Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneiros, Fernando; Rubal, Marcos; Troncoso, Jesús S.; Bañón, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    The Ría de Vigo is a semi-enclosed bay with high primary productivity due to the influence of coastal upwelling-downwelling dynamics. The area is heavily populated and affected by numerous human activities, which lead to sediment modification. Epibenthic megafauna from the non-estuarine zones of this bay has been studied in order to describe its spatial distribution, testing possible differences between inner and outer areas. With that purpose, 75 sites have been sampled by means of a towing dredge. Megafauna was identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible, and each taxon counted and weighted. 113 different taxa were identified and a high spatial heterogeneity was observed in terms of abundance, biomass, taxa richness, diversity and evenness. Suspension-feeding molluscs dominated the innermost part of the studied area, and were substituted by echinoderms towards the external zones; this spatial pattern was also reflected in the results of multivariate analyses. These shifts in taxonomic and trophic guild composition of the assemblages have been tentatively related to differences in pollution levels and primary productivity along the main axis of the bay.

  8. Proctor Creek Watershed/Atlanta (Georgia)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proctor Creek Watershed/Atlanta (Georgia) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts.

  9. News and Updates from Proctor Creek

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains news and updates from the Proctor Creek Urban Waters Partnership location. They span ongoing projects, programs, and initiatives that this Atlanta-based partnership is taking on in its work plan.

  10. Proctor Creek Boone Boulevard Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Proctor Creek watershed and community, green infrastructure, the Boone Boulevard Green Street Project Conceptual Design, and the added value and application of Health Impact Assessment (HIA) to the project.

  11. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible to...

  12. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible to...

  13. 33 CFR 117.929 - Durham Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.929 Durham Creek. The removable span of the... Charleston of an emergency in the Bushy Park Reservoir, the span shall be removed as soon as possible to...

  14. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  15. 33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels. ...

  16. 33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels. ...

  17. 33 CFR 117.1057 - Skamokawa Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1057 Skamokawa Creek. The draw of the Washington State highway bridge at Skamokawa need not be opened for the passage of vessels. ...

  18. Update on the Caspar Creek watershed study

    Treesearch

    Peter Cafferata

    1987-01-01

    Readers of this Newsletter are aware that CDF and the USFS, through its Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Stationa at Arcata (PSW), are carrying out a long term cooperative watershed experiment in JDSF's Caspar Creek drainage.

  19. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  20. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  1. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  2. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  3. 33 CFR 117.701 - Alloway Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.701 Alloway Creek. (a) The draws of the Salem County bridges, miles 5.1 at Hancocks Bridge, and 6.5 at New Bridge, shall open on signal...

  4. 33 CFR 117.736 - Oceanport Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.736 Oceanport Creek. The drawspan for the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations Drawbridge, mile 8.4 near Oceanport, must open on signal...

  5. 33 CFR 117.736 - Oceanport Creek.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.736 Oceanport Creek. The drawspan for the New Jersey Transit Rail Operations Drawbridge, mile 8.4 near Oceanport, must open on signal...

  6. A dolichopodid hotspot: Montana's Milligan Creek Canyon

    Treesearch

    Justin B. Runyon

    2016-01-01

    In southwest Montana, near the town of Three Forks, Milligan Creek cuts a small and seemingly mundane notch through dry limestone hills. Milligan Creek is unassuming and small enough to be effortlessly stepped over in most places. In fact, it flows underground for much of its 4-5 mile journey to the Jefferson River. Incredibly, forty-nine species of long-legged flies (...

  7. Recovery of Benthic Megafauna from Anthropogenic Disturbance at a Hydrocarbon Drilling Well (380 m Depth in the Norwegian Sea)

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Andrew R.; Jones, Daniel O. B.

    2012-01-01

    Recovery from disturbance in deep water is poorly understood, but as anthropogenic impacts increase in deeper water it is important to quantify the process. Exploratory hydrocarbon drilling causes physical disturbance, smothering the seabed near the well. Video transects obtained by remotely operated vehicles were used to assess the change in invertebrate megafaunal density and diversity caused by drilling a well at 380 m depth in the Norwegian Sea in 2006. Transects were carried out one day before drilling commenced and 27 days, 76 days, and three years later. A background survey, further from the well, was also carried out in 2009. Porifera (45% of observations) and Cnidaria (40%) dominated the megafauna. Porifera accounted for 94% of hard-substratum organisms and cnidarians (Pennatulacea) dominated on the soft sediment (78%). Twenty seven and 76 days after drilling commenced, drill cuttings were visible, extending over 100 m from the well. In this area there were low invertebrate megafaunal densities (0.08 and 0.10 individuals m−2) in comparison to pre-drill conditions (0.21 individuals m−2). Three years later the visible extent of the cuttings had reduced, reaching 60 m from the well. Within this area the megafaunal density (0.05 individuals m−2) was lower than pre-drill and reference transects (0.23 individuals m−2). There was a significant increase in total megafaunal invertebrate densities with both distance from drilling and time since drilling although no significant interaction. Beyond the visible disturbance there were similar megafaunal densities (0.14 individuals m−2) to pre-drilling and background surveys. Species richness, Shannon-Weiner diversity and multivariate techniques showed similar patterns to density. At this site the effects of exploratory drilling on megafaunal invertebrate density and diversity seem confined to the extent of the visible cuttings pile. However, elevated Barium concentration and reduced sediment grain size suggest

  8. Stratigraphic and interregional changes in Pennsylvanian coal-swamp vegetation: Environmental inferences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, T.L.; Peppers, R.A.; DiMichele, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of Pennsylvanian coal-swamp vegetation provides a means of inferring organization and structure of communities. Distribution of these communities further provides inferences about environmental factors, including paleoclimate. Our observations are based on in situ, structurally preserved peat deposits in coal-ball concretions from 32 coal seams in the eastern one-half of the United States and from several seams in western Europe and on spore assemblages from more than 150 seams. There were three times of particularly significant and nearly synchronous vegetational changes in the Midcontinent and Appalachian coal regions during the Pennsylvanian Period. Each was different in kind and magnitude. The first marked changes occurred during the early part of the Middle Pennsylvanian with the fluctuating decline in the high level of lycopod dominance. The abundance of cordaites increased. There was a rise in the occurrences of the lycopod herbs to form intercalated marshlands and an overall increase in floral diversity. Changes ensuing from this time also include shifts in dominant species of lycopod trees and a sustained rise in abundance and diversity of tree-fern spores. The next significant time of change was during the middle part of the Middle Pennsylvanian, representing both a culmination of earlier trends and expansions of cordaites in the Midcontinent where there was a maximum change in species without net loss of diversity. Tree ferns and medullosan pteridosperms attained subdominant levels of abundance and diverse lycopod species dominated except in the Atokan-Desmoinesian transition of the Midcontinent. The third and sharpest break occurred near the Middle-Late Pennsylvanian boundary when extinctionsof the dominant, coal-swamp lycopods allowed development of tree-fern dominance. The Late Pennsylvanian coal swamps apparently were colonized or recolonized mainly by species from outside coal swamps rather than by the survivor populations of

  9. Creek Women and the "Civilizing" of Creek Society, 1790-1820.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Jane E.

    Women in traditional Creek society, while making few decisions in the public domain, held almost absolute power in the domestic realm. When a Creek couple married, the husband moved into his wife's house and lived among her clan, her matrilineal kin. The house, household goods, fields, and children belonged to her. Boys were educated by their…

  10. 75 FR 10328 - Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Operating Corporation, Wolf Creek Generating Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation (WCNOC, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No. NPF-42, which... those previously imposed by Commission orders issued after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001...

  11. 4. O'BRIAN CANAL/SECOND CREEK INTERSECTION Second Creek is in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. O'BRIAN CANAL/SECOND CREEK INTERSECTION Second Creek is in the foreground; the O'Brian Canal is in the background; vicinity of East 112th Avenue and Potomac Road in Adams County - O'Brian Canal, South Platte River Drainage Area Northest of Denver, Brighton, Adams County, CO

  12. Hoe Creek groundwater restoration, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Renk, R.R.; Crader, S.E.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    During the summer of 1989, approximately 6.5 million gallons of contaminated groundwater were pumped from 23 wells at the Hoe Creek underground coal gasification site, near Gillette, Wyoming. The organic contaminants were removed using activated carbon before the water was sprayed on 15.4 acres at the sites. Approximately 2647 g (5.8 lb) of phenols and 10,714 g (23.6 lb) of benzene were removed from the site aquifers. Phenols, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and naphthalene concentrations were measured in 43 wells. Benzene is the only contaminant at the site exceeds the federal standard for drinking water (5 {mu}g/L). Benzene leaches into the groundwater and is slow to biologically degrade; therefore, the benzene concentration has remained high in the groundwater at the site. The pumping operation affected groundwater elevations across the entire 80-acre site. The water levels rebounded quickly when the pumping operation was stopped on October 1, 1989. Removing contaminated groundwater by pumping is not an effective way to clean up the site because the continuous release of benzene from coal tars is slow. Benzene will continue to leach of the tars for a long time unless its source is removed or the leaching rate retarded through mitigation techniques. The application of the treated groundwater to the surface stimulated plant growth. No adverse effects were noted or recorded from some 60 soil samples taken from twenty locations in the spray field area. 20 refs., 52 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. [Amphibians and reptiles in the swamps dominated by the palm Raphia taedigera (Arecaceae) in northeastern Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Murillo, Fabian; Beneyto, Davinia; Sasa, Mahmood

    2013-09-01

    The herpetofauna that inhabits Caribbean Costa Rica has received considerable attention in the last two decades. This assemblage includes a total of 141 species of reptiles and 95 amphibians mostly distributed in tropical wet and moist lowland forests. While most information available came from primary and secondary forest sites, little is known about the amphibians and reptiles that inhabit more open habitats, such as wetlands and swamps. For instances, swaps dominated by the yolillo palm Raphia taedigera extend through much of the northeastern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica and eastern Nicaragua, but information about the herpetological community that uses such environments remains practically unknown. This situation reflects the little research conducted in such inhospitable environments. Here, we report the results of an intensive survey conducted to assess the herpetological community that inhabit R. taedigera palm-swamps. A total of 14 species of amphibians and 17 of reptiles have been recorded from these swamps. Amphibians and reptiles that inhabit yolillo swamps have wide distributions along much of Middle America and are considered common species throughout their range. In general, yolillo swamps are poor environments for herpetofauna: richness of reptiles and amphibians is almost two times higher in the adjacent forest than in the palm dominated swamps. Furthermore, most species observed in this swamps can be considered habitat generalists that are well adapted to the extreme conditions imposed by the changes in hydroperiods, reduce understory cover, low tree diversity and simple forest architecture of these environments. Despite similarities in the herpetofauna, it is clear that not all forest species use yolillo habitat, a characteristic that is discussed in terms of physical stress driven by the prolonged hydroperiod and reduced leaflitter in the ground, as these features drive habitat structure and herpetofaunal complexity. Our list of species using

  14. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  15. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  16. AN OVERVIEW OF CESIUM-137 CONTAMINATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN SWAMP ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T; Michael Paller, M

    2006-10-09

    In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.

  17. AN OVERVIEW OF CESIUM-137 CONTAMINATION IN A SOUTHEASTERN SWAMP ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P; Tim Jannik, T; Michael Paller, M

    2007-04-04

    In the early 1960s, an area of privately owned swamp adjacent to the Savannah River Site (SRS) was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs and 37 GBq of {sup 60}Co were deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys was initiated to characterize the contaminated environment. These surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--allow for continued monitoring at a consistent set of locations. Initial survey results indicated maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations of 19.5 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 8.7 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation. By the 2004-2005 surveys, maximum concentrations had declined to 1-2 Bq g{sup -1} in soil and 0.4 Bq g{sup -1} in vegetation.

  18. Wetland Boundary Determination in the Great Dismal Swamp Using Weighted Averages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Virginia; Garrett, Mary Keith; Gammon, Patricia T.

    1988-01-01

    A weighted average method was used to analyze transition zone vegetation in the Great Dismal Swamp to determine if a more uniform determination of wetland boundaries can be made nationwide. The method was applied to vegetation data collected on four transects and three vertical layers across the wetland-to-upland transition zone of the swamp. Ecological index values based on water tolerance were either taken from the literature or derived from local species tolerances. Wetland index values were calculated for 25-m increments using species cover and rankings based on the ecological indices. Wetland index values were used to designate increments as either wetland, transitional, or upland, and to examine the usefulness of a provisional wetland-upland break-point. The weighted average method did not provide for an objective placement of an absolute wetland boundary, but did serve to focus attention on the transitional boundary zone where supplementary information is necessary to select a wetland-upland breakpoint.

  19. [Spatial structure of acid properties of litter in the succession row of swamp birch woods ].

    PubMed

    Efremova, T T; Sekretenko, O P; Avrova, A F; Efremov, S P

    2013-01-01

    The general potential, exchange, and actual (pH) acidities were investigated in the litter of the succession row of swamp birch woods. Their variabilities constitute, respectively, 75.9-174.4, 3.7-25.8 mmol (+)/100 g of the sampling, 3.7-5.5. For the first time, using the methods ofgeostatistics, their spatial variability was analyzed and the contributions of the trend, autocorrelation component, and the radius of the spatial correlation were estimated. It was established that in combination with the tree waste, which is uniformly distributed along the ecological profile, the specific composition of the grass-moss tier, which corresponds to the humidity of edaphon, forms the picture of the spatial structure of acid properties of the litter. It was noted that the prime cause of variability consists in the particularities of the water regime of the habitats of swamp birch woods.

  20. Dynamics of wood fall colonization in relation to sulfide concentration in a mangrove swamp.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Mélina C Z; Le Bris, Nadine; Gaill, Françoise; Gros, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Wood debris are an important component of mangrove marine environments. Current knowledge of the ecological role of wood falls is limited by the absence of information on metazoan colonization processes over time. The aim of this study was to provide insights to their temporal dynamics of wood eukaryotic colonization from a shallow water experiment in a mangrove swamp. Combined in situ chemical monitoring and biological surveys revealed that the succession of colonizers in the mangrove swamp relates with the rapid evolution of sulfide concentration on the wood surface. Sulfide-tolerant species are among the first colonizers and dominate over several weeks when the sulfide content is at its maximum, followed by less tolerant opportunistic species when sulfide decreases. This study supports the idea that woody debris can sustain chemosynthetic symbioses over short time-scale in tropical shallow waters.

  1. Interdependence of peat and vegetation in a tropical peat swamp forest.

    PubMed Central

    Page, S E; Rieley, J O; Shotyk, W; Weiss, D

    1999-01-01

    The visual uniformity of tropical peat swamp forest masks the considerable variation in forest structure that has evolved in response to differences and changes in peat characteristics over many millennia. Details are presented of forest structure and tree composition of the principal peat swamp forest types in the upper catchment of Sungai Sebangau, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, in relation to thickness and hydrology of the peat. Consideration is given to data on peat geochemistry and age of peat that provide evidence of the ombrotrophic nature of this vast peatland and its mode of formation. The future sustainability of this ecosystem is predicted from information available on climate change and human impact in this region. PMID:11605630

  2. Nariva Swamp Ramsar Site, Trinidad and Tobago (West Indies) Wetland Habitat Restoration Initiative

    Treesearch

    Montserrat Carbonell; Nadra Nathai-Gyan

    2005-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago, a twin island nation, is the most southerly of the Caribbean islands and lies just 11 km off the coast of Venezuela, near the Orinoco delta. Trinidad, the larger of the two islands, is approximately 5,000 km² and the Nariva Swamp is located on its eastern coast (fig. 1). In 1993, this site was designated as a wetland of international...

  3. Latitudinal variation in carbon storage can help predict changes in swamps affected by global warming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.; McKee, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Plants may offer our best hope of removing greenhouse gases (gases that contribute to global warming) emitted to the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. At the same time, global warming could change environments so that natural plant communities will either need to shift into cooler climate zones, or become extirpated (Prasad and Iverson, 1999; Crumpacker and others, 2001; Davis and Shaw, 2001). It is impossible to know the future, but studies combining field observation of production and modeling can help us make predictions about what may happen to these wetland communities in the future. Widespread wetland types such as baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps in the southeastern portion of the United States could be especially good at carbon sequestration (amount of CO2 stored by forests) from the atmosphere. They have high levels of production and sometimes store undecomposed dead plant material in wet conditions with low oxygen, thus keeping gases stored that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere (fig. 1). To study the ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon, our project has taken two approaches. The first analysis looked at published data to develop an idea (hypothesis) of how production levels change across a temperature gradient in the baldcypress region (published data study). The second study tested this idea by comparing production levels across a latitudinal range by using swamps in similar field conditions (ongoing carbon storage study). These studies will help us make predictions about the future ability of baldcypress swamps to store carbon in soil and plant biomass, as well as the ability of these forests to shift northward with global warming.

  4. Fossil plants and coal: patterns of change in pennsylvanian coal swamps of the illinois basin.

    PubMed

    Phillips, T L; Peppers, R A; Avcin, M J; Laughnan, P F

    1974-06-28

    Coal palynology and studies of petrified peat indicate major changes in coal-swamp floras and the botanical constituents of coal throughout Pennsylvanian time. The changes are the result of broad climatic shifts and local environmental factors. The most striking is the change from a lycopod-dominated flora to one in which tree ferns were the major element. This change occurred at the Desmoinesian-Missourian (Westphalian-Stephanian) boundary and is probably multicontinental in scope.

  5. Mapping Palm Swamp Wetland Ecosystems in the Peruvian Amazon: a Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schroeder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmerman, R.; Horna, V.

    2012-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems are prevalent in the Amazon basin, especially in northern Peru. Of specific interest are palm swamp wetlands because they are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. This combination of constantly saturated soils and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, it is critical to develop methods to quantify their spatial extent and inundation state in order to assess their carbon dynamics. Spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We developed a remote sensing methodology using multi-sensor remote sensing data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM, and Landsat to derive maps at 100 meter resolution of palm swamp extent and inundation based on ground data collections; and combined active and passive microwave data from AMSR-E and QuikSCAT to derive inundation extent at 25 kilometer resolution on a weekly basis. We then compared information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products relative to the high-resolution datasets. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets allowed for characterization of palm swamps and assessment of their flooding status. This work has been undertaken partly within the framework of the JAXA ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. PALSAR data have been provided by JAXA. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  6. Polyancora globosa gen. sp. nov., an aeroaquatic fungus from Malaysian peat swamp forests.

    PubMed

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Yule, Catherine M

    2006-10-01

    During an investigation of submerged leaves and twigs sampled from tropical peat swamp forests located in Peninsular Malaysia, an anamorphic fungus not attributable to a described genus was detected and isolated in pure culture. Conidial ontogeny was thoroughly studied and illustrated using both light and SEM, which revealed a unique conidial morphology. Analysis of partial nuLSU rDNA and ITS data revealed a phylogenetic position within the Xylariales (Ascomycota), but family affiliation remained unclear.

  7. Stratigraphic Architecture of a Former Lowland Kauri Swamp in Ruakaka, North Island, New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velez, M.; Gontz, A. M.; Lorrey, A.

    2015-12-01

    The long-lived Kauri (Agathis australis) is an endemic conifer that presently exists within 4% of their pre-human contact range in northern New Zealand. Kauri preserve well in anoxic swamp and wetland environments in the lowlands across Northland and buried, subfossil samples of this species are commonly termed 'swamp kauri'. Subfossil kauri have been recently employed as a proxy to reconstruct past climate and establish a long dendrochronological records that have direct use for building the radiocarbon calibration curve. One component of work related to interpreting ancient kauri tree ring records is improving the understanding of the stratigraphic and geomorphic history of former lowland kauri environments to outline the role of environmental change in preserving this ancient wood resource. This study contributes to improving general understanding the subsurface stratigraphy of former lowland swamp kauri sites. A combination of ground penetrating radar, sediment cores, probing transects and trench exposures, provide details for the stratigraphic relationships for one type of swamp kauri site -relic coastal dune sequences- that will form a basis for future sediment and geochemistry work. Based on GPR and trenches, the stratigraphy includes several units -Peat, woody debris, dune sand, and coastal sand. Thickness of the peat, which usually contains the subfossil kauri, varies from thin veneers over antecedent coastal deposits 10-50cm to > 2.2m, with the thickest peat accumulation located between relic foredune ridges. Prior work at locations nearby have shown Rotoehu Tephra (>45ka) has been observed as a 40 cm thick deposit. Early sedimentary analysis suggests the Rotoehu is present at our study site, but it is possibly disseminated and bioturbation may have mixed the tephra into the underlying peat sediments. OSL samples and peat sediment samples were recovered for future chemical and chronological analysis from selected locations based on GPR and trench sections.

  8. Spatial analysis of Carbon-14 dynamics in a wetland ecosystem (Duke Swamp, Chalk River Laboratories, Canada).

    PubMed

    Yankovich, T L; King-Sharp, K J; Carr, J; Robertson, E; Killey, R W D; Beresford, N A; Wood, M D

    2014-11-01

    A detailed survey was conducted to quantify the spatial distribution of (14)C in Sphagnum moss and underlying soil collected in Duke Swamp. This wetland environment receives (14)C via groundwater pathways from a historic radioactive Waste Management Area (WMA) on Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. Trends in (14)C specific activities were evaluated with distance from the sampling location with the maximum (14)C specific activity (DSS-35), which was situated adjacent to the WMA and close to an area of groundwater discharge. Based on a spatial evaluation of the data, an east-to-west (14)C gradient was found, due to the influence of the WMA on (14)C specific activities in the swamp. In addition, it was possible to identify two groups of sites, each showing significant exponential declines with distance from the groundwater source area. One of the groups showed relatively more elevated (14)C specific activities at a given distance from source, likely due to their proximity to the WMA, the location of the sub-surface plume originating from the WMA, the presence of marsh and swamp habitat types, which facilitated (14)C transport to the atmosphere, and possibly, (14)C air dispersion patterns along the eastern edge of the swamp. The other group, which had lower (14)C specific activities at a given distance from the groundwater source area, included locations that were more distant from the WMA and the sub-surface plume, and contained fen habitat, which is known to act as barrier to groundwater flow. The findings suggest that proximity to source, groundwater flow patterns and habitat physical characteristics can play an important role in the dynamics of (14)C being carried by discharging groundwater into terrestrial and wetland environments.

  9. Hydrology controls methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in swamp and bog forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mander, Ülo; Pärn, Jaan; Maddison, Martin; Soosaar, Kaido; Salm, Jüri-Ott; Sohar, Kristina; Teemusk, Alar

    2016-04-01

    We used data from a global soil, and N2O and CH4 gas sampling campaign. The objective was to analyse N2O and CH4 emissions related to peat conditions in swamp and bog forests. Altogether, we studied 21 swamp and bog forest sites under various climates: 3 alder swamps and 3 artificially drained bog pine forests in Estonia (Jan.-Dec. 2009), 2 bog forests in Transylvania/Romania (Apr. 2012 & June 2014), 3 cypress swamps in the Everglades (Apr. & Dec. 2013), 2 bog forests in West Siberia (July 2013) and a bog forest in Tasmania (Jan.-Feb. 2014). The N2O and CH4 effluxes were measured during 5-6 days with 8-10 opaque static chambers per site. Soil samples were taken for further analysis of pHKCl, NO3-N, NH4-N, soluble P, K, Ca and Mg, totN and C. Groundwater was measured from sampling wells. The most significant independent factor for site average CH4 fluxes was groundwater depth - an exponential relationship; R2=0.42; p=0.0007; n=21. The N2O fluxes showed a decreasing (power) relationship with the C/N ratio - R2=0.53; p<0.0001; n=21. Related to groundwater level, the N2O fluxes peak at around -40cm. Variation in greenhouse gas fluxes was largest at the more favourable conditions - at optimal water table (+5 to -20cm) for CH4 and at low C/N for N2O. The results agree with previous literature but they are the first to draw such conclusions from a global campaign following a uniform protocol.

  10. Methane flux in forested freshwater swamps of the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriss, Robert C.; Sebacher, Daniel I.

    1981-09-01

    Methane emissions to the atmosphere from cypress swamp habitat in four wetland ecosystems of the southeastern United States range from 0.0046 to 0.068 gCH4m-2day-1. The possible causes for this range include differences in nutrient input and organic accumulation. These results indicate that existing data are inadequate to estimate the role of wetlands as a source of methane to the global troposphere.

  11. Cache Creek ocean: Closure or enclosure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Joanne; Mihalynuk, Mitch

    1993-02-01

    Exotic Tethyan faunas within the Cache Creek terrane contrast markedly with faunas and lithologic associations in the adjacent Quesnel and Stikine terranes. In northern British Columbia and southeast Yukon, all three terranes are enveloped in the north by pericontinental rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, a geometry that imposes severe constraints on terrane assembly models for the northern Canadian Cordillera. Our solution to the problem invokes a northern join between the Stikinia and Quesnellia arcs through the Yukon-Tanana terrane, forming an orocline that encloses the Cache Creek terrane. This model involves (1) collision of a linear oceanic plateau at the cusp between Quesnellia and Stikinia, (2) anticlockwise rotation of Stikinia about an axis in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, (3) simultaneous enclosure of the Cache Creek ocean, and (4) emplacement of Quesnellia onto the margin of ancestral North America and the Cache Creek terrane onto Stikinia during final closure of the orocline. Early Mesozoic Paleomagnetic declinations in Stikinia are permissive of the large anticlockwise rotations predicted by the model. Similar large-scale rotations and ocean-basin enclosure are common features in the southwest Pacific. This model accounts for Paleozoic and younger linkages between Yukon-Tanana and both northern Stikinia and Quesnellia, the striking similarity between Triassic-Jurassic arcs east and west of the Cache Creek terrane, and the profound early Mesozoic deformational event in the Yukon-Tanana terrane.

  12. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine hydrologic connectivity within Pipestem Creek, North Dakota, with a watershed dominated by prairie potholes. During a decadal period of wet conditions, Pipestem Creek contained evaporated water that had approximately half the isotopic evaporative enrichment signal found in most evaporated permanent wetlands. If evaporation was mainly occurring within the stream, we expected the evaporation signal to increase from the headwaters with distance downstream. However, the signal either remained similar or decreased downstream over the two years of sampling. Groundwater measured at the water table adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporation. Using isotopic theory and discharge data, we estimated the surface area of open water necessary to generate the evaporation signal found within Pipestem Creek over time. The range of evaporating surface-area estimates was highly dynamic, spanning from 43 to 2653 ha and varying primarily with discharge. The average value (just over 600 ha) was well above the surface area of Pipestem Creek network (245 ha). This estimate of contributing area indicated that Prairie Pothole wetlands were important sources of stream fl

  13. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity within the Pipestem Creek watershed, North Dakota, a watershed dominated by prairie-pothole wetlands. During a wetter-than-normal decade, Pipestem Creek exhibited an evaporated-water signal that had approximately half the isotopic-enrichment signal found in most evaporatively enriched pothole wetlands. If evaporation was mainly occurring within the stream, we expected the evaporation signal to increase from upstream towards downstream. However, the signal either remained similar or decreased downstream over the two years of sampling. Groundwater measured at the water table adjacent to Pipestem Creek had isotopic values that indicated recharge from winter precipitation and had no significant evaporative enrichment. Using isotopic theory and discharge data, we estimated the surface area of open water necessary to generate the evaporation signal found within Pipestem Creek over time. The range of evaporating surface-area estimates was highly dynamic, spanning from 35 to 2380 ha of open water contributing to streamflow over time, and varied primarily with the amount of discharge. The median value (417 ha) was well above the surface area of the Pipestem Creek network (245 ha), and only two periods

  14. Environmental setting of Maple Creek watershed, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredrick, Brian S.; Linard, Joshua I.; Carpenter, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The Maple Creek watershed covers a 955-square-kilometer area in eastern Nebraska, which is a region dominated by agricultural land use. The Maple Creek watershed is one of seven areas currently included in a nationwide study of the sources, transport, and fate of water and chemicals in agricultural watersheds. This study, known as the topical study of 'Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport, and Fate' is part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Maple Creek watershed was selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because its watershed represents the agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Nebraska. This report describes the environmental setting of the Maple Creek watershed in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes. A description of the environmental setting of a subwatershed within the drainage area of Maple Creek is included to improve the understanding of the variability of hydrologic and chemical cycles at two different scales.

  15. Morphological adaptation with no mitochondrial DNA differentiation in the coastal plain swamp sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenberg, R.; Cordero, P.J.; Droege, S.; Fleischer, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    We estimated genetic differentiation between morphologically distinct tidal marsh populations of Swamp Sparrows (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens) and the more wide-spread inland populations (M. g. georgiana and M. g. ericrypta). The tidal marsh populations are consistently grayer with more extensive black markings (particularly in the crown), and their bills are larger. These differences are variously shared with other species of salt marsh birds and small mammals. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequences (5' end of control region, COII/tlys/ATPase8, and ND2) of Swamp Sparrows and found low levels of genetic variation and no evidence of geographic structure. These results suggest a rapid and recent geographic expansion of Swamp Sparrows from restricted Pleistocene populations. Morphological differentiation has occurred without long-term genetic isolation, suggesting that selection on the divergent traits is intense. The grayer and more melanistic plumage is probably cryptic coloration for foraging on tidal mud, which tends to be grayish as a result of the formation of iron sulfides, rather than iron oxides, under anaerobic conditions.

  16. Hydrology of the Creeping Swamp Watershed, North Carolina with reference to potential effects of stream channelization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.; Simmons, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Hydrologic data were collected for four years at six sites in the Creeping Swamp watershed in eastern North Carolina in a preliminary effort to study the effects of stream channelization on the hydrology of a small watershed. A water-budget evaluation for pre-channelized conditions showed that runoff accounts for about 17 percent of the total rainfall, base runoff about 20 percent, ground-water outflow about 2 percent, and evapotranspiration about 61 percent. Channelization would have caused the greatest decline in ground-water levels nearest the stream, with the decline diminishing with increased distance from the stream. Channelization would also have resulted in a decrease in overland runoff and an increase in the amount of water reaching Creeping Swamp through the ground-water system, although the total volume of runoff would not change significantly. The water-quality characteristics of Creeping Swamp indicate that the stream is relatively free of pollution, although it is likely that channelization would increase (1) suspended-sediment loads, (2) stream temperatures, and (3) concentrations of dissolved solids, especially during low flows.

  17. Repeated drought alters resistance of seed bank regeneration in baldcypress swamps of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lei, Ting; Middleton, Beth A.

    2017-01-01

    Recurring drying and wetting events are likely to increase in frequency and intensity in predicted future droughts in the central USA and alter the regeneration potential of species. We explored the resistance of seed banks to successive droughts in 53 sites across the nine locations in baldcypress swamps in the southeastern USA. Along the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley and northern Gulf of Mexico, we investigated the capacity of seed banks to retain viable seeds after successive periods of drying and wetting in a greenhouse study. Mean differences in species richness and seed density were compared to examine the interactions of successive droughts, geographical location and water regime. The results showed that both species richness and total density of germinating seedlings decreased over repeated drought trials. These responses were more pronounced in geographical areas with higher annual mean temperature. In seed banks across the southeastern swamp region, most species were exhausted after Trial 2 or 3, except for semiaquatic species in Illinois and Tennessee, and aquatic species in Texas. Distinct geographical trends in seed bank resistance to drought demonstrate that climate-induced drying of baldcypress swamps could influence the regeneration of species differently across their ranges. Despite the health of adult individuals, lack of regeneration may push ecosystems into a relict status. Seed bank depletion by germination without replenishment may be a major conservation threat in a future with recurring droughts far less severe than megadrought. Nevertheless, the protection of moist refugia might aid conservation.

  18. Morphological adaptation with no mitochondrial DNA differentiation in the coastal plain swamp sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenberg, R.; Cordero, P.J.; Droege, S.; Fleischer, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    We estimated genetic differentiation between morphologically distinct tidal marsh populations of Swamp Sparrows (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens) and the more widespread inland populations (M. g. georgiana and M. g. ericrypta). The tidal marsh populations are consistently grayer with more extensive black markings (particularly in the crown), and their bills are larger. These differences are variously shared with other species of salt marsh birds and small mammals. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequences (5′ end of control region, COII/t-lys/ATPase8, and ND2) of Swamp Sparrows and found low levels of genetic variation and no evidence of geographic structure. These results suggest a rapid and recent geographic expansion of Swamp Sparrows from restricted Pleistocene populations. Morphological differentiation has occurred without long-term genetic isolation, suggesting that selection on the divergent traits is intense. The grayer and more melanistic plumage is probably cryptic coloration for foraging on tidal mud, which tends to be grayish as a result of the formation of iron sulfides, rather than iron oxides, under anaerobic conditions.

  19. Adaptations to tidal marshes in breeding populations of the swamp sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenberg, R.; Droege, S.

    1990-01-01

    The Coastal Plain Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana nigrescens) was originally described from a small number of specimens from the tidal marshes of the Nanticoke River in southeastern Maryland. Based on our quantitative analysis of a larger series of specimens, we found that Swamp Sparrows collected during the breeding season from the Chesapeak and Delaware bays (and tributaries) and near the mouth of the Hudson River are generally less rusty, have more black in the crown and nape, and have larger bills than other Swamp Sparrows. Contrary to earlier accounts, we found M. g. nigrescens to be migratory, arriving after the spring migration and departing before the fall migration of the inland subspecies through the tidal marshes. The location of the wintering groups of M. g. nigrescens is unknown. We argue that the morphological and life history differences characterizing M. g. nigrescens reflect adaptation to tidal marshes. We base this hypothesis on the nature of the morphological differences, which are convergent with other tidal marsh breeding sparrows and other terrestrial vertebrates.

  20. [The Raffia-swamps as sources or sinks of avifauna: a first approach to the problem].

    PubMed

    Beneyto, Davinia; Monrós, Juan S; Piculo, Rubén

    2013-09-01

    In the Tortuguero region, northeastern Costa Rica, tropical forests are home to over 300 species of birds. Within this ecosystem, wetlands dominated by the raffia palm Raphia taedigera and the royal palm Manicaria saccifera extend in large monospecific swamps locally known as yolillales. These wetlands are characterized by low plant diversity, simple structure, waterlogged soils, and extended hydroperiod. There is hardly any information on the bird communities that inhabit or uses yolillales. We describe this omitofauna, comparing the species that inhabit the palm-swams and in the adjacent forest in terms of species richness and diversity. During October-November 2008, we used transects and hearing stations in both habitats in four locations in the region. We located a total of 11 bird species in the palm-swamps and 31 in the adjacent forests. Our observations suggest that palm-swamps have lower species richness than adjacent forests and that these environments also differ in species composition. Despite their low diversity, yolillales are employed by species with different degrees of vulnerability, so that they may be important for bird conservation in the region. Sampling in yolillales is very hard, so our data should be considered preliminary. Further efforts in these environments are needed to improve our knowledge on the bird community that uses them.

  1. Characterizing hydrologic changes of Great Dismal Swamp using SAR/InSAR technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. W.; Lu, Z.; Zhu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Great Dismal Swamp is one of the largest, northernmost peatlands on the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and the swamp is underlain by a thick water-logged organic soil layer (peat) made up of dead and decaying plant material. The peatlands play a role as the sink of large amount of soil organic carbon and methane. However, the disturbance of the peatland negatively impacted the ecosystem and contributed to the climate change caused by the released greenhouse gas. Our SAR/InSAR methods observed the hydrologic changes in the peatlands, which is a key factor to conserve the wetland, through several methods. First, we compared averaged SAR intensity from C- and L-band SAR sensors with groundwater level changes, and deduced a linear relationship between the SAR backscattering intensity and the groundwater level change. Second, we extracted the inundated area during wet season from InSAR coherence. Third, we measured the relative water level changes in the inundated area using the interferometric phases. Finally, we estimated the groundwater level changes corresponding to the soil moisture changes from time-series InSAR method. Our results can provide the unique opportunity to understand the occurring hydrologic and vegetation changes in the Great Dismal Swamp.

  2. Clastic diversion by fold salients and blind thrust ridges in coal-swamp development

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.U. ); Belt, E.S. ); Lyons, P.C. )

    1991-05-01

    Abrupt shifts from single widespread coal swamps to coarse siliciclastic alluvial channel deposits occur in at least five coal beds and zones within the Pennsylvania Allegheny Formation. One of these, the Upper Freeport coal zone, was deposited over and area at least 200 {times} 200 km with a spacing of alluvial channels one-half to possibly one-fifth that of the immediately overlying coarse clastics. All these shifts occured next to the rising Appalachian orogen, far from the eustatic effects of a marine shoreline. Recent models relating coal-swamp formation to isostatic warping of orogenic forelands by tectonic loads surely apply to this environment, but they seem to need an additional, more delicate mechanism to produce such abrupt but widespread switches in grain size and drainage spacing. The authors propose that irregularities in the advancing front folds and blind thrusts caused temporary geomorphic diversions into the recessed areas and allowed a widespread coal swamp to form in the sedimentary shadow of the salients, a shadowing process that is occurring today in the central Zagros Mountains of Iraq and Iran.

  3. Early Herrin coal-swamp vegetation: Inferences from miospore floras in an abandoned paleochannel

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, D.A. )

    1991-01-01

    A small paleochannel abandoned shortly prior to accumulation of peat to form the Herrin Coal was mapped and sampled in central Illinois. Spore floras from underclays and from incremental coal samples collected within and around the paleochannel were quantified to assess vegetational responses to topographic changes. In the paleochannel, underclay floras are diverse and dominated by miospores of cordaites, with miospores of tree ferns, small ferns, and sphenopsids common. In contrast, underclays outside the paleochannel are dominated strongly by lycopod miospores. The earliest coal in the paleochannel is dominated by tree-fern miospores with subdominant cordaites; subsequent increments exhibit alternating dominance of tree-fern and lycopod miospores. Outside the paleochannel, all increments of coal are dominated by tree-fern or lycopod miospores. Underclay miospore floras indicate that a more diverse, cordaitean-rich assemblage grew along the paleochannel flanks prior to peat accumulation, rather than the lycopod-dominated flora found elsewhere. Unlike the surrounding swamp, the earliest coal in the paleochannel has an unusual miospore assemblage for the Herrin Coal. Miospore and coal compaction data both indicate that peat accumulation began in the paleochannel before extending across a broader area. These differences in miospore composition and abundance suggest that changes in topography and water-table level exerted strong control on vegetational composition of the coal swamp. This unusual exposure provides evidence that edaphic factors related to topography influenced vegetational composition in both clastic and peat-accumulating swamps.

  4. FIDDLER CREEK POLYMER AUGMENTATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson, Jr.

    2001-10-31

    The Fiddler Creek field is in Weston County, Wyoming, and was discovered in 1948. Secondary waterflooding recovery was started in 1955 and terminated in the mid-1980s with a fieldwide recovery of approximately 40%. The West Fiddler Creek Unit, the focus of this project, had a lower recovery and therefore has the most remaining oil. Before the project this unit was producing approximately 85 bbl of oil per day from 20 pumping wells and 17 swab wells. The recovery process planned for this project involved adapting two independent processes, the injection of polymer as a channel blocker or as a deep-penetrating permeability modifier, and the stabilization of clays and reduction of the residual oil saturation in the near-wellbore area around the injection wells. Clay stabilization was not conducted because long-term fresh water injection had not severely reduced the injectivity. It was determined that future polymer injection would not be affected by the clay. For the project, two adjoining project patterns were selected on the basis of prior reservoir studies and current well availability and production. The primary injection well of Pattern 1 was treated with a small batch of MARCIT gel to create channel blocking. The long-term test was designed for three phases: (1) 77 days of injection of a 300-mg/l cationic polyacrylamide, (2) 15 days of injection of a 300-mg/l anionic polymer to ensure injectivity of the polymer, and (3) 369 days of injection of the 300-mg/l anionic polymer and a 30:1 mix of the crosslinker. Phases 1 and 2 were conducted as planned. Phase 3 was started in late March 1999 and terminated in May 2001. In this phase, a crosslinker was added with the anionic polymer. Total injection for Phase 3 was 709,064 bbl. To maintain the desired injection rate, the injection pressure was slowly increased from 1,400 psig to 2,100 psig. Early in the application of the polymer, it appeared that the sweep improvement program was having a positive effect on Pattern 1

  5. Report on the invertebrate megafauna sampled by trawling in the Atlantic 3800 meter low-level radioactive waste disposal site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, R.S.

    1983-08-01

    Four otter trawls were carried out in 1978 near the Atlantic deepsea low-level radioactive waste dumpsite located at a depth of 3800 meters, approximately 320 kilometers offshore, centered at 37 degrees 50'N, 70 degrees 35'W, and situated in the axis of the Hudson Canyon Channel. The megafauna collected in the vicinity of the dumpsite can be described as an ophiuroid-pagurid (brittle starfish-hermit crab) dominated, soft-bottom abyssal assemblage. The life histories of the predominant large invertebrates are presented and discussed. The report makes particular note of the need to differentiate between natural spatial variation of organisms and spatial variations resulting from man's activities, when designing dumpsite-related biological monitoring programs.

  6. 17. View from Sterling Creek Marsh looking west, with berm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. View from Sterling Creek Marsh looking west, with berm to the left and Henry Ford Mansion in the far background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  7. 8. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking northeast across the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking northeast across the berm with the marsh to the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  8. 10. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking south with house ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking south with house in the background and marsh in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  9. 9. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest, with the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southwest, with the marsh in the background and the berm in the foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  10. 14. View of Sterling Creek Marsh east across the marsh, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of Sterling Creek Marsh east across the marsh, with canal in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  11. 12. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast across marsh, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of Sterling Creek Marsh looking southeast across marsh, with canal in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  12. 3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of dam/bridge looking southwest - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  13. 4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of Sterling Creek Marsh at low tide showing rubble at the entrance of the dam/bridge looking east - Richmond Hill Plantation, Sterling Creek Marsh, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  14. Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241-mile transmission corridor extending between the Big Creek Hydroelectric System in the Sierra National Forest in Fresno County and the Eagle Rock Substation in Los Angeles, California, Visalia, Tulare County, CA

  15. Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway / Waterside Drive Sycamore and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway / Waterside Drive Sycamore and White Ash Trees, Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, median between northbound and southbound lanes near the Waterside Drive exit and entrance ramps., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of Fanno Creek trestle, showing trestle substructure, view looking north - Oregon Electric Railroad, Fanno Creek Trestle, Garden Home to Wilsonville Segment, Milepost 34.7, Garden Home, Washington County, OR

  17. 13. VIEW FROM CEDAR MILL CREEK TRESTLE NEAR MERLO ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW FROM CEDAR MILL CREEK TRESTLE NEAR MERLO ROAD TOWARD TRESTLE ON SPUR TRACK OVER CEDAR MILL CREEK, FACING NORTHEAST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Between Watson & 185th Avenues, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  18. 1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER ENTERING CONFLUENCE POOL FROM BEAR CREEK AT LEFT, AND FROM SANTA ANA RIVER THROUGH TUNNEL #0 AT RIGHT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Bear Creek Diversion Dam & Confluence Pool, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. 14. VIEW OF CEDAR MILL CREEK TRESTLE FROM TRESTLE OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF CEDAR MILL CREEK TRESTLE FROM TRESTLE OVER CEDAR MILL CREEK ON SPUR LINE, FACING SOUTHWEST - Oregon Electric Railway Westside Corridor, Between Watson & 185th Avenues, Beaverton, Washington County, OR

  20. 5. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Downstream face of Rock Creek Diversion Dam, looking west (Diversion into Irrigation District canal) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Rock Creek Diversion Dam, One mile east of Como Dam, west of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT